WorldWideScience

Sample records for vegetation surface hydrology

  1. Impact of vegetation dynamics on hydrological processes in a semi-arid basin by using a land surface-hydrology coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Yang; Lei, Huimin; Yang, Dawen; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Dengfeng; Yuan, Xing

    2017-08-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are widely used to understand the interactions between hydrological processes and vegetation dynamics, which is important for the attribution and prediction of regional hydrological variations. However, most LSMs have large uncertainties in their representations of ecohydrological processes due to deficiencies in hydrological parameterizations. In this study, the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) LSM was modified with an advanced runoff generation and flow routing scheme, resulting in a new land surface-hydrology coupled model, CLM-GBHM. Both models were implemented in the Wudinghe River Basin (WRB), which is a semi-arid basin located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, China. Compared with CLM, CLM-GBHM increased the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency for daily river discharge simulation (1965–1969) from 0.03 to 0.23 and reduced the relative bias in water table depth simulations (2010–2012) from 32.4% to 13.4%. The CLM-GBHM simulations with static, remotely sensed and model-predicted vegetation conditions showed that the vegetation in the WRB began to recover in the 2000s due to the Grain for Green Program but had not reached the same level of vegetation cover as regions in natural eco-hydrological equilibrium. Compared with a simulation using remotely sensed vegetation cover, the simulation with a dynamic vegetation model that considers only climate-induced change showed a 10.3% increase in evapotranspiration, a 47.8% decrease in runoff, and a 62.7% and 71.3% deceleration in changing trend of the outlet river discharge before and after the year 2000, respectively. This result suggests that both natural and anthropogenic factors should be incorporated in dynamic vegetation models to better simulate the eco-hydrological cycle.

  2. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  3. Hydrological regime shift in a constructed catchment: Effect of vegetation encroachment on surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, C.; Caviedes-Voullieme, D.; Andezhath Mohanan, A.; Brueck, Y.; Zaplata, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Hühnerwasser catchment (Chicken Creek) was constructed to provide discharge for a small stream in the post-mining landscape of Lusatia, Germany. It has an area of 6 ha and quaternary sands with a thickness of 2-4 m were dumped on to a clay liner to prevent deep drainage. After completion of the construction the catchment was left to develop on its own without intervention and has been monitored since 2005. The upper part of the catchment discharges water and sediment into the lower part forming an alluvial fan. Below the alluvial fan is a pond receiving all surface and subsurface water from the upper catchment. After the formation of the drainage network vegetation started growing and surface runoff decreased until the water balance was dominated by evapotranspiration. This regime shift and the rate at which it happened depends on the vegetation encroachment into the rills and the interrill areas. Based on the hypothesis that vegetation will increase surface roughness and infiltration behavior, aerial photos were used to map rills and vegetation within and outside the rills for the last 10 years to obtain a time series of change. Observational evidence clearly shows that vegetation encroaches from the bottom, from the interrill areas as well as from the top. The rills themselves did not change their topology, however, the width of the erosion rills and gully increased at the bottom. For a subcatchment area a high resolution a physical based numerical model of overland flow was developed to explicitly assess the importance of increasing roughness and infiltration capacity for surface runoff. For the purpose of analyzing the effect of rainfall variability a rainfall generator was developed to carry out large sets of simulations. The simulations provide a means to assess how the roughness/infiltration feedback affects the rate of regime shift for a set of parameters that are consistent with the observed hydrological behavior of the drainage network.

  4. Critical impact of vegetation physiology on the continental hydrologic cycle in response to increasing CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemordant, Léo; Gentine, Pierre; Swann, Abigail S.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Scheff, Jacob

    2018-04-01

    Predicting how increasing atmospheric CO2 will affect the hydrologic cycle is of utmost importance for a range of applications ranging from ecological services to human life and activities. A typical perspective is that hydrologic change is driven by precipitation and radiation changes due to climate change, and that the land surface will adjust. Using Earth system models with decoupled surface (vegetation physiology) and atmospheric (radiative) CO2 responses, we here show that the CO2 physiological response has a dominant role in evapotranspiration and evaporative fraction changes and has a major effect on long-term runoff compared with radiative or precipitation changes due to increased atmospheric CO2. This major effect is true for most hydrological stress variables over the largest fraction of the globe, except for soil moisture, which exhibits a more nonlinear response. This highlights the key role of vegetation in controlling future terrestrial hydrologic response and emphasizes that the carbon and water cycles are intimately coupled over land.

  5. Interaction of hydrological regime and vegetation in a seasonally flooded lake wetland (Poyang Lake) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological regime has been widely recognized as one of the major forces determining vegetation distribution in seasonally flooded wetlands. To explore the influences of hydrological conditions on the spatial distribution of wetland vegetation, an experimental transect in Poyang Lake wetland, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as a study area. In-situ high time frequency observations of climate, soil moisture, groundwater level and surface water level were simultaneously conducted. Vegetation was sampled periodically to obtain species composition, diversity and biomass. Results show that significant hydrological gradient exists along the experimental transect. Both groundwater level and soil moisture demonstrate high correlation with the distribution of different communities of vegetation. Above- and belowground biomass present Gaussian models along the gradient of groundwater depth in growing seasons. It was found that the optimal average groundwater depths for above- and belowground biomass are 0.8 m and 0.5 m, respectively. Numerical simulations using HYDRUS-1D further indicated that the groundwater depths had significant influences on the water usage by vegetation, which suggested the high dependence of wetland vegetation on groundwater, even in a wet climate zone such as Poyang Lake. The study revealed new knowledge on the interaction of hydrological regime and wetland vegetation, and provided scientific support for an integrated management of balancing wetland ecology and water resources development in Poyang Lake, and other lake floodplain wetlands, with strong human interferences.

  6. Dependence of Wetland Vegetation on Hydrological Regime in a Large Floodplain Lake (Poyang Lake) in the Middle Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Tan, Z.; Xu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Exemplified in the Yangtze River floodplain lake, Poyang Lake, investigations were carried out to examine the dependence of vegetation on hydrological variables. The Lake is one of the few lakes that remain naturally connected to the Yangtze River. The Lake surface expanses to 4000 km2 in wet seasons, and reduces to less than 1000 km2 in dry seasons, creating some 3000 km2 vital wetland habitats for many animals. Remote sensing was used to obtain the spatial distribution of wetland vegetations. A lake hydrodynamic model using MIKE 21 was employed to determine the variability of wetland inundation. In-situ high time frequency observations of climate, soil moisture, and groundwater depth were also conducted in a typical wetland transect of 1 km long. Vegetations were sampled periodically to obtain species composition, diversity and biomass. Results showed that the spatial distribution of vegetation highly depended on the inundation duration and depth. Optimal hydrological variables existed for the typical vegetations in Poyang Lake wetland. Numerical simulations using HYDRUS-1D further demonstrated that both groundwater depth and soil moisture had significant effects on the growth of vegetation and the water demand in terms of transpiration, even in a wet climate zone such as middle Yangtze River. It was found that the optimal groundwater depths existed for both above- and belowground biomass. Simulation scenarios indicated that climate changes and human modification of hydrology would affect the water usage of vegetation and may cause a strategic adaptation of the vegetation to the stressed hydrological conditions. The study revealed new knowledge on the high dependence of wetland vegetation on both surface water regime and groundwater depths, in wet climate zone. Outcomes of this study may provide support for an integrated management of balancing water resources development and wetland sustainability maintenance in Poyang Lake, and other floodplain wetlands, with

  7. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  8. The AMMA-CATCH Gourma observatory site in Mali: Relating climatic variations to changes in vegetation, surface hydrology, fluxes and natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, E.; Hiernaux, P.; Kergoat, L.; Grippa, M.; de Rosnay, P.; Timouk, F.; Le Dantec, V.; Demarez, V.; Lavenu, F.; Arjounin, M.; Lebel, T.; Soumaguel, N.; Ceschia, E.; Mougenot, B.; Baup, F.; Frappart, F.; Frison, P. L.; Gardelle, J.; Gruhier, C.; Jarlan, L.; Mangiarotti, S.; Sanou, B.; Tracol, Y.; Guichard, F.; Trichon, V.; Diarra, L.; Soumaré, A.; Koité, M.; Dembélé, F.; Lloyd, C.; Hanan, N. P.; Damesin, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Seghieri, J.; Becerra, S.; Dia, H.; Gangneron, F.; Mazzega, P.

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe Gourma site in Mali is one of the three instrumented meso-scale sites deployed in West-Africa as part of the African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project. Located both in the Sahelian zone sensu stricto, and in the Saharo-Sahelian transition zone, the Gourma meso-scale window is the northernmost site of the AMMA-CATCH observatory reached by the West African Monsoon. The experimental strategy includes deployment of a variety of instruments, from local to meso-scale, dedicated to monitoring and documentation of the major variables characterizing the climate forcing, and the spatio-temporal variability of surface processes and state variables such as vegetation mass, leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture and surface fluxes. This paper describes the Gourma site, its associated instrumental network and the research activities that have been carried out since 1984. In the AMMA project, emphasis is put on the relations between climate, vegetation and surface fluxes. However, the Gourma site is also important for development and validation of satellite products, mainly due to the existence of large and relatively homogeneous surfaces. The social dimension of the water resource uses and governance is also briefly analyzed, relying on field enquiry and interviews. The climate of the Gourma region is semi-arid, daytime air temperatures are always high and annual rainfall amounts exhibit strong inter-annual and seasonal variations. Measurements sites organized along a north-south transect reveal sharp gradients in surface albedo, net radiation, vegetation production, and distribution of plant functional types. However, at any point along the gradient, surface energy budget, soil moisture and vegetation growth contrast between two main types of soil surfaces and hydrologic systems. On the one hand, sandy soils with high water infiltration rates and limited run-off support almost continuous herbaceous vegetation with scattered woody plants. On the other

  9. Assessment of hydrological regimes for vegetation on riparian wetlands in Han River Basin, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological regimes are regarded as one of the major determinants for wetland ecosystems, for they influence species composition, succession, productivity, and stability of vegetation communities. Since Korea launched the Four Major River Restoration Project in 2007, the water regimes of many of the riparian wetlands have changed, that is potentially affecting vegetation properties. For ecological conservation and management, it is important to connect hydrological characteristics and vegetation properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of hydrological regimes on vegetation community, and develop a methodology that can connect them. Inundated exceedance probability (IEP and its district concept are suggested to gain insights into hydrological regimes on the Binae wetland that is rehabilitated by the Restoration Project in 2012 and belong to the riparian zone. Results of this study indicate that the areas with P = 0.08 or lower IEPs should have the disturbance for vegetation communities, or could be changed to a hydrophilic vegetation in the study area, and it should be considered in the restoration and rehabilitation project to conserve legally protected or endangered vegetation.

  10. Impact of dam-induced hydrological changes on riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tealdi, Stefano; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological disturbances are a key factor for the riparian vegetation, which is a highly dynamic ecosystem prone to external forcing. Random fluctuations of water stages drive in fact the alternation of periods of floods and exposure of the vegetated plots. During flooding, the plots are submerged and vegetation is damaged by burial, uprooting and anoxia, while during exposure periods vegetation grows according to the soil moisture content and the phreatic water table depth. The distribution of vegetation along the riparian transect is then directly connected to the stochasticity of river discharges. River damming can have remarkable impacts on the hydrology of a river and, consequently, on the riparian vegetation. Several field studies show how the river regulation induced by artificial reservoirs can greatly modify the statistical moments and the autocorrelation of the discharge time series. The vegetation responds to these changes reducing its overall heterogeneity, declining - substituted by exotic species - and shifting its starting position nearer or far away from the channel center. These latter processes are known as narrowing and widening, respectively. In our work we explore the effects of dam-induced hydrological changes on the narrowing/widening process and on the total biomass along the transect. To this aim we use an eco-hydrological stochastic model developed by Camporeale and Ridolfi [2006], which is able to give a realistic distribution of the biomass along the transect as a function of a few hydrologic, hydraulic and vegetation parameters. We apply the model to an exemplifying case, by investigating the vegetation response to a set of changes in mean discharge and coefficient of variation. The range of these changes is deduced from the analysis of field data in pre- and post-dam conditions. Firstly, we analyze the narrowing/widening process. In particular, we analyze two percentage differences of the starting transversal position with respect to

  11. The role of climate change in regulating Arctic permafrost peatland hydrological and vegetation change over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Piilo, Sanna R.; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Charman, Dan J.; Gallego-Sala, Angela V.; Väliranta, Minna M.

    2018-02-01

    Climate warming has inevitable impacts on the vegetation and hydrological dynamics of high-latitude permafrost peatlands. These impacts in turn determine the role of these peatlands in the global biogeochemical cycle. Here, we used six active layer peat cores from four permafrost peatlands in Northeast European Russia and Finnish Lapland to investigate permafrost peatland dynamics over the last millennium. Testate amoeba and plant macrofossils were used as proxies for hydrological and vegetation changes. Our results show that during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Russian sites experienced short-term permafrost thawing and this induced alternating dry-wet habitat changes eventually followed by desiccation. During the Little Ice Age (LIA) both sites generally supported dry-hummock habitats, at least partly driven by permafrost aggradation. However, proxy data suggest that occasionally, MCA habitat conditions were drier than during the LIA, implying that evapotranspiration may create important additional eco-hydrological feedback mechanisms under warm conditions. All sites showed a tendency towards dry conditions as inferred from both proxies starting either from ca. 100 years ago or in the past few decades after slight permafrost thawing, suggesting that recent warming has stimulated surface desiccation rather than deeper permafrost thawing. This study shows links between two important controls over hydrology and vegetation changes in high-latitude peatlands: direct temperature-induced surface layer response and deeper permafrost layer-related dynamics. These data provide important backgrounds for predictions of Arctic permafrost peatlands and related feedback mechanisms. Our results highlight the importance of increased evapotranspiration and thus provide an additional perspective to understanding of peatland-climate feedback mechanisms.

  12. Modifying a dynamic global vegetation model for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2012-08-01

    Satellite-based data, such as vegetation type and fractional vegetation cover, are widely used in hydrologic models to prescribe the vegetation state in a study region. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) simulate land surface hydrology. Incorporation of satellite-based data into a DGVM may enhance a model's ability to simulate land surface hydrology by reducing the task of model parameterization and providing distributed information on land characteristics. The objectives of this study are to (i) modify a DGVM for simulating land surface water balances; (ii) evaluate the modified model in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture, and surface runoff at regional or watershed scales; and (iii) gain insight into the ability of both the original and modified model to simulate large spatial scale land surface hydrology. To achieve these objectives, we introduce the "LPJ-hydrology" (LH) model which incorporates satellite-based data into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM. To evaluate the model we ran LH using historical (1981-2006) climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells for the conterminous US and for the entire world using coarser climate and land cover data. We evaluated the simulated ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff using a set of observed or simulated data at different spatial scales. Our results demonstrate that spatial patterns of LH-simulated annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data for the US; LH-modeled monthly stream flow for 12 major rivers in the US was consistent with observed values respectively during the years 1981-2006 (R2 > 0.46, p 0.52). The modeled mean annual discharges for 10 major rivers worldwide also agreed well (differences day method for snowmelt computation, the addition of the solar radiation effect on snowmelt enabled LH to better simulate monthly stream flow in winter and early spring for rivers located at mid-to-high latitudes. In addition, LH

  13. Modifying a dynamic global vegetation model for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based data, such as vegetation type and fractional vegetation cover, are widely used in hydrologic models to prescribe the vegetation state in a study region. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM simulate land surface hydrology. Incorporation of satellite-based data into a DGVM may enhance a model's ability to simulate land surface hydrology by reducing the task of model parameterization and providing distributed information on land characteristics. The objectives of this study are to (i modify a DGVM for simulating land surface water balances; (ii evaluate the modified model in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff at regional or watershed scales; and (iii gain insight into the ability of both the original and modified model to simulate large spatial scale land surface hydrology. To achieve these objectives, we introduce the "LPJ-hydrology" (LH model which incorporates satellite-based data into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ DGVM. To evaluate the model we ran LH using historical (1981–2006 climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells for the conterminous US and for the entire world using coarser climate and land cover data. We evaluated the simulated ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff using a set of observed or simulated data at different spatial scales. Our results demonstrate that spatial patterns of LH-simulated annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data for the US; LH-modeled monthly stream flow for 12 major rivers in the US was consistent with observed values respectively during the years 1981–2006 (R2 > 0.46, p < 0.01; Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient > 0.52. The modeled mean annual discharges for 10 major rivers worldwide also agreed well (differences < 15% with observed values for these rivers. Compared to a degree-day method for snowmelt computation, the addition of the solar radiation effect on snowmelt

  14. The role of surface water redistribution in an area of patterned vegetation in a semi-arid environment, south-west Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, J.; Brouwer, J.; Barker, A. P.; Gaze, S. R.; Valentine, C.

    1997-11-01

    The surface hydrology of a semi-arid area of patterned vegetation in south-west Niger is described. In this region alternating bands of vegetation and bare ground aligned along the contours of a gently sloping terrain give rise to a phenomenon known as `brousse tigrée' (tiger bush). At the selected study site the vegetation bands are 10-30 m wide, separated by 50-100-m-wide bands of bare ground. Five species of shrub dominate, Guiera senegalensis, Combretum micranthum, C. nigricans, Acacia ataxacantha and A. macrostachya. Herbaceous vegetation is generally limited to the upslope edges of vegetation bands. A comprehensive field programme was undertaken to investigate the hydrology. Topographic, vegetation and surface feature surveys were carried out in conjunction with the measurement of rainfall, surface and subsurface hydraulic conductivity, particle size and soil moisture content. Four types of vegetation class are recognised, each tending to occupy a constant position relative to the others and to the regional slope. In a downslope direction the classes are: bare ground, grassy open bush, closed bush, bare open bush, bare ground etc. The nature of the ground surface is closely linked to the vegetation class. Over the bare, bare open and grassy open classes various types of surface crust are present with each type of crust tending to occupy a constant position on the regional slope relative to the vegetation class and other crust types. Below closed bush crusts are generally absent. The typical downslope sequence from the downslope boundary of a vegetation band is: structural (sieving) crust→erosion crust→(gravel crust)→sedimentation crust→microphytic sedimentation crust→no crust→sieving crust, etc. It is also shown that these crust types are dynamic and evolve from one to the other as hydrological conditions change. Hydraulic conductivities of surface crusts are low, typically falling within the range 10 -6-10 -7 m s -1. The presence of large

  15. An Analytical Solution for the Impact of Vegetation Changes on Hydrological Partitioning Within the Budyko Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulei; Yang, Yuting; McVicar, Tim R.; Yang, Dawen

    2018-01-01

    Vegetation change is a critical factor that profoundly affects the terrestrial water cycle. Here we derive an analytical solution for the impact of vegetation changes on hydrological partitioning within the Budyko framework. This is achieved by deriving an analytical expression between leaf area index (LAI) change and the Budyko land surface parameter (n) change, through the combination of a steady state ecohydrological model with an analytical carbon cost-benefit model for plant rooting depth. Using China where vegetation coverage has experienced dramatic changes over the past two decades as a study case, we quantify the impact of LAI changes on the hydrological partitioning during 1982-2010 and predict the future influence of these changes for the 21st century using climate model projections. Results show that LAI change exhibits an increasing importance on altering hydrological partitioning as climate becomes drier. In semiarid and arid China, increased LAI has led to substantial streamflow reductions over the past three decades (on average -8.5% in 1990s and -11.7% in 2000s compared to the 1980s baseline), and this decreasing trend in streamflow is projected to continue toward the end of this century due to predicted LAI increases. Our result calls for caution regarding the large-scale revegetation activities currently being implemented in arid and semiarid China, which may result in serious future water scarcity issues here. The analytical model developed here is physically based and suitable for simultaneously assessing both vegetation changes and climate change induced changes to streamflow globally.

  16. Ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: hydrologic vegetation gradient as an indicator for lateral hydrologic connectivity of headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taehee Hwang; James M. Vose; Christina. Tague

    2012-01-01

    Lateral water flow in catchments can produce important patterns in water and nutrient fluxes and stores and also influences the long-term spatial development of forest ecosystems. Specifically, patterns of vegetation type and density along hydrologic flow paths can represent a signal of the redistribution of water and nitrogen mediated by lateral hydrologic flow. This...

  17. Surface hydrology of drainage basins disturbed by surface mining and reclamation, central Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Infilration capacity of newly reclaimed minesoils is uniformly low (< 1 cm/hr) and generally increases (up to 6 cm/hr) with age, the magnitude of increase being dependent on soil characteristics and vegetation. In drainage basins with lower rates of infiltration recovery (< 2 cm/hr), infiltration-excess overland flow is the dominant runoff process. Increased peek runoff rate and stream power in the basins are sufficient to initiate drainage network evolution, with phases of network expansion and abstraction. In contrast, in basins where infiltration recovery is greater than 2 cm/hr, the hydrologic system is initially dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow but evolves toward a system dominated by saturation overland flow. Drainage development is limited to skeletal network initiation and elongation and occurs during the early period of infiltration-excess dominated flow conditions. Total runoff remains essentially constant due to increased proportions of return flow, reflected in the extended and less steep recession limb of saturation-dominated storm hydrographs. The results of this study are applicable to hydrologic prediction for purposes of surface mine permitting and reclamation design. Previously limited availability of rainfall-runoff data from watersheds disturbed by surface mining preclude adequate calibration of empirical methods, such as the runoff curve number method, or evaluation of a more sophisticated approach, such as the use of distributed hydrologic models, for hydrologic prediction. Runoff curve numbers calibrated by means of rainfall-runoff data from the study drainage basins indicate that presently accepted methods of determining curve numbers, using pre-mine soil classification, underestimate total runoff by as much as 50%

  18. Vegetation root zone storage and rooting depth, derived from local calibration of a global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, R.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wang-Erlandsson, L.; Hessels, T.; Bastiaanssen, W.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The storage and dynamics of water in the root zone control many important hydrological processes such as saturation excess overland flow, interflow, recharge, capillary rise, soil evaporation and transpiration. These processes are parameterized in hydrological models or land-surface schemes and the effect on runoff prediction can be large. Root zone parameters in global hydrological models are very uncertain as they cannot be measured directly at the scale on which these models operate. In this paper we calibrate the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB using a state-of-the-art ensemble of evaporation fields derived by solving the energy balance for satellite observations. We focus our calibration on the root zone parameters of PCR-GLOBWB and derive spatial patterns of maximum root zone storage. We find these patterns to correspond well with previous research. The parameterization of our model allows for the conversion of maximum root zone storage to root zone depth and we find that these correspond quite well to the point observations where available. We conclude that climate and soil type should be taken into account when regionalizing measured root depth for a certain vegetation type. We equally find that using evaporation rather than discharge better allows for local adjustment of root zone parameters within a basin and thus provides orthogonal data to diagnose and optimize hydrological models and land surface schemes.

  19. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG GEOMORPHOLOGY, HYDROLOGY, AND VEGETATION IN RIPARIAN MEADOWS: RESTORATION IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation patterns and dynamics within riparian corridors are controlled largely by geomorphic position, substrate characteristics and hydrologic regimes. Understanding management and restoration options for riparian meadow complexes exhibiting stream incision requires knowledge...

  20. Evaluation of global continental hydrology as simulated by the Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Murray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Global freshwater resources are sensitive to changes in climate, land cover and population density and distribution. The Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model is a recent development of the Lund-Potsdam-Jena model with improved representation of fire-vegetation interactions. It allows simultaneous consideration of the effects of changes in climate, CO2 concentration, natural vegetation and fire regime shifts on the continental hydrological cycle. Here the model is assessed for its ability to simulate large-scale spatial and temporal runoff patterns, in order to test its suitability for modelling future global water resources. Comparisons are made against observations of streamflow and a composite dataset of modelled and observed runoff (1986–1995 and are also evaluated against soil moisture data and the Palmer Drought Severity Index. The model captures the main features of the geographical distribution of global runoff, but tends to overestimate runoff in much of the Northern Hemisphere (where this can be somewhat accounted for by freshwater consumption and the unrealistic accumulation of the simulated winter snowpack in permafrost regions and the southern tropics. Interannual variability is represented reasonably well at the large catchment scale, as are seasonal flow timings and monthly high and low flow events. Further improvements to the simulation of intra-annual runoff might be achieved via the addition of river flow routing. Overestimates of runoff in some basins could likely be corrected by the inclusion of transmission losses and direct-channel evaporation.

  1. The influence of terracettes on surface hydrology and erosion on vegetated Alpine, mountain and steep-sloping environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; (Phil) Greenwood, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Alpine and mountain slopes represent important pathways that link high altitude grazing areas to meadows and rangelands at lower elevations. Given the often acute gradient of mountain slopes, they represent a convenient and potentially highly efficient runoff conveyance route that facilitates the downslope transfer of fine-sediment and sediment-bound nutrients and contaminants during erosion events. Above a certain gradient, many slopes host small steps, or `terracettes`. As these are generally orientated across slope, their genesis is usually attributed to a combination of soil creep, coupled with (and often accentuated by) grazing animals. Motivated by the prevalence of these distinct landform features and lack of information on their role as runoff conveyance routes, this communication reports preliminary results from an investigation to explore the possibility that terracettes may act as preferential flow-paths, with an as yet undocumented ability to greatly influence surface hydrology in mountainous and steeply-sloping environments. A ca. 40 m2 area of vegetated terracettes and section of adjacent thalweg, with gradients ranging from approximately 25-35o, were scanned using an automated Topcon IS03 Total Station at a resolution of 0.1 * 0.1 m. Data were converted to a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in ArcGIS 10 Geographical Information System (GIS), and queried using Spatial Analyst (Surface Hydrology; Flow Accumulation function) to identify slope-sections that could act as preferential flow-pathways during runoff events. These data were supplemented by information on soil physical properties that included grain size composition, bulk density and porosity, in order to establish spatial variations in soil characteristics associated with the vertical and horizontal terracette features. Combining the digital and in-situ data indicate that the technique is able to identify preferential surface flow-paths. Such information could greatly benefit the future management

  2. Modeling Linkages Between Effective Impervious Surface and Urban Vegetation Productivity in Semi-arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. A.; Tague, C.

    2010-12-01

    With a majority of the world's population now living in urban areas, the role of vegetation in urban ecosystems warrants increased attention. We address the question of how the fine scale (significantly impact the productivity of vegetation and uptake of C and N. To gain insight into how landscape features influence vegetation productivity, we use a coupled ecohydrogic model to estimate impacts of the amount and arrangement of impervious surfaces on vegetation water use. We use the model to explore how concepts from research in natural semi-arid ecosystems can be applied in the urban context. Ecological research in semi-arid ecosystems has shown that the arrangement of vegetated and bare surfaces plays a key role in regulating both runoff and ecosystem water use and productivity. Systems that include a mixture of bare and vegetated surfaces, for example, tend to show less runoff and more productivity than those with more homogeneous cover. In some instances, patchiness of bare and vegetated surfaces is more important than total vegetated area in determining rates of runoff and vegetation use of rainfall. In an urban context, impervious surfaces can be viewed as analogous to the bare surfaces present in undeveloped ecosystems. We consider not only the total impervious area (TIA), but also the effect of impervious area with a direct hydrologic connection to the stream network, effective impervious area (EIA). While increases in total impervious area (TIA) have been widely shown to impact catchment hydrology, the role of effective impervious area (EIA) has been less extensively studied. A consensus is emerging from the literature that EIA is as important or even more important than TIA as an indicator of catchment response to urbanization. Ecohydrologic models offer a tool to quantify the role of EIA on water availability and plant productivity and demonstrate the potential of urban areas to act as C or N sinks (and minimize the impacts such as increased storm runoff

  3. Hydrological Controls on Floodplain Forest Phenology Assessed using Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, M. G.; Keim, R.

    2017-12-01

    Although specific controls are not well understood, the phenology of temperate forests is generally thought to be controlled by photoperiod and temperature, although recent research suggests that soil moisture may also be important. The phenological controls of forested wetlands have not been thoroughly studied, and may be more controlled by site hydrology than other forests. For this study, remotely sensed vegetation indices were used to investigate hydrological controls on start-of-season timing, growing season length, and end-of-season timing at five floodplains in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas. A simple spring green-up model was used to determine the null spring start of season time for each site as a function of land surface temperature and photoperiod, or two remotely sensed indices: MODIS phenology data product and the MODIS Nadir Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function-Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) product. Preliminary results indicate that topographically lower areas within the floodplain with higher flood frequency experience later start-of-season timing. In addition, start-of-season is delayed in wet years relative to predicted timing based solely on temperature and photoperiod. The consequences for these controls unclear, but results suggest hydrological controls on floodplain ecosystem structure and carbon budgets are likely at least partially expressed by variations in growing season length.

  4. CubeSats in Hydrology: Ultra-High Resolution Insights into Vegetation Dynamics and Terrestrial Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew; Aragon, B.; Houborg, Rasmus; Mascaro, J.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing has generally necessitated a trade-off between spatial resolution and temporal frequency, affecting the capacity to observe fast hydrological processes and rapidly changing land surface conditions. An avenue for overcoming these spatiotemporal restrictions is the concept of using constellations of satellites, as opposed to the mission focus exemplified by the more conventional space-agency approach to earth observation. Referred to as CubeSats, these platforms offer the potential to provide new insights into a range of earth system variables and processes. Their emergence heralds a paradigm shift from single-sensor launches to an operational approach that envisions tens to hundreds of small, lightweight and comparatively inexpensive satellites placed into a range of low earth orbits. Although current systems are largely limited to sensing in the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, we demonstrate the opportunity and potential that CubeSats present the hydrological community via the retrieval of vegetation dynamics and terrestrial evaporation and foreshadow future sensing capabilities.

  5. CubeSats in Hydrology: Ultra-High Resolution Insights into Vegetation Dynamics and Terrestrial Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing has generally necessitated a trade-off between spatial resolution and temporal frequency, affecting the capacity to observe fast hydrological processes and rapidly changing land surface conditions. An avenue for overcoming these spatiotemporal restrictions is the concept of using constellations of satellites, as opposed to the mission focus exemplified by the more conventional space-agency approach to earth observation. Referred to as CubeSats, these platforms offer the potential to provide new insights into a range of earth system variables and processes. Their emergence heralds a paradigm shift from single-sensor launches to an operational approach that envisions tens to hundreds of small, lightweight and comparatively inexpensive satellites placed into a range of low earth orbits. Although current systems are largely limited to sensing in the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, we demonstrate the opportunity and potential that CubeSats present the hydrological community via the retrieval of vegetation dynamics and terrestrial evaporation and foreshadow future sensing capabilities.

  6. Hydrologic responses to restored wildfire regimes revealed by soil moisture-vegetation relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisramé, Gabrielle; Thompson, Sally; Stephens, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Many forested mountain watersheds worldwide evolved with frequent fire, which Twentieth Century fire suppression activities eliminated, resulting in unnaturally dense forests with high water demand. Restoration of pre-suppression forest composition and structure through a variety of management activities could improve forest resilience and water yields. This study explores the potential for "managed wildfire", whereby naturally ignited fires are allowed to burn, to alter the water balance. Interest in this type of managed wildfire is increasing, yet its long-term effects on water balance are uncertain. We use soil moisture as a spatially-distributed hydrologic indicator to assess the influence of vegetation, fire history and landscape position on water availability in the Illilouette Creek Basin in Yosemite National Park. Over 6000 manual surface soil moisture measurements were made over a period of three years, and supplemented with continuous soil moisture measurements over the top 1m of soil in three sites. Random forest and linear mixed effects models showed a dominant effect of vegetation type and history of vegetation change on measured soil moisture. Contemporary and historical vegetation maps were used to upscale the soil moisture observations to the basin and infer soil moisture under fire-suppressed conditions. Little change in basin-averaged soil moisture was inferred due to managed wildfire, but the results indicated that large localized increases in soil moisture had occurred, which could have important impacts on local ecology or downstream flows.

  7. Study on the construction of multi-dimensional Remote Sensing feature space for hydrological drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Daxiang; Tan, Debao; Wen, Xiongfei; Shen, Shaohong; Li, Zhe; Cui, Yuanlai

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological drought refers to an abnormal water shortage caused by precipitation and surface water shortages or a groundwater imbalance. Hydrological drought is reflected in a drop of surface water, decrease of vegetation productivity, increase of temperature difference between day and night and so on. Remote sensing permits the observation of surface water, vegetation, temperature and other information from a macro perspective. This paper analyzes the correlation relationship and differentiation of both remote sensing and surface measured indicators, after the selection and extraction a series of representative remote sensing characteristic parameters according to the spectral characterization of surface features in remote sensing imagery, such as vegetation index, surface temperature and surface water from HJ-1A/B CCD/IRS data. Finally, multi-dimensional remote sensing features such as hydrological drought are built on a intelligent collaborative model. Further, for the Dong-ting lake area, two drought events are analyzed for verification of multi-dimensional features using remote sensing data with different phases and field observation data. The experiments results proved that multi-dimensional features are a good method for hydrological drought

  8. Hydrologic Futures: Using Scenario Analysis to Evaluate Impacts of Forecasted Land Use Change on Hydrologic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land cover and land use changes can substantially alter hydrologic ecosystem services. Water availability and quality can change with modifications to the type or amount of surface vegetation, the permeability of soil and other surfaces, and the introduction of contaminants throu...

  9. Relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation types and hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas; Ovakoglou, George

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of a landscape is considered important to describe the ecosystems activity and is used as an important input parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models related to water and carbon cycle, desertification risk, etc. The measurement of LAI in the field is a laborious and costly process and is mainly done by indirect methods, such as hemispherical photographs that are processed by specialized software. For this reason there have been several attempts to estimate LAI with multispectral satellite images, using theoretical biomass development models, or empirical equations using vegetation indices and land cover maps. The aim of this work is to study the relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation type, and hydrological regime. This was achieved by studying 120 maps of EVI and LAI which cover a hydrological year and five hydrologically diverse areas: river Nestos in Greece, Queimados catchment in Brazil, Rijnland catchment in The Netherlands, river Tamega in Portugal, and river Umbeluzi in Mozambique. The following Terra MODIS composite datasets were downloaded for the hydrological year 2012-2013: MOD13A2 "Vegetation Indices" and MCD15A2 "LAI and FPAR", as well as the equivalent quality information layers (QA). All the pixels that fall in a vegetation land cover (according to the MERIS GLOBCOVER map) were sampled for the analysis, with the exception of those that fell at the border between two vegetation or other land cover categories, to avoid the influence of mixed pixels. Using linear regression analysis, the relationship between EVI and LAI was identified per date, vegetation type and study area. Results show that vegetation type has the highest influence in the variation of the relationship between EVI and LAI in each study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) is high and statistically significant (ranging from 0.41 to 0.83 in 90% of the cases). When plotting the EVI factor from the regression equation

  10. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: signatures of catchment co-evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Troch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Budyko (1974 postulated that long-term catchment water balance is controlled to first order by the available water and energy. This leads to the interesting question of how do landscape characteristics (soils, geology, vegetation and climate properties (precipitation, potential evaporation, number of wet and dry days interact at the catchment scale to produce such a simple and predictable outcome of hydrological partitioning? Here we use a physically-based hydrologic model separately parameterized in 12 US catchments across a climate gradient to decouple the impact of climate and landscape properties to gain insight into the role of climate-vegetation-soil interactions in long-term hydrologic partitioning. The 12 catchment models (with different paramterizations are subjected to the 12 different climate forcings, resulting in 144 10 yr model simulations. The results are analyzed per catchment (one catchment model subjected to 12 climates and per climate (one climate filtered by 12 different model parameterization, and compared to water balance predictions based on Budyko's hypothesis (E/P = ϕ (Ep/P; E: evaporation, P: precipitation, Ep: potential evaporation. We find significant anti-correlation between average deviations of the evaporation index (E/P computed per catchment vs. per climate, compared to that predicted by Budyko. Catchments that on average produce more E/P have developed in climates that on average produce less E/P, when compared to Budyko's prediction. Water and energy seasonality could not explain these observations, confirming previous results reported by Potter et al. (2005. Next, we analyze which model (i.e., landscape filter characteristics explain the catchment's tendency to produce more or less E/P. We find that the time scale that controls subsurface storage release explains the observed trend. This time scale combines several geomorphologic and hydraulic soil properties. Catchments with relatively longer

  11. Assessing the reduction of the hydrological connectivity of gully systems through vegetation restoration: field experiments and numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Molina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of degraded land in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes has led to alterations in the functioning of degraded catchments. Recovery of vegetation on areas affected by overgrazing, as well as the reforestation or afforestation of gully areas have given rise to modifications of hydrological connectivity within the catchments. Recent research has highlighted the ability of gully channels to trap sediment eroded from steep slopes, especially if vegetation is established along the gully bed. However, vegetation cover not only induces sediment deposition in the gully bed, but may also have a potential to reduce runoff water volume. The performance of gully beds in reducing the transfer of runoff was investigated by conducting controlled concentrated flow experiments in the field. Experimental field data for nine gullies were derived by pouring concentrated inflow into the upstream end and measuring the outflow at the downstream end of the channel. Two consecutive flow experiments per gully were carried out, so that data for dry and wet soil conditions were collected. The hydrological response to concentrated flow was estimated for each experiment by calculating its cumulative infiltration coefficient, IC (%. The results showed a great difference in IC between dry and wet soil conditions. The IC for wet soil conditions was on average 24%, whereas it was 60% for dry conditions. Gullies with more than 50% surface vegetation cover exhibit the highest cumulative infiltration coefficients (81% for dry runs, and 34% for wet runs, but runoff transmission losses were not as clearly related to vegetation cover as sediment storage as shown in Molina et al. (2009. The experimental field data of 16 experiments were used to calibrate a hydrological model developed by Fiener and Auerswald (2005 in order to simulate the transfer of concentrated flow along the gully beds. The calibrated model was able to simulate the transfer of runoff water

  12. Effect of water table dynamics on land surface hydrologic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2010-11-01

    The representation of groundwater dynamics in land surface models has received considerable attention in recent years. Most studies have found that soil moisture increases after adding a groundwater component because of the additional supply of water to the root zone. However, the effect of groundwater on land surface hydrologic memory (persistence) has not been explored thoroughly. In this study we investigate the effect of water table dynamics on National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model hydrologic simulations in terms of land surface hydrologic memory. Unlike soil water or evapotranspiration, results show that land surface hydrologic memory does not always increase after adding a groundwater component. In regions where the water table level is intermediate, land surface hydrologic memory can even decrease, which occurs when soil moisture and capillary rise from groundwater are not in phase with each other. Further, we explore the hypothesis that in addition to atmospheric forcing, groundwater variations may also play an important role in affecting land surface hydrologic memory. Analyses show that feedbacks of groundwater on land surface hydrologic memory can be positive, negative, or neutral, depending on water table dynamics. In regions where the water table is shallow, the damping process of soil moisture variations by groundwater is not significant, and soil moisture variations are mostly controlled by random noise from atmospheric forcing. In contrast, in regions where the water table is very deep, capillary fluxes from groundwater are small, having limited potential to affect soil moisture variations. Therefore, a positive feedback of groundwater to land surface hydrologic memory is observed in a transition zone between deep and shallow water tables, where capillary fluxes act as a buffer by reducing high-frequency soil moisture variations resulting in longer land surface hydrologic memory.

  13. Impact of prescribed and repeated vegetation burning on blanket peat hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Joseph; Brown, Lee; Palmer, Sheila; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Wearing, Catherine; Irvine, Brian

    2013-04-01

    dominated by saturation processes rather than infiltration-excess overland flow. In this presentation we focus on the hydrological findings from the EMBER project but where relevant we relate these to other supporting environmental data we collected in order to interrogate process explanations for the differences we observed. For example, surface and near-surface peat temperatures were significantly more variable (both warmer and cooler depending on season and time of day) for burnt sites (and for patches burnt < 5 yrs prior to monitoring within burnt sites) but with warmer peat associated with burning overall. The results provide clear evidence that prescribed vegetation burning on blanket peat significantly impacts peatland hydrology at both the plot and stream scale and therefore raises issues for government bodies who have legal responsibility to protect many peatland landscapes, their integrity, their biogeochemical functions and the ecosystem services that peatlands provide.

  14. Evaluating post-wildfire hydrologic recovery using ParFlow in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Atchley, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires are naturally occurring hazards that can have catastrophic impacts. They can alter the natural processes within a watershed, such as surface runoff and subsurface water storage. Generally, post-fire hydrologic models are either one-dimensional, empirically-based models, or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models are useful in providing runoff measurements at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide distributed hydrologic simulation at each point within the watershed. This research demonstrates how ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model can simulate post-fire hydrologic processes by representing soil burn severity (via hydrophobicity) and vegetation recovery as they vary both spatially and temporally. Using this approach, we are able to evaluate the change in post-fire water components (surface flow, lateral flow, baseflow, and evapotranspiration). This model is initially developed for a hillslope in Devil Canyon, burned in 2003 by the Old Fire in southern California (USA). The domain uses a 2m-cell size resolution over a 25 m by 25 m lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 2 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness, allowing an explicit consideration of the soil burn severity throughout the stages of recovery and vegetation regrowth. Vegetation regrowth is incorporated represented by satellite-based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) products. The pre- and post-fire surface runoff, subsurface storage, and surface storage interactions are evaluated and will be used as a basis for developing a watershed-scale model. Long-term continuous simulations will advance our understanding of post-fire hydrological partitioning between water balance components and the spatial variability of watershed processes, providing improved guidance for post-fire watershed management.

  15. The impact of runoff and surface hydrology on Titan's climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Sean; Lora, Juan; Mitchell, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Titan’s surface liquid distribution has been shown by general circulation models (GCMs) to greatly influence the hydrological cycle. Simulations from the Titan Atmospheric Model (TAM) with imposed polar methane “wetlands” reservoirs realistically produce many observed features of Titan’s atmosphere, whereas “aquaplanet” simulations with a global methane ocean are not as successful. In addition, wetlands simulations, unlike aquaplanet simulations, demonstrate strong correlations between extreme rainfall behavior and observed geomorphic features, indicating the influential role of precipitation in shaping Titan’s surface. The wetlands configuration is, in part, motivated by Titan’s large-scale topography featuring low-latitude highlands and high-latitude lowlands, with the implication being that methane may concentrate in the high-latitude lowlands by way of runoff and subsurface flow. However, the extent to which topography controls the surface liquid distribution and thus impacts the global hydrological cycle by driving surface and subsurface flow is unclear. Here we present TAM simulations wherein the imposed wetlands reservoirs are replaced by a surface runoff scheme that allows surface liquid to self-consistently redistribute under the influence of topography. To isolate the singular impact of surface runoff on Titan’s climatology, we run simulations without parameterizations of subsurface flow and topography-atmosphere interactions. We discuss the impact of surface runoff on the surface liquid distribution over seasonal timescales and compare the resulting hydrological cycle to observed cloud and surface features, as well as to the hydrological cycles of the TAM wetlands and aquaplanet simulations. While still idealized, this more realistic representation of Titan’s hydrology provides new insight into the complex interaction between Titan’s atmosphere and surface, demonstrates the influence of surface runoff on Titan’s global climate

  16. Land-surface modelling in hydrological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jesper; Rosbjerg, Dan; Butts, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the different types of energy-based land-surface models (LSMs) and discuss some of the new possibilities that will arise when energy-based LSMs are combined with distributed hydrological modelling. We choose to focus on energy-based approaches......, and the difficulties inherent in various evaluation procedures are presented. Finally, the dynamic coupling of hydrological and atmospheric models is explored, and the perspectives of such efforts are discussed......., because in comparison to the traditional potential evapotranspiration models, these approaches allow for a stronger link to remote sensing and atmospheric modelling. New opportunities for evaluation of distributed land-surface models through application of remote sensing are discussed in detail...

  17. Modeling post-wildfire hydrological processes with ParFlow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, I. S.; Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfires alter the natural processes within a watershed, such as surface runoff, evapotranspiration rates, and subsurface water storage. Post-fire hydrologic models are typically one-dimensional, empirically-based models or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models are useful for modeling and predictions at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide detailed, distributed hydrologic processes at the point scale within the watershed. This research uses ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model to simulate post-fire hydrologic processes by representing the spatial and temporal variability of soil burn severity (via hydrophobicity) and vegetation recovery. Using this approach, we are able to evaluate the change in post-fire water components (surface flow, lateral flow, baseflow, and evapotranspiration). This work builds upon previous field and remote sensing analysis conducted for the 2003 Old Fire Burn in Devil Canyon, located in southern California (USA). This model is initially developed for a hillslope defined by a 500 m by 1000 m lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 12.4 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness to explicitly consider soil burn severity throughout the stages of recovery and vegetation regrowth. We consider four slope and eight hydrophobic layer configurations. Evapotranspiration is used as a proxy for vegetation regrowth and is represented by the satellite-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBOP) product. The pre- and post-fire surface runoff, subsurface storage, and surface storage interactions are evaluated at the point scale. Results will be used as a basis for developing and fine-tuning a watershed-scale model. Long-term simulations will advance our understanding of post-fire hydrological partitioning between water balance components and the spatial variability of watershed processes, providing improved guidance for post-fire watershed management. In reference

  18. Effects of future climate change, CO2 enrichment, and vegetation structure variation on hydrological processes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuan; Jiang, Hong; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Fang, Xiuqin; Wei, Xiaohua; Liu, Shirong; Zhou, Guomo

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between factors (climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentrations enrichment, and vegetation structure) and hydrological processes is important for understanding and predicting the interaction between the hydrosphere and biosphere. The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) was used to evaluate the effects of climate change, rising CO2, and vegetation structure on hydrological processes in China at the end of the 21st century. Seven simulations were implemented using the assemblage of the IPCC climate and CO2 concentration scenarios, SRES A2 and SRES B1. Analysis results suggest that (1) climate change will have increasing effects on runoff, evapotranspiration (ET), transpiration (T), and transpiration ratio (transpiration/evapotranspiration, T/E) in most hydrological regions of China except in the southernmost regions; (2) elevated CO2 concentrations will have increasing effects on runoff at the national scale, but at the hydrological region scale, the physiology effects induced by elevated CO2 concentration will depend on the vegetation types, climate conditions, and geographical background information with noticeable decreasing effects shown in the arid Inland region of China; (3) leaf area index (LAI) compensation effect and stomatal closure effect are the dominant factors on runoff in the arid Inland region and southern moist hydrological regions, respectively; (4) the magnitudes of climate change (especially the changing precipitation pattern) effects on the water cycle are much larger than those of the elevated CO2 concentration effects; however, increasing CO2 concentration will be one of the most important modifiers to the water cycle; (5) the water resource condition will be improved in northern China but depressed in southernmost China under the IPCC climate change scenarios, SRES A2 and SRES B1.

  19. Modeling Hydrologic Processes after Vegetation Restoration in an Urban Watershed with HEC-HMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, K.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The San Diego River Watershed in California (USA) is highly urbanized, where stream channel geomorphology are directly affected by anthropogenic disturbances. Flooding and water quality concerns have led to an increased interest in improving the condition of urban waterways. Alvarado Creek, a 1200-meter section of a tributary to the San Diego River will be used as a case study to understand the degree to which restoration efforts reduce the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities on hydrologic processes and water quality in urban stream ecosystems. In 2016, non-native vegetation (i.e. Washingtonia spp. (fan palm), Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island palm)) and approximately 7257 kilograms of refuse were removed from the study reach. This research develops the United States Army Corp of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydraulic Modeling System (USACE HEC-HMS) using field-based data to model and predict the short- and long-term impacts of restoration on geomorphic and hydrologic processes. Observations include cross-sectional area, grain-size distributions, water quality, and continuous measurements of streamflow, temperature, and precipitation. Baseline and design storms are simulated before and after restoration. The model will be calibrated and validated using field observations. The design storms represent statistical likelihoods of storms occurrences, and the pre- and post-restoration hydrologic responses will be compared to evaluate the impact of vegetation and waste removal on runoff processes. Ultimately model parameters will be transferred to other urban creeks in San Diego that may potentially undergo restoration. Modeling will be used to learn about the response trajectory of rainfall-runoff processes following restoration efforts in urban streams and guide future management and restoration activities.

  20. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  1. Representing Northern Peatland Hydrology and Biogeochemistry with ALM Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Hanson, P. J.; Xu, X.; Mao, J.; Warren, J.; Yuan, F.; Norby, R. J.; Sebestyen, S.; Griffiths, N.; Weston, D. J.; Walker, A.

    2017-12-01

    Northern peatlands are likely to be important in future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks due to their large carbon pool and vulnerability to hydrological change. Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. Firstly, we introduce a new configuration of the land model (ALM) of Accelerated Climate model for Energy (ACME), which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Secondly, we couple our new hydrology treatment with vertically structured soil organic matter pool, and the addition of components from methane biogeochemistry. Thirdly, we introduce a new PFT for mosses and implement the water content dynamics and physiology of mosses. We inform and test our model based on SPRUCE experiment to get the reasonable results for the seasonal dynamics water table depths, water content dynamics and physiology of mosses, and correct soil carbon profiles. Then, we use our new model structure to test the how the water table depth and CH4 emission will respond to elevated CO2 and different warming scenarios.

  2. Challenges for understanding Antarctic surface hydrology and ice-shelf stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Bell, R. E.; Banwell, A. F.; Boghosian, A.; Spergel, J.; Trusel, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely hypothesized that surface meltwater can contribute to ice mass loss in Antarctica through its impact on ice-shelf stability. Meltwater potentially expedites ice-shelf calving by flowing into and enlarging existing crevasses, and could even trigger ice-shelf disintegration via stresses generated by melt ponds. When ice shelves collapse, the adjacent grounded ice accelerates and thins, which contributes to sea-level rise. How these mechanisms mediate the interactions between the atmosphere, the ocean and the ice sheet is the subject of long-standing research efforts. The drainage of water across the surface of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and its ice shelves is beginning to be recognized as another important aspect of the system. Recent studies have revealed that surface meltwater drainage is more widespread than previously thought and that surface hydrological systems in Antarctica may expand and proliferate this century. Contrasting hypotheses regarding the impact of the proliferation of drainage systems on ice-shelf stability have emerged. Surface drainage could deliver meltwater to vulnerable area or export meltwater from ice shelves entirely. Which behavior dominates may have a large impact on the future response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to atmospheric warming. We will discuss these recent discoveries and hypotheses, as well as new detailed studies of specific areas where hydrological systems are well developed, such as Amery and Nimrod Ice Shelves. We will highlight analogies that can be drawn with Greenlandic (near-)surface hydrology and, crucially, where hydrological systems on the two ice sheets are very different, leading to potentially important gaps in our understanding. Finally, we will look ahead to the key questions that we argue will need to be if we are to determine the role Antarctic surface hydrology could play in the future of the ice sheet. These include: Where does meltwater pond today and how will this change this century? What

  3. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  4. Modeling Pre- and Post- Wildfire Hydrologic Response to Vegetation Change in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, A. E.; Benedict, K. K.; Zhang, S.; Savickas, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large scale, high severity wildfires in forests have become increasingly prevalent in the western United States due to fire exclusion. Although past work has focused on the immediate consequences of wildfire (ie. runoff magnitude and debris flow), little has been done to understand the post wildfire hydrologic consequences of vegetation regrowth. Furthermore, vegetation is often characterized by static parameterizations within hydrological models. In order to understand the temporal relationship between hydrologic processes and revegetation, we modularized and partially automated the hydrologic modeling process to increase connectivity between remotely sensed data, the Virtual Watershed Platform (a data management resource, called the VWP), input meteorological data, and the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This process was used to run simulations in the Valles Caldera of NM, an area impacted by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire, in PRMS before and after the Las Conchas to evaluate hydrologic process changes. The modeling environment addressed some of the existing challenges faced by hydrological modelers. At present, modelers are somewhat limited in their ability to push the boundaries of hydrologic understanding. Specific issues faced by modelers include limited computational resources to model processes at large spatial and temporal scales, data storage capacity and accessibility from the modeling platform, computational and time contraints for experimental modeling, and the skills to integrate modeling software in ways that have not been explored. By taking an interdisciplinary approach, we were able to address some of these challenges by leveraging the skills of hydrologic, data, and computer scientists; and the technical capabilities provided by a combination of on-demand/high-performance computing, distributed data, and cloud services. The hydrologic modeling process was modularized to include options for distributing meteorological data, parameter space

  5. Correlation between hydrological drought, climatic factors, reservoir operation, and vegetation cover in the Xijiang Basin, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingxia; Wu, Zhiyong; Singh, Vijay P.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.; He, Hai; Lu, Guihua

    2017-06-01

    The Xijiang River is known as the Golden Watercourse because of its role in the development of the Pearl River Delta Regional Economic System in China, which was made possible by its abundant water resources. At present, the hydrological regime of the Xijiang River has now become complicated, the water shortages and successive droughts pose a threat to regional economic development. However, the complexity of hydroclimatological processes with emphasizes on drought has not been comprehended. In order to effectively predict and develop the adaptation strategies to cope with the water scarcity damage caused by hydrological droughts, it is essential to thoroughly analyze the relationship between hydrological droughts and pre/post-dependent hydroclimatological factors. To accomplish this, the extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition method (ESMD) was utilized to reveal the periodic variation in hydrological droughts that is characterized by the Standardized Drought Index (SDI). In addition, the cross-wavelet transform method was applied to investigate the correlation between large-scale climate indices and drought. The results showed that hydrological drought had the most significant response to spring ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation), and the response lags in sub-basins were mostly 8-9 months except that in Yujiang River were mainly 5 or 8 months. Signal reservoir operation in the Yujiang River reduced drought severity by 52-95.8% from January to April over the 2003-2014 time period. Similarly, the cascade reservoir alleviated winter and spring droughts in the Hongshuihe River Basin. However, autumn drought was aggravated with severity increased by 41.9% in September and by 160.9% in October, so that the land surface models without considering human intervention must be used with caution in the hydrological simulation. The response lags of the VCI (Vegetation Condition Index) to hydrological drought were different in the sub-basins. The response lag for the

  6. Modeling of hydrological processes in arid agricultural regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LI,Xiaomin MAO,Shaozhong KANG,David A. BARRY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of hydrological processes, including consideration of interactions between vegetation growth and water transfer in the root zone, underpins efficient use of water resources in arid-zone agriculture. Water transfers take place in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and include groundwater dynamics, unsaturated zone flow, evaporation/transpiration from vegetated/bare soil and surface water, agricultural canal/surface water flow and seepage, and well pumping. Models can be categorized into three classes: (1 regional distributed hydrological models with various land uses, (2 groundwater-soil-plant-atmosphere continuum models that neglect lateral water fluxes, and (3 coupled models with groundwater flow and unsaturated zone water dynamics. This review highlights, in addition, future research challenges in modeling arid-zone agricultural systems, e.g., to effectively assimilate data from remote sensing, and to fully reflect climate change effects at various model scales.

  7. Soil Surface Runoff Scheme for Improving Land-Hydrology and Surface Fluxes in Simple SiB (SSiB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Evapotranspiration on land is hard to measure and difficult to simulate. On the scale of a GCM grid, there is large subgrid-scale variability of orography, soil moisture, and vegetation. Our hope is to be able to tune the biophysical constants of vegetation and soil parameters to get the most realistic space-averaged diurnal cycle of evaporation and its climatology. Field experiments such as First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE), Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), and LBA help a great deal in improving our evapotranspiration schemes. However, these improvements have to be matched with, and coupled to, consistent improvement in land-hydrology; otherwise, the runoff problems will intrinsically reflect on the soil moisture and evapotranspiration errors. Indeed, a realistic runoff simulation also ensures a reasonable evapotranspiration simulation provided the precipitation forcing is reliable. We have been working on all of the above problems to improve the simulated hydrologic cycle. Through our participation in the evaluation and intercomparison of land-models under the behest of Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP), we identified a few problems with Simple SiB (SSIB; Xue et al., 1991) hydrology in regions of significant snowmelt. Sud and Mocko (1999) show that inclusion of a separate snowpack model, with its own energy budget and fluxes with the atmosphere aloft and soil beneath, helps to ameliorate some of the deficiencies of delayed snowmelt and excessive spring season runoff. Thus, much more realistic timing of melt water generation was simulated with the new snowpack model in the subsequent GSWP re-evaluations using 2 years of ISLSCP Initiative I forcing data for 1987 and 1988. However, we noted an overcorrection of the low meltwater infiltration of SSiB. While the improvement in snowmelt timing was found everywhere, the snowmelt infiltration has became excessive in some regions, e.g., Lena river basin. This leads to much reduced runoff in many basins as

  8. An integrated model of soil, hydrology, and vegetation for carbon dynamics in wetland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Zhang; Changsheng Li; Carl C. Trettin; Harbin Li; Ge Sun

    2002-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are an important component in global carbon (C) cycles and may exert a large influence on global clinlate change. Predictions of C dynamics require us to consider interactions among many critical factors of soil, hydrology, and vegetation. However, few such integrated C models exist for wetland ecosystems. In this paper, we report a simulation model...

  9. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  10. Evolution of Subaerial Coastal Fluvial Delta Island Topography into Multiple Stable States Under Influence of Vegetation and Stochastic Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, K. B.; Smith, B. C.; O'Connor, M.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal fluvial delta morphodynamics are prominently controlled by external fluvial sediment and water supplies; however, internal sediment-water-vegetation feedbacks are now being proposed as potentially equally significant in organizing and maintaining the progradation and aggradation of such systems. The time scales of fluvial and climate influences on these feedbacks, and of their responses, are also open questions. Historical remote sensing study of the Wax Lake Delta model system (Louisiana, USA) revealed trends in the evolution of the subaerial island surfaces from a non-systematic arrangement of elevations to a discrete set of levees and intra-island platforms with distinct vegetation types, designated as high marsh, low marsh, and mudflat habitat. We propose that this elevation zonation is consistent with multiple stable state theory, e.g. as applied to tidal salt marsh systems but not previously to deltas. According to zonally-distributed sediment core analyses, differentiation of island elevations was not due to organic matter accumulation as in salt marshes, but rather by differential mineral sediment accumulation with some organic contributions. Mineral sediment accumulation rates suggested that elevation growth was accelerating or holding steady over time, at least to date in this young delta, in contrast to theory suggesting rates should slow as elevation increases above mean water level. Hydrological analysis of island flooding suggested a prominent role of stochastic local storm events in raising island water levels and supplying mineral sediment to the subaerial island surfaces at short time scales; over longer time scales, the relative influences of local storms and inland/regional floods on the coupled sediment-water-vegetation system of the subaerial delta island surfaces remain the subject of ongoing study. These results help provide an empirical foundation for the next generation of coupled sediment-water-vegetation modeling and theory.

  11. Influence of forest roads standards and networks on water yield as predicted by the distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salli F. Dymond; W. Michael Aust; Steven P. Prisley; Mark H. Eisenbies; James M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the country, foresters are continually looking at the effects of logging and forest roads on stream discharge and overall stream health. In the Pacific Northwest, a distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) has been used to predict the effects of logging on peak discharge in mountainous regions. DHSVM uses elevation, meteorological, vegetation, and...

  12. The Influence of Runoff and Surface Hydrology on Titan's Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, S.; Lora, J. M.; Mitchell, J.; Moon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Titan's surface liquid distribution has been shown by general circulation models (GCMs) to greatly influence the hydrological cycle, producing characteristic weather and seasonal climate patterns. Simulations from the Titan Atmospheric Model (TAM) with imposed polar methane "wetlands" reservoirs realistically produce observed cloud features and temperature profiles of Titan's atmosphere, whereas "aquaplanet" simulations with a global methane ocean are not as successful. In addition, wetlands simulations, unlike aquaplanet simulations, demonstrate strong correlations between extreme rainfall behavior and observed geomorphic features, indicating the influential role of precipitation in shaping Titan's surface. The wetlands configuration is, in part, motivated by Titan's large-scale topography featuring low-latitude highlands and high-latitude lowlands, with the implication being that methane may concentrate in the high-latitude lowlands by way of runoff and subsurface flow of a global or regional methane table. However, the extent to which topography controls the surface liquid distribution and thus impacts the global hydrological cycle by driving surface and subsurface flow is unclear. Here we present TAM simulations wherein the imposed wetlands reservoirs are replaced by a surface runoff scheme that allows surface liquid to self-consistently redistribute under the influence of topography. We discuss the impact of surface runoff on the surface liquid distribution over seasonal timescales and compare the resulting hydrological cycle to observed cloud and surface features, as well as to the hydrological cycles of the TAM wetlands and aquaplanet simulations. While still idealized, this more realistic representation of Titan's hydrology provides new insight into the complex interaction between Titan's atmosphere and surface, demonstrates the influence of surface runoff on Titan's global climate, and lays the groundwork for further surface hydrology developments in Titan

  13. Hydrological character of the soil of a degraded area: comparison of analysis physical, chemical and floristic vegetational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Cassinari, Chiara; Giupponi, Luca; Sichel, Giorgio Maria; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-04-01

    This work is an integral part of a project co-financed by the European Union "Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified land by a new technology treatment for the recovery of the land" (Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"); this technology is based on a treatment (patented by m.c.m. Ecosistemi) of chemical mechanical processing of degraded soils with an initial process of disgregation of the same followed by their reconstitution incorporating soil matrices, a subsequent polycondensation with humic acids and a final restoration. The area of intervention of the New Life project lies in the municipal territory of Piacenza, where between the years 70 and 80 has been made a landfill for municipal solid waste with subsequent restoration work by placing a layer of soil cover. The first phase of the New Life project was that of a physical and chemical characterization of different cover soils of the area combined with floristic-vegetational analysis. At this stage the present study aims to compare the data related to the analysis of the vegetation with those returned by investigation of hydrological characteristics of soils performed by laboratory methods, together to confront two theoretical calculation methods for determination of hydrological parameters. The comparison of the ecological study of the vegetation with the outcomes obtained by the classical methods regarding the determination of water retention, allows you to have a picture that is as detailed as possible in describing the characteristics of the substrate. The comparison also with the two methods of calculation, which determines the hydrological character conditions in average soil condition, allows you to ascertain the actual disturbance of the soil in the area. In order to delineate the hydrological characteristics of the soils sampled, were quantified by the Maximum Water Concentration, the capacity range, the point of Withering by the method of the Tensiometric box and the Pressure Membrane

  14. Critical Zone Co-dynamics: Quantifying Interactions between Subsurface, Land Surface, and Vegetation Properties Using UAV and Geophysical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Wu, Y.; Tran, A. P.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.; Versteeg, R.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Improving understanding and modelling of terrestrial systems requires advances in measuring and quantifying interactions among subsurface, land surface and vegetation processes over relevant spatiotemporal scales. Such advances are important to quantify natural and managed ecosystem behaviors, as well as to predict how watershed systems respond to increasingly frequent hydrological perturbations, such as droughts, floods and early snowmelt. Our study focuses on the joint use of UAV-based multi-spectral aerial imaging, ground-based geophysical tomographic monitoring (incl., electrical and electromagnetic imaging) and point-scale sensing (soil moisture sensors and soil sampling) to quantify interactions between above and below ground compartments of the East River Watershed in the Upper Colorado River Basin. We evaluate linkages between physical properties (incl. soil composition, soil electrical conductivity, soil water content), metrics extracted from digital surface and terrain elevation models (incl., slope, wetness index) and vegetation properties (incl., greenness, plant type) in a 500 x 500 m hillslope-floodplain subsystem of the watershed. Data integration and analysis is supported by numerical approaches that simulate the control of soil and geomorphic characteristic on hydrological processes. Results provide an unprecedented window into critical zone interactions, revealing significant below- and above-ground co-dynamics. Baseline geophysical datasets provide lithological structure along the hillslope, which includes a surface soil horizon, underlain by a saprolite layer and the fractured Mancos shale. Time-lapse geophysical data show very different moisture dynamics in various compartments and locations during the winter and growing season. Integration with aerial imaging reveals a significant linkage between plant growth and the subsurface wetness, soil characteristics and the topographic gradient. The obtained information about the organization and

  15. Biological soil crust and disturbance controls on surface hydrology in a semi-arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faist, Akasha M; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Belnap, Jayne; Van Zee, Justin W; Barger, Nichole N

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) play an important role in surface hydrologic processes in dryland ecosystems, and these processes may then be dramatically altered with soil surface disturbance. In this study, we examined biocrust hydrologic responses to disturbance at different developmental stages on sandy soils on the Colorado Plateau. Our results showed that all disturbance (trampling, scalping and trampling+scalping) of the early successional light cyanobacterial biocrusts generally reduced runoff. In contrast, trampling well-developed dark-cyano-lichen biocrusts increased runoff and sediment loss relative to intact controls. Scalping did not increase runoff, implying that soil aggregate structure was important to the infiltration process. Well-developed, intact dark biocrusts generally had lower runoff, low sediment loss, and highest aggregate stability whereas the less-developed light biocrusts were highest in runoff and sediment loss when compared to the controls. These results suggest the importance of maintaining the well-developed dark biocrusts, as they are beneficial for lowering runoff and reducing soil loss and redistribution on the landscape. These data also suggest that upslope patches of light biocrust may either support water transport to downslope vegetation patches or alternatively this runoff may place dark biocrust patches at risk of disruption and loss, given that light patches increase runoff and thus soil erosion potential.

  16. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau Region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhart, L.S.

    1979-07-01

    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and groundwater systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net groundwater flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and, (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  17. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhart, L.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and ground-water systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net ground-water flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  18. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Simpevarp 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten

    2005-04-01

    This report presents and evaluates the site investigations and primary data on meteorology, surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that are available in the Simpevarp 1.2 'data freeze'. The main objective is to update the previous Simpevarp 1.1 description of the meteorological, surface hydrological and near-surface hydrogeological conditions in the Simpevarp area. Based on the Simpevarp 1.2 dataset, an updated conceptual and descriptive model of the surface and near-surface water flow conditions in the Simpevarp area is presented. In cases where site investigation data are not yet available, regional and/or generic data are used as input to the modelling. GIS- and process-based tools, used for initial quantitative flow modelling, are also presented. The objectives of this initial quantitative modelling are to illustrate, quantify and support the site descriptive model, and also to produce relevant input data to the ecological systems modelling within the SKB SurfaceNet framework.For the Simpevarp 1.2 model, the relevant site investigations include the establishment of one local meteorological station and surface-hydrological stations for discharge measurements, delineation and description of catchment areas, manual discharge measurements in water courses, slug tests in groundwater monitoring wells, and manual groundwater level measurements. In addition, other investigations have also contributed to the modelling, providing data on geometry (including topography), data from surface-based geological investigations and boreholes in Quaternary deposits, and data on the hydrogeological properties of the bedrock. The conceptual and descriptive modelling includes an identification and basic description of type areas, domains and interfaces between domains within the model area. The surface and near-surface flow system is described, including the assignment of hydrogeological properties to HSDs (Hydraulic Soil Domains) of Quaternary deposits based on a

  19. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Simpevarp 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [SWECO VIAK AB/Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    This report presents and evaluates the site investigations and primary data on meteorology, surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that are available in the Simpevarp 1.2 'data freeze'. The main objective is to update the previous Simpevarp 1.1 description of the meteorological, surface hydrological and near-surface hydrogeological conditions in the Simpevarp area. Based on the Simpevarp 1.2 dataset, an updated conceptual and descriptive model of the surface and near-surface water flow conditions in the Simpevarp area is presented. In cases where site investigation data are not yet available, regional and/or generic data are used as input to the modelling. GIS- and process-based tools, used for initial quantitative flow modelling, are also presented. The objectives of this initial quantitative modelling are to illustrate, quantify and support the site descriptive model, and also to produce relevant input data to the ecological systems modelling within the SKB SurfaceNet framework.For the Simpevarp 1.2 model, the relevant site investigations include the establishment of one local meteorological station and surface-hydrological stations for discharge measurements, delineation and description of catchment areas, manual discharge measurements in water courses, slug tests in groundwater monitoring wells, and manual groundwater level measurements. In addition, other investigations have also contributed to the modelling, providing data on geometry (including topography), data from surface-based geological investigations and boreholes in Quaternary deposits, and data on the hydrogeological properties of the bedrock. The conceptual and descriptive modelling includes an identification and basic description of type areas, domains and interfaces between domains within the model area. The surface and near-surface flow system is described, including the assignment of hydrogeological properties to HSDs (Hydraulic Soil Domains) of Quaternary deposits based on a

  20. Correction of Interferometric and Vegetation Biases in the SRTMGL1 Spaceborne DEM with Hydrological Conditioning towards Improved Hydrodynamics Modeling in the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Pinel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon basin, the recently released SRTM Global 1 arc-second (SRTMGL1 remains the best topographic information for hydrological and hydrodynamic modeling purposes. However, its accuracy is hindered by errors, partly due to vegetation, leading to erroneous simulations. Previous efforts to remove the vegetation signal either did not account for its spatial variability or relied on a single assumed percentage of penetration of the SRTM signal. Here, we propose a systematic approach over an Amazonian floodplain to remove the vegetation signal, addressing its heterogeneity by combining estimates of vegetation height and a land cover map. We improve this approach by interpolating the first results with drainage network, field and altimetry data to obtain a hydrological conditioned DEM. The averaged interferometric and vegetation biases over the forest zone were found to be −2.0 m and 7.4 m, respectively. Comparing the original and corrected DEM, vertical validation against Ground Control Points shows a RMSE reduction of 64%. Flood extent accuracy, controlled against Landsat and JERS-1 images, stresses improvements in low and high water periods (+24% and +18%, respectively. This study also highlights that a ground truth drainage network, as a unique input during the interpolation, achieves reasonable results in terms of flood extent and hydrological characteristics.

  1. Vegetation Patchiness Enhances Hydrological Connectivity in River Deltas Below the Percolation Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K. A.; Hiatt, M. R.; Passalacqua, P.

    2017-12-01

    The humanitarian and ecological importance of coastal deltas has led many to research the factors influencing their ecogeomorphic evolution, in hopes of predicting the response of these regions to the growing number of natural and anthropogenic threats they face. One area of this effort, in which many unresolved questions remain, concerns the hydrological connectivity between the distributary channels and interdistributary islands, which field observations and numerical modeling have shown to be significant. Island vegetation is known to affect the degree of connectivity, but the effect of the spatial distribution of vegetation on connectivity remains an important question. This research aims to determine to what extent vegetation percent cover, patch size, and plant density affect connectivity in an idealized deltaic system. A 2D hydrodynamic model was used to numerically solve the shallow water equations in an idealized channel-island complex, modeled after Wax Lake Delta in Louisiana. For each model run, vegetation patches were distributed randomly throughout the islands according to a specified percent cover and patch size. Vegetation was modeled as a modified bed roughness, which was varied to represent a range of sparse-to-dense vegetation. To determine the effect of heterogeneity, the results of each patchy scenario were compared to results from a uniform run with the same spatially-averaged roughness. It was found that, while all patchy model runs demonstrated more channel-island connectivity than comparable uniform runs, this was particularly true when vegetation patches were dense and covered distributions in the deltaic islands, which can have implications for the fate and transport of sediment/nutrients. These results indicate that the spatial distribution of vegetation can have a notable impact on our ability to model connectivity in deltaic systems.

  2. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  3. Mechanical and Hydrologic Effects of Riparian Vegetation on Critical Conditions for Streambank Stability: Upper Truckee River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Pollen, N. L.; Langendoen, E. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Upper Truckee River is the single largest contributor of sediment to Lake Tahoe with a large proportion of the suspended-sediment load coming from eroding streambanks. Recent advances in quantifying streambank processes highlight the combined effects of hydraulic erosion at the bank toe with geotechnical stability of the upper part of the bank and resulted in the development of a deterministic model of bank-toe erosion and streambank stability (Simon et al., 1999). The use of riparian vegetation in schemes of bank stabilization and stream restoration have become popular but are often implemented on a trial and error basis because of a lack of quantifiable information on the mechanical and hydrologic effects of vegetation on bank stability. This study, conducted along an unstable reach of the Upper Truckee River, combines field data with numerical modeling to quantify (1) hydraulic and geotechnical driving and resisting forces that control bank failures, (2) the mechanical and hydrologic effects of vegetation on shear strength, and (3) the critical conditions for bank stability with and without indigenous riparian species. Tests were conducted using three top-bank treatments: bare (control), Lemmon's willow, and young Lodgepole pine. The susceptibility of the bank toe to erosion by hydraulic forces was quantified by conducting submerged jet tests of in situ material to determine the erodibility coefficient (k) and the critical shear stress of the material. Drained, shear-strength parameters (cohesion and friction angle) of the banks were determined from borehole shear tests at various depths. Pore-water pressure and matric suction were monitored at three depths (30, 100, and 150 cm) with digital tensiometers to calculate changes in apparent cohesion for the period (September 2003 - May 2004) and to differentiate between the hydrologic effects of the two species. Root reinforcement of the two species was quantified by determining the relation between root

  4. Hydrologic restoration in a dynamic subtropical mangrove-to-marsh ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Day, Richard H.; Krauss, Ken W.; From, Andrew S.; Allain, Larry K.; Cormier, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Extensive hydrologic modifications in coastal regions across the world have occurred to support infrastructure development, altering the function of many coastal wetlands. Wetland restoration success is dependent on the existence of hydrologic regimes that support development of appropriate soils and the growth and persistence of wetland vegetation. In Florida, United States, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP) seeks to restore, protect, and preserve water resources of the greater Everglades region. Herein we describe vegetation dynamics in a mangrove-to-marsh ecotone within the impact area of a CERP hydrologic restoration project currently under development. Vegetation communities are also described for a similar area outside the project area. We found that vegetation shifts within the impact area occurred over a 7-year period; cover of herbaceous species varied by location, and an 88% increase in the total number of mangrove seedlings was documented. We attribute these shifts to the existing modified hydrologic regime, which is characterized by a low volume of freshwater sheet flow compared with historical conditions (i.e. before modification), as well as increased tidal influence. We also identified a significant trend of decreasing soil surface elevation at the impact area. The CERP restoration project is designed to increase freshwater sheet flow to the impact area. Information from our study characterizing existing vegetation dynamics prior to implementation of the restoration project is required to allow documentation of long-term project effects on plant community composition and structure within a framework of background variation, thereby allowing assessment of the project's success in restoring critical ecosystem functions.

  5. The role of vegetated areas on fish assemblage of the Paraná River floodplain: effects of different hydrological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Neiff

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the changes in composition and abundance of fish assemblages in seven vegetated floodplain wetlands with different connectivity across different hydrologic conditions: after a prolonged connection of the floodplain with the main channel, during receding water, and after a prolonged isolation. We also investigated the size and abundance of large-sized migratory species found in these wetlands and the food resources exploited by the dominant fish. Fishes were captured by diurnal seining (8.0 m x 1.50 m, 5 mm mesh along macrophyte banks. Despite the high total number of species registered (100, sample species richness varied between 7 and 31, depending on the sampling site and the sampling date. Cluster analysis indicated low similarity between sites during both the isolation and the prolonged connection. Species turnover decreased from high water (β = 40.33 to low water (β = 33.83, with the minimum value of beta diversity index obtained during the isolation of the floodplain wetlands (β = 26.83. Our results indicated that different dominant populations of fish occur in different hydrological conditions, even though high water and isolation phases occur in the same season of different years. The ordination (NMDS indicated the importance of hydrologic conditions in structuring fish assemblages in the studied floodplain. Small-sized characids, typically associated with macrophytes, dominated the fish assemblages, whereas the younger stages of large sized migratory species were found in low abundance. The maximum standard length of the fish captured was 28 cm and for large migratory fish, standard length varied between 1.6 and 25.0 cm. The dominant fish used several food resources, but littoral macrophytes-associated organisms had a high frequency of occurrence in the three hydrologic conditions. The high species richness of fish in the small, vegetated lakes was related to the high spatial heterogeneity during different

  6. Improving Long-term Post-wildfire hydrologic simulations using ParFlow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires alter the natural hydrologic processes within a watershed. After vegetation is burned, the combustion of organic material and debris settles into the soil creating a hydrophobic layer beneath the soil surface with varying degree of thickness and depth. Vegetation regrowth rates vary as a function of radiative exposure, burn severity, and precipitation patterns. Hydrologic models used by the Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams use input data and model calibration constraints that are generally either one-dimensional, empirically-based models, or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models estimate runoff measurements at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide a distributed hydrologic simulation at each point within the watershed. This work uses ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model to (1) correlate burn severity with hydrophobicity, (2) evaluate vegetation recovery rate on water components, and (3) improve flood prediction for managers to help with resource allocation and management operations in burned watersheds. ParFlow is applied to Devil Canyon (43 km2) in San Bernardino, California, which was 97% burned in the 2003 Old Fire. The model set-up uses a 30m-cell size resolution over a 6.7 km by 6.4 km lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 30 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness. Variable subsurface thickness allows users to explicitly consider the degree of recovery throughout the stages of regrowth. Burn severity maps from remotely sensed imagery are used to assign initial hydrophobic layer parameters and thickness. Vegetation regrowth is represented with satellite an Enhanced Vegetation Index. Pre and post-fire hydrologic response is evaluated using runoff measurements at the watershed outlet, and using water component (overland flow, lateral flow, baseflow) measurements.

  7. The influence of peat volume change and vegetation on the hydrology of a kettle-hole wetland in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Whittington

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Links between local hydrology and vegetation type exist in wetlands, yet it is unclear what role peat volume change plays in these interactions. We measured peat volume change and hydraulic conductivity (Kfield at three contrasting sites located on the quaking vegetation mat of a kettle-hole peatland in southern Ontario. The three sites had visibly different plant communities and were named, according to their dominant vegetation, Sedge (Carex spp., Typha (Typha angustifolia and Carr (Cornus stolonifera. Peat was also collected for laboratory studies of peat volume change, vertical (Kv and horizontal (Kh hydraulic conductivity and the effect of compression on hydraulic conductivity (Kc.In the field, the water table rose throughout the study period, resulting in swelling of the peat. Peat volume change above the -100 cm layer was 11.2%, 6.0% and 3.8% at the Sedge, Typha, and Carr sites respectively. In laboratory samples, a falling water table caused compression of the peat below the structured surface mat, and relative peat volume change between the sites followed the same pattern as in the field. Kfield, Kv and Kh generally decreased with depth from ca. 10-2 to 10-6 cm s-1. In the surface layers (0 to -50cm K trended Carr>Typha>Sedge, whereas the reverse trend was observed in deeper peat. Artificial compression affected K only in the uppermost layers (0 to -15cm. The decline in Kc with compression also trended Sedge>Typha>Carr. Differences in peat volume change and K are probably related to differences in vegetation and soil structure, and may be important for maintaining suitable growing conditions within each community.

  8. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne F; Te Brake, Bram; Van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H J; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds) in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined. Using an existing hydrological classification for mangroves, sites were classified into hydrological classes, based on duration of inundation, and vegetation classes, based on occurrence of mangrove species. For the natural sites hydrological and vegetation classes were similar, showing clear distribution of mangrove species from wet to dry sites. Application of the classification to disturbed sites showed that in some locations hydrological conditions had been restored enough for mangrove vegetation to establish, in some locations hydrological conditions were suitable for various mangrove species but vegetation had not established naturally, and in some locations hydrological conditions were too wet for any mangrove species (natural or planted) to grow. We quantified the effect that removal of obstructions such as dams would have on the hydrology and found that failure of planting at one site could have been prevented. The hydrological classification needs relatively little data, i.e. water levels for a period of only one lunar tidal cycle without additional measurements, and uncertainties in the measurements and analysis are relatively small. For the study locations, the application of the hydrological classification gave important information about how to restore the hydrology to suitable conditions to improve natural regeneration or to plant mangrove species, which could not have been obtained by estimating elevation only. Based on this research a number of recommendations

  9. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Van Loon

    Full Text Available Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined. Using an existing hydrological classification for mangroves, sites were classified into hydrological classes, based on duration of inundation, and vegetation classes, based on occurrence of mangrove species. For the natural sites hydrological and vegetation classes were similar, showing clear distribution of mangrove species from wet to dry sites. Application of the classification to disturbed sites showed that in some locations hydrological conditions had been restored enough for mangrove vegetation to establish, in some locations hydrological conditions were suitable for various mangrove species but vegetation had not established naturally, and in some locations hydrological conditions were too wet for any mangrove species (natural or planted to grow. We quantified the effect that removal of obstructions such as dams would have on the hydrology and found that failure of planting at one site could have been prevented. The hydrological classification needs relatively little data, i.e. water levels for a period of only one lunar tidal cycle without additional measurements, and uncertainties in the measurements and analysis are relatively small. For the study locations, the application of the hydrological classification gave important information about how to restore the hydrology to suitable conditions to improve natural regeneration or to plant mangrove species, which could not have been obtained by estimating elevation only. Based on this research a number

  10. Surface Velocities and Hydrology at Engabreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messerli, Alexandra

    complicates comparisons with other surface-oriented glaciohydrological studies. One major aim of this thesis is to provide a longer record of surface velocity, enabling a more complete understanding of the glacial hydro-mechanical relationship at Engabreen. In order to extend the velocity dataset here, a time...... the lower tongue of Engabreen are analysed in detail alongside the hydro-meteorological time-series. The higher temporal resolution of the GPS allows the effect of short-term hydrological forcings on ice flow to be assessed. Two key events: the spring-speed up event (P1a) and a short-term rain induced event...

  11. Evaluation of Airborne Lidar Elevation Surfaces for Propagation of Coastal Inundation: The Importance of Hydrologic Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Poppenga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information about coastal inundation is vital to understanding dynamic and populated areas that are impacted by storm surge and flooding. To understand these natural hazard risks, lidar elevation surfaces are frequently used to model inundation in coastal areas. A single-value surface method is sometimes used to inundate areas in lidar elevation surfaces that are below a specified elevation value. However, such an approach does not take into consideration hydrologic connectivity between elevation grids cells resulting in inland areas that should be hydrologically connected to the ocean, but are not. Because inland areas that should drain to the ocean are hydrologically disconnected by raised features in a lidar elevation surface, simply raising the water level to propagate coastal inundation will lead to inundation uncertainties. We took advantage of this problem to identify hydrologically disconnected inland areas to point out that they should be considered for coastal inundation, and that a lidar-based hydrologic surface should be developed with hydrologic connectivity prior to inundation analysis. The process of achieving hydrologic connectivity with hydrologic-enforcement is not new, however, the application of hydrologically-enforced lidar elevation surfaces for improved coastal inundation mapping as approached in this research is innovative. In this article, we propagated a high-resolution lidar elevation surface in coastal Staten Island, New York to demonstrate that inland areas lacking hydrologic connectivity to the ocean could potentially be included in inundation delineations. For inland areas that were hydrologically disconnected, we evaluated if drainage to the ocean was evident, and calculated an area exceeding 11 ha (~0.11 km2 that could be considered in inundation delineations. We also assessed land cover for each inland area to determine the type of physical surfaces that would be potentially impacted if the inland areas

  12. Evaluation of airborne lidar elevation surfaces for propagation of coastal inundation: the importance of hydrologic connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about coastal inundation is vital to understanding dynamic and populated areas that are impacted by storm surge and flooding. To understand these natural hazard risks, lidar elevation surfaces are frequently used to model inundation in coastal areas. A single-value surface method is sometimes used to inundate areas in lidar elevation surfaces that are below a specified elevation value. However, such an approach does not take into consideration hydrologic connectivity between elevation grids cells resulting in inland areas that should be hydrologically connected to the ocean, but are not. Because inland areas that should drain to the ocean are hydrologically disconnected by raised features in a lidar elevation surface, simply raising the water level to propagate coastal inundation will lead to inundation uncertainties. We took advantage of this problem to identify hydrologically disconnected inland areas to point out that they should be considered for coastal inundation, and that a lidar-based hydrologic surface should be developed with hydrologic connectivity prior to inundation analysis. The process of achieving hydrologic connectivity with hydrologic-enforcement is not new, however, the application of hydrologically-enforced lidar elevation surfaces for improved coastal inundation mapping as approached in this research is innovative. In this article, we propagated a high-resolution lidar elevation surface in coastal Staten Island, New York to demonstrate that inland areas lacking hydrologic connectivity to the ocean could potentially be included in inundation delineations. For inland areas that were hydrologically disconnected, we evaluated if drainage to the ocean was evident, and calculated an area exceeding 11 ha (~0.11 km2) that could be considered in inundation delineations. We also assessed land cover for each inland area to determine the type of physical surfaces that would be potentially impacted if the inland areas were considered as

  13. Increasing the reliability of the Olkiluoto surface and near-surface hydrological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the reliability of the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model that calculates the overall water balance components of Olkiluoto Island. ONKALO and Korvensuo reservoir were added as explicit structures to the model. The model links the unsaturated and saturated soil water in the overburden and groundwater in bedrock to a continuous pressure system. With the model it is possible to evaluate the influence of water leaking to ONKALO on groundwater level in overburden soils and pressure head in shallow bedrock drillholes. Anisotropy was added to the surface hydrological model and several model runs were carried out using anisotropy factors 1, 5 and 10. Anisotropy factor of 10 is used in the 2008 version of the deep hydrogeological model and the same anisotropy will be used in future calculations of the surface hydrological model to ensure consistency of the parameter values in the two models. The correspondence between measured and computed groundwater levels has been improved due to new soil type delineation and the calibration of the soil water retention curve parameters. Computed groundwater level variation can be characterized by a measure ΔH COMP , which is difference between maximum and minimum value during the calibration period. Average ΔH COMP in groundwater tubes was 1.98 m and the corresponding measured value ΔH MEAS was 2.08 m, i.e. the difference between measured and computed value was around 0.1 m (0.16 m in the 2007 version). Temporal variation (difference between maximum and minimum pressure head) was simulated well also in most of the shallow bedrock drillholes. ONKALO was added to the 2008 version of the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model. Influence of ONKALO is taken into account by giving the total discharge as input data from existing measurements or from calculations of the deep hydrogeological model of the Olkiluoto Island. The computed results show that ONKALO has a temporal effect on groundwater level in

  14. Mountaintop Removal Mining and Catchment Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTM/VF coal extraction, practiced in the Central Appalachian region, represents a dramatic landscape-scale disturbance. MTM operations remove as much as 300 m of rock, soil, and vegetation from ridge tops to access deep coal seams and much of this material is placed in adjacent headwater streams altering landcover, drainage network, and topography. In spite of its scale, extent, and potential for continued use, the effects MTM/VF on catchment hydrology is poorly understood. Previous reviews focus on water quality and ecosystem health impacts, but little is known about how MTM/VF affects hydrology, particularly the movement and storage of water, hence the hydrologic processes that ultimately control flood generation, water chemistry, and biology. This paper aggregates the existing knowledge about the hydrologic impacts of MTM/VF to identify areas where further scientific investigation is needed. While contemporary surface mining generally increases peak and total runoff, the limited MTM/VF studies reveal significant variability in hydrologic response. Significant knowledge gaps relate to limited understanding of hydrologic processes in these systems. Until the hydrologic impact of this practice is better understood, efforts to reduce water quantity and quality problems and ecosystem degradation will be difficult to achieve.

  15. Impedance deduction for vegetated roof surfaces : multiple geometry strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Hornikx, M.

    2016-01-01

    The transfer function method is an efficient procedure to deduce the ground surface impedance from short-range propagation measurements using one point source. It is able to provide a reasonable prediction of the surface impedance of a vegetated roof as well, and the characteristics of the vegetated

  16. Vegetation Cover Dynamics and Resilience to Climatic and Hydrological Disturbances in Seasonal Floodplain: The Effects of Hydrological Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlu Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Floodplain wetlands are valuable ecosystems for maintaining biodiversity, but are vulnerable to hydrological modification and climatic extremes. The floodplain wetlands in the middle Yangtze region are biodiversity hotspots, particularly important for wintering migratory waterbirds. In recent years, extremely low winter water level events frequently occurred in the middle Yangtze River. The hydrological droughts greatly impacted the development and distribution of the wet meadows, one of the most important ecological components in the floodplains, which is vital for the survival of many migratory waterbirds wintering in the Yangtze region. To effectively manage the wet meadows, it is critical to pinpoint the drivers for their deterioration. In this study, we assessed the effects of hydrological connectivity on the ecological stability of wet meadow in Poyang Lake for the period of 2000 to 2016. We used the time series of MODIS EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index as a proxy for productivity to infer the ecological stability of wet meadows in terms of resistance and resilience. Our results showed that (1 the wet meadows developed in freely connected lakes had significantly higher resilience; (2 wet meadows colonizing controlled lakes had higher resistance to water level anomalies; (3 there was no difference in the resistance to rainfall anomaly between the two types of lakes; (4 the wet meadow in freely connected lakes might approach a tipping point and a regime shift might be imminent. Our findings suggest that adaptive management at regional- (i.e., operation of Three Gorges Dam and site-scale (e.g., regulating sand mining are needed to safeguard the long-term ecological stability of the system, which in term has strong implications for local, regional and global biodiversity conservation.

  17. Hydrological Networks and Associated Topographic Variation as Templates for the Spatial Organization of Tropical Forest Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10-1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile heigh...

  18. Variability of emissivity and surface temperature over a sparsely vegetated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humes, K.S.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Nichols, W.D.; Weltz, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Radiometric surface temperatures obtained from remote sensing measurements are a function of both the physical surface temperature and the effective emissivity of the surface within the band pass of the radiometric measurement. For sparsely vegetated areas, however, a sensor views significant fractions of both bare soil and various vegetation types. In this case the radiometric response of a sensor is a function of the emissivities and kinetic temperatures of various surface elements, the proportion of those surface elements within the field of view of the sensor, and the interaction of radiation emitted from the various surface components. In order to effectively utilize thermal remote sensing data to quantify energy balance components for a sparsely vegetated area, it is important to examine the typical magnitude and degree of variability of emissivity and surface temperature for such surfaces. Surface emissivity measurements and ground and low-altitude-aircraft-based surface temperature measurements (8-13 micrometer band pass) made in conjunction with the Monsoon '90 field experiment were used to evaluate the typical variability of those quantities during the summer rainy season in a semiarid watershed. The average value for thermal band emissivity of the exposed bare soil portions of the surface was found to be approximately 0.96; the average value measured for most of the varieties of desert shrubs present was approximately 0.99. Surface composite emissivity was estimated to be approximately 0.98 for both the grass-dominated and shrub-dominated portions of the watershed. The spatial variability of surface temperature was found to be highly dependent on the spatial scale of integration for the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the instrument, the spatial scale of the total area under evaluation, and the time of day

  19. Changes in northeast African hydrology and vegetation associated with Pliocene–Pleistocene sapropel cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cassaundra; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Tierney, Jessica E.; Filley, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    East African climate change since the Late Miocene consisted of persistent shorter-term, orbital-scale wet–dry cycles superimposed upon a long-term trend towards more open, grassy landscapes. Either or both of these modes of palaeoclimate variability may have influenced East African mammalian evolution, yet the interrelationship between these secular and orbital palaeoclimate signals remains poorly understood. Here, we explore whether the long-term secular climate change was also accompanied by significant changes at the orbital-scale. We develop northeast African hydroclimate and vegetation proxy data for two 100 kyr-duration windows near 3.05 and 1.75 Ma at ODP Site 967 in the eastern Mediterranean basin, where sedimentation is dominated by eastern Sahara dust input and Nile River run-off. These two windows were selected because they have comparable orbital configurations and bracket an important increase in East African C4 grasslands. We conducted high-resolution (2.5 kyr sampling) multiproxy biomarker, H- and C-isotopic analyses of plant waxes and lignin phenols to document orbital-scale changes in hydrology, vegetation and woody cover for these two intervals. Both intervals are dominated by large-amplitude, precession-scale (approx. 20 kyr) changes in northeast African vegetation and rainfall/run-off. The δ13Cwax values and lignin phenol composition record a variable but consistently C4 grass-dominated ecosystem for both intervals (50–80% C4). Precessional δDwax cycles were approximately 20–30‰ in peak-to-peak amplitude, comparable with other δDwax records of the Early Holocene African Humid Period. There were no significant differences in the means or variances of the δDwax or δ13Cwax data for the 3.05 and 1.75 Ma intervals studied, suggesting that the palaeohydrology and palaeovegetation responses to precessional forcing were similar for these two periods. Data for these two windows suggest that the eastern Sahara did not experience the

  20. Modifying a dynamic global vegetation model for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Water balance models of simple structure are easier to grasp and more clearly connect cause and effect than models of complex structure. Such models are essential for studying large spatial scale land surface water balance in the context of climate and land cover change, both natural and anthropogenic. This study aims to (i) develop a large spatial scale water balance model by modifying a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), and (ii) test the model's performance in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture and surface runoff for the coterminous United States (US). Toward these ends, we first introduced development of the "LPJ-Hydrology" (LH) model by incorporating satellite-based land covers into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM instead of dynamically simulating them. We then ran LH using historical (1982-2006) climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells. The simulated ET, soil moisture and surface runoff were compared to existing sets of observed or simulated data for the US. The results indicated that LH captures well the variation of monthly actual ET (R2 = 0.61, p 0.46, p 0.52) with observed values over the years 1982-2006, respectively. The modeled spatial patterns of annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data. Compared to its predecessor, LH simulates better monthly stream flow in winter and early spring by incorporating effects of solar radiation on snowmelt. Overall, this study proves the feasibility of incorporating satellite-based land-covers into a DGVM for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balance. LH developed in this study should be a useful tool for studying effects of climate and land cover change on land surface hydrology at large spatial scales.

  1. Improved Ground Hydrology Calculations for Global Climate Models (GCMs): Soil Water Movement and Evapotranspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramopoulos, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Choudhury, B.

    1988-09-01

    A physically based ground hydrology model is developed to improve the land-surface sensible and latent heat calculations in global climate models (GCMs). The processes of transpiration, evaporation from intercepted precipitation and dew, evaporation from bare soil, infiltration, soil water flow, and runoff are explicitly included in the model. The amount of detail in the hydrologic calculations is restricted to a level appropriate for use in a GCM, but each of the aforementioned processes is modeled on the basis of the underlying physical principles. Data from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM are used as inputs for off-line tests of the ground hydrology model in four 8° × 10° regions (Brazil, Sahel, Sahara, and India). Soil and vegetation input parameters are calculated as area-weighted means over the 8° × 10° gridhox. This compositing procedure is tested by comparing resulting hydrological quantities to ground hydrology model calculations performed on the 1° × 1° cells which comprise the 8° × 10° gridbox. Results show that the compositing procedure works well except in the Sahel where lower soil water levels and a heterogeneous land surface produce more variability in hydrological quantities, indicating that a resolution better than 8° × 10° is needed for that region. Modeled annual and diurnal hydrological cycles compare well with observations for Brazil, where real world data are available. The sensitivity of the ground hydrology model to several of its input parameters was tested; it was found to be most sensitive to the fraction of land covered by vegetation and least sensitive to the soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential.

  2. Determining hydrological changes in a small Arctic treeline basin using cold regions hydrological modelling and a pseudo-global warming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, S. A.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are producing higher rainfall ratios, shorter snow-covered periods, permafrost thaw, more shrub coverage, more northerly treelines and greater interaction between groundwater and surface flow in Arctic basins. How these changes will impact the hydrology of the Arctic treeline environment represents a great challenge. To diagnose the future hydrology along the current Arctic treeline, a physically based cold regions model was used to simulate the hydrology of a small basin near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. The hydrological model includes hydrological processes such as snow redistribution and sublimation by wind, canopy interception of snow/rain and sublimation/evaporation, snowmelt energy balance, active layer freeze/thaw, infiltration into frozen and unfrozen soils, evapotranspiration, horizontal flow through organic terrain and snowpack, subsurface flow and streamflow routing. The model was driven with weather simulated by a high-resolution (4 km) numerical weather prediction model under two scenarios: (1) control run, using ERA-Interim boundary conditions (2001-2013) and (2) future, using a Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) approach based on the RCP8.5 projections perturbing the control run. Transient changes in vegetation based on recent observations and ecological expectations were then used to re-parameterise the model. Historical hydrological simulations were validated against daily streamflow, snow water equivalent and active layer thickness records, showing the model's suitability in this environment. Strong annual warming ( 6 °C) and more precipitation ( 20%) were simulated by the PGW scenario, with winter precipitation and fall temperature showing the largest seasonal increase. The joint impact of climate and transient vegetation changes on snow accumulation and redistribution, evapotranspiration, active layer development, runoff generation and hydrograph characteristics are analyzed and discussed.

  3. Assessment and Enhancement of MERRA Land Surface Hydrology Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; deLannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Forman, Barton A.; Liu, Qing; Mahanama, Sarith P. P.; Toure, Ally

    2012-01-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is a state-ofthe-art reanalysis that provides, in addition to atmospheric fields, global estimates of soil moisture, latent heat flux, snow, and runoff for 1979-present. This study introduces a supplemental and improved set of land surface hydrological fields ("MERRA-Land") generated by re-running a revised version of the land component of the MERRA system. Specifically, the MERRA-Land estimates benefit from corrections to the precipitation forcing with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project pentad product (version 2.1) and from revised parameter values in the rainfall interception model, changes that effectively correct for known limitations in the MERRA surface meteorological forcings. The skill (defined as the correlation coefficient of the anomaly time series) in land surface hydrological fields from MERRA and MERRA-Land is assessed here against observations and compared to the skill of the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim (ERA-I) reanalysis. MERRA-Land and ERA-I root zone soil moisture skills (against in situ observations at 85 US stations) are comparable and significantly greater than that of MERRA. Throughout the northern hemisphere, MERRA and MERRA-Land agree reasonably well with in situ snow depth measurements (from 583 stations) and with snow water equivalent from an independent analysis. Runoff skill (against naturalized stream flow observations from 18 US basins) of MERRA and MERRA-Land is typically higher than that of ERA-I. With a few exceptions, the MERRA-Land data appear more accurate than the original MERRA estimates and are thus recommended for those interested in using MERRA output for land surface hydrological studies.

  4. The observed sensitivity of the global hydrological cycle to changes in surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkin, Phillip A; Janowiak, John; Smith, Thomas M; Sapiano, Mathew R P

    2010-01-01

    Climate models project large changes in global surface temperature in coming decades that are expected to be accompanied by significant changes in the global hydrological cycle. Validation of model simulations is essential to support their use in decision making, but observing the elements of the hydrological cycle is challenging, and model-independent global data sets exist only for precipitation. We compute the sensitivity of the global hydrological cycle to changes in surface temperature using available global precipitation data sets and compare the results against the sensitivities derived from model simulations of 20th century climate. The implications of the results for the global climate observing system are discussed.

  5. Vegetation management with fire modifies peatland soil thermal regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Palmer, Sheila M; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Holden, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation removal with fire can alter the thermal regime of the land surface, leading to significant changes in biogeochemistry (e.g. carbon cycling) and soil hydrology. In the UK, large expanses of carbon-rich upland environments are managed to encourage increased abundance of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) by rotational burning of shrub vegetation. To date, though, there has not been any consideration of whether prescribed vegetation burning on peatlands modifies the thermal regime of the soil mass in the years after fire. In this study thermal regime was monitored across 12 burned peatland soil plots over an 18-month period, with the aim of (i) quantifying thermal dynamics between burned plots of different ages (from post burning), and (ii) developing statistical models to determine the magnitude of thermal change caused by vegetation management. Compared to plots burned 15 + years previously, plots recently burned (management effects. Temperatures measured in soil plots burned vegetation regrows. Our findings that prescribed peatland vegetation burning alters soil thermal regime should provide an impetus for further research to understand the consequences of thermal regime change for carbon processing and release, and hydrological processes, in these peatlands. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The Importance of Representing Certain Key Vegetation Canopy Processes Explicitly in a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoly, A.; Boone, A. A.; Martin, E.; Samuelsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface models are moving to more detailed vegetation canopy descriptions in order to better represent certain key processes, such as Carbon dynamics and snowpack evolution. Since such models are usually applied within coupled numerical weather prediction or spatially distributed hydrological models, these improvements must strike a balance between computational cost and complexity. The consequences of simplified or composite canopy approaches can be manifested in terms of increased errors with respect to soil temperatures, estimates of the diurnal cycle of the turbulent fluxes or snow canopy interception and melt. Vegetated areas and particularly forests are modeled in a quite simplified manner in the ISBA land surface model. However, continuous developments of surface processes now require a more accurate description of the canopy. A new version of the the model now includes a multi energy balance (MEB) option to explicitly represent the canopy and the forest floor. It will be shown that certain newly included processes such as the shading effect of the vegetation, the explicit heat capacity of the canopy, and the insulating effect of the forest floor turn out to be essential. A detailed study has been done for four French forested sites. It was found that the MEB option significantly improves the ground heat flux (RMSE decrease from 50W/m2 to 10W/m2 on average) and soil temperatures when compared against measurements. Also the sensible heat flux calculation was improved primarily owing to a better phasing with the solar insulation owing to a lower vegetation heat capacity. However, the total latent heat flux is less modified compared to the classical ISBA simulation since it is more related to water uptake and the formulation of the stomatal resistance (which are unchanged). Next, a benchmark over 40 Fluxnet sites (116 cumulated years) was performed and compared with results from the default composite soil-vegetation version of ISBA. The results show

  7. The response of vegetation to rising CO2 concentrations plays an important role in future changes in the hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Dong, Wenjie; Ji, Dong; Dai, Tanlong; Yang, Shili; Wei, Ting

    2018-04-01

    The effects of increasing CO2 concentrations on plant and carbon cycle have been extensively investigated; however, the effects of changes in plants on the hydrological cycle are still not fully understood. Increases in CO2 modify the stomatal conductance and water use of plants, which may have a considerable effect on the hydrological cycle. Using the carbon-climate feedback experiments from CMIP5, we estimated the responses of plants and hydrological cycle to rising CO2 concentrations to double of pre-industrial levels without climate change forcing. The mode results show that rising CO2 concentrations had a significant influence on the hydrological cycle by changing the evaporation and transpiration of plants and soils. The increases in the area covered by plant leaves result in the increases in vegetation evaporation. Besides, the physiological effects of stomatal closure were stronger than the opposite effects of changes in plant structure caused by the increases in LAI (leaf area index), which results in the decrease of transpiration. These two processes lead to overall decreases in evaporation, and then contribute to increases in soil moisture and total runoff. In the dry areas, the stronger increase in LAI caused the stronger increases in vegetation evaporation and then lead to the overall decreases in P - E (precipitation minus evaporation) and soil moisture. However, the soil moisture in sub-arid and wet areas would increase, and this may lead to the soil moisture deficit worse in the future in the dry areas. This study highlights the need to consider the different responses of plants and the hydrological cycle to rising CO2 in dry and wet areas in future water resources management, especially in water-limited areas.

  8. Climate and surface water hydrology baseline data for Aurora Mine EIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A climate and hydrology database was assembled to describe the existing climatic and surface water hydrological characteristics of the proposed Aurora Mine area in Leases 10, 12, 13, 31, and 34 east of the Athabasca River near Fort McKay. The study was based upon data available from the regional hydrometeorological monitoring network operated by the Governments of Canada and Alberta. The study also included the installation and monitoring of one climate station and five streamflow gauging stations on small watersheds in the area. The representative climatic and hydrologic characteristics of the area, including precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, temperature and wind, were determined. Streamflow characteristics such as flood frequencies, low flow frequencies, water yield and flow durations representative of large gauged watersheds within the study area were also determined. The results offer a good basis for preliminary design of surface water management systems. It was recommended that the monitoring program should be continued to monitor potential environmental impacts of proposed development activities. 9 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs.

  9. Monitoring and Assessing Groundwater Impacts on Vegetation Health in Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, M. M.; Ulrich, C.; Howard, J.; Sweet, S.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater management is important for preserving our economy, society, and environment. Groundwater supports important habitat throughout California, by providing a reliable source of water for these Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDEs). Groundwater is particularly important in California since it supplies an additional source of water during the dry summer months and periods of drought. The drought and unsustainable pumping practices have, in some areas, lowered groundwater levels causing undesirable results to ecosystems. The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act requires local agencies to avoid undesirable results in the future, but the location and vulnerabilities of the ecosystems that depend on groundwater and interconnected surface water is often poorly understood. This presentation will feature results from a research study conducted by The Nature Conservancy and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that investigated how changes in groundwater availability along an interconnected surface water body can impact the overall health of GDEs. This study was conducted in California's Central Valley along the Cosumnes River, and situated at the boundary of a high and a medium groundwater basin: South American Basin (Sacramento Hydrologic Region) and Cosumnes Basin (San Joaquin Hydrologic Region). By employing geophysical methodology (electrical resistivity tomography) in this study, spatial changes in groundwater availability were determined under groundwater-dependent vegetation. Vegetation survey data were also applied to this study to develop ecosystem health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation. Health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation were found to directly correlate with groundwater availability, such that greater availability to groundwater resulted in healthier vegetation. This study provides a case study example on how to use hydrological and biological data for setting appropriate minimum thresholds and

  10. Decreased surface albedo driven by denser vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Li; Zhang, Yangjian; Zhu, Juntao

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has fundamental ecological and environmental significance to China and Asia through its influence on regional and continental climates. In recent years, climate warming has caused unprecedented changes to land surface processes on the TP, which would unavoidably undermine the ecological and environmental functions of the TP. Among the numerous land surface processes potentially impacted by climate warming, the effect of vegetation greenness on surface energy balance is one of the most critical, but has been long ignored. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of land surface albedo (LSA) on the TP and evaluated the vegetation greenness in relation to patterns of LSA. We found that LSA has been decreasing in most of the vegetated grasslands on the TP from 2000 to 2013, as compared to a flat trend for desert area. The regions where LSA has been decreasing were spatially correlated to areas of increased vegetation greenness. Along rising altitude, LSA decreasing rate exhibited an overall decreasing trend. Across the TP, elevated vegetation greenness in grasslands acted as a primary factor pulling down LSA. The driving effects of vegetation greenness on LSA vary with grassland types, as revealed by a more significant relationship between vegetation greenness and LSA for the sparsely vegetated zone (i.e. steppe) than the more densely vegetated zone (i.e. meadow). Furthermore, the driving effect of vegetation greenness on LSA exhibited an obvious dependence on altitude as effects with rising altitude were relatively strong up to 3000 m, then weakened from 3500 m to 5000 m, and then the effects again increased from 5000 to 6000 m. The growing season LSA trend revealed in this study emphasizes the need to give greater attention to the growing season LSA flux in future surface energy balance studies. (letter)

  11. Relationships between substrate, surface characteristics, and vegetation in an initial ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, P.; Seifert, S.; Zaplata, M. K.; Schaaf, W.; Pretzsch, H.; Fischer, A.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated surface and vegetation dynamics in the artificial initial ecosystem "Chicken Creek" (Lusatia, Germany) in the years 2006-2011 across a wide spectrum of empirical data. We scrutinized three overarching hypotheses concerning (1) the relations between initial geomorphological and substrate characteristics with surface structure and terrain properties, (2) the effects of the latter on the occurrence of grouped plant species, and (3) vegetation density effects on terrain surface change. Our data comprise and conflate annual vegetation monitoring results, biennial terrestrial laser scans (starting in 2008), annual groundwater levels, and initially measured soil characteristics. The empirical evidence mostly confirms the hypotheses, revealing statistically significant relations for several goal variables: (1) the surface structure properties, local rill density, local relief energy and terrain surface height change; (2) the cover of different plant groups (annual, herbaceous, grass-like, woody, Fabaceae), and local vegetation height; and (3) terrain surface height change showed significant time-dependent relations with a variable that proxies local plant biomass. Additionally, period specific effects (like a calendar-year optimum effect for the occurrence of Fabaceae) were proven. Further and beyond the hypotheses, our findings on the spatiotemporal dynamics during the system's early development grasp processes which generally mark the transition from a geo-hydro-system towards a bio-geo-hydro system (weakening geomorphology effects on substrate surface dynamics, while vegetation effects intensify with time), where pure geomorphology or substrate feedbacks are changing into vegetation-substrate feedback processes.

  12. Northern hydrology and water resources in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The role that climatic change may play in altering various components of the hydrologic cycle in Arctic regions is discussed. The hydrologic setting of these regions is first described, noting the importance of subsurface freezing and thawing on hydrologic pathways and the lack of incorporation of soil freezing and thawing into climate models. Major processes of interest in the relation between climate change and hydrology are the timing and magnitude of fluxes entering and leaving a basin: precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, and runoff. The active layer of the soil could be drastically increased by only a few degrees of surface warming. The natural hydrologic cycle has considerable yearly variation, tending to mask any hydrologic changes caused by climatic change. There are too many unknowns at present for an adequate prediction of the impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle. The biggest uncertainty is how the timing and quantity of precipitation is going to change. This quantity could be altered by any major changes in vegetation, which would be closely related to the amount of warming. In hydrologic scenarios where air temperature rises 4 degree C over 50 y, under stable, high, and low precipitation conditions, there are no significant changes in hydrologic response. 24 refs., 6 figs

  13. Modeling Subsurface Hydrology in Floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cristina M.; Dritschel, David G.; Singer, Michael B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil-moisture patterns in floodplains are highly dynamic, owing to the complex relationships between soil properties, climatic conditions at the surface, and the position of the water table. Given this complexity, along with climate change scenarios in many regions, there is a need for a model to investigate the implications of different conditions on water availability to riparian vegetation. We present a model, HaughFlow, which is able to predict coupled water movement in the vadose and phreatic zones of hydraulically connected floodplains. Model output was calibrated and evaluated at six sites in Australia to identify key patterns in subsurface hydrology. This study identifies the importance of the capillary fringe in vadose zone hydrology due to its water storage capacity and creation of conductive pathways. Following peaks in water table elevation, water can be stored in the capillary fringe for up to months (depending on the soil properties). This water can provide a critical resource for vegetation that is unable to access the water table. When water table peaks coincide with heavy rainfall events, the capillary fringe can support saturation of the entire soil profile. HaughFlow is used to investigate the water availability to riparian vegetation, producing daily output of water content in the soil over decadal time periods within different depth ranges. These outputs can be summarized to support scientific investigations of plant-water relations, as well as in management applications.

  14. A field evaluation of soil moisture modelling with the Soil, Vegetation, and Snow (SVS) land surface model using evapotranspiration observations as forcing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Audrey; Anctil, François; Gaborit, Étienne; Fortin, Vincent; Nadeau, Daniel F.; Therrien, René

    2018-03-01

    To address certain limitations with their current operational model, Environment and Climate Change Canada recently developed the Soil, Vegetation, and Snow (SVS) land surface model and the representation of subsurface hydrological processes was targeted as an area for improvement. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of HydroSVS, the component of SVS responsible for the vertical redistribution of water, to simulate soil moisture under snow-free conditions when using flux-tower observations of evapotranspiration as forcing data. We assessed (1) model fidelity by comparing soil moisture modelled with HydroSVS to point-scale measurements of volumetric soil water content and (2) model complexity by comparing the performance of HydroSVS to that of HydroGeoSphere, a state-of-the-art integrated surface and subsurface hydrologic model. To do this, we performed one-dimensional soil column simulations at four sites of the AmeriFlux network. Results indicate that under Mediterranean and temperate climates, HydroSVS satisfactorily simulated soil moisture (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency between 0.26 and 0.70; R2 ≥ 0.80), with a performance comparable to HydroGeoSphere (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ≥0.60; R2 ≥ 0.80). However, HydroSVS performed weakly under a semiarid climate while HydroGeoSphere performed relatively well. By decoupling the magnitude and sourcing of evapotranspiration, this study proposes a powerful diagnostic tool to evaluate the representation of subsurface hydrological processes in land surface models. Overall, this study highlights the potential of SVS for hydrological applications.

  15. Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) User's Manual; Version 1.43 for Watershed Modeling System 6.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Charles W; Ogden, Fred L

    2006-01-01

    The need to simulate surface water flows in watersheds with diverse runoff production mechanisms has led to the development of the physically-based hydrologic model Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA...

  16. Green roof impact on the hydrological cycle components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamera, Carlotta; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Becciu, Gianfranco; Rosso, Renzo

    2013-04-01

    In the last decades the importance of storm water management in urban areas has increased considerably, due to both urbanization extension and to a greater concern for environment pollution. Traditional storm water control practices, based on the "all to the sewer" attitude, rely on conveyance to route storm water runoff from urban impervious surfaces towards the nearby natural water bodies. In recent years, infiltration facilities are receiving an increasing attention, due to their particular efficiency in restoring a balance in hydrological cycle quite equal to quite pre-urbanization condition. In particular, such techniques are designed to capture, temporarily retain and infiltrate storm water, promote evapotranspiration and harvest water at the source, encouraging in general evaporation, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the re-use of storm water. Green roofs are emerging as an increasingly popular Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) technique for urban storm water management. Indeed, they are able to operate hydrologic control over storm water runoff: they allow a significant reduction of peak flows and runoff volumes collected by drainage system, with a consequent reduction of flooding events and pollution masses discharges by CSO. Furthermore green roofs have a positive influence on the microclimate in urban areas by helping in lower urban air temperatures and mitigate the heat island effect. Last but not least, they have the advantage of improving the thermal insulation of buildings, with significant energy savings. A detailed analysis of the hydrological dynamics, connected both with the characteristics of the climatic context and with the green roof technical design, is essential in order to obtain a full characterization of the hydrologic behavior of a green roof system and its effects on the urban water cycle components. The purpose of this paper is to analysis the hydrological effects and urban benefits of the vegetation cover of a

  17. Inverse modeling of hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Hou, Z.; Huang, M.; Tian, F.; Leung, L. Ruby

    2013-12-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of inverting hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Previous studies showed that surface flux and runoff calculations are sensitive to major hydrologic parameters in CLM4 over different watersheds, and illustrated the necessity and possibility of parameter calibration. Both deterministic least-square fitting and stochastic Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-Bayesian inversion approaches are evaluated by applying them to CLM4 at selected sites with different climate and soil conditions. The unknowns to be estimated include surface and subsurface runoff generation parameters and vadose zone soil water parameters. We find that using model parameters calibrated by the sampling-based stochastic inversion approaches provides significant improvements in the model simulations compared to using default CLM4 parameter values, and that as more information comes in, the predictive intervals (ranges of posterior distributions) of the calibrated parameters become narrower. In general, parameters that are identified to be significant through sensitivity analyses and statistical tests are better calibrated than those with weak or nonlinear impacts on flux or runoff observations. Temporal resolution of observations has larger impacts on the results of inverse modeling using heat flux data than runoff data. Soil and vegetation cover have important impacts on parameter sensitivities, leading to different patterns of posterior distributions of parameters at different sites. Overall, the MCMC-Bayesian inversion approach effectively and reliably improves the simulation of CLM under different climates and environmental conditions. Bayesian model averaging of the posterior estimates with different reference acceptance probabilities can smooth the posterior distribution and provide more reliable parameter estimates, but at the expense of wider uncertainty bounds.

  18. Influence of spatial variations of microtopography and infiltration on surface runoff and field scale hydrological connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, W.M.; Bogaart, P.W.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface runoff on agricultural fields arises when rainfall exceeds infiltration. Excess water ponding in and flowing through local microtopography increases the hydrological connectivity of fields. In turn, an increased level of hydrological connectivity leads to a higher surface runoff flux at the

  19. Hydrological balance and water transport processes of partially sealed soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Anne; Wessolek, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    With increased urbanisation, soil sealing and its drastic effects on hydrological processes have received a lot of attention. Based on safety concerns, there has been a clear focus on urban drainage and prevention of urban floods caused by storm water events. For this reason, any kind of sealing is often seen as impermeable runoff generator that prevents infiltration and evaporation. While many hydrological models, especially storm water models, have been developed, there are only a handful of empirical studies actually measuring the hydrological balance of (partially) sealed surfaces. These challenge the general assumption of negligible infiltration and evaporation and show that these processes take place even for severe sealing such as asphalt. Depending on the material, infiltration from partially sealed surfaces can be equal to that of vegetated ones. Therefore, more detailed knowledge is needed to improve our understanding and models. In Berlin, two partially sealed weighable lysimeters were equipped with multiple temperature and soil moisture sensors in order to study their hydrological balance, as well as water and heat transport processes within the soil profile. This combination of methods affirms previous observations and offers new insights into altered hydrological processes of partially sealed surfaces at a small temporal scale. It could be verified that not all precipitation is transformed into runoff. Even for a relatively high sealing degree of concrete slabs with narrow seams, evaporation and infiltration may exceed runoff. Due to the lack of plant roots, the hydrological balance is mostly governed by precipitation events and evaporation generally occurs directly after rainfall. However, both surfaces allow for upward water transport from the upper underlying soil layers, sometimes resulting in relatively low evaporation rates on days without precipitation. The individual response of the surfaces differs considerably, which illustrates how

  20. Changes in hydrological connectivity due to vegetation recovery and wall collapse in abandoned terraced fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana-Renault, Noemí; López-Vicente, Manuel; Oranjuren, Rafael; Ángel Llorente, José; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación; Arnáez, José

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural terraces have been built in mountain regions worldwide in order to provide a larger surface for cultivation, improve water availability and reduce soil erosion, as they favour infiltration and reduce runoff and sediment connectivity from hillslopes to streams. In many Mediterranean countries, farmland abandonment has led to progressive natural revegetation and, in terraced slopes, due to a lack of maintenance, to a collapse of the water conservation structures, often followed by small mass movements and gullying. Little is known about the effect of such failures on the hydrological system, especially at catchment scale. The aim of this study is to contributing to fill in this gap by exploring the effect of vegetation recovery and terrace failure on hydrological connectivity in a small catchment (192 ha) in northern Spain mostly occupied by abandoned terraced fields. For this purpose, we applied a modified version of the Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity (IC). Besides using the C-RUSLE factor, as used by many authors, we tested the inclusion of an infiltration component (Kf) to assess the landscape-weighting factor. The Kf factor accounted for the high infiltration rates observed in the terraced soils and was estimated using the permeability classes of the K-RUSLE factor. A 2x2 m resolution DEM was used to capture the terraced fields and run the IC model. Following the recommendation of Cavalli et al. (2015), we used the D-infinity flow accumulation algorithm (Tarboton, 1997) to represent the real flow paths, especially on hillslopes, where divergent flow predominates, and on stream channels. To ensure the continuity of the flow path lines, local sinks were filled in with the algorithm of Planchon & Darboux (2001) that preserved a minimum slope gradient of 0.01 degrees. Finally, linear landscape elements such as stonewalls, rock outcrops, and trails and forest roads were also considered. The IC was calculated for the current scenario

  1. Effects of vegetation and soil-surface cover treatments on the hydrologic behavior of low-level waste trench caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, E.A.; Barnes, F.J.; Antonio, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field study at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different low-level radioactive waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on a decommissioned waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot is measured after each precipitation event. Soil moisture is measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Continued monitoring of the study site will provide data that will be used to analyze complex interactions between independent variables such rainfall amount and intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and soil and vegetation factors, as they influence water balance, and soil erosion. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Improving Permafrost Hydrology Prediction Through Data-Model Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. J.; Andresen, C. G.; Atchley, A. L.; Bolton, W. R.; Busey, R.; Coon, E.; Charsley-Groffman, L.

    2017-12-01

    The CMIP5 Earth System Models were unable to adequately predict the fate of the 16GT of permafrost carbon in a warming climate due to poor representation of Arctic ecosystem processes. The DOE Office of Science Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic project aims to reduce uncertainty in the Arctic carbon cycle and its impact on the Earth's climate system by improved representation of the coupled physical, chemical and biological processes that drive how much buried carbon will be converted to CO2 and CH4, how fast this will happen, which form will dominate, and the degree to which increased plant productivity will offset increased soil carbon emissions. These processes fundamentally depend on permafrost thaw rate and its influence on surface and subsurface hydrology through thermal erosion, land subsidence and changes to groundwater flow pathways as soil, bedrock and alluvial pore ice and massive ground ice melts. LANL and its NGEE colleagues are co-developing data and models to better understand controls on permafrost degradation and improve prediction of the evolution of permafrost and its impact on Arctic hydrology. The LANL Advanced Terrestrial Simulator was built using a state of the art HPC software framework to enable the first fully coupled 3-dimensional surface-subsurface thermal-hydrology and land surface deformation simulations to simulate the evolution of the physical Arctic environment. Here we show how field data including hydrology, snow, vegetation, geochemistry and soil properties, are informing the development and application of the ATS to improve understanding of controls on permafrost stability and permafrost hydrology. The ATS is being used to inform parameterizations of complex coupled physical, ecological and biogeochemical processes for implementation in the DOE ACME land model, to better predict the role of changing Arctic hydrology on the global climate system. LA-UR-17-26566.

  3. Transfer of tracers and pesticides in lab scale wetland systems: the role of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, R.; Imfeld, G.; Lange, J.

    2012-04-01

    Surface wetlands can collect contaminated runoff from urban or agricultural catchments and have intrinsic physical, chemical and biological retention and removal processes useful for mitigating contaminants, including pesticides, and thus limiting the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Yet little is known about the transfer of pesticides between wetlands collecting pesticides runoff and groundwater, and the subsequent threat of groundwater contamination. In particular, the influence of wetland vegetation and related processes during pesticide transfer is largely unknown. Here we evaluate the transfer of the widely used herbicide Isoproturon (IPU) and the fungicide Metalaxyl (MTX) with that of Uranine (UR) and Sulphorhodamine (SRB) in a vegetated and a non-vegetated lab-scale wetland. UR and SRB had successfully served as a reference for pesticides in surface wetlands. We filled two 65 cm long and 15 cm diameter borosilicate columns with sediment cores from a wetland, one without and one with vegetation (Phragmites australis, Cav.). When a constant flow-through rate of 0.33 ml min-1 was reached, tracers and pesticides were injected simultaneously and continuously. The hydrological mass balance and tracer concentrations were measured daily at the outlet of the lab-scale wetland. Samples for pesticides and hydrochemical analyses were collected biweekly. The lab-scale wetlands were covered to limit evaporation and light decay of injected compounds. The reactive transfer of compounds in the vegetated and non-vegetated lab-scale wetland was compared based on breakthrough curves (BTC's) and model parameters of the lumped parameter model CXTFIT. The hydrologic balance revealed that the intensity of transpiration and hence plant activity in the lab-scale wetlands progressively decreased and then apparently ceased after about eight days following continuous pesticide injection. In this first phase, no significant difference in the hydrologic balances could be observed

  4. Constraining the JULES land-surface model for different land-use types using citizen-science generated hydrological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, H. K.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Buytaert, W.

    2017-12-01

    Community land surface models such as JULES are increasingly used for hydrological assessment because of their state-of-the-art representation of land-surface processes. However, a major weakness of JULES and other land surface models is the limited number of land surface parameterizations that is available. Therefore, this study explores the use of data from a network of catchments under homogeneous land-use to generate parameter "libraries" to extent the land surface parameterizations of JULES. The network (called iMHEA) is part of a grassroots initiative to characterise the hydrological response of different Andean ecosystems, and collects data on streamflow, precipitation, and several weather variables at a high temporal resolution. The tropical Andes are a useful case study because of the complexity of meteorological and geographical conditions combined with extremely heterogeneous land-use that result in a wide range of hydrological responses. We then calibrated JULES for each land-use represented in the iMHEA dataset. For the individual land-use types, the results show improved simulations of streamflow when using the calibrated parameters with respect to default values. In particular, the partitioning between surface and subsurface flows can be improved. But also, on a regional scale, hydrological modelling was greatly benefitted from constraining parameters using such distributed citizen-science generated streamflow data. This study demonstrates the modelling and prediction on regional hydrology by integrating citizen science and land surface model. In the context of hydrological study, the limitation of data scarcity could be solved indeed by using this framework. Improved predictions of such impacts could be leveraged by catchment managers to guide watershed interventions, to evaluate their effectiveness, and to minimize risks.

  5. Land-surface modelling in hydrological perspective ? a review

    OpenAIRE

    Overgaard , J.; Rosbjerg , D.; Butts , M. B.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the different types of energy-based land-surface models (LSMs) and discuss some of the new possibilities that will arise when energy-based LSMs are combined with distributed hydrological modelling. We choose to focus on energy-based approaches, because in comparison to the traditional potential evapotranspiration models, these approaches allow for a stronger link to remote sensing and atmospheric modelling. New opport...

  6. CHARACTERISING VEGETATED SURFACES USING MODIS MULTIANGULAR SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McCamley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF seek to represent variations in surface reflectance resulting from changes in a satellite's view and solar illumination angles. BRDF representations have been widely used to assist in the characterisation of vegetation. However BRDF effects are often noisy, difficult to interpret and are the spatial integral of all the individual surface features present in a pixel. This paper describes the results of an approach to understanding how BRDF effects can be used to characterise vegetation. The implementation of the Ross Thick Li Sparse BRDF model using MODIS is a stable, mature data product with a 10 year history and is a ready data source. Using this dataset, a geometric optical model is proposed that seeks to interpret the BRDF effects in terms of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and a height-to-width ratio of the vegetation components. The height-to-width ratio derived from this model seeks to represent the dependence of NDVI to changes in view zenith angle as a single numeric value. The model proposed within this paper has been applied to MODIS pixels in central Australia for areas in excess of 18,000 km2. The study area is predominantly arid and sparsely vegetated which provides a level of temporal and spatial homogeneity. The selected study area also minimises the effects associated with mutual obscuration of vegetation which is not considered by the model. The results are represented as a map and compared to NDVI derived from MODIS and NDVI derived from Landsat mosaics developed for Australia's National Carbon Accounting System (NCAS. The model reveals additional information not obvious in reflectance data. For example, the height-to-width ratio is able to reveal vegetation features in arid areas that do not have an accompanying significant increase in NDVI derived from MODIS, i.e. the height-to-width ratio reveals vegetation which is otherwise only apparent in NDVI derived

  7. Terrestrial Water Storage and Vegetation Resilience to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Reager, J. T., II; Konings, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    The expected increased occurrences of hydrologic extreme events such as droughts in the coming decades motivates studies to better understand and predict the response of vegetation to such extreme conditions. Previous studies have addressed vegetation resilience to drought, defined as its ability to recover from a perturbation (Hirota et al., 2011; Vicente-Serrano et al., 2012), but appear to only focus on precipitation and a couple of vegetation indices, hence lacking a key element: terrestrial water storage (TWS). In this study, we combine and compare multiple remotely-sensed hydro-ecological datasets providing information on climatic and hydrological conditions (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)) and indices characterizing the state of the vegetation (vegetation water content using Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) from SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive), Gross Primary Production (GPP) from FluxCom and Specific Fluorescence Intensity (SFI, from GOSat)) to assess the ability of vegetation to face and recover from droughts across the globe. Our results suggest that GRACE hydrological data bridge the knowledge gap between precipitation deficit and vegetation response. All products are aggregated at a 0.5º spatial resolution and a monthly temporal resolution to match the GRACE Mascon product. Despite these coarse spatiotemporal resolutions, we find that the relationship between existing remotely-sensed eco-hydrologic data varies spatially, both in terms of strength of relationship and time lag, showing the response time of vegetation characteristics to hydrological changes and highlighting the role of water storage. A special attention is given to the Amazon river basin, where two well documented droughts occurred in 2005 and 2010, and where a more recent drought occurred in 2015/2016. References : Hirota, Marina, et al. "Global resilience of tropical forest and savanna to critical transitions." Science

  8. Solar and Net Radiation for Estimating Potential Evaporation from Three Vegetation Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs; G.W. Cheschier; G.P. Fernandez

    2000-01-01

    Solar and net radiation data are frequent/y used in estimating potential evaporation (PE) from various vegetative surfaces needed for water balance and hydrologic modeling studies. Weather parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and net radiation have been continuously monitored using automated sensors to estimate PE for...

  9. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Impact of Future Climate on Sub-Arctic Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endalamaw, A. M.; Bolton, W. R.; Young-Robertson, J. M.; Morton, D.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2016-12-01

    Projected future climate will have a significant impact on the hydrology of interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds, directly though the changes in precipitation and temperature patterns, and indirectly through the cryospheric and ecological impacts. Although the latter is the dominant factor controlling the hydrological processes in the interior Alaska sub-arctic, it is often overlooked in many climate change impact studies. In this study, we aim to quantify and compare the direct and indirect impact of the projected future climate on the hydrology of the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) meso-scale hydrological model will be implemented to simulate the hydrological processes, including runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture dynamics in the Chena River Basin (area = 5400km2), located in the interior Alaska sub-arctic region. Permafrost and vegetation distribution will be derived from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Model (LPJ) model, respectively. All models will be calibrated and validated using historical data. The Scenario Network for Alaskan and Arctic Planning (SNAP) 5-model average projected climate data products will be used as forcing data for each of these models. The direct impact of climate change on hydrology is estimated using surface parameterization derived from the present day permafrost and vegetation distribution, and future climate forcing from SNAP projected climate data products. Along with the projected future climate, outputs of GIPL and LPJ will be incorporated into the VIC model to estimate the indirect and overall impact of future climate on the hydrology processes in the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. Finally, we will present the potential hydrological and ecological changes by the end of the 21st century.

  10. Quantifying watershed surface depression storage: determination and application in a hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph K. O. Amoah; Devendra M. Amatya; Soronnadi. Nnaji

    2012-01-01

    Hydrologic models often require correct estimates of surface macro-depressional storage to accurately simulate rainfall–runoff processes. Traditionally, depression storage is determined through model calibration or lumped with soil storage components or on an ad hoc basis. This paper investigates a holistic approach for estimating surface depressional storage capacity...

  11. Dry deposition to vegetated surfaces: parametric dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, B.Y.

    1987-12-01

    The dry deposition velocity of airborne pollutants to vegetated surfaces depends on the physico-chemical form of the pollutant, on meteorological conditions (windspeed, atmospheric stability) and on characteristics of the surface cover. This report examines these dependencies, drawing on experimental data and on information from theoretical analyses. A canopy model is outlined which uses first-order closure of the equations for turbulent transport of momentum (or matter), with losses of momentum (or matter) to individual canopy elements parameterised in terms of the mean windspeed: the model has previously been tested against experimental data on an artificial 'grass' canopy. The model is used to elucidate the features of the dependence of deposition velocity on windspeed and on whether the pollutant is in gaseous or particulate form: in the former case, the dependence on the molecular diffusivity of the gas is shown; in the latter case, dependencies on particle diameter and density are deduced. The predictions are related to available measurements. Additional hypotheses are introduced to treat the influence of atmospheric stability on deposition, and the analysis is used to shed light on the somewhat confusing picture that has emerged from past experimental studies. In considering the dependence of deposition velocity on the structural properties of the vegetation, it is established that more parameters than the single one conventionally used -aerodynamic roughness length - are needed to characterise the surface cover. Some indications of the extent of variation in deposition velocity from one type of vegetation to another are elicited from the model. (author)

  12. Towards an Improved Represenation of Reservoirs and Water Management in a Land Surface-Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, F.; Anis, M. R.; Razavi, S.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Water management through reservoirs, diversions, and irrigation have significantly changed river flow regimes and basin-wide energy and water balance cycles. Failure to represent these effects limits the performance of land surface-hydrology models not only for streamflow prediction but also for the estimation of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and feedbacks to the atmosphere. Despite recent research to improve the representation of water management in land surface models, there remains a need to develop improved modeling approaches that work in complex and highly regulated basins such as the 406,000 km2 Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB). A particular challenge for regional and global application is a lack of local information on reservoir operational management. To this end, we implemented a reservoir operation, water abstraction, and irrigation algorithm in the MESH land surface-hydrology model and tested it over the SaskRB. MESH is Environment Canada's Land Surface-hydrology modeling system that couples Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) with hydrological routing model. The implemented reservoir algorithm uses an inflow-outflow relationship that accounts for the physical characteristics of reservoirs (e.g., storage-area-elevation relationships) and includes simplified operational characteristics based on local information (e.g., monthly target volume and release under limited, normal, and flood storage zone). The irrigation algorithm uses the difference between actual and potential evapotranspiration to estimate irrigation water demand. This irrigation demand is supplied from the neighboring reservoirs/diversion in the river system. We calibrated the model enabled with the new reservoir and irrigation modules in a multi-objective optimization setting. Results showed that the reservoir and irrigation modules significantly improved the MESH model performance in generating streamflow and evapotranspiration across the SaskRB and that this our approach provides

  13. Shallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips - Part 1: nonuniform infiltration and soil water redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Carpena, R.; Lauvernet, C.; Carluer, N.

    2018-01-01

    Vegetation buffers like vegetative filter strips (VFSs) are often used to protect water bodies from surface runoff pollution from disturbed areas. Their typical placement in floodplains often results in the presence of a seasonal shallow water table (WT) that can decrease soil infiltration and increase surface pollutant transport during a rainfall-runoff event. Simple and robust components of hydrological models are needed to analyze the impacts of WT in the landscape. To si...

  14. Assimilation of ASCAT near-surface soil moisture into the French SIM hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Wagner, W.

    2011-06-01

    The impact of assimilating near-surface soil moisture into the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) hydrological model over France is examined. Specifically, the root-zone soil moisture in the ISBA land surface model is constrained over three and a half years, by assimilating the ASCAT-derived surface degree of saturation product, using a Simplified Extended Kalman Filter. In this experiment ISBA is forced with the near-real time SAFRAN analysis, which analyses the variables required to force ISBA from relevant observations available before the real time data cut-off. The assimilation results are tested against ISBA forecasts generated with a higher quality delayed cut-off SAFRAN analysis. Ideally, assimilating the ASCAT data will constrain the ISBA surface state to correct for errors in the near-real time SAFRAN forcing, the most significant of which was a substantial dry bias caused by a dry precipitation bias. The assimilation successfully reduced the mean root-zone soil moisture bias, relative to the delayed cut-off forecasts, by close to 50 % of the open-loop value. The improved soil moisture in the model then led to significant improvements in the forecast hydrological cycle, reducing the drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration biases (by 17 %, 11 %, and 70 %, respectively). When coupled to the MODCOU hydrogeological model, the ASCAT assimilation also led to improved streamflow forecasts, increasing the mean discharge ratio, relative to the delayed cut off forecasts, from 0.68 to 0.76. These results demonstrate that assimilating near-surface soil moisture observations can effectively constrain the SIM model hydrology, while also confirming the accuracy of the ASCAT surface degree of saturation product. This latter point highlights how assimilation experiments can contribute towards the difficult issue of validating remotely sensed land surface observations over large spatial scales.

  15. Surface and near-surface hydrological model of Olkiluoto island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a 3D-model that calculates the overall water balance components of Olkiluoto Island in the present-day condition utilizing the existing extensive data sets available. The model links the unsaturated and saturated soil water in the overburden and groundwater in bedrock to a continuous pressure system. The parameterization of land use and vegetation was done in such a way that the model can later on be used for description of the past evolution of the overburden hydrology at the site and overburden's hydrological evolution in the future. Measured groundwater level in overburden tubes, pressure heads in shallow bedrock holes, snow depth, soil temperature, frost depth and discharge measurements were used in assessing the performance of the models in the calibration period (01.05.2001- 31.12.2005). Computed groundwater level variation can be characterized by variables ΔH MEAS and ΔH COMP , which are the difference between maximum and minimum measured and computed groundwater level value during the calibration period. Average ΔH MEAS for all tubes located in fine-textured till soil was 1.99 m and the corresponding computed value ΔH COMP was 1.83 m. Average ΔH MEAS for all tubes located in sandy till soil was 2.12 m and the corresponding computed value ΔH COMP was 1.93 m. The computed results indicate that in future studies it is necessary to divide the two most important soil types into several subclasses. In the present study the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was carried out through a parameter uncertainty framework known as GLUE. According to the uncertainty analysis the average yearly runoff was around 175 mm a -1 and 50 % confidence limits were 155 and 195 mm a -1 . Measured average yearly runoff during the calibration period was 190 mm a -1 . Average yearly evapotranspiration estimate was 310 mm a -1 and the 50 % confidence limits were 290 and 330 mm a -1 . Average value for recharge through the bedrock system was 1

  16. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to the bedrock

  17. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  18. Analysis of hydrological features of portions of the Lake Ontario basin using Skylab and aircraft data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, F. C. (Principal Investigator); Rebel, D. L.; Colwell, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. S190A and S190B photography proved to be useful for mapping large scale geomorophological features, and for assessing water depth and water quality. Available S192 data were affected by low frequency noise caused by diode light. Hydrological features were classified, and upland green herbaceous vegetation was separated into several classes based on percent vegetation cover. A model for estimating surface soil moisture based on red and near infrared reflectance data was developed and subsequently implemented.

  19. A distributed eco-hydrological model and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-xue Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-hydrological processes in arid areas are the focus of many hydrological and water resources studies. However, the hydrological cycle and the ecological system have usually been considered separately in most previous studies, and the correlation between the two has not been fully understood. Interdisciplinary research on eco-hydrological processes using multidisciplinary knowledge has been insufficient. In order to quantitatively analyze and evaluate the interaction between the ecosystem and the hydrological cycle, a new kind of eco-hydrological model, the ecology module for a grid-based integrated surface and groundwater model (Eco-GISMOD, is proposed with a two-way coupling approach, which combines the ecological model (EPIC and hydrological model (GISMOD by considering water exchange in the soil layer. Water interaction between different soil layers is simply described through a generalized physical process in various situations. A special method was used to simulate the water exchange between plants and the soil layer, taking into account precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, soil water replenishment, and root water uptake. In order to evaluate the system performance, the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China was selected for a case study. The results show that forests and crops were generally growing well with sufficient water supply, but water shortages, especially in the summer, inhibited the growth of grass and caused grass degradation. This demonstrates that water requirements and water consumption for different kinds of vegetation can be estimated by considering the water-supply rules of Eco-GISMOD, which will be helpful for the planning and management of water resources in the future.

  20. The Role of Different Plant Soil-Water Feedbacks in Models of Dryland Vegetation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, M.; Bonetti, S.; Gandhi, P.; Gowda, K.; Iams, S.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes underlying the formation of regular vegetation patterns in arid and semi-arid regions is important to assessing desertification risk under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Various modeling frameworks have been proposed, which are all capable of generating similar patterns through self-organizing mechanisms that stem from assumptions about plant feedbacks on surface/subsurface water transport. We critically discuss a hierarchy of hydrology-vegetation models for the coupled dynamics of surface water, soil moisture, and vegetation biomass on a hillslope. We identify distinguishing features and trends for the periodic traveling wave solutions when there is an imposed idealized topography and make some comparisons to satellite images of large-scale banded vegetation patterns in drylands of Africa, Australia and North America. This work highlights the potential for constraining models by considerations of where the patterns may lie on a landscape, such as whether on a ridge or in a valley.

  1. Hydrology of prairie wetlands: Understanding the integrated surface-water and groundwater processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers and policy makers need to make decisions based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands. This article presents an overview of the hydrology of prairie wetlands intended for managers, policy makers, and researchers new to this field (e.g., graduate students), and a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding the hydrological functions of prairie wetlands and their responses to changes in climate and land use. The existence of prairie wetlands in the semi-arid environment of the Prairie-Pothole Region (PPR) depends on the lateral inputs of runoff water from their catchments because mean annual potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the PPR. Therefore, it is critically important to consider wetlands and catchments as highly integrated hydrological units. The water balance of individual wetlands is strongly influenced by runoff from the catchment and the exchange of groundwater between the central pond and its moist margin. Land-use practices in the catchment have a sensitive effect on runoff and hence the water balance. Surface and subsurface storage and connectivity among individual wetlands controls the diversity of pond permanence within a wetland complex, resulting in a variety of eco-hydrological functionalities necessary for maintaining the integrity of prairie-wetland ecosystems.

  2. Improved ground hydrology calculations for global climate models (GCMs) - Soil water movement and evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramopoulos, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Choudhury, B.

    1988-01-01

    A physically based ground hydrology model is presented that includes the processes of transpiration, evaporation from intercepted precipitation and dew, evaporation from bare soil, infiltration, soil water flow, and runoff. Data from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM were used as inputs for off-line tests of the model in four 8 x 10 deg regions, including Brazil, Sahel, Sahara, and India. Soil and vegetation input parameters were caculated as area-weighted means over the 8 x 10 deg gridbox; the resulting hydrological quantities were compared to ground hydrology model calculations performed on the 1 x 1 deg cells which comprise the 8 x 10 deg gridbox. Results show that the compositing procedure worked well except in the Sahel, where low soil water levels and a heterogeneous land surface produce high variability in hydrological quantities; for that region, a resolution better than 8 x 10 deg is needed.

  3. Development and implementation of a Variable Infiltration Capacity model of surface hydrology into the General Circulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettenmaier, D.P.; Stamm, J.F.; Wood, E.F.

    1993-04-01

    A Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is described for the representation of land surface hydrology in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The VIC model computes runoff as a function of the distribution of soil moisture capacity within a GCM grid cell. The major distinguishing feature of the VIC model relative to the bucket model currently used to represent the land surface in many GCMs is that it parameterizes the nonlinearity of the fraction of precipitation that infiltrates over a large area (hence the production of direct runoff) as a function of spatial average soil moisture storage, and that it models subsurface runoff between storms via a simple recession mechanism. The VIC model was incorporated into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) GCM at R15 resolution (roughly 4.5 degrees latitude by 7.5 degrees longitude). Ten-year simulations of global climate were produced using the GFDL GCM with both VIC land surface hydrology, and, for comparison purposes, the standard bucket representation. Comparison of the ten year runs using the VIC model with those using bucket hydrology showed that for the VIC run, global average runoff increased, soil moisture decreased, evaporation decreased, land surface temperature increased, and precipitation decreased. As expected, changes in precipitation occurred primarily over the continents, especially in the northern hemisphere. Changes in the surface water balance for Africa, Australia, and South America were much less than for North American and Eurasia. Both VIC and bucket simulations of surface air temperature and precipitation were compared with gridded monthly average observation fields. These comparisons indicated that the VIC hydrology reproduced winter temperatures better, and summer temperatures worse, than the bucket model. The VIC hydrology better represented global precipitation, primarily as a result of partially reducing the upward bias in precipitation associated with the GFDL R15 bucket runs

  4. The Hydromechanics of Vegetation for Slope Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono, A.; Subardja, A.; Ekasari, I.; Lailati, M.; Sudirja, R.; Ningrum, W.

    2018-02-01

    Vegetation is one of the alternative technologies in the prevention of shallow landslide prevention that occurs mostly during the rainy season. The application of plant for slope stabilization is known as bioengineering. Knowledge of the vegetative contribution that can be considered in bioengineering was the hydrological and mechanical aspects (hydromechanical). Hydrological effect of the plant on slope stability is to reduce soil water content through transpiration, interception, and evapotranspiration. The mechanical impact of vegetation on slope stability is to stabilize the slope with mechanical reinforcement of soils through roots. Vegetation water consumption varies depending on the age and density, rainfall factors and soil types. Vegetation with high ability to absorb water from the soil and release into the atmosphere through a transpiration process will reduce the pore water stress and increase slope stability, and vegetation with deep root anchoring and strong root binding was potentially more significant to maintain the stability of the slope.

  5. Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes.

  6. Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yu, Yun; Chen, Liding

    2015-01-01

    The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust) to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes. PMID:26207757

  7. Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yu, Yun; Chen, Liding

    2015-01-01

    The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust) to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes.

  8. Data-model integration to interpret connectivity between biogeochemical cycling, and vegetation phenology and productivity in mountainous ecosystems under changing hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, E.; Arora, B.; Beller, H. R.; Bill, M.; Bouskill, N.; Chakraborty, R.; Conrad, M. E.; Dafflon, B.; Enquist, B. J.; Falco, N.; Henderson, A.; Karaoz, U.; Polussa, A.; Sorensen, P.; Steltzer, H.; Wainwright, H. M.; Wang, S.; Williams, K. H.; Wilmer, C.; Wu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In mountainous systems, snow-melt is associated with a large pulse of nutrients that originates from under-snow microbial mineralization of organic matter and microbial biomass turnover. Vegetation phenology in these systems is regulated by environmental cues such as air temperature ranges and photoperiod, such that, under typical conditions, vegetation greening and nutrient uptake occur in sync with microbial biomass turnover and nutrient release, closing nutrient cycles and enhancing nutrient retention. However, early snow-melt has been observed with increasing frequency in the mountainous west and is hypothesized to disrupt coupled plant-microbial behavior, potentially resulting in a temporal discontinuity between microbial nutrient release and vegetation greening. As part of the Watershed Function Scientific Focus Area (SFA) at Berkeley Lab we are quantifying below-ground biogeochemistry and above-ground phenology and vegetation chemistry and their relationships to hydrologic events at a lower montane hillslope in the East River catchment, Crested Butte, CO. This presentation will focus on data-model integration to interpret connectivity between biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and vegetation nitrogen demand. Initial model results suggest that early snow-melt will result in an earlier accumulation and leaching loss of nitrate from the upper soil depths but that vegetation productivity may not decline as traits such as greater rooting depth and resource allocation to stems are favored.

  9. Fen ecohydrologic trajectories in response to groundwater drawdown with edaphic, floristic, and hydrologic feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, E.; Steven, L. I.; Bart, D.

    2017-12-01

    Calcareous fens are unique and often isolated ecosystems of high conservation value worldwide because they provide habitat for many rare plant and animal species. Their identity is inextricably linked to an absolute dependence on a consistent discharge of groundwater that saturates the near surface for most of the growing season leading to the accumulation of carbon as peat or tufa and sequestration of nutrients. The stresses resulting from consistent saturation and low-nutrient availability result in high native plant diversity including very high rare species richness compared to other ecosystems. Decreases in the saturation stress by reduced groundwater inputs (e.g., from nearby pumping) can result in losses of native diversity, decreases in rare-species abundance, and increased invasion by non-native species. As such, fen ecosystems are particularly susceptible to changes in groundwater conditions including reduction in water levels due to nearby groundwater pumping. Trajectories of degradation are complex due to feedbacks between loss of soil organic carbon, changes in soil properties, and plant water use. We present a model of an archetype fen that couples a hydrological niche model with a variably-saturated groundwater flow model to predict changes in vegetation composition in response to different groundwater drawdown scenarios (step change, declining trend, and periodic drawdown during dry periods). The model also includes feedbacks among vegetation composition, plant water use, and soil properties. The hydrological niche models (using surface soil moisture as predictor) and relationships between vegetation composition, plant water use (via stomatal conductance and leaf-area index), and soil hydraulic properties (van Genuchten parameters) were determined based on data collected from six fens in Wisconsin under various states of degradation. Results reveal a complex response to drawdown and provide insight into other ecosystems with linkages between the

  10. Water retention and evapotranspiration of green roofs and possible natural vegetation types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Matching vegetation to growing conditions on green roofs is one of the options to increase biodiversity in cities. A hydrological model has been applied to match the hydrological requirements of natural vegetation types to roof substrate parameters and to simulate moisture stress for specific

  11. Climate change and water table fluctuation: Implications for raised bog surface variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminskas, Julius; Linkevičienė, Rita; Šimanauskienė, Rasa; Jukna, Laurynas; Kibirkštis, Gintautas; Tamkevičiūtė, Marija

    2018-03-01

    Cyclic peatland surface variability is influenced by hydrological conditions that highly depend on climate and/or anthropogenic activities. A low water level leads to a decrease of peatland surface and an increase of C emissions into the atmosphere, whereas a high water level leads to an increase of peatland surface and carbon sequestration in peatlands. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the influence of hydrometeorological conditions toward the peatland surface and its feedback toward the water regime. A regional survey of the raised bog water table fluctuation and surface variability was made in one of the largest peatlands in Lithuania. Two appropriate indicators for different peatland surface variability periods (increase and decrease) were detected. The first one is an 200 mm y- 1 average net rainfall over a three-year range. The second one is an average annual water depth of 25-30 cm. The application of these indicators enabled the reconstruction of Čepkeliai peatland surface variability during a 100 year period. Processes of peatland surface variability differ in time and in separate parts of peatland. Therefore, internal subbasins in peatland are formed. Subbasins involve autogenic processes that can later affect their internal hydrology, nutrient status, and vegetation succession. Internal hydrological conditions, surface fluctuation, and vegetation succession in peatland subbasins should be taken into account during evaluation of their state, nature management projects, and other peatland research works.

  12. Advances on Modelling Riparian Vegetation-Hydromorphology Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solari, L.; Van Oorschot, M.; Belletti, B.; Hendriks, D.; Rinaldi, M.; Vargas-Luna, A.

    2016-01-01

    Riparian vegetation actively interacts with fluvial systems affecting river hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and groundwater. These interactions can be coupled because both vegetation and hydromorphology (i.e. the combined scientific study of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology) involve dynamic

  13. Coupled Monitoring and Inverse Modeling to Investigate Surface - Subsurface Hydrological and Thermal Dynamics in the Arctic Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, A. P.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.; Bisht, G.; Peterson, J.; Ulrich, C.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Wu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative characterization of the soil surface-subsurface hydrological and thermal processes is essential as they are primary factors that control the biogeochemical processes, ecological landscapes and greenhouse gas fluxes. In the Artic region, the surface-subsurface hydrological and thermal regimes co-interact and are both largely influenced by soil texture and soil organic content. In this study, we present a coupled inversion scheme that jointly inverts hydrological, thermal and geophysical data to estimate the vertical profiles of clay, sand and organic contents. Within this inversion scheme, the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) serves as a forward model to simulate the land-surface energy balance and subsurface hydrological-thermal processes. Soil electrical conductivity (from electrical resistivity tomography), temperature and water content are linked together via petrophysical and geophysical models. Particularly, the inversion scheme accounts for the influences of the soil organic and mineral content on both of the hydrological-thermal dynamics and the petrophysical relationship. We applied the inversion scheme to the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) intensive site in Barrow, AK, which is characterized by polygonal-shaped arctic tundra. The monitoring system autonomously provides a suite of above-ground measurements (e.g., precipitation, air temperature, wind speed, short-long wave radiation, canopy greenness and eddy covariance) as well as below-ground measurements (soil moisture, soil temperature, thaw layer thickness, snow thickness and soil electrical conductivity), which complement other periodic, manually collected measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the model can well reproduce the spatiotemporal dynamics of the soil temperature, and therefore, accurately predict the active layer thickness. The hydrological and thermal dynamics are closely linked to the polygon types and polygon features. The results also enable the

  14. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, X.; Ju, W.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs) for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP) estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI) is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE) in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m-2 yr-1 to 4.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m-2 yr-1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI) and elevation have small and additive effects on improving the spatial scaling

  15. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m−2 yr−1 to 4.8 g C m−2 yr−1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m−2 yr−1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI and elevation have small and additive effects on improving

  16. Vegetation induced diel signal and its meaning in recharge and discharge regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovszki, Zoltán; Tóth, Tibor; Csáfordi, Péter; Szabó, András; Móricz, Norbert; Kalicz, Péter

    2017-04-01

    Afforestation, promoted by the European Union is planned in Hungary in the next decades. One of the most important region for afforestation is the Hungarian Great Plain where the precipitation is far below potential ET so forests can not survive without significant water uptake from shallow groundwater. Diel fluctuations of hydrological variables (e.g., soil moisture, shallow groundwater level, streamflow rate) are rarely investigated in the hydrologic literature although these short-term fluctuations may incorporate useful information (like groundwater uptake) about hydro-ecological systems in shallow groundwater areas. Vegetation induced diel fluctuations are rarely compared under varying hydrologic conditions (such as recharge and discharge zones). In this study, the data of soil moisture and shallow groundwater monitoring under different surface covers (forest and neighboring agricultural plots) in discharge and recharge regions were analyzed to gain a better understanding of the vegetation hydrological impact or water uptake in changing climate. The pilot areas of the study are located in Hungarian Great Plain and in Western Hungary. The water table under the forest displayed a typical night-time recovery in the discharge region, indicating a significant groundwater supply. Certainly, the root system of the forest was able to tap the groundwater in depths measuring a few metres, while the shallower roots of the herbaceous vegetation generally did not reach the groundwater reservoir at these depths. In the recharge zone the water table under the forest showed step-like diel pattern that refer to a lack of additional groundwater supply from below. The low groundwater evapotranspiration of the forest in the recharge zone was due to the lack of the groundwater supply in the recharge area. Similar patterns can be detected in the soil moisture of recharge and discharge zones as well. Our results suggest that local estimations of groundwater evapotranspiration from

  17. Vegetation physiology controls continental water cycle responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemordant, L. A.; Swann, A. L. S.; Cook, B.; Scheff, J.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract per se:Predicting how climate change will affect the hydrologic cycle is of utmost importance for ecological systems and for human life and activities. A typical perspective is that global warming will cause an intensification of the mean state, the so-called "dry gets drier, wet gets wetter" paradigm. While this result is robust over the oceans, recent works suggest it may be less appropriate for terrestrial regions. Using Earth System Models (ESMs) with decoupled surface (vegetation physiology, PHYS) and atmospheric (radiative, ATMO) CO2 responses, we show that the CO2 physiological response dominates the change in the continental hydrologic cycle compared to radiative and precipitation changes due to increased atmospheric CO2, counter to previous assumptions. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we estimate the individual contribution of each of the three main drivers, precipitation, radiation and physiological CO2 forcing (see attached figure). Our analysis reveals that physiological effects dominate changes for 3 key indicators of dryness and/or vegetation stress (namely LAI, P-ET and EF) over the largest fraction of the globe, except for soil moisture which exhibits a more complex response. This highlights the key role of vegetation in controlling future terrestrial hydrologic response.Legend of the Figure attached:Decomposition along the three main drivers of LAI (a), P-ET (b), EF (c) in the control run. Green quantifies the effect of the vegetation physiology based on the run PHYS; red and blue quantify the contribution of, respectively, net radiation and precipitation, based on multiple linear regression in ATMO. Pie charts show for each variable the fraction (labelled in %) of land under the main influence (more than 50% of the changes is attributed to this driver) of one the three main drivers (green for grid points dominated by vegetation physiology, red for grid points dominated by net radiation, and blue for grid points dominated by the

  18. A strategy for assessing potential future changes in climate, hydrology, and vegetation in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Stephen; Hostetler, Steven W.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Anderson, Katherine H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical and geological data indicate that significant changes can occur in the Earth's climate on time scales ranging from years to millennia. In addition to natural climatic change, climatic changes may occur in the near future due to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace gases in the atmosphere that are the result of human activities. International research efforts using atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM's) to assess potential climatic conditions under atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of twice the pre-industrial level (a '2 X CO2' atmosphere) conclude that climate would warm on a global basis. However, it is difficult to assess how the projected warmer climatic conditions would be distributed on a regional scale and what the effects of such warming would be on the landscape, especially for temperate mountainous regions such as the Western United States. In this report, we present a strategy to assess the regional sensitivity to global climatic change. The strategy makes use of a hierarchy of models ranging from an AGCM, to a regional climate model, to landscape-scale process models of hydrology and vegetation. A 2 X CO2 global climate simulation conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) GENESIS AGCM on a grid of approximately 4.5o of latitude by 7.5o of longitude was used to drive the NCAR regional climate model (RegCM) over the Western United States on a grid of 60 km by 60 km. The output from the RegCM is used directly (for hydrologic models) or interpolated onto a 15-km grid (for vegetation models) to quantify possible future environmental conditions on a spatial scale relevant to policy makers and land managers.

  19. Impacts of road construction and removal on the hydrologic and geochemical function of a fen peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, C. M.; Petrone, R. M.; Sutherland, G.; Price, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Linear disturbances such as roads cover vast swaths of northeastern Alberta, the majority of which are wetlands with shallow and local hydrologic connections. Thus, the effects of road construction on wetland hydrological pathways can have significant implications on water movement within the region, and by extension the productivity of vegetation communities and carbon sequestration. However, little is known about the effect that roads have on wetland hydrology. In 2013, a gravel road built within a fen peatland was reclaimed to evaluate hydrologic impacts post removal. Prior to removal, ground and surface water flow was obstructed leading to surface ponding, and vegetation mortality was observed on the up-gradient (wet) side of the road. Rebounding of the peat column was observed throughout the fen immediately following road removal in 2013 (maximum of 12 cm, mean of 2 cm), with modest but slightly smaller expansion in 2014. For both years, peat rebound was greatest in areas where the road was removed. Peat physical properties contrasted sharply between the reclaimed road (RR) peat and the adjacent, unimpacted peatland (UP). Surface bulk densities (pb, 0-10 cm) ranged from 0.1-0.25 g cm-3 along the RR compared to 0.02-0.07 g cm-3 for the UP and on average, pb for all depths were lower at the RR compared to the UP. Similar spatial patterns were observed for peat porosity. Correspondingly low horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivities (Kh) were observed along the RR compared to the UP, averaging 5.7x10-4 m s-1 and 1.7x10-3 m s-1, respectively. The local flow system across the RR and thus subsurface flow was impeded by almost half (0.4 m d-1) compared to flow observed within the UP (0.8 m d-1), leading to ponding on the upgradient side. A marked change in hydrophysical properties and ground and surface water flow patterns post road removal has implications for plant reestablishment and restoration and will form the basis of further study.

  20. Land surface modelling in hydrology and meteorology – lessons learned from the Baltic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Graham

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available By both tradition and purpose, the land parameterization schemes of hydrological and meteorological models differ greatly. Meteorologists are concerned primarily with solving the energy balance, whereas hydrologists are most interested in the water balance. Meteorological climate models typically have multi-layered soil parameterisation that solves temperature fluxes numerically with diffusive equations. The same approach is carried over to a similar treatment of water transport. Hydrological models are not usually so interested in soil temperatures, but must provide a reasonable representation of soil moisture to get runoff right. To treat the heterogeneity of the soil, many hydrological models use only one layer with a statistical representation of soil variability. Such a hydrological model can be used on large scales while taking subgrid variability into account. Hydrological models also include lateral transport of water – an imperative if' river discharge is to be estimated. The concept of a complexity chain for coupled modelling systems is introduced, together with considerations for mixing model components. Under BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment and SWECLIM (Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, a large-scale hydrological model of runoff in the Baltic Basin is used to review atmospheric climate model simulations. This incorporates both the runoff record and hydrological modelling experience into atmospheric model development. Results from two models are shown. A conclusion is that the key to improved models may be less complexity. Perhaps the meteorological models should keep their multi-layered approach for modelling soil temperature, but add a simpler, yet physically consistent, hydrological approach for modelling snow processes and water transport in the soil. Keywords: land surface modelling; hydrological modelling; atmospheric climate models; subgrid variability; Baltic Basin

  1. Use of Isotopic Techniques for the Assessment of Hydrological Interaction Surface Water and Groundwater. Rio Man - Cienaga Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio B, P.; Betancur V, T.; Dapena, C.

    2011-01-01

    This job integrates the first results from the studies ''Conceptual Hydrological Model for the middle and lower parts of the Man River basin using hydrological, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques'' (Palacio, 2011) and ''Hydrochemical and Isotopic techniques for the assessment of hydrological processes in the the wetlands of Bajo Cauca Antioquia'' (University of Antioquia and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Man river basin covers an area of 688 km 2 ; with temperatures ranging from 25 to 30 o C; The average annual rainfall is 2.800 mm. The geology of the area is composed mainly of clastic sedimentary rocks of continental origin. A hydrological model of interaction between surface water and groundwater for the lower middle of the Man River basin was obtained by the use of hydrological analysis techniques. This model was refined, adjusted and validated using isotope techniques based mainly on the analysis of spatial and temporal variance of stable isotopes found in rain water, surface bodies of water such as streams and wetlands, and in an unconfined aquifer.

  2. The PCR-GLOBWB global hydrological reanalysis product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and long time series of hydrological data are important for understanding land surface water and energy budgets in many parts of the world, as well as for improving real-time hydrological monitoring and climate change anticipation. The ultimate goal of the present work is to produce a multi-decadal "land surface hydrological reanalysis" dataset with retrospective and updated hydrological states and fluxes that are constrained to available in-situ river discharge measurements. Here we use PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), which is a large-scale hydrological model intended for global to regional studies. PCR-GLOBWB provides a grid-based representation of terrestrial hydrology with a typical spatial resolution of approximately 50×50 km (currently 0.5° globally) on a daily basis. For each grid cell, PCR-GLOBWB simulates moisture storage in two vertically stacked soil layers as well as the water exchange between the soil and the atmosphere and the underlying groundwater reservoir. Exchange to the atmosphere comprises precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, as well as snow accumulation and melt, which are all simulated by considering vegetation phenology and sub-grid variations of elevation, land cover and soil saturation distribution. The model includes improved schemes for runoff-infiltration partitioning, interflow, groundwater recharge and baseflow, as well as river routing of discharge. It also dynamically simulates water storage in reservoirs, water demand and the withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources. By embedding the PCR-GLOBWB model in an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework, we calibrate the model parameters based on the discharge observations from the Global Runoff Data Centre. The parameters calibrated are related to snow accumulation and melt, runoff-infiltration partitioning, groundwater recharge, channel discharge and baseflow processes, as well as pre-factors to correct forcing precipitation

  3. The Water Cycle from Space: Use of Satellite Data in Land Surface Hydrology and Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles; Blankenship, Clay; Khan, Maudood; Limaye, Ashutosh; Hornbuckle, Brian; Rowlandson, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews how our understanding of the water cycle is enhanced by our use of satellite data, and how this informs land surface hydrology and water resource management. It reviews how NASA's current and future satellite missions will provide Earth system data of unprecedented breadth, accuracy and utility for hydrologic analysis.

  4. Hydrological model uncertainty due to spatial evapotranspiration estimation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuan; Lamačová, Anna; Duffy, Christopher; Krám, Pavel; Hruška, Jakub

    2016-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) continues to be a difficult process to estimate in seasonal and long-term water balances in catchment models. Approaches to estimate ET typically use vegetation parameters (e.g., leaf area index [LAI], interception capacity) obtained from field observation, remote sensing data, national or global land cover products, and/or simulated by ecosystem models. In this study we attempt to quantify the uncertainty that spatial evapotranspiration estimation introduces into hydrological simulations when the age of the forest is not precisely known. The Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) was implemented for the Lysina headwater catchment, located 50°03‧N, 12°40‧E in the western part of the Czech Republic. The spatial forest patterns were digitized from forest age maps made available by the Czech Forest Administration. Two ET methods were implemented in the catchment model: the Biome-BGC forest growth sub-model (1-way coupled to PIHM) and with the fixed-seasonal LAI method. From these two approaches simulation scenarios were developed. We combined the estimated spatial forest age maps and two ET estimation methods to drive PIHM. A set of spatial hydrologic regime and streamflow regime indices were calculated from the modeling results for each method. Intercomparison of the hydrological responses to the spatial vegetation patterns suggested considerable variation in soil moisture and recharge and a small uncertainty in the groundwater table elevation and streamflow. The hydrologic modeling with ET estimated by Biome-BGC generated less uncertainty due to the plant physiology-based method. The implication of this research is that overall hydrologic variability induced by uncertain management practices was reduced by implementing vegetation models in the catchment models.

  5. Vegetation Variability And Its Effect On Monsoon Rainfall Over South East Asia: Observational and Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chiu, L.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-12-01

    Increasing population and urbanization have created stress on developing nations. The quickly shifting patterns of vegetation change in different parts of the world have given rise to the pertinent question of feedback on the climate prevailing on local to regional scales. It is now known with some certainty, that vegetation changes can affect the climate by influencing the heat and water balance. The hydrological cycle particularly is susceptible to changes in vegetation. The Monsoon rainfall forms a vital link in the hydrological cycle prevailing over South East Asia This work examines the variability of vegetation over South East Asia and assesses its impact on the monsoon rainfall. We explain the role of changing vegetation and show how this change has affected the heat and energy balance. We demonstrate the role of vegetation one season earlier in influencing rainfall intensity over specific areas in South East Asia and show the ramification of vegetation change on the summer rainfall behavior. The vegetation variability study specifically focuses on India and China, two of the largest and most populous nations. We have done an assessment to find out the key meteorological and human induced parameters affecting vegetation over the study area through a spatial analysis of monthly NDVI values. This study highlights the role of monsoon rainfall, regional climate dynamics and large scale human induced pollution to be the crucial factors governing the vegetation and vegetation distribution. The vegetation is seen to follow distinct spatial patterns that have been found to be crucial in its eventual impact on monsoon rainfall. We have carried out a series of sensitivity experiments using a land surface hydrologic modeling scheme. The vital energy and water balance parameters are identified and the daily climatological cycles are examined for possible change in behavior for different boundary conditions. It is found that the change from native deciduous forest

  6. Surface pollen and its relationship to vegetation in the Zoige Basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furong; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Jinghui; Zhao, Wenwei; Guo, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ke

    2011-09-01

    We use a data set of 23 surface pollen samples from moss polsters in the Zoige Basin to explore the relationship between modern pollen assemblages and contemporary vegetation patterns. The surface pollen samples spanned four types of plant communities: Carex muliensis marsh, Stipa and Kobresia meadow, Carex-dominated forb meadow and Sibiraea angustata scrub. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used to determine the relationships between modern pollen and vegetation and environmental variables. The results show that the pollen assemblages of surface moss samples generally reflect the features of the modern vegetation, basically similar in the vegetation types and the dominant genera; however, they don't show a very clear distinction between different communities. Our results also demonstrate that pollen representation of different families or genus varied. Some tree taxa, such as Pinus and Betula, and herb types, such as Artemisia are over-represented, while Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae and Cyperaceae are moderately represented, and Poaceae and Rosaceae are usually under-represented in our study region. PCA results indicate that the distribution of vegetation in the Zoige Basin is mainly controlled by precipitation and altitude.

  7. Introduction to special section on Uncertainty Assessment in Surface and Subsurface Hydrology : An overview of issues and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montanari, A.; Shoemaker, C.A.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    This paper introduces the Water Resources Research special section on Uncertainty Assessment in Surface and Subsurface Hydrology. Over the past years, hydrological literature has seen a large increase in the number of papers dealing with uncertainty. In this article, we present an overview of the

  8. Impact of dynamic vegetation phenology on the simulated pan-Arctic land surface state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Bernardo; Sushama, Laxmi; Arora, Vivek K.; Verseghy, Diana

    2018-03-01

    The pan-Arctic land surface is undergoing rapid changes in a warming climate, with near-surface permafrost projected to degrade significantly during the twenty-first century. Vegetation-related feedbacks have the potential to influence the rate of degradation of permafrost. In this study, the impact of dynamic phenology on the pan-Arctic land surface state, particularly near-surface permafrost, for the 1961-2100 period, is assessed by comparing two simulations of the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS)—one with dynamic phenology, modelled using the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM), and the other with prescribed phenology. These simulations are forced by atmospheric data from a transient climate change simulation of the 5th generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) for the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). Comparison of the CLASS coupled to CTEM simulation to available observational estimates of plant area index, spatial distribution of permafrost and active layer thickness suggests that the model captures reasonably well the overall distribution of vegetation and permafrost. It is shown that the most important impact of dynamic phenology on the land surface occurs through albedo and it is demonstrated for the first time that vegetation control on albedo during late spring and early summer has the highest potential to impact the degradation of permafrost. While both simulations show extensive near-surface permafrost degradation by the end of the twenty-first century, the strong projected response of vegetation to climate warming and increasing CO2 concentrations in the coupled simulation results in accelerated permafrost degradation in the northernmost continuous permafrost regions.

  9. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model to study the spatial variation of carbon processes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Eissenstat, D. M.; Davis, K. J.; He, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Forest carbon processes are affected by, among other factors, soil moisture, soil temperature, soil nutrients and solar radiation. Most of the current biogeochemical models are 1-D and represent one point in space. Therefore, they cannot resolve the topographically driven hill-slope land surface heterogeneity or the spatial pattern of nutrient availability. A spatially distributed forest ecosystem model, Flux-PIHM-BGC, has been developed by coupling a 1-D mechanistic biogeochemical model Biome-BGC (BBGC) with a spatially distributed land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. Flux-PIHM is a coupled physically based model, which incorporates a land-surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model. Flux-PIHM is able to represent the link between groundwater and the surface energy balance, as well as the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography. In the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D BBGC model, while soil nitrogen is transported among model grids via subsurface water flow. In each grid, Flux-PIHM provides BBGC with soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation information, while BBGC provides Flux-PIHM with leaf area index. The coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model has been implemented at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills critical zone observatory (SSHCZO). Model results suggest that the vegetation and soil carbon distribution is primarily constrained by nitorgen availability (affected by nitorgen transport via topographically driven subsurface flow), and also constrained by solar radiation and root zone soil moisture. The predicted vegetation and soil carbon distribution generally agrees with the macro pattern observed within the watershed. The coupled ecosystem-hydrologic model provides an important tool to study the impact of topography on watershed carbon processes, as well as the impact of climate change on water resources.

  10. Eco-hydrological process simulations within an integrated surface water-groundwater model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Michael; Loinaz, Maria Christina; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Integrated water resources management requires tools that can quantify changes in groundwater, surface water, water quality and ecosystem health, as a result of changes in catchment management. To address these requirements we have developed an integrated eco-hydrological modelling framework...... that allows hydrologists and ecologists to represent the complex and dynamic interactions occurring between surface water, ground water, water quality and freshwater ecosystems within a catchment. We demonstrate here the practical application of this tool to two case studies where the interaction of surface...... water and ground water are important for the ecosystem. In the first, simulations are performed to understand the importance of surface water-groundwater interactions for a restored riparian wetland on the Odense River in Denmark as part of a larger investigation of water quality and nitrate retention...

  11. Seasonal dynamics of surface chlorophyll concentration and sea surface temperature, as indicator of hydrological structure of the ocean (by satellite data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrnogov, Anatoly; Vysotskaya, Galina

    Continuous monitoring of phytopigment concentrations and sea surface temperature in the ocean by space-borne methods makes possible to estimate ecological condition of biocenoses in critical areas. Unlike land vegetation, hydrological processes largely determine phytoplank-ton dynamics, which may be either recurrent or random. The types of chlorophyll concentration dynamics and sea surface temperature can manifest as zones quasistationary by seasonal dynamics, quasistationary areas (QSA). In the papers of the authors (A. Shevyrnogov, G. Vysotskaya, E. Shevyrnogov, A study of the stationary and the anomalous in the ocean surface chlorophyll distribution by satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 25, No.7-8, pp. 1383-1387, April 2004 & A. P. Shevyrnogov, G. S. Vysotskaya, J. I. Gitelson, Quasistationary areas of chlorophyll concentra-tion in the world ocean as observed satellite data Advances in Space Research, Volume 18, Issue 7, Pages 129-132, 1996) existence of zones, which are quasi-stationary with similar seasonal dynamics of chlorophyll concentration at surface layer of ocean, was shown. Results were obtained on the base of processing of time series of satellite images SeaWiFS. It was shown that fronts and frontal zones coincide with dividing lines between quasi-stationary are-as, especially in areas of large oceanic streams. To study the dynamics of the ocean for the period from 1985 through 2012 we used data on the temperature of the surface layer of the ocean and chlorophyll concentration (AVHRR, SeaWiFS and MODIS). Biota of surface oceanic layer is more stable in comparison with quickly changing surface tem-perature. It gives a possibility to circumvent influence of high-frequency component (for exam-ple, a diurnal cycle) in investigation of dynamics of spatial distribution of surface streams. In addition, an analyses of nonstable ocean productivity phenomena, stood out time series of satellite images, showed existence of areas with

  12. Development of a Long-term Sampling Network to Monitor Restoration Success in the Southwest Coastal Everglades: Vegetation, Hydrology, and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction and History Hurricane Andrew, a Category 5 storm, crossed the southern Florida peninsula on the morning of August 24, 1992 (Fig. 1). Following the storm, the National Park Service conducted an environmental damage assessment to gauge the storm's impacts on the natural resources of south Florida Park Service holdings (Pimm et al., 1994). Although hurricanes have impacted Park Service lands such as the Everglades in the past (Houston and Powell, 2003), no systematic, permanent sampling scheme has been established to monitor long-term recovery (or lack thereof) following disturbance. In October 1992, vegetation monitoring plots were established in heavily damaged areas of mangrove forest on the southwest coast of the Everlgades, along the Lostmans and Broad Rivers (Smith et al., 1994, see Fig. 2). As the permanent plot network was being established, funding was awarded for the South Florida Global Climate Change project (SOFL-GCC). This led to the establishment of a network of hydrological monitoring stations (Anderson and Smith, 2004). Finally, sediment elevation tables (SETs) were installed at many locations. SETs provide the means to measure very small changes (2 mm) in the sediment surface elevation accurately over time (Cahoon et al., 2002). We also set up marker horizons to measure accretion of sediment at each site (Smith and Cahoon, 2003). Sampling sites were located along three transects extending from upstream freshwater wetlands to downstream saltwater wetlands along the Shark, Lostmans and Chatham Rivers in Everglades National Park (Fig. 2). While we were developing our sampling network for basic scientific research needs, concern mounted over the health of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem and in particular over the influence of decreased freshwater flows (Smith et al., 1989). Ecosystem restoration planning was begun, resulting in the multi-agency, $8 billion Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). Our co-located sampling networks

  13. Spatially Distributed Assimilation of Remotely Sensed Leaf Area Index and Potential Evapotranspiration for Hydrologic Modeling in Wetland Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajib, A.; Evenson, G. R.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), a highly dynamic flux in wetland landscapes, regulates the accuracy of surface/sub-surface runoff simulation in a hydrologic model. Accordingly, considerable uncertainty in simulating ET-related processes remains, including our limited ability to incorporate realistic ground conditions, particularly those involved with complex land-atmosphere feedbacks, vegetation growth, and energy balances. Uncertainty persists despite using high resolution topography and/or detailed land use data. Thus, a good hydrologic model can produce right answers for wrong reasons. In this study, we develop an efficient approach for multi-variable assimilation of remotely sensed earth observations (EOs) into a hydrologic model and apply it in the 1700 km2 Pipestem Creek watershed in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA. Our goal is to employ EOs, specifically Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Potential Evapotranspiration (PET), as surrogates for the aforementioned processes without overruling the model's built-in physical/semi-empirical process conceptualizations. To do this, we modified the source code of an already-improved version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for wetland hydrology (Evenson et al. 2016 HP 30(22):4168) to directly assimilate remotely-sensed LAI and PET (obtained from the 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gridded products, respectively) into each model Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU). Two configurations of the model, one with and one without EO assimilation, are calibrated against streamflow observations at the watershed outlet. Spatio-temporal changes in the HRU-level water balance, based on calibrated outputs, are evaluated using MODIS Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) as a reference. It is expected that the model configuration having remotely sensed LAI and PET, will simulate more realistic land-atmosphere feedbacks, vegetation growth and energy balance. As a result, this will decrease simulated

  14. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R 2 , RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that

  15. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001--10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Woody vegetation, including ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), has encroached on some areas in central Texas that were historically oak grassland savannah. Encroachment of woody vegetation is generally attributed to overgrazing and fire suppression. Removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice (hereinafter referred to as "brush management") might change the hydrology in the watershed. These hydrologic changes might include changes to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local partners, examined the hydrologic effects of brush management in two adjacent watersheds in Comal County, Tex. Hydrologic data were collected in the watersheds for 3-4 years (pre-treatment) depending on the type of data, after which brush management occurred on one watershed (treatment watershed) and the other was left in its original condition (reference watershed). Hydrologic data were collected in the study area for another 6 years (post-treatment). These hydrologic data included rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but potential groundwater recharge was calculated by using a simplified mass balance approach. This fact sheet summarizes highlights of the study from the USGS Scientific Investigations Report on which it is based.

  16. Applying Hillslope Hydrology to Bridge between Ecosystem and Grid-Scale Processes within an Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subin, Z. M.; Sulman, B. N.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial control on surface energy fluxes, vegetation properties, and soil carbon cycling. Its interactions with ecosystem processes are highly nonlinear across a large range, as both drought stress and anoxia can impede vegetation and microbial growth. Earth System Models (ESMs) generally only represent an average soil-moisture state in grid cells at scales of 50-200 km, and as a result are not able to adequately represent the effects of subgrid heterogeneity in soil moisture, especially in regions with large wetland areas. We addressed this deficiency by developing the first ESM-coupled subgrid hillslope-hydrological model, TiHy (Tiled-hillslope Hydrology), embedded within the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model. In each grid cell, one or more representative hillslope geometries are discretized into land model tiles along an upland-to-lowland gradient. These geometries represent ~1 km hillslope-scale hydrological features and allow for flexible representation of hillslope profile and plan shapes, in addition to variation of subsurface properties among or within hillslopes. Each tile (which may represent ~100 m along the hillslope) has its own surface fluxes, vegetation state, and vertically-resolved state variables for soil physics and biogeochemistry. Resolution of water state in deep layers (~200 m) down to bedrock allows for physical integration of groundwater transport with unsaturated overlying dynamics. Multiple tiles can also co-exist at the same vertical position along the hillslope, allowing the simulation of ecosystem heterogeneity due to disturbance. The hydrological model is coupled to the vertically-resolved Carbon, Organisms, Respiration, and Protection in the Soil Environment (CORPSE) model, which captures non-linearity resulting from interactions between vertically-heterogeneous soil carbon and water profiles. We present comparisons of simulated water table depth to observations. We examine sensitivities to

  17. Inter-species competition-facilitation in stochastic riparian vegetation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tealdi, Stefano; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2013-02-07

    Riparian vegetation is a highly dynamic community that lives on river banks and which depends to a great extent on the fluvial hydrology. The stochasticity of the discharge and erosion/deposition processes in fact play a key role in determining the distribution of vegetation along a riparian transect. These abiotic processes interact with biotic competition/facilitation mechanisms, such as plant competition for light, water, and nutrients. In this work, we focus on the dynamics of plants characterized by three components: (1) stochastic forcing due to river discharges, (2) competition for resources, and (3) inter-species facilitation due to the interplay between vegetation and fluid dynamics processes. A minimalist stochastic bio-hydrological model is proposed for the dynamics of the biomass of two vegetation species: one species is assumed dominant and slow-growing, the other is subdominant, but fast-growing. The stochastic model is solved analytically and the probability density function of the plant biomasses is obtained as a function of both the hydrologic and biologic parameters. The impact of the competition/facilitation processes on the distribution of vegetation species along the riparian transect is investigated and remarkable effects are observed. Finally, a good qualitative agreement is found between the model results and field data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and Application of an Integrated Model for Representing Hydrologic Processes and Irrigation at Residential Scale in Semiarid and Mediterranean Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. B.; Gironas, J. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Vera, S.; Reyes, F. R.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization alters physical and biological processes that take place in natural environments. New impervious areas change the hydrological processes, reducing infiltration and evapotranspiration and increasing direct runoff volumes and flow discharges. To reduce these effects at local scale, sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development and best management practices have been developed and implemented. These technologies, which typically consider some type of green infrastructure (GI), simulate natural processes of capture, retention and infiltration to control flow discharges from frequent events and preserve the hydrological cycle. Applying these techniques in semiarid regions requires accounting for aspects related to the maintenance of green areas, such as the irrigation needs and the selection of the vegetation. This study develops the Integrated Hydrological Model at Residential Scale, IHMORS, which is a continuous model that simulates the most relevant hydrological processes together with irrigation processes of green areas. In the model contributing areas and drainage control practices are modeled by combining and connecting differents subareas subjected to surface processes (i.e. interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff) and sub-surface processes (percolation, redistribution and subsurface runoff). The model simulates these processes and accounts for the dynamics of the water content in different soil layers. The different components of the model were first tested using laboratory and numerical experiments, and then an application to a case study was carried out. In this application we assess the long-term performance in terms of runoff control and irrigation needs of green gardens with different vegetation, under different climate and irrigation practices. The model identifies significant differences in the performance of the alternatives and provides a good insight for the maintenance needs of GI for runoff control.

  19. Drought on the North American High Plains: Modeling Effects of Vegetation, Temperature, and Rainfall Perturbations on Regional Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, A. E.; Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Large scale droughts can disrupt the water supply for agriculture, municipalities and industrial use worldwide. For example, the Dustbowl drought of the 1930s severely damaged agriculture on the North American High Plains. The Dustbowl is generally attributed to three major factors: increased temperature, decreased precipitation, and a change from native grasses that might have tolerated these climate perturbations to dryland wheat farming, which did not. This study explores the individual importance of each of these factors and the feedbacks between them. Previous modeling studies have explored how the High Plains system responds to changes in precipitation or temperature, but these models often depend on simplified or lumped parameter approaches. These approaches may not fully represent all the relevant physical processes, especially those related to energy balance changes due to increased temperature. For this study, we built a high-resolution model of the High Plains using ParFlow-CLM, an integrated hydrologic model that solves both energy and water balances from the subsurface to the top of vegetation. Model inputs including geology and climate forcing, together with representative precipitation and temperature changes for a major drought were assembled from public data. Numerical experiments were run to perturb vegetation, precipitation and temperature separately, as well as a baseline scenario with no changes and a worst-case scenario with all three simultaneously. The impact of each factor on High Plains hydrology and water resources was examined by comparing soil moisture, stream flow and water table levels between the runs. The one-factor experiments were used to show which of these outputs was the most sensitive and responded most quickly to each change. The worst-case scenario revealed interactions between the three factors.

  20. A Dynamic Hydrology-Critical Zone Framework for Rainfall-triggered Landslide Hazard Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Y. G.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Dietrich, W. E.; Bras, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Watershed-scale coupled hydrologic-stability models are still in their early stages, and are characterized by important limitations: (a) either they assume steady-state or quasi-dynamic watershed hydrology, or (b) they simulate landslide occurrence based on a simple one-dimensional stability criterion. Here we develop a three-dimensional landslide prediction framework, based on a coupled hydrologic-slope stability model and incorporation of the influence of deep critical zone processes (i.e., flow through weathered bedrock and exfiltration to the colluvium) for more accurate prediction of the timing, location, and extent of landslides. Specifically, a watershed-scale slope stability model that systematically accounts for the contribution of driving and resisting forces in three-dimensional hillslope segments was coupled with a spatially-explicit and physically-based hydrologic model. The landslide prediction framework considers critical zone processes and structure, and explicitly accounts for the spatial heterogeneity of surface and subsurface properties that control slope stability, including soil and weathered bedrock hydrological and mechanical characteristics, vegetation, and slope morphology. To test performance, the model was applied in landslide-prone sites in the US, the hydrology of which has been extensively studied. Results showed that both rainfall infiltration in the soil and groundwater exfiltration exert a strong control on the timing and magnitude of landslide occurrence. We demonstrate the extent to which three-dimensional slope destabilizing factors, which are modulated by dynamic hydrologic conditions in the soil-bedrock column, control landslide initiation at the watershed scale.

  1. Linking plant ecology and long-term hydrology to improve wetland restoration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.V. Caldwell; M.J. Vepraskas; J.D. Gregory; R.W. Skaggs; R.L. Huffman

    2011-01-01

    Although millions of dollars are spent restoring wetlands, failures are common, in part because the planted vegetation cannot survive in the restored hydrology. Wetland restoration would be more successful if the hydrologic requirements of wetland plant communities were known so that the most appropriate plants could be selected for the range of projected hydrology at...

  2. Vegetation Coverage and Impervious Surface Area Estimated Based on the Estarfm Model and Remote Sensing Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongming; Wang, Shu; Guo, Jiao; Guo, Liankun

    2018-04-01

    Impervious surface area and vegetation coverage are important biophysical indicators of urban surface features which can be derived from medium-resolution images. However, remote sensing data obtained by a single sensor are easily affected by many factors such as weather conditions, and the spatial and temporal resolution can not meet the needs for soil erosion estimation. Therefore, the integrated multi-source remote sensing data are needed to carry out high spatio-temporal resolution vegetation coverage estimation. Two spatial and temporal vegetation coverage data and impervious data were obtained from MODIS and Landsat 8 remote sensing images. Based on the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM), the vegetation coverage data of two scales were fused and the data of vegetation coverage fusion (ESTARFM FVC) and impervious layer with high spatiotemporal resolution (30 m, 8 day) were obtained. On this basis, the spatial variability of the seepage-free surface and the vegetation cover landscape in the study area was measured by means of statistics and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results showed that: 1) ESTARFM FVC and impermeable surface have higher accuracy and can characterize the characteristics of the biophysical components covered by the earth's surface; 2) The average impervious surface proportion and the spatial configuration of each area are different, which are affected by natural conditions and urbanization. In the urban area of Xi'an, which has typical characteristics of spontaneous urbanization, landscapes are fragmented and have less spatial dependence.

  3. VEGETATION COVERAGE AND IMPERVIOUS SURFACE AREA ESTIMATED BASED ON THE ESTARFM MODEL AND REMOTE SENSING MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Impervious surface area and vegetation coverage are important biophysical indicators of urban surface features which can be derived from medium-resolution images. However, remote sensing data obtained by a single sensor are easily affected by many factors such as weather conditions, and the spatial and temporal resolution can not meet the needs for soil erosion estimation. Therefore, the integrated multi-source remote sensing data are needed to carry out high spatio-temporal resolution vegetation coverage estimation. Two spatial and temporal vegetation coverage data and impervious data were obtained from MODIS and Landsat 8 remote sensing images. Based on the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM, the vegetation coverage data of two scales were fused and the data of vegetation coverage fusion (ESTARFM FVC and impervious layer with high spatiotemporal resolution (30 m, 8 day were obtained. On this basis, the spatial variability of the seepage-free surface and the vegetation cover landscape in the study area was measured by means of statistics and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results showed that: 1 ESTARFM FVC and impermeable surface have higher accuracy and can characterize the characteristics of the biophysical components covered by the earth's surface; 2 The average impervious surface proportion and the spatial configuration of each area are different, which are affected by natural conditions and urbanization. In the urban area of Xi'an, which has typical characteristics of spontaneous urbanization, landscapes are fragmented and have less spatial dependence.

  4. Tundra landform and vegetation productivity trend maps for the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Mark J.; Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; McGuire, A. David

    2018-01-01

    Arctic tundra landscapes are composed of a complex mosaic of patterned ground features, varying in soil moisture, vegetation composition, and surface hydrology over small spatial scales (10–100 m). The importance of microtopography and associated geomorphic landforms in influencing ecosystem structure and function is well founded, however, spatial data products describing local to regional scale distribution of patterned ground or polygonal tundra geomorphology are largely unavailable. Thus, our understanding of local impacts on regional scale processes (e.g., carbon dynamics) may be limited. We produced two key spatiotemporal datasets spanning the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km2) to evaluate climate-geomorphological controls on arctic tundra productivity change, using (1) a novel 30 m classification of polygonal tundra geomorphology and (2) decadal-trends in surface greenness using the Landsat archive (1999–2014). These datasets can be easily integrated and adapted in an array of local to regional applications such as (1) upscaling plot-level measurements (e.g., carbon/energy fluxes), (2) mapping of soils, vegetation, or permafrost, and/or (3) initializing ecosystem biogeochemistry, hydrology, and/or habitat modeling.

  5. Groundwater dynamics in mountain peatlands with contrasting climate, vegetation, and hydrogeological setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, David J.; Cooper, David J.; Ronayne, Michael J.

    2018-06-01

    Hydrological dynamics act as a primary control on ecosystem function in mountain peatlands, serving as an important regulator of carbon fluxes. In western North America, mountain peatlands exist in different hydrogeological settings, across a range climatic conditions, and vary in floristic composition. The sustainability of these ecosystems, particularly those at the low end of their known elevation range, is susceptible to a changing climate via changes in the water cycle. We conducted a hydrological investigation of two mountain peatlands, with differing vegetation, hydrogeological setting (sloping vs basin), and climate (strong vs weak monsoon influence). Growing season saturated zone water budgets were modeled on a daily basis, and subsurface flow characterizations were performed during multiple field campaigns at each site. The sloping peatland expectedly showed a strong lateral groundwater potential gradient throughout the growing season. Alternatively, the basin peatland had low lateral gradients but more pronounced vertical gradients. A zero-flux plane was apparent at a depth of approximately 50 cm below the peat surface at the basin peatland; shallow groundwater above this depth moved upward towards the surface via evapotranspiration. The differences in groundwater flow dynamics between the two sites also influenced water budgets. Higher groundwater inflow at the sloping peatland offset higher rates of evapotranspiration losses from the saturated zone, which were apparently driven by differences in vegetative cover. This research revealed that although sloping peatlands cover relatively small portions of mountain watersheds, they provide unique settings where vegetation directly utilizes groundwater for transpiration, which were several-fold higher than typically reported for surrounding uplands.

  6. Hydrology of Fritchie Marsh, coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fritchie Marsh, near Slidell, Louisiana, is being considered as a disposal site for sewage effluent. A two-dimensional, finite element, surface water modeling systems was used to solve the shallow water equations for flow. Factors affecting flow patterns are channel locations, inlets, outlets, islands, marsh vegetation, marsh geometry, stage of the West Pearl River, flooding over the lower Pearl River basin, gravity tides, wind-induced currents, and sewage discharge to the marsh. Four steady-state simulations were performed for two hydrologic events at two rates of sewage discharge. The events, near tide with no wind or rain and neap tide with a tide differential across the marsh, were selected as worst-case events for sewage effluent dispersion and were assumed as steady state events. Because inflows and outflows to the marsh are tidally affected, steady state simulations cannot fully define the hydraulic characteristics of the marsh for all hydrologic events. Model results and field data indicate that, during near tide with little or no rain, large parts of the marsh are stagnant; and sewage effluent, at existing and projected flows, has minimal effect on marsh flows. (USGS)

  7. Towards improved parameterization of a macroscale hydrologic model in a discontinuous permafrost boreal forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Endalamaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling hydrological processes in the Alaskan sub-arctic is challenging because of the extreme spatial heterogeneity in soil properties and vegetation communities. Nevertheless, modeling and predicting hydrological processes is critical in this region due to its vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Coarse-spatial-resolution datasets used in land surface modeling pose a new challenge in simulating the spatially distributed and basin-integrated processes since these datasets do not adequately represent the small-scale hydrological, thermal, and ecological heterogeneity. The goal of this study is to improve the prediction capacity of mesoscale to large-scale hydrological models by introducing a small-scale parameterization scheme, which better represents the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation cover in the Alaskan sub-arctic. The small-scale parameterization schemes are derived from observations and a sub-grid parameterization method in the two contrasting sub-basins of the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed (CPCRW in Interior Alaska: one nearly permafrost-free (LowP sub-basin and one permafrost-dominated (HighP sub-basin. The sub-grid parameterization method used in the small-scale parameterization scheme is derived from the watershed topography. We found that observed soil thermal and hydraulic properties – including the distribution of permafrost and vegetation cover heterogeneity – are better represented in the sub-grid parameterization method than the coarse-resolution datasets. Parameters derived from the coarse-resolution datasets and from the sub-grid parameterization method are implemented into the variable infiltration capacity (VIC mesoscale hydrological model to simulate runoff, evapotranspiration (ET, and soil moisture in the two sub-basins of the CPCRW. Simulated hydrographs based on the small-scale parameterization capture most of the peak and low flows, with similar accuracy in both sub

  8. Predicting hydrological response to forest changes by simple statistical models: the selection of the best indicator of forest changes with a hydrological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, D.; Zhang, M.; Ren, S.; Hou, Y.; Yu, L.; Meng, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Forest plays an important role in hydrological cycle, and forest changes will inevitably affect runoff across multiple spatial scales. The selection of a suitable indicator for forest changes is essential for predicting forest-related hydrological response. This study used the Meijiang River, one of the headwaters of the Poyang Lake as an example to identify the best indicator of forest changes for predicting forest change-induced hydrological responses. Correlation analysis was conducted first to detect the relationships between monthly runoff and its predictive variables including antecedent monthly precipitation and indicators for forest changes (forest coverage, vegetation indices including EVI, NDVI, and NDWI), and by use of the identified predictive variables that were most correlated with monthly runoff, multiple linear regression models were then developed. The model with best performance identified in this study included two independent variables -antecedent monthly precipitation and NDWI. It indicates that NDWI is the best indicator of forest change in hydrological prediction while forest coverage, the most commonly used indicator of forest change is insignificantly related to monthly runoff. This highlights the use of vegetation index such as NDWI to indicate forest changes in hydrological studies. This study will provide us with an efficient way to quantify the hydrological impact of large-scale forest changes in the Meijiang River watershed, which is crucial for downstream water resource management and ecological protection in the Poyang Lake basin.

  9. Climate change effects on the hydrological regime of small non-perennial river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumo, Dario; Caracciolo, Domenico; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have been witnessing an increasing interest on global climate change and, although we are only at the first stage of the projected trends, some signals of climate alteration are already visible. Climate change encompasses modifications in the characteristics of several interrelated climate variables, and unavoidably produces relevant effects on almost all the natural processes related to the hydrological cycle. This study focuses on potential impacts of climate variations on the streamflow regime of small river basins in Mediterranean, seasonally dry, regions. The paper provides a quantitative evaluation of potential modifications in the flow duration curves (FDCs) and in the partitioning between surface and subsurface contributions to streamflow, induced by climate changes projected over the next century in different basins, also exploring the role exerted by different soil–vegetation compositions. To this aim, it is used a recent hydrological model, which is calibrated at five Sicilian (Italy) basins using a past period with available streamflow observations. The model is then forced by daily precipitation and reference evapotranspiration series representative of the current climatic conditions and two future temporal horizons, referring to the time windows 2045–2065 and 2081–2100. Future climatic series are generated by a weather generator, based on a stochastic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Models. The results show how the projected climatic modifications are differently reflected in the hydrological response of the selected basins, implying, in general, a sensible downshift of the FDCs, with a significant reduction in the mean annual streamflow, and substantial alterations in streamflow seasonality and in the relative importance of the surface and subsurface components. The projected climate change impact on the hydrological regime of ephemeral rivers could have important implications for the water resource management and

  10. Climate change effects on the hydrological regime of small non-perennial river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumo, Dario, E-mail: dario.pumo@unipa.it; Caracciolo, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.caracciolo@unipa.it; Viola, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.viola77@unipa.it; Noto, Leonardo V., E-mail: leonardo.noto@unipa.it

    2016-01-15

    Recent years have been witnessing an increasing interest on global climate change and, although we are only at the first stage of the projected trends, some signals of climate alteration are already visible. Climate change encompasses modifications in the characteristics of several interrelated climate variables, and unavoidably produces relevant effects on almost all the natural processes related to the hydrological cycle. This study focuses on potential impacts of climate variations on the streamflow regime of small river basins in Mediterranean, seasonally dry, regions. The paper provides a quantitative evaluation of potential modifications in the flow duration curves (FDCs) and in the partitioning between surface and subsurface contributions to streamflow, induced by climate changes projected over the next century in different basins, also exploring the role exerted by different soil–vegetation compositions. To this aim, it is used a recent hydrological model, which is calibrated at five Sicilian (Italy) basins using a past period with available streamflow observations. The model is then forced by daily precipitation and reference evapotranspiration series representative of the current climatic conditions and two future temporal horizons, referring to the time windows 2045–2065 and 2081–2100. Future climatic series are generated by a weather generator, based on a stochastic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Models. The results show how the projected climatic modifications are differently reflected in the hydrological response of the selected basins, implying, in general, a sensible downshift of the FDCs, with a significant reduction in the mean annual streamflow, and substantial alterations in streamflow seasonality and in the relative importance of the surface and subsurface components. The projected climate change impact on the hydrological regime of ephemeral rivers could have important implications for the water resource management and

  11. [Effects of soil crusts on surface hydrology in the semiarid Loess hilly area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wen, Zhi; Chen, Li-Ding; Chen, Jin; Wu, Dong-Ping

    2012-11-01

    Soil crusts are distributed extensively in the Chinese Loess Plateau and play key roles in surface hydrological processes. In this study, a typical loess hilly region in Anjiagou catchment, Dingxi city, Gansu province was selected as the study region, and soil crusts in the catchment were investigated. Then, the hydrological effect of soil crusts was studied by using multi-sampling and hydrological monitoring experiments. Several key results were shown as follows. Firstly, compared with bared soil without crust cover, soil crusts can greatly reduce the bulk density, improve the porosity of soil, and raise the holding capacity of soil moisture which ranges from 1.4 to 1.9 times of that of bared soil. Secondly, the role of soil crust on rainfall interception was very significant. Moss crust was found to be strongest on rainfall interception, followed by synantectic crusts and lichen crusts. Bared soil without covering crusts was poorest in resisting rainfall splash. Thirdly, hydrological simulation experiments indicate that soil crusts play a certain positive role in promoting the water infiltration capacity, and the mean infiltration rate of the crusted soil was 2 times higher than that of the no-crust covered soils. While the accumulated infiltrated water amounts was also far higher than that of the bared soil.

  12. 30 CFR 817.57 - Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.57 Hydrologic balance: Surface... by roads, railroads, conveyors, pipelines, utilities, or similar facilities. You must comply with all...

  13. Hydrological Response of Alpine Wetlands to Climate Warming in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpine wetlands in the Tibetan Plateau (TP play a crucial role in the regional hydrological cycle due to their strong influence on surface ecohydrological processes; therefore, understanding how TP wetlands respond to climate change is essential for projecting their future condition and potential vulnerability. We investigated the hydrological responses of a large TP wetland complex to recent climate change, by combining multiple satellite observations and in-situ hydro-meteorological records. We found different responses of runoff production to regional warming trends among three basins with similar climate, topography and vegetation cover but different wetland proportions. The basin with larger wetland proportion (40.1% had a lower mean runoff coefficient (0.173 ± 0.006, and also showed increasingly lower runoff level (−3.9% year−1, p = 0.002 than the two adjacent basins. The satellite-based observations showed an increasing trend of annual non-frozen period, especially in the wetland-dominated region (2.64 day·year−1, p < 0.10, and a strong extension of vegetation growing-season (0.26–0.41 day·year−1, p < 0.10. Relatively strong increasing trends in evapotranspiration (ET (~1.00 mm·year−1, p < 0.01 and the vertical temperature gradient above ground surface (0.043 °C·year−1, p < 0.05 in wetland-dominant areas were documented from satellite-based ET observations and weather station records. These results indicate recent surface drying and runoff reduction of alpine wetlands, and their potential vulnerability to degradation with continued climate warming.

  14. Geomorphic evaluation of erosional stability at reclaimed surface mines in northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The report identifies geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic conditions that are associated with erosion of reclaimed surface-mined lands in northwestern Colorado. The report also presents methods for determining the appropriate values of geomorphic variables that can be manipulated during reclamation to increase erosional stability. A section on geomorphic principles associated with erosion of reclaimed land surfaces is designed for use as a primer by mine personnel and reclamation planners. The areas of interest in the study were those that were reclaimed under jurisdiction of current (1988) SMCRA reclamation regulations, yet were still affected by relatively rapid erosion rates several years after reclamation activities were completed. Geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic data were collected onsite and from topographic maps. Data from reclaimed areas undergoing accelerated erosion were compared with data from reclaimed areas undergoing minimal erosion to identify conditions that controlled erosion on reclaimed surface-mined lands and to identify some postmining equilibrium landform characteristics. These data also were used to develop threshold relations

  15. Vegetation-climate feedbacks modulate rainfall patterns in Africa under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minchao; Schurgers, Guy; Rummukainen, Markku; Smith, Benjamin; Samuelsson, Patrick; Jansson, Christer; Siltberg, Joe; May, Wilhelm

    2016-07-01

    Africa has been undergoing significant changes in climate and vegetation in recent decades, and continued changes may be expected over this century. Vegetation cover and composition impose important influences on the regional climate in Africa. Climate-driven changes in vegetation structure and the distribution of forests versus savannah and grassland may feed back to climate via shifts in the surface energy balance, hydrological cycle and resultant effects on surface pressure and larger-scale atmospheric circulation. We used a regional Earth system model incorporating interactive vegetation-atmosphere coupling to investigate the potential role of vegetation-mediated biophysical feedbacks on climate dynamics in Africa in an RCP8.5-based future climate scenario. The model was applied at high resolution (0.44 × 0.44°) for the CORDEX-Africa domain with boundary conditions from the CanESM2 general circulation model. We found that increased tree cover and leaf-area index (LAI) associated with a CO2 and climate-driven increase in net primary productivity, particularly over subtropical savannah areas, not only imposed important local effect on the regional climate by altering surface energy fluxes but also resulted in remote effects over central Africa by modulating the land-ocean temperature contrast, Atlantic Walker circulation and moisture inflow feeding the central African tropical rainforest region with precipitation. The vegetation-mediated feedbacks were in general negative with respect to temperature, dampening the warming trend simulated in the absence of feedbacks, and positive with respect to precipitation, enhancing rainfall reduction over the rainforest areas. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for vegetation-atmosphere interactions in climate projections for tropical and subtropical Africa.

  16. Evaluating Vegetation Type Effects on Land Surface Temperature at the City Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherley, E. B.; McFadden, J. P.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of different plant functional types and urban materials on surface temperatures has significant consequences for climate modeling, water management, and human health in cities. To date, doing so at the urban scale has been complicated by small-scale surface heterogeneity and limited data. In this study we examined gradients of land surface temperature (LST) across sub-pixel mixtures of different vegetation types and urban materials across the entire Los Angeles, CA, metropolitan area (4,283 km2). We used AVIRIS airborne hyperspectral imagery (36 m resolution, 224 bands, 0.35 - 2.5 μm) to estimate sub-pixel fractions of impervious, pervious, tree, and turfgrass surfaces, validating them with simulated mixtures constructed from image spectra. We then used simultaneously imaged LST retrievals collected at multiple times of day to examine how temperature changed along gradients of the sub-pixel mixtures. Diurnal in situ LST measurements were used to confirm image values. Sub-pixel fractions were well correlated with simulated validation data for turfgrass (r2 = 0.71), tree (r2 = 0.77), impervious (r2 = 0.77), and pervious (r2 = 0.83) surfaces. The LST of pure pixels showed the effects of both the diurnal cycle and the surface type, with vegetated classes having a smaller diurnal temperature range of 11.6°C whereas non-vegetated classes had a diurnal range of 16.2°C (similar to in situ measurements collected simultaneously with the imagery). Observed LST across fractional gradients of turf/impervious and tree/impervious sub-pixel mixtures decreased linearly with increasing vegetation fraction. The slopes of decreasing LST were significantly different between tree and turf mixtures, with steeper slopes observed for turf (p < 0.05). These results suggest that different physiological characteristics and different access to irrigation water of urban trees and turfgrass results in significantly different LST effects, which can be detected at

  17. Virtual hydrology observatory: an immersive visualization of hydrology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Simon; Cruz-Neira, Carolina; Habib, Emad; Gerndt, Andreas

    2009-02-01

    The Virtual Hydrology Observatory will provide students with the ability to observe the integrated hydrology simulation with an instructional interface by using a desktop based or immersive virtual reality setup. It is the goal of the virtual hydrology observatory application to facilitate the introduction of field experience and observational skills into hydrology courses through innovative virtual techniques that mimic activities during actual field visits. The simulation part of the application is developed from the integrated atmospheric forecast model: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), and the hydrology model: Gridded Surface/Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA). Both the output from WRF and GSSHA models are then used to generate the final visualization components of the Virtual Hydrology Observatory. The various visualization data processing techniques provided by VTK are 2D Delaunay triangulation and data optimization. Once all the visualization components are generated, they are integrated into the simulation data using VRFlowVis and VR Juggler software toolkit. VR Juggler is used primarily to provide the Virtual Hydrology Observatory application with fully immersive and real time 3D interaction experience; while VRFlowVis provides the integration framework for the hydrologic simulation data, graphical objects and user interaction. A six-sided CAVETM like system is used to run the Virtual Hydrology Observatory to provide the students with a fully immersive experience.

  18. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Van Loon, Anne F.; Te Brake, Bram; Van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H. J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds) in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined....

  19. A dynamic ecosystem process model for understanding interactions between permafrost thawing and vegetation responses in the arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Travis, B. J.; Fisher, R. A.; Wilson, C. J.; McDowell, N.

    2010-12-01

    The arctic is expected to play an important role in the Earth’s future climate due to the large carbon stocks that are stored in permafrost and peatlands, a substantial proportion of which may be released to the atmosphere due to permafrost thawing. There may be positive feedbacks of permafrost thawing on plant growth by releasing stored nitrogen and increasing rooting depth; however, vegetation response to other changing variables such as CO2 and temperature can also modify soil hydrology and energy fluxes, leading to either positive or negative feedbacks on permafrost thawing. Disentangling the interactions between permafrost thawing and vegetation growth is critical for assessing the potential role of arctic regions on current and future global carbon cycling. We have developed a mechanistic, regional, and spatially explicit dynamic ecosystem process model through the integration of a 3-D soil hydrology and biogeochemistry model (Arctic Hydrology, ARCHY) and a dynamic vegetation model (Ecosystem Demography, ED), to quantify the importance of plant-permafrost interactions to soil and plant carbon storage. This model integrates important processes including photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration, 3-D competition for light, 3-D soil hydrology, energy fluxes (ice melting in the soil and solar radiation interception by canopy), nitrogen cycles (microbial decomposition, nitrogen transportation in soil, passive and active nitrogen uptake by plants), species migration, and drought-related mortality. A sensitivity analysis has been implemented to assess the importance of the hydrological cycle, the nitrogen cycle and energy fluxes in regulating the above and below-ground carbon cycles in arctic regions. Our model can fill an important gap between field and global land surface models for assessing plot and regional level hypotheses in the context of global climate.

  20. Hydrological characterization of the Usumacinta River Basin towards the preservation of environmental services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Silva, F.-O.; Contreras-Silva, A.-I.; Rosales-Arriaga, E.-R.

    2015-04-01

    The Usumacinta basin is characterized by aboundance of natural and scenic resources. It also houses a vast biodiversity (wich also means invaluable genetic resources). Its river is the longest in Mexico (main channel length of 927 km). Therefore it is one of the most productive regions of the country in terms of ecosystem services (such as habitat for biodiversity, maintenance of wetlands, water flows generation, carbon sequestration, soil retention, etc.) that are directly related to the hydrological functioning. During the last centuries, human activities on the Usumacinta basin have drastically changed its geomorphology and vegetation cover. As a result the hydrological cycle has been greatly modified. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct studies in order to support planning activities and implementation of public policies, as well as, to generate a permanent scientific ecosystem monitoring system. This paper presents the results of a study focused on estimating the water balance of this frontier basin. Satellite and field data is used. Variables as vegetation cover (generated by classification of Landsat and MODIS), digital terrain model (SRTM), surface temperature (MODIS), potential evaporation, precipitation and runoff measurements were processed. Various techniques of Remote Sensing, geospatial models (as SSEB and the model for definition of surface hydrological connectivity) and spatial analysis (geostatistics and map algebra) were implemented. The results were integrated into the environment of a Geographic Information System. These are estimates of actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, among other biophysical parameters. For the lower part of the basin a balance was performed to estimate inputs of water from runoff and precipitation to the large amount of wetlands in the area. Additionally, areas generating runoff and areas in which most of the precipitaion infiltrates were also mapped. The geo-information obtained is requiered for

  1. Pre-LBA CABARE Mapped Land Surface and Vegetation Characteristics, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Surface parameter digital maps of vegetation, soil, and topography were obtained for Rondonia, Brazil, covering the 5x5 degree region bounded by 13-8...

  2. Simulating vegetation dynamics in Chile from 21ka BP to present: Effects of climate change on vegetation functions and cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Christian; Liakka, Johan; Schmid, Manuel; Fuentes, Juan-Pablo; Ehlers, Todd A.; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation composition and establishment is strongly dependent on climate conditions but also a result of vegetation dynamics (competition for light, water and nutrients). In addition, vegetation exerts control over the development of landscapes as it mediates the climatic and hydrological forces shaping the terrain via hillslope and fluvial processes. At the same time, topography as well as soil texture and soil depth affect the microclimate, soil water storage and rooting space that is defining the environmental envelope for vegetation development. Within the EarthShape research program (www.earthshape.net) we evaluate these interactions by simulating the co-evolution of landscape and vegetation with a dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) and a landscape evolution model (LandLab). LPJ-GUESS is a mechanistic model driven by daily or monthly weather data and explicitly simulates vegetation physiology, succession, competition and water and nutrient cycling. Here we present the results of first transient vegetation simulations from 21kyr BP to present-day using the TraCE-21ka climate dataset for four focus sites along the coastal cordillera of Chile that are exposed to a substantial meridional climate gradient (ranging from hyper-arid to humid-temperate conditions). We show that the warming occurring in the region from LGM to present, in addition to the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, led to a shift in vegetation composition and surface cover. Future work will show how these changes resonate in the dynamics of hillslope and fluvial erosion and ultimately bi-directional feedback mechanisms of vegetation development and landscape evolution/ soil formation (see also companion presentation by Schmid et al., this session).

  3. Plant functional coexistence and influence on the eco-hydrologic response of semiarid hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanjalili, Mohammadjafar; Saco, Patricia M.; Willgoose, Garry

    2016-04-01

    Through its influence on rainfall-runoff and erosion-deposition processes, vegetation remarkably regulates different aspects of landscape processes. Here, the influence of different plant functional dynamics on the coexistence of different species in arid and semi-arid regions with banded vegetation patterns is investigated. Simulations capture the coevolution and coexistence of two different species interacting with hydrology in hillslopes with gentle slopes. The dynamic vegetation model simulates the dynamics of overland runoff, soil moisture, facilitation mechanisms (evaporation reduction through shading and enhanced infiltration by vegetation), local and non-local seed dispersal, competition through water uptake and changes in the biomass of the two species. Here for simplicity the two species are assumed to use water from the same soil depth. Results of the coexistence of the two species capture differences in facilitation-competition interactions caused by specific types of vegetation with varying hydrologic traits. The results illustrate that the dominance of facilitation or competition feedbacks which determine either the coexistence of the two species or survival of only one of them strongly depends on the characteristics and hydrologic traits of the coexisting species and the severity of water stresses. We therefore argue that our results should stimulate further research into the role of interspecific and intraspecific feedbacks between different plant species and specifically the influence of the resulting vegetation community on landform evolution processes.

  4. Integrated Surface/subsurface flow modeling in PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Understanding soil water, groundwater, and shallow surface water dynamics as an integrated hydrological system is critical for understanding the Earth’s critical zone, the thin outer layer at our planet’s surface where vegetation, soil, rock, and gases interact to regulate the environment. Computational tools that take this view of soil moisture and shallow surface flows as a single integrated system are typically referred to as integrated surface/subsurface hydrology models. We extend the open-source, highly parallel, subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator PFLOTRAN to accommodate surface flows. In contrast to most previous implementations, we do not represent a distinct surface system. Instead, the vertical gradient in hydraulic head at the land surface is neglected, which allows the surface flow system to be eliminated and incorporated directly into the subsurface system. This tight coupling approach leads to a robust capability and also greatly simplifies implementation in existing subsurface simulators such as PFLOTRAN. Successful comparisons to independent numerical solutions build confidence in the approximation and implementation. Example simulations of the Walker Branch and East Fork Poplar Creek watersheds near Oak Ridge, Tennessee demonstrate the robustness of the approach in geometrically complex applications. The lack of a robust integrated surface/subsurface hydrology capability had been a barrier to PFLOTRAN’s use in critical zone studies. This work addresses that capability gap, thus enabling PFLOTRAN as a community platform for building integrated models of the critical zone.

  5. Surface energy exchanges over contrasting vegetation types on a subtropical sand island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael; McGowan, Hamish; Lowry, Andrew; Guyot, Adrien

    2017-04-01

    The surface energy balance of subtropical coastal vegetation communities has thus far received little attention. Here we present a multi-year observational data set using the eddy covariance method to quantify for the first time the surface energy balance over three contrasting vegetation types on a subtropical sand island in eastern Australia: a periodically inundated sedge swamp, an exotic pine plantation and a coastal heath. Maximum daily sensible heat flux varied between sites but was typically > 280 Wm-2 in the coastal heath and pine plantation but no more than 250 Wm-2 in the swamp when dry and 1. The partitioning of energy, as represented by β, is similar to a variety of Australian ecosystems, and a range of coastal vegetation types in other latitudes, but differs from other tropical or subtropical locations which have strongly seasonal rainfall patterns and therefore a switch from β > 1 before rainfall to β changes in background meteorology with the most important influences being net radiation, absolute humidity, and rainfall. The main factor differentiating the sites was soil water content, with the remnant coastal heath and swamp having ready access to water but the exotic pine plantation having much drier soils. Should the current balance between remnant vegetation and the pine plantation undergo changes there would be a corresponding shift in the surface energy balance of the island as a whole, and altered plant water use may lead to reduced water table depth, important because the groundwater of the local islands is used as part of a regional water grid. A better understanding of the response of coastal vegetation to atmospheric forcing will enable more informed decision making on land use changes, as coastal regions the world over face development pressure.

  6. Pre-LBA CABARE Mapped Land Surface and Vegetation Characteristics, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface parameter digital maps of vegetation, soil, and topography were obtained for Rondonia, Brazil, covering the 5x5 degree region bounded by 13-8 degrees S and...

  7. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    , management and conservation of fens are constrained by limited knowledge on the relations between vegetation and measurable hydrological conditions. This study investigates the relations between vegetation and water level dynamics in groundwater dependent wetlands in Denmark. A total of 35 wetland sites...... across Denmark were included in the study. The sites represent a continuum of wetlands with respect to vegetation and hydrological conditions. Water level was measured continuously using pressure transducers at each site. Metrics expressing different hydrological characteristics, such as mean water level...... and low and high water level periods, were calculated based on the water level time series. A complete plant species list was recorded in plots covering 78.5 m2 at each site. Community metrics such as total number of species and the number of bryophytes were generated from the species lists and Ellenberg...

  8. Spring hydrology determines summer net carbon uptake in northern ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John S; Reichle, Rolf H

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO 2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO 2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (⩾50° N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO 2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO 2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends. (letters)

  9. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  10. Long-term monitoring of stream bank stability under different vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminska, Dominika; Skaalsveen, Kamilla; Kerkhof, Tjibbe

    2017-04-01

    Vegetated buffer zones are common environmental measures in many countries, including Norway. The presence of riparian vegetation on stream banks not only provides ecological benefits but also influence bank slope stability, through several complex interactions between riparian vegetation and hydro - mechanical processes. The hydrological processes associated with slope stability are complex and yet difficult to quantify, especially because their transient effects (e.g. changes throughout the vegetation life cycle). Additionally, there is very limited amount of field scale research focusing on investigation of coupled hydrological and mechanical influence of vegetation on stream bank behavior, accounting for both seasonal time scale and different vegetation type, and none dedicated to marine clay soils (typically soil for Norway). In order to fill this gap we established continues, long term hydrogeological monitoring o selected cross - section within stream bank, covered with different types of vegetation, typical for Norwegian agriculture areas (grass, shrubs, and trees). The monitoring involves methods such as spatial and temporal monitoring of soil moisture conditions, ground water level and fluctuation of water level in the stream. Herein we will present first 10 months of monitoring data: observed hydrological trends and differences between three cross - sections. Moreover, we will present first modelling exercises that aims to estimate stream banks stability with accounting on presence of different vegetation types using BSTEM and HYDRUS models. With this presentation, we would like to stimulate the discussion and get feedback that could help us to improve both, our experimental set up and analysis approach.

  11. Chapter 1: Hydrologic exchange flows and their ecological consequences in river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson

    2016-01-01

    The actively flowing waters of streams and rivers remain in close contact with surrounding off-channel and subsurface environments. These hydrologic linkages between relatively fast flowing channel waters, with more slowly flowing waters off-channel and in the subsurface, are collectively referred to as hydrologic exchange flows (HEFs). HEFs include surface exchange with a channel’s marginal areas and subsurface flow through the streambed (hyporheic flow), as well as storm-driven bank storage and overbank flows onto floodplains. HEFs are important, not only for storing water and attenuating flood peaks, but also for their role in influencing water conservation, water quality improvement, and related outcomes for ecological values and services of aquatic ecosystems. Biogeochemical opportunities for chemical transformations are increased by HEFs as a result of the prolonged contact between flowing waters and geochemically and microbially active surfaces of sediments and vegetation. Chemical processing is intensified and water quality is often improved by removal of excess nutrients, metals, and organic contaminants from flowing waters. HEFs also are important regulators of organic matter decomposition, nutrient recycling, and stream metabolism that helps establish a balanced and resilient aquatic food web. The shallow and protected storage zones associated with HEFs support nursery and feeding areas for aquatic organisms that sustain aquatic biological diversity. Understanding of these varied roles for HEFs has been driven by the related disciplines of stream ecology, fluvial geomorphology, surface-water hydraulics, and groundwater hydrology. A current research emphasis is on the role that HEFs play in altered flow regimes, including restoration to achieve diverse goals, such as expanding aquatic habitats and managing dissolved and suspended river loads to reduce over-fertilization of coastal waters and offset wetland loss. New integrative concepts and models are

  12. Metrics to describe the effects of landscape pattern on hydrology in a lotic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.; Cohen, M. J.; Kaplan, D. A.; Acharya, S.; Larsen, L.; Nungesser, M.

    2013-12-01

    Strong reciprocal interactions exist between landscape patterns and ecological processes. Hydrology is the dominant abiotic driver of ecological processes in wetlands, particularly flowing wetlands, but is both the control on and controlled by the geometry of vegetation patterning. Landscape metrics are widely used to quantitatively link pattern and process. Our goal here was to use several candidate spatial pattern metrics to predict the effects of wetland vegetation pattern on hydrologic regime, specifically hydroperiod, in the ridge-slough patterned landscape of the Everglades. The metrics focus on the capacity for longitudinally connected flow, and thus the ability of this low-gradient patterned landscape to route water from upstream. We first explored flow friction cost (FFC), a weighted spatial distance procedure wherein ridges have a high flow cost than sloughs by virtue of their elevation and vegetation structure, to evaluate water movement through different landscape configurations. We also investigated existing published flow metrics, specifically the Directional Connectivity Index (DCI) and Landscape Discharge Competence (LDC), that seek to quantify connectivity, one of the sentinel targets of ecological restoration. Hydroperiod was estimated using a numerical hydrologic model (SWIFT 2D) in real and synthetic landscapes with varying vegetation properties ( patch anisotropy, ridge density). Synthetic landscapes were constrained by the geostatistical properties of the best conserved patterned, and contained five anisotropy levels and seven ridge density levels. These were used to construct the relationship between landscape metrics and hydroperiod. Then, using historical images from 1940 to 2004, we applied the metrics toback-cast hydroperiod. Current vegetation maps were used to test scale dependency for each metric. Our results suggest that both FFC and DCI are good predictors of hydroperiod under free flowing conditions, and that they can be used

  13. Association between mapped vegetation and Quaternary geology on Santa Rosa Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronkite-Ratcliff, C.; Corbett, S.; Schmidt, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation and surficial geology are closely connected through the interface generally referred to as the critical zone. Not only do they influence each other, but they also provide clues into the effects of climate, topography, and hydrology on the earth's surface. This presentation describes quantitative analyses of the association between the recently compiled, independently generated vegetation and geologic map units on Santa Rosa Island, part of the Channel Islands National Park in Southern California. Santa Rosa Island was heavily grazed by sheep and cattle ranching for over one hundred years prior to its acquisition by the National Park Service. During this period, the island experienced significant erosion and spatial reduction and diversity of native plant species. Understanding the relationship between geology and vegetation is necessary for monitoring the recovery of native plant species, enhancing the viability of restoration sites, and understanding hydrologic conditions favorable for plant growth. Differences in grain size distribution and soil depth between geologic units support different plant communities through their influence on soil moisture, while differences in unit age reflect different degrees of pedogenic maturity. We find that unsupervised machine learning methods provide more informative insight into vegetation-geology associations than traditional measures such as Cramer's V and Goodman and Kruskal's lambda. Correspondence analysis shows that unique vegetation-geology patterns associated with beach/dune, grassland, hillslope/colluvial, and fluvial/wetland environments can be discerned from the data. By combining geology and vegetation with topographic variables, mixture models can be used to partition the landscape into multiple representative types, which then be compared with conceptual models of plant growth and succession over different landforms. Using this collection of methods, we show various ways that that Quaternary geology

  14. Hydrologic and Vegetative Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate Microspheres in Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type (“pure” versus “environmental”) on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality. PMID:23315738

  15. Olkiluoto surface and near-surface hydrological modelling in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2011-08-01

    The modeling approaches carried out with the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD) include palaeohydrological evolution of the Olkiluoto Island, examination of the boundary condition at the geosphere-biosphere interface zone, simulations related to infiltration experiment, prediction of the influence of ONKALO on hydraulic head in shallow and deep bedrock and optimisation of the shallow monitoring network. A so called short-term prediction system was developed for continuous updating of the estimated drawdowns caused by ONKALO. The palaeohydrological simulations were computed for a period starting from the time when the highest hills on Olkiluoto Island rose above sea level around 2 500 years ago. The input data needed in the model were produced by the UNTAMO-toolbox. The groundwater flow evolution is primarily driven by the postglacial land uplift and the uncertainty in the land uplift model is the biggest single factor that influences the accuracy of the results. The consistency of the boundary condition at the geosphere-biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) was studied during 2010. The comparison carried out during 2010 showed that pressure head profiles computed with the SHYD model and deep groundwater flow model FEFTRA are in good agreement with each other in the uppermost 100 m of the bedrock. This implies that flux profiles computed with the two approaches are close to each other and hydraulic heads computed at level z=0 m with the SHYD can be used as head boundary condition in the deep groundwater flow model FEFTRA. The surface hydrological model was used to analyse the results of the infiltration experiment. Increase in bedrock recharge inside WCA explains around 60-63 % from the amount of water pumped from OL-KR14 and 37-40 % of the water pumped from OL-KR14 flows towards pumping section via the hydrogeological zones. Pumping from OL-KR14 has only a minor effect on heads and fluxes in zones HZ19A and HZ19C compared to responses caused by leakages into

  16. Primer: Using Watershed Modeling System (WMS) for Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) Data Development - WMS 6.1 and GSSHA 1.43C

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Charles

    2003-01-01

    This document is a primer for use of the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) interface with the physically based, distributed-parameter hydrologic model Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA...

  17. Sensitivity of biogenic volatile organic compounds to land surface parameterizations and vegetation distributions in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chun; Huang, Maoyi; Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Qian, Yun; Guenther, Alex; Gu, Dasa; Shrivastava, Manish; Liu, Ying; Walters, Stacy; Pfister, Gabriele; Jin, Jiming; Shilling, John E.; Warneke, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Current climate models still have large uncertainties in estimating biogenic trace gases, which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry and secondary aerosol formation that ultimately influences air quality and aerosol radiative forcing. These uncertainties result from many factors, including uncertainties in land surface processes and specification of vegetation types, both of which can affect the simulated near-surface fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In this study, the latest version of Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN v2.1) is coupled within the land surface scheme CLM4 (Community Land Model version 4.0) in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem). In this implementation, MEGAN v2.1 shares a consistent vegetation map with CLM4 for estimating BVOC emissions. This is unlike MEGAN v2.0 in the public version of WRF-Chem that uses a stand-alone vegetation map that differs from what is used by land surface schemes. This improved modeling framework is used to investigate the impact of two land surface schemes, CLM4 and Noah, on BVOCs and examine the sensitivity of BVOCs to vegetation distributions in California. The measurements collected during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) conducted in June of 2010 provided an opportunity to evaluate the simulated BVOCs. Sensitivity experiments show that land surface schemes do influence the simulated BVOCs, but the impact is much smaller than that of vegetation distributions. This study indicates that more effort is needed to obtain the most appropriate and accurate land cover data sets for climate and air quality models in terms of simulating BVOCs, oxidant chemistry and, consequently, secondary organic aerosol formation.

  18. Economic Evaluation of Hydrological Ecosystem Services in Mediterranean River Basins Applied to a Case Study in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mastrorilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Land use affects eco-hydrological processes with consequences for floods and droughts. Changes in land use affect ecosystems and hydrological services. The objective of this study is the analysis of hydrological services through the quantification of water resources, pollutant loads, land retention capacity and soil erosion. On the basis of a quantitative evaluation, the economic values of the ecosystem services are estimated. By assigning an economic value to the natural resources and to the hydraulic system, the hydrological services can be computed at the scale of catchment ecosystem. The proposed methodology was applied to the basin “Bonis” (Calabria Region, Italy. The study analyses four land use scenarios: (i forest cover with good vegetative status (baseline scenario; (ii modification of the forest canopy; (iii variation in forest and cultivated surfaces; (iv insertion of impermeable areas. The simulations prove that the variations of the state of forest areas has considerable influence on the water balance, and then on the provided economic value. Small economic changes derive from reducing the impermeable areas. Increasing the agricultural area to 50% of the total, and reducing the forest surface, affects soil erosion, reduces the storage capacity of the water, and consequently the water harvesting. The suggested methodology can be considered a suitable tool for land planning.

  19. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  20. Land surface temperature representativeness in a heterogeneous area through a distributed energy-water balance model and remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corbari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature is the link between soil-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes and soil water content through the energy water balance. This paper analyses the representativeness of land surface temperature (LST for a distributed hydrological water balance model (FEST-EWB using LST from AHS (airborne hyperspectral scanner, with a spatial resolution between 2–4 m, LST from MODIS, with a spatial resolution of 1000 m, and thermal infrared radiometric ground measurements that are compared with the representative equilibrium temperature that closes the energy balance equation in the distributed hydrological model.

    Diurnal and nocturnal images are analyzed due to the non stable behaviour of the thermodynamic temperature and to the non linear effects induced by spatial heterogeneity.

    Spatial autocorrelation and scale of fluctuation of land surface temperature from FEST-EWB and AHS are analysed at different aggregation areas to better understand the scale of representativeness of land surface temperature in a hydrological process.

    The study site is the agricultural area of Barrax (Spain that is a heterogeneous area with a patchwork of irrigated and non irrigated vegetated fields and bare soil. The used data set was collected during a field campaign from 10 to 15 July 2005 in the framework of the SEN2FLEX project.

  1. Disagreement between Hydrological and Land Surface models on the water budgets in the Arctic: why is this and which of them is right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, E.; Martinez-de la Torre, A.; Ellis, R.; Robinson, E.

    2017-12-01

    The fresh-water budget of the Artic region has a diverse range of impacts: the ecosystems of the region, ocean circulation response to Arctic freshwater, methane emissions through changing wetland extent as well as the available fresh water for human consumption. But there are many processes that control the budget including a seasonal snow packs building and thawing, freezing soils and permafrost, extensive organic soils and large wetland systems. All these processes interact to create a complex hydrological system. In this study we examine a suite of 10 models that bring all those processes together in a 25 year reanalysis of the global water budget. We assess their performance in the Arctic region. There are two approaches to modelling fresh-water flows at large scales, referred to here as `Hydrological' and `Land Surface' models. While both approaches include a physically based model of the water stores and fluxes, the Land Surface models links the water flows to an energy-based model for processes such as snow melt and soil freezing. This study will analyse the impact of that basic difference on the regional patterns of evapotranspiration, runoff generation and terrestrial water storage. For the evapotranspiration, the Hydrological models tend to have a bigger spatial range in the model bias (difference to observations), implying greater errors compared to the Land-Surface models. For instance, some regions such as Eastern Siberia have consistently lower Evaporation in the Hydrological models than the Land Surface models. For the Runoff however, the results are the other way round with a slightly higher spatial range in bias for the Land Surface models implying greater errors than the Hydrological models. A simple analysis would suggest that Hydrological models are designed to get the runoff right, while Land Surface models designed to get the evapotranspiration right. Tracing the source of the difference suggests that the difference comes from the treatment

  2. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  3. Diagnosis of the hydrology of a small Arctic basin at the tundra-taiga transition using a physically based hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Sebastian A.; Pomeroy, John W.; Marsh, Philip

    2017-07-01

    A better understanding of cold regions hydrological processes and regimes in transitional environments is critical for predicting future Arctic freshwater fluxes under climate and vegetation change. A physically based hydrological model using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model platform was created for a small Arctic basin in the tundra-taiga transition region. The model represents snow redistribution and sublimation by wind and vegetation, snowmelt energy budget, evapotranspiration, subsurface flow through organic terrain, infiltration to frozen soils, freezing and thawing of soils, permafrost and streamflow routing. The model was used to reconstruct the basin water cycle over 28 years to understand and quantify the mass fluxes controlling its hydrological regime. Model structure and parameters were set from the current understanding of Arctic hydrology, remote sensing, field research in the basin and region, and calibration against streamflow observations. Calibration was restricted to subsurface hydraulic and storage parameters. Multi-objective evaluation of the model using observed streamflow, snow accumulation and ground freeze/thaw state showed adequate simulation. Significant spatial variability in the winter mass fluxes was found between tundra, shrubs and forested sites, particularly due to the substantial blowing snow redistribution and sublimation from the wind-swept upper basin, as well as sublimation of canopy intercepted snow from the forest (about 17% of snowfall). At the basin scale, the model showed that evapotranspiration is the largest loss of water (47%), followed by streamflow (39%) and sublimation (14%). The models streamflow performance sensitivity to a set of parameter was analysed, as well as the mean annual mass balance uncertainty associated with these parameters.

  4. Landscape-based hydrological modelling : Understanding the influence of climate, topography, and vegetation on catchment hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, a novel landscape-based hydrological model is presented that was developed and tested in numerous catchments around the world with various landscapes and climate conditions. A landscape is considered to consist of a topography and an ecosystem living on it. Firstly, the influence of

  5. Multiple equilibria on planet Dune: climate–vegetation dynamics on a sandy planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cresto Aleina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between climate and vegetation on an ideal water-limited planet, focussing on the influence of vegetation on the global water cycle. We introduce a simple mechanistic box model consisting in a two-layer representation of the atmosphere and a two-layer soil scheme. The model includes the dynamics of vegetation cover, and the main physical processes of energy and water exchange among the different components. With a realistic choice of parameters, this model displays three stable equilibria, depending on the initial conditions of soil water and vegetation cover. The system reaches a hot and dry state for low values of initial water content and/or vegetation cover, while we observe a wet, vegetated state with mild surface temperature when the system starts from larger initial values of both variables. The third state is a cold desert, where plants transfer enough water to the atmosphere to start a weaker, evaporation-dominated water cycle before they wilt. These results indicate that in this system vegetation plays a central role in transferring water from the soil to the atmosphere and trigger a hydrologic cycle. The model adopted here can also be used to conceptually illustrate processes and feedbacks affecting the water cycle in water-limited continental areas on Earth.

  6. Effect of vegetation and surface amelioration on simulated landform evolution of the post-mining landscape at ERA Ranger mine, Northern Territory. Supervising Scientist report 134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.G.; Saynor, M.J.; House, T.; The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW; Willgoose, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of vegetation and surface ripping on evolution of the ERA Ranger Mine (ERARM) post-mining landform was assessed using the SIBERIA landform evolution model. Data were collected from four sites on the waste rock dump at ERARM-(1) the cap site which was unvegetated and unripped with a surface slope of 0.028 m/m; (2) the batter site, surface slope 0.207 rn/m, also unvegetated and unripped but with a covering of coarse rock material; (3) the soil site, surface slope 0.012 m/m, which had ∼90% vegetation cover of low shrubs and grasses and had been topsoiled and surface ripped; and (4) the fire site, surface slope 0.023 m/m, which was topsoiled and ripped and is presently vegetated with well established trees, grasses and shrubs. Natural rainfall events were monitored on the four sites to collect rainfall, runoff and soil loss data to parameterise the SIBERIA sediment discharge equation. The SIBERIA sediment discharge equation was calibrated using output from a sediment transport model of the form T=β 2 S n1 ∫ Q m1 dt, and the DISTFW rainfall-runoff model. Low frequency high intensity events resulted in the greatest soil loss. Therefore, it is important that sediment loss during high intensity events is predicted accurately. Storms with a range of intensities were selected to derive the sediment transport model. DISTFW hydrology model parameters were derived by fitting four monitored events simultaneously. SIBERIA simulations of post-mining rehabilitated landform evolution showed that for the unvegetated and unripped surface, the landform at 1000 y would be dissected by localised erosion valleys (maximum depth = 7 6 m) with deposited fans (maximum depth 14.8 m) at the outlet of the valleys. Simulated valley form has been recognised in nature which indicates that SIBERIA models natural processes efficiently. For the vegetated and ripped condition reduced valley development (maximum 1000 y depth = 2 4 m) and deposition (maximum 1000 y depth = 4.8 m) occurred

  7. Warming effects on the urban hydrology in cold climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvi, L; Grimmond, C S B; McFadden, J P; Christen, A; Strachan, I B; Taka, M; Warsta, L; Heimann, M

    2017-07-19

    While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that the presence of snow critically changes the impact that city design has on the local-scale hydrology and climate. After snow melt, the cities return to being strongly controlled by the proportion of built and vegetated surfaces. However in winter, the presence of snow masks the influence of the built and vegetated fractions. We show how inter-year variability of wintertime temperature can modify this effect of snow. With increasing temperatures, these cities could be pushed towards very different partitioning between runoff and evapotranspiration. We derive the dependency of wintertime runoff on this warming effect in combination with the effect of urban densification.

  8. Spatial Modeling of Urban Vegetation and Land Surface Temperature: A Case Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudong Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The coupling relationship between urban vegetation and land surface temperature (LST has been heatedly debated in a variety of environmental studies. This paper studies the urban vegetation information and LST by utilizing a series of remote sensing imagery covering the period from 1990 to 2007. Their coupling relationship is analyzed, in order to provide the basis for ecological planning and environment protection. The results show that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, urban vegetation abundance (UVA and urban forest abundance (UFA are negatively correlated with LST, which means that both urban vegetation and urban forest are capable in decreasing LST. The apparent influence of urban vegetation and urban forest on LST varies with the spatial resolution of the imagery, and peaks at the resolutions ranging from 90 m to 120 m.

  9. Evolution of the vegetation system in the Heihe River basin in the last 2000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of vegetation systems to the long-term changes in climate, hydrology, and social–economic conditions in river basins is critical for sustainable river basin management. This study aims to investigate the evolution of natural and crop vegetation systems in the Heihe River basin (HRB over the past 2000 years. Archived Landsat images, historical land use maps and hydrological records were introduced to derive the long-term spatial distribution of natural and crop vegetation and the corresponding biomass levels. The major findings are that (1 both natural and crop vegetation experienced three development stages: a pre-development stage (before the Republic of China, a rapid development stage (Republic of China – 2000, and a post-development stage (after 2000. Climate and hydrological conditions did not show significant impacts over crop vegetation, while streamflow presented synchronous changes with natural vegetation in the first stage. For the second stage, warmer temperature and increasing streamflow were found to be important factors for the increase in both natural and crop vegetation in the middle reaches of the HRB. For the third stage, positive climate and hydrological conditions, together with policy interventions, supported the overall vegetation increase in both the middle and lower HRB; (2 there was a significantly faster increase in crop biomass than that of native vegetation since 1949, which could be explained by the technological development; and (3 the ratio of natural vegetation to crop vegetation decreased from 16 during the Yuan Dynasty to about 2.2 since 2005. This ratio reflects the reaction of land and water development to a changing climate and altering social–economic conditions at the river basin level; therefore, it could be used as an indicator of water and land management at river basins.

  10. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ohene Asare

    Full Text Available Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture.

  11. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Ernest Ohene; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Bomblies, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture.

  12. Hydrodynamic modeling of hydrologic surface connectivity within a coastal river-floodplain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C. R.; Guneralp, I.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic surface connectivity (HSC) within river-floodplain environments is a useful indicator of the overall health of riparian habitats because it allows connections amongst components/landforms of the riverine landscape system to be quantified. Overbank flows have traditionally been the focus for analyses concerned with river-floodplain connectivity, but recent works have identified the large significance from sub-bankfull streamflows. Through the use of morphometric analysis and a digital elevation model that is relative to the river water surface, we previously determined that >50% of the floodplain for Mission River on the Coastal Bend of Texas becomes connected to the river at streamflows well-below bankfull conditions. Guided by streamflow records, field-based inundation data, and morphometric analysis; we develop a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for lower portions of Mission River Floodplain system. This model not only allows us to analyze connections induced by surface water inundation, but also other aspects of the hydrologic connectivity concept such as exchanges of sediment and energy between the river and its floodplain. We also aggregate hydrodynamic model outputs to an object/landform level in order to analyze HSC and associated attributes using measures from graph/network theory. Combining physically-based hydrodynamic models with object-based and graph theoretical analyses allow river-floodplain connectivity to be quantified in a consistent manner with measures/indicators commonly used in landscape analysis. Analyzes similar to ours build towards the establishment of a formal framework for analyzing river-floodplain interaction that will ultimately serve to inform the management of riverine/floodplain environments.

  13. Surface runoff in flat terrain: How field topography and runoff generating processes control hydrological connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, W.M.; Bogaart, P.W.; Bogaart, P.W.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    In flat lowland agricultural catchments in temperate climate zones with highly permeable sandy soils, surface runoff is a rare process with a large impact on the redistribution of sediments and solutes and stream water quality. We examine hydrological data obtained on two field sites in the

  14. Vegetation-induced turbulence influencing evapotranspiration-soil moisture coupling: Implications for semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, E.; Kirchner, J. W.; Entekhabi, D.

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes is an important component of land-atmosphere interactions controlling hydrology-climate feedback processes. Important as this relationship is, it remains empirical and physical mechanisms governing its dynamics are insufficiently studied. This is particularly of importance for semiarid regions (currently comprising about half of the Earth's land surface) where the shallow surface soil layer is the primary source of ET and direct evaporation from bare soil is likely a large component of the total flux. Hence, ET-soil moisture coupling in these regions is hypothesized to be strongly influenced by soil evaporation and associated mechanisms. Motivated by recent progress in mechanistic modeling of localized heat and mass exchange rates from bare soil surfaces covered by cylindrical bluff-body elements, we developed a physically based ET model explicitly incorporating coupled impacts of soil moisture and vegetation-induced turbulence in the near-surface region. Model predictions of ET and its partitioning were in good agreement with measured data and suggest that the strength and nature of ET-soil moisture interactions in sparsely vegetated areas are strongly influenced by aerodynamic (rather than radiative) forcing namely wind speed and near-surface turbulence generation as a function of vegetation type and cover fraction. The results demonstrated that the relationship between ET and soil moisture varies from a nonlinear function (the dual regime behavior) to a single moisture-limited regime (linear relationship) by increasing wind velocity and enhancing turbulence generation in the near-surface region (small-scale woody vegetation species of low cover fraction). Potential benefits of this study for improving accuracy and predictive capabilities of remote sensing techniques when applied to semiarid environments will also be discussed.

  15. Hydrologic Impact of Harvesting and Road Construction in Mountainous Regime of Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, E.; Hubbart, J.; Gravelle, J.; Link, T.

    2006-12-01

    The impact of forest management practices on hydrologic flow regimes have been debated for years. Vegetation removal and forest road construction are two anthropogenic disturbances that may affect watershed hydrology. The Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW), ID was initiated by Potlatch Corporation in 1990 to evaluate how contemporary forest harvest practices may impact water flows, quality and aquatic health. The study was recently expanded to identify the specific mechanisms producing the observed flow responses. The extensive and long term monitoring program in MCEW enables the validation of simulated internal watershed processes, thereby increasing our confidence in the ability of models to simulate the hydrologic effects of land cover change. The spatially-distributed, physically-based Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), will be used to deconvolve the effects of canopy change, forest road construction, and climate variability in MCEW. First, the model performance will be assessed for pre-harvest, post-road, and post-harvest experimental periods. The model will then be used to explore how the flow regime would be expected to differ under historical, alternative management and future scenarios. A retrospective study of fully-harvested and increased forest road density (as opposed to current road density of 3 to 5 percent by surface area) will be compared with contemporary management practices. The impact of harvest patterns on sub-catchment flows will be assessed to understand the degree to which flow synchronization or desynchronization on confluent streams might affect cumulative downstream flow regime. Future scenarios will assess the potential impact of climatic variability that is expected to raise the transient snow zone and increase the wintertime rain to snow ratios in the Pacific Northwest. Variables such as harvest patterns and climate variation will be manipulated to project whether the hydrologic effects of land cover and

  16. Hydrology and geochemistry of a surface coal mine in northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Clark, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrology and geochemistry of a reclaimed coal mine in northwestern Colorado were monitored during water years 1988 and 1989. Some data also were collected in water years 1987 and 1990. This report describes (1) the sources of hydrologic recharge to and discharge from reclaimed spoil, (2) the relative contributions of recharge to the reclaimed spoil aquifer from identified source waters and the rate of water movement from those sources to the reclaimed spoil, and (3) the geochemical reactions that control water quality in reclaimed spoil. The study area was at a dip-slope coal mine encompassing about 7 square miles with land slopes of varying aspect. The area was instrumented and monitored at five sites; two sites had unmined and reclaimed- spoil areas adjacent to each other and three sites were unmined. The mined areas had been reclaimed. Instrumentation at the study sites included 1 climate station, 3 rain gages, 19 soil-water access tubes, 2 lysimeters, 18 wells completed in bedrock, 7 wells completed in reclaimed spoil, and 2 surface- water gaging stations. The results of the study indicate that the reclaimed spoil is recharged from surface recharge and underburden aquifers. Discharge, as measured by lysimeters, was about 3 inches per year and occurred during and after snowmelt. Hydraulic-head measurements indicated a potential for ground-water movement from deeper to shallower aquifers. Water levels rose in the reclaimed-spoil aquifer and spring discharge at the toe of the spoil slopes increased rapidly in response to snowmelt. Water chemistry, stable isotopes, geochemical models, and mass-balance calculations indicate that surface recharge and the underburden aquifers each contribute about 50 percent of the water to the reclaimed-spoil aquifers. Geochemical information indicates that pyrite oxidation and dissolution of carbonate and efflorescent sulfate minerals control the water chemistry of the reclaimed-spoil aquifer.

  17. Effects of riparian vegetation development in a restored lowland stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, A.; Crosato, A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Groot, J.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth in a lowland restored stream. Hydrological series, high-resolution bathymetric data and aerial photographs are combined in the study. The vegetation root system was found to assert a strong control on soil stabilization,

  18. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  19. Concepts and Challenges in Disturbance Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B. A.; Mirus, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    Landscape disturbances are increasing, often promoted and enhanced by climate shifts and human activities. Insect infestations, wildfires, earthquakes, urban development, forest harvest, mineral and petroleum resource extraction, and hurricanes are common landscape disturbances that can have profound hydrologic consequences. These cause relatively abrupt changes in the landscape, which alter local processes on plots and hillslopes in addition to coarser-scale processes across watersheds through cross-scale interactions. Shifts in soil properties and cover of vegetation and leaf litter change the water storage or buffering capacity as well as the hydrologic functional connectivity across multiple scales. These changes increase the risk of catastrophic flooding, erosion, and mass movements that degrade water resources, ecosystem services, and protection from hydrologically driven natural hazards. Although it is imperative that we understand the hydrologic effects of these disturbances, several major barriers exist. Four challenges are: (i) overlapping disturbances in space and time with unknown recovery trajectories, (ii) a paucity of long-term recovery records (>5 years duration), (iii) inefficacy of traditional modeling and parameterization approaches, and (iv) lack of pre-disturbance characterization. Examples of these challenges will be presented along with proposed opportunities for improved mechanistic understanding of processes and thresholds in disturbance hydrology.

  20. Modelling past hydrology of an interfluve area in the Campine region (NE Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Beerten, Koen; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at hydrological model verification of a small lowland interfluve area (18.6 km²) in NE Belgium, for conditions that are different than today. We compare the current state with five reference periods in the past (AD 1500, 1770, 1854, 1909 and 1961) representing important stages of landscape evolution in the study area. Historical information and proxy data are used to derive conceptual model features and boundary conditions specific to each period: topography, surface water geometry (canal, drains and lakes), land use, soils, vegetation and climate. The influence of landscape evolution on the hydrological cycle is assessed using numerical simulations of a coupled unsaturated zone - groundwater model (HYDRUS-MODFLOW). The induced hydrological changes are assessed in terms of groundwater level, recharge, evapotranspiration, and surface water discharge. HYDRUS-MODFLOW coupling allows including important processes such as the groundwater contribution to evapotranspiration. Major land use change occurred between AD 1854 and 1909, with about 41% of the study area being converted from heath to coniferous forest, together with the development of a drainage network. Results show that this led to a significant decrease of groundwater recharge and lowering of the groundwater table. A limitation of the study lies in the comparison of simulated past hydrology with appropriate palaeo-records. Examples are given as how some indicators (groundwater head, swamp zones) can be used to tend to model validation. Quantifying the relative impact of land use and climate changes requires running sensitivity simulations where the models using alternative land use are run with the climate forcing of other periods. A few examples of such sensitivity runs are presented in order to compare the influence of land use and climate change on the study area hydrology.

  1. Linking river, floodplain, and vadose zone hydrology to improve restoration of a coastal river affected by saltwater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D; Muñoz-Carpena, R; Wan, Y; Hedgepeth, M; Zheng, F; Roberts, R; Rossmanith, R

    2010-01-01

    Floodplain forests provide unique ecological structure and function, which are often degraded or lost when watershed hydrology is modified. Restoration of damaged ecosystems requires an understanding of surface water, groundwater, and vadose (unsaturated) zone hydrology in the floodplain. Soil moisture and porewater salinity are of particular importance for seed germination and seedling survival in systems affected by saltwater intrusion but are difficult to monitor and often overlooked. This study contributes to the understanding of floodplain hydrology in one of the last bald cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] floodplain swamps in southeast Florida. We investigated soil moisture and porewater salinity dynamics in the floodplain of the Loxahatchee River, where reduced freshwater flow has led to saltwater intrusion and a transition to salt-tolerant, mangrove-dominated communities. Twenty-four dielectric probes measuring soil moisture and porewater salinity every 30 min were installed along two transects-one in an upstream, freshwater location and one in a downstream tidal area. Complemented by surface water, groundwater, and meteorological data, these unique 4-yr datasets quantified the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of vadose zone hydrology. Results showed that soil moisture can be closely predicted based on river stage and topographic elevation (overall Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency = 0.83). Porewater salinity rarely exceeded tolerance thresholds (0.3125 S m(-1)) for bald cypress upstream but did so in some downstream areas. This provided an explanation for observed vegetation changes that both surface water and groundwater salinity failed to explain. The results offer a methodological and analytical framework for floodplain monitoring in locations where restoration success depends on vadose zone hydrology and provide relationships for evaluating proposed restoration and management scenarios for the Loxahatchee River.

  2. Soil macropores: Control on infiltration, hillslope and surface hydrology on a reclaimed surface-mined watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, M.D.; Gardner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic response of a surface-mined watershed in central Pennsylvania is controlled by rapid macropore flow within the unsaturated man-made topsoil. Newly reclaimed surface-mined watersheds in central Pennsylvania exhibit low steady-state infiltration rates (1--2 cm/hr) and produce runoff dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow. However, within four years after reclamation, infiltration rates on some mine surfaces approach premined rates (8 cm/hr). As infiltration rate increases, the volume of infiltrated water increases, but the total porosity of minesoil matrix remains constant. There is little change in the surface discharge volume, indicating that infiltrated water continues to contribute to the basin surface discharge by the processes of throughflow and return flow. Throughflow in the topsoil horizon occurs in rapid response to rainfall input, producing large volumes of water with throughflow rates closely related to rainfall rates and with throughflow peaks following rainfall peaks by only minutes. Increased return flow alters the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph by slightly lagging behind infiltration excess overland flow. These changes in the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph reduce the potential for severe gully erosion on the reclaimed site. In addition, throughflow water remains predominantly in the topsoil horizon, and therefore has limited contact with potentially acid-producing backfill. Better understanding of macropore flow processes in reclaimed minesoils will help investigators evaluate past strategies and develop new reclamation techniques that will minimize the short-term surface erosional effects of mining and reclamation, while optimizing the long-term effluent and groundwater quality

  3. Long-term hydrologic effects on marsh plant community structure in the southern Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, David E.; Loftus, W.F.; Bass, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    Although large-scale transformation of Everglades landscapes has occurred during the past century, the patterns of association among hydrologic factors and southern Everglades freshwater marsh vegetation have not been well-defined. We used a 10-year data base on the aquatic biota of Shark Slough to classify vegetation and describe plant community change in intermediate- to long-hydroperiod Everglades marshes. Study area marsh vegetation was quantitatively grouped into associations dominated by 1) Cladium jamaicense, 2) a group of emergents including Eleocharis cellulosa, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Rhyncospora tracyi, 3) taxa associated with algal mats (Utricularia spp. and Bacopa caroliniana), and 4) the grasses Panicum hemitomon and Paspalidium geminatum. During the decade evaluated, the range of water depths that characterized our study sites approached both extremes depicted in the 40-year hydrologic record for the region. Water depths were near the long-term average during the mid-1980s, declined sharply during a late 1980s drought, and underwent a prolonged increase from 1991 through 1995. Overall macrophyte cover varied inversely with water depth, while the response of periphyton was more complex. An ordination analysis, based on plant species abundance, revealed that study area vegetation structure was associated with hydrologic patterns. Marsh plant community structure showed evidence of cyclic interannual variation corresponding to hydrologic change over the decade evaluated. Lower water depths, the occurrence of marl substrates, and high periphyton cover were correlated. These factors contributed to reduced macrophyte cover in portions of the study area from which water had been diverted.

  4. Impacts of climate change on vegetation, hydrological and socio-economic droughts in a transitional wet-to-dry Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Pulquério, Mário; Grosso, Nuno; Duarte Santos, Filipe; João Cruz, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The Tagus river basin is located in a transitional region between humid and semi-arid climate. The lower part of the basin is a strategic source of water for Portugal, providing water for agricultural irrigation, hydropower generation, and domestic water supplies for over 4 million people. Climate change in this region is expected to lead to higher temperatures and lower rainfall, therefore increasing climatic aridity. In this transitional region, this could lead to an increased frequency of severe droughts, threatening climatic support for current agricultural and forestry practices, as well as the sustainability of domestic water supplies. This work evaluated the impacts of climate change on drought frequency and severity for the Portuguese part of the Tagus river basin. Climate change scenarios for 2010-2100 (A2 greenhouse emission scenarios) were statistically downscaled for the study area. They were evaluated with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) eco-hydrological model, which simulated vegetation water demand and drought stress, soil water availability, irrigation abstraction, streamflow, reservoir storage and groundwater recharge. Water inflows from Spain were estimated using an empirical climate-based model. Drought occurrence and severity was analyzed in terms of: * meteorological drought, based on (i) the Standardized Precipitation Index and (ii) the Aridity Index; * vegetation/agricultural drought, based on plant water stress; * hydrological drought, based on (i) streamflow rates and (ii) reservoir storage; * socio-economic drought, based on (i) the capacity of the main reservoir in the system (Castelo de Bode) to sustain hydropower and domestic supplies, and (ii) the rate of groundwater extraction vs. irrigation demands for the cultures located in the intensive cultivation regions of the Lezírias near the Tagus estuary. The results indicate a trend of increasing frequency and severity of most drought types during the XXIst century, with a

  5. The development of a surface hydrology model for use in radiological safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.H.; Ashton, J.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed understanding and quantification of geosphere and biosphere water movements is vital when assessing the impact of a radioactive waste repository. Not only is water important in the transport of radionuclides from the repository into the geosphere and hence into the biosphere, but it is also important in the transport of radionuclides within the biosphere and their transport to humans. Although geosphere water fluxes have traditionally been rigorously quantified, the quantification of biosphere water fluxes has been far less rigorous. In order to redress the balance, Associated Nuclear Services Ltd (ANS) have proposed to develop a surface hydrology model for use within radiological assessments undertaken by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) of the United Kingdom Department of the Environment (UKDoE). It is proposed that the deterministic, lumped, quasi-physical/semi-empirical approach of conceptual models should be adopted for the model. The model will be sufficiently flexible to be applicable to a wide range of catchments, as well as a variety of temporal and spatial scales. It is envisaged that the model will have a variety of uses within the HMIP assessment methodology including the identification of significant surface hydrological processes, the provision of input data for assessment codes and the study of the biosphere-geosphere interface. (17 refs., 4 figs.)

  6. Distinctive channel geometry and riparian vegetation: A geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, N.; Shaw, J. R.; Wohl, E. E.; Cooper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Interactions between hydrology, channel form, and riparian vegetation along arid ephemeral streams are not thoroughly understood and current stream classifications do not adequately represent variability in channel geometry and associated riparian communities. Relatively infrequent hydrologic disturbances in dryland environments are responsible for creation and maintenance of channel form that supports riparian communities. To investigate the influence of channel characteristics on riparian vegetation in the arid southwestern United States, we develop a geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams based on the degree of confinement and the composition of confining material that provide constraints on available moisture. Our conceptual model includes five stream types: 1) bedrock channels entirely confined by exposed bedrock and devoid of persistent alluvium; 2) bedrock with alluvium channels at least partially confined by bedrock but containing enough alluvium to create bedforms that persist through time; 3) incised alluvium channels bound only by unconsolidated alluvial material into which they are incised; 4) braided washes that exhibit multi-thread, braided characteristics regardless of the composition of confining material; and 5) piedmont headwater 0-2nd order streams (Strahler) confined only by unconsolidated alluvium and which initiate as secondary channels on piedmont surfaces. Eighty-six study reaches representing the five stream types were surveyed on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern Arizona. Non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicates significant differences between the five stream types with regards to channel geometry (i.e., stream gradient, width-to-depth ratio, the ratio between valley width and channel width (Wv/Wc), shear stress, and unit stream power) and riparian vegetation (i.e., presence and canopy coverage by species, canopy stratum, and life form). Discriminant analysis

  7. Hydrology of Ranger land application area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 Ranger Uranium Mines (RUM) began assessing the technique of water treatment by land application as a means of reducing the volume of stored water within the Restricted Release Zone. Knowledge of the hydrological characteristics of the treatment site is necessary for optimal day to day and season to season operation of the system and as an input into the assessment of the long-term viability of the site. This paper provides background information on the hydrological requirements for a water treatment site, describes the RUM's water treatment by land application system and summarises the operational statistics and current hydrological knowledge of the site. The general groundwater hydrology of the area comprises a surface soil aquifer overlying a semi-confined aquifer. Drainage of the surface aquifer follows the surface topography along the sandy clays. Vertical permeability ranges between 3 and 12 times greater than horizontal permeability. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  9. Hydrologic Remote Sensing and Land Surface Data Assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, Hamid

    2008-05-06

    Accurate, reliable and skillful forecasting of key environmental variables such as soil moisture and snow are of paramount importance due to their strong influence on many water resources applications including flood control, agricultural production and effective water resources management which collectively control the behavior of the climate system. Soil moisture is a key state variable in land surface-atmosphere interactions affecting surface energy fluxes, runoff and the radiation balance. Snow processes also have a large influence on land-atmosphere energy exchanges due to snow high albedo, low thermal conductivity and considerable spatial and temporal variability resulting in the dramatic change on surface and ground temperature. Measurement of these two variables is possible through variety of methods using ground-based and remote sensing procedures. Remote sensing, however, holds great promise for soil moisture and snow measurements which have considerable spatial and temporal variability. Merging these measurements with hydrologic model outputs in a systematic and effective way results in an improvement of land surface model prediction. Data Assimilation provides a mechanism to combine these two sources of estimation. Much success has been attained in recent years in using data from passive microwave sensors and assimilating them into the models. This paper provides an overview of the remote sensing measurement techniques for soil moisture and snow data and describes the advances in data assimilation techniques through the ensemble filtering, mainly Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and Particle filter (PF), for improving the model prediction and reducing the uncertainties involved in prediction process. It is believed that PF provides a complete representation of the probability distribution of state variables of interests (according to sequential Bayes law) and could be a strong alternative to EnKF which is subject to some limitations including the linear

  10. Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture in Irrigated Lands by Assimilation of Landsat Vegetation Indices, Surface Energy Balance Products, and Relevance Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso F. Torres-Rua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial surface soil moisture can be an important indicator of crop conditions on farmland, but its continuous estimation remains challenging due to coarse spatial and temporal resolution of existing remotely-sensed products. Furthermore, while preceding research on soil moisture using remote sensing (surface energy balance, weather parameters, and vegetation indices has demonstrated a relationship between these factors and soil moisture, practical continuous spatial quantification of the latter is still unavailable for use in water and agricultural management. In this study, a methodology is presented to estimate volumetric surface soil moisture by statistical selection from potential predictors that include vegetation indices and energy balance products derived from satellite (Landsat imagery and weather data as identified in scientific literature. This methodology employs a statistical learning machine called a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM to identify and relate the potential predictors to soil moisture by means of stratified cross-validation and forward variable selection. Surface soil moisture measurements from irrigated agricultural fields in Central Utah in the 2012 irrigation season were used, along with weather data, Landsat vegetation indices, and energy balance products. The methodology, data collection, processing, and estimation accuracy are presented and discussed.

  11. A critical assessment of the JULES land surface model hydrology for humid tropical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkafli, Z.; Buytaert, W.; Onof, C.; Lavado, W.; Guyot, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Global land surface models (LSMs) such as the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) are originally developed to provide surface boundary conditions for climate models. They are increasingly used for hydrological simulation, for instance to simulate the impacts of land use changes and other perturbations on the water cycle. This study investigates how well such models represent the major hydrological fluxes at the relevant spatial and temporal scales - an important question for reliable model applications in poorly understood, data-scarce environments. The JULES-LSM is implemented in a 360 000 km2 humid tropical mountain basin of the Peruvian Andes-Amazon at 12-km grid resolution, forced with daily satellite and climate reanalysis data. The simulations are evaluated using conventional discharge-based evaluation methods, and by further comparing the magnitude and internal variability of the basin surface fluxes such as evapotranspiration, throughfall, and surface and subsurface runoff of the model with those observed in similar environments elsewhere. We find reasonably positive model efficiencies and high correlations between the simulated and observed streamflows, but high root-mean-square errors affecting the performance in smaller, upper sub-basins. We attribute this to errors in the water balance and JULES-LSM's inability to model baseflow. We also found a tendency to under-represent the high evapotranspiration rates of the region. We conclude that strategies to improve the representation of tropical systems to be (1) addressing errors in the forcing and (2) incorporating local wetland and regional floodplain in the subsurface representation.

  12. Measured Hydrologic Storage Characteristics of Three Major Ice Wedge Polygon Types, Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, A. J.; Liljedahl, A.; Wilson, C. J.; Cable, W.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    Model simulations have suggested that the hydrologic fluxes and stores of Arctic wetlands are constrained by the micro-topographical features of ice wedge polygons, which are abundant in lowland tundra landscapes. Recently observed changes in ice wedge polygon landscapes - in particular, ice wedge degradation and trough formation - emphasize the need to better understand how differing ice wedge polygon morphologies affect the larger hydrologic system. Here we present three seasons of measured end-of-winter snow accumulation, continuous soil moisture and water table elevations, and repeated frost table mapping. Together, these describe the hydrologic characteristics of three main ice wedge polygon types: low centered polygons with limited trough development (representative of a ~500 year old vegetated drained thaw lake basin), and low- and high-centered polygons with well-defined troughs. Dramatic spatiotemporal variability exists both between polygon types and between the features of an individual polygon (e.g. troughs, centers, rims). Landscape-scale end-of-winter snow water equivalent is similar between polygon types, while the sub-polygon scale distribution of the surface water differs, both as snow and as ponded water. Some sub-polygon features appear buffered against large variations in water levels, while others display periods of prolonged recessions and large responses to rain events. Frost table elevations in general mimic the ground surface topography, but with spatiotemporal variability in thaw rate. The studied thaw seasons represented above long-term average rainfall, and in 2014, record high June precipitation. Differing ice wedge polygon types express dramatically different local hydrology, despite nearly identical climate forcing and landscape-scale snow accumulation, making ice wedge polygons an important component when describing the Arctic water, nutrient and energy system.

  13. Interactions Between Wind Erosion, Vegetation Structure, and Soil Stability in Groundwater Dependent Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, K. R.; Elmore, A. J.; Okin, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    Desertification is a human induced global phenomenon causing a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem productivity. Semi-arid grasslands are vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts (i.e., groundwater pumping and surface water diversion) that decrease vegetation cover and increase bare soil area leading to a greater probability of soil erosion, potentially enhancing feedback processes associated with desertification. To enhance our understanding of interactions between anthropogenic, physical, and biological factors causing desertification, this study used a combination of modeling and field observations to examine the relationship between chronic groundwater pumping and vegetation cover change and its effects on soil erosion and stability. The work was conducted in Owens Valley California, where a long history of groundwater pumping and surface water diversion has lead to documented vegetation changes. The work examined hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical factors across thirteen sites in Owens Valley. We analyzed soil stability, vegetation and gap size, soil organic carbon, and we also installed Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) catchers to calculate mass transport of aeolian sediment across sites. Mass transport calculations were used to validate a new wind erosion model that represents the effect of porous vegetation on surface windshear velocity. Results across two field seasons show that the model can be used to predict mass transport, and areas with increased groundwater pumping show a greater susceptibility to erosion. Sediment collected in BSNE catchers was positively correlated with site gap size. Additionally, areas with larger gap sizes have a greater threshold shear velocity and soil stability, yet mass transport was greater at these sites than at sites with smaller gap sizes. Although modeling is complicated by spatial variation in multiple model parameters (e.g., gap size, threshold shear velocity in gaps), our results support the hypothesis that soils

  14. Effects of landscape gradients on wetland vegetation communities: information for large-scale restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Christa L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2008-01-01

    Projects of the scope of the restoration of the Florida Everglades require substantial information regarding ecological mechanisms, and these are often poorly understood. We provide critical base knowledge for Everglades restoration by characterizing the existing vegetation communities of an Everglades remnant, describing how present and historic hydrology affect wetland vegetation community composition, and documenting change from communities described in previous studies. Vegetation biomass samples were collected along transects across Water Conservation Area 3A South (3AS). Ten community types were present between November 2002 and 2005. Separate analyses for key a priori groups (slough, wet prairie, and sawgrass) provided detailed conclusions about effects of historic hydrology on the vegetation of 3AS. Communities were affected by hydrologic variables LIP to four years previous to the sample. We identified wet prairie/slough species such as Eleocharis spp. and Nymphaea odorata as short-term sentinel species of community change. Sawgrass and N. odorata should be monitored for long-term change. Comparisons to preceding studies indicated that many of the communities of previous times, when conditions were drier, no longer exist in our study area and have been replaced by deeper water community types.

  15. Recycling of uranium by a perennial vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Y.

    2005-01-01

    At sites of large scale mining and processing of uranium ore, tailings and waste rock piles are today the most visible relics of the uranium extractive industry. These mining relics are constantly subjected to weathering and leaching processes causing the dissemination of radioactive and toxic elements and sometimes requiring remedial operations. The in situ remediation of waste rock piles usually includes their revegetation for minimizing the water infiltration and for increasing surface soil stability. Thanks to its biomass density and longevity, the perennial vegetation plays an important role in stabilisation of the water cycling. The buffer role of forest vegetation can reduce water export from watersheds as well as erosion and hydrological losses of chemicals including radionuclides from contaminated sites. If long term reduction of contaminant dispersion at revegetated uranium mining sites is to be fully appreciated, then the extent of radioactive contaminant availability to forest vegetation and ecosystem cycling as well as the possible economic valorisation of the woody products must be considered. Concerned study focused on a Scots pine plantation established 35 years ago on a uranium waste rock pile (Wismuth GmbH) situated near Schlema (Germany). This investigation aimed at quantifying the mobility of uranium in the mining debris and its transport to the different tree compartments with emphasis on the processes involved. The influence of pine vegetation on uranium cycling dynamics was further assessed in terms of annual fluxes)

  16. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  17. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  18. The Hydrologic Implications Of Unique Urban Soil Horizon Sequencing On The Functions Of Passive Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, W.; Schifman, L. A.; Herrmann, D.

    2017-12-01

    Green infrastructure represents a broad set of site- to landscape-scale practices that can be flexibly implemented to increase sewershed retention capacity, and can thereby improve on the management of water quantity and quality. Although much green infrastructure presents as formal engineered designs, urbanized landscapes with highly-interspersed pervious surfaces (e.g., right-of-way, parks, lawns, vacant land) may offer ecosystem services as passive, infiltrative green infrastructure. Yet, infiltration and drainage processes are regulated by soil surface conditions, and then the layering of subsoil horizons, respectively. Drawing on a unique urban soil taxonomic and hydrologic dataset collected in 12 cities (each city representing a major soil order), we determined how urbanization processes altered the sequence of soil horizons (compared to pre-urbanized reference soil pedons) and modeled the hydrologic implications of these shifts in layering with an unsaturated zone code (HYDRUS2D). We found that the different layering sequences in urbanized soils render different types and extents of supporting (plant-available soil water), provisioning (productive vegetation), and regulating (runoff mitigation) ecosystem services.

  19. Peatland Open-water Pool Biogeochemistry: The Influence of Hydrology and Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, J.; Talbot, J.; Moore, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    Peatland open-water pools are net sources of carbon to the atmosphere. However, their interaction with the surrounding peat remains poorly known. In a previous study, we showed that shallow pools are richer in nutrients than deep pools. While depth was the main driver of biogeochemistry variations across time and space, analyses also showed that pool's adjacent vegetation may have an influence on water chemistry. Our goal is to understand the relationship between the biogeochemistry of open-water pools and their surroundings in a subboreal ombrotrophic peatland of southern Quebec (Canada). To assess the influence of vegetation on pool water chemistry, we compare two areas covered with different types of vegetation: a forested zone dominated by spruce trees and an open area mostly covered by Sphagnum spp. To evaluate the direction of water (in or out of the pools), we installed capacitance water level probes in transects linking pools in the two zones. Wells were also installed next to each probe to collect peat pore water samples. Samples were taken every month during summer 2017 and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, pH and specific UV absorbance. Preliminary results show differences in peat water chemistry depending on the dominant vegetation. In both zones, water levels fluctuations are disconnected between peat and the pools, suggesting poor horizontal water movement. Pool water chemistry may be mostly influenced by the immediate surrounding vegetation than by the local vegetation pattern. Climate and land-use change may affect the vegetation structure of peatlands, thus affecting pool biogeochemistry. Considering the impact of pools on the overall peatland capacity to accumulate carbon, our results show that more focus must be placed on pools to better understand peatland stability over time.

  20. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  1. An ecohydrological model for studying groundwater-vegetation interactions in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Low, Swee Yang; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2011-10-01

    SummaryDespite their importance to the natural environment, wetlands worldwide face drastic degradation from changes in land use and climatic patterns. To help preservation efforts and guide conservation strategies, a clear understanding of the dynamic relationship between coupled hydrology and vegetation systems in wetlands, and their responses to engineering works and climate change, is needed. An ecohydrological model was developed in this study to address this issue. The model combines a hydrology component based on the Richards' equation for characterizing variably saturated groundwater flow, with a vegetation component described by Lotka-Volterra equations tailored for plant growth. Vegetation is represented by two characteristic wetland herbaceous plant types which differ in their flood and drought resistances. Validation of the model on a study site in the Everglades demonstrated the capability of the model in capturing field-measured water table and transpiration dynamics. The model was next applied on a section of the Nee Soon swamp forest, a tropical wetland in Singapore, for studying the impact of possible drainage works on the groundwater hydrology and native vegetation. Drainage of 10 m downstream of the wetland resulted in a localized zone of influence within half a kilometer from the drainage site with significant adverse impacts on groundwater and biomass levels, indicating a strong need for conservation. Simulated water table-plant biomass relationships demonstrated the capability of the model in capturing the time-lag in biomass response to water table changes. To test the significance of taking plant growth into consideration, the performance of the model was compared to one that substituted the vegetation component with a pre-specified evapotranspiration rate. Unlike its revised counterpart, the original ecohydrological model explicitly accounted for the drainage-induced plant biomass decrease and translated the resulting reduced transpiration

  2. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  3. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth’s hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  4. Improving the representation of river-groundwater interactions in land surface modeling at the regional scale: Observational evidence and parameterization applied in the Community Land Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zampieri, Matteo; Serpetzoglou, Efthymios; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Papadopoulos, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is an important component of the hydrological cycle, included in many land surface models to provide a lower boundary condition for soil moisture, which in turn plays a key role in the land-vegetation-atmosphere interactions

  5. Hydrologic modeling in a marsh-mangrove ecotone: Predicting wetland surface water and salinity response to restoration in the Ten Thousand Islands region of Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, B.D.; Meselhe, E.A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Shrestha, Surendra; From, Andrew S.; Patino, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    At the fringe of Everglades National Park in southwest Florida, United States, the Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge (TTINWR) habitat has been heavily affected by the disruption of natural freshwater flow across the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41). As the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) proposes to restore the natural sheet flow from the Picayune Strand Restoration Project area north of the highway, the impact of planned measures on the hydrology in the refuge needs to be taken into account. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, computationally efficient mass balance model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of water level and salinity within the area of interest. This model could be used to assess the effects of the proposed management decisions on the surface water hydrological characteristics of the refuge. Surface water variations are critical to the maintenance of wetland processes. The model domain is divided into 10 compartments on the basis of their shared topography, vegetation, and hydrologic characteristics. A diversion of +10% of the discharge recorded during the modeling period was simulated in the primary canal draining the Picayune Strand forest north of the Tamiami Trail (Faka Union Canal) and this discharge was distributed as overland flow through the refuge area. Water depths were affected only modestly. However, in the northern part of the refuge, the hydroperiod, i.e., the duration of seasonal flooding, was increased by 21 days (from 115 to 136 days) for the simulation during the 2008 wet season, with an average water level rise of 0.06 m. The average salinity over a two-year period in the model area just south of Tamiami Trail was reduced by approximately 8 practical salinity units (psu) (from 18 to 10 psu), whereas the peak dry season average was reduced from 35 to 29 psu (by 17%). These salinity reductions were even larger with greater flow diversions (+20%). Naturally, the reduction

  6. Using ATM laser altimetry to constrain surface mass balance estimates and supraglacial hydrology of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studinger, M.; Medley, B.; Manizade, S.; Linkswiler, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Repeat airborne laser altimetry measurements can provide large-scale field observations to better quantify spatial and temporal variability of surface processes contributing to seasonal elevation change and therefore surface mass balance. As part of NASA's Operation IceBridge the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter measured the surface elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet during spring (March - May) and fall (September - October) of 2015. Comparison of the two surveys reveals a general trend of thinning for outlet glaciers and for the ice sheet in a manner related to elevation and latitude. In contrast, some thickening is observed on the west (but not on the east) side of the ice divide above 2200 m elevation in the southern half, below latitude 69°N.The observed magnitude and spatial patterns of the summer melt signal can be utilized as input into ice sheet models and for validating reanalysis of regional climate models such as RACMO and MAR. We use seasonal anomalies in MERRA-2 climate fields (temperature, precipitation) to understand the observed spatial signal in seasonal change. Aside from surface elevation change, runoff from meltwater pooling in supraglacial lakes and meltwater channels accounts for at least half of the total mass loss. The ability of the ATM laser altimeters to image glacial hydrological features in 3-D and determine the depth of supraglacial lakes could be used for process studies and for quantifying melt processes over large scales. The 1-meter footprint diameter of ATM laser on the surface, together with a high shot density, allows for the production of large-scale, high-resolution, geodetic quality DEMs (50 x 50 cm) suitable for fine-scale glacial hydrology research and as input to hydrological models quantifying runoff.

  7. Predicting Geomorphic and Hydrologic Risks after Wildfire Using Harmonic and Stochastic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell, J.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Florsheim, J. L.; Chin, A.; Nourbakhshbeidokhti, S.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire is a landscape-scale disturbance that often alters hydrological processes and sediment flux during subsequent storms. Vegetation loss from wildfires induce changes to sediment supply such as channel erosion and sedimentation and streamflow magnitude or flooding. These changes enhance downstream hazards, threatening human populations and physical aquatic habitat over various time scales. Using Williams Canyon, a basin burned by the Waldo Canyon Fire (2012) as a case study, we utilize deterministic and statistical modeling methods (Fourier series and first order Markov chain) to assess pre- and post-fire geomorphic and hydrologic characteristics, including of precipitation, enhanced vegetation index (EVI, a satellite-based proxy of vegetation biomass), streamflow, and sediment flux. Local precipitation, terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanning, and satellite-based products are used for these time series analyses. We present a framework to assess variability of periodic and nonperiodic climatic and multivariate trends to inform development of a post-wildfire risk assessment methodology. To establish the extent to which a wildfire affects hydrologic and geomorphic patterns, a Fourier series was used to fit pre- and post-fire geomorphic and hydrologic characteristics to yearly temporal cycles and subcycles of 6, 4, 3, and 2.4 months. These cycles were analyzed using least-squares estimates of the harmonic coefficients or amplitudes of each sub-cycle's contribution to fit the overall behavior of a Fourier series. The stochastic variances of these characteristics were analyzed by composing first-order Markov models and probabilistic analysis through direct likelihood estimates. Preliminary results highlight an increased dependence of monthly post-fire hydrologic characteristics on 12 and 6-month temporal cycles. This statistical and probabilistic analysis provides a basis to determine the impact of wildfires on the temporal dependence of

  8. Hydrologic connectivity and implications for ecosystem processes - Lessons from naked watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; Wlostowski, Adam; McKnight, Diane M.; Jaros, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity has received great attention recently as our conceptual models of watersheds and water quality have evolved in the past several decades. However, the structural complexity of most temperate watersheds (i.e. connections among shallow soils, deep aquifers, the atmosphere and streams) and the dynamic seasonal changes that occur within them (i.e., plant senescence which impacts evapotranspiration) create significant challenges to characterizing or quantifying hydrologic connectivity. The McMurdo Dry Valleys, a polar desert in Antarctica, provide a unique opportunity to study hydrologic connectivity because there is no vegetative cover (and therefore no transpiration), and no deep aquifers connected to surface soils or streams. Glacier melt provides stream flow to well-established channels and closed-basin, ice-covered lakes on the valley floor. Streams are also connected to shallow hyporheic zones along their lengths, which are bounded at 75 cm depth by ice-cemented permafrost. These hydrologic features and connections provide water for and underpin biological communities. Hence, exchange of water among them provides a vector for exchange of energy and dissolved solutes. Connectivity is dynamic on timescales of a day to a flow season (6-12 weeks), as streamflow varies over these timescales. The timescales over which these connections occur is also dynamic. Exchanges between streams and hyporheic zones, for example, have been estimated to be as short as hours to as long as several weeks. These exchanges have significant implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems and the biotic communities in each feature. Here we evaluate the lessons we can learn about hydrologic connectivity in the MDV watersheds that are simplified in the context of processes occurring and water reservoirs included in the landscape, yet are sensitive to climate controls and contain substantial physical heterogeneity. We specifically explore several metrics that are

  9. Land surface albedo and vegetation feedbacks enhanced the millennium drought in south-east Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Evans, Jason P.; Meng, Xianhong; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to simulate the extended drought that occurred throughout the period of 2002 through 2007 in south-east Australia. In particular, the ability to reproduce the two drought peaks in 2002 and 2006 was investigated. Overall, the RCM was found to reproduce both the temporal and the spatial structure of the drought-related precipitation anomalies quite well, despite using climatological seasonal surface characteristics such as vegetation fraction and albedo. This result concurs with previous studies that found that about two-thirds of the precipitation decline can be attributed to the El Ninõ–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Simulation experiments that allowed the vegetation fraction and albedo to vary as observed illustrated that the intensity of the drought was underestimated by about 10ĝ% when using climatological surface characteristics. These results suggest that in terms of drought development, capturing the feedbacks related to vegetation and albedo changes may be as important as capturing the soil moisture–precipitation feedback. In order to improve our modelling of multi-year droughts, the challenge is to capture all these related surface changes simultaneously, and provide a comprehensive description of land surface–precipitation feedback during the droughts development.

  10. Land surface albedo and vegetation feedbacks enhanced the millennium drought in south-east Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Evans, Jason P.

    2017-01-24

    In this study, we have examined the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to simulate the extended drought that occurred throughout the period of 2002 through 2007 in south-east Australia. In particular, the ability to reproduce the two drought peaks in 2002 and 2006 was investigated. Overall, the RCM was found to reproduce both the temporal and the spatial structure of the drought-related precipitation anomalies quite well, despite using climatological seasonal surface characteristics such as vegetation fraction and albedo. This result concurs with previous studies that found that about two-thirds of the precipitation decline can be attributed to the El Ninõ–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Simulation experiments that allowed the vegetation fraction and albedo to vary as observed illustrated that the intensity of the drought was underestimated by about 10ĝ% when using climatological surface characteristics. These results suggest that in terms of drought development, capturing the feedbacks related to vegetation and albedo changes may be as important as capturing the soil moisture–precipitation feedback. In order to improve our modelling of multi-year droughts, the challenge is to capture all these related surface changes simultaneously, and provide a comprehensive description of land surface–precipitation feedback during the droughts development.

  11. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear techniques used in hydrology are usually tracer techniques based on the use of nuclides either intentionally introduced into, or naturally present in the water. The low concentrations of these nuclides, which must be detected in groundwater and surface water, require special measurement techniques for the concentrations of radioactive or of stable nuclides. The nuclear techniques can be used most fruitfully in conjunction with conventional methods for the solution of problems in the areas of hydrology, hydrogeology and glacier hydrology. Nuclear techniques are used in practice in the areas of prospecting for water, environment protection and engineering hydrogeology. (orig.) [de

  12. Enhancing Global Land Surface Hydrology Estimates from the NASA MERRA Reanalysis Using Precipitation Observations and Model Parameter Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf; Koster, Randal; DeLannoy, Gabrielle; Forman, Barton; Liu, Qing; Mahanama, Sarith; Toure, Ally

    2011-01-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is a state-of-the-art reanalysis that provides. in addition to atmospheric fields. global estimates of soil moisture, latent heat flux. snow. and runoff for J 979-present. This study introduces a supplemental and improved set of land surface hydrological fields ('MERRA-Land') generated by replaying a revised version of the land component of the MERRA system. Specifically. the MERRA-Land estimates benefit from corrections to the precipitation forcing with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project pentad product (version 2.1) and from revised parameters in the rainfall interception model, changes that effectively correct for known limitations in the MERRA land surface meteorological forcings. The skill (defined as the correlation coefficient of the anomaly time series) in land surface hydrological fields from MERRA and MERRA-Land is assessed here against observations and compared to the skill of the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim reanalysis. MERRA-Land and ERA-Interim root zone soil moisture skills (against in situ observations at 85 US stations) are comparable and significantly greater than that of MERRA. Throughout the northern hemisphere, MERRA and MERRA-Land agree reasonably well with in situ snow depth measurements (from 583 stations) and with snow water equivalent from an independent analysis. Runoff skill (against naturalized stream flow observations from 15 basins in the western US) of MERRA and MERRA-Land is typically higher than that of ERA-Interim. With a few exceptions. the MERRA-Land data appear more accurate than the original MERRA estimates and are thus recommended for those interested in using '\\-tERRA output for land surface hydrological studies.

  13. Hydrological self-regulation of domed peatlands in south-east Asia and consequences for conservation and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dommain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the hydrological constraints on the existence of forested peat domes (peat swamp forests in the humid tropics, the self-regulation mechanisms that enable them to persist and the implications for restoration of damaged domes. The most important requirement for the preservation of peat is permanent saturation by water. The variable input of precipitation must be translated into a constant water supply to the peat mound. In intact tropical peat swamp domes, water is stored above the peat surface in depressions between hummocks that surround tree trunks and between spreading buttress roots. This above-ground water store is analogous to the water stored in the loose upper layer of peat and vegetation in Sphagnum bogs. The horizontal differentiation of the peat swamp forest floor into hummocks with limited hydraulic conductivity and depressions with high storage capacity resembles the hummock-hollow patterning of these Sphagnum bogs. Hummocks and other surface elements functionally resemble V-notch weirs that regulate water availability. Buttressed trees play a key role in providing the structural elements for hydrological self-regulation. An additional level of regulation is found in the concentric zonation of forest types with increased presence of buttressed trees on steeper margins. Conservation and restoration efforts should take into account the inter-relationships between trees, water and peat and the hydrological feedbacks that operate as a consequence.

  14. Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; DöLl, Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffé, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (˜10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 109 unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a "grand challenge" to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  15. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; hide

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  16. Hydrological modeling in the regional scala; Hydrologische Modellierung auf der regionalen Skala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1996-12-31

    The present work describes the hydrological processes of the land-surface and their modelling on spatial and temporal scales of today`s regional climate and weatherprediction models. The components of the water cycle and the most important termsand model concepts of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface are introduced. The main task of this work is the development of a hydrological model, which can be coupled to regionalatmospheric models and is able to predict streamflow. The discussion of the necessary complexity of the land-surface-parameterizations leads to a consistent model structure. Daily measured meteorological time series of about 15 years in the catchment of the Weser river are used to force the VIC-2L model offline. The VIC-2L model is coupled to a linear horizontaltransport model to allow for a comparison of measured and modelled streamflow data. Measured and modelled discharge time series are compared, a sensitivity study is performed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die hydrologischen Prozesse am Erdboden und ihre Modellierung auf der raeumlichen und zeitlichen Skala heutiger regionaler Klima- und Wettervorhersagemodelle. Dazu werden die Komponenten des Wasserkreislaufs und die wichtigsten Begriffe und Modellkonzepte der Boden-Vegetation-Atmosphaerenwechselwirkung kurz vorgestellt. Ziel der Arbeit ist Entwicklung eines an regionale Atmosphaerenmodelle koppelbaren Hydrologiemodells, welches in der Lage ist, Abflussmengen in Fluessen richtig zu beschreiben. Aus der Diskussion ueber die notwendige Komplexitaet der Landoberflaechenparametrisierungen wird eine konsistente Modellstruktur hergeleitet. Taeglich gemessene meteorologische Zeitreihen im Wassereinzugsgebiet der Weser von nahezu 15 Jahren dienen als entkoppelter Antrieb fuer das VIC-2L-Modell. Um den Vergleich von gemessenen und modellierten Abflussmengen zu ermoeglichen, wird an das VIC-2L-Modell ein lineares horizontales Transportmodell gekoppelt. Gemessene und

  17. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic...... as part accuracy. Cutting fluids based on vegetable oils showed comparable or better performance than mineral oils. ÆÉ2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....... techniques, while part accuracy was measured on a coordinate measuring machine. A widely diffused commercial mineral oil was used as reference for all measurements. Cutting fluid was found to have a significant effect on surface integrity and thickness of the strain hardened layer in the sub-surface, as well...

  18. Inter-comparison of energy balance and hydrological models for land surface energy flux estimation over a whole river catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzinski, R.; Nieto, H.; Stisen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the main link between the natural water cycle and the land surface energy budget. Therefore water-balance and energy-balance approaches are two of the main methodologies for modelling this process. The water-balance approach is usually implemented as a complex....... The temporal patterns produced by the remote sensing and hydrological models are quite highly correlated (r ≈ 0.8). This indicates potential benefits to the hydrological modelling community of integrating spatial information derived through remote sensing methodology (contained in the ET maps...

  19. Estimation of Global Vegetation Productivity from Global LAnd Surface Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating vegetation productivity is important in research on terrestrial ecosystems, carbon cycles and climate change. Eight-day gross primary production (GPP and annual net primary production (NPP are contained in MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS products (MOD17, which are considered the first operational datasets for monitoring global vegetation productivity. However, the cloud-contaminated MODIS leaf area index (LAI and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR retrievals may introduce some considerable errors to MODIS GPP and NPP products. In this paper, global eight-day GPP and eight-day NPP were first estimated based on Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI and FPAR products. Then, GPP and NPP estimates were validated by FLUXNET GPP data and BigFoot NPP data and were compared with MODIS GPP and NPP products. Compared with MODIS GPP, a time series showed that estimated GLASS GPP in our study was more temporally continuous and spatially complete with smoother trajectories. Validated with FLUXNET GPP and BigFoot NPP, we demonstrated that estimated GLASS GPP and NPP achieved higher precision for most vegetation types.

  20. Hydrologic Remote Sensing and Land Surface Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moradkhani

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate, reliable and skillful forecasting of key environmental variables such as soil moisture and snow are of paramount importance due to their strong influence on many water resources applications including flood control, agricultural production and effective water resources management which collectively control the behavior of the climate system. Soil moisture is a key state variable in land surface–atmosphere interactions affecting surface energy fluxes, runoff and the radiation balance. Snow processes also have a large influence on land-atmosphere energy exchanges due to snow high albedo, low thermal conductivity and considerable spatial and temporal variability resulting in the dramatic change on surface and ground temperature. Measurement of these two variables is possible through variety of methods using ground-based and remote sensing procedures. Remote sensing, however, holds great promise for soil moisture and snow measurements which have considerable spatial and temporal variability. Merging these measurements with hydrologic model outputs in a systematic and effective way results in an improvement of land surface model prediction. Data Assimilation provides a mechanism to combine these two sources of estimation. Much success has been attained in recent years in using data from passive microwave sensors and assimilating them into the models. This paper provides an overview of the remote sensing measurement techniques for soil moisture and snow data and describes the advances in data assimilation techniques through the ensemble filtering, mainly Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and Particle filter (PF, for improving the model prediction and reducing the uncertainties involved in prediction process. It is believed that PF provides a complete representation of the probability distribution of state variables of interests (according to sequential Bayes law and could be a strong alternative to EnKF which is subject to some

  1. Extracting Hydrologic Understanding from the Unique Space-time Sampling of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, C.; Zhao, Y.; Beighley, E.; Durand, M. T.; David, C. H.; Lee, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is jointly developed by NASA, the French space agency (CNES), with participation from the Canadian and UK space agencies to serve both the hydrology and oceanography communities. The SWOT mission will sample global surface water extents and elevations (lakes/reservoirs, rivers, estuaries, oceans, sea and land ice) at a finer spatial resolution than is currently possible enabling hydrologic discovery, model advancements and new applications that are not currently possible or likely even conceivable. Although the mission will provide global cover, analysis and interpolation of the data generated from the irregular space/time sampling represents a significant challenge. In this study, we explore the applicability of the unique space/time sampling for understanding river discharge dynamics throughout the Ohio River Basin. River network topology, SWOT sampling (i.e., orbit and identified SWOT river reaches) and spatial interpolation concepts are used to quantify the fraction of effective sampling of river reaches each day of the three-year mission. Streamflow statistics for SWOT generated river discharge time series are compared to continuous daily river discharge series. Relationships are presented to transform SWOT generated streamflow statistics to equivalent continuous daily discharge time series statistics intended to support hydrologic applications using low-flow and annual flow duration statistics.

  2. Development of the Hydrological-Ecological Integrated watershed Flow Model (HEIFLOW): an application to the Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, C.; Han, F., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Physically based and fully-distributed integrated hydrological models (IHMs) can quantitatively depict hydrological processes, both surface and subsurface, with sufficient spatial and temporal details. However, the complexity involved in pre-processing data and setting up models seriously hindered the wider application of IHMs in scientific research and management practice. This study introduces our design and development of Visual HEIFLOW, hereafter referred to as VHF, a comprehensive graphical data processing and modeling system for integrated hydrological simulation. The current version of VHF has been structured to accommodate an IHM named HEIFLOW (Hydrological-Ecological Integrated watershed-scale FLOW model). HEIFLOW is a model being developed by the authors, which has all typical elements of physically based and fully-distributed IHMs. It is based on GSFLOW, a representative integrated surface water-groundwater model developed by USGS. HEIFLOW provides several ecological modules that enable to simulate growth cycle of general vegetation and special plants (maize and populus euphratica). VHF incorporates and streamlines all key steps of the integrated modeling, and accommodates all types of GIS data necessary to hydrological simulation. It provides a GIS-based data processing framework to prepare an IHM for simulations, and has functionalities to flexibly display and modify model features (e.g., model grids, streams, boundary conditions, observational sites, etc.) and their associated data. It enables visualization and various spatio-temporal analyses of all model inputs and outputs at different scales (i.e., computing unit, sub-basin, basin, or user-defined spatial extent). The above system features, as well as many others, can significantly reduce the difficulty and time cost of building and using a complex IHM. The case study in the Heihe River Basin demonstrated the applicability of VHF for large scale integrated SW-GW modeling. Visualization and spatial

  3. Do invasive riparian Tamarix alter hydrology of riparian areas of arid and semi-arid regions under climate change scenarios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, M. P.; Acharya, K.; Chen, L.

    2012-12-01

    Competitiveness of riparian invasive species, Tamarix, in arid and semi-arid riparian areas of the southwestern United States under climate change scenario (SRES A2) was investigated. Tamarix has been replacing native vegetation along the riparian corridors of these areas for the past several decades and is thought to alter water balance. Changes in depth to groundwater, soil moisture distribution and flood frequency are critical in survival and growth of a facultative phreatophyte such as Tamarix. In this study, a fully coupled 2d surface flow and 3d subsurface flow hydrologic model, HydroGeoSphere, was used to simulate surface-subsurface hydrology of the lower Virgin River basin (4500 sq. km), located in Nevada, Utah and Arizona. The hydrologic model results, depth to groundwater and soil saturation, were then applied to the species distribution model, Maxent, along with other bioclimatic parameters to asses future Tamarix distribution probability. Simulations were made for the climate scenarios of the end of 21st centry conditions. Depth to groundwater is found to be the most important predictor variable to the Maxent model. Future Tamarix distribution range is not uniform across the basin. It is likely to decrease at lower elevations and increase in some higher elevation areas.

  4. Characterizing the Surface Connectivity of Depressional Wetlands: Linking Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J.; Evenson, G. R.; Vanderhoof, M.; Wu, Q.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Surface connectivity of wetlands in the 700,000 km2 Prairie Pothole Region of North America (PPR) can occur through fill-spill and fill-merge mechanisms, with some wetlands eventually spilling into stream/river systems. These wetland-to-wetland and wetland-to-stream connections vary both spatially and temporally in PPR watersheds and are important to understanding hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. To explore how to best characterize spatial and temporal variability in aquatic connectivity, we compared three approaches, 1) hydrological modeling alone, 2) remotely-sensed data alone, and 3) integrating remotely-sensed data into a hydrological model. These approaches were tested in the Pipestem Creek Watershed, North Dakota across a drought to deluge cycle (1990-2011). A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was modified to include the water storage capacity of individual non-floodplain wetlands identified in the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) dataset. The SWAT-NWI model simulated the water balance and storage of each wetland and the temporal variability of their hydrologic connections between wetlands during the 21-year study period. However, SWAT-NWI only accounted for fill-spill, and did not allow for the expansion and merging of wetlands situated within larger depressions. Alternatively, we assessed the occurrence of fill-merge mechanisms using inundation maps derived from Landsat images on 19 cloud-free days during the 21 years. We found fill-merge mechanisms to be prevalent across the Pipestem watershed during times of deluge. The SWAT-NWI model was then modified to use LiDAR-derived depressions that account for the potential maximum depression extent, including the merging of smaller wetlands. The inundation maps were used to evaluate the ability of the SWAT-depression model to simulate fill-merge dynamics in addition to fill-spill dynamics throughout the study watershed. Ultimately, using remote sensing to inform and validate

  5. Theory, methods and tools for determining environmental flows for riparian vegetation: Riparian vegetation-flow response guilds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D.M.; Scott, M.L.; Leroy, Poff N.; Auble, G.T.; Lytle, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian vegetation composition, structure and abundance are governed to a large degree by river flow regime and flow-mediated fluvial processes. Streamflow regime exerts selective pressures on riparian vegetation, resulting in adaptations (trait syndromes) to specific flow attributes. Widespread modification of flow regimes by humans has resulted in extensive alteration of riparian vegetation communities. Some of the negative effects of altered flow regimes on vegetation may be reversed by restoring components of the natural flow regime. 2. Models have been developed that quantitatively relate components of the flow regime to attributes of riparian vegetation at the individual, population and community levels. Predictive models range from simple statistical relationships, to more complex stochastic matrix population models and dynamic simulation models. Of the dozens of predictive models reviewed here, most treat one or a few species, have many simplifying assumptions such as stable channel form, and do not specify the time-scale of response. In many cases, these models are very effective in developing alternative streamflow management plans for specific river reaches or segments but are not directly transferable to other rivers or other regions. 3. A primary goal in riparian ecology is to develop general frameworks for prediction of vegetation response to changing environmental conditions. The development of riparian vegetation-flow response guilds offers a framework for transferring information from rivers where flow standards have been developed to maintain desirable vegetation attributes, to rivers with little or no existing information. 4. We propose to organise riparian plants into non-phylogenetic groupings of species with shared traits that are related to components of hydrologic regime: life history, reproductive strategy, morphology, adaptations to fluvial disturbance and adaptations to water availability. Plants from any river or region may be grouped

  6. Hydrological simulation of Sperchios River basin in Central Greece using the MIKE SHE model and geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios

    2017-05-01

    The MIKE SHE model is able to simulate the entire stream flow which includes direct and basic flow. Many models either do not simulate or use simplistic methods to determine the basic flow. The MIKE SHE model takes into account many hydrological data. Since this study was directed towards the simulation of surface runoff and infiltration into saturated and unsaturated zone, the MIKE SHE is an appropriate model for reliable conclusions. In the current research, the MIKE SHE model was used to simulate runoff in the area of Sperchios River basin. Meteorological data from eight rainfall stations within the Sperchios River basin were used as inputs. Vegetation as well as geological data was used to perform the calibration and validation of the physical processes of the model. Additionally, ArcGIS program was used. The results indicated that the model was able to simulate the surface runoff satisfactorily, representing all the hydrological data adequately. Some minor differentiations appeared which can be eliminated with the appropriate adjustments that can be decided by the researcher's experience.

  7. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  8. A Conceptual Approach to Assimilating Remote Sensing Data to Improve Soil Moisture Profile Estimates in a Surface Flux/Hydrology Model. Part 1; Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles A.; Inguva, Ramarao; Schamschula, Marius; Caulfield, John

    1998-01-01

    advantage of radar is its much higher resolution than passive microwave systems, but it is currently hampered by surface roughness effects and the lack of a good algorithm based on a single frequency and single polarization. In addition, its repeat frequency is generally low (about 40 days). In the meantime, two new radiometers offer some hope for remote sensing of soil moisture from space. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), launched in November 1997, possesses a 10.65 GHz channel and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on both the ADEOS-11 and Earth Observing System AM-1 platforms to be launched in 1999 possesses a 6.9 GHz channel. Aside from issues about interference from vegetation, the coarse resolution of these data will provide considerable challenges pertaining to their application. The resolution of TMI is about 45 km and that of AMSR is about 70 km. These resolutions are grossly inconsistent with the scale of soil moisture processes and the spatial variability of factors that control soil moisture. Scale disparities such as these are forcing us to rethink how we assimilate data of various scales in hydrologic models. Of particular interest is how to assimilate soil moisture data by reconciling the scale disparity between what we can expect from present and future remote sensing measurements of soil moisture and modeling soil moisture processes. It is because of this disparity between the resolution of space-based sensors and the scale of data needed for capturing the spatial variability of soil moisture and related properties that remote sensing of soil moisture has not met with more widespread success. Within a single footprint of current sensors at the wavelengths optimal for this application, in most cases there is enormous heterogeneity in soil moisture created by differences in landcover, soils and topography, as well as variability in antecedent precipitation. It is difficult to interpret the meaning of 'mean

  9. Simulations of ecosystem hydrological processes using a unified multi-scale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin; Hinkle, Ross; Li, Hong-Yi; Bailey, Vanessa; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a unified multi-scale model (UMSM) that we developed to simulate hydrological processes in an ecosystem containing both surface water and groundwater. The UMSM approach modifies the Navier–Stokes equation by adding a Darcy force term to formulate a single set of equations to describe fluid momentum and uses a generalized equation to describe fluid mass balance. The advantage of the approach is that the single set of the equations can describe hydrological processes in both surface water and groundwater where different models are traditionally required to simulate fluid flow. This feature of the UMSM significantly facilitates modelling of hydrological processes in ecosystems, especially at locations where soil/sediment may be frequently inundated and drained in response to precipitation, regional hydrological and climate changes. In this paper, the UMSM was benchmarked using WASH123D, a model commonly used for simulating coupled surface water and groundwater flow. Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP) site at the Kissimmee, Florida, where active field monitoring and measurements are ongoing to understand hydrological and biogeochemical processes, was then used as an example to illustrate the UMSM modelling approach. The simulations results demonstrated that the DWP site is subject to the frequent changes in soil saturation, the geometry and volume of surface water bodies, and groundwater and surface water exchange. All the hydrological phenomena in surface water and groundwater components including inundation and draining, river bank flow, groundwater table change, soil saturation, hydrological interactions between groundwater and surface water, and the migration of surface water and groundwater interfaces can be simultaneously simulated using the UMSM. Overall, the UMSM offers a cross-scale approach that is particularly suitable to simulate coupled surface and ground water flow in ecosystems with strong surface water and groundwater interactions.

  10. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  11. Hydrologic response of mechanical mastication in juniper woodland in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various vegetation control methods have been used to reduce juniper (Juniperus ssp.) woodland encroachment. Mechanical mastication (reducing trees to a mulch residue) has recently been used in some western states. We investigated the hydrologic impacts of rubber tire tracks from the masticating vehi...

  12. Estimation of watershed-level distributed forest structure metrics relevant to hydrologic modeling using LiDAR and Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varhola, Andrés; Coops, Nicholas C.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA detailed characterization of vegetation structure is fundamental for physically-based hydrologic models to simulate various processes that determine rates of snow accumulation and ablation, evapotranspiration and water dynamics. However, major efforts focused on developing complex equations to describe hydrologic processes as a function of vegetation structure at the plot level have not been accompanied by corresponding attempts to adequately extrapolate these metrics over the wider landscape in order to parameterize fully-distributed models. Recent advances in remote sensing technologies offer alternatives to overcome these difficulties and therefore improve our capacity to monitor vegetation and hydrologic processes extensively. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) stands out as the most promising tool to provide detailed, 3-dimensional representations of vegetation from which a wide array of structural metrics can be estimated. On the other hand, moderate scale optical remote sensing imagery such as Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) offers the capacity to extrapolate these metrics across the landscape by virtue of its spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we correlate ALS-derived forest cover (FC), tree height (H), leaf area index (LAI) and sky view-factor (SVF) - the four main structural parameters used by hydrologic models - with a suite of spectral indices obtained from six spectral bands of a Landsat 5 TM image. Despite numerous sources of variation that affect the relationships between 2-dimensional spectral indices and three-dimensional structural metrics, models to predict FC, H, LAI and SVF with reasonable accuracy were developed. The extrapolation of these variables across a watershed in British Columbia severely affected by insect disturbance resulted in highly-detailed 30 m spatial resolution maps and frequency distributions consistent with the natural variation ranges of each metric - a major improvement compared to traditional approaches that use

  13. Aspect-related Vegetation Differences Amplify Soil Moisture Variability in Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetemen, O.; Srivastava, A.; Kumari, N.; Saco, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture variability (SMV) in semiarid landscapes is affected by vegetation, soil texture, climate, aspect, and topography. The heterogeneity in vegetation cover that results from the effects of microclimate, terrain attributes (slope gradient, aspect, drainage area etc.), soil properties, and spatial variability in precipitation have been reported to act as the dominant factors modulating SMV in semiarid ecosystems. However, the role of hillslope aspect in SMV, though reported in many field studies, has not received the same degree of attention probably due to the lack of extensive large datasets. Numerical simulations can then be used to elucidate the contribution of aspect-driven vegetation patterns to this variability. In this work, we perform a sensitivity analysis to study on variables driving SMV using the CHILD landscape evolution model equipped with a spatially-distributed solar-radiation component that couples vegetation dynamics and surface hydrology. To explore how aspect-driven vegetation heterogeneity contributes to the SMV, CHILD was run using a range of parameters selected to reflect different scenarios (from uniform to heterogeneous vegetation cover). Throughout the simulations, the spatial distribution of soil moisture and vegetation cover are computed to estimate the corresponding coefficients of variation. Under the uniform spatial precipitation forcing and uniform soil properties, the factors affecting the spatial distribution of solar insolation are found to play a key role in the SMV through the emergence of aspect-driven vegetation patterns. Hence, factors such as catchment gradient, aspect, and latitude, define water stress and vegetation growth, and in turn affect the available soil moisture content. Interestingly, changes in soil properties (porosity, root depth, and pore-size distribution) over the domain are not as effective as the other factors. These findings show that the factors associated to aspect-related vegetation

  14. Hydrologic Science and Satellite Measurements of Surface Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    While significant advances continue to be made for satellite measurements of surface waters, important science and application opportunities remain. Examples include the following: (1) Our current methods of measuring floodwater dynamics are either sparsely distributed or temporally inadequate. As an example, flood depths are measured by using high water marks, which capture only the peak of the flood wave, not its temporal variability. (2) Discharge is well measured at individual points along stream networks using in-situ gauges, but these do not capture within-reach hydraulic variability such as the water surface slope changes on the rising and falling limbs of flood waves. (3) Just a 1.0 mm/day error in ET over the Congo Basin translates to a 35,000 m3/s discharge error. Knowing the discharge of the Congo River and its many tributaries should significantly improve our understanding of the water balance throughout the basin. The Congo is exemplary of many other basins around the globe. (4) Arctic hydrology is punctuated by millions of unmeasured lakes. Globally, there might be as many as 30 million lakes larger than a hectare. Storage changes in these lakes are nearly unknown, but in the Arctic such changes are likely an indication of global warming. (5) Well over 100 rivers cross international boundaries, yet the sharing of water data is poor. Overcoming this helps to better manage the entire river basin while also providing a better assessment of potential water related disasters. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) mission is designed to meet these needs by providing global measurements of surface water hydrodynamics. SWOT will allow estimates of discharge in rivers wider than 100m (50m goal) and storage changes in water bodies larger than 250m by 250m (and likely as small as one hectare).

  15. Differentiate responses of soil structure to natural vegetation and artificial plantation in landslide hazard region of the West Qinling Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Huang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Hong, M.

    2017-12-01

    Natural vegetation and artificial plantation are the most important measures for ecological restoration in soil erosion and landslide hazard-prone regions of China. Previous studies have demonstrated that both measures can significantly change the soil structure and decrease soil and water erosion. Few reports have compared the effects of the two contrasting measures on mechanical and hydrological properties and further tested the differentiate responses of soil structure. In the study areas, two vegetation restoration measures-natural vegetation restoration (NVR) and artificial plantation restoration (APR) compared with control site, with similar topographical and geological backgrounds were selected to investigate the different effects on soil structure based on eight-year ecological restoration projects. The results showed that the surface vegetation played an important role in releasing soil erosion and enhance soil structure stability through change the soil aggregates (SA) and total soil porosity (TSP). The SArestoration and conservation in geological hazard-prone regions.

  16. Research on Land Surface Thermal-Hydrologic Exchange in Southern China under Future Climate and Land Cover Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change inevitably leads to changes in hydrothermal circulation. However, thermal-hydrologic exchanging caused by land cover change has also undergone ineligible changes. Therefore, studying the comprehensive effects of climate and land cover changes on land surface water and heat exchanges enables us to well understand the formation mechanism of regional climate and predict climate change with fewer uncertainties. This study investigated the land surface thermal-hydrologic exchange across southern China for the next 40 years using a land surface model (ecosystem-atmosphere simulation scheme (EASS. Our findings are summarized as follows. (i Spatiotemporal variation patterns of sensible heat flux (H and evapotranspiration (ET under the land cover scenarios (A2a or B2a and climate change scenario (A1B are unanimous. (ii Both H and ET take on a single peak pattern, and the peak occurs in June or July. (iii Based on the regional interannual variability analysis, H displays a downward trend (10% and ET presents an increasing trend (15%. (iv The annual average H and ET would, respectively, increase and decrease by about 10% when woodland converts to the cultivated land. Through this study, we recognize that land surface water and heat exchanges are affected greatly by the future climate change as well as land cover change.

  17. Biocidal action of ozone-treated polystyrene surfaces on vegetative and sporulated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfoudh, Ahlem; Barbeau, Jean; Moisan, Michel; Leduc, Annie; Seguin, Jacynthe

    2010-01-01

    Surfaces of materials can be modified to ensure specific interaction features with microorganisms. The current work discloses biocidal properties of polystyrene (PS) Petri-dish surfaces that have been exposed to a dry gaseous-ozone flow. Such treated PS surfaces are able to inactivate various species of vegetative and sporulated bacteria on a relatively short contact time. Denaturation of proteins seems likely based on a significant loss of enzymatic activity of the lysozyme protein. Characterization of these surfaces by atomic-force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals specific structural and chemical modifications as compared to untreated PS. Persistence of the biocidal properties of these treated surfaces is observed. This ozone-induced process is technically simple to achieve and does not require active precursors as in grafting.

  18. Modeling the Climate and Hydrological Controls of the Expansion of an Invasive Grass Over Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, A.; Niu, G.; Zeng, X.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has an effect on the resilience of ecosystems and the occurrence of ecological perturbations (e.g. spread of invasive species, wildfires). Changes in vegetation in turn can interrupt regional scale climate patterns and alter the spatial and temporal propagation of ecological disturbances. Understanding the controls of vegetation change are essential for predicting future changes, and for setting conservation and restoration targets. Vegetation change in transition zones between ecological regions is a significant indicator of future shifts in the composition of neighboring plant communities. The Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed is in a grassland-shrubland transition zone between the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Desert in Southern Arizona. During the past decade, at some sites the cover of the invasive Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) drastically increased and the abundance of native vegetation decreased, causing a major decline in biodiversity. Focusing on a catchment scale (Kendall Site), we used an individual based vegetation model (ECOTONE) and a coupled vegetation-3D surface/subsurface hydrology model (ECOTONE-CATHY) to simulate vegetation change. We set up the models with soil and climatological data (NLDAS and AmeriFlux), incorporated initial conditions of species and biomass distribution and species parameters for the site. Using ECOTONE we tested our hypothesis that a combination of dry years and subsequent wet period caused Lehmann lovegass to have advantage over the natives. In ECOTONE species composition and species distribution of plant communities arise from dynamic interactions of individual plants with species specific traits through intra- and interspecific competition for resources (H2O, nitrogen) and their interaction with the environment (precipitation and temperature). Our results indicate that the competitive advantage of Lehmann lovegrass stems from its ability to withstand dryer conditions during establishment and due to

  19. Hydrologic response to multimodel climate output using a physically based model of groundwater/surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, M.; Paniconi, C.; Marrocu, M.; Huard, D.; Chaumont, D.

    2012-12-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) are the primary instruments for obtaining projections of future global climate change. Outputs from GCMs, aided by dynamical and/or statistical downscaling techniques, have long been used to simulate changes in regional climate systems over wide spatiotemporal scales. Numerous studies have acknowledged the disagreements between the various GCMs and between the different downscaling methods designed to compensate for the mismatch between climate model output and the spatial scale at which hydrological models are applied. Very little is known, however, about the importance of these differences once they have been input or assimilated by a nonlinear hydrological model. This issue is investigated here at the catchment scale using a process-based model of integrated surface and subsurface hydrologic response driven by outputs from 12 members of a multimodel climate ensemble. The data set consists of daily values of precipitation and min/max temperatures obtained by combining four regional climate models and five GCMs. The regional scenarios were downscaled using a quantile scaling bias-correction technique. The hydrologic response was simulated for the 690 km2des Anglais catchment in southwestern Quebec, Canada. The results show that different hydrological components (river discharge, aquifer recharge, and soil moisture storage) respond differently to precipitation and temperature anomalies in the multimodel climate output, with greater variability for annual discharge compared to recharge and soil moisture storage. We also find that runoff generation and extreme event-driven peak hydrograph flows are highly sensitive to any uncertainty in climate data. Finally, the results show the significant impact of changing sequences of rainy days on groundwater recharge fluxes and the influence of longer dry spells in modifying soil moisture spatial variability.

  20. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Werner, Kent [SWECO VIAK AB/Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Juston, John [DBE Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The results from the investigations at the sites are used as a basic input to the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDM). The SDM shall summarise the current state of knowledge of the site, and provide parameters and models to be used in further analyses within Safety Assessment, Repository Design and Environmental Impact Assessment. The present report is a background report describing the meteorological conditions and the modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology in support of the Forsmark version 1.2 SDM based on the data available in the Forsmark 1.2 'data freeze' (July 31, 2004). The groundwater is very shallow, with groundwater levels within one meter below ground as an annual mean for almost all groundwater monitoring wells. Also, the annual groundwater level amplitude is less than 1.5 m for most wells. The shallow groundwater levels mean that there is a strong interaction between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and groundwater. In the modelling, surface water and near-surface groundwater divides are assumed to coincide. The small-scale topography implies that many local, shallow groundwater flow systems are formed in the Quaternary deposits, overlaying more large-scale flow systems associated with groundwater flows at greater depths. Groundwater level time series from wells in till and bedrock within the same areas show a considerably higher groundwater level in the till than in the bedrock. The observed differences in levels are not fully consistent with the good hydraulic contact between overburden and bedrock indicated by the hydraulic tests in the Quaternary deposits. However, the relatively lower groundwater levels in the bedrock may be caused by the horizontal to sub-horizontal highly

  1. Land-margin ecosystem hydrologic data for the coastal Everglades, Florida, water years 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gordon H.; Smith, Thomas J.; Balentine, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    , as a response for a more interdisciplinary science approach to understanding the coastal Everglades ecological system, the SOFL-GCC hydrology project was integrated into the “Dynamics of Land-Margin Ecosystems: Historical Change, Hydrology, Vegetation, Sediment, and Climate” study (Smith and others, 2002). Data from the ongoing study has been useful in providing an empirical hydrologic baseline for the greater Everglades ecosystem restoration science and management needs. The hydrology network consisted of 13 hydrologic gaging stations installed in the southwestern coastal region of Everglades National Park along three transects: Shark River (Shark or SH) transect, Lostmans River (Lostmans or LO) transect, and Chatham River (Chatham or CH) transect (fig. 1). There were five paired surface-water/groundwater gaging stations on the Shark transect (SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, and SH5) and one stage gaging station (BSC) in the Big Sable Creek; four paired surface-water/groundwater gaging stations on the Lostmans transect (LO1, LO2, LO3, and LO4); and three paired surface-water/groundwater gaging stations on the Chatham transect (CH1, CH2, and CH3). Both surface-water and groundwater levels, salinities, and temperatures were monitored at the paired gaging stations. Rainfall was recorded at marsh and open canopy gaging stations. This report details the study introduction, method, and description of data collected, which are accessible through the final instantaneous hydrologic dataset stored in the USGS South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) South Florida Hydrology Database website, http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/sfl_hydro_data/location.html#brdlandmargin.

  2. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  3. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Corral Creek area, Hanging Woman Creek coal field, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymonds, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Corral Creek area of the Hanging Woman Creek coal field, 9 miles east of the Decker coal mines near the Tongue River, contains large reserves of Federal coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study was conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to study assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrogeologic data collected indicate that aquifers are coal and sandstone beds within the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and sand and gravel in valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Surface-water resources are limited to a few spring-fed stock ponds in the higher parts of the area and the intermittent flow of Corral Creek near the mouth. Most of the stock ponds in the area become dry by midsummer. Mining of the Anderson coal bed would remove three stock wells and would lower the potentiometric surface within the coal and sandstone aquifers. The alluvial aquifer beneath Corral Creek and South Fork would be removed. Although mining would alter the existing hydrologic systems and remove several shallow wells, alternative ground-water supplies are available that could be developed to replace those lost by mining. (USGS)

  4. Combining super-ensembles and statistical emulation to improve a regional climate and vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, L. R.; Rupp, D. E.; Li, S.; Sarah, S.; McNeall, D. J.; Mote, P.; Betts, R. A.; Wallom, D.

    2017-12-01

    Changing regional patterns of surface temperature, precipitation, and humidity may cause ecosystem-scale changes in vegetation, altering the distribution of trees, shrubs, and grasses. A changing vegetation distribution, in turn, alters the albedo, latent heat flux, and carbon exchanged with the atmosphere with resulting feedbacks onto the regional climate. However, a wide range of earth-system processes that affect the carbon, energy, and hydrologic cycles occur at sub grid scales in climate models and must be parameterized. The appropriate parameter values in such parameterizations are often poorly constrained, leading to uncertainty in predictions of how the ecosystem will respond to changes in forcing. To better understand the sensitivity of regional climate to parameter selection and to improve regional climate and vegetation simulations, we used a large perturbed physics ensemble and a suite of statistical emulators. We dynamically downscaled a super-ensemble (multiple parameter sets and multiple initial conditions) of global climate simulations using a 25-km resolution regional climate model HadRM3p with the land-surface scheme MOSES2 and dynamic vegetation module TRIFFID. We simultaneously perturbed land surface parameters relating to the exchange of carbon, water, and energy between the land surface and atmosphere in a large super-ensemble of regional climate simulations over the western US. Statistical emulation was used as a computationally cost-effective tool to explore uncertainties in interactions. Regions of parameter space that did not satisfy observational constraints were eliminated and an ensemble of parameter sets that reduce regional biases and span a range of plausible interactions among earth system processes were selected. This study demonstrated that by combining super-ensemble simulations with statistical emulation, simulations of regional climate could be improved while simultaneously accounting for a range of plausible land

  5. Surface Hydrological Processes of Rock Glaciated Basins in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, E. I.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers in the western United States have been examined in terms of their summer meltwater contributions to regional hydrological systems. In the San Juan Mountains of Colorado where glaciers do not and cannot exist due to a rising zero-degree isotherm, rock glaciers take the place of valley glaciers during the summer runoff period. Most of the rock glaciers in Colorado are located on a northerly slope aspect, however, there are multiple in the southwest region of the state that occur on different aspects. This study asked how slope aspect and rising air temperatures influenced the hydrological processes of streams below rock glaciers in the San Juan Mountains during the 2016 summer season. This project focused on three basins, Yankee Boy basin, Blue Lakes basin, and Mill Creek basin, which are adjacent to each other and share a common peak, Gilpin Peak. Findings of this one-season study showed that air temperature significantly influenced stream discharge below each rock glacier. Discharge and air temperature patterns indicate a possible air temperature threshold during late summer when rock glacier melt increased at a greater rate. The results also suggest that slope aspect of rock glacier basins influences stream discharge, but temperature and precipitation are likely larger components of the melt regimes. The continuation of data collection during the 2017 summer season has allowed for more detailed analysis of the relationship between air temperature and rock glacier melt. This continual expansion of the original dataset is crucial for understanding the hydrological processes of surface runoff below rock glaciers.

  6. Hydrological responses to channelization and the formation of valley plugs and shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of floodplain systems focuses on restoring interactions between the fluvial system and floodplain, however, there is a paucity of information on the effects of valley plugs and shoals on floodplain hydrological processes. We investigated hydrologic regimes in floodplains at three valley plug sites, two shoal sites, and three unchannelized sites. Valley plug sites had altered surface and sub-surface hydrology relative to unchannelized sites, while only sub-surface hydrology was affected at shoal sites. Some of the changes were unexpected, such as reduced flood duration and flood depth in floodplains associated with valley plugs. Our results emphasize the variability associated with hydrologic processes around valley plugs and our rudimentary understanding of the effects associated with these geomorphic features. Water table levels were lower at valley plug sites compared to unchannelized sites, however, valley plug sites had a greater proportion of days when water table inundation was above mean root collar depth than both shoal and unchannelized sites as a result of lower root collar depths and higher deposition rates. This study has provided evidence that valley plugs can affect both surface and sub-surface hydrology in different ways than previously thought and illustrates the variability in hydrological responses to valley plug formation.

  7. Advancements in Hydrology and Erosion Process Understanding and Post-Fire Hydrologic and Erosion Model Development for Semi-Arid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. Jason; Pierson, Frederick B.; Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Nearing, Mark A.; Hernandez, Mariano; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Goodrich, David C.

    2017-04-01

    Fire activity continues to increase in semi-arid regions around the globe. Private and governmental land management entities are challenged with predicting and mitigating post-fire hydrologic and erosion responses on these landscapes. For more than a decade, a team of scientists with the US Department of Agriculture has collaborated on extensive post-fire hydrologic field research and the application of field research to development of post-fire hydrology and erosion predictive technologies. Experiments funded through this research investigated the impacts of fire on vegetation and soils and the effects of these fire-induced changes on infiltration, runoff generation, erodibility, and soil erosion processes. The distribution of study sites spans diverse topography across grassland, shrubland, and woodland landscapes throughout the western United States. Knowledge gleaned from the extensive field experiments was applied to develop and enhance physically-based models for hillslope- to watershed-scale runoff and erosion prediction. Our field research and subsequent data syntheses have identified key knowledge gaps and challenges regarding post-fire hydrology and erosion modeling. Our presentation details some consistent trends across a diverse domain and varying landscape conditions based on our extensive field campaigns. We demonstrate how field data have advanced our understanding of post-fire hydrology and erosion for semi-arid landscapes and highlight remaining key knowledge gaps. Lastly, we briefly show how our well-replicated experimental methodologies have contributed to advancements in hydrologic and erosion model development for the post-fire environment.

  8. Hydrologic pulses and remaining natural vegetation in Jaú and Jacaré-Pepira watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozrael Henriques Rezende

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of natural vegetation in two subwatersheds of the Tietê-Jacaré Water Resources Management Unit in São Paulo State on the pulse of their rivers. In Jacaré-Pepira Subwatershed, having higher remaining cover index, pulses were more predictable and had lower amplitude in the study period, indicating less perturbation of the water body and higher resilience of the aquatic ecosystem. Jacaré-Pepira River specific mean discharge was higher than the Q5% calculated through the Hydrologic Regionalization Method for São Paulo State, whereas Jaú River mean discharge was lower than Q5%. The minimum discharge recorded for Jacaré-Pepira River was higher than Q7.10 and equal to Q95%, whereas for Jaú River this value was practically equal to Q7,10 and lower than Q95%..Este trabalho discute a influência da cobertura vegetal natural remanescente de duas sub-bacias hidrográficas, localizadas na Unidade de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos Tietê - Jacaré, estado de São Paulo, no pulso dos rios de cada uma delas. A sub-bacia hidrográfica do rio Jacaré-Pepira, com maior índice de cobertura remanescente, apresentou pulsos mais previsíveis e de menor amplitude no período estudado, indicando menor perturbação do corpo hídrico e maior resiliência do ecossistema aquático. Constatou-se que a vazão média específica do rio Jacaré-Pepira no período foi maior que a Q5% calculada pelo método de Regionalização Hidrológica do Estado de São Paulo, enquanto que para o rio Jaú a vazão média foi menor que a respectiva Q5%. A vazão mínima registrada no período para o rio Jacaré-Pepira foi maior que a Q7,10 e igual a Q95%. e para o rio Jaú a vazão mínima registrada no período foi praticamente igual a Q7,10 e menor que Q95%.

  9. The Impact of CO2-Driven Vegetation Changes on Wildfire Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. B.; Poulsen, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    While wildfires are a key component of natural ecological restoration and succession, they also pose tremendous risks to human life, health, and property. Wildfire frequency is expected to increase in many regions as the radiative effects of elevated CO2 drive warmer surface air temperatures, earlier spring snow melt, and more frequent meteorological drought. However, high CO2 concentrations will also directly impact vegetation growth and physiology, potentially altering wildfire characteristics through changes in fuel amount and surface hydrology. Depending on the biome and time of year, these vegetation-driven responses may mitigate or enhance radiative-driven wildfire changes. In this study, we use a suite of earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 with active biogeophysics and biogeochemistry to understand how the vegetation response to high CO2 (CO2 quadrupling) contributes to future changes in wildfire risk across the globe. Across the models, projected CO2 fertilization enhances aboveground biomass (about a 30% leaf area index (LAI) increase averaged across the globe) during the spring and summer months, increasing the availability of wildfire fuel across all biomes. Despite greater LAI, models robustly project widespread reductions in summer season transpiration (about -15% averaged across the globe) in response to reduced stomatal conductance from CO2 physiological forcing. Reduced transpiration warms summer season near surface temperatures and lowers relative humidity across vegetated regions of the mid-to-high latitudes, heightening the risk of wildfire occurrence. However, as transpiration goes down in response to greater plant water use efficiency, a larger fraction of soil water remains in the soil, potentially halting the spread of wildfires in some regions. Given the myriad ways in which the vegetation response to CO2 may alter wildfire risk, and the robustness of the responses across models, an explicit simulation of

  10. Noise-driven cooperative dynamics between vegetation and topography in riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Riparian ecosystems exhibit complex biotic and abiotic dynamics, where the triad vegetation-sediments-stream determines the eco-geomorphological features of the river landscape. Random fluctuations of the water stage are a key trait of this triad, and a number of behaviors of the fluvial environment can be understood only taking into consideration the role of noise. In fact, in a given plot, vegetation biomass can grow (if the stage is below the plot elevation) or decay (if the stage is above the plot elevation). As a result, biomass exhibits significant temporal variations. In this framework, the capability of vegetation to alter the transect topography (namely, the plot elevation) is crucial. Vegetation can increase the plot elevation by a number of mechanisms (trapping of water- and wind-transported sediment particles, production of organic soil, stabilization of the soil surface). The increment of plot elevation induces the reduction of the plot-specific magnitude, frequency and duration of floods. These more favorable plot-specific hydrological conditions, in turn, induce an increment of biomass. Moreover, the higher the vegetation biomass, the higher the plot elevation increment induced by these mechanisms. In order to elucidate how the stochastically varying water stage and the vegetation-induced topographic alteration shape the bio-morphological characteristics of riparian transects, a stochastic model that takes into account the main links between vegetation, sediments and the stream was adopted. In particular, the capability of vegetation to alter the plot topography was emphasized. In modeling such interactions, the minimalistic approach was pursued. The complex vegetation-sediments-stream interactions were modeled by a set of state-depended stochastic eco-hydraulic equations. The probability density function of vegetation biomass was then analytically evaluated in any transect plot. This pdf strongly depends on the vegetation-topography feedback. We

  11. Response of heterogeneous vegetation to aerosol radiative forcing over a northeast Indian station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, R; Vinayak, B; Murthy, B S

    2018-01-15

    Importance of atmospheric aerosols through direct and indirect effects on hydrological cycle is highlighted through multiple studies. This study tries to find how much the aerosols can affect evapo-transpiration (ET), a key component of the hydrological cycle over high NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index)/dense canopy, over Dibrugarh, known for vast tea plantation. The radiative effects of aerosols are calculated using satellite (Terra-MODIS) and reanalysis data on daily and monthly scales. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from satellite and ground observations compares well. Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF), calculated using MERRA data sets of 'clean-clear radiation' and 'clear-radiation' at the surface, shows a lower forcing efficiency, 35 Wm -zs , that is about half of that of ground observations. As vegetation controls ET over high NDVI area to the maximum and that gets modified through ARF, a regression equation is fitted between ET, AOD and NDVI for this station as ET = 0.25 + (-84.27) × AOD + (131.51) × NDVI that explains 82% of 'daily' ET variation using easily available satellite data. ET is found to follow net radiation closely and the direct relation between soil moisture and ET is weak on daily scale over this station as it may be acting through NDVI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elucidating Critical Zone Process Interactions with an Integrated Hydrology Model in a Headwaters Research Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Providence Creek (P300) watershed is an alpine headwaters catchment located at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). Evidence of groundwater-dependent vegetation and drought-induced tree mortality at P300 along with the effect of subsurface characterization on mountain ecohydrology motivates this study. A hyper resolution integrated hydrology model of this site, along with extensive instrumentation, provides an opportunity to study the effects of lateral groundwater flow on vegetation's tolerance to drought. ParFlow-CLM is a fully integrated surface-subsurface model that is driven with reconstructed meteorology, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 (NLDAS-2) dataset. However, large-scale data products mute orographic effects on climate at smaller scales. Climate variables often do not behave uniformly in highly heterogeneous mountain regions. Therefore, forcing physically-based integrated hydrologic models—especially of mountain headwaters catchments—with a large-scale data product is a major challenge. Obtaining reliable observations in complex terrain is challenging and while climate data products introduce uncertainties likewise, documented discrepancies between several data products and P300 observations suggest these data products may suffice. To tackle these issues, a suite of simulations was run to parse out (1) the effects of climate data source (data products versus observations) and (2) the effects of climate data spatial variability. One tool for evaluating the effect of climate data on model outputs is the relationship between latent head flux (LH) and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning with water table depth (WTD). This zone of LH sensitivity to WTD is referred to as the "critical zone." Preliminary results suggest that these critical zone relationships are preserved despite forcing albeit significant shifts in magnitude. These results demonstrate that integrated hydrology models are sensitive

  13. The role of rock moisture on regulating hydrologic and solute fluxes in the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, D. M.; Druhan, J. L.; Hahm, W. J.; Wang, J.; Murphy, C.; Cargill, S.; Dietrich, W. E.; Tune, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    In environments where the vadose zone extends below the soil layer into underlying weathered bedrock, the water held in the weathering -generated pores can be an important source of moisture to vegetation. The heterogeneous distribution of pore space in weathered bedrock, furthermore, controls the subsurface water flowpaths that dictate how water is partitioned in the critical zone (CZ) and evolves geochemically. Here, we present the results of direct monitoring of the fluxes of water and solutes through the deep CZ using a novel vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) as well as geophysical logging and sampling in a network of deep wells across a steep hillslope in Northern California. At our study site (Eel River CZO), multi-year monitoring reveals that a significant fraction of incoming rainfall (up to 30%) is seasonally stored in the fractures and matrix of the upper 12 m of weathered bedrock as rock moisture. Intensive geochemical and geophysical observations distributed from the surface to the depth of unweathered bedrock indicate that the seasonal addition and depletion of rock moisture has key implications for hydrologic and geochemical processes. First, rock moisture storage provides an annually consistent water storage reservoir for use by vegetation during the summer, which buffers transpiration fluxes against variability in seasonal precipitation. Second, because the timing and magnitude of groundwater recharge and streamflow are controlled by the annual filling and drainage of the rock moisture, rock moisture regulates the partitioning of hydrologic fluxes. Third, we find that rock moisture dynamics—which influence the myriad geochemical and microbial processes that weather bedrock—strongly correspond with the observed vertical weathering profile. As a result of the coupling between chemical weathering reactions and hydrologic fluxes, the geochemical composition of groundwater and streamflow is influenced by the temporal dynamics of rock moisture. Our

  14. Effect of Vegetable Oils on the Surface Tension, Diffusion and Efficiency of Sethoxydim to Control Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hammami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During last century, population explosion has been pressing man to produce more supplies of food by consuming more energy in agroecosystems like applying chemical management strategies. herbicides have increasingly become a key component of weed management programs. In Iran, using herbicides led to increasing wheat yield about 20% and 22% in rainfed and irrigated farms respectively (20. Nonetheless, herbicides have also a negative impact on environment. A tool for reducing the herbicide usage which allows to decreasing their cost and side effects is the use of adjuvants. They increase the effectiveness of the post-emergence herbicides. Some adjuvants have toxic effects on living organisms such as Polyethoxylated tallowamine adjuvants that they are very toxic in fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus (6. Vegetable oils are not phytotoxic and likely are degraded and metabolized quickly in the environment (8. Sethoxydim is an acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase inhibitor that is considered to be a key enzyme in lipid biosynthesis. Similar to other foliar applied herbicides, it need to be associated with an adjuvant for more effective control. Vegetable oils can be developed characteristics of sethoxydim solution such as surface tension and spry drop diffusion. Therefore, the objective of this research is to determine the effect of vegetable oils on the surface tension, diffusion and efficiency of sethoxydim to control wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.. Materials and Metods: To evaluate the effect of vegetable oils on properties of sethoxydim solution, a series of experiments were separately conducted at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Khorasan Science and Technology Park in 2012. For evaluating the effect of vegetable oils on surface tension of distilled water and sethoxydim solution and the sethoxydim efficiency on wild oat control, three experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design. In other

  15. Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Li, N.; Xiang, B.; Wang, X.; Ye, B.; McGuire, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Soil surface temperature is a critical boundary condition for the simulation of soil temperature by environmental models. It is influenced by atmospheric and soil conditions and by vegetation cover. In sophisticated land surface models, it is simulated iteratively by solving surface energy budget equations. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally simple. In this study, we developed a methodology for representing the effects of vegetation cover and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our approach integrated measurements from meteorological stations with simulations from a sophisticated land surface model to develop an equation set for estimating soil surface temperature. After implementing this equation set into an ecosystem model and evaluating the performance of the ecosystem model in simulating soil temperature at different depths in the soil profile, we applied the model to simulate interactions among vegetation cover, freeze-thaw cycles, and soil erosion to demonstrate potential applications made possible through the implementation of the methodology developed in this study. Results showed that (1) to properly estimate daily soil surface temperature, algorithms should use air temperature, downward solar radiation, and vegetation cover as independent variables; (2) the equation set developed in this study performed better than soil surface temperature algorithms used in other models; and (3) the ecosystem model performed well in simulating soil temperature throughout the soil profile using the equation set developed in this study. Our application of the model indicates that the representation in ecosystem models of the effects of vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the vulnerability of alpine grassland ecosystems to

  16. Application-Ready Expedited MODIS Data for Operational Land Surface Monitoring of Vegetation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesslyn F. Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring systems benefit from high temporal frequency image data collected from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS system. Because of near-daily global coverage, MODIS data are beneficial to applications that require timely information about vegetation condition related to drought, flooding, or fire danger. Rapid satellite data streams in operational applications have clear benefits for monitoring vegetation, especially when information can be delivered as fast as changing surface conditions. An “expedited” processing system called “eMODIS” operated by the U.S. Geological Survey provides rapid MODIS surface reflectance data to operational applications in less than 24 h offering tailored, consistently-processed information products that complement standard MODIS products. We assessed eMODIS quality and consistency by comparing to standard MODIS data. Only land data with known high quality were analyzed in a central U.S. study area. When compared to standard MODIS (MOD/MYD09Q1, the eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI maintained a strong, significant relationship to standard MODIS NDVI, whether from morning (Terra or afternoon (Aqua orbits. The Aqua eMODIS data were more prone to noise than the Terra data, likely due to differences in the internal cloud mask used in MOD/MYD09Q1 or compositing rules. Post-processing temporal smoothing decreased noise in eMODIS data.

  17. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  18. One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (MODFLOW-OWHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Boyce, Scott E.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Hughes, Joseph D.; Mehl, Steffen W.; Leake, Stanley A.; Maddock, Thomas; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (MF-OWHM) is a MODFLOW-based integrated hydrologic flow model (IHM) that is the most complete version, to date, of the MODFLOW family of hydrologic simulators needed for the analysis of a broad range of conjunctive-use issues. Conjunctive use is the combined use of groundwater and surface water. MF-OWHM allows the simulation, analysis, and management of nearly all components of human and natural water movement and use in a physically-based supply-and-demand framework. MF-OWHM is based on the Farm Process for MODFLOW-2005 (MF-FMP2) combined with Local Grid Refinement (LGR) for embedded models to allow use of the Farm Process (FMP) and Streamflow Routing (SFR) within embedded grids. MF-OWHM also includes new features such as the Surface-water Routing Process (SWR), Seawater Intrusion (SWI), and Riparian Evapotrasnpiration (RIP-ET), and new solvers such as Newton-Raphson (NWT) and nonlinear preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCGN). This IHM also includes new connectivities to expand the linkages for deformation-, flow-, and head-dependent flows. Deformation-dependent flows are simulated through the optional linkage to simulated land subsidence with a vertically deforming mesh. Flow-dependent flows now include linkages between the new SWR with SFR and FMP, as well as connectivity with embedded models for SFR and FMP through LGR. Head-dependent flows now include a modified Hydrologic Flow Barrier Package (HFB) that allows optional transient HFB capabilities, and the flow between any two layers that are adjacent along a depositional or erosional boundary or displaced along a fault. MF-OWHM represents a complete operational hydrologic model that fully links the movement and use of groundwater, surface water, and imported water for consumption by irrigated agriculture, but also of water used in urban areas and by natural vegetation. Supply and demand components of water use are analyzed under demand-driven and supply

  19. Improving wind energy forecasts using an Ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation technique in a fully coupled hydrologic and atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. L.; Maxwell, R. M.; Delle Monache, L.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is rapidly gaining prominence as a major source of renewable energy. Harnessing this promising energy source is challenging because of the chaotic nature of wind and its propensity to change speed and direction over short time scales. Accurate forecasting tools are critical to support the integration of wind energy into power grids and to maximize its impact on renewable energy portfolios. Numerous studies have shown that soil moisture distribution and land surface vegetative processes profoundly influence atmospheric boundary layer development and weather processes on local and regional scales. Using the PF.WRF model, a fully-coupled hydrologic and atmospheric model employing the ParFlow hydrologic model with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled via mass and energy fluxes across the land surface, we have explored the connections between the land surface and the atmosphere in terms of land surface energy flux partitioning and coupled variable fields including hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture and wind speed, and demonstrated that reductions in uncertainty in these coupled fields propagate through the hydrologic and atmospheric system. We have adapted the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), an implementation of the robust Ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation algorithm, to expand our capability to nudge forecasts produced with the PF.WRF model using observational data. Using a semi-idealized simulation domain, we examine the effects of assimilating observations of variables such as wind speed and temperature collected in the atmosphere, and land surface and subsurface observations such as soil moisture on the quality of forecast outputs. The sensitivities we find in this study will enable further studies to optimize observation collection to maximize the utility of the PF.WRF-DART forecasting system.

  20. Dynamical effects of vegetation on the 2003 summer heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stéfanon, M.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamical effects of vegetation on the 2003 summer heat waves Marc Stéfanon(1), Philippe Drobinski(1), Fabio D'Andrea(1), Nathalie de Noblet(2) (1) IPSL/LMD, France; (2) IPSL/LSCE, France The land surface model (LSM) in regional climate models (RCMs) plays a key role in energy and water exchanges between land and atmosphere. The vegetation can affect these exchanges through physical, biophysical and bio-geophysical mechanisms. It participates to evapo-transpiration process which determines the partitioning of net radiation between sensible and latent heat flux, through water evaporation from soil throughout the entire root system. For seasonal timescale leaf cover change induced leaf-area index (LAI) and albedo changes, impacting the Earth's radiative balance. In addition, atmospheric chemistry and carbon concentration has a direct effect on plant stomatal structure, the main exchange interface with the atmosphere. Therefore the surface energy balance is intimately linked to the carbon cycle and vegetation conditions and an accurate representation of the Earth's surface is required to improve the performance of RCMs. It is even more crucial for extreme events as heat waves and droughts which display highly nonlinear behaviour. If triggering of heat waves is determined by the large scale, local coupled processes over land can amplify or inhibit heat trough several feedback mechanism. One set of two simulation has been conducted with WRF, using different LSMs. They aim to study drought and vegetation effect on the dynamical and hydrological processes controlling the occurrence and life cycle of heat waves In the MORCE plateform, the dynamical global vegetation model (DGVM) ORCHIDEE is implemented in the atmospheric module WRF. ORCHIDEE is based on three different modules. The first module, called SECHIBA, describes the fast processes such as exchanges of energy and water between the atmosphere and the biosphere, and the soil water budget. The phenology and carbon

  1. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    To ensure optimal management and sustainable strategies for water resources, infrastructures, food production and ecosystems there is a need for an improved understanding of feedback and interaction mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface. This is especially true in light of expected...... global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate...... and hydrology models to more directly include the interaction between the atmosphere and the land surface. The present PhD study is motivated by an ambition of developing and applying a modelling tool capable of including the interaction and feedback mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface...

  2. “Black Swans” of Hydrology: Can our Models Address the Science of Hydrologic Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.

    2009-12-01

    Coupled models of terrestrial hydrology and climate have grown in complexity leading to better understanding of the coupling between the hydrosphere, biosphere, and the climate system. During the past two decades, these models have evolved through generational changes as they have grown in sophistication in their ability to resolve spatial heterogeneity as well as vegetation dynamics and biogeochemistry. These developments have, in part, been driven by data collection efforts ranging from focused field campaigns to long-term observational networks, advances in remote sensing and other measurement technologies, along with sophisticated estimation and assimilation methods. However, the hydrologic cycle is changing leading to unexpected and unanticipated behavior through emergent dynamics and patterns that are not part of the historical milieu. Is there a new thinking that is needed to address this challenge? The goal of this talk is to draw from the modeling developments in the past two decades to foster a debate for moving forward.

  3. The greening of the McGill Paleoclimate Model. Part I: Improved land surface scheme with vegetation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Mysak, Lawrence A.; Wang, Zhaomin [McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre (GEC3), Montreal, QC (Canada); Brovkin, Victor [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The formulation of a new land surface scheme (LSS) with vegetation dynamics for coupling to the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM) is presented. This LSS has the following notable improvements over the old version: (1) parameterization of deciduous and evergreen trees by using the model's climatology and the output of the dynamic global vegetation model, VECODE (Brovkin et al. in Ecological Modelling 101:251-261 (1997), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):1139, (2002)); (2) parameterization of tree leaf budburst and leaf drop by using the model's climatology; (3) parameterization of the seasonal cycle of the grass leaf area index; (4) parameterization of the seasonal cycle of tree leaf area index by using the time-dependent growth of the leaves; (5) calculation of land surface albedo by using vegetation-related parameters, snow depth and the model's climatology. The results show considerable improvement of the model's simulation of the present-day climate as compared with that simulated in the original physically-based MPM. In particular, the strong seasonality of terrestrial vegetation and the associated land surface albedo variations are in good agreement with several satellite observations of these quantities. The application of this new version of the MPM (the ''green'' MPM) to Holocene millennial-scale climate changes is described in a companion paper, Part II. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    and Mr. Dave VanBaren (Senior Environmental Specialist and Environmental Specialist - California Department of Fish and Wildlife/Gray Lodge...applications has been shown to alter vegetation and soil characteristics (e.g., color , redox features, and salt content) of affected areas (Ekstein...reference sites if necessary. The examination of wetland hydrology in the absence of water additions in combination with analysis of rainfall normality

  5. HOBE – a hydrological observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a short introducO on is given to the Danish hydrological observatory—HOBE. We describe characteristics of the catchment, which is subject to experimental and modeling investigations. An overview is given of the research reported in this special section of the journal, which includes...... 11 papers of original research covering precipitation, evapotranspiration, emission of greenhouse gasses, unsaturated flow, groundwater–surface water interaction, and climate change impacts on hydrology....

  6. Global hydrology 2015: State, trends, and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    Global hydrology has come a long way since the first introduction of the primitive land surface model of Manabe (1969) and the declaration of the “Emergence of Global Hydrology” by Eagleson (1986). Hydrological submodels of varying complexity are now part of global climate models, of models

  7. A surface hydrology model for regional vector borne disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Asare, Ernest; Bomblies, Arne; Amekudzi, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    Small, sun-lit temporary pools that form during the rainy season are important breeding sites for many key mosquito vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and other diseases. The representation of this surface hydrology in mathematical disease models is challenging, due to their small-scale, dependence on the terrain and the difficulty of setting soil parameters. Here we introduce a model that represents the temporal evolution of the aggregate statistics of breeding sites in a single pond fractional coverage parameter. The model is based on a simple, geometrical assumption concerning the terrain, and accounts for the processes of surface runoff, pond overflow, infiltration and evaporation. Soil moisture, soil properties and large-scale terrain slope are accounted for using a calibration parameter that sets the equivalent catchment fraction. The model is calibrated and then evaluated using in situ pond measurements in Ghana and ultra-high (10m) resolution explicit simulations for a village in Niger. Despite the model's simplicity, it is shown to reproduce the variability and mean of the pond aggregate water coverage well for both locations and validation techniques. Example malaria simulations for Uganda will be shown using this new scheme with a generic calibration setting, evaluated using district malaria case data. Possible methods for implementing regional calibration will be briefly discussed.

  8. Potential role of vegetation dynamics on recent extreme droughts over tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Erfanian, A.; Fomenko, L.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical South America is a drought hot spot. In slightly over a decade (2005-2016), the region encountered three extreme droughts (2005, 2010, and 2016). Recurrent extreme droughts not only impact the region's eco-hydrology and socio-economy, but are also globally important as they can transform the planet's largest rainforest, the Amazon, from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Understanding drought drivers and mechanisms underlying extreme droughts in tropical South America can help better project the fate of the Amazon rainforest in a changing climate. In this study we use a regional climate model (RegCM4.3.4) coupled with a comprehensive land-surface model (CLM4.5) to study the present-day hydroclimate of the region, focusing specifically on what might have caused the frequent recurrence of extreme droughts. In the context of observation natural variability of the global oceanic forcing, we tackle the role of land-atmosphere interactions and ran the model with and without dynamic vegetation to study how vegetation dynamics and carbon-nitrogen cycles may have influenced the drought characteristics. Our results demonstrate skillful simulation of the South American climate in the model, and indicate substantial sensitivity of the region's hydroclimatology to vegetation dynamics. This presentation will compare the role of global oceanic forcing versus regional land surface feedback in the recent recurrent droughts, and will characterize the effects of vegetation dynamics in enhancing the drought severity. Preliminary results on future projections of the regional ecosystem and droughts perspective will be also presented.

  9. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  10. Effect of spectrally varying albedo of vegetation surfaces on shortwave radiation fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 μm and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 μm which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of atmosphere (TOA based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 μm based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02 W m−2 difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, −6.28 W m−2, calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 μm for deciduous vegetation surface. The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27 W m−2, or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF.

    Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 μm at TOA by over 60 W m−2 (for aspen 3 surface and aerosol DRF by over 10 W m−2 (for dry grass. Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 μm at

  11. Flood Simulations and Uncertainty Analysis for the Pearl River Basin Using the Coupled Land Surface and Hydrological Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongnan Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performances of hydrological simulations for the Pearl River Basin in China were analysed using the Coupled Land Surface and Hydrological Model System (CLHMS. Three datasets, including East Asia (EA, high-resolution gauge satellite-merged China Merged Precipitation Analysis (CMPA-Daily, and the Asian Precipitation Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE daily precipitation were used to drive the CLHMS model to simulate daily hydrological processes from 1998 to 2006. The results indicate that the precipitation data was the most important source of uncertainty in the hydrological simulation. The simulated streamflow driven by the CMPA-Daily agreed well with observations, with a Pearson correlation coefficient (PMC greater than 0.70 and an index of agreement (IOA similarity coefficient greater than 0.82 at Liuzhou, Shijiao, and Wuzhou Stations. Comparison of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE shows that the peak flow simulation ability of CLHMS driven with the CMPA-Daily rainfall is relatively superior to that with the EA and APHRODITE datasets. The simulation results for the high-flow periods in 1998 and 2005 indicate that the CLHMS is promising for its future application in the flood simulation and prediction.

  12. Recovery Time After a Late-Dry Season Fire: the Effect on Fluxes, Surface Properties and Vegetation Green-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M. V.; D'Odorico, P.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Large regions of Africa burn on an annual basis. These fires damage vegetation, change surface albedo and modify the hydrologic cycle. Quantifying the magnitude and persistence of these changes is key in understanding the complex ways in which fire affects ecosystem functioning at smaller scales and will inform ongoing modeling efforts. We report the results of a field study in a semi-arid savanna in northern Botswana during the transition from dry to wet season (Oct-Dec) in 2012 and 2013. The goals of this study were to: (1) characterize the multifaceted effect that late dry-season fires have on fluxes and radiative surface processes during green-up, and (2) describe the timescales over which these variables recover to non-burnt levels. Our study synthesizes a suite of data, including flux tower measurements, vegetation sampling, time-lapse photography and concurrent remotely sensed variables over plots with variable burn patterns. Albedo decreased immediately after fire, converging on unburned values 10 days post-burn. The magnitude and direction of this response was comparable to the albedo change elicited by strong rainfall events. Soil temperature and soil heat flux were not significantly modified by fire. Carbon fluxes showed no discernible difference from an unburned control site immediately after fire. There was a small burst in ecosystem respiration at immediately following the first post-fire rainfall event, returning to baseline values after 3 days. Persistent CO2 release, which we attribute to soil respiration, occurred for 10 days after successive strong wetting events, confirming the centrality of available moisture in determining ecosystem function. Fire delayed the green-up in some plots, but this effect was variable and short-lived. One month after fire there was no evidence of a difference in ground observations of greenness between burnt and control plots or plots that differed in their time of burning. We attribute the relatively ephemeral

  13. Comparison of the South Florida Natural System Model with Pre-canal Everglades Hydrology Estimated from Historical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVoy, Christopher; Park, Winifred A.; Obeysekera, Jayantha

    1996-01-01

    Preservation and restoration of the remaining Everglades ecosystem is focussed on two aspects: improving upstream water quality and improving 'hydropatterns' - the timing, depth and flow of surface water. Restoration of hydropatterns requires knowledge of the original pre-canal drainage conditions as well as an understanding of the soil, topo-graphic, and vegetation changes that have taken place since canal drainage began in the 1880's. The Natural System Model (NSM), developed by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) and Everglades National Park, uses estimates of pre-drainage vegetation and topography to estimate the pre-drainage hydrologic response of the Everglades. Sources of model uncertainty include: (1) the algorithms, (2) the parameters (particularly those relating to vegetation roughness and evapotranspiration), and (3) errors in the assumed pre-drainage vegetation distribution and pre-drainage topography. Other studies are concentrating on algorithmic and parameter sources of uncertainty. In this study we focus on the NSM output -- predicted hydropattern -- and evaluate this by comparison with all available direct and indirect information on pre-drainage hydropatterns. The unpublished and published literature is being searched exhaustively for observations of water depth, flow direction, flow velocity and hydroperiod, during the period prior and just after drainage (1840-1920). Additionally, a comprehensive map of soils in the Everglades region, prepared in the 1940's by personnel from the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Everglades Drainage District, is being used to identify wetland soils and to infer the spatial distribution of pre-drainage hydrologic conditions. Detailed study of this map and other early soil and vegetation maps in light of the history of drainage activities will reveal patterns of change and possible errors in the input to the

  14. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É. Gaborit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE  √  (Nash–Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE  √  in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the

  15. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Fortin, Vincent; Xu, Xiaoyong; Seglenieks, Frank; Tolson, Bryan; Fry, Lauren M.; Hunter, Tim; Anctil, François; Gronewold, Andrew D.

    2017-09-01

    This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow) land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE) but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE √ (Nash-Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows) is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE √ in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the complexity and computation burden of the

  16. Global Validation of MODIS C6 and C6.1 Merged Aerosol Products over Diverse Vegetated Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collections 6 and 6.1 merged Dark Target (DT and Deep Blue (DB aerosol products (DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 at 0.55 µm were validated from 2004–2014 against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET Version 2 Level 2.0 AOD obtained from 68 global sites located over diverse vegetated surfaces. These surfaces were categorized by static values of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI observations obtained for the same time period from the MODIS level-3 monthly NDVI product (MOD13A3, i.e., partially/non–vegetated (NDVIP ≤ 0.3, moderately–vegetated (0.3 < NDVIM ≤ 0.5 and densely–vegetated (NDVID > 0.5 surfaces. The DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 AOD products are accomplished by the NDVI criteria: (i use the DT AOD retrievals for NDVI > 0.3, (ii use the DB AOD retrievals for NDVI < 0.2, and (iii use an average of the DT and DB AOD retrievals or the available one with highest quality assurance flag (DT: QAF = 3; DB: QAF ≥ 2 for 0.2 ≤ NDVI ≤ 0.3. For comparison purpose, the DTBSMS AOD retrievals were included which were accomplished using the Simplified Merge Scheme, i.e., use an average of the DTC6.1 and DBC6.1 AOD retrievals or the available one for all the NDVI values. For NDVIP surfaces, results showed that the DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 AOD retrievals performed poorly over North and South America in terms of the agreement with AERONET AOD, and over Asian region in terms of retrievals quality as the small percentage of AOD retrievals were within the expected error (EE = ± (0.05 + 0.15 × AOD. For NDVIM surfaces, retrieval errors and poor quality in DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 were observed for Asian, North American and South American sites, whereas good performance, was observed for European and African sites. For NDVID surfaces, DTBC6 does not perform well over the Asian and North American sites, although it contains retrievals only from the DT algorithm which was developed for dark surfaces

  17. Determination of Optimum Viewing Angles for the Angular Normalization of Land Surface Temperature over Vegetated Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huazhong Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-angular observation of land surface thermal radiation is considered to be a promising method of performing the angular normalization of land surface temperature (LST retrieved from remote sensing data. This paper focuses on an investigation of the minimum requirements of viewing angles to perform such normalizations on LST. The normally kernel-driven bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF is first extended to the thermal infrared (TIR domain as TIR-BRDF model, and its uncertainty is shown to be less than 0.3 K when used to fit the hemispheric directional thermal radiation. A local optimum three-angle combination is found and verified using the TIR-BRDF model based on two patterns: the single-point pattern and the linear-array pattern. The TIR-BRDF is applied to an airborne multi-angular dataset to retrieve LST at nadir (Te-nadir from different viewing directions, and the results show that this model can obtain reliable Te-nadir from 3 to 4 directional observations with large angle intervals, thus corresponding to large temperature angular variations. The Te-nadir is generally larger than temperature of the slant direction, with a difference of approximately 0.5~2.0 K for vegetated pixels and up to several Kelvins for non-vegetated pixels. The findings of this paper will facilitate the future development of multi-angular thermal infrared sensors.

  18. Integration of Local Hydrology into Regional Hydrologic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zee, R. J.; Lal, W. A.

    2002-05-01

    South Florida hydrology is dominated by the Central and South Florida (C&SF) Project that is managed to provide flood protection, water supply and environmental protection. A complex network of levees canals and structures provide these services to the individual drainage basins. The landscape varies widely across the C&SF system, with corresponding differences in the way water is managed within each basin. Agricultural areas are managed for optimal crop production. Urban areas maximize flood protection while maintaining minimum water levels to protect adjacent wetlands and local water supplies. "Natural" areas flood and dry out in response to the temporal distribution of rainfall. The evaluation of planning, regulation and operational issues require access to a simulation model that captures the effects of both regional and local hydrology. The Regional Simulation Model (RSM) uses a "pseudo-cell" approach to integrate local hydrology within the context of a regional hydrologic system. A 2-dimensional triangulated mesh is used to represent the regional surface and ground water systems and a 1-dimensional canal network is superimposed onto this mesh. The movement of water is simulated using a finite volume formulation with a diffusive wave approximation. Each cell in the triangulated mesh has a "pseudo-cell" counterpart, which represents the same area as the cell, but it is conceptualized such that it simulates the localized hydrologic conditions Protocols have been established to provide an interface between a cell and its pseudo-cell counterpart. . A number of pseudo-cell types have already been developed and tested in the simulation of Water Conservation Area 1 and several have been proposed to deal with specific local issues in the Southwest Florida Feasibility Study. This presentation will provide an overview of the overall RSM design, describe the relationship between cells and pseudo-cells, and illustrate how pseudo-cells are be used to simulate agriculture

  19. Measurement of environmental tritium for isotope hydrology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The Section of Isotope Hydrology of the IAEA Division of Research and Laboratories gains valuable hydrological information from studies of the concentration of environmental tritium in precipitation, surface and groundwater samples from various sites around the world. This photo story shows the steps in the measurement of these very low levels of tritium in water as performed in the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the Agency. (author)

  20. EnviroAtlas - Fruit and vegetable crops for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes data on the area, yield, and number of fruit and vegetable crops grown per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in the conterminous USA....

  1. Toward Estimating Wetland Water Level Changes Based on Hydrological Sensitivity Analysis of PALSAR Backscattering Coefficients over Different Vegetation Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR has been successfully used to map wetland’s inundation extents and types of vegetation based on the fact that the SAR backscatter signal from the wetland is mainly controlled by the wetland vegetation type and water level changes. This study describes the relation between L-band PALSAR  and seasonal water level changes obtained from Envisat altimetry over the island of Île Mbamou in the Congo Basin where two distinctly different vegetation types are found. We found positive correlations between and water level changes over the forested southern Île Mbamou whereas both positive and negative correlations were observed over the non-forested northern Île Mbamou depending on the amount of water level increase. Based on the analysis of sensitivity, we found that denser vegetation canopy leads to less sensitive  variation with respect to the water level changes regardless of forested or non-forested canopy. Furthermore, we attempted to estimate water level changes which were then compared with the Envisat altimetry and InSAR results. Our results demonstrated a potential to generate two-dimensional maps of water level changes over the wetlands, and thus may have substantial synergy with the planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT mission.

  2. Assimilation of remote sensing observations into a continuous distributed hydrological model: impacts on the hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Campo, Lorenzo; Cenci, Luca; Silvestro, Francesco; Delogu, Fabio; Boni, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The reliable estimation of hydrological variables (e.g. soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface temperature) in space and time is of fundamental importance in operational hydrology to improve the forecast of the rainfall-runoff response of catchments and, consequently, flood predictions. Nowadays remote sensing can offer a chance to provide good space-time estimates of several hydrological variables and then improve hydrological model performances especially in environments with scarce in-situ data. This work investigates the impact of the assimilation of different remote sensing products on the hydrological cycle by using a continuous physically based distributed hydrological model. Three soil moisture products derived by ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) are used to update the model state variables. The satellite-derived products are assimilated into the hydrological model using different assimilation techniques: a simple nudging and the Ensemble Kalman Filter. Moreover two assimilation strategies are evaluated to assess the impact of assimilating the satellite products at model spatial resolution or at the satellite scale. The experiments are carried out for three Italian catchments on multi year period. The benefits on the model predictions of discharge, LST, evapotranspiration and soil moisture dynamics are tested and discussed.

  3. Use of Isotopic Techniques for the Assessment of Hydrological Interactions Between Ground and Surface Waters - Rio Man, Cienaga Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio, P.; Dapena, C.; Betancur, T. [Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-07-15

    The Man River basin is located in the lower foothills of the western and central ranges of the tropical Andes, Colombia. In this area hydrological studies and hydrochemical analyses were carried out and isotopic techniques applied to describe and understand the interactions between ground and surface waters. To expand this model and to include elements other than local hydrodynamics, relationships between regional precipitation, recharge, regional flow paths and hydraulic gradients controlling water flows from big rivers to groundwater are currently being explored. Accordingly, an isotope local meteoric water line was derived and it was discovered that the relationship between ground and surface waters is similar in wet and dry seasons. Precipitation constitutes the main recharge source, base flow is important in supporting flow in rivers, streams and wetlands, and evaporation causes effects over water systems in dry periods. A tendency towards increasing air temperatures has been detected in the Man River; this change may cause negative impacts over the hydrological system, affecting evapotranspiration- recharge processes. (author)

  4. Simulated effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface-water resources and riparian vegetation in the Verde Valley sub-basin, Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Verde Valley sub-basin, groundwater use has increased in recent decades. Residents and stakeholders in the area have established several groups to help in planning for sustainability of water and other resources of the area. One of the issues of concern is the effect of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin on surface water and on groundwater-dependent riparian vegetation. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater-Flow Model by Pool and others (in press) is the most comprehensive and up-to-date tool available to understand the effects of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin. Using a procedure by Leake and others (2008), this model was modified and used to calculate effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water flow and evapotranspiration for areas in the sub-basin. This report presents results for the upper two model layers for pumping durations of 10 and 50 years. Results are in the form of maps that indicate the fraction of the well pumping rate that can be accounted for as the combined effect of reduced surface-water flow and evapotranspiration. In general, the highest and most rapid responses to pumping were computed to occur near surface-water features simulated in the modified model, but results are not uniform along these features. The results are intended to indicate general patterns of model-computed response over large areas. For site-specific projects, improved results may require detailed studies of the local hydrologic conditions and a refinement of the modified model in the area of interest.

  5. Hydrological Modelling Using a Rainfall Simulator over an Experimental Hillslope Plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Chouksey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological processes are complex to compute in hilly areas when compared to plain areas. The governing processes behind runoff generation on hillslopes are subsurface storm flow, saturation excess flow, overland flow, return flow and pipe storage. The simulations of the above processes in the soil matrix require detailed hillslope hydrological modelling. In the present study, a hillslope experimental plot has been designed to study the runoff generation processes on the plot scale. The setup is designed keeping in view the natural hillslope conditions prevailing in the Northwestern Himalayas, India where high intensity rainfall events occur frequently. A rainfall simulator was installed over the experimental hillslope plot to generate rainfall with an intensity of 100 mm/h, which represents the dominating rainfall intensity range in the region. Soil moisture sensors were also installed at variable depths from 100 to 1000 mm at different locations of the plot to observe the soil moisture regime. From the experimental observations it was found that once the soil is saturated, it remains at field capacity for the next 24–36 h. Such antecedent moisture conditions are most favorable for the generation of rapid stormflow from hillslopes. A dye infiltration test was performed on the undisturbed soil column to observe the macropore fraction variability over the vegetated hillslopes. The estimated macropore fractions are used as essential input for the hillslope hydrological model. The main objective of the present study was to develop and test a method for estimating runoff responses from natural rainfall over hillslopes of the Northwestern Himalayas using a portable rainfall simulator. Using the experimental data and the developed conceptual model, the overland flow and the subsurface flow through a macropore-dominated area have been estimated/analyzed. The surface and subsurface runoff estimated using the developed hillslope hydrological model

  6. Toward the Development of a Cold Regions Regional-Scale Hydrologic Model, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, Larry D [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Bolton, William Robert [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Young-Robertson, Jessica (Cable) [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This project improves meso-scale hydrologic modeling in the boreal forest by: (1) demonstrating the importance of capturing the heterogeneity of the landscape using small scale datasets for parameterization for both small and large basins; (2) demonstrating that in drier parts of the landscape and as the boreal forest dries with climate change, modeling approaches must consider the sensitivity of simulations to soil hydraulic parameters - such as residual water content - that are usually held constant. Thus, variability / flexibility in residual water content must be considered for accurate simulation of hydrologic processes in the boreal forest; (3) demonstrating that assessing climate change impacts on boreal forest hydrology through multiple model integration must account for direct effects of climate change (temperature and precipitation), and indirect effects from climate impacts on landscape characteristics (permafrost and vegetation distribution). Simulations demonstrated that climate change will increase runoff, but will increase ET to a greater extent and result in a drying of the landscape; and (4) vegetation plays a significant role in boreal hydrologic processes in permafrost free areas that have deciduous trees. This landscape type results in a decoupling of ET and precipitation, a tight coupling of ET and temperature, low runoff, and overall soil drying.

  7. Hydrologic bibliography of the Columbia River basalts in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.H.; Wildrick, L.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is part of the hydrologic data compilation effort of the Columbia Plateau Hydrology Study, Rockwell Hanford Operations' Waste Isolation Program. It includes references on both surface and subsurface hydrology directly or indirectly related to the Washington State portion of the Columbia River basalts. A comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the Pasco Basin (including the Hanford site) hydrology has been prepared for Rockwell Hanford Operations under the Pasco Basin Hydrology Study. In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, no effort was made to include a complete list of bibliographic references on Hanford in this volume

  8. Local benefits of retaining natural vegetation for soil retention and hydrological services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Farrell, PJ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available for their conservation on private land. This study explored the benefits of retaining renosterveld fragments at the farm-scale based on the hydrological and soil retention services they provide. Rainfall simulations were carried out at paired sites of renosterveld...

  9. Using isotopes to improve impact and hydrological predictions of land-surface schemes in global climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuffie, K.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

    2002-01-01

    Global climate model (GCM) predictions of the impact of large-scale land-use change date back to 1984 as do the earliest isotopic studies of large-basin hydrology. Despite this coincidence in interest and geography, with both papers focussed on the Amazon, there have been few studies that have tried to exploit isotopic information with the goal of improving climate model simulations of the land-surface. In this paper we analyze isotopic results from the IAEA global data base specifically with the goal of identifying signatures of potential value for improving global and regional climate model simulations of the land-surface. Evaluation of climate model predictions of the impacts of deforestation of the Amazon has been shown to be of significance by recent results which indicate impacts occurring distant from the Amazon i.e. tele-connections causing climate change elsewhere around the globe. It is suggested that these could be similar in magnitude and extent to the global impacts of ENSO events. Validation of GCM predictions associated with Amazonian deforestation are increasingly urgently required because of the additional effects of other aspects of climate change, particularly synergies occurring between forest removal and greenhouse gas increases, especially CO 2 . Here we examine three decades distributions of deuterium excess across the Amazon and use the results to evaluate the relative importance of the fractionating (partial evaporation) and non-fractionating (transpiration) processes. These results illuminate GCM scenarios of importance to the regional climate and hydrology: (i) the possible impact of increased stomatal resistance in the rainforest caused by higher levels of atmospheric CO2 [4]; and (ii) the consequences of the combined effects of deforestation and global warming on the regions climate and hydrology

  10. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  11. Some challenges in eco-hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporato, A.

    2007-12-01

    The importance of the mutual interactions between biosphere in hydrosphere has become increasingly apparent in both the ecological and hydrological sciences. In hydrology, while the role of plants in controlling soil water balance has been recognized from some time, more subtle controls have also been realized, such as the impact of soil organic matter on soil water dynamics and soil properties, the plant control on infiltration, erosion, and geomorphology. Ecosystem dynamics and land-use changes have also been recognized to impact water availability and quality. On the other hand, biologists and ecologists have increased their attention towards the dynamics of the terrestrial water balance and its impact on plants (photosynthesis, plant growth and reproduction) as well as microbial life (and thus decomposition and the entire cycling of nutrients and carbon fluxes). In this eco-hydrological context, we discuss: (i) the need to distinguish complex from complicated eco- hydrologic behaviors, which are both expected to be present in systems with many degrees of freedom, spatial heterogeneity, nonlinearities and feedbacks (and with biological components). (ii) The use of ideas and tools from complex systems science and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to explore possible emerging behaviors and patterns. (iii) The importance of intermittency and of the entire spectrum of eco-hydrologic fluctuations conferred by the system nonlinearities, and their connection to a possible theory of biologically- meaningful hydroclimatic extremes. (iv) The need for further research of basic questions yet unanswered (e.g., role of organic matter/roots on soil water balance and soil properties; vegetation control on infiltration; competition for water by plants; role of plant control on uptake (e.g., hydraulic lift)). (v) Ways to merge observations, minimalist models and complex numerical simulations as well as to increase communication of hydrologists with physicists, statisticians

  12. Improving operational land surface model canopy evapotranspiration in Africa using a direct remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M.; Tu, K.; Funk, C.; Michaelsen, J.; Williams, P.; Williams, C.; Ardö, J.; Boucher, M.; Cappelaere, B.; de Grandcourt, A.; Nickless, A.; Nouvellon, Y.; Scholes, R.; Kutsch, W.

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact on the world's economically poor. In the Sahel, a climatically sensitive region where rain-fed agriculture is the primary livelihood, expected decreases in water supply will increase food insecurity. Studies on climate change and the intensification of the water cycle in sub-Saharan Africa are few. This is due in part to poor calibration of modeled evapotranspiration (ET), a key input in continental-scale hydrologic models. In this study, a remote sensing model of transpiration (the primary component of ET), driven by a time series of vegetation indices, was used to substitute transpiration from the Global Land Data Assimilation System realization of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Oregon State University, Air Force, and Hydrology Research Laboratory at National Weather Service Land Surface Model (GNOAH) to improve total ET model estimates for monitoring purposes in sub-Saharan Africa. The performance of the hybrid model was compared against GNOAH ET and the remote sensing method using eight eddy flux towers representing major biomes of sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest improvements in model performance were at humid sites with dense vegetation, while performance at semi-arid sites was poor, but better than the models before hybridization. The reduction in errors using the hybrid model can be attributed to the integration of a simple canopy scheme that depends primarily on low bias surface climate reanalysis data and is driven primarily by a time series of vegetation indices.

  13. Mapping of Temporal Surface-water Resources Availability and Agricultural Adaptability due to Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activity in a Hot Semi-arid Region of Maharashtra State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Inamdar, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Major part of Godavari River Basin is intensely drought prone and climate vulnerable in the Western Maharashtra State, India. The economy of the state depends on the agronomic productivity of this region. So, it is necessary to regulate the effects of existing and upcoming hydro-meteorological advances in various strata. This study investigates and maps the surface water resources availability and vegetation, their decadal deviations with multi-temporal LANDSAT images; and finally quantifies the agricultural adaptations. This work involves the utilization of Remote Sensing and GIS with Hydrological modeling. First, climatic trend analysis is carried out with NCEP dataset. Then, multi-temporal LANDSAT images are classified to determine the decadal LULC changes and correlated to the community level hydrological demand. Finally, NDVI, NDWI and SWAT model analysis are accomplished to determine irrigated and non-irrigated cropping area for identifying the agricultural adaptations. The analysis shows that the mean value of annual and monsoon rainfall is significantly decreasing, whereas the mean value of annual and summer temperature is increasing significantly and the winter temperature is decreasing. The analysis of LANDSAT images shows that the surface water availability is highly dependent on climatic conditions. Barren-lands are most dynamic during the study period followed by, vegetation, and water bodies. The spatial extent of barren-lands is increased drastically during the climate vulnerable years replacing the vegetation and surface water bodies. Hence, the barren lands are constantly increasing and the vegetation cover is linearly decreasing, whereas the water extent is changing either way in a random fashion. There appears a positive correlation between surface water and vegetation occurrence; as they are fluctuating in a similar fashion in all the years. The vegetation cover is densely replenished around the dams and natural water bodies which serve as the

  14. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof; Werner, Kent; Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten; Juston, John

    2005-06-01

    groundwater recharge to, or discharge from, the bedrock (the model includes the bedrock to a depth of 150 m, based on the Forsmark 1.1 description of the hydraulic properties of the rock). Also the results from the particle tracking simulations show that the groundwater flow is dominated by its vertical component. The dominant transport of particles in the rock occurs in the fracture zones. A relatively large amount of new data has been available for the Forsmark version 1.2 modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology. The available local meteorological time series are very short and longer time series are needed to get reliable correlations to nearby regional SMHI-stations. Local continuous discharge measurements were not available for the Forsmark 1.2 modelling. Future time series from such measurements will be most valuable for the derivation of a more accurate total water balance. The groundwater levels in the area are very shallow. However, there is a bias towards local topographical minima in the location of the monitoring wells. Some additional wells should be located to typical local topographical maxima (recharge areas). The evident difference in groundwater levels between the Quaternary deposits and the upper bedrock observed at some of the core-drill sites should be further investigated for a better understanding of the hydraulic contact between the Quaternary deposits and the rock. The locations of recharge and discharge areas at different scales are crucial for the understanding of the groundwater flow system. A combination of complementary field investigations, including hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical methods, and modelling exercises using models based on morphological parameters as well as hydrogeological modelling is recommended. The model results should be compared with, e.g. the vegetation map, the soil type map and the Quaternary deposits map

  15. Eco-geomorphology of banded vegetation patterns in arid and semi-arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Saco

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between vegetation and hydrologic processes is particularly tight in water-limited environments where a positive-feedback links soil moisture and vegetation. The vegetation of these systems is commonly patterned, that is, arranged in a two phase mosaic composed of patches with high biomass cover interspersed within a low-cover or bare soil component. These patterns are strongly linked to the redistribution of runoff and resources from source areas (bare patches to sink areas (vegetation patches and play an important role in controlling erosion.

    In this paper, the dynamics of these systems is investigated using a new modeling framework that couples landform and vegetation evolution, explicitly accounting for the dynamics of runon-runoff areas. The objective of this study is to analyze water-limited systems on hillslopes with mild slopes, in which overland flow occurs predominantly in only one direction and vegetation displays a banded pattern. Our simulations reproduce bands that can be either stationary or upstream migrating depending on the magnitude of the runoff-induced seed dispersal. We also found that stationary banded systems redistribute sediment so that a stepped microtopography is developed. The modelling results are the first to incorporate the effects of runoff redistribution and variable infiltration rates on the development of both the vegetation patterns and microtopography. The microtopography for stationary bands is characterized by bare soil on the lower gradient areas and vegetation on steeper gradients areas. For the case of migrating vegetation bands the model generates hillslope profiles with planar topography. The success at generating not only the observed patterns of vegetation, but also patterns of runoff and sediment redistribution suggests that the hydrologic and erosion mechanisms represented in the model are correctly capturing some of the key processes driving these ecosystems.

  16. Development and Application of Improved Long-Term Datasets of Surface Hydrology for Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtae Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater availability and agricultural production are key factors for sustaining the fast growing population and economy in the state of Texas, which is the third largest state in terms of agricultural production in the United States. This paper describes a long-term (1918–2011 grid-based (1/8° surface hydrological dataset for Texas at a daily time step based on simulations from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC hydrological model. The model was calibrated and validated against observed streamflow over 10 Texas river basins. The simulated soil moisture was also evaluated using in situ observations. Results suggest that there is a decreasing trend in precipitation and an increasing trend in temperature in most of the basins. Droughts and floods were reconstructed and analyzed. In particular, the spatially distributed severity and duration of major Texas droughts were compared to identify new characteristics. The modeled flood recurrence interval and the return period were also compared with observations. Results suggest the performance of extreme flood simulations needs further improvement. This dataset is expected to serve as a benchmark which may contribute to water resources management and to mitigating agricultural drought, especially in the context of understanding the effects of climate change on crop yield in Texas.

  17. Identifying and Evaluating the Relationships that Control a Land Surface Model's Hydrological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Mahanama, Sarith P.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent soil moisture-evaporation relationships used in today 's land surface models (LSMs) arguably reflect a lot of guesswork given the lack of contemporaneous evaporation and soil moisture observations at the spatial scales represented by regional and global models. The inherent soil moisture-runoff relationships used in the LSMs are also of uncertain accuracy. Evaluating these relationships is difficult but crucial given that they have a major impact on how the land component contributes to hydrological and meteorological variability within the climate system. The relationships, it turns out, can be examined efficiently and effectively with a simple water balance model framework. The simple water balance model, driven with multi-decadal observations covering the conterminous United States, shows how different prescribed relationships lead to different manifestations of hydrological variability, some of which can be compared directly to observations. Through the testing of a wide suite of relationships, the simple model provides estimates for the underlying relationships that operate in nature and that should be operating in LSMs. We examine the relationships currently used in a number of different LSMs in the context of the simple water balance model results and make recommendations for potential first-order improvements to these LSMs.

  18. 30 CFR 816.46 - Hydrologic balance: Siltation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Siltation structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.46 Hydrologic balance: Siltation structures. (a) For the purpose of this... activities include diversion ditches, siltation structures, or roads that are designed constructed and...

  19. Modelling hydrological connectivity in burned areas. A case study from South of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; López-Vicente, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Overland flow connectivity depends on the spatio-temporal interactions of hydrological and geomorphic processes as well as on the human footprint on the landscape. This study deals with the modelling of hydrological connectivity in a burned area with different levels of fire severity. Namely, the objectives are to: i) characterize and ii) modelling the pre- (PreF) and post-fire (PostF) scenarios, as well as iii) evaluate the effect of the vegetation changes due to the fire and the initial ...

  20. Vegetation Change in Interior Alaska Over the Last Four Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, H.; Dewitz, J.; Cristobal, J.; Prakash, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic has become a generally warmer place over the past decades leading to earlier snowmelt, permafrost degradation and changing plant communities. One area in particular, vegetation change, is responding relatively rapidly to climate change, impacting the surrounding environment with changes to forest fire regime, forest type, forest resiliency, habitat availability for subsistence flora and fauna, hydrology, among others. To quantify changes in vegetation in the interior Alaska boreal forest over the last four decades, this study uses the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) decision-tree based classification methods, using both C5 and ERDAS Imagine software, to classify Landsat Surface Reflectance Images into the following NLCD-consistent vegetation classes: planted, herbaceous, shrubland, and forest (deciduous, evergreen and mixed). The results of this process are a total of four vegetation cover maps, that are freely accessible to the public, one for each decade in the 1980's, 1990's, 2000's, and a current map for 2017. These maps focus on Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding area covering approximately 36,140 square miles. The maps are validated with over 4,000 ground truth points collected through organizations such as the Landfire Project and the Long Term Ecological Research Network, as well as vegetation and soil spectra collected from the study area concurrent with the Landsat satellite over-passes with a Spectral Evolution PSR+ 3500 spectro-radiometer (0.35 - 2.5 μm). We anticipate these maps to be viewed by a wide user-community and may aid in preparing the residents of Alaska for changes in their subsistence food sources and will contribute to the scientific community in understanding the variety of changes that can occur in response to changing vegetation.

  1. Using satellite data on meteorological and vegetation characteristics and soil surface humidity in the Land Surface Model for the vast territory of agricultural destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Vasilenko, Eugene; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The model of water and heat exchange between vegetation covered territory and atmosphere (LSM, Land Surface Model) for vegetation season has been developed to calculate soil water content, evapotranspiration, infiltration of water into the soil, vertical latent and sensible heat fluxes and other water and heat balances components as well as soil surface and vegetation cover temperatures and depth distributions of moisture and temperature. The LSM is suited for utilizing satellite-derived estimates of precipitation, land surface temperature and vegetation characteristics and soil surface humidity for each pixel. Vegetation and meteorological characteristics being the model parameters and input variables, correspondingly, have been estimated by ground observations and thematic processing measurement data of scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, SEVIRI/Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3) and MSU-MR/Meteor-M № 2. Values of soil surface humidity has been calculated from remote sensing data of scatterometers ASCAT/MetOp-A, -B. The case study has been carried out for the territory of part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region of European Russia with area of 227300 km2 located in the forest-steppe zone for years 2012-2015 vegetation seasons. The main objectives of the study have been: - to built estimates of precipitation, land surface temperatures (LST) and vegetation characteristics from MSU-MR measurement data using the refined technologies (including algorithms and programs) of thematic processing satellite information matured on AVHRR and SEVIRI data. All technologies have been adapted to the area of interest; - to investigate the possibility of utilizing satellite-derived estimates of values above in the LSM including verification of obtained estimates and development of procedure of their inputting into the model. From the AVHRR data there have been built the estimates of precipitation, three types of LST: land skin temperature Tsg, air temperature at a level of

  2. Influence of hummocks and emergent vegetation on hydraulic performance in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Steffanie H.; Daniels, Joan S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Wass, Roland D.; Stiles, Eric A.; Barber, Larry B.

    2010-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments were conducted biannually at the start and end of the vegetation growing season in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland located near Phoenix, AZ. Tracer experiments were conducted prior to and following reconfiguration and replanting of a 1.2 ha treatment wetland from its original design of alternating shallow and deep zones to incorporate hummocks (shallow planting beds situated perpendicular to flow). Tracer test data were analyzed using analysis of moments and the one‐dimensional transport with inflow and storage numerical model to evaluate the effects of the seasonal vegetation growth cycle and hummocks on solute transport. Following reconfiguration, vegetation coverage was relatively small, and minor changes in spatial distribution influenced wetland hydraulics. During start‐up conditions, the wetland underwent an acclimation period characterized by small vegetation coverage and large transport cross‐sectional areas. At the start of the growing season, new growth of emergent vegetation enhanced hydraulic performance. At the end of the growing season, senescing vegetation created short‐circuiting. Wetland hydrodynamics were associated with high volumetric efficiencies and velocity heterogeneities. The hummock design resulted in breakthrough curves characterized by multiple secondary tracer peaks indicative of varied flow paths created by bottom topography.

  3. Spatial variation in below ground carbon cycling in a pristine peatland, driven by present and past vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Paul; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Gałka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2017-04-01

    Peat carbon cycling is controlled by both large scale factors, such as climate and hydrological setting, and small scale factors, such as microtopography, vegetation, litter quality, and rooting depth. These small scale factors commonly vary within peatlands, causing variation in the carbon balance at different locations within the same site. Understanding the relationship between small scale carbon cycling and vegetation helps us to assess the variation of carbon dynamics of peatlands, because vegetation composition acts as an integrator of factors such as microtopography, hydrology, and nutrient level. Variation in vegetation illustrates spatial variation of these underlying factors. Furthermore, the presence of certain plant species affects carbon cycling directly through litter quality or aeration through root tissues. In order to understand these within-site variations in terms of carbon cycling, we investigated carbon accumulation, decomposition, and biogeochemistry of pore waters along a transect of peat cores with changing vegetation and water levels in an ombrotrophic peatland in southern Patagonia. The transect ran from a Sphagnum magellanicum dominated spot with relatively high water table, to intermediately wet spots with mixed Sphagnum/shrubs vegetation, or dominated by Cyperaceae, eventually to a more elevated and drier spot dominated by cushion plants (mainly Astelia pumila). There were large differences in peat accumulation rates and peat densities, with faster peat growth and lower densities under Sphagnum, but overall carbon accumulation rates were quite similar in the various microenvironments. At most plots C/N ratios decreased with depth, concurrent with increasing humification index derived from FT-IR spectra. But under cushion plants this relation was opposite: more humification with depth, but also C/N ratios increases. This reflected the differing source material at depth under the cushion plants, and that the cushion plant peat layers were

  4. Applications of AMS to hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.W.; Davis, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation and management of water as a resource requires an understanding of the chemical, and geological interactions that water effects or undergoes in the hydrologic cycle. Delivery of water to the land surface by precipitation, subsequent streamflow, circulation in surface waters and evapotranspiration, infiltration, recharge, movement of waters in the subsurface, and discharge are of interest. Also important are the quality of water, water's role in mineral dissolution, transport, and deposition, and the various water-related geotechnical problems of subsidence, tectonics, slope instability, and earth structures. Mathematical modeling techniques are available and are being improved which describe these phenomena and predict future system behavior. Typically, however, models suffer from substantial uncertainties due to insufficient data. Refinement, calibration,and verification of hydrologic models require expansion of the data base. Examination of chemical constituents of water which act as tracers can often supply the needed information. Unfortunately, few tracers are available which are both mobile and chemically stable. Several long-lived radioisotopic hydrologic tracers exist, however, which have received little attention in hydrologic studies to date because of low concentration, low specific activity, or sample size limitations. Recent development of ultra-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry techniques (AMS) by Purser and others (1977), Nelson and others (1977), Bennett and others (1978), Muller and others (1978), Raisbeck and others (1978) is now expected to provide access to many of these tracers

  5. Isotope methods in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.

    1980-01-01

    Of the investigation methods used in hydrology, tracer methods hold a special place as they are the only ones which give direct insight into the movement and distribution processes taking place in surface and ground waters. Besides the labelling of water with salts and dyes, as in the past, in recent years the use of isotopes in hydrology, in water research and use, in ground-water protection and in hydraulic engineering has increased. This by no means replaces proven methods of hydrological investigation but tends rather to complement and expand them through inter-disciplinary cooperation. The book offers a general introduction to the application of various isotope methods to specific hydrogeological and hydrological problems. The idea is to place the hydrogeologist and the hydrologist in the position to recognize which isotope method will help him solve his particular problem or indeed, make a solution possible at all. He should also be able to recognize what the prerequisites are and what work and expenditure the use of such methods involves. May the book contribute to promoting cooperation between hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers and isotope specialists, and thus supplement proven methods of investigation in hydrological research and water utilization and protection wherever the use of isotope methods proves to be of advantage. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Ecohydrological implications of aeolian sediment trapping by sparse vegetation in drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Howell B.; Ravi, Sujith; Li, Junran; Sankey, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian processes are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in drylands, and important feedbacks exist among aeolian – hydrological processes and vegetation. The trapping of wind-borne sediments by vegetation may result in changes in soil properties beneath the vegetation, which, in turn, can alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Despite the relevance of aeolian transport to ecosystem dynamics, the interactions between aeolian transport and vegetation in shaping dryland landscapes where sediment distribution is altered by relatively rapid changes in vegetation composition such as shrub encroachment, is not well understood. Here, we used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling framework to investigate the sediment trapping efficiencies of vegetation canopies commonly found in a shrub-grass ecotone in the Chihuahuan Desert (New Mexico, USA) and related the results to spatial heterogeneity in soil texture and infiltration measured in the field. A CFD open-source software package was used to simulate aeolian sediment movement through three-dimensional architectural depictions of Creosote shrub (Larrea tridentata) and Black Grama grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) vegetation types. The vegetation structures were created using a computer-aided design software (Blender), with inherent canopy porosities, which were derived using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements of plant canopies. Results show that considerable heterogeneity in infiltration and soil grain size distribution exist between the microsites, with higher infiltration and coarser soil texture under shrubs. Numerical simulations also indicate that the differential trapping of canopies might contribute to the observed heterogeneity in soil texture. In the early stages of encroachment, the shrub canopies, by trapping coarser particles more efficiently, might maintain higher infiltration rates leading to faster development of the microsites (among other factors) with enhanced ecological

  7. The surface energy, water, carbon flux and their intercorrelated seasonality in a global climate-vegetation coupled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dan.; Jinjun Ji

    2007-01-01

    The sensible and latent heat fluxes, representatives of the physical exchange processes of energy and water between land and air, are the two crucial variables controlling the surface energy partitioning related to temperature and humidity. The net primary production (NPP), the major carbon flux exchange between vegetation and atmosphere, is of great importance for the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The fluxes are simulated by a two-way coupled model, Atmosphere-Vegetation Interaction Model-Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (AVIM-GOALS) in which the surface physical and physiological processes are coupled with general circulation model (GCM), and the global spatial and temporal variation of the fluxes is studied. The simulated terrestrial surface physical fluxes are consistent with the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Reanalysis (ERA40) in the global distribution, but the magnitudes are generally 20-40 W/m 2 underestimated. The annual NPP agrees well with the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) NPP data except for the lower value in northern high latitudes. The surface physical fluxes, leaf area index (LAI) and NPP of the global mid-latitudes, especially between 30 deg N-50 deg N, show great variation in annual oscillation amplitudes. And all physical and biological fields in northern mid-latitudes have the largest seasonality with a high statistical significance of 99.9%. The seasonality of surface physical fluxes, LAI and NPP are highly correlated with each other. The meridional three-peak pattern of seasonal change emerges in northern mid-latitudes, which indicates the interaction of topographical gradient variation of surface fluxes and vegetation phenology on these three latitudinal belts

  8. Towards a conceptual model of hydrological change on an abandoned cutover bog, Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seters, Tim E.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2002-07-01

    Cutover bogs do not return to functional peatland ecosystems after abandonment because re-establishment of peat-forming mosses is poor. This paper presents a conceptual model of bog disturbance caused by peat harvesting (1942-1972), and the hydrological evolution that occurred after abandonment (1973-1998). Two adjacent bogs of similar size and origin, one harvested and the other essentially undisturbed, provide the basis for understanding what changes occurred. The model is based on historical trends evident from previous surveys of land-use, bog ecology and resource mapping; and from recent hydrological and ecological data that characterize the current condition. Water balance data and historical information suggest that runoff increased and evapotranspiration decreased following drainage, but tended towards pre-disturbance levels following abandonment, as vegetation recolonized the surface and drainage became less efficient over time. Dewatering of soil pores after drainage caused shrinkage and oxidation of the peat and surface subsidence of approximately 80 cm over 57 years. Comparisons with a nearby natural bog suggest that bulk density in the upper 50 cm of cutover peat increased from 0·07 to 0·13 g cm-3, specific yield declined from 0·14 to 0·07, water table fluctuations were 67% greater, and mean saturated hydraulic conductivity declined from 4·1 × 10-5 to 1·3 × 10-5 cm s-1. More than 25 years after abandonment, Sphagnum mosses were distributed over broad areas but covered less than 15% of the surface. Areas with good Sphagnum regeneration (>10% cover) were strongly correlated with high water tables (mean -22 cm), especially in zones of seasonal groundwater discharge, artefacts of the extraction history. Forest cover expanded from 5 to 20% of the study area following abandonment. The effect of forest growth (transpiration and interception) and drainage on lowering water levels eventually will be countered by slower water movement through the

  9. Quantifying interception associated with new urban vegetation canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Interception of precipitation by vegetation canopies has long been recognized as an important component of the hydrologic cycle, though most research has been in closed or sparse canopy forests. Much less work has been published on interception by urban vegetation, and especially associated with the low growing shrubs commonly installed in green infrastructure program. To inform urban watershed model with vegetation-specific interception data, a field experiment was designed to directly measure canopy throughfall associated with two shrub species commonly included in urban greening programs. Data was collected at a high (e.g. five second) sampling frequency. A non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test performed on data collected between August and October of 2012 demonstrated statistically significant (p= 0.0011) differences in recorded throughfall between two species (94% for Itea virginica, 86% for Cornus sericea). Additionally, the results suggested that the relationship of throughfall to rainfall intensity varied by species. For Itea, the ratio of throughfall to precipitation intensity was close to 1:1. However, for Cornus, the throughfall rate was on average slower (or 0.85 of the precipitation intensity). An improved and expanded set-up installed in 2013 added two additional species (Prunus laurocerasus and Hydrangea quercifolia). The 2013 results confirm interspecies differences in both throughfall amount, and in the relationship of throughfall rate to precipitation intensity. The results are discussed with respect to droplet splashing and enhanced evaporation within the canopy. Both years' findings suggest that the quantity of water intercepted by vegetation canopies exceeds the canopy storage capacity, as assumed in many conventional hydrologic models.

  10. Development and verification of a new wind speed forecasting system using an ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation technique in a fully coupled hydrologic and atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John L.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Monache, Luca Delle

    2013-12-01

    Wind power is rapidly gaining prominence as a major source of renewable energy. Harnessing this promising energy source is challenging because of the chaotic nature of wind and its inherently intermittent nature. Accurate forecasting tools are critical to support the integration of wind energy into power grids and to maximize its impact on renewable energy portfolios. We have adapted the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), a community software facility which includes the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) algorithm, to expand our capability to use observational data to improve forecasts produced with a fully coupled hydrologic and atmospheric modeling system, the ParFlow (PF) hydrologic model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale atmospheric model, coupled via mass and energy fluxes across the land surface, and resulting in the PF.WRF model. Numerous studies have shown that soil moisture distribution and land surface vegetative processes profoundly influence atmospheric boundary layer development and weather processes on local and regional scales. We have used the PF.WRF model to explore the connections between the land surface and the atmosphere in terms of land surface energy flux partitioning and coupled variable fields including hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture, and wind speed and demonstrated that reductions in uncertainty in these coupled fields realized through assimilation of soil moisture observations propagate through the hydrologic and atmospheric system. The sensitivities found in this study will enable further studies to optimize observation strategies to maximize the utility of the PF.WRF-DART forecasting system.

  11. Investigating impacts of natural and human-induced environmental changes on hydrological processes and flood hazards using a GIS-based hydrological/hydraulic model and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    Natural and human-induced environmental changes have been altering the earth's surface and hydrological processes, and thus directly contribute to the severity of flood hazards. To understand these changes and their impacts, this research developed a GIS-based hydrological and hydraulic modeling system, which incorporates state-of-the-art remote sensing data to simulate flood under various scenarios. The conceptual framework and technical issues of incorporating multi-scale remote sensing data have been addressed. This research develops an object-oriented hydrological modeling framework. Compared with traditional lumped or cell-based distributed hydrological modeling frameworks, the object-oriented framework allows basic spatial hydrologic units to have various size and irregular shape. This framework is capable of assimilating various GIS and remotely-sensed data with different spatial resolutions. It ensures the computational efficiency, while preserving sufficient spatial details of input data and model outputs. Sensitivity analysis and comparison of high resolution LIDAR DEM with traditional USGS 30m resolution DEM suggests that the use of LIDAR DEMs can greatly reduce uncertainty in calibration of flow parameters in the hydrologic model and hence increase the reliability of modeling results. In addition, subtle topographic features and hydrologic objects like surface depressions and detention basins can be extracted from the high resolution LiDAR DEMs. An innovative algorithm has been developed to efficiently delineate surface depressions and detention basins from LiDAR DEMs. Using a time series of Landsat images, a retrospective analysis of surface imperviousness has been conducted to assess the hydrologic impact of urbanization. The analysis reveals that with rapid urbanization the impervious surface has been increased from 10.1% to 38.4% for the case study area during 1974--2002. As a result, the peak flow for a 100-year flood event has increased by 20% and

  12. Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Jorgenson, M; Harden, Jennifer; Manies, Kristen; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Shur, Yuri; O’Donnell, Jonathan; Wickland, Kim; Striegl, Robert; Ewing, Stephanie; Zhuang Qianlai; Koch, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of ecosystems across boreal landscapes, successional changes after disturbance and complicated permafrost histories, present enormous challenges for assessing how vegetation, water and soil carbon may respond to climate change in boreal regions. To address this complexity, we used a chronosequence approach to assess changes in vegetation composition, water storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks along successional gradients within four landscapes: (1) rocky uplands on ice-poor hillside colluvium, (2) silty uplands on extremely ice-rich loess, (3) gravelly–sandy lowlands on ice-poor eolian sand and (4) peaty–silty lowlands on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed rapidly due to low ice contents, soils became well drained and SOC stocks decreased slightly. In silty uplands, after fire permafrost persisted, soils remained saturated and SOC decreased slightly. In gravelly–sandy lowlands where permafrost persisted in drier forest soils, loss of deeper permafrost around lakes has allowed recent widespread drainage of lakes that has exposed limnic material with high SOC to aerobic decomposition. In peaty–silty lowlands, 2–4 m of thaw settlement led to fragmented drainage patterns in isolated thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect SOC changes in deeper soils, however, due to high variability. Complicated soil stratigraphy revealed that permafrost has repeatedly aggraded and degraded in all landscapes during the Holocene, although in silty uplands only the upper permafrost was affected. Overall, permafrost thaw has led to the reorganization of vegetation, water storage and flow paths, and patterns of SOC accumulation. However, changes have occurred over different timescales among landscapes: over decades in rocky uplands and gravelly–sandy lowlands in response to fire and lake drainage, over decades to

  13. Efficient uncertainty quantification in fully-integrated surface and subsurface hydrologic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. L.; Berg, S. J.; Davison, J. H.; Sudicky, E. A.; Forsyth, P. A.

    2018-01-01

    Although high performance computers and advanced numerical methods have made the application of fully-integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport models such as HydroGeoSphere common place, run times for large complex basin models can still be on the order of days to weeks, thus, limiting the usefulness of traditional workhorse algorithms for uncertainty quantification (UQ) such as Latin Hypercube simulation (LHS) or Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), which generally require thousands of simulations to achieve an acceptable level of accuracy. In this paper we investigate non-intrusive polynomial chaos for uncertainty quantification, which in contrast to random sampling methods (e.g., LHS and MCS), represents a model response of interest as a weighted sum of polynomials over the random inputs. Once a chaos expansion has been constructed, approximating the mean, covariance, probability density function, cumulative distribution function, and other common statistics as well as local and global sensitivity measures is straightforward and computationally inexpensive, thus making PCE an attractive UQ method for hydrologic models with long run times. Our polynomial chaos implementation was validated through comparison with analytical solutions as well as solutions obtained via LHS for simple numerical problems. It was then used to quantify parametric uncertainty in a series of numerical problems with increasing complexity, including a two-dimensional fully-saturated, steady flow and transient transport problem with six uncertain parameters and one quantity of interest; a one-dimensional variably-saturated column test involving transient flow and transport, four uncertain parameters, and two quantities of interest at 101 spatial locations and five different times each (1010 total); and a three-dimensional fully-integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport problem for a small test catchment involving seven uncertain parameters and three quantities of interest at

  14. Use of Physio-Hydrological Units for SMOS Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station Study Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Scheiding, C.; Antolín, C.; Marco, J.; Soriano, M. P.; Torre, E.; Requena, F.; Carbó, E.; Cano, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The SMOS space mission will soil moisture over the continents and ocean surface salinity with the sufficient resolution to be used in global climate change studies. With the aim of validating SMOS land data and products at the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) in a Mediterranean Ecosystem area of Spain, we have designed a sample methodology using a subdivision of the landscape in environmental units related to the spatial variability of soil moisture (Millán-Scheiding, 2006; Lopez-Baeza, et al. 2008). These physio-hydrological units are heterogeneously structured entities which present a certain degree of internal uniformity of hydrological parameters. The units are delimited by integrating areas with the same physio-morphology, soil type, vegetation, geology and topography (Flugel, et al 2003; Millán-Scheiding et al, 2007). Each of these units presented over the same pedological characteristics, vegetation cover, and landscape position should have a certain degree of internal uniformity in its hydrological parameters and therefore similar soil moisture (SM). The main assumption for each unit is that the dynamical variation of the hydrological parameters within one unit should be minimum compared to the dynamics of another unit. This methodology will hopefully provide an effective sampling design consisting of a reduced number of measuring points, sparsely distributed over the area, or alternatively, using SM validation networks where each sampling point is located where it is representative of the mean soil moisture of a complete unit area. The Experimental Plan for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the VAS area of April-May 2008 used this environmental subdivision in the selection and sampling of over 21.000 soil moisture points in a control area of 10 x 10 km2. The ground measurements were carried out during 4 nights corresponding to a drying out period of the soil. The sampling consisted of 700 plots with 4 volumetric SM cylinders and 7 Delta-T Theta

  15. Assessing the impact of model spin-up on surface water-groundwater interactions using an integrated hydrologic model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori

    2014-03-01

    Integrated land surface-groundwater models are valuable tools in simulating the terrestrial hydrologic cycle as a continuous system and exploring the extent of land surface-subsurface interactions from catchment to regional scales. However, the fidelity of model simulations is impacted not only by the vegetation and subsurface parameterizations, but also by the antecedent condition of model state variables, such as the initial soil moisture, depth to groundwater, and ground temperature. In land surface modeling, a given model is often run repeatedly over a single year of forcing data until it reaches an equilibrium state: the point at which there is minimal artificial drift in the model state or prognostic variables (most often the soil moisture). For more complex coupled and integrated systems, where there is an increased computational cost of simulation and the number of variables sensitive to initialization is greater than in traditional uncoupled land surface modeling schemes, the challenge is to minimize the impact of initialization while using the smallest spin-up time possible. In this study, multicriteria analysis was performed to assess the spin-up behavior of the ParFlow.CLM integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model over a 208 km2 subcatchment of the Ringkobing Fjord catchment in Denmark. Various measures of spin-up performance were computed for model state variables such as the soil moisture and groundwater storage, as well as for diagnostic variables such as the latent and sensible heat fluxes. The impacts of initial conditions on surface water-groundwater interactions were then explored. Our analysis illustrates that the determination of an equilibrium state depends strongly on the variable and performance measure used. Choosing an improper initialization of the model can generate simulations that lead to a misinterpretation of land surface-subsurface feedback processes and result in large biases in simulated discharge. Estimated spin

  16. A Distributed Hydrological model Forced by DIMP2 Data and the WRF Mesoscale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayand, N. E.

    2010-12-01

    Forecasted warming over the next century will drastically reduce seasonal snowpack that provides 40% of the world’s drinking water. With increased climate warming, droughts may occur more frequently, which will increase society’s reliance on this same summer snowpack as a water supply. This study aims to reduce driving data errors that lead to poor simulations of snow ablation and accumulation, and streamflow. Results from the Distributed Hydrological Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (DMIP2) project using the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) highlighted the critical need for accurate driving data that distributed models require. Currently, the meteorological driving data for distributed hydrological models commonly rely on interpolation techniques between a network of observational stations, as well as historical monthly means. This method is limited by two significant issues: snowpack is stored at high elevations, where interpolation techniques perform poorly due to sparse observations, and historic climatological means may be unsuitable in a changing climate. Mesoscale models may provide a physically-based approach to supplement surface observations over high-elevation terrain. Initial results have shown that while temperature lapse rates are well represented by multiple mesoscale models, significant precipitation biases are dependent on the particular model microphysics. We evaluate multiple methods of downscaling surface variables from the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model that are then used to drive DHSVM over the North Fork American River basin in California. A comparison between each downscaled driving data set and paired DHSVM results to observations will determine how much improvement in simulated streamflow and snowpack are gained at the expense of each additional degree of downscaling. Our results from DMIP2 will be used as a benchmark for the best available DHSVM run using all available observational data. The

  17. Impacts of Vegetation Growth on Reach-scale Flood Hydraulics in a Sand-bed River and the Implications for Vegetation-morphology Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, S.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation alters flood hydraulics and geomorphic response, yet quantifying and predicting such responses across spatial and temporal scales remains challenging. Plant- and patch-scale studies consistently show that vegetation increases local hydraulic variability, yet reach-scale hydrodynamic models often assume vegetation has a spatially homogeneous effect on hydraulics. Using Nays2DH in iRIC (International River Interface Cooperative), we model the effect of spatially heterogeneous vegetation on a series of floods with varying antecedent vegetation conditions in a sand-bed river in western Arizona, taking advantage of over a decade of data on a system that experienced substantial geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecosystem changes. We show that pioneer woody seedlings (Tamarix, Populus, Salix) and cattail (Typha) increase local hydraulic variability, including velocity and bed shear stress, along individual cross sections, predominantly by decreasing velocity in zones of vegetation establishment and growth and increasing velocity in unvegetated areas, with analogous effects on shear stress. This was especially prominent in a study reach where vegetation growth contributed to thalweg incision relative to a vegetated bar. Evaluation of these results in the context of observed geomorphic response to floods elucidates mechanisms by which vegetation and channel morphology coevolve at a reach scale. By quantifying the influence of spatially heterogeneous vegetation on reach-scale hydraulics, we demonstrate that plant- and patch-scale research on vegetation hydraulics is applicable to ecogeomorphology at the reach scale.

  18. High-resolution stable isotope monitoring reveals differential vegetation-soil water feedbacks among plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, T. H. M.; Haberer, K.; Troch, P. A. A.; Gessler, A.; Weiler, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the linked dynamics of rain water recharge to soils and its utilization by plants is critical for predicting the impact of climate and land use changes on the productivity of ecosystems and the hydrologic cycle. While plants require vast quantities of water from the soil to sustain growth and function, they exert important direct and indirect controls on the movement of water through the rooted soil horizons, thereby potentially affecting their own resource availability. However, the specific ecohydrological belowground processes associated with different plant types and their rooting systems have been difficult to quantify with traditional methods. Here, we report on the use of techniques for monitoring stable isotopes in soil and plant water pools that allow us to track water infiltration and root uptake dynamics non-destructively and in high resolution. The techniques were applied in controlled rain pulse experiments with distinct plant types (grass, deciduous trees, grapevine) that we let develop on an initially uniform soil for two years. Our results show that plant species and types differed widely in their plasticity and pattern of root uptake under variable water availability. Thereby, and through notably co-acting indirect effects related to differential root system traits and co-evolution of soil properties, the different plants induced contrasting hydrological dynamics in the soil they had inhabited for only a short period of time. Taken together, our data suggest that the studied soil-vegetation systems evolved a positive infiltration-uptake feedback in which hydrological flow pathways underlying different species diverged in a way that complemented their specific water utilization strategy. Such a feedback could present an indirect competitive mechanism by which plants improve their own water supply and modulate hydrological cycling at the land surface. The ability to directly measure this feedback using in situ isotope methodology

  19. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  20. The Hydrological Sensitivity to Global Warming and Solar Geoengineering Derived from Thermodynamic Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleidon, Alex; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Renner, Maik

    2015-01-16

    We derive analytic expressions of the transient response of the hydrological cycle to surface warming from an extremely simple energy balance model in which turbulent heat fluxes are constrained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power. For a given magnitude of steady-state temperature change, this approach predicts the transient response as well as the steady-state change in surface energy partitioning and the hydrologic cycle. We show that the transient behavior of the simple model as well as the steady state hydrological sensitivities to greenhouse warming and solar geoengineering are comparable to results from simulations using highly complex models. Many of the global-scale hydrological cycle changes can be understood from a surface energy balance perspective, and our thermodynamically-constrained approach provides a physically robust way of estimating global hydrological changes in response to altered radiative forcing.

  1. A satellite based scheme for predicting the effects of land cover change on local microclimate and surface hydrology: Development of an operational regional planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Sandra Traci

    Humans have diverse goals for their use of land: mining, water supply, aesthetic enjoyment, recreation, transportation, housing, etc. Any individual living within an actively developing community can look back in time and note how, perhaps slowly but nonetheless dramatically, the total land area dedicated to human use has increased. As our society's basic functioning intensifies, the disappearance of "free" open space is apparent---today, even conservation areas are carefully designated, mapped and controlled. This transition in land use is a result of many individual decisions that occur throughout space and time, often with little concern for the potential impacts on the local environment. Two specific environmental components---the microclimate and surface hydrology---are the focus of this thesis. This study, as well as related tools and bodies of knowledge, should be used to broaden the scientific basis behind land use management decisions. It will be shown that development can induce predictable changes in measures of the local radiant surface temperature and evapotranspiration fraction---as long as certain features of the development are known. Specifically, the vegetation changes that accompany the development must be noted, as well as the initial climatic state of the land parcel. Additionally, plots of runoff vs. rainfall for gauged basins will be interpreted in terms of the proportion of the basin contributing to a storm event's runoff signal. For a particular basin, four distinct runoff responses, separated by season and antecedent moisture conditions, will be distinguished. The response for the non-summer months under typical antecedent moisture conditions will be shown to be the most representative of and responsive to a basin's land use patterns. A scheme that makes use of satellite-derived land cover patterns and other physical attributes of the basin in order to determine this particular runoff response will be presented. The Soil Conservation

  2. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Surface and near-surface hydrological modelling in the biosphere assessment BSA-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2013-05-01

    The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. This study is part of the biosphere assessment (BSA-2012) within the safety case for the repository. The surface hydrological modelling described in this report is aimed at providing link between radionuclide transport in the geosphere and in the biosphere systems. The SVAT-model and Olkiluoto site scale surface hydrological model were calibrated and validated in the present day conditions using the input data provided by the Olkiluoto Monitoring Programme (OMO). During the next 10 000 years the terrain and ecosystem development is to a large extent driven by the postglacial crustal uplift. UNTAMO is a GIS toolbox developed for simulating land-uplift driven or other changes in the biosphere. All the spatial and temporal input data (excluding meteorological data) needed in the surface hydrological modelling were provided by the UNTAMO toolbox. The specific outputs given by UNTAMO toolbox are time-dependent evolution of the biosphere objects. They are continuous and sufficiently homogeneous sub-areas of the modelled area that could potentially receive radionuclides released from the repository. Possible ecosystem types for biosphere objects are coast, lake, river, forest, cropland, pasture and wetland. The primary goal of this study was to compute vertical and horizontal water fluxes in the biosphere objects. These data will be used in the biosphere radionuclide transport calculations. The method adopted here is based on calculating average vertical and horizontal fluxes for biosphere objects from the results of the full 3D-model. It was not necessary to develop any simplified hydrological model for the biosphere objects. This report includes modelling results from for the Reference Case (present day climate) and Terr M axAgri Case (maximum extent of agricultural areas and

  3. Optimal land use/cover classification using remote sensing imagery for hydrological modelling in a Himalayan watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sameer Saran,; Sterk, G.; Kumar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Land use/cover is an important watershed surface characteristic that affects surface runoff and erosion. Many of the available hydrological models divide the watershed into Hydrological Response Units (HRU), which are spatial units with expected similar hydrological behaviours. The division into

  4. Impact of Vegetation Cover Fraction Parameterization schemes on Land Surface Temperature Simulation in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, M.; Li, C.; Lu, H.; Yang, K.; Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The parameterization of vegetation cover fraction (VCF) is an important component of land surface models. This paper investigates the impacts of three VCF parameterization schemes on land surface temperature (LST) simulation by the Common Land Model (CoLM) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The first scheme is a simple land cover (LC) based method; the second one is based on remote sensing observation (hereafter named as RNVCF) , in which multi-year climatology VCFs is derived from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index); the third VCF parameterization scheme derives VCF from the LAI simulated by LSM and clump index at every model time step (hereafter named as SMVCF). Simulated land surface temperature(LST) and soil temperature by CoLM with three VCF parameterization schemes were evaluated by using satellite LST observation and in situ soil temperature observation, respectively, during the period of 2010 to 2013. The comparison against MODIS Aqua LST indicates that (1) CTL produces large biases for both four seasons in early afternoon (about 13:30, local solar time), while the mean bias in spring reach to 12.14K; (2) RNVCF and SMVCF reduce the mean bias significantly, especially in spring as such reduce is about 6.5K. Surface soil temperature observed at 5 cm depth from three soil moisture and temperature monitoring networks is also employed to assess the skill of three VCF schemes. The three networks, crossing TP from West to East, have different climate and vegetation conditions. In the Ngari network, located in the Western TP with an arid climate, there are not obvious differences among three schemes. In Naqu network, located in central TP with a semi-arid climate condition, CTL shows a severe overestimates (12.1 K), but such overestimations can be reduced by 79% by RNVCF and 87% by SMVCF. In the third humid network (Maqu in eastern TP), CoLM performs similar to Naqu. However, at both Naqu and Maqu networks

  5. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model with nitrogen transport to study the spatial variation of carbon stocks and fluxes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Eissenstat, D. M.; He, Y.; Davis, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Most current biogeochemical models are 1-D and represent one point in space. Therefore, they cannot resolve topographically driven land surface heterogeneity (e.g., lateral water flow, soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation) or the spatial pattern of nutrient availability. A spatially distributed forest biogeochemical model with nitrogen transport, Flux-PIHM-BGC, has been developed by coupling a 1-D mechanistic biogeochemical model Biome-BGC (BBGC) with a spatially distributed land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM, and adding an advection dominated nitrogen transport module. Flux-PIHM is a coupled physically based model, which incorporates a land-surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model, and is augmented by adding a topographic solar radiation module. Flux-PIHM is able to represent the link between groundwater and the surface energy balance, as well as land surface heterogeneities caused by topography. In the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D BBGC model, while nitrogen is transported among model grids via surface and subsurface water flow. In each grid, Flux-PIHM provides BBGC with soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation, while BBGC provides Flux-PIHM with spatially-distributed leaf area index. The coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model has been implemented at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory. The model-predicted aboveground vegetation carbon and soil carbon distributions generally agree with the macro patterns observed within the watershed. The importance of abiotic variables (including soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation, and soil mineral nitrogen) in predicting aboveground carbon distribution is calculated using a random forest. The result suggests that the spatial pattern of aboveground carbon is controlled by the distribution of soil mineral nitrogen. A Flux-PIHM-BGC simulation

  6. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  7. Testing the Potential of Vegetation Indices for Land Use/cover Classification Using High Resolution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakacan Kuzucu, A.; Bektas Balcik, F.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and reliable land use/land cover (LULC) information obtained by remote sensing technology is necessary in many applications such as environmental monitoring, agricultural management, urban planning, hydrological applications, soil management, vegetation condition study and suitability analysis. But this information still remains a challenge especially in heterogeneous landscapes covering urban and rural areas due to spectrally similar LULC features. In parallel with technological developments, supplementary data such as satellite-derived spectral indices have begun to be used as additional bands in classification to produce data with high accuracy. The aim of this research is to test the potential of spectral vegetation indices combination with supervised classification methods and to extract reliable LULC information from SPOT 7 multispectral imagery. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Ratio Vegetation Index (RATIO), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were the three vegetation indices used in this study. The classical maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm were applied to classify SPOT 7 image. Catalca is selected region located in the north west of the Istanbul in Turkey, which has complex landscape covering artificial surface, forest and natural area, agricultural field, quarry/mining area, pasture/scrubland and water body. Accuracy assessment of all classified images was performed through overall accuracy and kappa coefficient. The results indicated that the incorporation of these three different vegetation indices decrease the classification accuracy for the MLC and SVM classification. In addition, the maximum likelihood classification slightly outperformed the support vector machine classification approach in both overall accuracy and kappa statistics.

  8. A conceptual framework for assessing cumulative impacts on the hydrology of nontidal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    1988-01-01

    Wetlands occur in geologic and hydrologic settings that enhance the accumulation or retention of water. Regional slope, local relief, and permeability of the land surface are major controls on the formation of wetlands by surface-water sources. However, these landscape features also have significant control over groundwater flow systems, which commonly play a role in the formation of wetlands. Because the hydrologic system is a continuum, any modification of one component will have an effect on contiguous components. Disturbances commonly affecting the hydrologic system as it relates to wetlands include weather modification, alteration of plant communities, storage of surface water, road construction, drainage of surface water and soil water, alteration of groundwater recharge and discharge areas, and pumping of groundwater. Assessments of the cumulative effects of one or more of these disturbances on the hydrologic system as related to wetlands must take into account uncertainty in the measurements and in the assumptions that are made in hydrologic studies. For example, it may be appropriate to assume that regional groundwater flow systems are recharged in uplands and discharged in lowlands. However, a similar assumption commonly does not apply on a local scale, because of the spatial and temporal dynamics of groundwater recharge. Lack of appreciation of such hydrologic factors can lead to misunderstanding of the hydrologic function of wetlands within various parts of the landscape and mismanagement of wetland ecosystems.

  9. An observational and modeling study of impacts of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on surface energy and hydrological cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Chen; Guo Zhang; Michael Barlage; Ying Zhang; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Arjan Meddens; Guangsheng Zhou; William J. Massman; John Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks have killed billions of trees and affected millions of hectares of forest during recent decades. The objective of this study was to quantify responses of surface energy and hydrologic fluxes 2-3 yr following a spruce beetle outbreak using measurements and modeling. The authors used observations at the Rocky Mountains Glacier Lakes Ecosystem...

  10. Indonesian vegetation response to changes in rainfall seasonality over the past 25,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Nathalie; Oppo, Delia W.; Galy, Valier V.; Mohtadi, Mahyar; van der Kaars, Sander; Tierney, Jessica E.; Rosenthal, Yair; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Lückge, Andreas; Linsley, Braddock K.

    2014-07-01

    The hydrologic response to climate forcing in the Indo-Pacific warm pool region has varied spatially over the past 25,000 years. For example, drier conditions are inferred on Java and Borneo for the period following the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, whereas wetter conditions are reconstructed for northwest Australia. The response of vegetation to these past rainfall variations is poorly constrained. Using a suite of 30 surface marine sediment samples from throughout the Indo-Pacific warm pool, we demonstrate that today the stable isotopic composition of vascular plant fatty acids (δ13CFA) reflects the regional vegetation composition. This in turn is controlled by the seasonality of rainfall consistent with dry season water stress. Applying this proxy in a sediment core from offshore northeast Borneo, we show broadly similar vegetation cover during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene, suggesting that, despite generally drier glacial conditions, there was no pronounced dry season. In contrast, δ13CFA and pollen data from a core off the coast of Sumba indicate an expansion of C4 herbs during the most recent glaciation, implying enhanced aridity and water stress during the dry season. Holocene vegetation trends are also consistent with a response to dry season water stress. We therefore conclude that vegetation in tropical monsoon regions is susceptible to increases in water stress arising from an enhanced seasonality of rainfall, as has occurred in past decades.

  11. Coupled land surface-subsurface hydrogeophysical inverse modeling to estimate soil organic carbon content and explore associated hydrological and thermal dynamics in the Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Tran, Anh; Dafflon, Baptiste; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative characterization of soil organic carbon (OC) content is essential due to its significant impacts on surface-subsurface hydrological-thermal processes and microbial decomposition of OC, which both in turn are important for predicting carbon-climate feedbacks. While such quantification is particularly important in the vulnerable organic-rich Arctic region, it is challenging to achieve due to the general limitations of conventional core sampling and analysis methods, and to the extremely dynamic nature of hydrological-thermal processes associated with annual freeze-thaw events. In this study, we develop and test an inversion scheme that can flexibly use single or multiple datasets - including soil liquid water content, temperature and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data - to estimate the vertical distribution of OC content. Our approach relies on the fact that OC content strongly influences soil hydrological-thermal parameters and, therefore, indirectly controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil liquid water content, temperature and their correlated electrical resistivity. We employ the Community Land Model to simulate nonisothermal surface-subsurface hydrological dynamics from the bedrock to the top of canopy, with consideration of land surface processes (e.g., solar radiation balance, evapotranspiration, snow accumulation and melting) and ice-liquid water phase transitions. For inversion, we combine a deterministic and an adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) optimization algorithm to estimate a posteriori distributions of desired model parameters. For hydrological-thermal-to-geophysical variable transformation, the simulated subsurface temperature, liquid water content and ice content are explicitly linked to soil electrical resistivity via petrophysical and geophysical models. We validate the developed scheme using different numerical experiments and evaluate the influence of measurement errors and benefit of joint inversion on the

  12. Effects of Land Cover Changes to the Quantity of Water Supply and Hydrologic Cycle using Water Balance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caja CC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrologic cycle is a recurring consequence of different forms of movement of water and changes of its physical state on a given area of the earth. The land cover of a certain area is a significant factor affecting the watershed hydrology. This also affects the quantity of water supply within the watershed. This study assessed the impacts of the changing land cover of the Ipo watershed, a part of the Angat-Ipo-La Mesa water system which is the main source of Metro Manila’s water supply. The environmental impacts were assessed using the interaction of vegetation cover changes and the output flow rates in Ipo watershed. Using hydrologic modelling system, the hydrological balance using rainfall, vegetation and terrain data of the watershed was simulated. Over the years, there has been a decreasing land cover within the watershed caused mostly by deforestation and other human activities. This significant change in the land cover resulted to extreme increase in water discharge at all streams and rivers in the watershed and the water balance of the area were affected as saturation and shape of the land terrain changes.

  13. INTER-SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF VEGETATION COVER AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION: A CASE STUDY OF ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Ibitolu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study employs Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery to access the inter-seasonal variations of Surface Temperature and Vegetation cover in Ondo State in 2013. Also, air temperature data for year 2013 acquired from 3 synoptic meteorological stations across the state were analyzed. The Single-channel Algorithm was used to extract the surface temperature maps from the digital number embedded within the individual pixel. To understand the spatio-temporal distribution of LST and vegetation across the various landuse types, 200 sample points were randomly chosen, so that each land-use covers 40 points. Imagery for the raining season where unavailable because of the intense cloud cover. Result showed that the lowest air temperature of 20.9°C was in January, while the highest air temperature of 34°C occurred in January and March. There was a significant shift in the vegetation greenness over Ondo State, as average NDVI tend to increase from a weak positive value (0.189 to a moderate value (0.419. The LULC map revealed that vegetation cover occupied the largest area (65% followed by Built-up (26%, Swampy land (4%, Rock outcrop (3% and water bodies (2%. The surface temperature maps revealed that January has the lowest temperature of 10°C experienced in the coastal riverine areas of Ilaje and Igbokoda, while the highest temperature of 39°C observed in September is experienced on the rocky grounds. The study also showed the existence of pockets of Urban Heat Islands (UHI that are well scattered all over the state. This finding proves the capability and reliability of Satellite remote sensing for environmental studies.

  14. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in Southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge

    as this it will lead to better estimate of the groundwater recharge and hereby of the groundwater availability in the delta region.   The hydrological behaviour of the Andarax river basin is simulated by the MIKE SHE code, which is a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. In the first...... scenario we only use traditional meteorological data and standard values for the vegetation characteristics. The traditional meteorological data are rather sparse for the Andarax river basin and to improve the estimation of evapotranspiration we use an energy-based two-layer SVAT model and apply remote...

  15. A fully integrated SWAT-MODFLOW hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and MODFLOW models are being used worldwide for managing surface and groundwater water resources. The SWAT models hydrological processes occurring at the surface including shallow aquifers, while MODFLOW simulate groundwater processes. However, neither SWAT ...

  16. Quantifying the Interactions Between Soil Thermal Characteristics, Soil Physical Properties, Hydro-geomorphological Conditions and Vegetation Distribution in an Arctic Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Robert, Y.; Ulrich, C.; Peterson, J. E.; Soom, F.; Biraud, S.; Tran, A. P.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Improving understanding of Arctic ecosystem functioning and parameterization of process-rich hydro-biogeochemical models require advances in quantifying ecosystem properties, from the bedrock to the top of the canopy. In Arctic regions having significant subsurface heterogeneity, understanding the link between soil physical properties (incl. fraction of soil constituents, bedrock depth, permafrost characteristics), thermal behavior, hydrological conditions and landscape properties is particularly challenging yet is critical for predicting the storage and flux of carbon in a changing climate. This study takes place in Seward Peninsula Watersheds near Nome AK and Council AK, which are characterized by an elevation gradient, shallow bedrock, and discontinuous permafrost. To characterize permafrost distribution where the top of permafrost cannot be easily identified with a tile probe (due to rocky soil and/or large thaw layer thickness), we developed a novel technique using vertically resolved thermistor probes to directly sense the temperature regime at multiple depths and locations. These measurements complement electrical imaging, seismic refraction and point-scale data for identification of the various thermal behavior and soil characteristics. Also, we evaluate linkages between the soil physical-thermal properties and the surface properties (hydrological conditions, geomorphic characteristics and vegetation distribution) using UAV-based aerial imaging. Data integration and analysis is supported by numerical approaches that simulate hydrological and thermal processes. Overall, this study enables the identification of watershed structure and the links between various subsurface and landscape properties in representative Arctic watersheds. Results show very distinct trends in vertically resolved soil temperature profiles and strong lateral variations over tens of meters that are linked to zones with various hydrological conditions, soil properties and vegetation

  17. The role of soil moisture on the coevolution of soil and vegetation in mountain grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Claudia, Notarnicola; Brenner, Johannes; Castelli, Mariapina; Greifeneder, Felix; Niedrist, Georg; Seeber, Julia; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    One of the key variables controlling the organization of vegetation and the coevolution of soils and landforms is soil moisture content (SMC). For this reason, understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal patterns of SMC is essential to predict how perturbations in vegetation and climate will affect mountain ecosystem functioning. In this contribution, we focus on the dynamic of surface SMC of water-limited alpine grasslands in the Long Term Ecological Research area Mazia Valley in the European Alps. We analyze the impacts of different land managements (meadows versus pastures) and its relationships with climate and topography. The area has been equipped since 2009 with a network of more than 20 stations, measuring SMC and climatic variables and with two eddy-covariance stations, measuring surface fluxes over meadows and pastures. Monthly biomass production data have been collected and detailed soil and spatial soil moisture surveys are available. Moreover, high spatial resolution SMC maps have been derived from satellites Synthetic Aperture Radar Radar (SAR) images (Sentinel 1 and RADARSAT2 images). Both ground surveys and remote sensing observations show persistent landscape-level patterns. Meadows, in general located in flatter areas, tend to be wetter. This leads to higher vegetation productivity and to the development of soils with higher water holding capacity, thus to a positive feedback on SMC. In contrast, pastures, located on steeper slopes with lower vegetation density and higher soil erosion, tend to be drier, leading to a negative feedback on SMC and soil development. This co-evolution of land cover and SMC leads therefore to persistent spatial patterns. In order to understand quantitatively such linked interactions, a sensitivity analysis has been performed with the GEOtop hydrological model. Results show how both abiotic (mainly slope and elevation) and anthropogenic (irrigation and soil management) factors exert a significant control on

  18. Thresholds in Xeric Hydrology and Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.; Simpson, S. C.; Soto, C. D.; Yuan, F.; Turner, D.; Richter, H.

    2011-12-01

    Due to water limitation, thresholds in hydrologic and biogeochemical processes are common in arid and semi-arid systems. Some of these thresholds such as those focused on rainfall runoff relationships have been well studied. However to gain a full picture of the role that thresholds play in driving the hydrology and biogeochemistry of xeric systems a full view of the entire array of processes at work is needed. Here a walk through the landscape of xeric systems will be conducted illustrating the powerful role of hydrologic thresholds on xeric system biogeochemistry. To understand xeric hydro-biogeochemistry two key ideas need to be focused on. First, it is important to start from a framework of reaction and transport. Second an understanding of the temporal and spatial components of thresholds that have a large impact on hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes needs to be offered. In the uplands themselves episodic rewetting and drying of soils permits accelerated biogeochemical processing but also more gradual drainage of water through the subsurface than expected in simple conceptions of biogeochemical processes. Hydrologic thresholds (water content above hygroscopic) results in a stop start nutrient spiral of material across the landscape since runoff connecting uplands to xeric perennial riparian is episodic and often only transports materials a short distance (100's of m). This episodic movement results in important and counter-intuitive nutrient inputs to riparian zones but also significant processing and uptake of nutrients. The floods that transport these biogeochemicals also result in significant input to riparian groundwater and may be key to sustaining these critical ecosystems. Importantly the flood driven recharge process itself is a threshold process dependent on flood characteristics (floods greater than 100 cubic meters per second) and antecedent conditions (losing to near neutral gradients). Floods also appear to influence where arid and semi

  19. A post-Cassini view of Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alexander G.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2018-05-01

    The methane-based hydrologic cycle on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is an extreme analogue to Earth's water cycle. Titan is the only planetary body in the Solar System, other than Earth, that is known to have an active hydrologic cycle. With a surface pressure of 1.5 bar and temperatures of 90 to 95 K, methane and ethane condense out of a nitrogen-based atmosphere and flow as liquids on the moon's surface. Exchange processes between atmospheric, surface and subsurface reservoirs produce methane and ethane cloud systems, as well as erosional and depositional landscapes that have strikingly similar forms to their terrestrial counterparts. Over its 13-year exploration of the Saturn system, the Cassini-Huygens mission revealed that Titan's hydrocarbon-based hydrology is driven by nested methane cycles that operate over a range of timescales, including geologic, orbital (for example, Croll-Milankovitch cycles), seasonal and that of a single convective storm. In this Review Article, we describe the dominant exchange processes that operate over these timescales and present a post-Cassini view of Titan's methane-based hydrologic system.

  20. Effects of plough pan development on surface hydrology and on soil physical properties in Southeastern Brazilian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Ana V. F. A.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Miranda, João P. L.; Souza, Andréa P.; Lopes, Marcel R. S.; Palmieri, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    SummaryConventional tillage may impose changes in soil physical properties that lead to a decrease in soil physical quality. Although plough pan formation is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in Southeastern Brazil, few studies have focused on its hydrological consequences. Detailed investigations in two experimental plots located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar close to Rio de Janeiro city were carried out to characterize the changes in soil physical properties and in soil hydrology due to plough pan formation. Conventional (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices were implemented in two plots for 3 years and soil matric potential (SMP) was monitored in each plot via nests of tensiometers and Watermark® sensors installed at different depths. Undisturbed soil blocks were collected for micromorphological analyses to quantify the total pore space in soils under CT and MT systems, and in soils under natural tropical forest. Results suggest that soils under the CT system developed a plough pan layer at about 20 cm depth that had 44% less total porosity as compared to surface conditions. It is shown that soils under the CT system tended to stay saturated for longer periods of time after each rainfall event. Besides, during intense rainy periods soils under the CT system may develop hydrologic conditions that favor lateral flows while soils under the MT system were still draining. Such hydrological responses may explain why average soil erosion rates measured for individual rainfall events under the CT system were about 2.5 times greater than the ones observed at MT. The results attested that conventional tillage in this area generated modifications in soil fabric, especially in pore-size distribution and connectivity, which induced important changes in soil hydrology and soil erosion. The agricultural practices used in this area, associated with the local steep hillslopes and intense rainfall events, are definitely not

  1. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrological process simulation in an inland river basin in China, Heihe River basin. It is divided into the upper, middle, and lower reaches based on the distinctive hydrological characteristics in the Heihe River basin, and three hydrological models are selected, applied, and tested to simulate the hydrological cycling processes for each reach. The upper reach is the contributing area with the complex runoff generation processes, therefore, the hydrological informatic modeling system (HIMS is utilized due to its combined runoff generation mechanisms. The middle reach has strong impacts of intensive human activities on the interactions of surface and subsurface flows, so a conceptual water balance model is applied to simulate the water balance process. For the lower reach, as the dissipative area with groundwater dominating the hydrological process, a groundwater modeling system with the embedment of MODFLOW model is applied to simulate the groundwater dynamics. Statistical parameters and water balance analysis prove that the three models have excellent performances in simulating the hydrological process of the three reaches. Therefore, it is an effective way to simulate the hydrological process of inland river basin with multiple hydrological models according to the characteristics of each subbasin.

  2. Modeling large-scale human alteration of land surface hydrology and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Felfelani, Farshid; Shin, Sanghoon; Yamada, Tomohito J.; Satoh, Yusuke

    2017-12-01

    Rapidly expanding human activities have profoundly affected various biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system over a broad range of scales, and freshwater systems are now amongst the most extensively altered ecosystems. In this study, we examine the human-induced changes in land surface water and energy balances and the associated climate impacts using a coupled hydrological-climate model framework which also simulates the impacts of human activities on the water cycle. We present three sets of analyses using the results from two model versions—one with and the other without considering human activities; both versions are run in offline and coupled mode resulting in a series of four experiments in total. First, we examine climate and human-induced changes in regional water balance focusing on the widely debated issue of the desiccation of the Aral Sea in central Asia. Then, we discuss the changes in surface temperature as a result of changes in land surface energy balance due to irrigation over global and regional scales. Finally, we examine the global and regional climate impacts of increased atmospheric water vapor content due to irrigation. Results indicate that the direct anthropogenic alteration of river flow in the Aral Sea basin resulted in the loss of 510 km3 of water during the latter half of the twentieth century which explains about half of the total loss of water from the sea. Results of irrigation-induced changes in surface energy balance suggest a significant surface cooling of up to 3.3 K over 1° grids in highly irrigated areas but a negligible change in land surface temperature when averaged over sufficiently large global regions. Results from the coupled model indicate a substantial change in 2 m air temperature and outgoing longwave radiation due to irrigation, highlighting the non-local (regional and global) implications of irrigation. These results provide important insights on the direct human alteration of land surface

  3. Optimal land use/land cover classification using remote sensing imagery for hydrological modeling in a Himalayan watersched

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saran, S.; Sterk, G.; Kumar, S.

    2009-01-01

    Land use/land cover is an important watershed surface characteristic that affects surface runoff and erosion. Many of the available hydrological models divide the watershed into Hydrological Response Units (HRU), which are spatial units with expected similar hydrological behaviours. The division

  4. Hydrological observation of the artificial catchment `Chicken Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, K.; Biemelt, D.; Schoenheinz, D.; Grünewald, U.

    2009-04-01

    redesigned. Likewise, first simulations of hydrological models were not able to reproduce the high surface runoff due to an overestimation of infiltration by the models. This is assumed to be due to the application of the parameters porosity and hydraulic conductivity only, while properties and processes, e.g. as hydrophobicity or the formation of crusts, were neglected in the models so far. Such properties and processes might be significant for the formation of surface runoff. These aspects have to be considered for the adjustment of the measure concept. Generally, a continuous adjustment of both the monitoring programme and the experimental set-up turns out to be necessary due to the improved process understanding (e.g. runoff behaviour, soil surface structures), the gradual development of the catchment (e.g. formation of gullies, vegetation), the technical demands (e.g. unsuitable working range of probes).

  5. Testing the Structure of Hydrological Models using Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, B.; Muttil, N.

    2009-04-01

    Genetic Programming is able to systematically explore many alternative model structures of different complexity from available input and response data. We hypothesised that genetic programming can be used to test the structure hydrological models and to identify dominant processes in hydrological systems. To test this, genetic programming was used to analyse a data set from a lysimeter experiment in southeastern Australia. The lysimeter experiment was conducted to quantify the deep percolation response under surface irrigated pasture to different soil types, water table depths and water ponding times during surface irrigation. Using genetic programming, a simple model of deep percolation was consistently evolved in multiple model runs. This simple and interpretable model confirmed the dominant process contributing to deep percolation represented in a conceptual model that was published earlier. Thus, this study shows that genetic programming can be used to evaluate the structure of hydrological models and to gain insight about the dominant processes in hydrological systems.

  6. Soil Structure - A Neglected Component of Land-Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Or, D.; Walko, R. L.; Vereecken, H.; Kollet, S. J.; Young, M.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Hengl, T.; Agam, N.; Avissar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Soil structure is largely absent in most standard sampling and measurements and in the subsequent parameterization of soil hydraulic properties deduced from soil maps and used in Earth System Models. The apparent omission propagates into the pedotransfer functions that deduce parameters of soil hydraulic properties primarily from soil textural information. Such simple parameterization is an essential ingredient in the practical application of any land surface model. Despite the critical role of soil structure (biopores formed by decaying roots, aggregates, etc.) in defining soil hydraulic functions, only a few studies have attempted to incorporate soil structure into models. They mostly looked at the effects on preferential flow and solute transport pathways at the soil profile scale; yet, the role of soil structure in mediating large-scale fluxes remains understudied. Here, we focus on rectifying this gap and demonstrating potential impacts on surface and subsurface fluxes and system wide eco-hydrologic responses. The study proposes a systematic way for correcting the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions—accounting for soil-structure—with major implications for near saturated hydraulic conductivity. Modification to the basic soil hydraulic parameterization is assumed as a function of biological activity summarized by Gross Primary Production. A land-surface model with dynamic vegetation is used to carry out numerical simulations with and without the role of soil-structure for 20 locations characterized by different climates and biomes across the globe. Including soil structure affects considerably the partition between infiltration and runoff and consequently leakage at the base of the soil profile (recharge). In several locations characterized by wet climates, a few hundreds of mm per year of surface runoff become deep-recharge accounting for soil-structure. Changes in energy fluxes, total evapotranspiration and vegetation productivity

  7. Terrestrial Hydrological Data from NASA's Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC): Products, Services, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Mocko, David M.; Rodell, Matthew; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial hydrological variables are important in global hydrology, climate, and carbon cycle studies. The North American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS and GLDAS, respectively) have been generating a series of land surface states (soil moisture, snow, and temperature) and fluxes (evapotranspiration, radiation, and heat flux) variables. These data, hosted at and available from NASA s Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), include the NLDAS hourly 1/8 degree products and the GLDAS 3-hourly 0.25 and 1.0 degree products. HDISC provides easy access and visualization and analysis capabilities for these products, thus reducing the time and resources spent by scientists on data management and facilitating hydrological research. Users can perform spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and data analysis operations without needing to first download the data. HDISC is continually being developed as a data and services portal that supports weather and climate forecasts, and water and energy cycle research.

  8. The influence of land surface parameters on energy flux densities derived from remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittebrand, A.; Schwiebus, A. [Inst. for Hydrology und Meteorology, TU Dresden (Germany); Berger, F.H. [Observatory Lindenberg, German Weather Service, Lindenberg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Knowledge of the vegetation properties surface reflectance, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) are essential for the determination of the heat and water fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Remote sensing data can be used to derive spatial estimates of the required surface properties. The determination of land surface parameters and their influence on radiant and energy flux densities is investigated with data of different remote sensing systems. Sensitivity studies show the importance of correctly derived land surface properties to estimate the key quantity of the hydrological cycle, the evapotranspiration (L.E), most exactly. In addition to variable parameters like LAI or NDVI there are also parameters which are can not be inferred from satellite data but needed for the Penman-Monteith approach. Fixed values are assumed for these variables because they have little influence on L.E. Data of Landsat-7 ETM+ and NOAA-16 AVHRR are used to show results in different spatial resolution. The satellite derived results are compared with ground truth data provided by the Observatory Lindenberg of the German Weather Service. (orig.)

  9. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  10. Hydrologic information needs for evaluating waste disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Before waste disposal options can be assessed, an objective or set of criteria for evaluation must be established. For hydrologists, the objective is to ensure that ground water and surface water do not become contaminated beyond acceptable limits as a result of waste disposal operations. The focus here is on the information required to quantify hydrologic transport of potential contaminants from the disposal site. It is important to recognize that the composition of the waste, its physical and chemical form, and the intended disposal methods (e.g., surface spreading, incineration, shallow land burial, or interment in a deep geologic repository) must either be specified a priori or set forth as specific options for evaluation, because these factors influence the nature of the hydrologic data needs. The hydrologic information needs of major importance are given together with specific measurable variables to be determined.

  11. A model for estimating time-variant rainfall infiltration as a function of antecedent surface moisture and hydrologic soil type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, H. A.; Ragan, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the use of remote sensing techniques for the measurement of near surface soil moisture could be practical in the not too distant future. Other research shows that infiltration rates, especially for average or frequent rainfall events, are extremely sensitive to the proper definition and consideration of the role of the soil moisture at the beginning of the rainfall. Thus, it is important that an easy to use, but theoretically sound, rainfall infiltration model be available if the anticipated remotely sensed soil moisture data is to be optimally utilized for hydrologic simulation. A series of numerical experiments with the Richards' equation for an array of conditions anticipated in watershed hydrology were used to develop functional relationships that describe temporal infiltration rates as a function of soil type and initial moisture conditions.

  12. Hydrological Modeling in Alaska with WRF-Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, N. J.; Zavodsky, B.; Molthan, A.

    2017-12-01

    The operational National Water Model (NWM), implemented in August 2016, is an instantiation of the Weather Research and Forecasting hydrological extension package (WRF-Hydro). Currently, the NWM only covers the contiguous United States, but will be expanded to include an Alaska domain in the future. It is well known that Alaska presents several hydrological modeling challenges, including unique arctic/sub-arctic hydrological processes not observed elsewhere in the United States and a severe lack of in-situ observations for model initialization. This project sets up an experimental version of WRF-Hydro in Alaska mimicking the NWM to gauge the ability of WRF-Hydro to represent hydrological processes in Alaska and identify model calibration challenges. Recent and upcoming launches of hydrology-focused NASA satellite missions such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) expand the spatial and temporal coverage of observations in Alaska, so this study also lays the groundwork for assimilating these NASA datasets into WRF-Hydro in the future.

  13. Post-Fire Recovery of Eco-Hydrologic Behavior Given Historic and Projected Climate Variability in California Mediterranean Type Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaby, L. P.; Tague, C. L.; Hope, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Mediterranean type environments (MTEs) of California are characterized by a distinct wet and dry season and high variability in inter-annual climate. Water limitation in MTEs makes eco-hydrological processes highly sensitive to both climate variability and frequent fire disturbance. This research modeled post-fire eco- hydrologic behavior under historical and moderate and extreme scenarios of future climate in a semi-arid chaparral dominated southern California MTE. We used a physically-based, spatially-distributed, eco- hydrological model (RHESSys - Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System), to capture linkages between water and vegetation response to the combined effects of fire and historic and future climate variability. We found post-fire eco-hydrologic behavior to be strongly influenced by the episodic nature of MTE climate, which intensifies under projected climate change. Higher rates of post-fire net primary productivity were found under moderate climate change, while more extreme climate change produced water stressed conditions which were less favorable for vegetation productivity. Precipitation variability in the historic record follows the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and these inter-annual climate characteristics intensify under climate change. Inter-annual variation in streamflow follows these precipitation patterns. Post-fire streamflow and carbon cycling trajectories are strongly dependent on climate characteristics during the first 5 years following fire, and historic intra-climate variability during this period tends to overwhelm longer term trends and variation that might be attributable to climate change. Results have implications for water resource availability, vegetation type conversion from shrubs to grassland, and changes in ecosystem structure and function.

  14. WEB-DHM: A distributed biosphere hydrological model developed by coupling a simple biosphere scheme with a hillslope hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coupling of land surface models and hydrological models potentially improves the land surface representation, benefiting both the streamflow prediction capabilities as well as providing improved estimates of water and energy fluxes into the atmosphere. In this study, the simple biosphere model 2...

  15. Quantifying the effects of climate and post-fire landscape change on hydrologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimke, A.; Han, B.; Brandt, J.; Som Castellano, R.; Leonard, A.; Flores, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonally snow-dominated, forested mountain watersheds supply water to many human populations globally. However, the timing and magnitude of water delivery from these watersheds has already and will continue to change as the climate warms. Changes in vegetation also affect the runoff response of watersheds. The largest driver of vegetation change in many mountainous regions is wildfire, whose occurrence is affected by both climate and land management decisions. Here, we quantify how direct (i.e. changes in precipitation and temperature) and indirect (i.e. changing fire regimes) effects of climate change influence hydrologic parameters such as dates of peak streamflow, annual discharge, and snowpack levels. We used the Boise River Basin, ID as a model laboratory to calculate the relative magnitude of change stemming from direct and indirect effects of climate change. This basin is relevant to study as it is well-instrumented and major drainages have experienced burning at different spatial and temporal intervals, aiding in model calibration. We built a hydrology-based integrated model of the region using a multiagent simulation framework, Envision. We used a modified HBV (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning) rainfall-runoff model and calibrated it to historic streamflow and snowpack observations. We combined a diverse set of climate projections with wildfire scenarios (low vs. high) representing two distinct intervals in the regional historic fire record. In fire simulations, we altered land cover coefficients to reflect a burned state post-fire, which decreased overall evapotranspiration rates and increased water yields. However, direct climate effects had a larger signal on annual variations of hydrologic parameters. By comparing and analyzing scenario outputs, we identified links and sensitivities between land cover and regional hydrology in the context of a changing climate, with potential implications for local land and water managers. In future

  16. Thermal-hydrological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscheck, T., LLNL

    1998-04-29

    This chapter describes the physical processes and natural and engineered system conditions that affect thermal-hydrological (T-H) behavior in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain and how these effects are represented in mathematical and numerical models that are used to predict T-H conditions in the near field, altered zone, and engineered barrier system (EBS), and on waste package (WP) surfaces.

  17. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines

  18. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines.

  19. Longleaf Pine Ground-Layer Vegetation in Francis Marion National Forest: Reintroduction, Restoration, and Vegetation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzenstein, J.; Streng, D.; Wade, D.

    2001-01-01

    Study represents significant progress in understanding of compositional gradients in longleaf pine plant communities of Central South Carolina. Study shows the importance of water table depths as a controlling variable with vegetation patterns in the field and similar effects in a garden experiment. Grass planting study suggests that observed field distributions of dormant pine savannah grasses derive from complex interactive effects of fire history, hydrology and light environments. Use of regional longleaf data set to identify candidate species for introduction also appears to be a pioneering effort.

  20. Longleaf Pine Ground-Layer Vegetation in Francis Marion National Forest: Reintroduction, Restoration, and Vegetation Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glitzenstein, J.; Streng, D.; Wade, D.

    2001-01-01

    Study represents significant progress in understanding of compositional gradients in longleaf pine plant communities of Central South Carolina. Study shows the importance of water table depths as a controlling variable with vegetation patterns in the field and similar effects in a garden experiment. Grass planting study suggests that observed field distributions of dormant pine savannah grasses derive from complex interactive effects of fire history, hydrology and light environments. Use of regional longleaf data set to identify candidate species for introduction also appears to be a pioneering effort

  1. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  2. Evaluation of post fire changes in soil properties and influence on the hydrological and erosive dynamics in a Mediterranean watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Inés; Aguilar, Cristina; Millares, Agustín

    2013-04-01

    In the last fifty years, forest fires and changes in land use and management practices have had a significant influenceon the evolution of soil loss processes in the Mediterranean area. Forest fires have immediate effects in hydrological processes mainly due to sudden changes in soil properties and vegetation cover. After a fire there is an increase in runoff processes and peak flows and thus in the amount and composition of the sediments produced. Silting in dams downstream is often reported so the description of the post-fire hydrological processes is crucial in order to optimize decision making. This study analyzes a micro-watershed of 25 ha in the south of Spain that suffered a fire in October 2010 burning around a 2 km2 area. As the erosive processes in this area are directly related to concentrated overland flow, an indirect assessment of soil loss is presented in this work based on evaluating changes in runoff in Mediterranean post-fire situations. For this, the study is divided into two main parts. Firstly, changes in soil properties and vegetation cover are evaluated. Secondly, the effects of these changes in the hydrological and erosive dynamics are assessed.The watershed had been monitored in previous studies so soil properties and the vegetation cover before the fire took place were already characterized. Besides, the hydrological response was also available through an already calibrated and validated physically-based distributed hydrological model. For the evaluation of soil properties, field measurement campaigns were designed. Philip Dunne's tests for the determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity, as well as moisture content and bulk density measurements were carried out in both unaltered and burned soil samples. Changes in the vegetation cover fraction were assessed through desktop analysis of Landsat-TM5 platform satellite images as well as through visual inspection in the field campaigns. The analysis of the hydraulic conductivity revealed

  3. Eco-hydrological Responses to Soil and Water Conservation in the Jinghe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H.; Jia, Y.; Qiu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Jinghe River Basin is one of the most serious soil erosion areas in the Loess Plateau. Many measures of soil and water conservation were applied in the basin. Terrestrial ecosystem model BIOME-BGC and distributed hydrological model WEP-L were used to build eco-hydrological model and verified by field observation and literature values. The model was applied in the Jinghe River Basin to analyze eco-hydrological responses under the scenarios of vegetation type change due to soil and water conservation polices. Four scenarios were set under the measures of conversion of cropland to forest, forestation on bare land, forestation on slope wasteland and planting grass on bare land. Analysis results show that the soil and water conservation has significant effects on runoff and the carbon cycle in the Jinghe River Basin: the average annual runoff would decrease and the average annual NPP and carbon storage would increase. Key words: soil and water conservation; conversion of cropland to forest; eco-hydrology response; the Jinghe River Basin

  4. Hydrologic conditions controlling runoff generation immediately after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the control of postwildfire runoff by physical and hydraulic properties of soil, hydrologic states, and an ash layer immediately following wildfire. The field site is within the area burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in Colorado, USA. Physical and hydraulic property characterization included ash thickness, particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, and soil water retention curves. Soil water content and matric potential were measured indirectly at several depths below the soil surface to document hydrologic states underneath the ash layer in the unsaturated zone, whereas precipitation and surface runoff were measured directly. Measurements of soil water content showed that almost no water infiltrated below the ash layer into the near-surface soil in the burned site at the storm time scale (i.e., minutes to hours). Runoff generation processes were controlled by and highly sensitive to ash thickness and ash hydraulic properties. The ash layer stored from 97% to 99% of rainfall, which was critical for reducing runoff amounts. The hydrologic response to two rain storms with different rainfall amounts, rainfall intensity, and durations, only ten days apart, indicated that runoff generation was predominantly by the saturation-excess mechanism perched at the ash-soil interface during the first storm and predominantly by the infiltration-excess mechanism at the ash surface during the second storm. Contributing area was not static for the two storms and was 4% (saturation excess) to 68% (infiltration excess) of the catchment area. Our results showed the importance of including hydrologic conditions and hydraulic properties of the ash layer in postwildfire runoff generation models.

  5. Combination of lumped hydrological and remote-sensing models to evaluate water resources in a semi-arid high altitude ungauged watershed of Sierra Nevada (Southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, J; Carpintero, E; Martos-Rosillo, S; Ruiz-Constán, A; Marín-Lechado, C; Cabrera-Arrabal, J A; Navarrete-Mazariegos, E; González-Ramón, A; Lambán, L J; Herrera, C; González-Dugo, M P

    2018-06-01

    Assessing water resources in high mountain semi-arid zones is essential to be able to manage and plan the use of these resources downstream where they are used. However, it is not easy to manage an unknown resource, a situation that is common in the vast majority of high mountain hydrological basins. In the present work, the discharge flow in an ungauged basin is estimated using the hydrological parameters of an HBV (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning) model calibrated in a "neighboring gauged basin". The results of the hydrological simulation obtained in terms of average annual discharge are validated using the VI-ETo model. This model relates a simple hydrological balance to the discharge of the basin with the evaporation of the vegetal cover of the soil, and this to the SAVI index, which is obtained remotely by means of satellite images. The results of the modeling for both basins underscore the role of the underground discharge in the total discharge of the hydrological system. This is the result of the deglaciation process suffered by the high mountain areas of the Mediterranean arc. This process increases the infiltration capacity of the terrain, the recharge and therefore the discharge of the aquifers that make up the glacial and periglacial sediments that remain exposed on the surface as witnesses of what was the last glaciation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Plan for a Sierra Nevada Hydrologic Observatory: Science Aims, Measurement Priorities, Research Opportunities and Expected Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, R.; Dozier, J.; Famiglietti, J.; Fogg, G.; Hopmans, J.; Kirchner, J.; Meixner, T.; Molotch, N.; Redmond, K.; Rice, R.; Sickman, J.; Warwick, J.

    2004-12-01

    In response to NSF's plans to establish a network of hydrologic observatories, a planning group is proposing a Sierra Nevada Hydrologic Observatory (SNHO). As argued in multiple consensus planning documents, the semi-arid mountain West is perhaps the highest priority for new hydrologic understanding. Based on input from over 100 individuals, it is proposed to initiate a mountain-range-scale study of the snow-dominated hydrology of the region, focusing on representative 1,000-5,000 km2 river basins originating in the Sierra Nevada and tributary to the Sacramento-San-Joaquin Delta. The SNHO objective is to provide the necessary infrastructure for improved understanding of surface-water and ground-water systems, their interactions and their linkages with ecosystems, biogeochemistry, agriculture, urban areas and water resources in semi-arid regions. The SNHO will include east-west transects of hydrological observations across the Sierra Nevada and into the basin and range system, in four distinct latitude bands that span much of the variability found in the semi-arid West. At least one transect will include agricultural and urban landscapes of the Great Central Valley. Investments in measurement systems will address scales from the mountain range down to the basin, headwater catchment and study plot. The intent is to provide representative measurements that will yield general knowledge as opposed to site-specific problem solving of a unique system. The broader, general science question posed by the planning group is: How do mountain hydrologic processes vary across landscapes, spanning a range of latitudes, elevations and thus climate, soils, geology and vegetation zones?\\" Embodied are additional broad questions for the hydrologic science community as a whole: (i) How do hydrologic systems that are subjected to multiple perturbations respond? (ii) How do pulses and changes propagate through the hydrologic system? (iii) What are the time lags and delays of stresses in

  7. MUREX: a land-surface field experiment to study the annual cycle of the energy and water budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The MUREX (monitoring the usable soil reservoir experimentally experiment was designed to provide continuous time series of field data over a long period, in order to improve and validate the Soil-vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT parameterisations employed in meteorological models. Intensive measurements were performed for more than three years over fallow farmland in southwestern France. To capture the main processes controlling land-atmosphere exchanges, the local climate was fully characterised, and surface water and energy fluxes, vegetation biomass, soil moisture profiles, surface soil moisture and surface and soil temperature were monitored. Additional physiological measurements were carried out during selected periods to describe the biological control of the fluxes. The MUREX data of 1995, 1996, and 1997 are presented. Four SVAT models are applied to the annual cycle of 1995. In general, they succeed in simulating the main features of the fallow functioning, although some shortcomings are revealed.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration; soil moisture; water-energy interactions.

  8. The importance of parameterization when simulating the hydrologic response of vegetative land-cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeremy; Stengel, Victoria; Rendon, Samuel; Banta, John

    2017-08-01

    Computer models of hydrologic systems are frequently used to investigate the hydrologic response of land-cover change. If the modeling results are used to inform resource-management decisions, then providing robust estimates of uncertainty in the simulated response is an important consideration. Here we examine the importance of parameterization, a necessarily subjective process, on uncertainty estimates of the simulated hydrologic response of land-cover change. Specifically, we applied the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) model to a 1.4 km2 watershed in southern Texas to investigate the simulated hydrologic response of brush management (the mechanical removal of woody plants), a discrete land-cover change. The watershed was instrumented before and after brush-management activities were undertaken, and estimates of precipitation, streamflow, and evapotranspiration (ET) are available; these data were used to condition and verify the model. The role of parameterization in brush-management simulation was evaluated by constructing two models, one with 12 adjustable parameters (reduced parameterization) and one with 1305 adjustable parameters (full parameterization). Both models were subjected to global sensitivity analysis as well as Monte Carlo and generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) conditioning to identify important model inputs and to estimate uncertainty in several quantities of interest related to brush management. Many realizations from both parameterizations were identified as behavioral in that they reproduce daily mean streamflow acceptably well according to Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient, percent bias, and coefficient of determination. However, the total volumetric ET difference resulting from simulated brush management remains highly uncertain after conditioning to daily mean streamflow, indicating that streamflow data alone are not sufficient to inform the model inputs that influence the simulated outcomes of brush management

  9. Near-Surface Geophysical Mapping of the Hydrological Response to an Intense Rainfall Event at the Field Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Giraldez, J. V.; Espejo, A. J.; Muriel, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Soil moisture plays an important role in a wide variety of biogeochemical fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and governs the (eco)hydrological response of a catchment to an external forcing such as rainfall. Near-surface electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors that measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) provide a fast and non-invasive means for characterizing this response at the field or catchment scale through high-resolution time-lapse mapping. Here we show how ECa maps, obtained before and after an intense rainfall event of 125 mm h-1, elucidate differences in soil moisture patterns and hydrologic response of an experimental field as a consequence of differed soil management. The dryland field (Vertisol) was located in SW Spain and cropped with a typical wheat-sunflower-legume rotation. Both, near-surface and subsurface ECa (ECas and ECad, respectively), were measured using the EM38-DD EMI sensor in a mobile configuration. Raw ECa measurements and Mean Relative Differences (MRD) provided information on soil moisture patterns while time-lapse maps were used to evaluate the hydrologic response of the field. ECa maps of the field, measured before and after the rainfall event showed similar patterns. The field depressions where most of water and sediments accumulated had the highest ECa and MRD values. The SE-oriented soil, which was deeper and more exposed to sun and wind, showed the lowest ECa and MRD. The largest differences raised in the central part of the field where a high ECa and MRD area appeared after the rainfall event as a consequence of the smaller soil depth and a possible subsurface flux concentration. Time-lapse maps of both ECa and MRD were also similar. The direct drill plots showed higher increments of ECa and MRD as a result of the smaller runoff production. Time-lapse ECa increments showed a bimodal distribution differentiating clearly the direct drill from the conventional and minimum tillage plots. However this kind

  10. Evaluating the Impacts of Urbanization on Hydrological Processes and Water Resources by Comparing Two Neighboring Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M.; Zhao, G.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    Texas, the fastest growing state in the US, has seen significant land cover/land use change due to urbanization over the past decades. With most of the region being arid/semi-arid, water issues are unprecedentedly pressing. Among the 15 major river basins, two adjacent river basins located in south-central Texas—the San Antonio River Basin (SARB) and the Guadalupe River Basin (GRB)—form an ideal testbed for evaluating the impacts of urbanization on both hydrological processes and water resources. These two basins are similar in size and in climate pattern, but differ in terms of urbanization progress. In SARB, where the city of San Antonio is located, the impervious area has increased from 0.6% (1929) to 7.8% (2011). In contrast, there is little land cover change in the GRB. With regard to the underground components, both basins intersect with the Edward Aquifer (more than 15% of basin area in both cases). The Edward Aquifer acts as one of the major municipal water supplies for San Antonio, and as the water source for local agricultural uses (and for the surrounding habitat). This aquifer has the characteristic of being highly sensitive to changes in surface water conditions, like the descending trend of the underground water table due to over exploitation. In this study, a distributed hydrologic model—DHSVM (the Distributed