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Sample records for vegetation patterns related

  1. Vegetation patterns and nutrients in relation to grazing pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major challenge confronting managers of extensive grazing systems is uneven use of erbaceous forage plants by livestock. The concentration of grazing in preferred areas or around foci points (e.g. water points) eventually results in adverse impacts in soil nutrients, vegetation structure, production and composition.

  2. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, Scott J; Sun, Mindy; Zolkos, Scott; Hansen, Andy; Dubayah, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R 2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species–climate–vegetation

  3. On the relative role of fire and rainfall in determining vegetation patterns in tropical savannas: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Fisher, Rosie

    2010-05-01

    LPJ-GUESS vegetation model. Recently, SPIFTIRE has been coupled to the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, which simulates global vegetation dynamics as part of the new land surface scheme JULES (Joint UK Environment Simulator) within the QUEST Earth System Model (http://www.quest-esm.ac.uk/). This study forms part of on-going work to further improve and test the ability of JULES to accurately simulate the terrestrial carbon cycle and land-atmosphere exchanges under different climates. Using the JULES (ED-SPITFIRE) model driven by observed climate (1901-2002), and focusing on large-scale rainfall gradients in the tropical savannas of west Africa, the Northern Territory (Australia) and central-southern Brazil, this study assesses: i) simulated versus observed vegetation dynamics and distributions, and ii) the relative importance of fire versus rainfall in determining vegetation patterns. A sensitivity analysis approach was used.

  4. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a

  5. Comparison of vegetation patterns and soil nutrient relations in an oak-pine forest and a mixed deciduous forest on Long Island, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S.C.; Curtis, P.S.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis of soil nutrient relations in two forest communities on Long Island, NY, yielded a correlation between the fertility of the top-soil and vegetational composition. The oak-pine forest soils at Brookhaven National Laboratory contain lower average concentrations of NH/sub 3/, Ca, K, and organic matter than the mixed deciduous forest soils in the Stony Brook area. The pH of the topsoil is also more acidic at Brookhaven. The observed differences between localities are greater than within-locality differences between the two soil series tested (Plymouth and Riverhead), which are common to both localities. Nutrient concentrations in the subsoil are not consistently correlated with either locality or soil series, although organic matter and NH/sub 3/ show significantly higher concentrations at Stony Brook. Supporting data on density and basal area of trees and coverage of shrubs and herbs also reveals significant variation between the two forest communities. An ordination of the vegetation data shows higher similarity within than between localities, while no obvious pattern of within-locality variation due to soil series treatments is apparent. These data support the hypothesis that fertility gradients may influence forest community composition and structure. This hypothesis is discussed with reference to vegetation-soil interactions and other factors, such as frequency of burning, which may direct the future development of the Brookhaven oak-pine forest.

  6. An analysis on vegetation pattern of ecotone in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, J.C.; Zhang, H.Y. [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2008-07-01

    Vegetation pattern is influenced by several natural factors, including climatic elements, elevation factors and soil conditions. Since soil formation and soil types are influenced by water-temperature conditions, much can be learned about vegetation distribution patterns by studying the relationship between water-temperature conditions and vegetation distribution. This paper presented the results of a study whose purpose was to provide scientific evidence for exploiting natural resources, planting trees, and restoring grassland from cropland. A warmth index (WI ) and humidity index (HI) were used to examine the relation between the distribution of vegetation and the water-temperature condition in North China's ecotone, the transition area between two adjacent but different plant communities, including steppe, bush and forest ecosystems. A vegetation map of the study site was digitized and then converted into a vegetation grid map from which 17 different vegetation types were chosen as the study object. A monthly mean temperature grid map and precipitation grid map of the study site were made based on the method of spatial interpolation, by using 119 meteorological data for 50 years during the period from 1951 to 2000. The thermal distribution curves and humidity distribution curves of 17 vegetation types in North China, determined the whole range and optimum range of WI and HI of 17 vegetation types. The relative proportion of each vegetation type distributed in the optimum range of WI and HI were calculated. The vegetation pattern was analyzed according to the WI and HI standard, and was described by species and their relative amount. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Formation of banded vegetation patterns resulted from interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tousheng; Zhang, Huayong; Dai, Liming; Cong, Xuebing; Ma, Shengnan

    2018-03-01

    This research investigates the formation of banded vegetation patterns on hillslopes affected by interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth. The following two perspectives in the formation of these patterns are taken into consideration: (a) increased sediment deposition from plant interception, and (b) reduced plant biomass caused by sediment accumulation. A spatial model is proposed to describe how the interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth promote self-organization of banded vegetation patterns. Based on theoretical and numerical analyses of the proposed spatial model, vegetation bands can result from a Turing instability mechanism. The banded vegetation patterns obtained in this research resemble patterns reported in the literature. Moreover, measured by sediment dynamics, the variation of hillslope landform can be described. The model predicts how treads on hillslopes evolve with the banded patterns. Thus, we provide a quantitative interpretation for coevolution of vegetation patterns and landforms under effects of sediment redistribution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Dekker, Stefan C.; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Punyasena, Surangi W.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2017-02-01

    Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems. In this paper, we have developed quantitative methods to characterize the morphology of spatial patterns in dryland vegetation. Our approach is based on algorithmic techniques that have been used to classify pollen grains on the basis of textural patterning, and involves constructing feature vectors to quantify the shapes formed by vegetation patterns. We have analysed images of patterned vegetation produced by a computational model and a small set of satellite images from South Kordofan (South Sudan), which illustrates that our methods are applicable to both simulated and real-world data. Our approach provides a means of quantifying patterns that are frequently described using qualitative terminology, and could be used to classify vegetation patterns in large-scale satellite surveys of dryland ecosystems.

  9. Energy use pattern analyses of greenhouse vegetable production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M.; Akinci, I. [Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, 07070 Antalya (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    Greenhouse farming is a growing industry in many states. It is a very expensive way to produce greenhouse crops and there are many variables to consider before the farmer decides to take this route. A good location is essential for crop planning and growing. However, current studies related to energy use patterns and resources present in vegetable production are very limited. This research attempts to investigate the energy use patterns in greenhouse vegetable production, to determine the energy output-input ratio and their relationships. Antalya province, which has greenhouse area of about 13,337ha (30.2%), is the center of greenhouse farming in Turkey. A questionnaire was distributed to 101 greenhouse farms from 11 villages in order to obtain the available data for vegetable production. Power requirement of the machines used in greenhouse operations were measured by using a computer based data acquisition system. Energy and economical variables (i.e. output-input ratio, specific energy, production cost, net return, etc.) were calculated by using the standard equations. As a result, the operational energy and energy source requirements of the greenhouse vegetable production were found between the ranges of 23,883.5-28,034.7 and 45,763.3-49,978.8MJ/1000m{sup 2}, respectively. The energy ratio of four major greenhouse vegetables-tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant-was 0.32, 0.19, 0.31, 0.23, respectively. The crop yields increased as a function of the total energy inputs with the best form being second-degree polynomial. The net return of the vegetable production was found in the 595.6-2775.3$/1000m{sup 2} ranges. Among the greenhouse vegetables, tomato cultivation resulted in being the most profitable. (author)

  10. Predicting the effect of fire on large-scale vegetation patterns in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; David L. Peterson; Ernesto. Alvarado

    1996-01-01

    Changes in fire regimes are expected across North America in response to anticipated global climatic changes. Potential changes in large-scale vegetation patterns are predicted as a result of altered fire frequencies. A new vegetation classification was developed by condensing Kuchler potential natural vegetation types into aggregated types that are relatively...

  11. Environmental controls on multiscale spatial patterns of salt marsh vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairns, David; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    In coastal environments, biogeographic patterns are generally influenced by surface elevation and horizontal distance from sea water. However, it is still unclear whether these major topographic factors are significant controls of vegetation patterns across spatial scales at which different physi...

  12. Patterns of vegetation and grasshopper community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, W P; Harvey, S J; O'Neill, K M

    1990-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate differences in rangeland grasshopper communities over environmental gradients in Gallatin Valley, Montana, USA. The concept of habitat type (Daubenmire 1966) was used as a basis for discriminating between groupings of patches based on vegetation. A total of 39 patches were selected that represented five recognized grassland habitat types (Mueggler and Stewart 1980), as well as two disturbed types (replanting within a known habitat type). Repeated sampling in 1988 of both the insect and plant communities yielded a total of 40 grasshopper (19 664 individuals) and 97 plant species. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) indicated that patch classifications based on presence and percent cover of plants were appropriate and showed good between-group (habitat type) separation for patches along gradients of precipitation/elevation and plant community complexity. Results from undisturbed habitats showed that plant and grasshopper species composition changed over observed environmental gradients and suggested that habitat type influenced not only species presence, but also relative abundance. Discussion is presented that relates results with patch-use and core and satellite species paradigms.

  13. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Patterns and the Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Patterns and the Serum Ascorbate of Patients with Breast Cancer in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. ... to enlighten the public as well as patients with cancer on the importance of taking fruits and vegetables regularly, as part of their diet, need to be intensified by nutritionist-dietitian.

  14. Vegetable Consumption patterns in Yaounde, Cameroon | Kamga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in August and September 2008 in Yaoundé, Cameroon to assess vegetable consumption attitudes, constraints and factors that stimulate households' consumption. Stratified sample based on district size, socioeconomic status and ethnics groups were used. Three hundred households were ...

  15. Vegetation pattern formation in a fog-dependent ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthagaray, Ana I; Fuentes, Miguel A; Marquet, Pablo A

    2010-07-07

    Vegetation pattern formation is a striking characteristic of several water-limited ecosystems around the world. Typically, they have been described on runoff-based ecosystems emphasizing local interactions between water, biomass interception, growth and dispersal. Here, we show that this situation is by no means general, as banded patterns in vegetation can emerge in areas without rainfall and in plants without functional root (the Bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii) and where fog is the principal source of moisture. We show that a simple model based on the advection of fog-water by wind and its interception by the vegetation can reproduce banded patterns which agree with empirical patterns observed in the Coastal Atacama Desert. Our model predicts how the parameters may affect the conditions to form the banded pattern, showing a transition from a uniform vegetated state, at high water input or terrain slope to a desert state throughout intermediate banded states. Moreover, the model predicts that the pattern wavelength is a decreasing non-linear function of fog-water input and slope, and an increasing function of plant loss and fog-water flow speed. Finally, we show that the vegetation density is increased by the formation of the regular pattern compared to the density expected by the spatially homogeneous model emphasizing the importance of self-organization in arid ecosystems. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vegetation-zonation patterns across a temperate mountain cloud forest ecotone are not explained by variation in hydraulic functioning or water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Z Carter; Johnson, Daniel M; Reinhardt, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated linkages between the occurrence of fog and ecophysiological functioning in cloud forests, but few have investigated hydraulic functioning as a determining factor that explains sharp changes in vegetation. The objective of this study was to compare the plant water status during cloud-immersed and non-immersed conditions and hydraulic vulnerability in branches and roots of species across a temperate, mountain fog ecotone. Because cloud forests are often dark, cool and very moist, we expected cloud forest species to have less drought-tolerant characteristics (i.e., lower Pe and P50-the pressures required to induce a 12 and 50% loss in hydraulic conductivity, respectively) relative to non-cloud forest species in adjacent (lower elevation) forests. Additionally, due to the ability of cloud forest species to absorb cloud-fog water, we predicted greater improvements in hydraulic functioning during fog in cloud forest species relative to non-cloud forest species. Across the cloud forest ecotone, most species measured were very resistant to losses in conductivity with branch P50 values from -4.5 to -6.0 MPa, hydraulic safety margins (Ψmin - P50) >1.5 MPa and low calculated hydraulic conductivity losses. Roots had greater vulnerabilities, with P50 values ranging from -1.4 to -2.5 MPa, leading to greater predicted losses in conductivity (∼20%). Calculated values suggested strong losses of midday leaf hydraulic conductance in three of the four species, supporting the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis. In both cloud forest and hardwood species, Ψs were greater on foggy days than sunny days, demonstrating the importance of fog periods to plant water balance across fog regimes. Thus, frequent fog did not result in systemic changes in hydraulic functioning or vulnerability to embolism across our temperate cloud forest ecotone. Finally, roots functioned with lower hydraulic conductivity than branches, suggesting that they may serve as more

  17. Pattern Decomposition Method and a New Vegetation Index for Hyper-Multispectral Satellite Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, K.; Furumi, S.; Hayashi, A.; Shiono, Y.; Ono, A.; Fujiwara, N.; Daigo, M.; Ochiai, F.

    We have developed the ``pattern decomposition method'' based on linear spectral mixing of ground objects for n-dimensional satellite data. In this method, spectral response patterns for each pixel in an image are decomposed into three components using three standard spectral shape patterns determined from the image data. Applying this method to AMSS (Airborne Multi-Spectral Scanner) data, eighteen-dimensional data are successfully transformed into three-dimensional data. Using the three components, we have developed a new vegetation index in which all the multispectral data are reflected. We consider that the index should be linear to the amount of vegetation and vegetation vigor. To validate the index, its relations to vegetation types, vegetation cover ratio, and chlorophyll contents of a leaf were studied using spectral reflectance data measured in the field with a spectrometer. The index was sensitive to vegetation types and vegetation vigor. This method and index are very useful for assessment of vegetation vigor, classifying land cover types and monitoring vegetation changes

  18. Investigation on the Patterns of Global Vegetation Change Using a Satellite-Sensed Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated that monthly NDVI changes show homogenous trends in middle and high latitude areas in the northern hemisphere and within, or near, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn; with obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity on a global scale over the past two decades. The former areas featured increasing vegetation activity during growth seasons, and the latter areas experienced an even greater amplitude in places where precipitation is adequate. The discussion suggests that one should be cautious of using the NDVI time-series to analyze local vegetation dynamics because of its coarse resolution and uncertainties.

  19. Relations between Vegetation and Geologic Framework in Barrier Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, N. H.; Ferguson, J. B.; Lehner, J. D.; Taylor, D.; Tuttle, L. F., II; Wernette, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier islands provide valuable ecosystems and protective services to coastal communities. The longevity of barrier islands is threatened by sea-level rise, human impacts, and extreme storms. The purpose of this research is to evaluate how vegetation dynamics interact with the subsurface and offshore framework geology to influence the beach and dune morphology. Beach and dune morphology can be viewed as free and/or forced behavior, where free systems are stochastic and the morphology is dependent on variations in the storm surge run-up, aeolian sediment supply and transport potential, and vegetation dynamics and persistence. Forced systems are those where patterns in the coastal morphology are determined by some other structural control, such as the underlying and offshore framework geology. Previous studies have documented the effects of geologic framework or vegetation dynamics on the beach and dunes, although none have examined possible control by vegetation dynamics in context of the geologic framework (i.e. combined free and forced behavior). Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) was used to examine the interaction of free and forced morphology because the subsurface framework geology and surface beach and dune morphology are variable along the island. Vegetation dynamics were assessed by classifying geographically referenced historical aerial imagery into areas with vegetation and areas without vegetation, as well as LiDAR data to verify this imagery. The subsurface geologic structure was assessed using a combination of geophysical surveys (i.e. electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, and offshore seismic surveys). Comparison of the observed vegetation patterns and geologic framework leads to a series of questions surrounding how mechanistically these two drivers of coastal morphology are related. Upcoming coring and geophysical surveys will enable us to validate new and existing geophysical data. Results of this paper will help us better

  20. Assessing the drivers shaping global patterns of urban vegetation landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C; Nitschke, C; Kendal, D

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation is one of the main resources involve in ecosystem functioning and providing ecosystem services in urban areas. Little is known on the landscape structure patterns of vegetation existing in urban areas at the global scale and the drivers of these patterns. We studied the landscape structure of one hundred cities around the globe, and their relation to demography (population), socioeconomic factors (GDP, Gini Index), climate factors (temperature and rain) and topographic characteristics (altitude, variation in altitude). The data revealed that the best descriptors of landscape structure were amount, fragmentation and spatial distribution of vegetation. Populated cities tend to have less, more fragmented, less connected vegetation with a centre of the city with low vegetation cover. Results also provided insights on the influence of socioeconomics at a global scale, as landscape structure was more fragmented in areas that are economically unequal and coming from emergent economies. This study shows the effects of the social system and climate on urban landscape patterns that gives useful insights for the distribution in the provision of ecosystem services in urban areas and therefore the maintenance of human well-being. This information can support local and global policy and planning which is committing our cities to provide accessible and inclusive green space for all urban inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  2. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  3. Spatial vegetation patterns and neighborhood competition among woody plants in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Justin; Augustine, David J; Hanan, Niall P; Ratnam, Jayashree; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    The majority of research on savanna vegetation dynamics has focused on the coexistence of woody and herbaceous vegetation. Interactions among woody plants in savannas are relatively poorly understood. We present data from a 10-yr longitudinal study of spatially explicit growth patterns of woody vegetation in an East African savanna following exclusion of large herbivores and in the absence of fire. We examined plant spatial patterns and quantified the degree of competition among woody individuals. Woody plants in this semiarid savanna exhibit strongly clumped spatial distributions at scales of 1-5 m. However, analysis of woody plant growth rates relative to their conspecific and heterospecific neighbors revealed evidence for strong competitive interactions at neighborhood scales of up to 5 m for most woody plant species. Thus, woody plants were aggregated in clumps despite significantly decreased growth rates in close proximity to neighbors, indicating that the spatial distribution of woody plants in this region depends on dispersal and establishment processes rather than on competitive, density-dependent mortality. However, our documentation of suppressive effects of woody plants on neighbors also suggests a potentially important role for tree-tree competition in controlling vegetation structure and indicates that the balanced-competition hypothesis may contribute to well-known patterns in maximum tree cover across rainfall gradients in Africa. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Patterns in woody vegetation structure across African savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Christoffer R.; Hanan, Niall P.

    2017-07-01

    Vegetation structure in water-limited systems is to a large degree controlled by ecohydrological processes, including mean annual precipitation (MAP) modulated by the characteristics of precipitation and geomorphology that collectively determine how rainfall is distributed vertically into soils or horizontally in the landscape. We anticipate that woody canopy cover, crown density, crown size, and the level of spatial aggregation among woody plants in the landscape will vary across environmental gradients. A high level of woody plant aggregation is most distinct in periodic vegetation patterns (PVPs), which emerge as a result of ecohydrological processes such as runoff generation and increased infiltration close to plants. Similar, albeit weaker, forces may influence the spatial distribution of woody plants elsewhere in savannas. Exploring these trends can extend our knowledge of how semi-arid vegetation structure is constrained by rainfall regime, soil type, topography, and disturbance processes such as fire. Using high-spatial-resolution imagery, a flexible classification framework, and a crown delineation method, we extracted woody vegetation properties from 876 sites spread over African savannas. At each site, we estimated woody cover, mean crown size, crown density, and the degree of aggregation among woody plants. This enabled us to elucidate the effects of rainfall regimes (MAP and seasonality), soil texture, slope, and fire frequency on woody vegetation properties. We found that previously documented increases in woody cover with rainfall is more consistently a result of increasing crown size than increasing density of woody plants. Along a gradient of mean annual precipitation from the driest (< 200 mm yr-1) to the wettest (1200-1400 mm yr-1) end, mean estimates of crown size, crown density, and woody cover increased by 233, 73, and 491 % respectively. We also found a unimodal relationship between mean crown size and sand content suggesting that maximal

  5. Patterns in woody vegetation structure across African savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Axelsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation structure in water-limited systems is to a large degree controlled by ecohydrological processes, including mean annual precipitation (MAP modulated by the characteristics of precipitation and geomorphology that collectively determine how rainfall is distributed vertically into soils or horizontally in the landscape. We anticipate that woody canopy cover, crown density, crown size, and the level of spatial aggregation among woody plants in the landscape will vary across environmental gradients. A high level of woody plant aggregation is most distinct in periodic vegetation patterns (PVPs, which emerge as a result of ecohydrological processes such as runoff generation and increased infiltration close to plants. Similar, albeit weaker, forces may influence the spatial distribution of woody plants elsewhere in savannas. Exploring these trends can extend our knowledge of how semi-arid vegetation structure is constrained by rainfall regime, soil type, topography, and disturbance processes such as fire. Using high-spatial-resolution imagery, a flexible classification framework, and a crown delineation method, we extracted woody vegetation properties from 876 sites spread over African savannas. At each site, we estimated woody cover, mean crown size, crown density, and the degree of aggregation among woody plants. This enabled us to elucidate the effects of rainfall regimes (MAP and seasonality, soil texture, slope, and fire frequency on woody vegetation properties. We found that previously documented increases in woody cover with rainfall is more consistently a result of increasing crown size than increasing density of woody plants. Along a gradient of mean annual precipitation from the driest (< 200 mm yr−1 to the wettest (1200–1400 mm yr−1 end, mean estimates of crown size, crown density, and woody cover increased by 233, 73, and 491 % respectively. We also found a unimodal relationship between mean crown size and sand

  6. Vegetation geographical patterns as a key to the past, with emphasis on the dry vegetation types of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Werger

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is characterized by a highly diversified vegetational cover with extremes as contrasting as desert, tropical forest, alpine grassland, or mediterranean type scrub, and many other types in between. This vegetational pattern is strongly correlated to the climatological pattern. It is therefore likely that past changes in climate can still be partly traced in the vegetational pattern, particularly in geographical anomalies, and that study of these patterns provides complementary evidence to palynological research. The following anomalies in the vegetational pattern are briefly discussed: 1. island-wise occurrence of Afro-montane vegetation on mesic, sheltered sites in the southern Sudano- Zambezian Region, in particular in the Highveld grassland/False Karoo transition area; 2. similar westward occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian scrub patches in the Karoo-Namib Region near the Orange/Vaal confluence; 3. scattered occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian woody species in a matrix of Karoo-Namib vegetation in the marginal Karoo-Namib Region; 4. island-wise occurrence of frost-tolerant, dry, karroid dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly C,-plants on isolated peaks in the winter rainfall area of Namaqualand; 5. peculiar patchy distribution of some succulents in wide areas of climatically rather homogeneous, succulent dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly CAM-plants in the escarpment area of Namaqualand. a pattern reminiscent of that in many Cape fynbos species. Interpretation of these patterns logically leads to the conclusion that these result from a previously wetter, a previously cooler, or a previously wetter and cooler climate, respectively, over the parts of southern Africa under discussion. This conclusion is compared with published palynological views.

  7. Effects of Vegetables on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yi Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases. In addition, several vegetables and their bioactive components have been proven to protect against cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials. In this review, we analyze and summarize the effects of vegetables on cardiovascular diseases based on epidemiological studies, experimental research, and clinical trials, which are significant to the application of vegetables in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Comparison of Modeling Grassland Degradation with and without Considering Localized Spatial Associations in Vegetation Changing Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassland ecosystems worldwide are confronted with degradation. It is of great importance to understand long-term trajectory patterns of grassland vegetation by advanced analytical models. This study proposes a new approach called a binary logistic regression model with neighborhood interactions, or BLR-NIs, which is based on binary logistic regression (BLR, but fully considers the spatio-temporally localized spatial associations or characterization of neighborhood interactions (NIs in the patterns of grassland vegetation. The BLR-NIs model was applied to a modeled vegetation degradation of grasslands in the Xilin river basin, Inner Mongolia, China. Residual trend analysis on the normalized difference vegetation index (RESTREND-NDVI, which excluded the climatic impact on vegetation dynamics, was adopted as a preprocessing step to derive three human-induced trajectory patterns (vegetation degradation, vegetation recovery, and no significant change in vegetation during two consecutive periods, T1 (2000–2008 and T2 (2007–2015. Human activities, including livestock grazing intensity and transportation accessibility measured by road network density, were included as explanatory variables for vegetation degradation, which was defined for locations if vegetation recovery or no significant change in vegetation in T1 and vegetation degradation in T2 were observed. Our work compared the results of BLR-NIs and the traditional BLR model that did not consider NIs. The study showed that: (1 both grazing intensity and road density had a positive correlation to vegetation degradation based on the traditional BLR model; (2 only road density was found to positively correlate to vegetation degradation by the BLR-NIs model; NIs appeared to be critical factors to predict vegetation degradation; and (3 including NIs in the BLR model improved the model performance substantially. The study provided evidence for the importance of including localized spatial

  9. Vegetation patterns, runoff, sediment delivery and organic carbon output from a small catchment in SE Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cammeraat, E.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation patterns, runoff, sediment delivery and organic carbon output from a small catchment in SE Spain Erik Cammeraat Spatial patterns of vegetation are strongly affecting the pathways and connectivity of water, sediments and associated organic matter, and this study aims at understanding the

  10. Vegetation pattern of Istanbul from the Landsat data and the relationship with meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Aslan

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preliminary results of a study on the vegetation pattern and its relationship with meteorological parameters in and around Istanbul. The study covers an area of over 6800 km2 consisting of urban and suburban centers, and uses the visible and near-infrared bands of Landsat. The spatial variation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and meteorological parameters such as sensible heat flux, momentum flux, relative humidity, moist static energy, rainfall rate and temperature have been investigated based on observations in ten stations in the European (Thracian and Anatolian parts of Istanbul. NDVI values have been evaluated from the Landsat data for a single day, viz. 24 October 1986, using ERDAS in ten different classes. The simultaneous spatial variations of sensible heat and momentum fluxes have been computed from the wind and temperature profiles using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The static energy variations are based on the surface meteorological observations. There is very good correlation between NDVI and rainfall rate. Good correlation also exists between: NDVI and relative humidity; NDVI, sensible heat flux and relative humidity; NDVI, momentum flux and emissivity; and NDVI, sensible heat flux and emissivity. The study suggests that the momentum flux has only marginal impact on NDVI. Due to rapid urbanization,the coastal belt is characterized by reduced NDVI compared to the interior areas, suggesting that thermodynamic discontinuities considerably influence the vegetation pattern. This study is useful for the investigation of small-scale circulation models, especially in urban and suburban areas where differential heating leads to the formation of heat islands. In the long run, such studies on a global scale are vital to gain accurate, timely information on the distribution of vegetation on the earth's surface. This may lead to an understanding of how changes in land cover affect phenomena as

  11. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  12. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  13. [Succession pattern of artificial vegetation community and its ecological mechanism in an arid desert region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cailin; Li, Zizhen

    2003-09-01

    Focusing on the artificial vegetation protection system of the Shapotou section of Baotou-Lanzhou railway in the arid desert region of China, this paper examined the dynamics of dominant plant species and the succession pattern of artificial plant community in the process of establishing and developing regional artificial vegetation. It also studied the driving force and the ecologically intrinsic mechanism of the community succession. The results demonstrated that the species composition of the artificial vegetation dramatically changed after 40 years of succession, from original artificial plant community of shrub and semi-shrub to artificial-natural desert plant community with annual herb dominated. During the process of succession, the importance values of artificial shrubs, such as Caragana korshinskii and Hedysarum scoparius, decreased and gradually retreated from the artificial plant community, while the naturally multiplied annual herb, such as Eragrostis poaeoides, Bassia dasyphylla, Salsola ruthenica, Chloris virgata and etc., were presented one after another and gradually became dominant. Besides, Artemisia ordosica always played a key role in the community due to its ability of naturally sowing and self-replacement. This type of succession pattern was closely related to the shortage of precipitation resource in this region and the formation of soil crust which inhibited the reproduction of shrub and perennial herb with deep root systems. This study provided a theoretical ground for realizing persistent development of artificial plant community.

  14. Aspect-related Vegetation Differences Amplify Soil Moisture Variability in Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetemen, O.; Srivastava, A.; Kumari, N.; Saco, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture variability (SMV) in semiarid landscapes is affected by vegetation, soil texture, climate, aspect, and topography. The heterogeneity in vegetation cover that results from the effects of microclimate, terrain attributes (slope gradient, aspect, drainage area etc.), soil properties, and spatial variability in precipitation have been reported to act as the dominant factors modulating SMV in semiarid ecosystems. However, the role of hillslope aspect in SMV, though reported in many field studies, has not received the same degree of attention probably due to the lack of extensive large datasets. Numerical simulations can then be used to elucidate the contribution of aspect-driven vegetation patterns to this variability. In this work, we perform a sensitivity analysis to study on variables driving SMV using the CHILD landscape evolution model equipped with a spatially-distributed solar-radiation component that couples vegetation dynamics and surface hydrology. To explore how aspect-driven vegetation heterogeneity contributes to the SMV, CHILD was run using a range of parameters selected to reflect different scenarios (from uniform to heterogeneous vegetation cover). Throughout the simulations, the spatial distribution of soil moisture and vegetation cover are computed to estimate the corresponding coefficients of variation. Under the uniform spatial precipitation forcing and uniform soil properties, the factors affecting the spatial distribution of solar insolation are found to play a key role in the SMV through the emergence of aspect-driven vegetation patterns. Hence, factors such as catchment gradient, aspect, and latitude, define water stress and vegetation growth, and in turn affect the available soil moisture content. Interestingly, changes in soil properties (porosity, root depth, and pore-size distribution) over the domain are not as effective as the other factors. These findings show that the factors associated to aspect-related vegetation

  15. Global patterns of NDVI-indicated vegetation extremes and their sensitivity to climate extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guo; Liu Hongyan; Yin Yi

    2013-01-01

    Extremes in climate have significant impacts on ecosystems and are expected to increase under future climate change. Extremes in vegetation could capture such impacts and indicate the vulnerability of ecosystems, but currently have not received a global long-term assessment. In this study, a robust method has been developed to detect significant extremes (low values) in biweekly time series of global normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1982 to 2006 and thus to acquire a global pattern of vegetation extreme frequency. This pattern coincides with vegetation vulnerability patterns suggested by earlier studies using different methods over different time spans, indicating a consistent mechanism of regulation. Vegetation extremes were found to aggregate in Amazonia and in the semi-arid and semi-humid regions in low and middle latitudes, while they seldom occurred in high latitudes. Among the environmental variables studied, extreme low precipitation has the highest slope against extreme vegetation. For the eight biomes analyzed, these slopes are highest in temperate broadleaf forest and temperate grassland, suggesting a higher sensitivity in these environments. The results presented here contradict the hypothesis that vegetation in water-limited semi-arid and semi-humid regions might be adapted to drought and suggest that vegetation in these regions (especially temperate broadleaf forest and temperate grassland) is highly prone to vegetation extreme events under more severe precipitation extremes. It is also suggested here that more attention be paid to precipitation-induced vegetation changes than to temperature-induced events. (letter)

  16. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  17. A simple method for estimating potential relative radiation (PRR) for landscape-vegetation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth B. Jr. Pierce; Todd Lookingbill; Dean. Urban

    2005-01-01

    Radiation is one of the primary influences on vegetation composition and spatial pattern. Topographic orientation is often used as a proxy for relative radiation load due to its effects on evaporative demand and local temperature. Common methods for incorporating this information (i.e., site measures of slope and aspect) fail to include daily or annual changes in solar...

  18. Determining relative contributions of vegetation and topography to burn severity from LANDSAT imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Liang, Yu; Cai, Longyan; Lewis, Bernard J

    2013-10-01

    Fire is a dominant process in boreal forest landscapes and creates a spatial patch mosaic with different burn severities and age classes. Quantifying effects of vegetation and topography on burn severity provides a scientific basis on which forest fire management plans are developed to reduce catastrophic fires. However, the relative contribution of vegetation and topography to burn severity is highly debated especially under extreme weather conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that relationships of vegetation and topography to burn severity vary with fire size. We examined this hypothesis in a boreal forest landscape of northeastern China by computing the burn severity of 24 fire patches as the difference between the pre- and post-fire Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from two Landsat TM images. The vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were evaluated at three fire-size levels of small (1,000 ha, n = 3). Our results showed that vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were fire-size-dependent. The burn severity of small fires was primary controlled by vegetation conditions (e.g., understory cover), and the burn severity of large fires was strongly influenced by topographic conditions (e.g., elevation). For moderate fires, the relationships were complex and indistinguishable. Our results also indicated that the pattern trends of relative importance for both vegetation and topography factors were not dependent on fire size. Our study can help managers to design fire management plans according to vegetation characteristics that are found important in controlling burn severity and prioritize management locations based on the relative importance of vegetation and topography.

  19. impact of vegetation on flow routing and sedimentation patterns : three-dimensional modeling for a tidal marsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T.J.; De Vries, M.B.; Wang, Z.B.; Govers, G.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was used to study the relative impact of (1) vegetation, (2) micro-topography, and (3) water level fluctuations on the spatial flow and sedimentation patterns in a tidal marsh landscape during single inundation events. The model

  20. Impact of vegetation on flow routing and sedimentation patterns : three-dimensional modeling for a tidal marsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T.J.; Govers, G.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vries, M.B.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was used to study the relative impact of (1) vegetation, (2) micro-topography, and (3) water level fluctuations on the spatial flow and sedimentation patterns in a tidal marsh landscape during single inundation events. The model

  1. Eco-geomorphology of banded vegetation patterns in arid and semi-arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Saco

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between vegetation and hydrologic processes is particularly tight in water-limited environments where a positive-feedback links soil moisture and vegetation. The vegetation of these systems is commonly patterned, that is, arranged in a two phase mosaic composed of patches with high biomass cover interspersed within a low-cover or bare soil component. These patterns are strongly linked to the redistribution of runoff and resources from source areas (bare patches to sink areas (vegetation patches and play an important role in controlling erosion.

    In this paper, the dynamics of these systems is investigated using a new modeling framework that couples landform and vegetation evolution, explicitly accounting for the dynamics of runon-runoff areas. The objective of this study is to analyze water-limited systems on hillslopes with mild slopes, in which overland flow occurs predominantly in only one direction and vegetation displays a banded pattern. Our simulations reproduce bands that can be either stationary or upstream migrating depending on the magnitude of the runoff-induced seed dispersal. We also found that stationary banded systems redistribute sediment so that a stepped microtopography is developed. The modelling results are the first to incorporate the effects of runoff redistribution and variable infiltration rates on the development of both the vegetation patterns and microtopography. The microtopography for stationary bands is characterized by bare soil on the lower gradient areas and vegetation on steeper gradients areas. For the case of migrating vegetation bands the model generates hillslope profiles with planar topography. The success at generating not only the observed patterns of vegetation, but also patterns of runoff and sediment redistribution suggests that the hydrologic and erosion mechanisms represented in the model are correctly capturing some of the key processes driving these ecosystems.

  2. The Role of Different Plant Soil-Water Feedbacks in Models of Dryland Vegetation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, M.; Bonetti, S.; Gandhi, P.; Gowda, K.; Iams, S.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes underlying the formation of regular vegetation patterns in arid and semi-arid regions is important to assessing desertification risk under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Various modeling frameworks have been proposed, which are all capable of generating similar patterns through self-organizing mechanisms that stem from assumptions about plant feedbacks on surface/subsurface water transport. We critically discuss a hierarchy of hydrology-vegetation models for the coupled dynamics of surface water, soil moisture, and vegetation biomass on a hillslope. We identify distinguishing features and trends for the periodic traveling wave solutions when there is an imposed idealized topography and make some comparisons to satellite images of large-scale banded vegetation patterns in drylands of Africa, Australia and North America. This work highlights the potential for constraining models by considerations of where the patterns may lie on a landscape, such as whether on a ridge or in a valley.

  3. Vegetative zonation patterns in depression and riparian wetlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The vegetation of depressional and riparian wetlands in the Sanjiang ... Three transplanted species showed different effects of biomass ... nutrient concentrations in soil, as well as disturbance, ... (2) to discern underlying environmental variables that .... variance (ANOVA) and the construction of scatter plots.

  4. Vegetation pattern of Istanbul from the Landsat data and the relationship with meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Aslan

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preliminary results of a study on the vegetation pattern and its relationship with meteorological parameters in and around Istanbul. The study covers an area of over 6800 km2 consisting of urban and suburban centers, and uses the visible and near-infrared bands of Landsat. The spatial variation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and meteorological parameters such as sensible heat flux, momentum flux, relative humidity, moist static energy, rainfall rate and temperature have been investigated based on observations in ten stations in the European (Thracian and Anatolian parts of Istanbul. NDVI values have been evaluated from the Landsat data for a single day, viz. 24 October 1986, using ERDAS in ten different classes. The simultaneous spatial variations of sensible heat and momentum fluxes have been computed from the wind and temperature profiles using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The static energy variations are based on the surface meteorological observations. There is very good correlation between NDVI and rainfall rate. Good correlation also exists between: NDVI and relative humidity; NDVI, sensible heat flux and relative humidity; NDVI, momentum flux and emissivity; and NDVI, sensible heat flux and emissivity. The study suggests that the momentum flux has only marginal impact on NDVI. Due to rapid urbanization,the coastal belt is characterized by reduced NDVI compared to the interior areas, suggesting that thermodynamic discontinuities considerably influence the vegetation pattern. This study is useful for the investigation of small-scale circulation models, especially in urban and suburban areas where differential heating leads to the formation of heat islands. In the long run, such studies on a global scale are vital to gain accurate, timely information on the distribution of vegetation on the earth's surface. This may lead to an understanding of how changes in land cover

  5. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron

    2016-04-01

    Braided rivers are very dynamic systems which have complex controls over their planform and flow dynamics. Vegetation is one variable which influences channel geometry and pattern, through its effect on local flow hydraulics and the process continuum of sediment erosion-transport-deposition. Furthermore, where in the braided floodplain stable vegetation develops depends on the temporal sequencing of the river discharge i.e. floods. Understanding the effect of vegetation in these highly dynamic systems has multiple consequences for human activity and floodplain management. This paper focusses on the specific role of vegetation density in controlling braided river form and processes. Previous research in this field has been contradictory; with Gran and Paola (2001) finding that increasing vegetation density decreased the number of active channels. In contrast, Coulthard (2005] observed that as vegetation become denser there was an increase in the number of channels. This was hypothesized to be caused by flow separation around vegetation and the development of bars immediately downstream of the plant. This paper reports the results from a set of experiments in a 4m by 1m flume, where discharge, slope and sediment size were kept constant. Artificial grass was used to represent vegetation with a density ranging from 50 plants/m2 to 400 plants/m2. Digital photographs, using a GoPro camera with a fish eye lens, were taken from ~1m above the flume at an interval of 30 seconds during the 3 hour experiment. The experiments showed that as the vegetation density increased from 50 to 150 plants/m2, the number of channel bars developing doubled from 12 to 24. At vegetation densities greater than 150 plants/m2 there was a decline in the number of bars created to a minimum of 8 bars for a density of 400 plants/m2. We attribute these patterns to the effect that the vegetation has on flow hydraulics, sediment transport processes and the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. We

  6. Vegetation structure and small-scale pattern in Miombo Woodland, Marondera, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim ol this paper is to describe woodland structure and small-scale patterning of woody plants at a miombo site, and to relate these to past disturbance and soil properties. Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. and Julbemardia globiflora (Benth. Troupin were the most frequent woody plants at the five hectare site, with size-class distributions which were markedly skewed towards the smaller size classes. The vegetation structure at the site and the increase in basal area over the past thirty years point to considerable disturbance prior to the present protected status. Six woodland subtypes were identified, grouped into two structural types: open and closed woodland. The distribution of woodland subtypes related closely to certain soil properties. It was hypothesized that the distribution of open and closed woodland is stable and a positive feedback mechanism by which this occurs is postulated.

  7. Topographically-controlled site conditions drive vegetation pattern on inland dunes in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerniak, Piotr; Jankowski, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The inland dunes of Central Europe are commonly overplanted by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monocultures in which the primary occurrence of the natural vegetation pattern is obliterated. We hypothesize that on naturally revegetated inland dunes the pattern is clear and driven by topographically-controlled site conditions. To test this hypothesis, we addressed the following research questions: (1) Does topography drive vegetation patterns on inland dunes and if so, what are main differences between vegetation in varying relief positions? (2) To what extent does topography involve the variability of microclimates and of soil properties, and how does the topographically-induced differentiation of these site conditions control vegetation patterns? We conducted interdisciplinary studies (applying floristic, pedological and microclimatic research techniques) on a naturally revegetated inland dune area situated on a military artillery training ground near Toruń, northern Poland. We investigated vegetation patterns with reference to three topographical position variants (north-facing slopes, south-facing slopes, and intra-dune depressions). We found distinct differences in vegetation characteristics covering the aforementioned topographical positions. This primarily concerned species composition of ground vegetation: Calluna vulgaris was dominant species on north-facing slopes, Corynephorus canescens on south-facing slopes, while Calamagrostis epigejos in intra-dune depressions. In comparison to dune slopes, the depressions were characterized by much higher biodiversity of vascular plant species. This followed the most favorable soil conditions for the existence of plants (higher moisture and nutrient pools) occurring in low topographical positions. However, tree succession was most advanced not in depressions, where the competitive impact of tall grasses on seedlings was recognized, but on north-facing slopes. Based on our results, we formulated some suggestions, which

  8. Gardening for Health: Patterns of Gardening and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among the Navajo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, India J; Osterbauer, Katie; Woo, Lisa; Bishop, Sonia K; Deschenie, Desiree; Beresford, Shirley A A; Lombard, Kevin

    2018-05-19

    American Indians, including Navajo, are disproportionately affected by obesity and diabetes, in part due to diet-related health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns of gardening and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among residents in two communities on the Navajo Nation in order to inform a community gardening intervention. We analyzed survey data collected from participants in the Yéego Gardening study conducted in two communities in the Navajo Nation (N = 169). We found that 51% of the sample gardened, and on average participants gardened 8.9 times per month. Lack of time (53%) and financial barriers, such as gas for transportation or irrigation (51 and 49%, respectively), were reported as barriers to gardening. Most participants reported low levels of self-efficacy (80%) and behavioral capability (82%) related to gardening. Those with higher levels of gardening self-efficacy and behavioral capability reported more frequent gardening. Average daily FV consumption was 2.5 servings. Most participants reported high levels of self-efficacy to eat FV daily (64%) and high behavioral capability to prepare FV (66%). There was a positive association between FV consumption and gardening, with those gardening more than 4 times per month eating about 1 more serving of FV per day than those gardening 4 or fewer times per month. Further research is needed to better understand how gardening can increase fruit and vegetable availability and consumption among residents of the Navajo Nation.

  9. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne,Vanessa de Vasconcelos; Hofer,Ernesto; Vallim,Deyse Christina; Almeida,Rogeria Comastri de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the consumption of fresh and minimally processed vegetables is considered healthy, outbreaks related to the contamination of these products are frequently reported. Among the food-borne pathogens that contaminate vegetables is Listeria monocytogenes, a ubiquitous organism that exhibits the ability to survive and multiply at refrigerated temperatures. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in vegetables as well as the antimicrobial resistance of isola...

  10. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallidge, S.T.; Baker, T.T.; VanLeeuwen, D.; Gould, W.R.; Thompson, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  11. Pattern solutions of the Klausmeier Model for banded vegetation in semi-arid environments I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherratt, Jonathan A

    2010-01-01

    In many semi-arid environments, vegetation cover is sparse, and is self-organized into large-scale spatial patterns. In particular, banded vegetation is typical on hillsides. Mathematical modelling is widely used to study these banded patterns, and many models are effectively extensions of a coupled reaction–diffusion–advection system proposed by Klausmeier (1999 Science 284 1826–8). However, there is currently very little mathematical theory on pattern solutions of these equations. This paper is the first in a series whose aim is a comprehensive understanding of these solutions, which can act as a springboard both for future simulation-based studies of the Klausmeier model, and for analysis of model extensions. The author focusses on a particular part of parameter space, and derives expressions for the boundaries of the parameter region in which patterns occur. The calculations are valid to leading order at large values of the 'slope parameter', which reflects a comparison of the rate of water flow downhill with the rate of vegetation dispersal. The form of the corresponding patterns is also studied, and the author shows that the leading order equations change close to one boundary of the parameter region in which there are patterns, leading to a homoclinic solution. Conclusions are drawn on the way in which changes in mean annual rainfall affect pattern properties, including overall biomass productivity

  12. On the sources of vegetation activity variation, and their relation with water balance in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Mora; L.R. Iverson

    1998-01-01

    Natural landscape surface processes are largely controlled by the relationship between climate and vegetation. Water balance integrates the effects of climate on patterns of vegetation distribution and productivity, and for that season, functional relationships can be established using water balance variables as predictors of vegetation response. In this study, we...

  13. Eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable intake and their relation with happiness in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesani, Azadeh; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Javadi, Maryam; Esfeh, Jabiz Modaresi; Fakhari, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between happiness and fruit and vegetable intake as well as eating breakfast in students. In this cross-sectional web-based study, all students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran who attended course classes were invited to participate in the study. Five hundred forty-one students filled out the web-based questionnaire which included questions related to measurement of happiness, breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption and socio-economic and demographic information. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relationship between happiness and breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption by adjustments for covariates. Measure of happiness was positively associated with eating breakfast, number of meals eaten daily and the amount of fruit and vegetable consumption (P values were breakfast every day, more than 8 servings of fruit and vegetables daily, and had 3 meals in addition to 1-2 snacks per day had the highest happiness score. Healthier behavior pattern was associated with higher happiness scores among medical students.

  14. Vegetation Carbon Storage, Spatial Patterns and Response to Altitude in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a very important role of carbon (C sinks in the global C cycle. With its complex terrain and diverse vegetation types, the Lancang River Basin (LRB of southwest China has huge C storage capacity. Therefore, understanding the spatial variations and controlling mechanisms of vegetation C storage is important to understand the regional C cycle. In this study, data from a forest inventory and field plots were used to estimate and map vegetation C storage distribution in the LRB, to qualify the quantitative relationships between vegetation C density and altitude at sublot and township scale, and a linear model or polynomial model was used to identify the relationship between C density and altitude at two spatial scales and two statistical scales. The results showed that a total of 300.32 Tg C was stored in the LRB, an important C sink in China. The majority of C storage was contributed by forests, notably oaks. The vegetation C storage exhibited nonlinear variation with latitudinal gradients. Altitude had tremendous influences on spatial patterns of vegetation C storage of three geomorphological types in the LRB. C storage decreased with increasing altitude at both town and sublot scales in the flat river valley (FRV region and the mid-low mountains gorge (MMG region, and first increased then decreased in the alpine gorge (AG region. This revealed that, in southwest China, altitude changes the latitudinal patterns of vegetation C storage; especially in the AG area, C density in the mid-altitude (3100 m area was higher than that of adjacent areas.

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  16. Impact of vegetation die-off on spatial flow patterns over a tidal marsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, S.; Moonen, P.; Schoelynck, J.; Govers, G.; Bouma, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale die-off of tidal marsh vegetation, caused by global change, is expected to change flow patterns over tidal wetlands, and hence to affect valuable wetland functions such as reduction of shoreline erosion, attenuation of storm surges, and sedimentation in response to sea level rise. This

  17. Coastal marsh degradation: modeling the influence of vegetation die-off patterns on flow and sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Lennert; Wang, Chen; Kirwan, Matthew; Belluco, Enrica; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Temmerman, Stijn

    2014-05-01

    erosion, which may explain their lower surface elevation. Therefore the establishment of marsh plants will be unfavorable. So far, however, this hypothesis has not been verified. In order to investigate the influence of these different types of pool patterns on spatial flow and sedimentation patterns, we used an existing hydrodynamic and sediment transport model (Delft3D) that has been calibrated and validated against field data on tidal marsh flow and sedimentation. The model reproduces the bio-geomorphologic effects of complete vegetation removal, but different pool patterns have not been studied until now. By simulating different pool patterns, we are able to verify our hypothesis regarding elevation changes and marsh recovery potential in degraded marsh pools. This highlights the importance of bio-geomorphologic feedbacks for marsh degradation and recovery.

  18. The secret gardener: vegetation and the emergence of biogeomorphic patterns in tidal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Lio, Cristina; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Marani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The presence and continued existence of tidal morphologies, and in particular of salt marshes, is intimately connected with biological activity, especially with the presence of halophytic vegetation. Here, we review recent contributions to tidal biogeomorphology and identify the presence of multiple competing stable states arising from a two-way feedback between biomass productivity and topographic elevation. Hence, through the analysis of previous and new results on spatially extended biogeomorphological systems, we show that multiple stable states constitute a unifying framework explaining emerging patterns in tidal environments from the local to the system scale. Furthermore, in contrast with traditional views we propose that biota in tidal environments is not just passively adapting to morphological features prescribed by sediment transport, but rather it is 'The Secret Gardener', fundamentally constructing the tidal landscape. The proposed framework allows to identify the observable signature of the biogeomorphic feedbacks underlying tidal landscapes and to explore the response and resilience of tidal biogeomorphic patterns to variations in the forcings, such as the rate of relative sea-level rise.

  19. Acceleration and Counteraction of Changes in Vegetation Seasonality and Patterns using CMIP5 Projections from Different ESMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Y.; Joussaume, S.; De Noblet-Decoudre, N.

    2017-12-01

    Most climatological studies characterize future climate change as the evolution between a fixed current baseline and the future. Considering the pace of future climate change is however of major importance, since it may strongly influence how we experience climate hazards. To complement previous work related to the pace of temperature and precipitation changes, we propose here to study how fast vegetation seasonality and patterns of climate change evolve in different future configurations according to CMIP5 simulations of several Earth system models. The pace is defined as the difference in relevant metrics between two successive 20-year periods, i.e. with a continually moving baseline. Shifts of vegetation groups and changes in the characteristics of the seasonal cycle are considered. Both accelerate in close relationship with the warming rate regardless of the selected scenario, but they balance each other out, especially for trees in northern mid- and high-latitudes. Efforts are nevertheless strongly needed to harmonize the representation of vegetation in new versions of model inter-comparison projects, in order to properly conduct multi-model analyses related to vegetation changes.

  20. Beyond Precipitation: Physiographic Gradients Dictate the Relative Importance of Environmental Drivers on Savanna Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Bescós, Miguel A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Kaplan, David A.; Southworth, Jane; Zhu, Likai; Waylen, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude and spatial distribution of the key environmental factors driving vegetation change in southern African savanna, and how they vary across physiographic gradients. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA), a multivariate times series dimension reduction technique to ten years of monthly remote sensing data (MODIS-derived normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and a suite of environmental covariates: precipitation, mean and maximum temperature, soil moisture, relative humidity, fire and potential evapotranspiration. Monthly NDVI was described by cyclic seasonal variation with distinct spatiotemporal patterns in different physiographic regions. Results support existing work emphasizing the importance of precipitation, soil moisture and fire on NDVI, but also reveal overlooked effects of temperature and evapotranspiration, particularly in regions with higher mean annual precipitation. Critically, spatial distributions of the weights of environmental covariates point to a transition in the importance of precipitation and soil moisture (strongest in grass-dominated regions with precipitation950 mm). Conclusions/Significance We quantified the combined spatiotemporal effects of an available suite of environmental drivers on NDVI across a large and diverse savanna region. The analysis supports known drivers of savanna vegetation but also uncovers important roles of temperature and evapotranspiration. Results highlight the utility of applying the DFA approach to remote sensing products for regional analyses of landscape change in the context of global environmental change. With the dramatic increase in global change research, this methodology augurs well for

  1. Radiocaesium in reindeer in relation to ground deposition, levels in vegetation, season and diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1999-01-01

    1998. The simulated curves followed the same pattern as observed values but were slightly high for the summer period. Two simulations (a and c) gave low values for the winter period, while one simulation (b) did not differ significantly from values observed during the winter period. More data need to be collected, especially on relation between ground contamination and contamination of vegetation and long term change of 137 Cs in vegetation, to get better input data for the model. The variation in diet, and factors that govern changes in diet, also need to be more thoroughly investigated

  2. Discharge/Stage Relations in Vegetated Danish Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Frier, Jens-Ole; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes how the friction in danish streams varies as function of the vegetation. The major species of vegetation are represented. A series of laboratory and field experiments are described, and a hypothesis for the influence of the vegetation on the Manning's n is discussed....

  3. Vegetation of the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, South Africa Part 2: Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga van der Merwe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion lies within the Succulent Karoo Hotspot that stretches along the western side of the Republic of South Africa and Namibia. This project, carried out to document the botanical diversity in the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, was part of a project identified as a priority during the SKEP (Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Programme initiative in this Hotspot. Botanical surveys were conducted in an area covering over three million hectares. Satellite images of the area and topocadastral, land type and geology maps were used to stratify the area into relatively homogeneous units. An analysis of the floristic data of 390 sample plots identified two major floristic units, i.e. the Fynbos Biome related vegetation and the Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation. A description of the vegetation related to the Succulent Karoo Biome is presented in this article. Seven associations, 16 subassociations and several mosaic vegetation units, consisting of more than one vegetation unit, were identified and mapped. Various threats to the vegetation in the region were identified during the survey and are briefly discussed.

  4. Vegetable communities and degradation patterns and succession in the vegetation of the Western Hills of Chia, Cundinamarca - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes S, Sandra P; Van der Hammen, Thomas; Rangel Ch, J Orlando

    1999-01-01

    Two physiognomic plant communities were characterized: open vegetation which include the associations Dichondro repentis - Cupheetum serpyllifoliae (meadows), Baccharido rupicolae - Dodonaeetum viscosae (low shrubby vegetation), Andropogono aequatoriensis - Epidendretum elongatae (casmophytic vegetation) and Chaetolepido microphyllae-Espeletiopsietum corymbosae (shrubby vegetation-type with rosette plants). The closed vegetation includes two kinds of forests, Miconio ligustrinae- Weinmannietum tomentosae and Daphnopsio caracasanae - Xylosmetum spiculiferae. According to the floristic composition, depth of the soil, slope climate, relief and the anthropic influence (including degradation and natural succession), two trends in plant succession were defined

  5. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  6. Perceived personal safety in relation to urban woodland vegetation – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Märit; Fors, Hanna; Lindgren, Therese; Wiström, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Urban woodland vegetation provides people with many aesthetic, ecological and psychological benefits, but can also generate problems concerning people’s perception of safety. This paper reviews existing knowledge about perceived personal safety in relation to vegetation, particularly woodland vegetation, in urban green spaces such as parks and residential areas. Individual and social factors, but also vegetation character, maintenance and design, proved to be important for perceived personal ...

  7. Probing the Gaps: A Synthesis of Well-known and Lesser-known Hydrological Feedbacks Influencing Vegetation Patterning and Long-term Geomorphic Change in Low-gradient Fluvial Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L.; Christensen, A.; Harvey, J. W.; Ma, H.; Newman, S.; Saunders, C.; Twilley, R.

    2017-12-01

    Emergence of vegetation patterning in fluvial landscapes is a classic example of how autogenic processes can drive long term fluvial and geomorphic adjustments in aquatic ecosystems. Studies elucidating the physics of flow through vegetation patches have produced understanding of how patterning in topography and vegetation commonly emerges and what effect it has on long term geomorphic change. However, with regard to mechanisms underlying pattern existence and resilience, several knowledge gaps remain, including the role of landscape-scale flow-vegetation feedbacks, feedbacks that invoke additional biogeochemical or biological agents, and determination of the relative importance of autogenic processes relative to external drivers. Here we provide a synthesis of the processes over a range of scales known to drive vegetation patterning and sedimentation in low gradient fluvial landscapes, emphasizing recent field and modeling studies in the Everglades, FL and Wax Lake Delta, LA that address these gaps. In the Everglades, while flow routing and sediment redistribution at the patch scale is known to be a primary driver of vegetation pattern emergence, landscape-scale routing of flow, as driven by the landscape's connectivity, can set up positive feedbacks that influence the rate of pattern degradation. Recent flow release experiments reveal that an additional feedback, involving phosphorus concentrations, flow, and floating vegetation communities that are abundant under low phosphorus, low flow conditions further stabilizes the alternative landscape states established through local scale sediment redistribution. Biogeochemistry-vegetation-sediment feedbacks may also be important for geomorphic development of newly emerging landscapes such as the Wax Lake Delta. There, fine sediment deposition shapes hydrogeomorphic zones with vegetation patterns that stimulate the growth of biofilm, while biofilm characteristics override the physical characteristics of vegetation

  8. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Vasconcelos Byrne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the consumption of fresh and minimally processed vegetables is considered healthy, outbreaks related to the contamination of these products are frequently reported. Among the food-borne pathogens that contaminate vegetables is Listeria monocytogenes, a ubiquitous organism that exhibits the ability to survive and multiply at refrigerated temperatures. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in vegetables as well as the antimicrobial resistance of isolates. The results showed that 3.03% of samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, comprising 2.22% of raw vegetables and 5.56% of ready-to-eat vegetables. Multiplex PCR confirmed the virulence potential of the isolates. Antimicrobial resistance profiling showed that 50% of the isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics used. The resistance of one isolate to penicillin G, a commonly employed therapeutic agent, and the presence of serotype 4b, a serotype commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks, could be potential health hazards for consumers.

  9. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos Byrne, Vanessa; Hofer, Ernesto; Vallim, Deyse Christina; de Castro Almeida, Rogeria Comastri

    2016-01-01

    Although the consumption of fresh and minimally processed vegetables is considered healthy, outbreaks related to the contamination of these products are frequently reported. Among the food-borne pathogens that contaminate vegetables is Listeria monocytogenes, a ubiquitous organism that exhibits the ability to survive and multiply at refrigerated temperatures. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in vegetables as well as the antimicrobial resistance of isolates. The results showed that 3.03% of samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, comprising 2.22% of raw vegetables and 5.56% of ready-to-eat vegetables. Multiplex PCR confirmed the virulence potential of the isolates. Antimicrobial resistance profiling showed that 50% of the isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics used. The resistance of one isolate to penicillin G, a commonly employed therapeutic agent, and the presence of serotype 4b, a serotype commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks, could be potential health hazards for consumers. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan: a case study from the Merak Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtsho, Karma; Sridith, Kitichate

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted from March to September 2012 along the altitudinal gradient of the Jomokungkhar trail in the Merak Himalaya of Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary to study the floristic compositions and the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan. The vegetation of the sampled plots is classified into five types of communities based on the hierarchical cluster analysis at similarity index 63% viz., (1) Riverine Community; (2) Abies-Rhododendron Woodland Community; (3) Juniperus Scrub Community; (4) Rhododendron Krummholz and (5) Alpine Meadow, based on the floristic compositions. In addition, it was noticed that the fragile alpine environment of the Merak Himalaya has high plant diversity and important plants that are susceptible to the anthropogenic pressures.

  11. Future vegetation types and related main processes for Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.

    2007-07-01

    This working report summarizes current knowledge of the land up-lift induced vegetation succession and future vegetation types on Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The report is based on generic literature and site-specific studies concerning Olkiluoto Island. Current vegetation on Olkiluoto Island and typical succession lines on different soil types are described, as well as main factors affecting the succession. Most relevant materials on hand are listed. Some problems and possible areas to be emphasized before using the data in modelling work are pointed out. (orig.)

  12. A tobacco cDNA reveals two different transcription patterns in vegetative and reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. da Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify genes expressed in the pistil that may have a role in the reproduction process, we have established an expressed sequence tags project to randomly sequence clones from a Nicotiana tabacum stigma/style cDNA library. A cDNA clone (MTL-8 showing high sequence similarity to genes encoding glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins was chosen for further characterization. Based on the extensive identity of MTL-8 to the RGP-1a sequence of N. sylvestris, a primer was defined to extend the 5' sequence of MTL-8 by RT-PCR from stigma/style RNAs. The amplification product was sequenced and it was confirmed that MTL-8 corresponds to an mRNA encoding a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein. Two transcripts of different sizes and expression patterns were identified when the MTL-8 cDNA insert was used as a probe in RNA blots. The largest is 1,100 nucleotides (nt long and markedly predominant in ovaries. The smaller transcript, with 600 nt, is ubiquitous to the vegetative and reproductive organs analyzed (roots, stems, leaves, sepals, petals, stamens, stigmas/styles and ovaries. Plants submitted to stress (wounding, virus infection and ethylene treatment presented an increased level of the 600-nt transcript in leaves, especially after tobacco necrosis virus infection. In contrast, the level of the 1,100-nt transcript seems to be unaffected by the stress conditions tested. Results of Southern blot experiments have suggested that MTL-8 is present in one or two copies in the tobacco genome. Our results suggest that the shorter transcript is related to stress while the larger one is a flower predominant and nonstress-inducible messenger.

  13. Mapping vegetation patterns in arable land using the models STICS and DAISY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Antje; Casper, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Several statistical methods exist to detect spatial and / or temporal variability with regard to ecological data-analysis: Semivariance-analysis, Trend surface analysis, Kriging, Voronoi polygons, Moran's I and Mantel-test, to mention just some of them. In this contribution, we concentrate on spatial vegetation patterns within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVAT) system. Using variography, spatial analysis with a geographic information system and self-organizing maps, spatial patterns of yield have been isolated in an agro-ecosystem (see poster contribution EGU 2009, EGU2009-8948). Data were derived from two agricultural plots, each about 5 hectare, in the area of Newel, located in Western Palatinate, Germany. The plots have been conventionally cultivated with a crop rotation of winter rape, winter wheat and spring barley. The aim of the present study is to find out if the existing natural spatial patterns can be mapped by means of SVAT models. If so, the discretization of a landscape according to its spatial patterns could be the basis for parameterization of SVAT models in order to model soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction over a large area, that is for up-scaling. For this purpose the SVAT models STICS (developed by INRA, France) and DAISY (developed at Tåstrup University, Denmark) are applied. After a wide sensitivity analysis both models are parameterized with field data according to the given situation of each of the detected spatial patterns. The results of the simulation per representative location of a pattern are validated first with field data concerning yield, soil water content and soil nitrogen; besides, above ground dry matter, root depth and specific stress indices are used for validation. The conclusions that can be made with regard to up-scaling are discussed in detail. In a second step the results of the STICS model are compared with those of the DAISY model to analyse the models' behaviour, to get further knowledge about the inner structure

  14. The role of surface water redistribution in an area of patterned vegetation in a semi-arid environment, south-west Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, J.; Brouwer, J.; Barker, A. P.; Gaze, S. R.; Valentine, C.

    1997-11-01

    The surface hydrology of a semi-arid area of patterned vegetation in south-west Niger is described. In this region alternating bands of vegetation and bare ground aligned along the contours of a gently sloping terrain give rise to a phenomenon known as `brousse tigrée' (tiger bush). At the selected study site the vegetation bands are 10-30 m wide, separated by 50-100-m-wide bands of bare ground. Five species of shrub dominate, Guiera senegalensis, Combretum micranthum, C. nigricans, Acacia ataxacantha and A. macrostachya. Herbaceous vegetation is generally limited to the upslope edges of vegetation bands. A comprehensive field programme was undertaken to investigate the hydrology. Topographic, vegetation and surface feature surveys were carried out in conjunction with the measurement of rainfall, surface and subsurface hydraulic conductivity, particle size and soil moisture content. Four types of vegetation class are recognised, each tending to occupy a constant position relative to the others and to the regional slope. In a downslope direction the classes are: bare ground, grassy open bush, closed bush, bare open bush, bare ground etc. The nature of the ground surface is closely linked to the vegetation class. Over the bare, bare open and grassy open classes various types of surface crust are present with each type of crust tending to occupy a constant position on the regional slope relative to the vegetation class and other crust types. Below closed bush crusts are generally absent. The typical downslope sequence from the downslope boundary of a vegetation band is: structural (sieving) crust→erosion crust→(gravel crust)→sedimentation crust→microphytic sedimentation crust→no crust→sieving crust, etc. It is also shown that these crust types are dynamic and evolve from one to the other as hydrological conditions change. Hydraulic conductivities of surface crusts are low, typically falling within the range 10 -6-10 -7 m s -1. The presence of large

  15. Palynological evidence for vegetation patterns in the Transvaal (South Africa during the late Pleistocene and Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Scott

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Palynological evidence relating to the nature of Late Quaternary vegetation types and plant migrations in the Transvaal is briefly summarized. It is suggested that, after an early temperate, relatively moist phase and a subsequent relatively dry phase lasting until about 25 000 yr B.P., a vegetation-type with ericaceous elements developed. It resembled belts presently occurring above the treeline and was possibly widespread over the plains of the Transvaal during the last glacial maximum period. In the central parts of the province, warm semi-arid savanna subsequently expanded during the early Holocene and was followed by a more broad-leafed type of woodland in the late Holocene. This change probably resulted from slightly wetter and, at times, also slightly warmer and cooler conditions.

  16. Vegetation growth patterns on six rock-covered UMTRA Project disposal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This study assessed vegetation growth patterns, the potential impacts of vegetation growth on disposal cell cover integrity, and possible measures that could be taken to monitor and/or control plant growth, where necessary, on six Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project rock-covered disposal cells. A large-scale invasion of volunteer plants was observed on the Shiprock and Burrell disposal cells. Plant growth at the South Clive, Green River, and Tuba City disposal cells was sparse except for the south rock apron and south slope of the Tuba City disposal cell, where windblown sand had filled up part of the rock cover and plant growth was observed. The rock-covered topslope of the Collins Ranch disposal cell was intentionally covered with topsoil and vegetated. Plant roots growing on the disposal cells are changing the characteristics of the cover by drying out the radon barrier, encouraging the establishment of soil-building processes in the bedding and radon barrier layers, creating channels in the radon barrier, and facilitating ecological succession, which could lead to the establishment of additional deep-rooted plants on the disposal cells. If left unchecked, plant roots would reach the tailings at the Burrell and Collins Ranch disposal cells within a few years, likely resulting in the transport of contaminants out of the cells

  17. Relative sensitivity of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) for vegetation and desertification monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Francois; Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple equation relating the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is proposed which represents well data obtained from Nimbus 7/SMMR at 37 GHz and NOAA/AVHRR Channels 1 and 2. It is found that there is a limit which is characteristic of a particular type of cover for which both indices are equally sensitive to the variation of vegetation, and below which MPDI is more efficient than NDVI. The results provide insight into the relationship between water content and chlorophyll absorption at pixel size scales.

  18. Diversity patterns, environmental drivers and changes in vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina; Girardello, Marco; Barfod, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Aims We studied diversity, patterns of endemism and turnover of vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) where little is known about the influence of the abiotic drivers controlling plant species composition and occurrences, and the life forms that contribute most to α- and β...... species with low abundance (e.g. 30 individuals ha−1), including four endemic species. Most of the endemic species were locally rare, and most of them were restricted to southern valleys...... results further highlight the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature on plant species composition and occurrence. We also found significant, contrasting patterns in responses to environmental drivers, when analyzing our data separately by life form. Our results show...

  19. Vegetables and social relations in Norway and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Esther J.; Eiter, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to explore differences in motivation for and actual use of allotment gardens. Results from questionnaire surveys and semistructured interviews in two Norwegian and one Dutch garden show that growing vegetables and consuming the harvest is a fundamental part of gardening. The same

  20. Spatial decoupling of facilitation and competition at the origin of gapped vegetation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Nicolas; Couteron, Pierre; Lefever, René; Deblauwe, Vincent; Lejeune, Olivier

    2008-06-01

    Spatially periodic vegetation patterns, forming gaps, bands, labyrinths, or spots, are characteristic of arid and semiarid landscapes. Self-organization models can explain this variety of structures within a unified conceptual framework. All these models are based on the interplay of positive and negative effects of plants on soil water, but they can be divided according to whether they assume the interactions to be mediated by water redistribution through runoff/diffusion or by plants' organs. We carried out a multi-proxy approach of the processes operating in a gapped pattern in southwest Niger dominated by a shrub species. Soil moisture within the root layer was monitored in time and space over one month of the rainy season. Soil water recharge displayed no spatial variation with respect to vegetation cover, but the stock half-life under cover was twice that of bare areas. A kernel of facilitation by the aboveground parts of shrubs was parameterized, and soil water half-life was significantly correlated to the cumulated facilitative effects of shrubs. The kernel range was found to be smaller than the canopy radius (81%). This effect of plants on soil water dynamics, probably through a reduction of evaporation by shading, is shown to be a better explanatory variable than potentially relevant soil and topography parameters. The root systems of five individuals of Combretum micranthum G. Don were excavated. Root density data were used as a proxy to parameterize a kernel function of interplant competition. The range of this kernel was larger than the canopy radius (125%). The facilitation-to-competition range ratio, reflecting the above-to-belowground ratio of plant lateral extent, was smaller than 1 (0.64), a result supporting models assuming that patterning may emerge from an adaptation of plant morphology to aridity and shallow soils by means of an extended lateral root system. Moreover, observed soil water gradients had directions opposite to those assumed by

  1. Predicting Opportunities for Greening and Patterns of Vegetation on Private Urban Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Austin R.; Grove, J. Morgan; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Pickett, Steward T. A.; Cadenasso, Mary L.

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines predictors of vegetative cover on private lands in Baltimore, Maryland. Using high-resolution spatial data, we generated two measures: “possible stewardship,” which is the proportion of private land that does not have built structures on it and hence has the possibility of supporting vegetation, and “realized stewardship,” which is the proportion of possible stewardship land upon which vegetation is growing. These measures were calculated at the parcel level and averaged by US Census block group. Realized stewardship was further defined by proportion of tree canopy and grass. Expenditures on yard supplies and services, available by block group, were used to help understand where vegetation condition appears to be the result of current activity, past legacies, or abandonment. PRIZM™ market segmentation data were tested as categorical predictors of possible and realized stewardship and yard expenditures. PRIZM™ segmentations are hierarchically clustered into 5, 15, and 62 categories, which correspond to population density, social stratification (income and education), and lifestyle clusters, respectively. We found that PRIZM 15 best predicted variation in possible stewardship and PRIZM 62 best predicted variation in realized stewardship. These results were further analyzed by regressing each dependent variable against a set of continuous variables reflective of each of the three PRIZM groupings. Housing age, vacancy, and population density were found to be critical determinants of both stewardship metrics. A number of lifestyle factors, such as average family size, marriage rates, and percentage of single-family detached homes, were strongly related to realized stewardship. The percentage of African Americans by block group was positively related to realized stewardship but negatively related to yard expenditures.

  2. Pathogenic specifics of development of vegetative dysfunction in adolescents in relation to their morphological status

    OpenAIRE

    O. Skyba

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the mechanisms of vegetative regulation in children and adolescents of different somatotypes has a prognostic value in regard to the character of adaptive reactions of the organism, as it facilitates the identification of the risk factors of pathological processes and states of vegetative systems, which may cause chronic illness in adulthood. The author defines the pathogenic specifics of development of vegetative dysfunction in adolescents in relation to their morphological status....

  3. Pattern Analysis of Vegetation and Structure Mapping of Yard Plant in Gatak District, Sukoharjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Anif

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Target of research is to know 1 level of type variety (diversitas and mount the closeness (densitas of lawn crop which conducting in region of District of Gatak of Sub Province Sukoharjo; 2 pattern of mapping of lawn crop which conducting in region District of Gatak of Sub Province Sukoharjo of pursuant to variety level and its closeness. This research is field survey done with the method of multi stage that is stratified purposive of sampling and random sampling. Focus the survey is does the stocktaking of lawn crop which conducting in house lawn. To know the structure of vegetate data processed by using formula Cox (1989 to know the closeness level, while to know the level of species variety, data analyzed to use the index of diversities Simpson. Pursuant to result of inferential solution and research 1 result analyze the structure of vegetate of lawn crop indicate that (a District Gatak have the level of high diversities lawn crop, with the index diversities of equal to 0,84159 and index predominate equal to 0,15841, and also highest PIE 0,20657 and PIE lowerest of equal to 0,00032. Species of lawn crop having high domination that is melinjo (Gnetum gnemon, (b closeness of lawn crop at every countryside in District Gatak of included in category very meeting of because  relied on by a closeness value of every countryside more than 75%. Crop found in research are having high closeness level for example: melinjo, banana, mango, rambutan, papaya, tapioca, and coconut, while crop having low closeness level for example: jambu mete, tapak doro, flower pukul empat; and 2 mapping of lawn crop cover the function value and amount of lawn crop found by a number of 57 type of lawn crop found in researh area, can be grouped to become 5 faction that is drug crop, vegetable faction, fruit crop, decorative crop, and protector crop.

  4. Spider Trait Assembly Patterns and Resilience under Fire-Induced Vegetation Change in South Brazilian Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgaiski, Luciana R.; Joner, Fernando; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco; Ibanez, Sebastien; Mendonça, Milton de S.; Pillar, Valério D.

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances induce changes on habitat proprieties that may filter organism's functional traits thereby shaping the structure and interactions of many trophic levels. We tested if communities of predators with foraging traits dependent on habitat structure respond to environmental change through cascades affecting the functional traits of plants. We monitored the response of spider and plant communities to fire in South Brazilian Grasslands using pairs of burned and unburned plots. Spiders were determined to the family level and described in feeding behavioral and morphological traits measured on each individual. Life form and morphological traits were recorded for plant species. One month after fire the abundance of vegetation hunters and the mean size of the chelicera increased due to the presence of suitable feeding sites in the regrowing vegetation, but irregular web builders decreased due to the absence of microhabitats and dense foliage into which they build their webs. Six months after fire rosette-form plants with broader leaves increased, creating a favourable habitat for orb web builders which became more abundant, while graminoids and tall plants were reduced, resulting in a decrease of proper shelters and microclimate in soil surface to ground hunters which became less abundant. Hence, fire triggered changes in vegetation structure that lead both to trait-convergence and trait-divergence assembly patterns of spiders along gradients of plant biomass and functional diversity. Spider individuals occurring in more functionally diverse plant communities were more diverse in their traits probably because increased possibility of resource exploitation, following the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Finally, as an indication of resilience, after twelve months spider communities did not differ from those of unburned plots. Our findings show that functional traits provide a mechanistic understanding of the response of communities to environmental change

  5. Are Namibian "fairy circles" the consequence of self-organizing spatial vegetation patterning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Cramer

    Full Text Available Causes of over-dispersed barren "fairy circles" that are often surrounded by ca. 0.5 m tall peripheral grasses in a matrix of shorter (ca. 0.2 m tall grasses in Namibian grasslands remain mysterious. It was hypothesized that the fairy circles are the consequence of self-organizing spatial vegetation patterning arising from resource competition and facilitation. We examined the edaphic properties of fairy circles and variation in fairy circle size, density and landscape occupancy (% land surface with edaphic properties and water availability at a local scale (<50 km and with climate and vegetation characteristics at a regional scale. Soil moisture in the barren fairy circles declines from the center towards the periphery and is inversely correlated with soil organic carbon, possibly indicating that the peripheral grass roots access soil moisture that persists into the dry season within fairy circles. Fairy circle landscape occupancy is negatively correlated with precipitation and soil [N], consistent with fairy circles being the product of resource-competition. Regional fairy circle presence/absence is highly predictable using an empirical model that includes narrow ranges of vegetation biomass, precipitation and temperature seasonality as predictor variables, indicating that fairy circles are likely a climate-dependent emergent phenomenon. This dependence of fairy circle occurrence on climate explains why fairy circles in some locations may appear and disappear over time. Fairy circles are only over-dispersed at high landscape occupancies, indicating that inter-circle competition may determine their spacing. We conclude that fairy circles are likely to be an emergent arid-grassland phenomenon that forms as a consequence of peripheral grass resource-competition and that the consequent barren circle may provide a resource-reservoir essential for the survival of the larger peripheral grasses and provides a habitat for fossicking fauna.

  6. Soil wetting patterns of vegetation and inter-patches following single and repeated wildfires

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    González, Óscar; Malvar, Maruxa; van den Elsen, Erik; Hosseini, mohammadreza; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsema, Coen; Bautista, Susana; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Although wildfires spread in Mediterranean areas are considered a natural processes, the expected increase in fire frequency has raised concerns about the systems' future resilience (Pausas, 2004). Besides more frequent, future wildfires can become more severe and produce more pronounced changes in topsoil properties, vegetation and litter (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). To deal with challenges, the EU funded CASCADE and RECARE projects, which are currently assessing soil threats and tipping-points for land degradation in a climatic gradient across Europe. The present research was developed in Portugal and aims to find relationships between fire frequency and soil wetting patterns following single versus repeated wildfires. In September 2012, a wildfire burnt 3000 ha. of Pine stands and shrub vegetation in the vicinity of Viseu district, North-Central Portugal. Analyses according to the available burnt-area maps (1975-2012), discriminated areas that has been burned 1x (called SD) and 4x (called D) times. In order to evaluate the post-fire soil surface moisture patterns, 6 slopes (3 in SD and 3 in D) were selected and a balanced experimental design with 72 soil moisture sensors (EC5 and GS3, from Decagon devices) was implemented under shrubs (n=18) and on bare (n=18) soil environments, at 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm soil depth each. The spatio-temporal occurrence of soil water repellence (SWR) (Keizer et al., 2008; Prats et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2014) was monthly assessed through the MED test at 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm soil depth into 5 sampling points located at regular distances along a transect running from the top to bottom of a selected slope in SD and D. Automatic and totalize rainfall gauges were also installed across the study area. Preliminary results showed that soil wetting patterns and SWR occurrence differs between SD, D sites and, between soil environment (under shrubs and on bare soil areas). SWR were more pronounced on the SD than in D, affecting soil wetting

  7. Global vegetation-fire pattern under different land use and climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonicke, K.; Poulter, B.; Heyder, U.; Gumpenberger, M.; Cramer, W.

    2008-12-01

    Fire is a process of global significance in the Earth System influencing vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling and biophysical feedbacks. Naturally ignited wildfires have long history in the Earth System. Humans have been using fire to shape the landscape for their purposes for many millenia, sometimes influencing the status of the vegetation remarkably as for example in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Processes and drivers describing fire danger, ignitions, fire spread and effects are relatively well-known for many fire-prone ecosystems. Modeling these has a long tradition in fire-affected regions to predict fire risk and behavior for fire-fighting purposes. On the other hand, the global vegetation community realized the importance of disturbances to be recognized in their global vegetation models with fire being globally most important and so-far best studied. First attempts to simulate fire globally considered a minimal set of drivers, whereas recent developments attempt to consider each fire process separately. The process-based fire model SPITFIRE (SPread and InTensity of FIRE) simulates these processes embedded in the LPJ DGVM. Uncertainties still arise from missing measurements for some parameters in less-studied fire regimes, or from broad PFT classifications which subsume different fire-ecological adaptations and tolerances. Some earth observation data sets as well as fire emission models help to evaluate seasonality and spatial distribution of simulated fire ignitions, area burnt and fire emissions within SPITFIRE. Deforestation fires are a major source of carbon released to the atmosphere in the tropics; in the Amazon basin it is the second-largest contributor to Brazils GHG emissions. How ongoing deforestation affects fire regimes, forest stability and biogeochemical cycling in the Amazon basin under present climate conditions will be presented. Relative importance of fire vs. climate and land use change is analyzed. Emissions resulting from

  8. Photosynthesis and water relations of mature and resprout chaparral vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, S.J.; Oechel, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Photosynthesis, leaf conductance, and water potential were measured in the field over time, on mature (ca. 34 years) and resprouts of Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw., Quercus dumosa nutt., and Adenostoma fasciculatum H and A. The experimental site is within the US Forest Service's Laguna-Morena Demonstration area of the Cleveland National Forest in southern California. It is characterized as a mixed chaparral community located on an east-facing slope at ca. 1400-meter elevation. Plots of the mature vegetation were marked off (250 meters wide, 675 meters long) and the aboveground biomass removed by either handclearing or controlled burning. Measurements were typically made from sunrise to sunset. A null balance porometer, Sholander pressure bomb, and carbon-14 dioxide were utilized to measure leaf conductance, water potential, and carbon dioxide uptake, respectively

  9. Analysis of soil and vegetation patterns in semi-arid Mediterranean landscapes by way of a conceptual water balance model

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    I. Portoghese

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of various vegetation types on water balance variability in semi-arid Mediterranean landscapes, and the different strategies they may have developed to succeed in such water-limited environments. The existence of preferential associations between soil water holding capacity and vegetation species is assessed through an extensive soil geo-database focused on a study region in Southern Italy. Water balance constraints that dominate the organization of landscapes are investigated by a conceptual bucket approach. The temporal water balance dynamics are modelled, with vegetation water use efficiency being parameterized through the use of empirically obtained crop coefficients as surrogates of vegetation behavior in various developmental stages. Sensitivity analyses with respect to the root zone depth and soil water holding capacity are carried out with the aim of explaining the existence of preferential soil-vegetation associations and, hence, the spatial distribution of vegetation types within the study region. Based on these sensitivity analyses the degrees of suitability and adaptability of each vegetation type to parts of the study region are explored with respect of the soil water holding capacity, and the model results were found consistent with the observed affinity patterns.

  10. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Farooqi, M.Z.; Shafiq, M.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  11. Seasonality of the activity pattern of Callithrix penicillata (Primates, Callitrichidae in the cerrado (scrub savanna vegetation

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    S. L. Vilela

    Full Text Available Two wild groups of Callithrix penicillata, the Black Pincelled Marmoset, were observed from January to September 1998, in two areas, one an area of dense scrub savanna vegetation (cerrado and the other, a semidecidual woodland (cerradão, both within the boundaries of the Ecological Reserve of IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, in an environmentally protected area, the APA (Portuguese abbreviation for "environmental protected area" Gama/Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, DF. The behavioral data collected during the rainy (January 15 to April 15 and dry season (June 1 to September 15 were compared. Because of the proximity to the Reserve facilities, the group from the dense scrub savanna vegetation (CD was submitted to antropic impacts different from the group in the semidecidual woodland (CE, which was using as territory an area that had been suffering from man-made fires every two years as part of a long-term experimental project on fire impacts. The behavioral data was quantified by instantaneous cross-section ("scan sampling" every ten minutes with records of locomotion, rest, foraging for insects, use of exudate, and feeding. During the whole year, the greatest percentage of time spent by CE and CD was in foraging for insects, with 44% and 39%, respectively. It was evident when comparing the data for the two seasons that, for both groups, foraging for insects was more intense during the dry season, possibly to complement the shortage of food, and locomotion increased during the rainy season. The greater the availability and distribution of fruit in the areas, the greater the locomotion of the groups to obtain these resources. None of the other behavioral patterns, including the use of exudates, presented significant differences between the two seasons. Both groups foraged more frequently during the dry season and locomoted more during the rainy one.

  12. Effect of Pattern and Duration of Breastfeeding on the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among Preschool Children.

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    Soldateli, Betina; Vigo, Alvaro; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2016-01-01

    The duration and pattern of breastfeeding can influence the consumption of fruits and vegetables in later childhood. To investigate the association between pattern and duration of breastfeeding and consumption of fruits and vegetables in children aged between 4 and 7 years. We conducted a secondary analysis using data from a former randomized clinical trial with 323 adolescent mothers, their children, and maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Information on infant feeding was collected monthly during the first 6 months of life, every two months until the child was 1 year old over and when children were between 4 and 7 years old. The associations between duration of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of fruits and vegetables were tested by a logistic regression model. Approximately 60% and 45% of children consumed fruits and vegetables, respectively, five or more times a week. Consumption of vegetables among 4-7-year-old children was higher in children who were breastfed for 12 months or longer (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.49-4.93); however, exclusive breastfeeding duration did not have a significant association with consumption of vegetables (OR 1.5; 95%CI 0.70-3.04). There was no association between weekly consumption of fruits and duration of breastfeeding (OR 1.3; 95%CI 0.71-2.30) or exclusive breastfeeding (OR 0.7; 95%CI 0.34-1.44). Longer duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with consumption of vegetables in children aged 4-7 years; however, there was no association with consumption of fruits. Exclusive breastfeeding duration did not have influence on consumption of fruits or vegetables.

  13. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

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    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  14. Nekton density patterns and hurricane recovery in submerged aquatic vegetation, and along non-vegetated natural and created edge habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, M.K.; Gordon, J.

    2012-01-01

    We compared nekton habitat value of submerged aquatic vegetation, flooded non-vegetated natural and man-made edge habitats in mesohaline interior marsh areas in southwest Louisiana using a 1-m 2 throw trap and 3-mm bag seine. When present, SAV habitats supported close to 4 times greater densities and higher species richness of nekton as compared to either natural or man-made edge habitats, which supported similar densities to one another. Three species of concern (bayou killifish, diamond killifish, chain pipefish) were targeted in the analysis, and two of the three were collected almost entirely in SAV habitat. During the course of the study, Hurricanes Ike and Gustav passed directly over the study sites in September 2008. Subsequent analyses indicated significant reductions in resident nekton density 1-mo post hurricanes, and only limited recovery 13-mo post-hurricane. Possible alteration of environmental characteristics such as scouring of SAV habitat, deposition of sediment over SAV, edge erosion and marsh loss, and extended high salinities may explain these lasting impacts. ?? 2011.

  15. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Iwasaki, Koh; Tomita, Naoki; Nakaya, Naoki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Takayama, Shin; Seki, Takashi; Takeda, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Ebihara, Satoru; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and energy intake. Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods) groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90) after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  16. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaegashi Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94 after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90 after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  17. Vegetable-based dietary pattern and liver cancer risk: results from the Shanghai women's and men's health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-10-01

    Although dietary patterns, specific foods, and their constituents have been linked to cancer risk, the role of dietary patterns and specific food groups in liver cancer risk has not been investigated. In the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), two cohort studies of 132 837 Chinese women and men, we evaluated the relationship between dietary patterns, food groups, and liver cancer risk. Through in-person interviews, dietary information intake over the preceding year was collected by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 10.9 (SWHS) or 5.5 (SMHS) years, 267 incident liver cancer cases were identified after the first 2 years of study enrolment. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. A vegetable-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with liver cancer; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the lowest to highest quartiles were: 1.00; 0.98 (0.71-1.35); 0.93 (0.67-1.29); and 0.58 (0.40-0.84); P(trend) = 0.01. The association was stronger among participants with a history of chronic liver disease. Further analyses showed high intakes of celery, mushrooms, allium vegetables, composite vegetables (including asparagus lettuce and garland chrysanthemum), legumes and legume products were associated with reduced liver cancer risk (all P(trend) < 0.05). Fruit- and meat-based dietary patterns were not associated with liver cancer risk. Our study suggests that a vegetable-based dietary pattern is associated with reduced liver cancer risk. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. Floodplain-wide coupling of flooding and vegetation patterns in the Tonle Sap of the Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Haberstroh, C.

    2017-12-01

    Floodplain vegetation is one of the prime drivers of ecosystem productivity, thus floodplain-wide monitoring is critical to ensure the well-being of these ecosystems and the important services they provide to riparian societies. Therefore, the objective of this presentation is to introduce a novel methodology to monitor long-term and large-scale patterns of rooted vegetation in seasonally inundated floodplains. We applied this methodology to an floodplain area of ac. 18,000 km2 in the Tonle Sap (Cambodia), a complex hydro-ecological system directly connected to the Mekong River. The overall hypothesis of this study is that floodplain vegetation condition is dictated by gradients of disturbance from the uplands and from the flood-pulse itself. We first demonstrate that spatial vegetation patterns represented by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during the dry season -when interference from cloud cover and partial inundation is minimal- correspond well to meaningful land use/land cover groups as well as canopy cover data collected in the field. Annual trends (2000-2016) in NDVI spatial distribution showed that the modality of dry season NDVI is largely governed by the magnitude of flooding in the antecedent hydrological year. Indeed, we found a significant relationship between flood duration -defined as the number of months annually a floodplain pixel remains flooded- and floodplain-wide NDVI. We also determined that ac. 115 km2 yr-1 of the highest quality vegetation, were replaced by fallow land during the period of study. This research has important insights on the main drivers of floodplain vegetation in the Tonle Sap, and the proposed methodology, using data from freely available worldwide satellite imagery (MODIS), promises to be an effective method to monitor ecosystem change in large floodplains across the world.

  19. Fine-scale patterns of vegetation assembly in the monitoring of changes in coastal sand-dune landscapes

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    J. Honrado

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding dune ecosystem responses to multi-scale environmental changes can provide the framework for reliable forecasts and cost-efficient protocols for detecting shifts in prevailing coastal dynamics. Based on the hypothesis that stress and disturbance interact as primary community controls in coastal dunes, we studied the fine-scale floristic assembly of foredune vegetation, in its relation to topography, along regional and local environmental gradients in the 200 km long coastline of northern Portugal, encompassing a major biogeographic transition in western Europe. Thirty topographic profiles perpendicular to the shoreline were recorded at ten sites along the regional climate gradient, and vegetation was sampled by recording the frequency of plant species along those profiles. Quantitative topographic attributes of vegetated dune profiles (e.g. length or height exhibited wide variations relatable to differences in prevailing coastal dynamics. Metrics of taxonomic diversity (e.g. total species richness and its additive beta component and of the functional composition of vegetation were highly correlated to attributes of dune topography. Under transgressive dynamics, vegetation profiles have fewer species, increased dominance, lower turnover rates, and lower total vegetation cover. These changes may drive a decrease in structural and functional diversity, with important consequences for resistance, resilience and other ecosystem properties. Moreover, differences in both vegetation assembly (in meta-stable dunes and response to increased disturbance (in eroding dunes between distinct biogeographic contexts highlight a possible decline in facilitation efficiency under extreme physical stress (i.e. under Mediterranean climate and support the significance of functional approaches in the study of local ecosystem responses to disturbance along regional gradients. Our results strongly suggest that assessing fine-scale community assembly can

  20. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Shifting Inundation and Fire Regimes: Disentangling Environmental Variability from Land Management Decisions in a Southern African Transboundary Watershed

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    Narcisa G. Pricope

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing temperatures and wildfire incidence and decreasing precipitation and river runoff in southern Africa are predicted to have a variety of impacts on the ecology, structure, and function of semi-arid savannas, which provide innumerable livelihood resources for millions of people. This paper builds on previous research that documents change in inundation and fire regimes in the Chobe River Basin (CRB in Namibia and Botswana and proposes to demonstrate a methodology that can be applied to disentangle the effect of environmental variability from land management decisions on changing and ecologically sensitive savanna ecosystems in transboundary contexts. We characterized the temporal dynamics (1985–2010 of vegetation productivity for the CRB using proxies of vegetation productivity and examine the relative importance of shifts in flooding and fire patterns to vegetation dynamics and effects of the association of phases of the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO on vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that vegetation in these semi-arid environments is highly responsive to climatic fluctuations and the long-term trend is one of increased but heterogeneous vegetation cover. The increased cover and heterogeneity during the growing season is especially noted in communally-managed areas of Botswana where long-term fire suppression has been instituted, in contrast to communal areas in Namibia where heterogeneity in vegetation cover is mostly increasing primarily outside of the growing season and may correspond to mosaic early dry season burns. Observed patterns of increased vegetation productivity and heterogeneity may relate to more frequent and intense burning and higher spatial variability in surface water availability from both precipitation and regional inundation patterns, with implications for global environmental change and adaptation in subsistence-based communities.

  1. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Li, Y; Lai, J; Wang, D; Zhang, J; Fu, P; Yang, X; Qi, L

    2013-10-01

    To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement definition. The "Green Water" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice and vegetables and moderate intakes in animal foods was related to the lowest prevalence of MS (15.9%). Compared to the "Green Water" dietary pattern, the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of refined cereal products, tubers, cooking salt and salted vegetable was associated with a significantly elevated odds of MS (odds ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.96), after adjustment of age, sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. The "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of beef/lamb, fruit, eggs, poultry and seafood also significantly associated with MS (odds ratio: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13-1.67). Physical activity showed significant interactions with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). In the joint analysis, participants with the combination of sedentary activity with the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern or the "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern both had more than three times (95%CI: 2.8-6.1) higher odds of MS than those with active activity and the "Green Water" dietary pattern. Our findings from the large Chinese national representative data indicate that dietary patterns affect the likelihood of MS. Combining healthy dietary pattern with active lifestyle may benefit more in prevention of MS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program Creates Positive Change in Children's Consumption and Other Behaviors Related to Eating Fruit and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Lori A.; Jamelske, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the 2009-2010 USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) on fruit intake and other behaviors related to fruit and vegetable consumption among Wisconsin fourth- and fifth-grade students. Methods: Participants were fourth- and fifth-grade from one FFVP school (n = 51)…

  3. Dietary pattern and mortality in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: does a vegetable- and fish-rich diet improve mortality? An explanatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Yukio; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Araki, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Iijima, Katsuya; Ito, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    To assess the effect of dietary patterns on all deaths and diabetes-related deaths in the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial (J-EDIT). We investigated relationships between that of overall mortality and dietary pattern, and diabetes-related deaths and dietary pattern as observed among 912 registered cases of the J-EDIT study, which is a prospective follow-up study of elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Factor analysis with the factor number 3 led to deriving three dietary patterns (healthy type, snack type and greasy type). The relationship between these patterns and overall mortality or diabetes-related death was investigated. Although not statistically significant, there was a lower tendency of overall mortality and diabetes-related deaths for the healthy type dietary pattern. When the tendencies of overall mortality were analyzed for "young-old," who are younger than 75 years-of age, and "old-old" of over 75 years-of-age, the mortality rate for the greasy type and healthy type dietary patterns were nearly the same and higher than the snack type dietary pattern in young-old. In contrast, in old-old, a higher mortality rate was reported for the greasy type dietary pattern and a lower mortality rate was reported for the healthy type dietary pattern. The hazard ratio by Cox regression analysis for greasy type to healthy type in old-old was 3.03 (P = 0.04, CI 1.07-8.57). Furthermore, in old-old, as vegetable consumption increased, the lower the tendency foroverall mortality, and the more fish that was consumed, the overall mortality significantly decreased (P = 0.020) in the tertile. The greasy type dietary pattern with an increased amount of sugar, fat and meat led to poor life prognosis for elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. The healthy type dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fish, which is similar to the Mediterranean diet and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet, was suggested to improve life prognosis. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics

  4. [Dietary patterns in college freshmen and its relation to bone mineral density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Mu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shu, Long; Li, Qingyan; Li, Yingchun

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the bone density of freshmen, and to analyze the association between dietary pattern and bone mineral density (BMD). A questionnaire survey on the situation of dietary pattern was conducted in 1414 freshmen. Effective dietary survey questionnaires and bone mineral density measurements were completed for 1319 participants. Bone mass was assessed by using an Ultrasound Bone Densitometer on the right calcaneus (CM-200, Furuno Electric Corporation, Japan), and the speed of sound (SOS, m/s) was used as an indicator for bone density. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify the dietary patterns. After adjusting for confounders, covariance with Bonferroni's was used to further examine the associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD). (1) Four major dietary patterns were noticed. Western food pattern (high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars). Animal protein pattern (high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver). Calcium pattern (high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products). Traditional Chinese pattern (high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork). (2) No association was observed between the western food pattern and bone mineral density. High animal protein pattern showed lower SOS value compared with low animal protein pattern. High calcium pattern showed higher SOS value compared with low calcium pattern. High traditional Chinese pattern showed higher SOS value compared with the low traditional Chinese pattern. Dietary patterns are closely related with bone mineral density (BMD) of freshmen.

  5. Correlation between vegetation pattern and microtopography in periglacial areas of the Central Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdol, Renato

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributional patterns of plant species were analyzed within periglacial microforms belonging to the collective groups of patterned grounds and sorted stripes In the Ortles-Cevedale group (Lombardy, Italy. The edges of primitive polygons are practically free of vegetation, whilst the central areas are colonized by pioneer plants of detritic slopes. This is clearly correlated with a low degree of sediment sorting. The morphological evolution of the forms proceeds at a faster rate at the edge of polygons than in the central areas. Vegetation, on the other hand, colonizes the coarse debris at the polygons’ edges slowly but colonizes the fine material in the central areas actively. The centre of the most evolved polygons is covered by a carpet of Salix herbacea. Age determinations of Salix shoots are not useful for dating purposes, but provide Information about the local microclimate.

    [es] Se han analizado los modelos de distribución de especies vegetales en microformas periglaciares pertenecientes al tipo de suelos estructurales en el Ortles-Cevedale (Lombardía, Italia. Los límites de los polígonos de piedras están prácticamente libres de vegetación, mientras las áreas centrales están colonizadas por plantas pioneras de laderas pedregosas. La evolución morfológica actúa a mayor velocidad en el borde de los polígonos que en las áreas centrales. Por otro lado, la vegetación coloniza lentamente los bordes de los polígonos, y más activamente las zonas centrales. El centro de la mayoría de los polígonos está cubierto por un manto de Salix herbacea. La determinación de la edad de los vástagos de Salix no ha sido un método útil a efectos cronológicos, pero proporciona información sobre el microclima local.
    [fr] On étude les modèles de distribution d'espèces végétaux dans microformes périglaciaires appartenants au type de sols structurales dans l'Ortles-Cevedale (Lombardie

  6. Vegetation pattern and heavy metal accumulation at a mine tailing at Gyöngyösoroszi, hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, János; Kovács, Alza

    2005-01-01

    Vegetation at an abandoned heavy metal bearing mine tailing may have multifunctional roles such as modification of water balance, erosion control and landscape rehabilitation. Research on the vegetation of mine tailings can provide useful information on tolerance, accumulation and translocation properties of species potentially applicable at moderately contaminated sites. Analyses of the relationship between heavy metal content (Pb, Zn and Cu) and vegetation in a mine tailing were carried out. These analyses included: (1) spatial analysis of relationship among heavy metal distribution, pH and vegetation patterns, and (2) analysis of heavy metal accumulation and translocation in some plant species. Presence of vegetation was found to be significantly dependent on pH value, which confirms that phytotoxicity is a function of element concentration in solution, which is primarily controlled by pH value in mine tailings. Among the most abundant plant species, dewberry (Rubus caesius), vipersbugloss (Echium vulgare), scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis) and narrowleaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata) accumulate significant amounts of Pb, Cu and Zn, while in the case of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) only Pb can be measured in elevated contents. Considering the translocation features, scarlet pimpernel, narrowleaf plantain, and dewberry accumulate heavy metals primarily in their roots, while heavy metal concentration in vipersbugloss and annual bluegrass is higher in the shoots.

  7. Bird Density and Distribution Patterns in Relation to Anthropogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the river, human activity and water quality had no clear effect on the avifauna. ... which trophic relations might be altered and community ... from the bridge to sea, dividing the river into four 200 m sections ... made of vegetation cover at ground level, 1,. 2 and 3 m ... analysed using the Shannon diversity index. H′ to obtain ...

  8. Topographically controlled soil moisture is the primary driver of local vegetation patterns across a lowland region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Arge, Lars; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2013-01-01

    , potential solar radiation, wind exposure, wetness index) and 10 vegetation measures representing species composition, richness and functional composition (average plant preferences along key environmental niche axes). We also investigated how overall site-level environmental characteristics affect...

  9. Vegetation of Eurasia from the last glacial maximum to present: Key biogeographic patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Binney, H.; Edwards, M.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Lozhkin, A.; Anderson, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Andreev, A.; Bezrukova, E.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Jankovská, Vlasta; Khazina, E.; Krivonogov, S.; Kremenetski, K.; Nield, J.; Novenko, E.; Ryabogina, N.; Solovieva, N.; Willis, K.; Zernitskaya, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 157, FEB 1 (2017), s. 80-97 ISSN 0277-3791 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Eurasia * vegetation * Late Quaternary Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.797, year: 2016

  10. Methylation patterns in sentinel genes in peripheral blood cells of heavy smokers: Influence of cruciferous vegetables in an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Ricceri, Fulvio; Ferrari, Pietro; Cuenin, Cyrille; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Jenab, Mazda; Hainaut, Pierre; Vineis, Paolo; Herceg, Zdenko

    2011-09-01

    Changes in DNA methylation patterns are a hallmark of tobacco-induced carcinogenesis. We have conducted a randomized 4-week intervention trial to investigate the effects of three dietary regimens to modify DNA methylation patterns in peripheral white blood cells of heavy smokers. A group of 88 smokers were randomly assigned to and distributed among three diets, including (1) normal isocaloric diet (balanced in fruits and vegetables), according to international guidelines; (2) a diet enriched in flavonoids and isothiocyanates (particularly cruciferous vegetables); (3) a regimen consisting of diet 1 supplemented with flavonoids (green tea and soy products). Methylation patterns were analyzed by pyrosequencing in LINE1 (Long Interspersed DNA Elements), RASSF1A, ARF and CDKN2a (tumor suppressor genes), MLH1 (mismatch DNA repair) and MTHFR (folate metabolism). Three distinct patterns of methylation were observed. In LINE1, methylation showed a small but reproducible increase with all three regimens. MTHFR was constitutively methylated with no significant modulation by diets. The four other loci showed low basal levels of methylation with no substantial change after intervention. These data suggest that the isocaloric diet may stabilize global epigenetic (LINE1 DNA methylation) patterns in peripheral white blood cells but does not provide evidence for methylation changes in specific genes associated with this short-term dietary intervention.

  11. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    , management and conservation of fens are constrained by limited knowledge on the relations between vegetation and measurable hydrological conditions. This study investigates the relations between vegetation and water level dynamics in groundwater dependent wetlands in Denmark. A total of 35 wetland sites...... across Denmark were included in the study. The sites represent a continuum of wetlands with respect to vegetation and hydrological conditions. Water level was measured continuously using pressure transducers at each site. Metrics expressing different hydrological characteristics, such as mean water level...... and low and high water level periods, were calculated based on the water level time series. A complete plant species list was recorded in plots covering 78.5 m2 at each site. Community metrics such as total number of species and the number of bryophytes were generated from the species lists and Ellenberg...

  12. The Prediction of Drought-Related Tree Mortality in Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, S.; Jensen, J.; Lomas, M. R.; Schwartz, B.; Woodward, F. I.

    2013-12-01

    Drought-related tree die-off events at regional scales have been reported from all wooded continents and it has been suggested that their frequency may be increasing. The prediction of these drought-related die-off events from regional to global scales has been recognized as a critical need for the conservation of forest resources and improving the prediction of climate-vegetation interactions. However, there is no conceptual consensus on how to best approach the quantitative prediction of tree mortality. Current models use a variety of mechanisms to represent demographic events. Mortality is modeled to represent a number of different processes, including death by fire, wind throw, extreme temperatures, and self-thinning, and each vegetation model differs in the emphasis they place on specific mechanisms. Dynamic global vegetation models generally operate on the assumption of incremental vegetation shift due to changes in the carbon economy of plant functional types and proportional effects on recruitment, growth, competition and mortality, but this may not capture sudden and sweeping tree death caused by extreme weather conditions. We tested several different approaches to predicting tree mortality within the framework of the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model. We applied the model to the state of Texas, USA, which in 2011 experienced extreme drought conditions, causing the death of an estimated 300 million trees statewide. We then compared predicted to actual mortality to determine which algorithms most accurately predicted geographical variation in tree mortality. We discuss implications regarding the ongoing debate on the causes of tree death.

  13. Evaluation of climate-related carbon turnover processes in global vegetation models for boreal and temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Ciais, Philippe; Friend, Andrew D; Ito, Akihiko; Kleidon, Axel; Lomas, Mark R; Quegan, Shaun; Rademacher, Tim T; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Tum, Markus; Wiltshire, Andy; Carvalhais, Nuno

    2017-08-01

    Turnover concepts in state-of-the-art global vegetation models (GVMs) account for various processes, but are often highly simplified and may not include an adequate representation of the dominant processes that shape vegetation carbon turnover rates in real forest ecosystems at a large spatial scale. Here, we evaluate vegetation carbon turnover processes in GVMs participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT) using estimates of vegetation carbon turnover rate (k) derived from a combination of remote sensing based products of biomass and net primary production (NPP). We find that current model limitations lead to considerable biases in the simulated biomass and in k (severe underestimations by all models except JeDi and VISIT compared to observation-based average k), likely contributing to underestimation of positive feedbacks of the northern forest carbon balance to climate change caused by changes in forest mortality. A need for improved turnover concepts related to frost damage, drought, and insect outbreaks to better reproduce observation-based spatial patterns in k is identified. As direct frost damage effects on mortality are usually not accounted for in these GVMs, simulated relationships between k and winter length in boreal forests are not consistent between different regions and strongly biased compared to the observation-based relationships. Some models show a response of k to drought in temperate forests as a result of impacts of water availability on NPP, growth efficiency or carbon balance dependent mortality as well as soil or litter moisture effects on leaf turnover or fire. However, further direct drought effects such as carbon starvation (only in HYBRID4) or hydraulic failure are usually not taken into account by the investigated GVMs. While they are considered dominant large-scale mortality agents, mortality mechanisms related to insects and

  14. Vegetation-climate feedbacks modulate rainfall patterns in Africa under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minchao; Schurgers, Guy; Rummukainen, Markku; Smith, Benjamin; Samuelsson, Patrick; Jansson, Christer; Siltberg, Joe; May, Wilhelm

    2016-07-01

    Africa has been undergoing significant changes in climate and vegetation in recent decades, and continued changes may be expected over this century. Vegetation cover and composition impose important influences on the regional climate in Africa. Climate-driven changes in vegetation structure and the distribution of forests versus savannah and grassland may feed back to climate via shifts in the surface energy balance, hydrological cycle and resultant effects on surface pressure and larger-scale atmospheric circulation. We used a regional Earth system model incorporating interactive vegetation-atmosphere coupling to investigate the potential role of vegetation-mediated biophysical feedbacks on climate dynamics in Africa in an RCP8.5-based future climate scenario. The model was applied at high resolution (0.44 × 0.44°) for the CORDEX-Africa domain with boundary conditions from the CanESM2 general circulation model. We found that increased tree cover and leaf-area index (LAI) associated with a CO2 and climate-driven increase in net primary productivity, particularly over subtropical savannah areas, not only imposed important local effect on the regional climate by altering surface energy fluxes but also resulted in remote effects over central Africa by modulating the land-ocean temperature contrast, Atlantic Walker circulation and moisture inflow feeding the central African tropical rainforest region with precipitation. The vegetation-mediated feedbacks were in general negative with respect to temperature, dampening the warming trend simulated in the absence of feedbacks, and positive with respect to precipitation, enhancing rainfall reduction over the rainforest areas. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for vegetation-atmosphere interactions in climate projections for tropical and subtropical Africa.

  15. Vegetative and reproductive phenological patterns in coastal dunes in S Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Gallego, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenology of Mediterranean plant species has been extensively studied in different types of ecosystems. However, very little research has been conducted on dune ecosystems. The aim of this research is the phenological characterization and comparison among phenological patterns in three coastal dunes areas in S Spain. For this purpose, we apply the methodology proposed by Orshan (1989 and NLPCA phenological indexes. Our results show that seasonality of species from coastal dunes in S Spain follows the pattern observed in dry and warm Mediterranean ecosystems. The maximum phenological activity occurs for a period of 7-9 months, mainly in spring and late winter, whereas summer is clearly the most inactive period of the year. Vegetative phenophases predominate over the reproductive. Flowering is mainly early (March-May, but it may extend to summer. Flowering duration has been identified as a key index in the differentiation among coastal dunes with different conditions of Mediterranean macroclimate, whereas the importance of the phenophase sequence index has been shown in order to discriminate sectors within dunes. Using the NLPCA analysis based on phenological indexes, four phenological groups of species have been determined. From a conservation perspective, the identification of these groups point out the utility of developing different strategies of management according to the high diversity of eco- and phenomorphological variability that characterize the coastal dunes.La fenología de las especies vegetales mediterráneas ha sido ampliamente estudiada en diferentes tipos de ecosistemas. Sin embargo, es poco lo que se conoce sobre fenología de dunas costeras. El objetivo del presente trabajo es la caracterización y comparación de patrones fenológicos en tres áreas de dunas costeras del Sur de España. Para ello, se ha aplicado la metodología propuesta por Orshan (1989 así como índices fenológicos NLPCA. Nuestros resultados muestran

  16. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow changes related to affective speech presentation in persistent vegetative state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, BM; Willemsen, ATM; Paans, AMJ

    A story told by his mother was presented on tape to a trauma patient in persistent vegetative state (PVS). During auditory presentation, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed by means of positron emission tomography (PET). Changes in rCBF related to this stimulus

  18. A performance comparison of sampling methods in the assessment of species composition patterns and environment–vegetation relationships in species-rich grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Swacha; Zoltán Botta-Dukát; Zygmunt Kącki; Daniel Pruchniewicz; Ludwik Żołnierz

    2017-01-01

    The influence that different sampling methods have on the results and the interpretation of vegetation analysis has been much debated, but little is yet known about how the spatial arrangement of samples affect patterns of species composition and environment–vegetation relationships within the same vegetation type. We compared three data sets of the same sample size obtained by three standard sampling methods: preferential, random, and systematic. These different sampling methods were applied...

  19. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive...... potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011...... to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits...

  20. Which food-related behaviours are associated with healthier intakes of fruits and vegetables among women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Mishra, Gita; Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna

    2007-03-01

    To examine associations between shopping, food preparation, meal and eating behaviours and fruit and vegetable intake among women. Cross-sectional survey. Community-based sample from metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A sample of 1136 women aged 18-65 years, randomly selected from the electoral roll. Food-related behaviours reflecting organisation and forward-planning, as well as enjoyment of and high perceived value of meal shopping, preparation and consumption were associated with healthier intakes of fruits and vegetables. For example, women who more frequently planned meals before they went shopping, wrote a shopping list, enjoyed food shopping, planned in the morning what they will eat for dinner that night, planned what they will eat for lunch, reported they enjoy cooking, liked trying new recipes and who reported they sometimes prepare dishes ahead of time were more likely to consume two or more servings of vegetables daily. Conversely, women who frequently found cooking a chore, spent less than 15 minutes preparing dinner, decided on the night what they will eat for dinner, ate in a fast-food restaurant, ate takeaway meals from a fast-food restaurant, ate dinner and snacks while watching television and who frequently ate on the run were less likely to eat two or more servings of vegetables daily. Practical strategies based on these behavioural characteristics could be trialled in interventions aimed at promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among women.

  1. Vegetation cover in relation to socioeconomic factors in a tropical city assessed from sub-meter resolution imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Ramos-González, Olga M; Muñoz-Erickson, Tischa A; Locke, Dexter H; Lugo, Ariel E; Radeloff, Volker C

    2018-04-01

    Fine-scale information about urban vegetation and social-ecological relationships is crucial to inform both urban planning and ecological research, and high spatial resolution imagery is a valuable tool for assessing urban areas. However, urban ecology and remote sensing have largely focused on cities in temperate zones. Our goal was to characterize urban vegetation cover with sub-meter (urban vegetation patterns in a tropical city, the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico. Our specific objectives were to (1) map vegetation cover using sub-meter spatial resolution (0.3-m) imagery, (2) quantify the amount of residential and non-residential vegetation, and (3) investigate the relationship between patterns of urban vegetation vs. socioeconomic and environmental factors. We found that 61% of the San Juan Metropolitan Area was green and that our combination of high spatial resolution imagery and object-based classification was highly successful for extracting vegetation cover in a moist tropical city (97% accuracy). In addition, simple spatial pattern analysis allowed us to separate residential from non-residential vegetation with 76% accuracy, and patterns of residential and non-residential vegetation varied greatly across the city. Both socioeconomic (e.g., population density, building age, detached homes) and environmental variables (e.g., topography) were important in explaining variations in vegetation cover in our spatial regression models. However, important socioeconomic drivers found in cities in temperate zones, such as income and home value, were not important in San Juan. Climatic and cultural differences between tropical and temperate cities may result in different social-ecological relationships. Our study provides novel information for local land use planners, highlights the value of high spatial resolution remote sensing data to advance ecological research and urban planning in tropical cities, and emphasizes the need for more studies in tropical

  2. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children. Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression. Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage. Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  3. Relation between salivary cortisol as stress biomarker and dietary pattern in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Wolters, Maike; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to result in hormonal effects (e.g. changes in cortisol pattern) that may change food selection in unhealthy ways. This study examines whether children's dietary pattern is indeed related to salivary cortisol levels. In 323 children (5-10 years old) participating in the Belgian ChiBS study, salivary cortisol samples, a biomarker for stress, was sampled when waking up, 30 and 60 min after wake up and in the evening on two consecutive weekdays. Data on the children's dietary pattern (frequency of sweet foods, fatty foods, snacks, fruit and vegetables) was collected with a food frequency questionnaire. Multilevel time modelling was used with adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, parental education and wake up time. Higher overall cortisol levels and a large cortisol awakening response (CAR) were associated with more frequent consumption of sweet foods. A steeper diurnal cortisol decline was associated with a higher sweet, fatty and snack food consumption frequency. No associations with fruit and vegetables consumption were found. High cortisol levels were linked to an unhealthier dietary pattern (more fatty food, snacks and especially sweet food). This supports the theory of cortisol-induced comfort food preference and strengthens the stress-diet relation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Spatial Pattern among Grasshopper and Vegetation in Heihe based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, KeMing; Zhao, Chengzhang; Zhang, Qi-peng

    Geostatistics was used to analyze the grasshopper and dominant plants population spatial pattern and their relationship in the upper reaches of Heihe River under GIS platform. The results showed that the plants and grasshoppers populations have strong spatial correlation in study area. The Semivariogram curve of Chorthippus brunneus huabeiensis, Filchnerella, Aneurolepidium dasystanchys and Artemisia dalailamae is spherical model, Gomphocerus licenti and Stipa krylovii's Semivariogram curve is exponential and Gaussian model respectively, and their spatial autocorrelation scope is 10.8, 11.3, 11.5, 12.4, 23.5 and 59.7 meters respectively. Stipa krylovii and Artemisia dalailamae spatial distribution was patchy, Aneurolepidium dasystanchys showed flaky distribution; Gomphocerus licenti and Chorthippus brunneus huabeiensis mainly located in southeast areas with high coverage of Stipa krylovii and Aneurolepidium dasystanchys. Filchnerella nearly located in North areas with high coverage of Artemisia dalailamae, but were rarely found in south and east areas. The effects of different plants coverage on grasshopper abundance are significantly different. Filchnerella abundance and Artemisia dalailamae coverage showed significantly positive correlation, Chorthippus brunneus huabeiensis and Gomphocerus licenti positively correlated with Aneurolepidium dasystanchys and Stipa krylovii. Grasshopper spatial patterns and occurrence numbers are both influenced by grasshopper biological characteristics and plant community composition, which reflected complex coupled relation between grasshopper and plant.

  5. Food patterns of Australian children ages 9 to 13 y in relation to ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawaty, Setyaningrum; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Batterham, Marijka; Charlton, Karen; Meyer, Barbara J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine food patterns of Australian children ages 9 to 13 y in relation to ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 LCPUFA) intake. Secondary analysis was conducted on nationally representative food data of 1110 Australian children ages 9 to 13 y (525 boys and 585 girls) that was obtained using two 24-h recalls. Principle component factor analysis was used to identify food patterns. Discriminant function analysis was used to identify the relationship between the food patterns and total ω-3 LCPUFA intake. Four major food patterns emerged for each sex. For boys these were labeled: "snack foods," "soft drinks," "vegetables," and "pork and meat chops, steak, and mince." For girls they were labeled: "vegetables," "take-away," "tea, coffee, iced coffee drinks" and "canned meals and soup." Fish consumption bought from take-away outlets was more frequently consumed in the "soft drink" (r = 0.577) and take-away (r = 0.485) food pattern in boys and girls, respectively. In contrast, fish prepared at home was more often consumed in "vegetables" in both boys (r = 0.018) and girls (r = 0.106), as well as in the "pork and meat chops, steak and mince" food pattern in boys (r = 0.060). There was a trend that in boys, the "vegetables" group discriminated children who consumed ω-3 LCPUFA levels similar to adequate intakes (AI) (P = 0.067), whereas in girls, the take-away food pattern discriminated for being a fish consumer (P = 0.060). Dietary patterns associated with a high consumption of vegetables and "take-aways" food that include meat and fish are likely to positively influence dietary ω-3 LCPUFA intake in Australian children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik

    2012-06-01

    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one's own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and control potential differentiated both types of envy. We manipulated these appraisals in Study 2 and found that while both did not influence the intensity of envy, they did determine the type of envy that resulted. The more a situation was appraised as undeserved, the more participants experienced malicious envy. Benign envy was experienced more when the situation was not undeserved, and the most when the situation was appraised as both deserved and controllable. The current research also clarifies how the types of envy differ from the related emotions admiration and resentment.

  7. Topographic Controls on Spatial Patterns of Soil Texture and Moisture in a Semi-arid Montane Catchment with Aspect-Dependent Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, B. M.; Niemann, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Soil moisture exerts significant control over the partitioning of latent and sensible energy fluxes, the magnitude of both vertical and lateral water fluxes, the physiological and water-use characteristics of vegetation, and nutrient cycling. Considerable progress has been made in determining how soil characteristics, topography, and vegetation influence spatial patterns of soil moisture in humid environments at the catchment, hillslope, and plant scales. However, understanding of the controls on soil moisture patterns beyond the plant scale in semi-arid environments remains more limited. This study examines the relationships between the spatial patterns of near surface soil moisture (upper 5 cm), terrain indices, and soil properties in a small, semi-arid, montane catchment. The 8 ha catchment, located in the Cache La Poudre River Canyon in north-central Colorado, has a total relief of 115 m and an average elevation of 2193 m. It is characterized by steep slopes and shallow, gravelly/sandy soils with scattered granite outcroppings. Depth to bedrock ranges from 0 m to greater than 1 m. Vegetation in the catchment is highly correlated with topographic aspect. In particular, north-facing hillslopes are predominately vegetated by ponderosa pines, while south-facing slopes are mostly vegetated by several shrub species. Soil samples were collected at a 30 m resolution to characterize soil texture and bulk density, and several datasets consisting of more than 300 point measurements of soil moisture were collected using time domain reflectometry (TDR) between Fall 2007 and Summer 2008 at a 15 m resolution. Results from soil textural analysis performed with sieving and the ASTM standard hydrometer method show that soil texture is finer on the north-facing hillslope than on the south-facing hillslope. Cos(aspect) is the best univariate predictor of silts, while slope is the best predictor of coarser fractions up to fine gravel. Bulk density increases with depth but shows no

  8. Abiotic landscape and vegetation patterns in the Netherlands during the Weichselian Late Glacial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, W.Z.

    2000-01-01

    The Late Glacial landscape of the Netherlands was a landscape with changing geomorphology and vegetation. Glacial, eolian and fluvial processes in the time before the Late Glacial initially had formed the main landscape types that still existed during the Late Glacial. In these landscape types,

  9. Global patterns in the vulnerability of ecosystems to vegetation shifts due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Ronald P. Neilson; James M. Lenihan; Raymond J. Drapek

    2010-01-01

    Climate change threatens to shift vegetation, disrupting ecosystems and damaging human well-being. Field observations in boreal, temperate and tropical ecosystems have detected biome changes in the 20th century, yet a lack of spatial data on vulnerability hinders organizations that manage natural resources from identifying priority areas for adaptation measures. We...

  10. Coppicing systems as a way of understanding patterns in forest vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hédl, Radim; Ewald, J.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Kirkby, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-3 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : traditional coppices * vegetation dynamics * ecological restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  11. Vegetation succession over broad geographical scales: which factors determine the patterns?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel; Řehounková, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2006), s. 469-480 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/02/0617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : environmental factors * landscape context, * vegetation succession Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.119, year: 2006

  12. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  13. Pathogenic specifics of development of vegetative dysfunction in adolescents in relation to their morphological status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Skyba

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the mechanisms of vegetative regulation in children and adolescents of different somatotypes has a prognostic value in regard to the character of adaptive reactions of the organism, as it facilitates the identification of the risk factors of pathological processes and states of vegetative systems, which may cause chronic illness in adulthood. The author defines the pathogenic specifics of development of vegetative dysfunction in adolescents in relation to their morphological status. Cardiointervalography and anthropometric, mathematical and statistical methods of research were used. Based on the results of cardiointervalography, the structure of initial vegetative tonus was established, which was characterized by prevalence of eutonia (38.4 ± 4.9%. The specific weight with background eutonia of adolescent boys and girls tended to be higher among the representatives of the thoracic and muscular somatotypes, compared to adolescents of the alimentive and osseous somatotypes (Р < 0.001–0.05. The established specifics indicate that thoracic and muscular somatotypes ensure optimal adaptation of organisms to the environment. Sympathicotonia was measured among the majority of boys of extreme constitutional variants (alimentive and osseous somatotypes (36.3% and 30.0% respectively, which demonstrates the activation of adaptive mechanisms in the abovementioned category of examined adolescents, while among girls this phenomenon was evident among the representatives of the osseous and thoracic somatotypes (38.5% and 30.8% respectively. We found that the majority of examined adolescents (53.4% had a normal vegetative reactivity. Gender differences in the structure of vegetative reactivity of adolescents could well be explained by the higher number of girls of asympaticotonic type (19.2% compared to boys (7.3%, Р < 0.05. Furthermore, we found that hypersympathicotonic and asympathicotonic types of vegetative reactivity were characteristic of

  14. Industrial related contamination of peri-urban fresh vegetables. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansa, D.

    2003-01-01

    Major industries as pollution sources include aluminium smelting and processing, petroleum refining and processing, steel works, manufacturing of dry cell batteries, cement. Vegetables considered are cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion and Sweet pepper . Areas used for cultivation are backyard gardens, along drains, walkways, and streets. Urban markets Vegetables are liable to contamination from pollutants emitted into the environment. MAIN OBJECTIVES: Determine the extent to which toxic element levels in foods are affected by surrounding industrial activities, Assess the human exposure to such contaminated foodstuffs. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Monitor As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Se, Sn and Mo in vegetables grown in the Tema Municipal District, due to pollution from industrial activity, Assess human exposure to such contaminated foods through monitoring of the distribution and marketing channels. METHODS: Identify sampling areas within the Tema municipality including (a) Identification of the growers and their marketing outlets and (b) Identifying the sources of water used for cultivation by means of a questionnaire; Quantify the level of toxic elements in the soil and water bodies used for the cultivation of vegetables, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Analyse foods from the farms at the selected sampling areas using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis

  15. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease–Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eSun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStudies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Simiar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a ‘traditional food pattern’, consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork and fish; a ‘fast and processed food pattern’ consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar and confectionery; a ‘soybean, grain and flour food pattern’; and a ‘dairy, animal liver and other animal food pattern’. These patterns explained 17.48%, 9.52%, 5.51% and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of ‘traditional Chinese food’ is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors.

  16. Analysis of relation between geomorphologic processes and alpine vegetation in the high mountain landscape (Tatry Mts.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltiziar, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to present some information about starting of high mountains ecological monitoring and its first partial results. The research is focused on a long-term observation of vegetation changes (species composition, species spatial distribution) in relation to geomorphic processes and geo-relief attributes at meso- and micro-scale of landscape. We established in 2002 for this purpose six permanent plots (4 x 4 m) in the selected localities of High and Belianske Tatras Mts. (Author)

  17. Vegetation pattern formation in semiarid systems induced by long-range competition in the absence of facilitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Calabrese, Justin M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Lopez, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    Regular patterns and spatial organization of vegetation have been observed in many arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide, covering a diverse range of plant taxa and soil types. A key common ingredient in these systems is that plant growth is severely limited by water availability, and thus plants likely compete strongly for water. The study of such patterns is especially interesting because their features may reveal much about the underlying physical and biological processes that generated them in addition to giving information on the characteristics of the ecosystem. It is possible, for instance, to infer their resilience against anthropogenic disturbances or climatic changes that could cause abrupt shifts in the system and lead it to a desert state. Therefore much research has focused on identifying the underlying mechanisms that can produce spatial patterning in water-limited systems (Klausmeier, 1999). They are believed to arise from the interplay between long-range competition and facilitation processes acting at smaller distances (Borgogno et al., 2009). This combination of mechanisms is justified by arguing that water percolates more readily through the soil in vegetated areas (short range), and that plants compete for water resources over greater distances via long lateral roots (long range). However, recent studies have shown that even in the limit of local facilitation patterns may still appear (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013). In this work (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013b), we show that, under rather general conditions, long-range competition alone is the minimal ingredient to shape gapped and stripped vegetation patterns typical of models that also account for facilitation in addition to competition. To this end we propose a simple, general model for the dynamics of vegetation, which includes only long-range competition between plants. Competition is introduced through a nonlocal term, where the kernel function quantifies the intensity of the interaction

  18. Climate drives temporal replacement and nested-resultant richness patterns of Scottish coastal vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Rob; Marrs, Rob H.; Pakeman, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity quantifies spatial and/or temporal variation in species composition. It is comprised of two distinct components, species replacement and nestedness, which derive from opposing ecological processes. Using Scotland as a case study and a β-diversity partitioning framework, we......) investigate whether patterns from one β-diversity component can mask observable patterns in the other. We summarised key aspects of climate driven macro-ecological variation as measures of variance, long-term trends, between-year similarity and extremes, for three important climatic predictors (minimum...... contribution of each on temporal replacement and nestedness patterns. Temporal β-diversity patterns were reasonably well explained by climate change but weakly explained by changes in landscape-scale heterogeneity. Climate was shown to have a greater influence on temporal nestedness than replacement patterns...

  19. Pattern and dynamics of the ground vegetation in south Swedish Carpinus betulus forests. Importance of soil chemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Conservation Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Falkengren-Grerup, U.; Tyler, G. [Plant Ecology, Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The vegetation and environmental conditions of south Swedish horn-beam Carpinus betulus forests are described with data from 35 permanent sample plots. The main floristic gradient of the ground vegetation is closely related to acid-base properties of the top soil: Base saturation, pH and organic matter content. Other floristic differences are related to tree canopy cover and the distance of the sample plots to the Baltic coast. Species richness of herbaceous plants typical of forests increases with soil pH. The number of other herbaceous species, occurring in both forests and open habitats, and of woody species is not related to pH. Comparisons of vegetation data from 1983 and 1993 show relatively small compositional differences of the herbaceous forest flora. The number of other herbaceous species increased considerably in those plots where canopy trees had been cut after 1983. The number of new species in managed plots increases with soil pH. Species losses and gains of the herbaceous forest flora between 1983 and 1993 are generally lower as compared with other herbaceous species and woody species. However, the ground cover of herbaceous forest species, especially of Oxalis acetosella and Lamium galeobdolon, was considerably lower in 1993 as compared to 1983 in both unmanaged and managed plots. Possible explanations for this decrease are current soil acidification and drought during the growing season. (au) 32 refs.

  20. Post-fire vegetation and fuel development influences fire severity patterns in reburns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppoletta, Michelle; Merriam, Kyle E; Collins, Brandon M

    2016-04-01

    In areas where fire regimes and forest structure have been dramatically altered, there is increasing concern that contemporary fires have the potential to set forests on a positive feedback trajectory with successive reburns, one in which extensive stand-replacing fire could promote more stand-replacing fire. Our study utilized an extensive set of field plots established following four fires that occurred between 2000 and 2010 in the northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA that were subsequently reburned in 2012. The information obtained from these field plots allowed for a unique set of analyses investigating the effect of vegetation, fuels, topography, fire weather, and forest management on reburn severity. We also examined the influence of initial fire severity and time since initial fire on influential predictors of reburn severity. Our results suggest that high- to moderate-severity fire in the initial fires led to an increase in standing snags and shrub vegetation, which in combination with severe fire weather promoted high-severity fire effects in the subsequent reburn. Although fire behavior is largely driven by weather, our study demonstrates that post-fire vegetation composition and structure are also important drivers of reburn severity. In the face of changing climatic regimes and increases in extreme fire weather, these results may provide managers with options to create more fire-resilient ecosystems. In areas where frequent high-severity fire is undesirable, management activities such as thinning, prescribed fire, or managed wildland fire can be used to moderate fire behavior not only prior to initial fires, but also before subsequent reburns.

  1. Patterns of plant traits in annual vegetation of man-made habitats in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lososová, Z.; Chytrý, M.; Kühn, I.; Hájek, O.; Horáková, V.; Pyšek, Petr; Tichý, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2006), s. 69-81 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant - others:ALARM(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : species traits * annual vegetation * man-made habitats Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2006

  2. On the relative importance of vegetation terms in computational fluid dynamics on flow and Dispersion in the urban environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of vegetation terms was analysed for flow and dispersion in an urban street canyon with avenue-trees. To this end, simulations with three k-e turbulence models and different approaches to model vegetation were performed. The different approaches resulted in rather slight

  3. Tidal Flooding and Vegetation Patterns in a Salt Marsh Tidal Creek Imaged by Low-altitude Balloon Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Madsen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Inundation of marsh surfaces by tidal creek flooding has implications for the headward erosion of salt marsh creeks, effect of rising sea levels, biological zonation, and marsh ecosystem services. The hydroperiod; as the frequency, duration, depth and flux of water across the marsh surface; is a key factor in salt marsh ecology, but remains poorly understood due to lack of data at spatial scales relevant to tracking the spatial movement of water across the marsh. This study examines how hydroperiod, drainage networks, and tidal creek geomorphology on the vegetation at Crab Haul Creek. Crab Haul Creek is the farthest landward tidal basin in North Inlet, a bar-built estuary in South Carolina. This study measures the hydroperiod in the headwaters Crab Haul Creek with normal and near-IR photos from a helium balloon Helikite at 75-100 m altitude. Photos provide detail necessary to resolve the waterline and delineate the hydroperiod during half tidal cycles by capturing the waterline hourly from the headwaters to a piezometer transect 260 meters north. The Helikite is an ideal instrument for local investigations of surface hydrology due to its maneuverability, low cost, ability to remain aloft for extended time over a fixed point, and ability to capture high-resolution images. Photographs taken from aircraft do not provide the detail necessary to determine the waterline on the marsh surface. The near-IR images make the waterline more distinct by increasing the difference between wet and dry ground. In the headwaters of Crab Haul Creek, individual crab burrows are detected by automated image classification and the number of crab burrows and their spatial density is tracked from January-August. Crab burrows are associated with the unvegetated region at the creek head, and we relate their change over time to the propagation of the creek farther into the tidal basin. Plant zonation is influenced by the hydroperiod, but also may be affected by salinity, water table depth, and

  4. Vegetation patterns and dynamics on a rock glacier in the Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaselli, M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation colonizing a rock glacier in the north-western cirque of M. Giovo (Northern Apennines was recorded according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Numerical methods were employed both to classify and to order the phytosociological relevés. Relevés were classified by average linkage based on the similarity ratio. Four main vegetation types were so identified. They were ecologically characterized by an indirect gradient analysis based on correspondence analysis. Furthermore, dynamic connections between vegetation types were hypothesized by principal component analysis.

    [es] Modelos de vegetación y dinámica en un glaciar rocoso de los Apeninos del Norte (Norte de Italia. Se ha muestreado, según el método fitosociológico de Braun-Blanquet, la colonización vegetal de un glaciar rocoso en el circo glaciar noroeste del M. Giovo (Norte de los Apeninos. Los muestreos han sido clasificados por métodos de análisis numérico. Se definen cuatro modelos de vegetación con la ayuda de la clasificación numérica. El estudio ecológico de los modelos de vegetación se ha realizado con la ayuda del análisis de correspondencias y se ha verificado con el empleo de los valores indicadores ecológicos de LANDOLT (1977. Las tendencias dinámicas de la vegetación se definen con el análisis de componentes principales.
    [fr] Groupements végétaux et dynamique de la végétation sur un glacier rocheux dans les Apennins du Nord (Italie du Nord. La végétation colonisant un glacier rocheux dans le cirque glaciaire nord-ouest du M. Giovo (Apennins du Nord à été relevé selon le méthode phytosociologique. Les relevés ont été classifies et ordonnés par des méthodes d'analyse numérique. 4 types de végétation ont été définis a l'aide de la classification numérique. L'étude écologique des types de végétation à été réalisée par l'analyse des correspondances et vérifié avec l'emploi des valeurs indicatrices

  5. Immunodetection of aquaporin 5 in sheep salivary glands related to pasture vegetative cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Arrighi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian aquaporins (AQPs are a family of at least 13 integral membrane proteins expressed in various epithelia, where they function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. AQP5 is widely expressed in the exocrine gland where it is likely involved in providing an appropriate amount of fluid to be secreted with granular contents. As regards AQP5 expression in the salivary glands, literature is lacking concerning domestic animal species. This study was chiefly aimed at immunohistochemically investigating the presence and localization of AQP5 in sheep mandibular and parotid glands. In addition, AQP5 immunoreactivity was comparatively evaluated in animals fed with forage containing different amounts of water related to the pasture vegetative cycle, in order to shed light on the possible response of the gland to environmental modifications. Moderate AQP5-immunoreactivity was shown at the level of the lateral surface of mandibular serous demilune cells, not affected by the pasture vegetative cycle or water content. On the contrary, the parotid gland arcinar cells showed AQP5-immunoreactivity at the level of apical and lateral plasma membrane, which was slight to very strong, according to the pasture vegetative development and interannual climatic variations. AQP5 expression is likely due to its involvement in providing appropriate saliva fluidity. Indeed, the lowest AQP5 immunoreactivity was noticed when food water content increased. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 458–464

  6. Relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation types and hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas; Ovakoglou, George

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of a landscape is considered important to describe the ecosystems activity and is used as an important input parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models related to water and carbon cycle, desertification risk, etc. The measurement of LAI in the field is a laborious and costly process and is mainly done by indirect methods, such as hemispherical photographs that are processed by specialized software. For this reason there have been several attempts to estimate LAI with multispectral satellite images, using theoretical biomass development models, or empirical equations using vegetation indices and land cover maps. The aim of this work is to study the relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation type, and hydrological regime. This was achieved by studying 120 maps of EVI and LAI which cover a hydrological year and five hydrologically diverse areas: river Nestos in Greece, Queimados catchment in Brazil, Rijnland catchment in The Netherlands, river Tamega in Portugal, and river Umbeluzi in Mozambique. The following Terra MODIS composite datasets were downloaded for the hydrological year 2012-2013: MOD13A2 "Vegetation Indices" and MCD15A2 "LAI and FPAR", as well as the equivalent quality information layers (QA). All the pixels that fall in a vegetation land cover (according to the MERIS GLOBCOVER map) were sampled for the analysis, with the exception of those that fell at the border between two vegetation or other land cover categories, to avoid the influence of mixed pixels. Using linear regression analysis, the relationship between EVI and LAI was identified per date, vegetation type and study area. Results show that vegetation type has the highest influence in the variation of the relationship between EVI and LAI in each study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) is high and statistically significant (ranging from 0.41 to 0.83 in 90% of the cases). When plotting the EVI factor from the regression equation

  7. INTERNET ADDICTION, SELF-ESTEEM, AND RELATIONAL PATTERNS IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Perrella; Giorgio Caviglia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examined the relationships between Internet addiction symptoms, specific relational patterns, and self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that Internet addiction symptoms were related to low self-esteem, dysfunctional thoughts about the self and the world, and inadequate internalized relational configurations. Method: The sample included 153 adolescents, ranging in age between 14 and 17 years old. All the participants filled questionnaires on internet use/abus...

  8. Dynamics of growth/mature-related substances in vegetables using specific triple labeled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Yoichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    To progress physiological studies of vegetables, development of biosynthetic method for production of triple labeled compounds was attempted in this study and such method for vegetables using specifically labeled sugars was examined. As a sugar compound, 6-C 14 -glucose (14-CG) and 1-H 3 -glucose (3-HG) were given to culture medium for cells derived from tomato embryonic axis and the changes of these compounds were monitored. Tomato embryonic cells were harvested 20 and 44 hours after the addition of 14-CG or 3-CG into the culture medium the cells. The cells were homogenized and the supernatant after centrifugation was applied onto HPLC. Radio analyzer revealed major two peaks in the chromatography of the sugar fraction from the cells after 20 hours from the addition of 14-CG. One was the peak of glucose, itself and the other was estimated to be that of fructose based on the retention time. Whereas in the elution pattern of the sugar fraction after 44 hours from the addition, a peak of sucrose was found along with the peak of glucose. These results indicate that C 14 in 14-CG but not H 3 in 3-HG was transferred into fructose after the metabolism in tomato. Moreover, in both elution patterns, there was a peak positioned at the same retention time, indicating that the compound in this peak was produced from either of 14-CG or 3-HG. Therefore, it is thought that H 3 and C 14 double-labeled compound could be produced from the cell culture added with both labeled compounds; 14-CG and 3-HG. (M.N.)

  9. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne eCostes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs quiescence and to floral induction vs vegetative development.

  10. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Evelyne; Crespel, Laurent; Denoyes, Béatrice; Morel, Philippe; Demene, Marie-Noëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Eric; Wenden, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs. quiescence and to floral induction vs. vegetative development.

  11. Patterns in the distribution of vegetation in paramo areas: heterogeneity and spacial dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano-P., Henry; Rangel-CH, J. Orlando

    2012-01-01

    Two methods of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), analysis of spatial heterogeneity and dependence (auto-correlation), - - were applied to the cover patterns from ten paramo localities in the Central and Eastern cordilleras of Colombia. Among the localities studied, the high montane region of the Serrania de Perija, the paramo region of the Los Nevados National Park, and the paramo region under management of CORPOGUAVIO showed a good state of conservation and satisfactory level of conn...

  12. Fine and Coarse-Scale Patterns of Vegetation Diversity on Reclaimed Surface Mine-land Over a 40-Year Chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Stefanie L; Limb, Ryan F; Daigh, Aaron L; Volk, Jay M; Wick, Abbey F

    2017-03-01

    Rangelands are described as heterogeneous, due to patterning in species assemblages and productivity that arise from species dispersal and interactions with environmental gradients and disturbances across multiple scales. The objectives of rangeland reclamation are typically vegetation establishment, plant community productivity, and soil stability. However, while fine-scale diversity is often promoted through species-rich seed mixes, landscape heterogeneity and coarse-scale diversity are largely overlooked. Our objectives were to evaluate fine and coarse-scale vegetation patterns across a 40-year reclamation chronosequence on reclaimed surface coalmine lands. We hypothesized that both α-diversity and β-diversity would increase and community patch size and species dissimilarity to reference sites would decrease on independent sites over 40 years. Plant communities were surveyed on 19 post-coalmine reclaimed sites and four intact native reference sites in central North Dakota mixed-grass prairie. Our results showed no differences in α or β-diversity and plant community patch size over the 40-year chronosequence. However, both α-diversity and β-diversity on reclaimed sites was similar to reference sites. Native species establishment was limited due to the presence of non-native species such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) on both the reclaimed and reference sites. Species composition was different between reclaimed and reference sites and community dissimilarity increased on reclaimed sites over the 40-year chronosequence. Plant communities resulting from reclamation followed non-equilibrium succession, even with consistent seeds mixes established across all reclaimed years. This suggests post-reclamation management strategies influence species composition outcomes and land management strategies applied uniformly may not increase landscape-level diversity.

  13. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for identifying the dietary patterns of toddlers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Virginia C; Skidmore, Paula M L; Watson, Emily O; Taylor, Rachael W; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2015-04-01

    Dietary patterns provide insight into relationships between diet and disease. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) can identify dietary patterns in adults, but similar analyses have not been performed for toddlers. The aim of the Eating Assessment in Toddlers study was to evaluate the relative validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns from an FFQ developed for toddlers aged 12 to 24 months. Participants were 160 toddlers aged 12 to 24 months and their primary caregiver who completed an FFQ twice, approximately 5 weeks apart (FFQ1 and FFQ2). A 5-day weighed food record was collected on nonconsecutive days between FFQ administrations. Principal component analysis identified three major dietary patterns similar across FFQ1, FFQ2, and the 5-day weighted food record. The sweet foods and fries pattern was characterized by high intakes of sweet foods, fries and roast potato and kumara (sweet potato), butter and margarines, processed meat, sweet drinks, and fruit or milk drinks. The vegetables and meat pattern was characterized by high intakes of vegetables, meat, eggs and beans, and fruit. The milk and fruit pattern was characterized by high intakes of milk and milk products and fruit, and low intakes of breastmilk and infant and follow-up formula. The FFQ (FFQ1) correctly classified 43.1% to 51.0% of toddlers into the same quartile of pattern score as the 5-day weighted food record, and Pearson correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.68 for the three patterns. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.71 to 0.72 for all three dietary patterns. the Eating Assessment in Toddlers study FFQ shows acceptable relative validity and high reproducibility for identifying dietary patterns in toddlers. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pattern of Presentation and Treatment of Dental Caries - Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the pattern of presentation and treatment of Dental Caries- related cases among children and adolescence presenting in Paediatric Dentistry clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The clinical records of enrolled 1251 patients aged 16 years and below who presented with ...

  15. Patterns of malaria related mortality based on verbal autopsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of malaria related mortality based on verbal autopsy in Muleba District, north-western Tanzania. G.M Kaatano, F.M Mashauri, S.M Kinung'hi, J.R Mwanga, R.C Malima, C Kishamawe, S.E Nnko, S.M Magesa, L.E.G Mboera ...

  16. Relational Reasoning in Medical Education: Patterns in Discourse and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Alexander, Patricia A.; Baker, Lisa M.; Jablansky, Sophie; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Relational reasoning, which has been defined as the ability to discern meaningful patterns within any informational stream, is a foundational cognitive ability associated with education, including in scientific domains. This study entailed the analysis of instructional conversations in which an attending clinical neurologist and his team of…

  17. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex-specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly; Stark, Lloyd R; McLetchie, D Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    Expected life history trade-offs associated with sex differences in reproductive investment are often undetected in seed plants, with the difficulty arising from logistical issues of conducting controlled experiments. By controlling genotype, age and resource status of individuals, a bryophyte was assessed for sex-specific and location-specific patterns of vegetative, asexual and sexual growth/reproduction across a regional scale. Twelve genotypes (six male, six female) of the dioecious bryophyte Bryum argenteum were subcultured to remove environmental effects, regenerated asexually to replicate each genotype 16 times, and grown over a period of 92 d. Plants were assessed for growth rates, asexual and sexual reproductive traits, and allocation to above- and below-ground regenerative biomass. The degree of sexual versus asexual reproductive investment appears to be under genetic control, with three distinct ecotypes found in this study. Protonemal growth rate was positively correlated with asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, whereas asexual reproduction was negatively correlated (appeared to trade-off) with vegetative growth (shoot production). No sex-specific trade-offs were detected. Female sex-expressing shoots were longer than males, but the sexes did not differ in growth traits, asexual traits, sexual induction times, or above- and below-ground biomass. Males, however, had much higher rates of inflorescence production than females, which translated into a significantly higher (24x) prezygotic investment for males relative to females. Evidence for three distinct ecotypes is presented for a bryophyte based on regeneration traits. Prior to zygote production, the sexes of this bryophyte did not differ in vegetative growth traits but significantly differed in reproductive investment, with the latter differences potentially implicated in the strongly biased female sex ratio. The disparity between males and females for prezygotic reproductive investment is

  18. The role of species functional traits for distribuitional patterns in lowland stream vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Giulia; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna

    Freshwater ecosystems provide goods and service to human society and invasion is a major threat to them. Plant invasion affect community dynamics, threatens biodiversity and promote biological homogenization. In this study we explore functional traits in three groups of species e.g. invasive...... species, disturbance-tolerant species and rare species in lowland streams. In order to investigate the role of functional traits for species distributional patterns we investigate relationships between a range of species features and species abundance in app. 1,200 stream sites in Denmark covering...

  19. Landscape-scale flow patterns over a vegetated tidal marsh and an unvegetated tidal flat: implications for the landform properties of the intertidal floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbruwaene, W.; Schwarz, C.; Bouma, T.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation is increasingly recognized as an important control on flow and landformpatterns inmany landscape types. Field studies on the landscape-scale effect of vegetation in fluvial and tidal floodplains are relatively scarce while insights are especially based on flume and numerical models.

  20. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅱ):vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Rong MA; ShengLi WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Jinwei LIU; Wanjuan LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the results of wind tunnel experiments on models of nabkha,based on those studied in the Hotan River basin.Semi-spherical and conical models of nabkhas were constructed at a ratio of 40:1 in light of the on-site observation.Artificial vegetation of simulated Tamarix spp.was put on top of each model.Parameters of the shape,including height,width,and diameter of vegetated semi-spherical and conical nabkha.were measured in the Hotan River basin.Wind tunnel experiments on the semi-spherical and conical nabkha used clean air devoid of additional sediments at five different wind speeds (6-14 m/s)to study the influence of vegetation on airflow patterns.Results of the experiments indicate that vegetation at the top of the nabkhas enhances the surface roughness of the sand mounds,retards airflow over the sand mounds,reduces airflow energy,eliminates erosional pits occurring on the top surface of non-vegetated sand mounds and enhances the range of influence of the vortex that forms on the leeward slope.Vegetation changes the airflow pattern upwind and downwind of the sand mound and reduces the transport of sand away from the nabkha.This entrapment of sediment by the vegetation plays an important role in sustaining the nabkha landscape of the study area.The existence of vegetation makes fine materials in wind-sand flow to possibly deposit,and promotes nabkha formation.The imitative flow patterns Of different morphological nabkhas have also been verified by on-site observation in the river basin.

  1. Large-Scale Variation in Forest Carbon Turnover Rate and its Relation to Climate - Remote Sensing vs. Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, N.; Thurner, M.; Beer, C.; Forkel, M.; Rademacher, T. T.; Santoro, M.; Tum, M.; Schmullius, C.

    2015-12-01

    While vegetation productivity is known to be strongly correlated to climate, there is a need for an improved understanding of the underlying processes of vegetation carbon turnover and their importance at a global scale. This shortcoming has been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which we recently have been able to overcome by a biomass dataset covering northern boreal and temperate forests originating from radar remote sensing. Based on state-of-the-art products on biomass and NPP, we are for the first time able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests. The implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current global vegetation models. In contrast to our observation-based findings, investigated models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT, are able to reproduce spatial climate - turnover rate relationships only to a limited extent. While most of the models compare relatively well to observation-based NPP, simulated vegetation carbon stocks are severely biased compared to our biomass dataset. Current limitations lead to considerable uncertainties in the estimated vegetation carbon turnover, contributing substantially to the forest feedback to climate change. Our results are the basis for improving mortality concepts in global vegetation models and estimating their impact on the land carbon balance.

  2. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activities in Languedoc (Southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, J.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Lebreton, V.; Mazier, F.; Müller, S. D.; Dezileau, L.

    2015-09-01

    Holocene climate fluctuations and human activities since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediterranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to reconstruct Mediterranean paleoenvironments over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High resolution pollen analyses were undertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamics over the last 4500 years. Results are compared with climatic, historical and archeological archives. A long-term aridification trend is highlighted during the Late Holocene and three superimposed arid events are recorded at 4600-4300, 2800-2400 and 1300-1100 cal BP. These periods of climatic instability coincide in time with the rapid climatic events depicted in the Atlantic Ocean (Bond et al., 2001). From the Bronze Age (4000 cal BP) to the end of the Iron Age (around 2000 cal BP), the spread of evergreen taxa and loss of forest cover result from anthropogenic impact. The Antiquity is characterized by a major reforestation event related to the concentration of rural activities and populations in coastal plains leading to forest recovery in the mountains. A major regional deforestation occurred at the beginning of the High Middle Ages. Around 1000 cal BP, forest cover is minimal while cover of olive, chestnut and walnut expands in relation to increasing human influence. The present day vegetation dominated by Mediterranean shrubland and pines has been in existence since the beginning of the 20th century.

  3. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activity in Languedoc (southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, J.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Lebreton, V.; Mazier, F.; Müller, S. D.; Dezileau, L.

    2015-12-01

    Holocene climate fluctuations and human activity since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediterranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to better understand Mediterranean paleoenvironmental changes over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High-resolution pollen analyses were undertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamics over the last 4500 years. Results are compared with climatic, historical and archeological archives. A long-term aridification trend is highlighted during the late Holocene, and three superimposed arid events are recorded at 4600-4300, 2800-2400 and 1300-1100 cal BP. These periods of high-frequency climate variability coincide in time with the rapid climatic events observed in the Atlantic Ocean (Bond et al., 2001). From the Bronze Age (4000 cal BP) to the end of the Iron Age (around 2000 cal BP), the spread of sclerophyllous taxa and loss of forest cover result from anthropogenic impact. Classical Antiquity is characterized by a major reforestation event related to the concentration of rural activity and populations in coastal plains leading to forest recovery in the mountains. A major regional deforestation occurred at the beginning of the High Middle Ages. Around 1000 cal BP, forest cover is minimal while the cover of olive, chestnut and walnut expands in relation to increasing human influence. The present-day vegetation dominated by Mediterranean shrubland and pines has been in existence since the beginning of the 20th century.

  4. The clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M.; Hansen, T.K.; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described cross-reactivity between fresh fruits, vegetables and pollen. However, no data demonstrates the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults with and without symptoms in the pollen...... season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults and to examine the diagnostic value of skin-prick test (SPT), histamine release and specific IgE compared with the outcome...... of oral challenge. METHODS: In total, 936 unselected adults (female : male 479 : 457, median age 33.7 years) were examined for pollen sensitization and clinical cross-reactivity with pollen-related fruits and vegetables by questionnaire, SPT, histamine release, specific IgE and oral challenge. RESULTS...

  5. Lead, Nickel and Copper Concentration and Related Factors in Some Uncooked Vegetables Irrigated by Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Ganjo Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population density of Erbil City, Northern Iraq (where this work was carried out estimated as more than 2 million. The sewage discharge of the city may reach 77760m3/ day during low level and 108000m3/ day during high-level periods. About 225 hectares of scattered farmlands are used by local farmers for production of uncooked vegetables for local need, all of which are irrigated by untreated sewage water. In the present work, about 28 physical and chemical variables those related to sewage water quality were assessed on fortnightly bases for 7 months. Some toxic heavy metals, namely; Pb, Ni and Cu bioaccumulation rates in sewage, soil and some uncooked vegetables in five different locations/ farms were followed up (only bioaccumulation rates of Pb, Ni and Cu in lettuce, cress, dill and radish are given here (Full data can be obtained from both authors. Onset results revealed that Pb, Ni and Cu bioaccumulation rates calculated for lettuce, cress, dill and radish were surpassed maximum permissible levels (MPL. However, the bioaccumulation ranges calculated for lettuce, cress, dill and radish respectively were; lead (3.01-6.72mg/ kg/ dwt, (3.03-6.52mg/ kg/ dwt, (0.48-2.74mg/ kg/ dwt and (0.41-3.00mg/ kg/ dwt; nickel (1.01-3.92mg/ kg/ dwt, (4.03-7.99mg/ kg/ dwt, (0.37-3.98mg/ kg/ dwt and (1.00-3.95mg/ kg/ dwt and copper (8.02-15.26mg/ kg/ dwt, (7.20-13.62mg/ kg/ dwt,(6.35-10.37mg/ kg/ dwt, (2.01-5.94mg/ kg/ dwt. The studied vegetables were showed different modes concerning heavy metal accumulation rates.

  6. Stair-Step Pattern of Soil Bacterial Diversity Mainly Driven by pH and Vegetation Types Along the Elevational Gradients of Gongga Mountain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiabao; Shen, Zehao; Li, Chaonan; Kou, Yongping; Wang, Yansu; Tu, Bo; Zhang, Shiheng; Li, Xiangzhen

    2018-01-01

    Ecological understandings of soil bacterial community succession and assembly mechanism along elevational gradients in mountains remain not well understood. Here, by employing the high-throughput sequencing technique, we systematically examined soil bacterial diversity patterns, the driving factors, and community assembly mechanisms along the elevational gradients of 1800-4100 m on Gongga Mountain in China. Soil bacterial diversity showed an extraordinary stair-step pattern along the elevational gradients. There was an abrupt decrease of bacterial diversity between 2600 and 2800 m, while no significant change at either lower (1800-2600 m) or higher (2800-4100 m) elevations, which coincided with the variation in soil pH. In addition, the community structure differed significantly between the lower and higher elevations, which could be primarily attributed to shifts in soil pH and vegetation types. Although there was no direct effect of MAP and MAT on bacterial community structure, our partial least squares path modeling analysis indicated that bacterial communities were indirectly influenced by climate via the effect on vegetation and the derived effect on soil properties. As for bacterial community assembly mechanisms, the null model analysis suggested that environmental filtering played an overwhelming role in the assembly of bacterial communities in this region. In addition, variation partition analysis indicated that, at lower elevations, environmental attributes explained much larger fraction of the β-deviation than spatial attributes, while spatial attributes increased their contributions at higher elevations. Our results highlight the importance of environmental filtering, as well as elevation-related spatial attributes in structuring soil bacterial communities in mountain ecosystems.

  7. Imaging polarimetry of forest canopies: how the azimuth direction of the sun, occluded by vegetation, can be assessed from the polarization pattern of the sunlit foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, Ramón; Barta, András; Bernáth, Balázs; Benno Meyer-Rochow, Victor; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-08-01

    Radiance, color, and polarization of the light in forests combine to create complex optical patterns. Earlier sporadic polarimetric studies in forests were limited by the narrow fields of view of the polarimeters used in such studies. Since polarization patterns in the entire upper hemisphere of the visual environment of forests could be important for forest-inhabiting animals that make use of linearly polarized light for orientation, we measured 180° field-of-view polarization distributions in Finnish forests. From a hot air balloon we also measured the polarization patterns of Hungarian grasslands lit by the rising sun. We found that the pattern of the angle of polarization α of sunlit grasslands and sunlit tree canopies was qualitatively the same as that of the sky. We show here that contrary to an earlier assumption, the α-pattern characteristic of the sky always remains visible underneath overhead vegetation, independently of the solar elevation and the sky conditions (clear or partly cloudy with visible sun's disc), provided the foliage is sunlit and not only when large patches of the clear sky are visible through the vegetation. Since the mirror symmetry axis of the α-pattern of the sunlit foliage is the solar-antisolar meridian, the azimuth direction of the sun, occluded by vegetation, can be assessed in forests from this polarization pattern. Possible consequences of this robust polarization feature of the optical environment in forests are briefly discussed with regard to polarization-based animal navigation.

  8. Relating neuronal firing patterns to functional differentiation of cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Shinomoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns may also vary among cytoarchitectonically unique cortical areas. To examine how neuronal signaling patterns are related to innate cortical functions, we detected intrinsic features of cortical firing by devising a metric that efficiently isolates non-Poisson irregular characteristics, independent of spike rate fluctuations that are caused extrinsically by ever-changing behavioral conditions. Using the new metric, we analyzed spike trains from over 1,000 neurons in 15 cortical areas sampled by eight independent neurophysiological laboratories. Analysis of firing-pattern dissimilarities across cortical areas revealed a gradient of firing regularity that corresponded closely to the functional category of the cortical area; neuronal spiking patterns are regular in motor areas, random in the visual areas, and bursty in the prefrontal area. Thus, signaling patterns may play an important role in function-specific cerebral cortical computation.

  9. Identifying dietary patterns and associated health-related lifestyle factors in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2014-01-01

    , potatoes and gravy, and cake and biscuits; a 'health-conscious' pattern correlated with coarse bread, fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, nuts, water and tea; and a 'fast food' pattern correlated with pizza, hamburger/spring rolls, crisps, rice and pasta, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and sweets...

  10. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Hau Chong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia, a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7% and vegetables (15.8%. Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  11. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children. PMID:28758956

  12. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-07-31

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1-6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1-6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children's anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children's micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  13. On the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and carbon storage in vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijen, M.

    2012-04-01

    • Background and Aims. The carbon balance of vegetation is dominated by the two large fluxes of photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R). Mechanistic models have attempted to simulate the two fluxes separately, each with their own set of internal and external controls. This has led to model predictions where environmental change causes R to exceed P, with consequent dieback of vegetation. However, empirical evidence suggests that the R:P ratio is constrained to a narrow range of about 0.4-0.5. Physiological explanations for the narrow range are not conclusive. We aim to introduce a novel perspective by theoretical study of the quantitative relationship between the four carbon fluxes of P, R, growth and storage (or its inverse, remobilisation). • Methods. Starting from the law of conservation of mass - in this case carbon - we derive equations for the relative magnitudes of all carbon fluxes which depend on only two parameters: the R:P ratio and the relative rate of storage of carbon into remobilisable reserves. The equations are used to explain observed flux ratios and to analyse incomplete data sets of carbon fluxes. • Key Results. Storage rate is shown to be a freely varying parameter, whereas R:P is narrowly constrained. This explains the constancy of the ratio reported in the literature. With the information thus gained, a data set of R and P in grassland was analysed, and flux estimates could be derived for the periods after cuts in which plant growth is dominated by remobilisation before photosynthesis takes over. • Conclusions. We conclude that the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and substrate storage are indeed tightly constrained, but because of mass conservation rather than for physiological reasons. This facilitates analysis of incomplete data sets. Mechanistic models, as the embodiment of physiological mechanisms, need to show consistency with the constraints. • Reference. Van Oijen, M., Schapendonk, A. & Höglind, M

  14. Thermal remote sensing of water under flooded vegetation: New observations of inundation patterns for the ‘Small’ Lake Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, M.; Lemoalle, J.; Bader, J.-C.; Tweed, S.; Mofor, L.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryLake Chad at the border of the Sahara desert in central Africa, is well known for its high sensitivity to hydroclimatic events. Gaps in in situ data have so far prevented a full assessment of the response of Lake Chad to the ongoing prolonged drought that started in the second half of the 20th century. Like many other wetlands and shallow lakes, the 'Small' Lake Chad includes large areas of water under aquatic vegetation which needs to be accounted for to obtain the total inundated area. In this paper, a methodology is proposed that uses Meteosat thermal maximum composite data (Tmax) to account for water covered by aquatic vegetation and provide a consistent monthly time series of total inundated area estimates for Lake Chad. Total inundation patterns in Lake Chad were reconstructed for a 15-yr period (1986-2001) which includes the peak of the drought (86-91) and therefore provides new observations on the hydrological functioning of the 'Small' Lake Chad. During the study period, Lake Chad remained below 16,400 km 2 (third quartile ˜8800 km 2). The variability of the inundated area observed in the northern pool (standard deviation σnorthern pool = 1980 km 2) is about 60% greater than that of the southern pool ( σsouthern pool = 1250 km 2). The same methodology could be applied to other large wetlands and shallow lakes in semi-arid or arid regions elsewehere using Meteosat (e.g. Niger Inland Delta, Sudd in Sudan, Okavango Delta) and other weather satellites (e.g., floodplains of the Lake Eyre Basin in Australia and Andean Altiplano Lakes in South America).

  15. Vegetation-environment relations of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen M. Poulos; Ann E. Camp

    2005-01-01

    The Sky Island Archipelagos of the Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental contain a unique array of endemic flora and fauna. Plant species composition in these elevationally restricted forests is thought to vary in relation to environmental gradients. This study quantifies plant population abundance and spatial distribution patterns in pine-oak woodlands of Big Bend...

  16. RIPARIAN VEGETATION AND CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY IMPACT ON SPATIAL PATTERNS OF WATER QUALITY IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model based on the KLS factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) accurately predicted temporal dynamics and relative peak levels of suspended solids, turbidity, and phosphorus in an agricultural watershed with well-protected streambanks and cultivation to the stream ed...

  17. Integrating Vegetation Classification, Mapping, and Strategic Inventory for Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. K. Brewer; R. Bush; D. Berglund; J. A. Barber; S. R. Brown

    2006-01-01

    Many of the analyses needed to address multiple resource issues are focused on vegetation pattern and process relationships and most rely on the data models produced from vegetation classification, mapping, and/or inventory. The Northern Region Vegetation Mapping Project (R1-VMP) data models are based on these three integrally related, yet separate processes. This...

  18. Accident patterns for construction-related workers: a cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Wen; Tyan, Yaw-Yauan

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries. The risk of constructionrelated workers is far greater than that in a manufacturing based industry. However, some steps can be taken to reduce worker risk through effective injury prevention strategies. In this article, k-means clustering methodology is employed in specifying the factors related to different worker types and in identifying the patterns of industrial occupational accidents. Accident reports during the period 1998 to 2008 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. The results show that the cluster analysis can indicate some patterns of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Inspection plans should be proposed according to the type of construction-related workers. The findings provide a direction for more effective inspection strategies and injury prevention programs.

  19. On the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and carbon storage in vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oijen, Marcel; Schapendonk, Ad; Höglind, Mats

    2010-05-01

    The carbon balance of vegetation is dominated by the two large fluxes of photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R). Mechanistic models have attempted to simulate the two fluxes separately, each with their own set of internal and external controls. This has led to model predictions where environmental change causes R to exceed P, with consequent dieback of vegetation. However, empirical evidence suggests that the R : P ratio is constrained to a narrow range of about 0.4-0.5. Physiological explanations for the narrow range are not conclusive. The aim of this work is to introduce a novel perspective by theoretical study of the quantitative relationship between the four carbon fluxes of P, R, growth and storage (or its inverse, remobilization). Starting from the law of conservation of mass - in this case carbon - equations are derived for the relative magnitudes of all carbon fluxes, which depend on only two parameters: the R : P ratio and the relative rate of storage of carbon in remobilizable reserves. The equations are used to explain observed flux ratios and to analyse incomplete data sets of carbon fluxes. The storage rate is shown to be a freely varying parameter, whereas R : P is narrowly constrained. This explains the constancy of the ratio reported in the literature. With the information thus gained, a data set of R and P in grassland was analysed, and flux estimates could be derived for the periods after cuts in which plant growth is dominated by remobilization before photosynthesis takes over. It is concluded that the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and substrate storage are indeed tightly constrained, but because of mass conservation rather than for physiological reasons. This facilitates analysis of incomplete data sets. Mechanistic models, as the embodiment of physiological mechanisms, need to show consistency with the constraints.

  20. A 25 million year macrofloral record (Carboniferous-Permian) in the Czech part of the Intra-Sudetic Basin, biostratigraphy, plant diversity and vegetation patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opluštil, S.; Šimůnek, Z.; Pšenička, J.; Bek, Jiří; Libertín, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 244, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 241-307 ISSN 0034-6667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Early Permian * floral zonation * Intra-Sudetic Basin * Pennsylvanian * plant diversity * plant taphonomy * vegetation patterns Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.817, year: 2016

  1. Identification and visualization of dominant patterns and anomalies in remotely sensed vegetation phenology using a parallel tool for principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Tran Mills; Jitendra Kumar; Forrest M. Hoffman; William W. Hargrove; Joseph P. Spruce; Steven P. Norman

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the use of principal components analysis (PCA) to visualize dominant patterns and identify anomalies in a multi-year land surface phenology data set (231 m × 231 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) used for detecting threats to forest health in the conterminous...

  2. INTERNET ADDICTION, SELF-ESTEEM, AND RELATIONAL PATTERNS IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Perrella

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We examined the relationships between Internet addiction symptoms, specific relational patterns, and self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that Internet addiction symptoms were related to low self-esteem, dysfunctional thoughts about the self and the world, and inadequate internalized relational configurations. Method: The sample included 153 adolescents, ranging in age between 14 and 17 years old. All the participants filled questionnaires on internet use/abuse, self-esteem, and object relation models. Results: We found an inverse relationship between self-esteem and Internet addiction scores. We did not find significant associations between problematic Internet use and specific object relation models. Conclusions: It seems appropriate that psychodynamic research on problematic Internet use should focus on variables that may have a negative impact on self-esteem (e.g., real life experiences and that may foster problematic Internet use among adolescents.

  3. Meta-analysis of the relative sensitivity of semi-natural vegetation species to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, F.; Jones, M.L.M.; Mills, G.; Ashmore, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study identified 83 species from existing publications suitable for inclusion in a database of sensitivity of species to ozone (OZOVEG database). An index, the relative sensitivity to ozone, was calculated for each species based on changes in biomass in order to test for species traits associated with ozone sensitivity. Meta-analysis of the ozone sensitivity data showed a wide inter-specific range in response to ozone. Some relationships in comparison to plant physiological and ecological characteristics were identified. Plants of the therophyte lifeform were particularly sensitive to ozone. Species with higher mature leaf N concentration were more sensitive to ozone than those with lower leaf N concentration. Some relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and Ellenberg habitat requirements were also identified. In contrast, no relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and mature leaf P concentration, Grime's CSR strategy, leaf longevity, flowering season, stomatal density and maximum altitude were found. The relative sensitivity of species and relationships with plant characteristics identified in this study could be used to predict sensitivity to ozone of untested species and communities. - Meta-analysis of the relative sensitivity of semi-natural vegetation species to ozone showed some relationships with physiological and ecological characteristics

  4. Nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem nitrogen pools in relation to vegetation development in the Subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Jonasson, Sven Evert; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem pools of nitrogen were measured in three subarctic ecosystem types differing in soil frost-heaving activity and vegetation cover. N2-fixation was measured by the acetylene reduction assay and converted to absolute N ecosystem input by estimates...... of conversion factors between acetylene reduction and 15N incorporation. One aim was to relate nitrogen fluxes and nitrogen pools to the mosaic of ecosystem types of different stability common in areas of soil frost movements. A second aim was to identify abiotic controls on N2-fixation by simultaneous...... measurements of temperature, light, and soil moisture. Nitrogen fixation rate was high with seasonal input estimated at 1.1 g N m2 on frostheaved sorted circles, which was higher than the total plant N content and exceeded estimated annual plant N uptake several-fold but was lower than the microbial N content...

  5. Overcoming etch challenges related to EUV based patterning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Andrew W.; Cottle, Hongyun; Honda, Masanobu; Morikita, Shinya; Kumar, Kaushik A.; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Research and development activities related to Extreme Ultra Violet [EUV] defined patterning continue to grow for cost and extreme process control challenges of Self-Aligned Quad Patterning [SAQP] with continued momentum for EUV ecosystem readiness could provide cost advantages in addition to improved intra-level overlay performance relative to multiple patterning approaches. However, Line Edge Roughness [LER] and Line Width Roughness [LWR] performance of EUV defined resist images are still far from meeting technology needs or ITRS spec performance. Furthermore, extreme resist height scaling to mitigate flop over exacerbates the plasma etch trade-offs related to traditional approaches of PR smoothing, descum implementation and maintaining 2D aspect ratios of short lines or elliptical contacts concurrent with ultra-high photo resist [PR] selectivity. In this paper we will discuss sources of LER/LWR, impact of material choice, integration, and innovative plasma process techniques and describe how TELTM VigusTM CCP Etchers can enhance PR selectivity, reduce LER/LWR, and maintain 2D aspect ratio of incoming patterns. Beyond traditional process approaches this paper will show the utility of: [1] DC Superposition in enhancing EUV resist hardening and selectivity, increasing resistance to stress induced PR line wiggle caused by CFx passivation, and mitigating organic planarizer wiggle; [2] Quasi Atomic Layer Etch [Q-ALE] for ARC open eliminating the tradeoffs between selectivity, CD, and shrink ratio control; and [3] ALD+Etch FUSION technology for feature independent CD shrink and LER reduction. Applicability of these concepts back transferred to 193i based lithography is also confirmed.

  6. Pattern of NDVI-based vegetation greening along an altitudinal gradient in the eastern Himalayas and its response to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Jiang, Jiang; Chen, Bin; Li, Yingkui; Xu, Yuyue; Shen, Weishou

    2016-03-01

    The eastern Himalayas, especially the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon Nature Reserve (YNR), is a global hotspot of biodiversity because of a wide variety of climatic conditions and elevations ranging from 500 to > 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The mountain ecosystems at different elevations are vulnerable to climate change; however, there has been little research into the patterns of vegetation greening and their response to global warming. The objective of this paper is to examine the pattern of vegetation greening in different altitudinal zones in the YNR and its relationship with vegetation types and climatic factors. Specifically, the inter-annual change of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and its variation along altitudinal gradient between 1999 and 2013 was investigated using SPOT-VGT NDVI data and ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM) data. We found that annual NDVI increased by 17.58% in the YNR from 1999 to 2013, especially in regions dominated by broad-leaved and coniferous forests at lower elevations. The vegetation greening rate decreased significantly as elevation increased, with a threshold elevation of approximately 3000 m. Rising temperature played a dominant role in driving the increase in NDVI, while precipitation has no statistical relationship with changes in NDVI in this region. This study provides useful information to develop an integrated management and conservation plan for climate change adaptation and promote biodiversity conservation in the YNR.

  7. Members of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor family in Petunia are developmentally and environmentally regulated to control complex floral and vegetative pigmentation patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nick W; Lewis, David H; Zhang, Huaibi; Schwinn, Kathy E; Jameson, Paula E; Davies, Kevin M

    2011-03-01

    We present an investigation of anthocyanin regulation over the entire petunia plant, determining the mechanisms governing complex floral pigmentation patterning and environmentally induced vegetative anthocyanin synthesis. DEEP PURPLE (DPL) and PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) encode members of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family that regulate anthocyanin synthesis in petunia, and control anthocyanin production in vegetative tissues and contribute to floral pigmentation. In addition to these two MYB factors, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) and WD-repeat protein AN11, are also essential for vegetative pigmentation. The induction of anthocyanins in vegetative tissues by high light was tightly correlated to the induction of transcripts for PHZ and AN1. Interestingly, transcripts for PhMYB27, a putative R2R3-MYB active repressor, were highly expressed during non-inductive shade conditions and repressed during high light. The competitive inhibitor PhMYBx (R3-MYB) was expressed under high light, which may provide feedback repression. In floral tissues DPL regulates vein-associated anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower tube, while PHZ determines light-induced anthocyanin accumulation on exposed petal surfaces (bud-blush). A model is presented suggesting how complex floral and vegetative pigmentation patterns are derived in petunia in terms of MYB, bHLH and WDR co-regulators. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Stability of nonlinear waves and patterns and related topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, Anna; Lafortune, Stephane; Manukian, Vahagn

    2018-04-01

    Periodic and localized travelling waves such as wave trains, pulses, fronts and patterns of more complex structure often occur in natural and experimentally built systems. In mathematics, these objects are realized as solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. The existence, dynamic properties and bifurcations of those solutions are of interest. In particular, their stability is important for applications, as the waves that are observable are usually stable. When the waves are unstable, further investigation is warranted of the way the instability is exhibited, i.e. the nature of the instability, and also coherent structures that appear as a result of an instability of travelling waves. A variety of analytical, numerical and hybrid techniques are used to study travelling waves and their properties. This article is part of the theme issue `Stability of nonlinear waves and patterns and related topics'.

  9. Changes in Vegetation Growth Dynamics and Relations with Climate over China’s Landmass from 1982 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the dynamics of vegetation growth respond to climate change at different temporal and spatial scales is critical to projecting future ecosystem dynamics and the adaptation of ecosystems to global change. In this study, we investigated vegetated growth dynamics (annual productivity, seasonality and the minimum amount of vegetated cover in China and their relations with climatic factors during 1982–2011, using the updated Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS third generation global satellite Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset and climate data acquired from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP. Major findings are as follows: (1 annual mean NDVI over China significantly increased by about 0.0006 per year from 1982 to 2011; (2 of the vegetated area in China, over 33% experienced a significant positive trend in vegetation growth, mostly located in central and southern China; about 21% experienced a significant positive trend in growth seasonality, most of which occurred in northern China (>35°N; (3 changes in vegetation growth dynamics were significantly correlated with air temperature and precipitation (p < 0.001 at a region scale; (4 at the country scale, changes in NDVI was significantly and positively correlated with annual air temperature (r = 0.52, p < 0.01 and not associated with annual precipitation (p > 0.1; (5 of the vegetated area, about 24% showed significant correlations between annual mean NDVI and air temperature (93% positive and remainder negative, and 12% showed significant correlations of annual mean NDVI with annual precipitation (65% positive and 35% negative. The spatiotemporal variations in vegetation growth dynamics were controlled primarily by temperature and secondly by precipitation. Vegetation growth was also affected by human activities; and (6 monthly NDVI was significantly correlated with the

  10. Seasonality in ENSO-related precipitation, river discharges, soil moisture, and vegetation index in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, GermáN.; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Gil, Marta MaríA.; Quiceno, Natalia; Mantilla, Ricardo I.

    2001-08-01

    An analysis of hydrologic variability in Colombia shows different seasonal effects associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Spectral and cross-correlation analyses are developed between climatic indices of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the annual cycle of Colombia's hydrology: precipitation, river flows, soil moisture, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our findings indicate stronger anomalies during December-February and weaker during March-May. The effects of ENSO are stronger for streamflow than for precipitation, owing to concomitant effects on soil moisture and evapotranspiration. We studied time variability of 10-day average volumetric soil moisture, collected at the tropical Andes of central Colombia at depths of 20 and 40 cm, in coffee growing areas characterized by shading vegetation ("shaded coffee"), forest, and sunlit coffee. The annual and interannual variability of soil moisture are highly intertwined for the period 1997-1999, during strong El Niño and La Niña events. Soil moisture exhibited greater negative anomalies during 1997-1998 El Niño, being strongest during the two dry seasons that normally occur in central Colombia. Soil moisture deficits were more drastic at zones covered by sunlit coffee than at those covered by forest and shaded coffee. Soil moisture responds to wetter than normal precipitation conditions during La Niña 1998-1999, reaching maximum levels throughout that period. The probability density function of soil moisture records is highly skewed and exhibits different kinds of multimodality depending upon land cover type. NDVI exhibits strong negative anomalies throughout the year during El Niños, in particular during September-November (year 0) and June-August (year 0). The strong negative relation between NDVI and El Niño has enormous implications for carbon, water, and energy budgets over the region, including the tropical Andes and Amazon River basin.

  11. Dyadic associations between cancer-related stress and fruit and vegetable consumption among colorectal cancer patients and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Kim, Youngmee; Llabre, Maria M; Carver, Charles S

    2016-02-01

    This study examined how stress from cancer affects fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) in cancer patients and their family caregivers during the year following diagnosis. Colorectal cancer patients and their caregivers (92 dyads) completed questionnaires at two (T1), six (T2), and 12 months post-diagnosis (T3). Individuals reported perceived cancer-related stress (CRS) at T1 and days of adequate FVC at T1 through T3. Both patients and caregivers reported inadequate FVC during the first year post-diagnosis. Latent growth modeling with actor-partner interdependence modeling revealed that, at T1, one's own greater CRS was associated with one's partner having fewer concurrent days of adequate FVC (ps = .01). Patients' greater CRS predicted their own more pronounced rebound pattern in FVC (p = .01); both patients' and caregivers' CRS marginally predicted their partners' change in FVC (p = .09). Findings suggest that perceived stress from cancer hinders FVC around the diagnosis, but motivates positive dietary changes by the end of the first year.

  12. Transitions in high-Arctic vegetation growth patterns and ecosystem productivity tracked with automated cameras from 2000 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Pedersen, Stine Højlund

    2017-01-01

    Climate-induced changes in vegetation phenology at northern latitudes are still poorly understood. Continued monitoring and research are therefore needed to improve the understanding of abiotic drivers. Here we used 14 years of time lapse imagery and climate data from high-Arctic Northeast...... days, resulting in an unchanged growing season length. Vegetation greenness, derived from the imagery, was correlated to primary productivity, showing that the imagery holds valuable information on vegetation productivity....

  13. Using the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to explain ranging patterns in a lek-breeding antelope: the importance of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Brown, Molly E; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Lek-breeding species are characterized by a negative association between territorial resource availability and male mating success; however, the impact of resources on the overall distribution patterns of the two sexes in lek systems is not clear. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has recently emerged as a powerful proxy measure for primary productivity, allowing the links between the distributions of animals and resources to be explored. Using NDVI at four spatial resolutions, we here investigate how the distribution of the two sexes in a lek-breeding population of topi antelopes relates to resource abundance before and during the rut. We found that in the dry season preceding the rut, topi density correlated positively with NDVI at the large, but not the fine, scale. This suggests that before the rut, when resources were relatively scant, topi preferred pastures where green grass was widely abundant. The pattern was less pronounced in males, suggesting that the need for territorial attendance prevents males from tracking resources as freely as females do. During the rut, which occurs in the wet season, both male and female densities correlated negatively with NDVI at the fine scale. At this time, resources were generally plentiful and the results suggest that, rather than by resource maximization, distribution during the rut was determined by benefits of aggregating on relatively resource-poor leks for mating, and possibly antipredator, purposes. At the large scale, no correlation between density and NDVI was found during the rut in either sex, which can be explained by leks covering areas too small to be reflected at this resolution. The study illustrates that when investigating spatial organization, it is important: (1) to choose the appropriate analytic scale, and (2) to consider behavioural as well as strictly ecological factors.

  14. Dispersal patterns of red foxes relative to population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephen H.; Sargeant, Alan B.

    1993-01-01

    Factors affecting red fox (Vulpes vulpes) dispersal patterns are poorly understood but warranted investigation because of the role of dispersal in rebuilding depleted populations and transmission of diseases. We examined dispersal patterns of red foxes in North Dakota based on recoveries of 363 of 854 foxes tagged as pups and relative to fox density. Foxes were recovered up to 8.6 years after tagging; 79% were trapped or shot. Straight-line distances between tagging and recovery locations ranged from 0 to 302 km. Mean recovery distances increased with age and were greater for males than females, but longest individual recovery distances were by females. Dispersal distances were not related to population density for males (P = 0.36) or females (P = 0.96). The proportion of males recovered that dispersed was inversely related to population density (r = -0.94; n = 5; P = 0.02), but not the proportion of females (r = -0.49; n = 5; P = 0.40). Dispersal directions were not uniform for either males (P = 0.003) or females (P = 0.006); littermates tended to disperse in similar directions (P = 0.09). A 4-lane interstate highway altered dispersal directions (P = 0.001). Dispersal is a strong innate behavior of red foxes (especially males) that results in many individuals of both sexes traveling far from natal areas. Because dispersal distance was unaffected by fox density, populations can be rebuilt and diseases transmitted long distances regardless of fox abundance.

  15. Historical and current forest landscapes in eastern Oregon and Washington Part II: Linking vegetation characteristics to potential fire behavior and related smoke production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Huff; Roger D. Ottmar; Ernesto Alvarado; Robert E. Vihnanek; John F. Lehmkuhl; Paul F. Hessburg; Richard L. Everett

    1995-01-01

    We compared the potential fire behavior and smoke production of historical and current time periods based on vegetative conditions in forty-nine 5100- to 13 5OO-hectare watersheds in six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation composition, structure, and patterns were attributed and mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959 (historical)...

  16. Bird species turnover is related to changing predation risk along a vegetation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManna, Joseph A.; Hemenway, Amy B.; Boccadori, Vanna; Martin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Turnover in animal species along vegetation gradients is often assumed to reflect adaptive habitat preferences that are narrower than the full gradient. Specifically, animals may decline in abundance where their reproductive success is low, and these poor-quality locations differ among species. Yet habitat use does not always appear adaptive. The crucial tests of how abundances and demographic costs of animals vary along experimentally manipulated vegetation gradients are lacking. We examined habitat use and nest predation rates for 16 bird species that exhibited turnover with shifts in deciduous and coniferous vegetation. For most bird species, decreasing abundance was associated with increasing predation rates along both natural and experimentally modified vegetation gradients. This landscape-scale approach strongly supports the idea that vegetation-mediated effects of predation are associated with animal distributions and species turnover.

  17. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  18. Can tissue element concentration patterns at the individual-species level indicate the factors underlying vegetation gradients in wetlands?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozbrojová, Zuzana; Hájek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2010), s. 355-363 ISSN 1100-9233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant nutrient concentration * vegetation gradient * wetland vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.457, year: 2010

  19. Geomorphology and reflectance patterns of vegetation-covered dunes at the Tsodilo Hills, north-west Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, P. A.; Hooper, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Seasonal reflectance variations in semigrid environments provide a means of assessing vegetation health and density as well as monitoring landform processes. Multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes with field measurements are used to map geomorphology and vegetation density in a stabilized dune environment and to measure seasonal reflectance changes for a series of ten geomorphological and vegetation units on the Kalahari-age linear dunes. Units were chosen based on differences in landform and proportion of trees, forbs and bare soil. Reflectance curves and normalized-difference vegetation indices (NDVI) show that dune crests have the strongest seasonal variability in color and brightness. The geomorphological link with reflectance and NDVI values are linked to biomass production and zoning of vegetation with slope, drainage and subtle soil differences.

  20. Temporal patterns of vegetation phenology and their responses to climate change in mid-latitude grasslands of the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S.; Chen, X.; Qin, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Grassland ecosystem is greatly sensitive to regional and global climate changes. In this study, the start (SOS) and end (EOS) date of growing season were extracted from NDVI data (1981 2014) across the mid-latitude (30°N 55°N) grasslands of Northern Hemisphere. We first validated their accuracy by ground observed phenological data and phenological metrics derived from gross primary production (GPP) data. And then, main climatic factors influencing the temporal patterns of SOS/EOS were explored by means of gridded meteorological data and partial correlation analysis. Based on the results of above statistical analysis, the similarities and differences of spring and autumn phenological responses to climate change among North American grasslands, Mid-West Asian grasslands, and Mongolian grasslands were analyzed. The main results and conclusions are as follows. First, a significant positive correlation was found between SOS/EOS and observed green-up/brown-off date (PSOS/EOS (PSOS/EOS can reflect temporal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation phenology. Second, SOS in Mid-West Asian grasslands showed a significant advancing trend (0.22 days/year, PSOS in North American grasslands and Mongolian grasslands was not significant. EOS in North American grasslands (0.31 dyas/year, PSOS/EOS inter-annual fluctuations and hydrothermal factors showed that a significant negative correlation was found between SOS and the pre-season temperature in 41.6% of pixels (PSOS and pre-season rainfall/snowfall in 14.6%/19.0% of pixels (PSOS and EOS are mainly affected by pre-season temperature and pre-season rainfall.

  1. [Storages and distributed patterns of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen during the succession of artificial sand-binding vegetation in arid desert ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Hong; Li, Xin-Rong; Zhou, Yu-Yan; Li, Yuan-Shou

    2012-03-01

    Soil carbon pool acts as the largest one of carbon pools in the terrestrial ecosystem. The storages and distributed patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) evaluated accurately are helpful to predict the feedback between the terrestrial ecosystem and climate changes. Based on the data about bulk density, content of SOC and TN at 0-100 cm soil profile, the density of SOC and TN at the temporal (chronosequence of artificial vegetation) and spatial (vertical) distributed patterns have been estimated. The results indicated that storages of SOC and TN at 0-100 cm depth increased with the chronosequence of artificial vegetation. The storages of SOC and TN showed the same tendency with the succession time of artificial vegetation. Storages of SOC and TN significantly increased at the early stage of banding sand by artificially vegetation ( 25 a). The variation of storages mainly occurred in the 0-20 cm depth. The storages decreased with the soil vertical depth. At the early stage of banding sand, increase in storage included every depth (0-100 cm). Whereas, at the later stage, increase in storage at 0-20 cm depth was main, and increase in the 20-100 cm was inconspicuous. The accumulation of storage at the shallow soil depth was more notability with the succession of artificial vegetation. The distributed pattern of storage in SOC and TN has been confirmed in arid desert regions below 200 mm annual precipitation. This was beneficial to understand the carbon cycle and to predict the feedback relationship between desert ecosystem and climate changes.

  2. Fruit and vegetable intake and their pesticide residues in relation to semen quality among men from a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J; Williams, P L; Petrozza, J C; Tanrikut, C; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2015-06-01

    status of fruits and vegetables. CASA is a useful method for clinical evaluation but may be considered less favorable for accurate semen analysis in the research setting. Owing to the observational nature of the study, confirmation is required by interventional studies as well. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the consumption of fruits and vegetables with high levels of pesticide residue in relation to semen quality. Further confirmation of these findings is warranted. Supported by National Institutes of Health grants ES009718, ES022955, ES000002, P30 DK046200 and Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 DK007703-16. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Patterns of anismus and the relation to biofeedback therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, U C; Choi, S K; Piccirillo, M F; Verzaro, R; Wexner, S D

    1996-07-01

    A study was undertaken to assess physiologic characteristics and clinical significance of anismus. Specifically, we sought to assess patterns of anismus and the relation of these findings to the success of therapy. Sixty-eight patients were found to have anismus based on history and diagnostic criteria including anismus by defecography and at least one of three additional tests: anorectal manometry, electromyography, or colonic transit time study. Interpretation of defecography was based on the consensus of at least three of four observers. Anal canal hypertonia (n = 32) was defined when mean and maximum resting pressures were at least 1 standard deviation higher than those in 63 controls. There were two distinct defecographic patterns of anismus: Type A (n = 26), a flattened anorectal angle without definitive puborectalis indentation but a closed anal canal; Type B (n = 42), a clear puborectalis indentation, narrow anorectal angle, and closed anal canal. Outcomes of 57 patients who had electromyographybased biofeedback therapy were reported as either improved or unimproved at a mean follow-up of 23.7 (range, 6-62) months. These two types of anismus were compared with biofeedback outcome to assess clinical relevance. Patients with Type A anismus showed greater perineal descent at rest (mean, 5.1 vs. 3.5 cm; P anismus. Only 25 percent of patients who had Type A anismus with anal canal hypertonia were improved by biofeedback therapy. Conversely, 86 percent of patients with Type B anismus without anal canal hypertonia were successfully treated with biofeedback (P anismus correlate with the success of biofeedback treatment. Therefore, knowledge of these patterns may help direct therapy.

  4. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  5. Understanding patterns of vegetation structure and distribution across Great Smoky Mountains National Park using LiDAR and meteorology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S. P.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) in Tennessee is a biodiversity hotspot and home to a large number of plant, animal and bird species. Driven by gradients of climate (ex. temperature, precipitation regimes), topography (ex. elevation, slope, aspect), geology (ex. soil types, textures, depth), hydrology (ex. drainage, moisture availability) etc. GSMNP offers a diverse composition and distribution of vegetation which in turn supports an array of wildlife. Understanding the vegetation canopy structure is critical to understand, monitor and manage the complex forest ecosystems like the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP). Vegetation canopies not only help understand the vegetation, but are also a critically important habitat characteristics of many threatened and endangered animal and bird species that GSMNP is home to. Using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) we characterize the three-dimensional structure of the vegetation. LiDAR based analysis gives detailed insight in the canopy structure (overstory and understory) and its spatial variability within and across forest types. Vegetation structure and spatial distribution show strong correlation with climate, topographic, and edaphic variables and our multivariate analysis not just mines rich and large LiDAR data but presents ecological insights and data for vegetation within the park that can be useful to forest managers in their management and conservation efforts.

  6. Plasma carotenoid levels in Dutch men and women, and the relation with vegetable and fruit consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Kappel, A.L. van; Ocké, M.C.; Veer, P. van 't; Boshuizen, H.C.; Riboli, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely associated with cancer risk in many epidemiological studies. Accurate assessment of consumption of these foods is difficult, and biomarkers of intake would overcome several drawbacks of currently used dietary assessment methods. Therefore, we

  7. Variety of fruit and vegetables is related to preschoolers' overall diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A; Shriver, Lenka H; Taylor, Christopher A

    2017-03-01

    Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children ( n  = 2595) in 2005-2010 NHANES were examined. Diet quality was evaluated using MyPlate equivalents and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Variety categories were determined based on children's fruit, fruit juice, and vegetable consumption on the recalled day. Differences in diet quality were examined using t -tests. Variety of fruits and vegetables was linked to higher overall diet quality. Children who consumed whole fruit had better diet quality scores for total fruit, whole fruit, whole grains, dairy, seafood, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories ( P  ≤ 0.018). Significantly higher HEI-2010 scores for total fruit, whole fruit, fatty acids, sodium, and empty calories, but a lower dairy HEI-2010 score, were identified in children who drank fruit juice ( P  ≤ 0.038). Vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher total vegetables, greens/beans, and empty calories, but a lower sodium score ( P  ≤ 0.027). Children who consumed whole fruit, fruit juice and non-starchy vegetables ( P  ≤ 0.017), but not white potatoes, had significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores. Reinforcing fruit and 100% fruit juice consumption may indirectly support healthier diets among children. However, underlying associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and overall diet quality should be examined further.

  8. Variety of fruit and vegetables is related to preschoolers' overall diet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Ramsay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children (n = 2595 in 2005–2010 NHANES were examined. Diet quality was evaluated using MyPlate equivalents and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Variety categories were determined based on children's fruit, fruit juice, and vegetable consumption on the recalled day. Differences in diet quality were examined using t-tests. Variety of fruits and vegetables was linked to higher overall diet quality. Children who consumed whole fruit had better diet quality scores for total fruit, whole fruit, whole grains, dairy, seafood, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories (P ≤ 0.018. Significantly higher HEI-2010 scores for total fruit, whole fruit, fatty acids, sodium, and empty calories, but a lower dairy HEI-2010 score, were identified in children who drank fruit juice (P ≤ 0.038. Vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher total vegetables, greens/beans, and empty calories, but a lower sodium score (P ≤ 0.027. Children who consumed whole fruit, fruit juice and non-starchy vegetables (P ≤ 0.017, but not white potatoes, had significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores. Reinforcing fruit and 100% fruit juice consumption may indirectly support healthier diets among children. However, underlying associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and overall diet quality should be examined further.

  9. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima D.U.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they came. The only significant correlations that we found between cell wall genes and/or their expression within particular libraries were neutral or synergetic. Genes related to cellulose biosynthesis were from the CesA family, and were found to be the most abundant cell wall related genes in the SUCEST database. We found that the highest number of CesA reads came from the root and stem libraries. The genes with the greatest number of reads were those involved in cell wall hydrolases (e.g. beta-1,3-glucanases, xyloglucan endo-beta-transglycosylase, beta-glucosidase and endo-beta-mannanase. Correlation analyses by surface mapping revealed that the expression of genes related to biosynthesis seems to be associated with the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, pectin hydrolases being mainly associated with xyloglucan hydrolases. The patterns of cell wall related gene expression in sugarcane based on the number of reads per cluster reflected quite well the expected physiological characteristics of the tissues. This is the first work to provide a general view on plant cell wall metabolism through the expression of related genes in almost all the tissues of a plant at the same time. For example, developing flowers behaved similarly to both meristematic tissues and leaf-root transition zone tissues. Besides providing a basis for future research on the mechanisms of plant development which involve the cell wall, our findings will provide valuable tools for plant engineering in the

  10. Maternal parenting behaviors during childhood relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable intakes of college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood parenting behaviors, under both general and feeding specific situations, related to college students’ weight status, waist circumference (WC), and fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes. U.S. college students (n equals 424, 66 percent female, 18-24 yr,...

  11. Maternal Parenting Behaviors during Childhood Relate to Weight Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…

  12. Satellite observations for describing fire patterns and climate-related fire drivers in the Brazilian savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verola Mataveli, Guilherme Augusto; Siqueira Silva, Maria Elisa; Pereira, Gabriel; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle; Shinji Kawakubo, Fernando; Bertani, Gabriel; Cezar Costa, Julio; de Cássia Ramos, Raquel; Valéria da Silva, Viviane

    2018-01-01

    In the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado biome) fires are natural and a tool for shifting land use; therefore, temporal and spatial patterns result from the interaction of climate, vegetation condition and human activities. Moreover, orbital sensors are the most effective approach to establish patterns in the biome. We aimed to characterize fire, precipitation and vegetation condition regimes and to establish spatial patterns of fire occurrence and their correlation with precipitation and vegetation condition in the Cerrado. The Cerrado was first and second biome for the occurrence of burned areas (BA) and hotspots, respectively. Occurrences are higher during the dry season and in the savanna land use. Hotspots and BA tend to decrease, and concentrate in the north, but more intense hotspots are not necessarily located where concentration is higher. Spatial analysis showed that averaged and summed values can hide patterns, such as for precipitation, which has the lowest average in August, but minimum precipitation in August was found in 7 % of the Cerrado. Usually, there is a 2-3-month lag between minimum precipitation and maximum hotspots and BA, while minimum VCI and maximum hotspots and BA occur in the same month. Hotspots and BA are better correlated with VCI than precipitation, qualifying VCI as an indicator of the susceptibility of vegetation to ignition.

  13. Spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H

    2005-01-01

    After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. The most common bacterial agents are Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, and lactic acid bacteria with E. carotovora being the most common, attacking virtually every vegetable type. Fungi commonly causing spoilage of fresh vegetables are Botrytis cinerea, various species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, Phytophthora, Pythium and Rhizopus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and some mildews. A few of these organisms show a substrate preference whereas others such as Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Phytophthora, and Rhizopus spp., affect a wide variety of vegetables causing devastating losses. Many of these agents enter the plant tissue through mechanical or chilling injuries, or after the skin barrier has been broken down by other organisms. Besides causing huge economic losses, some fungal species could produce toxic metabolites in the affected sites, constituting a potential health hazard for humans. Additionally, vegetables have often served as vehicles for pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites and were implicated in many food borne illness outbreaks. In order to slow down vegetable spoilage and minimize the associated adverse health effects, great caution should be taken to follow strict hygiene, good agricultural practices (GAPs) and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) during cultivation, harvest, storage, transport, and marketing.

  14. Using management to address vegetation stress related to land-use and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; Boudell, Jere; Fisichelli, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    While disturbances such as fire, cutting, and grazing can be an important part of the conservation of natural lands, some adjustments to management designed to mimic natural disturbance may be necessary with ongoing and projected climate change. Stressed vegetation that is incapable of regeneration will be difficult to maintain if adults are experiencing mortality, and/or if their early life-history stages depend on disturbance. A variety of active management strategies employing disturbance are suggested, including resisting, accommodating, or directing vegetation change by manipulating management intensity and frequency. Particularly if land-use change is the main cause of vegetation stress, amelioration of these problems using management may help vegetation resist change (e.g. strategic timing of water release if a water control structure is available). Managers could direct succession by using management to push vegetation toward a new state. Despite the historical effects of management, some vegetation change will not be controllable as climates shift, and managers may have to accept some of these changes. Nevertheless, proactive measures may help managers achieve important conservation goals in the future.

  15. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fibre-Related Dietary Patterns: Socioeconomic Barriers to Adequate Fibre Intake in Polish Adolescents. A Short Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusinska, Beata; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Wuenstel, Justyna Weronika; Slowinska, Malgorzata Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa

    2017-06-10

    There is no complete explanation for the association between socioeconomic status (SES), fibre, and whole diet described by dietary patterns. The aim of this short report was to increase the understanding of adolescent dietary patterns related to fibre in their social context. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 1176 adolescents aged 13-18 years from central and north-eastern Poland. The overall SES was composed of five single factors: place of residence, self-declared economic situation of family, self-declared economic situation of household, paternal and maternal education. The consumption frequency of nine dietary fibre sources was collected using Block's questionnaire and was expressed in points. Fibre dietary patterns (DPs) were drawn by cluster analysis and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, and BMI were calculated. Three fibre-related DPs were identified: "High-fibre" (mean frequency of total fibre intake 22.7 points; range: 0-36), "Average-fibre" (17.7 points), "Low-fibre" (14.6 points). The "High-fibre" DP was characterized by a relatively higher frequency consumption of white bread, fruit, fruit or vegetable juices, potatoes, green salad and prepared vegetables, and a moderate frequency consumption of high-fibre or bran cereals and wholegrain bread compared to the "Low-fibre" DP. The "Average-fibre" DP was characterized by a relatively higher frequency consumption of wholegrain bread and high-fibre or bran cereals and a moderate frequency consumption of fruit, fruit or vegetable juices, green salad and prepared vegetables compared to the "Low-fibre" DP. Less likely to adhere to the "High-fibre" DP were adolescents with low SES (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39-0.77) or average SES (0.58, 95% CI: 0.41-0.81) in comparison with high SES (reference) as a result of elementary or secondary paternal or maternal education, rural residence, and lower household economic situation. Similar associations were found for the "Average-fibre" DP. Low and average

  17. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    Full Text Available The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI product based on turning points (TPs, which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost

  18. Fruit and vegetable purchasing and the relative density of healthy and unhealthy food stores: evidence from an Australian multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kate E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of a relationship between residential retail food environments and diet-related outcomes is inconsistent. One reason for this may be that food environments are typically defined in terms of the absolute number of particular store types in an area, whereas a measure of the relative number of healthy and unhealthy stores may be more appropriate. Using cross-sectional data from the VicLANES study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent associations between absolute measures (numbers of healthy and unhealthy stores) and a relative measure (relative density of healthy stores) of the food environment, and self-reported variety of fruit and vegetable purchasing in local households. Purchasing behaviour was measured as the odds of purchasing above the median level of fruit and vegetables. Compared to households in areas where healthy food stores made up no more than 10% of all healthy and unhealthy stores, households in areas with 10.1-15.0% healthy food stores and >15% healthy stores had increased odds of healthier purchasing (OR=1.48 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.96) and OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.91), respectively). There was less evidence of an association between absolute numbers of healthy or unhealthy stores and fruit and vegetable purchasing. We found strong evidence of healthier fruit and vegetable purchasing in households located in areas where the proportion of food stores that were healthy was greater. Policies aimed at improving the balance between healthy and unhealthy stores within areas may therefore be effective in promoting greater consumption of fruit and vegetables.

  19. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantellops, Dennis

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  20. Relative importance and interactions of furan precursors in sterilised, vegetable-based food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Buvé, Carolien; Vanratingen, Koen; Kebede, Biniam T; Goos, Peter; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation strategies aimed at an intervention in the reaction pathways for furan formation (e.g., by adjusting precursor concentrations) might offer an additional route for furan reduction in sterilised, vegetable-based foods, without adverse effects on other food safety or quality attributes. As a first step towards product reformulation, the aim of the present study was to determine the relative importance and interactions of possible furan precursors in these types of foods. Based on an I-optimal experimental design, potato purée (naturally low in furan precursors) was spiked with known amounts of sugars, ascorbic acid, olive oil and β-carotene, and subjected to a thermal sterilisation. Significant correlations were observed between furan concentrations after thermal treatment and starting concentrations of ascorbic acid and monosaccharides (i.e., fructose and glucose). Ascorbic acid had a clear furan-reducing effect as an antioxidant by protecting (polyunsaturated) fatty acids against oxidative degradation. Fructose and glucose were the main precursors, which can most probably be attributed to their high, but realistic, concentrations in the product. The contributions of fatty acids and β-carotene were strongly dependent on redox interactions with other food constituents. In the same potato purées, only low concentrations (0-2 ng g(-1) purée) of 2-methylfuran were detected, indicating that the direct importance of the spiked food constituents as a precursor for methylfuran formation was rather small. Based on the results of this study, reducing the amount of monosaccharides or adjusting the redox conditions of the matrix are suggested as two possible approaches for furan mitigation on the product side.

  1. Which Diet-Related Behaviors in Childhood Influence a Healthier Dietary Pattern? From the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ah; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Se Young; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Park, Hyesook

    2016-12-23

    This study was performed to examine how childhood dietary patterns change over the short term and which changes in diet-related behaviors influence later changes in individual dietary patterns. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained from children at 7 and 9 years of age from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we examined dietary patterns by principal component analysis. We calculated the individual changes in dietary pattern scores. Changes in dietary habits such as eating a variety of food over two years were defined as "increased", "stable", or "decreased". The dietary patterns, termed "healthy intake", "animal food intake", and "snack intake", were similar at 7 and 9 years of age. These patterns explained 32.3% and 39.1% of total variation at the ages of 7 and 9 years, respectively. The tracking coefficient of snack intake had the highest coefficient (γ = 0.53) and that of animal food intake had the lowest (γ = 0.21). Intra-individual stability in dietary habits ranged from 0.23 to 0.47, based on the sex-adjusted weighted kappa values. Of the various behavioral factors, eating breakfast every day was most common in the "stable" group (83.1%), whereas consuming milk or dairy products every day was the least common (49.0%). Moreover, changes in behavior that improved the consumption of milk or dairy products or encouraged the consumption of vegetables with every meal had favorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores over two years. However, those with worsened habits, such as less food variety and more than two portions of fried or stir-fried food every week, had unfavorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores. Our results suggest that diet-related behaviors can change, even over a short period, and these changes can affect changes in dietary pattern.

  2. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  3. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers (∼ 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval-pupal parasitoid

  4. Variety of fruit and vegetables is related to preschoolers' overall diet quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Shriver, Lenka H.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children (n = 2595) in 2005–2010 NHANES were examined. ...

  5. Microform-related community patterns of methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs are site specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juottonen, Heli; Kotiaho, Mirkka; Robinson, Devin; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2015-09-01

    Vegetation and water table are important regulators of methane emission in peatlands. Microform variation encompasses these factors in small-scale topographic gradients of dry hummocks, intermediate lawns and wet hollows. We examined methane production and oxidization among microforms in four boreal bogs that showed more variation of vegetation within a bog with microform than between the bogs. Potential methane production was low and differed among bogs but not consistently with microform. Methane oxidation followed water table position with microform, showing higher rates closer to surface in lawns and hollows than in hummocks. Methanogen community, analysed by mcrA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and dominated by Methanoregulaceae or 'Methanoflorentaceae', varied strongly with bog. The extent of microform-related variation of methanogens depended on the bog. Methanotrophs identified as Methylocystis spp. in pmoA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis similarly showed effect of bog, and microform patterns were stronger within individual bogs. Our results suggest that methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs with seemingly uniform environmental conditions may show strong site-dependent variation. The bog-intrinsic factor may be related to carbon availability but contrary to expectations appears to be unrelated to current surface vegetation, calling attention to the origin of carbon substrates for microbes in bogs. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Relationship between Number of Fruits, Vegetables, and Noncore Foods Tried at Age 14 Months and Food Preferences, Dietary Intake Patterns, Fussy Eating Behavior, and Weight Status at Age 3.7 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Fildes, Alison; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-04-01

    We examined whether exposure to a greater number of fruits, vegetables, and noncore foods (ie, nutrient poor and high in saturated fats, added sugars, or added salt) at age 14 months was related to children's preference for and intake of these foods as well as maternal-reported food fussiness and measured child weight status at age 3.7 years. This study reports secondary analyses of longitudinal data from mothers and children (n=340) participating in the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. Exposure was quantified as the number of food items (n=55) tried by a child from specified lists at age 14 months. At age 3.7 years, food preferences, intake patterns, and fussiness (also at age 14 months) were assessed using maternal-completed, established questionnaires. Child weight and length/height were measured by study staff at both age points. Multivariable linear regression models were tested to predict food preferences, intake patterns, fussy eating, and body mass index z score at age 3.7 years adjusting for a range of maternal and child covariates. Having tried a greater number of vegetables, fruits, and noncore foods at age 14 months predicted corresponding preferences and higher intakes at age 3.7 years but did not predict child body mass index z score. Adjusting for fussiness at age 14 months, having tried more vegetables at age 14 months was associated with lower fussiness at age 3.7 years. These prospective analyses support the hypothesis that early taste and texture experiences influence subsequent food preferences and acceptance. These findings indicate introduction to a variety of fruits and vegetables and limited noncore food exposure from an early age are important strategies to improve later diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unravelling long-term vegetation change patterns in a binational watershed using multitemporal land cover data and historical photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.; Webb, Robert H.; Boyer, Diane E.; Turner, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of research conducted in the Sonoran Desert of North America has documented, both anecdotally and empirically, major vegetation changes over the past century due to human land use activities. However, many studies lack coincidental landscape-scale data characterizing the spatial and temporal manifestation of these changes. Vegetation changes in a binational (USA and Mexico) watershed were documented using a series of four land cover maps (1979-2009) derived from multispectral satellite imagery. Cover changes are compared to georeferenced, repeat oblique photographs dating from the late 19th century to present. Results indicate the expansion of grassland over the past 20 years following nearly a century of decline. Historical repeat photography documents early-mid 20th century mesquite invasions, but recent land cover data and rephotography demonstrate declines in xeroriparian/riparian mesquite communities in recent decades. These vegetation changes are variable over the landscape and influenced by topography and land management.

  8. Relative skills of soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture condition is an important indicator for agricultural drought monitoring. Through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), vegetation optical depth (VOD) as well as surface soil moisture (SM) can be retrieved simultaneously from brightness temperature observations from the Advanced Mi...

  9. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activities in Languedoc (Southern France)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Azuara; N. Combourieu-Nebout; V. Lebreton; F. Mazier; S. D. Müller; L. Dezileau

    2015-01-01

    Holocene climate fluctuations and human activities since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediterranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to reconstruct Mediterranean paleoenvironments over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High resolution pollen analyses were undertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamics ove...

  10. Foliar moisture content of Pacific Northwest vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Agee; Clinton S. Wright; Nathan Williamson; Mark H. Huff

    2002-01-01

    Fotiar moisture was monitored for five conifers and associated understory vegetation in Pacific Northwest forests. Decline in foliar moisture of new foliage occurred over the dry season, while less variation was evident in older foliage. Late season foliar moisture ranged from 130 to 170%. In riparian-upland comparisons, largest differences were found for understory...

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Vegetables and Its Relation with Phenolic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino M. Alencar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are widely consumed in Brazil and exported to several countries. This study was performed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of vegetables commonly consumed in Brazil using five different methods, namely DPPH and ABTS free radical, β-carotene bleaching, reduction of Fe3+ (FRAP, oxidative stability in Rancimat, and the chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1.2 mg GA/g (carrot to 16.9 mg GA/g (lettuce. Vegetables presenting the highest antioxidant activity were lettuce (77.2 µmol Trolox/g DPPH; 447.1 µmol F2+/g FRAP, turmeric (118.6 µmol Trolox/g ABTS•+; 92.8% β-carotene, watercress and broccoli (protective factor 1.29—Rancimat method. Artichoke, spinach, broccoli, and asparagus also showed considerable antioxidant activity. The most frequent phenolic compounds identified by GC-MS were ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric, 2-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids, and quercetin. We observed antioxidant activity in several vegetables and our results point out their importance in the diet.

  12. Vegetation gradients in fishpond mires in relation to seasonal fluctuations in environmental factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Jana; Navrátil, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2005), s. 405-418 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD526/03/H036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : fluctuation * mire vegetation * water chemistry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.545, year: 2005

  13. The relation of vegetation over the Tibetan Plateau to rainfall in China during the boreal summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zhiyan; Zhang, Renhe [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Beijing (China); Zhao, Ping [National Meteorological Information Centre, Beijing (China)

    2011-03-15

    The relationship between vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and summer (June-August) rainfall in China is investigated using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Earth Resources Observation System and observed rainfall data from surface 616 stations in China for the period 1982-2001. The leading mode of empirical orthogonal functions analysis for summer rainfall variability in China shows a negative anomaly in the area from the Yangtze River valley to the Yellow River valley (YYR) and most of western China, and positive anomalies in southern China and North China. This mode is significantly correlated with summer NDVI around the southern TP. This finding indicates that vegetation around the southern TP has a positive correlation with summer rainfall in southern China and North China, but a negative correlation with summer rainfall in YYR and western China. We investigate the physical process by which vegetation change affects summer rainfall in China. Increased vegetation around the southern TP is associated with a descending motion anomaly on the TP and the neighboring area to the east, resulting in reduced surface heating and a lower Bowen ratio, accompanied by weaker divergence in the upper troposphere and convergence in the lower troposphere on the TP. In turn, these changes result in the weakening of and a westward shift in the southern Asian High in the upper troposphere and thereby the weakening of and an eastward withdrawal in the western Pacific subtropical high. These features result in weak circulation in the East Asian summer monsoon. Consequently, enhanced summer rainfall occurs in southern China and North China, but reduced rainfall in YYR. (orig.)

  14. Temporal analysis of vegetation indices related to biophysical parameters using Sentinel 2A images to estimate maize production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lucas Saran; Kawakubo, Fernando Shinji

    2017-10-01

    Agricultural production is one of the most important Brazilian economic activities accounting for about 21,5% of total Gross Domestic Product. In this scenario, the use of satellite images for estimating biophysical parameters along the phenological development of agricultural crops allows the conclusion about the sanity of planting and helps the projection on design production trends. The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal patterns and variation of six vegetion indexes obtained from the bands of Sentinel 2A satellite, associated with greenness (NDVI and ClRE), senescence (mARI and PSRI) and water content (DSWI and NDWI) to estimate maize production. The temporal pattern of the indices was analyzed in function of productivity data collected in-situ. The results obtained evidenced the importance of the SWIR and Red Edge ranges with Pearson correlation values of the temporal mean for NDWI 0.88 and 0.76 for CLRE.

  15. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J.; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  16. Fruit and vegetable consumption and food values: National patterns in the United States by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program eligibility and cooking frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2015-07-01

    More frequent cooking at home may help improve diet quality and be associated with food values, particularly for individuals participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). To examine patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption and food values among adults (aged 20 and older) in the United States, by SNAP participation and household cooking frequency. Analysis of cross-sectional 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9560). A lower percentage of SNAP participants consumed fruit (total: 35% vs. 46%, p=0.001; fresh: 30% vs. 41%, pcooking >6times/week was associated with greater vegetable consumption compared to cooking cooked ≥2times/week were more to report price (medium cookers: 47% vs. 33%, p=0.001; high cookers: 52% vs. 40%, pcooking frequency. Efforts to improve diet quality should consider values on which food purchases are based. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stages of change to increase fruit and vegetable intake and its relationships with fruit and vegetable intake and related psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Yen, Wong; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir

    2014-06-01

    Understanding individual's intention, action and maintenance to increase fruit and vegetable intake is an initial step in designing nutrition or health promotion programs. This study aimed to determine stages of change to increase fruit and vegetable intake and its relationships with fruit and vegetable intake, self-efficacy, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 348 public university staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire and two days 24-hour diet recall were used. Half of the respondents (50%) were in preparation stage, followed by 43% in action/maintenance, 7% in pre-contemplation/contemplation stages. Respondents in action/maintenance stages had significantly higher self-efficacy (F = 9.17, P diet high in fruits and vegetables in order to promote healthy changes in having high fruit and vegetable intake.

  18. Judgments relative to patterns: how temporal sequence patterns affect judgments and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-12-01

    Six experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a first-run effect whereby people overestimated the frequency of a given category when that category was the first repeated category to occur in the sequence and (b) a dissociation between judgments and recall; respondents may judge 1 event more likely than the other and yet recall more instances of the latter. Specifically, the distribution of recalled items does not correspond to the frequency estimates for the event categories, indicating that participants do not make frequency judgments by sampling their memory for individual items as implied by other accounts such as the availability heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973) and the availability process model (Hastie & Park, 1986). We interpret these findings as reflecting the operation of a judgment heuristic sensitive to sequential patterns and offer an account for the relationship between memory and judged frequencies of sequentially encountered stimuli.

  19. Linking vegetation pattern to hydrology and hydrochemistry in a montane river floodplain, the Šumava National Park, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bufková, I.; Prach, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2006), s. 317-327 ISSN 0923-4861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/1442 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : diversity * river floodplain * vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  20. The influence of environmental changes on local and regional vegetation patterns at Rieme (NW Belgium): implications for Final Palaeolithic habitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.A.A.; Verbruggen, F.; Engels, S.; Crombé, P.

    2012-01-01

    Late-glacial vegetation changes were studied at Rieme, NW Belgium. Human occupation of this cover sand area occurred from the Final Palaeolithic onwards. The research area is situated on the northern side of a large cover sand ridge in an undulating landscape with small ridges and depressions. The

  1. Associations between access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Crawford, Thomas W; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA. Design Access to food venues was measured using a Geographic Information System incorporating distance, seasonality and business hours, to quantify access to farmers’ markets. Produce consumption was assessed by self-report of eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily. BMI and blood pressure were assessed by clinical measurements. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for dichotomous outcomes and multiple linear regression was used for continuous outcomes. As the study occurred in a university town and university students are likely to have different shopping patterns from non-students, we stratified analyses by student status. Setting Eastern North Carolina. Subjects Low-income women of reproductive age (18–44 years) with valid address information accessing family planning services at a local health department (n 400). Results Over a quarter reported ever shopping at farmers’ markets (114/400). A larger percentage of women who shopped at farmers’ markets consumed five or more fruits and vegetables daily (42·1%) than those who did not (24·0%; P<0·001). The mean objectively measured distance to men reported shopping was 11·4 (SD 9·0) km (7·1 (SD 5·6) miles), while the mean distance to the farmers’ market closest to the residence was 4·0 (SD 3·7) km (2·5 (SD 2·3) miles). Conclusions Among non-students, those who shopped at farmers’ markets were more likely to consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Future research should further explore potential health benefits of farmers’ markets. PMID:23701901

  2. Detecting land-cover change using mappable vegetation related indices: A case study from Sinharaja Man and the Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BD Madurapperuma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates multi-year changes of vegetation in the Sinharaja Man and the Biosphere (MAB reserve using mappable vegetation related indices viz., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Burn Index (BI. Land-cover changes in the Sinharaja MAB reserve were detected using Landsat 7 ETM+ images for 1993, 2001, and 2005. Seven individual bands of each image were converted to new multiband files by layer stacking using ENVI® 4.5. Then the multiband files were re-projected to UTM Zone 44 North, WGS-84 Datum. Each data set was exported to ENVI® EX software package to detect the changes between time steps based on NDVI and BI using an image difference tool. Land-cover data, which were obtained from the DIVA GIS web portal, were compared with Landsat image data. Results of BI showed that the Sinharaja MAB reserve fringe was vulnerable to forest fire. For example, from 1993- 2001, 160 ha identified as burned area. In contrast, from 2001-2005, 79 ha burned, and for the entire period of 1993-2005, 10 ha burned. NDVI resulted in a 962 ha increase of vegetation prime at the western Sinharaja from 2001-2005. In addition, there was a 15 ha decrease in vegetation from 1993-2005. The results were visualized using an embedded 3D render window of Google Earth and 2D view of ArcGIS explorer online. In conclusion, in-situ ground truthing data is needed for the fire-influenced area for implementing sustainable forest resource management at the Sinharaja MAB reserve. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  4. Supply chain of perishables: how restaurants choose and relate with suppliers of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessuir Pigatto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The increased meals outside has allowed the companies that offer the food service a increase in financial revenues, but increased the requirements for purchase of quality inputs. Thus, this article aims to analyze the perishables supply chain used by firms that operate in the food service, specifically the process of vegetables purchasing by small restaurants and their relationships with farming suppliers. Was utilized as analysis object, restaurants located in the northwestern regions of the State of São Paulo situated more than 600 km from the main supply vegetables center (CEAGESP. We chose a field research through data collection by semistructured questionnaires, applied in a personal interview with qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Although narrow, the relationship between the two chain links (restaurants and agricultural suppliers revealed to were positioned nearer to the market competitive than to the collaborative Market.

  5. Allelopathic relations of selected cereal and vegetable species during seed germination and seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojović Biljana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is the direct or indirect harmful effect which one plant produces on another through the production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment. In the presence paper allelopathic relationships were determined in three cereals - wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., oat (Avena sativa L. and vegetable crops - spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., pepper (Capsicum annum L.. In addition to the percentage of germination, allelopathic potential was tested measuring root and stem length of tested plant species germinated either alone or in combination with others. The obtained results showed that seed germination and plant growth of cereals and vegetables are depended on the presence of other plants in all tested combinations. In this study has proven largely inhibitory allelopathic effect on germination and plant growth.

  6. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activity in Languedoc (southern France)

    OpenAIRE

    Azuara , J; Combourieu-Nebout , N; Lebreton , V; Mazier , F; Müller , S D; Dezileau , L ,

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Holocene climate fluctuations and human activity since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediter-ranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to better understand Mediterranean pale-oenvironmental changes over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High-resolution pollen analyses were un-dertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamic...

  7. Relation between breast parenchymal pattern and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeung Hee; Lee, Sung Yong; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1985-01-01

    Although the usefulness of mammography as a screening test for breast cancer is still in dispute, its use to patients over 50 years of age is valid. Since Wolfe first classified the breast parenchymal patterns of mammography into 4 patterns, many authors have adopted the criteria in studying the changes of the parenchymal patterns for certain ages and the risks for breast cancer of certain parenchymal patterns. Authors reviewed 49 cases of breast masses which diagnosed by mammography and by operation during the period from January 1978 to July 1983 at St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. The parenchymal tissue patterns were classified according to Wolfe into N1, P1, P2 and DY, Risk groups were classified into low risk group (N1, P1) and high group (P2, DY). On the basis of these criteria, benign and malignant disease were analyzed against the breast parenchymal patterns. The results and conclusions were as follows: 1. Age ranged from 16 years to 67 years with the most prevalent age being 4th and 5th decades. 2. Diagnoses were: fibroadenoma 17 cases, fibrous dysplasia 16 cases, ductal papilloma 3 cases, and cancer 13 cases. 3. Categorization of those 26 benign disease according to the Wolfe's criteria was: N1 6 cases, P1 10 cases, P2 9 cases and DY 11 cases. On the other hand, categorization of 13 cases of cancer was: N1 5 caes, P1 3 cases, P2 3 cases, and DY 2 cases. 4. Of 13 cases of cancer, 8 fell in the low risk group and remainder in the high risk group. There were no significant correlation between the parenchymal patterns and the incidence of breast cancer

  8. Healthy Eating and Barriers Related to Social Class. The case of vegetable and fish consumption in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuland, Silje Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    The article examines the constraints on healthy eating by exploring whether barriers such as taste, competence, time, price, quality and limited selection reduce consumption of vegetables and fish among Norwegians. In order to understand the socio-economic gradient of healthy diets, the study examines how these barriers are related to specific class positions. Regular consumption of both fish and vegetables are recommended by health authorities, and they are broadly perceived as healthy foods by Norwegians. Nevertheless, more than half of the population consumes vegetables less frequently than daily, and the average consumption of fish is far below the recommended two to three dinner portions of fish on a weekly basis. Informed by Bourdieu's theories of social class, this article argues for two overarching barriers related to food consumption, food knowledge and perceived food quality by consumers, and it finds that barriers are tied to scarcity of cultural, economic and social capital. A survey of 2000 respondents subjected to multiple linear regression analysis and factor analysis (PCA) provides the evidence for this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Stages of change related to fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity, and weight control in Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones H, María Angélica; Olivares C, Sonia; Araneda F, Jacqueline; Gómez F, Nelly

    2009-09-01

    In order to design effective health promotion interventions, nutritional status and the stages of change related to the consumption of fruit and vegetables, physical activity, and weight control were determined in 955 students of both genders at the University of Bio-Bio, Chile. The sample was randomly selected by campus, faculty, and career, with a level of confidence of 95% and a maximum error of 3%. Beside the descriptive analysis, to evaluate the association among nutritional status, fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity and weight control, Chi2 test was applied. Nutritional status was determined by Body Mass Index and WHO reference standards for adults. A questionnaire previously validated by INTA was applied to evaluate the stages of change. The prevalence of overweight and obesity reached 48.2% in men and 25.5% in women (pphysical activity regularly (pphysical activity.

  10. Gender in Research on Language. Researching Gender-Related Patterns in Classroom Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Examines gender-related patterns of behavior in the second-language classroom and argues that these patterns dovetail with all the other dynamics of language behavior. The article concludes that drawing on the theoretical foundations of frames theory will ensure that research into gender-related patterns of classroom discourse will reflect the…

  11. Using the Implicit Association Test and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure to Measure Attitudes toward Meat and Vegetables in Vegetarians and Meat-Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Murtagh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the implicit attitudes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians towards meat and vegetables, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Both measures involved asking participants to respond, under time pressure, to pictures of meat or vegetables as either positive…

  12. Species diversity, vegetation pattern and conservation of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Zhang, J.T.; Bai, X.; Shedayi, A.A.; Tariq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Gentiana macrophylla, native to mountainous areas of Central and Southern Asia, is most popular remedy for rheumatism and pains in Traditional Chinese Medicine with an extensive demand in local market. Our study aimed to classify G. macrophylla communities and to find out the impact of topographic and soil factors on their diversity and distribution in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China. Seventy five samples in 15 transects separated by 50m distance in altitude along an elevation gradient (1592-2298m) were established by quadrate method. TWINSAPN and CCA were used for classification and ordination, respectively. Six diversity indices (Species richness, Shannon-Weiner heterogeneity, Simpson’s index, Hill’s index, Pielou evenness and McIntosh evenness) were used to analyze the pattern of species diversity and polynomial regression analysis was used to establish their relationship with environmental variables. TWINSPAN classified G. macrophylla communities into 8 types and CCA indicated that soil pH, soil temperature, soil type, disturbance, total N, total K, Mg and Zn were significantly related to these communities. Elevation was the most significant factor that affecting the diversity and distribution of G. macrophylla communities. Significant effect of environment, topography and disturbance to meadow communities of G. macrophylla highly suggests some important measures such as uprooting restriction, tourism limitation in meadow area, monitoring of functional diversity, fertilization, irrigation, cloning and cultivation to protect and conserve it and its communities to be used in medicine industry. (author)

  13. Coupled chaotic oscillators and their relation to a central pattern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Animal locomotion employs different periodic patterns known as animal gaits. In 1993, Collins and Stewart recognized that gaits possessed certain symmetries and characterized the gaits of quadrupeds and bipeds using permutation symmetry groups, which impose constraints on the locomotion center called the ...

  14. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, Saadia R.; Shah, Munir H.; Shaheen, Nazia

    2009-01-01

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  15. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saadia R; Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, Nazia

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  16. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Saadia R. [Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Munir H., E-mail: munir_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shaheen, Nazia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  17. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Tucker, Katherine L; Salmerón, Jorge; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simón

    2016-01-01

    To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs) were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analysis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation coefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001), 0.41 (P<0.001) and 0.29 (P=0.193) respectively. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using factor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  18. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analy­sis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation oefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001, 0.41 (P<0.001 and 0.29 (P=0.193 respectively. Conclusions. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using fac­tor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  19. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  20. Empirically derived dietary patterns and health-related quality of life in the SUN project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruano

    Full Text Available The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up.This analysis included 11,128 participants from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey.Two major dietary patterns were identified, the 'Western' dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food and the "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil. After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5 and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from -0.8 (for mental health to -3.5 (for vitality. On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning to +3.4 (for vitality when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences.Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project.

  1. Empirically derived dietary patterns and health-related quality of life in the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Cristina; Henriquez, Patricia; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up. This analysis included 11,128 participants from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey. Two major dietary patterns were identified, the 'Western' dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food) and the "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil). After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5) and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from -0.8 (for mental health) to -3.5 (for vitality). On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning) to +3.4 (for vitality) when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences. Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project.

  2. Identifying Patterns in Extreme Precipitation Risk and the Related Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Tye, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation can harm human life and assets through flooding, hail, landslides, or debris flows. Flood risk assessments typically concentrate on river or mountain torrent channels, using water depth, flow velocity, and/or sediment deposition to quantify the risk. In addition, extreme events with high recurrence intervals are often the main focus. However, damages from short-term and localized convective showers often occur away from watercourses. Also, damages from more frequent small scale extremes, although usually less disastrous, can accumulate to considerable financial burdens. Extreme convective precipitation is expected to intensify in a warmer climate, and vulnerability patterns might change in tandem with changes in the character of precipitation and flood types. This has consequences for adaptation planners who want to establish effective protection measures and reduce the cost from natural hazards. Here we merge hydrological and exposure data to identify patterns of risk under varying synoptic conditions. Exposure is calculated from a database of 76k damage claims reported to the national disaster fund in 480 municipalities in south eastern Austria from 1990-2015. Hydrological data comprise sub-daily precipitation (59 gauges) and streamflow (62 gauges) observations. We use synoptic circulation types to identify typical precipitation patterns. They indicate the character of precipitation even if a gauge is not in close proximity, facilitating potential future research with regional climate model data. Results show that more claims are reported under synoptic conditions favouring convective precipitation (on average 1.5-3 times more than on other days). For agrarian municipalities, convective precipitation damages are among the costliest after long low-intensity precipitation events. In contrast, Alpine communities are particularly vulnerable to convective high-intensity rainfall. In addition to possible observational error, uncertainty is present

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E; Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G; Epstein, H E; Yu, Q; Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E; Comiso, J C; Jia, G J; Kaplan, J O; Kumpula, T; Kuss, P; Matyshak, G

    2009-01-01

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G [Earth Cryosphere Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Epstein, H E; Yu, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E [Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (Finland); Comiso, J C [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States); Jia, G J [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Kaplan, J O [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kumpula, T [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland); Kuss, P [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Matyshak, G [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  5. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, Susan P. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the

  6. Sediment-palaeosol successions in Calabria and Sardinia suggest spatially differentiated palaeo-vegetation patterns in southern Italy during the Last Glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zucca, Claudio; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Zwanzig, Lisa; Madrau, Salvatore; Andreucci, Stefano; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Kadereit, Annette; Scarciglia, Fabio; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Several lakes on the southern Italian peninsula provide valuable palaeoenvironmental archives of the Last Glacial period. These archives include, e.g., the long high-resolution record from varved lake sediments of Lago Grande di Monticchio, the bigger one of two maar lakes situated on top of Mt. Vulture. Its pollen record indicates (1) temperate deciduous forest during MIS5.2-MIS5.1 (St. Germain 2); (2) frequent vegetation fluctuations, then Artemisia steppe during MIS5.1-MIS4; (3) alternations between open steppe (stadials) and wooded steppe (interstadials) during MIS3; and (4) open steppe during MIS2 (Last Glacial Maximum). However, only few palaeosol records of this period have been reported from southern Italy in the literature so far. Such records would allow for gaining insight also into spatial patterns of the vegetation cover during this period that should have formed, e.g., according to relief, elevation, and continentality gradient (related to the much lower coastline during the last glacial period). So far, we have studied three sediment-palaeosol successions in southern Italy, two in the Calabria region, and one in north-western Sardinia. All of them have developed in alluvial fan deposits resting on littoral sediments of the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5). The southernmost succession studied is located near Lazzaro (south of Reggio di Calabria). It is exposed in an alluvial fan overlying the MIS5.5 terrace. Due to strong tectonic uplift (1.3 m ka-1) the alluvial fan has been dissected by the same creek which previously had built it up. Therefore, its internal structure is exposed, exhibiting a detailed sediment-palaeosol sequence. The palaeosols are mainly characterized by accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM), bioturbation and secondary carbonates. They represent Chernozem- and Phaeozem-like soils that most likely formed under steppe to forest steppe. SOM of the two uppermost Lazzaro palaeosols was 14C-dated to 26.8-28.8 ka cal BP and 28

  7. Low vegetable intake increases the risk of fall-related fragility fracture in postmenopausal Taiwanese women, a prospective pilot study in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hsu Lin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Among postmenopausal women, older age and the presence of hypertension were associated with increased risks of falls. Increased vegetable intake might be helpful to reduce the incidence of fall-related fragility fractures.

  8. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank [Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela [Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bartholomeus, Harm [Centre for Geo-Information, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Maximov, Trofim C, E-mail: daan.blok@wur.nl [Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, 41, Lenin Prospekt, Yakutsk, The Republic of Sakha, Yakutia 677980 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  9. Recent changes and relations among drought, vegetation and wildfires in the Eastern Mediterranean: The case of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Levin, Noam; Tessler, Naama; Saaroni, Hadas

    2017-04-01

    On-going changes in drought, vegetation and wildfires in Israel provide a key example of possible future evolution in transition areas at the border between Mediterranean and arid climates. Here we present multiple lines of evidence suggesting that drought conditions in Israel, representing the eastern Mediterranean, have increased during the period 1980-2014. Drought conditions were calculated using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI). A 30-year series (1982-2011) of monthly Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) indicates generally positive trends in winter and spring and negative ones in summer and autumn, except in the transition zone between the southern Negev desert and the Mediterranean climate region, where a statistically significant negative trend in all seasons was found. Available ground observations suggest that fire activity has decreased during the period 1987-2011. Apparent year-to-year oscillations are superposed onto these long-term trends. We show that inter-annual variability of summer fires is related to antecedent wet conditions and to above normal vegetation conditions. These relationships suggest the summer fires in Israel are mainly limited by fuel availability rather than by fuel flammability. On the other hand, the year-to-year variations of spring and autumn fires are significantly related with drought indices. Thus, the increase of drought conditions together with climate projections for further warming and drying in this region, point at a potential increase of fire risk in the intermediate seasons.

  10. DMN Operational Synchrony Relates to Self-Consciousness: Evidence from Patients in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been consistently activated across a wide variety of self-related tasks, leading to a proposal of the DMN's role in self-related processing. Indeed, there is limited fMRI evidence that the functional connectivity within the DMN may underlie a phenomenon referred to as self-awareness. At the same time, none of the known studies have explicitly investigated neuronal functional interactions among brain areas that comprise the DMN as a function of self-consciousness loss. To fill this gap, EEG operational synchrony analysis [1, 2] was performed in patients with severe brain injuries in vegetative and minimally conscious states to study the strength of DMN operational synchrony as a function of self-consciousness expression. We demonstrated that the strength of DMN EEG operational synchrony was smallest or even absent in patients in vegetative state, intermediate in patients in minimally conscious state and highest in healthy fully self-conscious subjects. At the same time the process of ecoupling of operations performed by neuronal assemblies that comprise the DMN was highest in patients in vegetative state, intermediate in patients in minimally conscious state and minimal in healthy fully self-conscious subjects. The DMN's frontal EEG operational module had the strongest decrease in operational synchrony strength as a function of selfconsciousness loss, when compared with the DMN's posterior modules. Based on these results it is suggested that the strength of DMN functional connectivity could mediate the strength of self-consciousness expression. The observed alterations similarly occurred across EEG alpha, beta1 and beta2 frequency oscillations. Presented results suggest that the EEG operational synchrony within DMN may provide an objective and accurate measure for the assessment of signs of self-(un)consciousness in these challenging patient populations. This method therefore, may complement the current diagnostic procedures for

  11. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Bartholomeus, Harm; Maximov, Trofim C

    2011-01-01

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  12. An analysis of factors related to the tail-like pattern of myxofibrosarcoma seen on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuta, Kazutaka; Kubota, Daisuke; Chuuman, Hirokazu; Kawai, Akira; Yoshida, Akihiko; Morioka, Hideo; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is characterized by a high frequency of local recurrence after surgery because of infiltrative growth of the tumor cells. This infiltrative growth creates a characteristic 'tail-like' pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and it has been reported that this pattern is especially obvious on gadolinium-enhanced MRI (Gd MRI). However, the relationship between the tail-like pattern seen on Gd MRI and clinicopathological features of MFS is still not clear. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis to identify clinicopathological factors related to the tail-like pattern of the MRI findings in patients with MFS. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients with MFS to identify factors related to the tail-like pattern. On Gd MRI, 32 of the 50 patients presented the tail-like pattern, whereas 18 presented a solid pattern. The clincopathological factors related to the tail-like pattern were evaluated by chi-squared test. A superficial origin (p = 0.0009) was most significantly related to the tail-like pattern. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was 75.6 % for patients showing the tail-like pattern and 90.9 % for those showing the solid pattern. The corresponding 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 64.7 and 79.3 %, respectively. Thus in terms of both 5-year RFS and DFS, patients with the tail-like pattern tended to have a poorer outcome. A superficial origin of MFS is significantly related to a tail-like pattern on Gd MRI. The tail-like pattern is associated with poorer prognosis. Further studies of tumor depth and the tail-like pattern on Gd MRI are needed. (orig.)

  13. The impact of climate and environmental processes on vegetation pattern in the Czechowskie lake catchment Czechowo Region (Northern Tuchola Pinewoods) during the Younger Dryas cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka Maria; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    comprise the whole succession of the Younger Dryas ("Oko", T/trz, JC-12-s) the thickest sediments are in "Oko" profile (1 m) and thinness in the profile from the lake Czechowskie small basin JC-12-s (45 cm). In Cz/80 profile the lake sedimentation stopped at the beginning of the Younger Dryas. The conclusion is that the all pollen results show the same main patterns during the Younger Dryas cooling. Nevertheless the local factors had an influence on the vegetation and this reflected in the different participation of species among sites. The sediment type and sedimentation rate was strongly influenced by the local factors. The combined approach of fossil pollen data and contemporary distribution of substrate and relief allowed to reconstruct of Younger Dryas vegetation patterns and relief in Czechowskie lake catchment Czechowo region. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367). Literature: Wulf S., Ott F., Słowiński M., Noryśkiewicz A. M., Drager N., Martin-Puertas C., Czymzik M., Neugebauer I., Dulski P., Bourne A., Błaszkiewicz M., Brauer A. 2013. Tracing the Laacher See Tephra in the varved sediment record of the Trzechowskie palaeolake in central Northern Poland. Quaternary Science Reviews, s. 129-139.

  14. Vegetation patterns and abundances of amphibians and small mammals along small streams in a northwestern California watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey R. Waters; Cynthia J. Zabel; Kevin S. McKelvey; Hartwell H. Welsh

    2001-01-01

    Our goal was to describe and evaluate patterns of association between stream size and abundances of amphibians and small mammals in a northwestern California watershed. We sampled populations at 42 stream sites and eight upland sites within a 100- watershed in 1995 and 1996. Stream reaches sampled ranged from poorly defined channels that rarely flowed to 10-m-wide...

  15. Vibration Pattern Related to Transverse Cracks in Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Bachschmid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for calculating the breathing behavior of transverse cracks of different types in rotating shafts is described. Thermal effects are included. Some results in terms of vibration excitation related to different shapes of cracks are presented.

  16. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    General circulation models consistently predict that regional warming will be most rapid in the Arctic, that this warming will be predominantly in the winter season, and that it will often be accompanied by increasing snowfall. Paradoxically, despite the strong cold season emphasis in these predi...... will respond to climate change during winter because they indicate a threshold (~1 m) above which there would be little effect of increased snow accumulation on wintertime biogeochemical cycling....... in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... subarctic. Ecosystem respiration rates and a wide range of associated environmental and substrate pool size variables were measured in the two most common vegetation types of the region (birch understorey and heath tundra) at four paired sites along a 50 km transect through a strong snow depth gradient...

  17. Multiple remote sensing data sources to assess spatio-temporal patterns of fire incidence over Campos Amazônicos Savanna Vegetation Enclave (Brazilian Amazon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniel Borini; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Fire activity plays an important role in the past, present and future of Earth system behavior. Monitoring and assessing spatial and temporal fire dynamics have a fundamental relevance in the understanding of ecological processes and the human impacts on different landscapes and multiple spatial scales. This work analyzes the spatio-temporal distribution of burned areas in one of the biggest savanna vegetation enclaves in the southern Brazilian Amazon, from 2000 to 2016, deriving information from multiple remote sensing data sources (Landsat and MODIS surface reflectance, TRMM pluviometry and Vegetation Continuous Field tree cover layers). A fire scars database with 30 m spatial resolution was generated using a Landsat time series. MODIS daily surface reflectance was used for accurate dating of the fire scars. TRMM pluviometry data were analyzed to dynamically establish time limits of the yearly dry season and burning periods. Burned area extent, frequency and recurrence were quantified comparing the results annually/seasonally. Additionally, Vegetation Continuous Field tree cover layers were used to analyze fire incidence over different types of tree cover domains. In the last seventeen years, 1.03millionha were burned within the study area, distributed across 1432 fire occurrences, highlighting 2005, 2010 and 2014 as the most affected years. Middle dry season fires represent 86.21% of the total burned areas and 32.05% of fire occurrences, affecting larger amount of higher density tree surfaces than other burning periods. The results provide new insights into the analysis of burned areas of the neotropical savannas, spatially and statistically reinforcing important aspects linked to the seasonality patterns of fire incidence in this landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study

  19. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  20. Age-Related Evolution Patterns in Online Handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing age from handwriting (HW) has important applications, as it is key to distinguishing normal HW evolution with age from abnormal HW change, potentially triggered by neurodegenerative decline. We propose, in this work, an original approach for online HW style characterization based on a two-level clustering scheme. The first level generates writer-independent word clusters from raw spatial-dynamic HW information. At the second level, each writer's words are converted into a Bag of Prototype Words that is augmented by an interword stability measure. This two-level HW style representation is input to an unsupervised learning technique, aiming at uncovering HW style categories and their correlation with age. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we propose information theoretic measures to quantify the gain on age information from each clustering layer. We have carried out extensive experiments on a large public online HW database, augmented by HW samples acquired at Broca Hospital in Paris from people mostly between 60 and 85 years old. Unlike previous works claiming that there is only one pattern of HW change with age, our study reveals three major aging HW styles, one specific to aged people and the two others shared by other age groups. PMID:27752277

  1. Chronic liver disease related mortality pattern in northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, N.; Niazi, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the mortality pattern pertaining to chronic liver disease (CLD) in Northern Pakistan. Results: There were a total of 8529 admissions in twelve months period from August 2001 to July 2002. There were 283 (3.31%) total deaths. Out of these, 160 deaths were pertaining to medical causes. Out of these medical cases, 33 (20.6%) patients had died of chronic liver disease. Other major causes of death were cerebro-vascular accident (18.7%), malignancy (18.1%) and acute myocardial infarction (10.6%). Out of 33 patients of CLD, 12 (36%) presented with acute gastrointestinal (Gl) bleeding, 9(27%) presented with Ascites and 6(18%) presented with altered mental status due to hepatic encephalopathy. Rest of them had jaundice and fever as their initial presentation. Out of these 33 patients with CLD, 23 (70%) had hepatitis C virus (HCV) as cause of their liver disease, 4 (12%) had hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, 3(9%) had both hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections and 3 (9%) had no known cause of their chronic liver disease. Conclusion: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of mortality in this part of Pakistan at a tertiary care hospital. HCV infection is the main cause of chronic liver disease followed by either HBV or a combination of these viruses. Major manifestations of CLD have been gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic failure and portal hypertension.(author)

  2. Interaction between fires and elephants in relation to vegetation structure and composition of miombo woodlands in northern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Natasha Sofia

    Miombo woodlands represent one of the most important dry deciduous ecosystems in southern Africa. They provide goods and services for over 80% of the population in the sub-continent. The ecology of this important ecosystem is strongly defined by the trio climate-fire-herbivory. Thus, miombo woodlands have a key role in the regional, and the global, energy, water and carbon balances. Niassa Reserve located in northern Mozambique, embodies the largest and most pristine conservation area of miombo woodlands in the region. It was left abandoned for almost twenty years of armed conflict in Mozambique. Currently it has the lowest human population and the highest density of elephants within miombo woodlands in the country. Fires occur every year within Niassa Reserve. Thus, Niassa Reserve represents a key area to investigate the relationships between vegetation and environmental drivers, a crucial question in miombo woodlands. The goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the vegetation dynamics in relation to rainfall, fire and herbivory by elephants. To accomplish this goal, I used an innovative approach within miombo woodlands that couples field and remote sensing data. Field data collection aimed to gather information on woody species composition, structure and production (measured as biomass and leaf area index). Production data was used to calibrate remote sensing data and address large-scale variations in woody vegetation production. The results from this study indicate that there is a gradient of decreasing fire frequency, elephant density and rainfall and increasing woody production from east to west of Niassa Reserve. There is also a varied species composition along the same direction. These results provide information for ecological models predicting ecosystem dynamics under environmental changing conditions. Regionally, this study contributes to the understanding of the fundamental functioning of miombo woodlands and the associated driving

  3. Mining known attack patterns from security-related events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicandro Scarabeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Managed Security Services (MSS have become an essential asset for companies to have in order to protect their infrastructure from hacking attempts such as unauthorized behaviour, denial of service (DoS, malware propagation, and anomalies. A proliferation of attacks has determined the need for installing more network probes and collecting more security-related events in order to assure the best coverage, necessary for generating incident responses. The increase in volume of data to analyse has created a demand for specific tools that automatically correlate events and gather them in pre-defined scenarios of attacks. Motivated by Above Security, a specialized company in the sector, and by National Research Council Canada (NRC, we propose a new data mining system that employs text mining techniques to dynamically relate security-related events in order to reduce analysis time, increase the quality of the reports, and automatically build correlated scenarios.

  4. Health actions and disease patterns related to coronary heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-21

    Jul 21, 1990 ... The health-related behaviour of the Cape Peninsula coloured population, which ... cholesterolaemia, yet their knowledge of the prudent diet was poor and ..... and socio-economic standing, the number of people per habit- able room .... facilities to motivate and assist smokers in their attempts to stop smoking ...

  5. Health actions and disease patterns related to coronary heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health-related behaviour of the Cape Peninsula coloured population, which has been shown to have an adverse coronary heart disease (CHO) risk factor profile, is reported. Private medical services were used most often by participants: 54,1% and 51,6% of males and females respectively had made use of these ...

  6. Types, Patterns and Outcomes of Personal Watercraft- Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related injuries. Patients injured in Jet Ski accidents were younger than those involved in motorboat accidents (mean age (SD); 25(7.6) vs 32.6(6), p=0.01). Chest injury was the most common type of injury; however, the severity of injury was ...

  7. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  8. Modeling spatial patterns of soil respiration in maize fields from vegetation and soil property factors with the use of remote sensing and geographical information system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Huang

    Full Text Available To examine the method for estimating the spatial patterns of soil respiration (Rs in agricultural ecosystems using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS, Rs rates were measured at 53 sites during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. Through Pearson's correlation analysis, leaf area index (LAI, canopy chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC content, and soil total nitrogen content were selected as the factors that affected spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize. The use of a structural equation modeling approach revealed that only LAI and SOC content directly affected Rs. Meanwhile, other factors indirectly affected Rs through LAI and SOC content. When three greenness vegetation indices were extracted from an optical image of an environmental and disaster mitigation satellite in China, enhanced vegetation index (EVI showed the best correlation with LAI and was thus used as a proxy for LAI to estimate Rs at the regional scale. The spatial distribution of SOC content was obtained by extrapolating the SOC content at the plot scale based on the kriging interpolation method in GIS. When data were pooled for 38 plots, a first-order exponential analysis indicated that approximately 73% of the spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize can be explained by EVI and SOC content. Further test analysis based on independent data from 15 plots showed that the simple exponential model had acceptable accuracy in estimating the spatial patterns of Rs in maize fields on the basis of remotely sensed EVI and GIS-interpolated SOC content, with R2 of 0.69 and root-mean-square error of 0.51 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1. The conclusions from this study provide valuable information for estimates of Rs during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China.

  9. Modeling Spatial Patterns of Soil Respiration in Maize Fields from Vegetation and Soil Property Factors with the Use of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ni; Wang, Li; Guo, Yiqiang; Hao, Pengyu; Niu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    To examine the method for estimating the spatial patterns of soil respiration (Rs) in agricultural ecosystems using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS), Rs rates were measured at 53 sites during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. Through Pearson's correlation analysis, leaf area index (LAI), canopy chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and soil total nitrogen content were selected as the factors that affected spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize. The use of a structural equation modeling approach revealed that only LAI and SOC content directly affected Rs. Meanwhile, other factors indirectly affected Rs through LAI and SOC content. When three greenness vegetation indices were extracted from an optical image of an environmental and disaster mitigation satellite in China, enhanced vegetation index (EVI) showed the best correlation with LAI and was thus used as a proxy for LAI to estimate Rs at the regional scale. The spatial distribution of SOC content was obtained by extrapolating the SOC content at the plot scale based on the kriging interpolation method in GIS. When data were pooled for 38 plots, a first-order exponential analysis indicated that approximately 73% of the spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize can be explained by EVI and SOC content. Further test analysis based on independent data from 15 plots showed that the simple exponential model had acceptable accuracy in estimating the spatial patterns of Rs in maize fields on the basis of remotely sensed EVI and GIS-interpolated SOC content, with R2 of 0.69 and root-mean-square error of 0.51 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1. The conclusions from this study provide valuable information for estimates of Rs during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. PMID:25157827

  10. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed-methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max

    2012-01-01

    of fruit and vegetables is associated with NCDs. In Zanzibar, the incidence of diabetes has increased from 252 new cases in 2006, to 373 in 2008, in an adult population of just over a million people and hypertension is the second commonest cause of death. We explored the association between fruit......Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in developed countries and account for roughly a third of deaths in developing countries. According to the 2004 Food and Agricultural Organization and WHO joint report on fruit and vegetables for health, low consumption...... and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related NCDs in Zanzibar....

  11. Judgments Relative to Patterns: How Temporal Sequence Patterns Affect Judgments and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-01-01

    RESix experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a "first-run…

  12. Modeling patterns in data using linear and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report considers the use of linear models for analyzing data related to reliability and safety issues of the type usually associated with nuclear power plants. The report discusses some of the general results of linear regression analysis, such as the model assumptions and properties of the estimators of the parameters. The results are motivated with examples of operational data. Results about the important case of a linear regression model with one covariate are covered in detail. This case includes analysis of time trends. The analysis is applied with two different sets of time trend data. Diagnostic procedures and tests for the adequacy of the model are discussed. Some related methods such as weighted regression and nonlinear models are also considered. A discussion of the general linear model is also included. Appendix A gives some basic SAS programs and outputs for some of the analyses discussed in the body of the report. Appendix B is a review of some of the matrix theoretic results which are useful in the development of linear models

  13. The environment, not space, dominantly structures the landscape patterns of the richness and composition of the tropical understory vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hua Hu

    Full Text Available The mechanisms driving the spatial patterns of species richness and composition are essential to the understanding of biodiversity. Numerous studies separately identify the contributions of the environment (niche process and space (neutral process to the species richness or composition at different scales, but few studies have investigated the contributions of both types of processes in the two types of data at the landscape scale. In this study, we partitioned the spatial variations in all, exotic and native understory plant species richness and composition constrained by environmental variables and space in 134 plots that were spread across 10 counties in Hainan Island in southern China. The 134 plots included 70 rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantation plots, 50 eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla plantation plots, and 14 secondary forest plots. RDA based variation partitioning was run to assess the contribution of environment and space to species richness and composition. The results showed that the environmental variables alone explained a large proportion of the variations in both the species richness and composition of all, native, and exotic species. The RDA results indicated that overstory composition (forest type here plays a leading role in determining species richness and composition patterns. The alpha and beta diversities of the secondary forest plots were markedly higher than that of the two plantations. In conclusion, niche differentiation processes are the principal mechanisms that shape the alpha and beta diversities of understory plant species in Hainan Island.

  14. Design And Implementation Of Tool For Detecting Anti-Patterns In Relational Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-patterns are poor solution to design and im-plementation problems. Developers may introduce anti-patterns in their software systems because of time pressure lack of understanding communication and or-skills. Anti-patterns create problems in software maintenance and development. Database anti-patterns lead to complex and time consuming query process-ing and loss of integrity constraints. Detecting anti-patterns could reduce costs efforts and resources. Researchers have proposed approaches to detect anti-patterns in software development. But not much research has been done about database anti-patterns. This report presents two approaches to detect schema design anti-patterns in relational database. Our first approach is based on pattern matchingwe look into potential candidates based on schema patterns. Second approach is a machine learning based approach we generate features of possible anti-patterns and build SVMbased classifier to detect them. Here we look into these four anti-patterns a Multi-valued attribute b Nave tree based c Entity Attribute Value and dPolymorphic Association . We measure precision and recall of each approach and compare the results. SVM-based approach provides more precision and recall with more training dataset.

  15. Arboreous vegetation of an alluvial riparian forest and their soil relations: Porto Rico island, Paraná river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos João Batista

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of alluvial deposits in floodplains forms islands and sandbanks. Deposits frequently accumulate at the river margins and on islands with consequent side growths. One of these sandbanks which started to form in 1952 annexed an area of 12.4ha to the Porto Rico island (53masculine15?W and 22masculine45?S. At present a forest fragment of approximately 2.0 ha exists in this place. The structural analysis of arboreous vegetation of this fragment showed a floristic gradient related to the physical and chemical variations of the substratum. High density of pioneer species associated to the absence of recruitment of new individuals of these and other successional categories indicated that the forest was impaired in its succession process. This fact could be associated with constant disturbances caused by cattle in the area.

  16. Effects of Small-scale Vegetation-related Roughness on Overland Flow and Infiltration in Semi-arid Grassland and Shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D.

    2012-12-01

    We studied the effects of small-scale roughness on overland flow/runoff and the spatial pattern of infiltration. Our semi-arid sites include a grassland and shrubland in Central New Mexico and a shrubland in the Eastern Mojave Desert. Vegetation exerts strong controls on small-scale surface roughness in the form of plant mounds and other microtopography such as depressions and rills. We quantified the effects of densely measured soil surface heterogeneity using model simulations of runoff and infiltration. Microtopographic roughness associated with vegetation patterns, on the scale of mm-cm's in height, has a larger effect on runoff and infiltration than spatially correlated saturated conductivity. The magnitude and pattern of the effect of roughness largely depends on the vegetation and landform type, and rainfall depth and intensity. In all cases, runoff and infiltration amount and patterns were most strongly affected by depression storage. In the grassland we studied in central New Mexico, soil surface roughness had a large effect on runoff and infiltration where vegetation mounds coalesced, forming large storage volumes that require filling and overtopping in order for overland flow to concentrate into runoff. Total discharge over rough surfaces was reduced 100-200% compared to simulations in which no surface roughness was accounted for. For shrublands, total discharge was reduced 30-40% by microtopography on gently sloping alluvial fans and only 10-20% on steep hillslopes. This difference is largely due to the lack of storage elements on steep slopes. For our sites, we found that overland flow can increase infiltration by up to 2.5 times the total rainfall by filling depressions. The redistribution of water via overland flow can affect up to 20% of an area but varies with vegetation type and landform. This infiltration augmentation by overland flow tends to occur near the edges of vegetation canopies where overland flow depths are deep and infiltration rates

  17. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Artemisinin, related sesquiterpenes, and essential oil in artemisia-annua during a vegetation period in vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, HJ; Pras, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; Bos, R; van Uden, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; Batterman, S; LUGT, CB

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related

  19. Vitamin A-related potential of wild edible plants in a school vegetable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Food and nutrition challenges in Southern Africa, Vol 1, 2016. Vitamin A-related ... PO Box 19070 .... effects, health reasons, like, dislike, peer- and family ... 2880. 2160. Pumpkin, (cooked)4. 0. 0. 3. 210. 213. 447. Spinach (cooked). 1. 1. 9. 90.

  20. The impact of a school-based gardening intervention on intentions and behaviour related to fruit and vegetable consumption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma; Bryant, Elizabeth; Clarke, Neil; Birch, Samantha; Staples, Victoria; Sheffield, David

    2015-06-01

    A total of 77 children (34 boys, 43 girls, mean age ± standard deviation = 9 ± 1 years) participated in this study; 46 children (intervention) undertook a 12-week school gardening programme and 31 children acted as controls. Measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and fruit and vegetable consumption were taken pre- and post-intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the intervention group increased daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased intentions, attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. PATTERNS OF FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE DEFECTS IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION SUBTYPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkok, Ahmet; Sigford, Douglas K; Tezel, Tongalp H

    2016-11-01

    To test define characteristic fundus autofluorescence patterns of different exudative age-related macular degeneration subtypes. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-two patients with choroidal neovascularization because of three different neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes were included in the study. Macular and peripheral fundus autofluorescence patterns of study subjects were compared in a masked fashion. Fundus autofluorescence patterns of all three neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes revealed similar patterns. However, peripapillary hypo-autofluorescence was more common among patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (88.2%) compared with patients with retinal angiomatous proliferation (12.5%) and patients without retinal angiomatous proliferation and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (21.1%) (P autofluorescence defects in neovascular age-related macular degeneration maybe suggestive of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy as a variant of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

  2. Bidirectional recovery patterns of Mojave Desert vegetation in an aqueduct pipeline corridor after 36 years: I. Perennial shrubs and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Weigand, James F.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Mack, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    We studied recovery of 21 perennial plant species along a severely disturbed aqueduct corridor in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa plant alliance in the Mojave Desert 36 years after construction. The 97-m wide corridor contained a central dirt road and buried aqueduct pipeline. We established transects at 0 m (road verge), 20 m and 40 m into the disturbance corridor, and at 100 m in undisturbed habitat (the control). Although total numbers of shrubs per transect did not vary significantly with distance from the verge, canopy cover of shrubs, species richness, and species diversity were higher in the control than at the verge and other distances. Canopy cover of common shrubs (Ericameria nauseosa, Ambrosia salsola, A. dumosa, L. tridentata, Grayia spinosa) and perennial grasses (Elymus elymoides, Poa secunda) also varied significantly by location. Discriminant analysis clearly separated the four distances based on plant composition. Patterns of recovery were bidirectional: secondary succession from the control into the disturbance corridor and inhibition from the verge in the direction of the control. Time estimated for species composition to resemble the control is dependent on location within the disturbance corridor and could be centuries at the road verge. Our findings have applications to other deserts.

  3. A unique mountainous vertical distribution patterns and related environmental interpretation-a case study on the northern slope of the ili river valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Z.P.; Wang, X.L.; Zhuang, L.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of plant diversity and soil factors along the altitude gradient on the northern slope of Ili River Valley were examined. Plant and environment characteristics were surveyed from 1000-2200 m. There were a total of 155 vascular plant, 133 herbage, 18 shrub, and 7 tree species in 44 sampled plots. The plant richness of vegetation types generally showed a special pattern along altitude, with a bimodal change of plant species number at 100m intervals of altitude samples. The two belts of higher plant richness were in transient areas between vegetation types, the first in areas from low-mountain desert to forest, and the other from dry grass to coniferous forest. Matching the change of richness of plant species to environmental factors along altitude by GAM model and relation analysis revealed that the environmental factors controlling species richness and their patterns were the combined effects of soil salt and nutrition. Water was more important at lower altitude, and temperature at higher altitude, the role of the inversion layer at high altitude coniferous forest species diversity appearing to rise. Soil nutrition and salt also showed a similar distribution pattern of diversity. Especially, diversity index and soil salinity showed a strong correlation. This study provides insights into plant diversity conservation of ili River Valley in Tianshan Mountain. (author)

  4. Previous Gardening Experience and Gardening Enjoyment Is Related to Vegetable Preferences and Consumption Among Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Fair, Cori N; Jennings, Rose; Warren, Judith L

    2016-10-01

    To examine if gardening experience and enjoyment are associated with vegetable exposure, preferences, and consumption of vegetables among low-income third-grade children. Cross-sectional study design, using baseline data from the Texas! Grow! Eat! Go! Twenty-eight Title I elementary schools located in different counties in Texas. Third-grade students (n = 1,326, 42% Hispanic) MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gardening experience, gardening enjoyment, vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Random-effects regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index percentile of child, estimated means and standard errors of vegetable consumption, exposure, and preference by levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Wald χ 2 tests evaluated the significance of differences in means of outcomes across levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Children with more gardening experience had greater vegetable exposure and higher vegetable preference and consumed more vegetables compared with children who reported less gardening experience. Those who reported that they enjoyed gardening had the highest levels of vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Garden-based interventions can have an important and positive effect on children's vegetable consumption by increasing exposure to fun gardening experiences. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Current re-vegetation patterns and restoration issues in degraded geological phosphorus-rich mountain areas: A synthetic analysis of Central Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest area of inland geological phosphorus-rich (GPR mountains in the world, where vegetation restoration is key to safeguarding the environment. We reviewed the published literature and collected new data in order to analyze re-vegetation patterns and the status of plant communities in central Yunnan. The aim of our analysis was to suggest future improvements to restoration strategies in GPR mountain regions. Our results showed that spontaneous recovery was the most widespread type of restoration. N-fixing species such as Coriaria nepalensis and Alnus nepalensis play a vital role in succession. In the past, monoculture tree plantation was the primary method used in afforestation activities in central Yunnan; in recent years however, several different methods of restoration have been introduced including the use of agroforestry systems. For practical restoration, we found that spontaneous recovery was capable of delivering the best results, but that during its early stages, restoration results were affected by several factors including erosion risk, the origin of propagates and environmental variation. In contrast, methods employing human-made communities performed better in their early stages, but were constrained by higher costs and vulnerability to degradation and erosion. The use of N-fixing species such as A. nepalensis and Acacia mearnsii in plantations were unsuccessful in restoring full ecosystem functions. The success of restoration activities in GPR mountain regions could be improved through the following measures: (1 developing a better understanding of the respective advantages and disadvantages of current natural and human-engineered restoration approaches; (2 elucidating the feedback mechanism between phosphorus-rich soil and species selected for restoration, especially N-fixing species; (3 introducing market incentives aimed at encouraging specific restoration activities such as agroforestry, and improving the

  6. A Vegetal Biopolymer-Based Biostimulant Promoted Root Growth in Melon While Triggering Brassinosteroids and Stress-Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lucini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant biostimulants are receiving great interest for boosting root growth during the first phenological stages of vegetable crops. The present study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological, and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse melon treated with the biopolymer-based biostimulant Quik-link, containing lateral root promoting peptides, and lignosulphonates. The vegetal-based biopolymer was applied at five rates (0, 0.06, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.48 mL plant-1 as substrate drench. The application of biopolymer-based biostimulant at 0.12 and 0.24 mL plant-1 enhanced dry weight of melon leaves and total biomass by 30.5 and 27.7%, respectively, compared to biopolymer applications at 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated plants. The root dry biomass, total root length, and surface in biostimulant-treated plants were significantly higher at 0.24 mL plant-1 and to a lesser extent at 0.12 and 0.48 mL plant-1, in comparison to 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated melon plants. A convoluted biochemical response to the biostimulant treatment was highlighted through UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics, in which brassinosteroids and their interaction with other hormones appeared to play a pivotal role. Root metabolic profile was more markedly altered than leaves, following application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Brassinosteroids triggered in roots could have been involved in changes of root development observed after biostimulant application. These hormones, once transported to shoots, could have caused an hormonal imbalance. Indeed, the involvement of abscisic acid, cytokinins, and gibberellin related compounds was observed in leaves following root application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Nonetheless, the treatment triggered an accumulation of several metabolites involved in defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates, thus potentially improving resistance toward plant stresses.

  7. A specific metabolic pattern related to the hallucinatory activity in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huret, J.D.; Martinot, J.L.; Lesur, A.; Mazoyer, B.; Pappata, S.; Syrota, A.; Baron, J.C.; Lemperiere, T.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and PEI study using 18 F - fluorodesoxyglucose for measuring local cerebral glucose metabolism with the aim of showing a specific pattern related to the hallucinatory activity, is presented in schizophrenic patients all experiencing hallucinations or pseudo-halluccinations

  8. Work-related behaviour and experience pattern in nurses: impact on physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Damkröger, A; Voltmer, E; Löwe, B; Driessen, M; Ward, M; Wingenfeld, K

    2011-06-01

    Nursing is associated with high levels of emotional strain and heavy workloads. Changing working conditions raise the importance of investigating job satisfaction, stress and burnout and its consequences for nurses. The aim of the study was to investigate whether work-related behaviour and experience patterns are associated with mental and physical health status in nurses. A sample of 356 nurses in four German hospitals were interviewed using questionnaires regarding work-related behaviour and experience patterns, work stress, depression, anxiety and physical symptoms ('Work-related Behaviour and Experience Pattern'--AVEM and ERI). The main result of this study is that unhealthy work-related behaviour and experience patterns (i.e. the excessive ambitious type and the resigned type) are associated with reduced mental and physical health. Preventive, as well as intervention, strategies are needed that focus both on the individual as well as on working conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  9. Distribución espacial de anomalías del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 ysu relación con las coberturas vegetales, usos de la tierra y características geomorfológicas en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina / Spatial distribution of anomalies of NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 and its relation with vegetation cover, uses of ground and geomorphology in Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Tiedermann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las anomalías negativas (AN y positivas (AP del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5, en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. El periodo analizado (1998-2008 tuvo fuertes variaciones en los patrones de precipitación, por efecto del ENSO, por cuanto las anomalías del NDVI fueron evaluadas, mediante tabulación cruzada, en función de dos periodos: húmedo (PH y seco (PS. Las AN, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con vegetación halófila en áreas deprimidas salobres, con vegetación hidrófila en ambientes acuáticos y con suelo rocoso. Durante el PS, las AN se relacionaron con áreas deforestadas con fines agrícolas. Las AP, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con el bosque Chaqueño denso y bosque Chaqueño Serrano denso. La mayor estabilidad y productividad de biomasa verde de los bosques, estaría relacionada, a su mayor biodiversidad, estratificación, al predominio de especies leñosas perennes de raíces profundas y a las estratégicas adaptaciones, morfológicas y fisiológicas, para el uso eficiente del agua. Las regiones geomorfológicas no se relacionan entre si entre periodos.AbstractThe negative (AN and positive (AP anomalies of the NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 were determined in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The analyzed period (1998-2008 presented strong variations in rainfall patterns, as a result of the ENSO, inasmuch as the anomalies of the NDVI were evaluated, by means of crossed tabulation, based on two periods: humid (PH and dry (PS. The AN, were related with halophytic species of depressed areas, with vegetation aquatic hydrophilic and rocky ground. During the dry period, the AN were related to deforested areas with agricultural aims. The AP, were related, throughout the period with the forest dense Chaco Semiarid and forest dense Chaco Serrano. The greater stability and productivity of green biomass of forest, would be related, greater

  10. Studying consumer behaviour related to the quality of food: A case on vegetable preparation affecting sensory and health attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The domestic preparation of vegetables induces a significant change in their sensory and health attributes. The preparation of vegetables by consumers is likely to be controlled by assessing perceivable (sensory) quality attributes such as colour and texture because other quality attributes,

  11. Diversity patterns of ground beetles and understory vegetation in mature, secondary, and plantation forest regions of temperate northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Wang, Shunzhong; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Plantation and secondary forests form increasingly important components of the global forest cover, but our current knowledge about their potential contribution to biodiversity conservation is limited. We surveyed understory plant and carabid species assemblages at three distinct regions in temperate northeastern China, dominated by mature forest (Changbaishan Nature Reserve, sampled in 2011 and 2012), secondary forest (Dongling Mountain, sampled in 2011 and 2012), and forest plantation habitats (Bashang Plateau, sampled in 2006 and 2007), respectively. The α-diversity of both taxonomic groups was highest in plantation forests of the Bashang Plateau. Beetle α-diversity was lowest, but plant and beetle species turnover peaked in the secondary forests of Dongling Mountain, while habitats in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve showed the lowest turnover rates for both taxa. Changbaishan Nature Reserve harbored the highest proportion of forest specialists. Our results suggest that in temperate regions of northern China, the protected larch plantation forest established over extensive areas might play a considerable role in maintaining a high biodiversity in relation to understory herbaceous plant species and carabid assemblages, which can be seen as indicators of forest disturbance. The high proportion of phytophagous carabids and the rarity of forest specialists reflect the relatively homogenous, immature status of the forest ecosystems on the Bashang Plateau. China's last remaining large old-growth forests like the ones on Changbaishan represent stable, mature ecosystems which require particular conservation attention.

  12. Fire in the Vegetation and Peatlands of Borneo, 1997-2007: Patterns, Drivers and Emissions from Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Weber, Ulrich; Langner, Andreas; Siegert, Florian; Heil, Angelika

    2010-05-01

    The peatland forests of equatorial SE Asia cover over 20 Mha with most located in Indonesia. Indonesian peatlands are globally one of the largest near-surface reserves of terrestrial organic carbon, with peat deposits of up to 20m thick and an estimated carbon storage of 55-61 Gt. The destructive fires in Indonesia during the exceptionally strong drought of late 1997 and early 1998 mark some of the largest peak emissions events in recorded history of global fires. Past studies estimate that about 1Gt of carbon was released to the atmosphere from the Indonesian fires in 1997- equivalent to 14% of the average global annual fossil fuel emissions released during the 1990s. Previous studies have established a non-linear negative correlation between fires and antecedent rainfall in Borneo, with ENSO-driven droughts being identified as the main cause of below-average rainfall events over the past decade or so. However, while these studies suggest that this non-linear relationship is mediated by ignitions associated with land use and land cover change (LULCC), they have not demonstrated it. A clear link between fires and logging in Borneo has been reported, but this work was restricted to eastern Kalimantan and the period 1997-98. The relationship between fires, emissions, rainfall and LULCC across the island of Borneo therefore remains to be examined using available fine resolution data over a multi-year period. Using rainfall data, up-to-date peat maps and state-of-the art satellite sensor data to determine burnt area and deforestation patterns over the decade 1997-2007, we show at a pixel working resolution of 0.25 degrees the following: Burning across Borneo predominated in southern Kalimantan. Fire activity is negatively and non-linearly correlated to rainfall mainly in pixels that have undergone a significant reduction in forest cover, and that the bigger the reduction, the stronger the correlation. Such pixels occur overwhelmingly in southern Kalimantan. These

  13. Adverse effects of automobiles related PB/sup 2+/ pollution on photosynthetic attributes and water relations of roadside vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hussain, M.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2018-01-01

    This research was designed for the phyto-monitoring of Pb2+ pollution emitted from automobiles running along Motorway (M-2) and G.T. road and its effects on photosynthetic attributes and water relations of selected plant species growing along these roads. The data were collected from specified sites at different time intervals during all four seasons of the year. The results revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher Pb2+ content plant leaves growing in the vicinity of roadside (0 m distance) as compared to plant leaves collected from 50 m distance (Control) along both roads (M-2 and G.T. road). The leaves of Nerium oleander (2.45 mg kg-1 dry wt.) collected from M-2 trapped the higher amount of Pb2+ (p<0.001) at Kalar Kahar in Summer and Calotropis procera (2.78 mg kg-1 dry wt.) had the highest (p<0.05) Pb2+ deposition at Bahyria Town during summer. Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased significantly (p<0.01) in plants along roadsides; whereas, inconsistent results in water use efficiency were perceived in plants at 0 m distance as compared to those collected from 50 m distance. These outcomes are important to identify the existence of roadside vehicular pollutants on plants and to its ecological hazards. (author)

  14. Exchange pattern of gaseous elemental mercury in landfill: mercury deposition under vegetation coverage and interactive effects of multiple meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Meng; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Landfill is known as a potential source of atmospheric Hg and an important component of the local or regional atmospheric Hg budget. This study investigated the gaseous elemental Hg surface-air fluxes under differing conditions at a typical municipal solid waste landfill site, highlighting the interactive effects of plant coverage and meteorological conditions. The results indicated that Hg fluxes exhibited a feature represented by diel variation. In particular, Hg deposition was observed under a condition of Kochia sieversiana coverage, whereas emission that occurred after K. sieversiana was removed. Hg emission was the dominant mode under conditions of Setaria viridis coverage and its removal; however, the average Hg emission flux with the S. viridis coverage was nearly four times lower than after its removal. These findings verified that the plant coverage should be a key factor influencing the Hg emission from landfills. In addition, Hg fluxes were correlated positively with solar radiation and air/soil temperature and correlated inversely with relative humidity under all conditions, except K. sieversiana coverage. This suggested that the interactive effects of meteorological conditions and plant coverage played a jointly significant role in the Hg emission from landfills. It was established that K. sieversiana can inhibit Hg emission efficiently, and therefore, it could potentially be suitable for use as a plant-based method to control Hg pollution from landfills.

  15. Hidden pattern discovery on epileptic EEG with 1-D local binary patterns and epileptic seizures detection by grey relational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yılmaz

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to detect epilepsy seizures by using Electroencephalography (EEG), which is one of the most common methods for the diagnosis of epilepsy, based on 1-Dimension Local Binary Pattern (1D-LBP) and grey relational analysis (GRA) methods. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and validate a novel approach, which is a computer-based quantitative EEG analyzing method and based on grey systems, aimed to help decision-maker. In this study, 1D-LBP, which utilizes all data points, was employed for extracting features in raw EEG signals, Fisher score (FS) was employed to select the representative features, which can also be determined as hidden patterns. Additionally, GRA is performed to classify EEG signals through these Fisher scored features. The experimental results of the proposed approach, which was employed in a public dataset for validation, showed that it has a high accuracy in identifying epileptic EEG signals. For various combinations of epileptic EEG, such as A-E, B-E, C-E, D-E, and A-D clusters, 100, 96, 100, 99.00 and 100% were achieved, respectively. Also, this work presents an attempt to develop a new general-purpose hidden pattern determination scheme, which can be utilized for different categories of time-varying signals.

  16. Intake of Milk or Fermented Milk Combined With Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Relation to Hip Fracture Rates: A Cohort Study of Swedish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja; Lemming, Eva Warensjö; Melhus, Håkan; Byberg, Liisa

    2018-03-01

    Milk products may differ in pro-oxidant properties and their effects on fracture risk could potentially be modified by the intake of foods with antioxidant activity. In the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort study, we aimed to determine how milk and fermented milk combined with fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with hip fracture. Women born in 1914-1948 (n = 61,240) answered food frequency and lifestyle questionnaires in 1987-1990 and 38,071 women contributed with updated information in 1997. During a mean follow-up of 22 years, 5827 women had a hip fracture (ascertained via official register data). Compared with a low intake of milk (yogurt or soured milk) yielded a different pattern with lowest rates of hip fracture in high consumers: HR, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.97) for ≥2 servings/day of fermented milk and ≥5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables compared with low consumption of both fruit and vegetables and fermented milk. We conclude that the amount and type of dairy products as well as fruit and vegetable intake are differentially associated with hip fracture rates in women. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Internal development of vegetative buds of Norway spruce trees in relation to accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Häkkinen, Risto

    2014-05-01

    The timing of budburst of temperate trees is known to be controlled by complicated interactions of temperature and photoperiod. To improve the phenological models of budburst, better knowledge of the internal bud development preceding budburst in relation to environmental cues is needed. We studied the effect of accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures on the internal development of vegetative buds preceding budburst in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. Branches from 17-year-old trees of southern Finnish origin were transferred eight times at 1- to 2-week intervals from October to December 2007 from the field at Punkaharju (61°48'N, 29°20'E) to the greenhouse with forcing conditions (day length 12 h, +20 °C). After seven different durations of forcing, the developmental phase and primordial shoot growth of the buds were analysed at the stereomicroscopic level. Air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the study period. The accumulated chilling unit sum had a significant effect on the temperature sum that was required to attain a certain developmental phase; a higher amount of chilling required a lower amount of forcing. The variation in the rate of development of different buds within each sample branch in relation to the chilling unit and forcing temperature sum was low. Regarding primordial shoot growth, there was also an inverse relation between accumulated chilling and forcing, i.e., a higher accumulated chilling unit sum before forcing required a lower temperature sum to initiate primordial shoot growth and resulted in a stronger effect of accumulated forcing. A second-order regression model with an interaction of chilling and forcing explained the variation of primordial shoot growth with high precision (R(2) = 0.88). However, further studies are required to determine the final parameter values to be used in phenological modelling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using 14 CO 2 techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO 2 uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%

  19. Dietary pattern and health-related quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hui; Song, Sihan; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Eunsook; Kim, Zisun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2018-05-10

    There is limited evidence for the association between dietary pattern and quality of life among breast cancer survivors. We examined the association between dietary patterns and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Korean breast cancer survivors. Our study included a total of 232 women, aged 21 to 79 years, who had been diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer and who underwent breast cancer surgery at least 6 months prior to our baseline evaluation. We assessed HRQoL using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module 23 (QLQ-BR23). We conducted a factor analysis to identify the major dietary patterns and used a generalized linear model to obtain the least squares mean (LS mean) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for HRQoL according to the dietary pattern scores. We identified 2 major dietary patterns: the Healthy dietary pattern and the Western dietary pattern. We found that breast cancer survivors who had higher Healthy dietary pattern scores tended to have lower dyspnea scores but higher insomnia scores, compared to breast cancer survivors with lower Healthy dietary pattern scores. For dyspnea, the LS mean (95% CI) was 8.86 (5.05-15.52) in the bottom quartile and 2.87 (1.62-5.08) in the top quartile (p for trend = 0.005). This association was limited to survivors with stage I for dyspnea or survivors with stage II or III for insomnia. Healthy dietary patterns were associated with better scores for dyspnea but worse scores for insomnia among breast cancer survivors. Other components of EORTC QLQ did not vary by dietary patterns overall, but they warrant further investigation for subgroups of breast cancer survivors.

  20. Patatin-related phospholipase A, pPLAIIIα, modulates the longitudinal growth of vegetative tissues and seeds in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangmeng; Zhang, Ke; Ai, Jun; Deng, Xianjun; Hong, Yueyun; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-11-01

    Patatin-related phospholipase A (pPLA) hydrolyses glycerolipids to produce fatty acids and lysoglycerolipids. The Oryza sativa genome has 21 putative pPLAs that are grouped into five subfamilies. Overexpression of OspPLAIIIα resulted in a dwarf phenotype with decreased length of rice stems, roots, leaves, seeds, panicles, and seeds, whereas OspPLAIIIα-knockout plants had longer panicles and seeds. OspPLAIIIα-overexpressing plants were less sensitive than wild-type and knockout plants to gibberellin-promoted seedling elongation. OspPLAIIIα overexpression and knockout had an opposite effect on the expression of the growth repressor SLENDER1 in the gibberellin signalling process. OspPLAIIIα-overexpressing plants had decreased mechanical strength and cellulose content, but exhibited increases in the expression of several cellulose synthase genes. These results indicate that OspPLAIIIα plays a role in rice vegetative and reproductive growth and that the constitutive, high activity of OspPLAIIIα suppresses cell elongation. The decreased gibberellin response in overexpressing plants is probably a result of the decreased ability to make cellulose for anisotropic cell expansion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare....... Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. RESULTS: Compared...

  2. [Work-related behaviour and experience patterns and mental health: a study in psychotherapy trainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Johanna; Sude, Kerstin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2013-03-01

    In view of the fact that many reports have been published that emphasize the difficult conditions of the German psychotherapy training, the aim of this study was to investigate psychotherapy trainees´ work stress as well as work-related psychosocial risks and resources. Variables of interest were work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM), effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and health-related quality of life. 321 participants completed an online survey. The distribution of work-related behaviour and experience patterns as well as the results regarding work overload and mental health are evidence of psychotherapy trainees' strain. AVEM-risk patterns are associated with effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and reduced mental health. These results clearly support claims for a modification of the psychotherapy training in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Does Preference for Abstract Patterns Relate to Information Processing and Perceived Duration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive prestimulation, in the form of click trains, is known to alter a wide range of cognitive and perceptual judgments. To date, no research has explored whether click trains also influence subjective preferences. This is plausible because preference is related to perceptual fluency and clicks may increase fluency, or, because preference is related to arousal and clicks may increase arousal. In Experiment 1, participants heard a click train, white noise, or silence through headphones and then saw an abstract symmetrical pattern on the screen for 0.5, 1, or 1.5 s. They rated the pattern on a 7-point scale. Click trains had no effect on preference ratings, although patterns that lasted longer were preferred. In Experiment 2, we again presented a click train, silence, or white noise but included both symmetrical and random patterns. Participants made both a duration and a preference judgment on every trial. Auditory click trains increased perceived duration, and symmetrical patterns were perceived as lasting longer than random patterns. Again there was no effect of auditory click trains on preference, and again patterns that were presented for longer were preferred. We conclude that click trains alter perceptual and cognitive processes, but not preferences. This helps clarify the nature of the click train effect and shows which predictions implicit in the existing literature are supported.

  4. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000, but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024. Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001 and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050. Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases.

  5. Rogue waves, rational solutions, the patterns of their zeros and integral relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankiewicz, Adrian; Akhmediev, Nail; Clarkson, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    The focusing nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which describes generic nonlinear phenomena, including waves in the deep ocean and light pulses in optical fibres, supports a whole hierarchy of recently discovered rational solutions. We present recurrence relations for the hierarchy, the pattern of zeros for each solution and a set of integral relations which characterizes them. (fast track communication)

  6. The relationship of major American dietary patterns to age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. This was a cross-sectional study with 8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early ...

  7. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Monma, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Iwasaki, Koh; Tomita, Naoki; Nakaya, Naoki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Takayama, Shin; Seki, Takashi; Takeda, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Ebihara, Satoru; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which dietary patterns were created by...

  8. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Lioret, S.; Touvier, M.; Lafay, L.; Volatier, J. L.; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-...

  9. [Relative abundance, population structure, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae), in Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Torres, Iván; Briones-Salas, Miguel; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is endangered primarily because of habitat loss and fragmentation, and overhunting throughout its distribution range. One of the priority land areas for the conservation of this species is the Northern part of its range in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca. The aim of this research was to determine the relative abundance, population struc- ture, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico, through the non-invasive technique of camera-trap sampling. A total of five sampling sessions were undertaken among 2009-2013, and used a total of 30 camera-traps in each period. The determinant factor of the sampling design was the hunting between two study areas. A total sampling effort of 9000 trap-days allowed to estimate an index of relative abundance (IRA) of 6.77 tapir photographs/1,000 trap-days (n = 61). IRA varied significantly between sampling stations (Mann-Whitney, p dry season in tropical rain forest without hunting (χ2, p tropical rain forest and secondary vegetation habitats showed higher photo frequency than expected from random (χ2, p forest appears to be the second most important terrestrial priority ecoregion, just after the Mayan Forest (Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo), for the conservation of tapir populations, not only for Mexico but also for Central America.

  10. Visual Scanning Patterns and Executive Function in Relation to Facial Emotion Recognition in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circelli, Karishma S.; Clark, Uraina S.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Objective The ability to perceive facial emotion varies with age. Relative to younger adults (YA), older adults (OA) are less accurate at identifying fear, anger, and sadness, and more accurate at identifying disgust. Because different emotions are conveyed by different parts of the face, changes in visual scanning patterns may account for age-related variability. We investigated the relation between scanning patterns and recognition of facial emotions. Additionally, as frontal-lobe changes with age may affect scanning patterns and emotion recognition, we examined correlations between scanning parameters and performance on executive function tests. Methods We recorded eye movements from 16 OA (mean age 68.9) and 16 YA (mean age 19.2) while they categorized facial expressions and non-face control images (landscapes), and administered standard tests of executive function. Results OA were less accurate than YA at identifying fear (precognition of sad expressions and with scanning patterns for fearful, sad, and surprised expressions. Conclusion We report significant age-related differences in visual scanning that are specific to faces. The observed relation between scanning patterns and executive function supports the hypothesis that frontal-lobe changes with age may underlie some changes in emotion recognition. PMID:22616800

  11. Work-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs compared to teachers and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia; Schaarschmidt, Uwe; Kieschke, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the status of health-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs in comparison with teachers and physicians to identify specific health risks and resources. Entrepreneurs (n = 632), teachers (n = 5,196), and physicians (n = 549) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design. The questionnaire Work-related Behavior and Experience Patterns (AVEM) was used for all professions and, in addition, two scales (health prevention and self-confidence) from the Checklist for Entrepreneurs in the sample of entrepreneurs. The largest proportion of the entrepreneurs (45%) presented with a healthy pattern (compared with 18.4% teachers and 18.3% physicians). Thirty-eight percent of entrepreneurs showed a risk pattern of overexertion and stress, followed by teachers (28.9%) and physicians (20.6%). Unambitious or burnout patterns were seen in only 9.3/8.2% of entrepreneurs, respectively, and 25.3/27.3% of teachers, and 39.6/21.5% of physicians. While the distribution of patterns in teachers and physicians differed significantly between genders, a gender difference was not found among entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs with the risk pattern of overexertion scored significantly (P successful enterprise depends, in part, on the health of the entrepreneur. The large proportion of entrepreneurs with the healthy pattern irrespective of gender may support the notion that self-selection effects of healthy individuals in this special career might be important. At the same time, a large proportion was at risk for overexertion and might benefit from measures to cope with professional demands and stress and promote a healthy behavior pattern.

  12. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns.

  13. Work-related behaviour and experience patterns of physicians compared to other professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Kieschke, Ulf; Spahn, Claudia

    2007-08-11

    To identify health risk factors and resources of physicians in comparison with other professions. Data of cross-sectional mail surveys conducted among German physicians (n = 344), teachers (n = 5169), policemen (n = 851), prison officers (n = 3653), and starting entrepreneurs (n = 632) were analysed regarding eleven health-relevant dimensions and four behaviour patterns examined by the questionnaire "Work-Related Behaviour and Experience Pattern (AVEM)". Only 17% of the physicians showed healthy behaviour and experience patterns. With 43%, they scored highest in terms of reduced working motivation. Together with the teachers, they also had the highest scores for resignation and burnout (27%). Satisfaction with life and work as well as social support showed medium scores. Starting entrepreneurs showed the healthiest patterns (45%), but also the highest risk pattern for overexertion (38%). It was possible to identify clear risk patterns for profession-related psychosocial symptoms and impairments. The high scores for reduced working motivation demonstrate the need for interventions to improve organisation of health care and individual coping strategies.

  14. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle O; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Verbeeck, Hans; von Randow, Celso; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W; Feldpausch, Ted R; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie; Quesada, Carlos A; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Sampaio, Gilvan; Kruijt, Bart; Meir, Patrick; Moorcroft, Paul; Zhang, Ke; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban; Alves de Oliveira, Atila; Amaral, Ieda; Andrade, Ana; Aragao, Luiz E O C; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo A; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jocely; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene; Camargo, Jose; Chave, Jerome; Cogollo, Alvaro; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Lola da Costa, Antonio C; Di Fiore, Anthony; Ferreira, Leandro; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice N; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F; Licona, Juan; Lovejoy, Thomas; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Bia; Marimon, Ben Hur; Matos, Darley C L; Mendoza, Casimiro; Neill, David A; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel C A; Poorter, Lourens; Prieto, Adriana; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Roopsind, Anand; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Baker, Timothy R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the processes that determine above-ground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody productivity [woody net primary productivity (NPP)] and the rate at which carbon is lost through tree mortality. Here, we test whether two direct metrics of tree mortality (the absolute rate of woody biomass loss and the rate of stem mortality) and/or woody NPP, control variation in AGB among 167 plots in intact forest across Amazonia. We then compare these relationships and the observed variation in AGB and woody NPP with the predictions of four DGVMs. The observations show that stem mortality rates, rather than absolute rates of woody biomass loss, are the most important predictor of AGB, which is consistent with the importance of stand size structure for determining spatial variation in AGB. The relationship between stem mortality rates and AGB varies among different regions of Amazonia, indicating that variation in wood density and height/diameter relationships also influences AGB. In contrast to previous findings, we find that woody NPP is not correlated with stem mortality rates and is weakly positively correlated with AGB. Across the four models, basin-wide average AGB is similar to the mean of the observations. However, the models consistently overestimate woody NPP and poorly represent the spatial patterns of both AGB and woody NPP estimated using plot data. In marked contrast to the observations, DGVMs typically show strong positive relationships between woody NPP and AGB. Resolving these differences will require incorporating forest size structure, mechanistic models of stem mortality and variation in functional composition in DGVMs. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Soil-geomorphic heterogeneity governs patchy vegetation dynamics at an arid ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Brandon T; Ward, Judy P; Havstad, Kris M

    2006-04-01

    Soil properties are well known to affect vegetation, but the role of soil heterogeneity in the patterning of vegetation dynamics is poorly documented. We asked whether the location of an ecotone separating grass-dominated and sparsely vegetated areas reflected only historical variation in degradation or was related to variation in inherent soil properties. We then asked whether changes in the cover and spatial organization of vegetated and bare patches assessed using repeat aerial photography reflected self-organizing dynamics unrelated to soil variation or the stable patterning of soil variation. We found that the present-day ecotone was related to a shift from more weakly to more strongly developed soils. Parts of the ecotone were stable over a 60-year period, but shifts between bare and vegetated states, as well as persistently vegetated and bare states, occurred largely in small (<40 m2) patches throughout the study area. The probability that patches were presently vegetated or bare, as well as the probability that vegetation persisted and/or established over the 60-year period, was negatively related to surface calcium carbonate and positively related to subsurface clay content. Thus, only a fraction of the landscape was susceptible to vegetation change, and the sparsely vegetated area probably featured a higher frequency of susceptible soil patches. Patch dynamics and self-organizing processes can be constrained by subtle (and often unrecognized) soil heterogeneity.

  16. Reproducibility and relative validity of a brief quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessing fruit and vegetable intakes in North-African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, E; Gartner, A; Bour, A; McCullough, F; Delpeuch, F; Holdsworth, M

    2014-04-01

    In the context of a rapidly increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases, fruit and vegetables could play a key preventive role. To date, there is no rapid assessment tool available for measuring the fruit and vegetable intakes of North-African women. The present study aimed to investigate the reproducibility and relative validity of an eight-item quantitative food frequency questionnaire that measures the fruit and vegetable intakes (FV-FFQ) of Moroccan women. During a 1-week period, 100 women, living in the city of Rabat, Morocco (aged 20-49 years) completed the short FV-FFQ twice: once at baseline (FV-FFQ1) and once at the end of the study (FV-FFQ2). In the mean time, participants completed three 24-h dietary recalls. All questionnaires were administered by interviewers. Reproducibility was assessed by computing Spearman's correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients and kappa statistics. Relative validity was assessed by computing Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and Spearman's correlation coefficients, as well as by performing Bland-Altman plots. In terms of reproducibility, Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.56; ICC coefficient was 0.68; and weighted kappa was 0.35. In terms of relative validity, compared with the three 24-h recalls, the FV-FFQ slightly underestimated mean fruit and vegetable intakes (-10.9%; P = 0.006); Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.69; at the individual level, intakes measured by the FV-FFQ were between 0.39 and 2.19 times those measured by the 24-h recalls. The brief eight-item FV-FFQ is a reliable and relatively valid tool for measuring mean fruit and vegetable intakes at the population level, although this is not the case at the individual level. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya, E-mail: saras@food.dtu.dk [Accoat A/S, Munkegardsvej 16, 3490 Kvistgard (Denmark); Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Adler-Nissen, Jens [Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Per [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Plot of cos {theta} versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos {theta} rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cos {theta} of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 Degree-Sign C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos {theta} values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos {theta} values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between

  18. Climatic drivers of vegetation based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Jeroen; Martens, Brecht; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Molini, Annalisa; Miralles, Diego

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics are driven by climate, and at the same time they play a key role in forcing the different bio-geochemical cycles. As climate change leads to an increase in frequency and intensity of hydro-meteorological extremes, vegetation is expected to respond to these changes, and subsequently feed back on their occurrence. This response can be analysed using time series of different vegetation diagnostics observed from space, in the optical (e.g. Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF)) and microwave (Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD)) domains. In this contribution, we compare the climatic drivers of different vegetation diagnostics, based on a monthly global data-cube of 24 years at a 0.25° resolution. To do so, we calculate the wavelet coherence between each vegetation-related observation and observations of air temperature, precipitation and incoming radiation. The use of wavelet coherence allows unveiling the scale-by-scale response and sensitivity of the diverse vegetation indices to their climatic drivers. Our preliminary results show that the wavelet-based statistics prove to be a suitable tool for extracting information from different vegetation indices. Going beyond traditional methods based on linear correlations, the application of wavelet coherence provides information about: (a) the specific periods at which the correspondence between climate and vegetation dynamics is larger, (b) the frequencies at which this correspondence occurs (e.g. monthly or seasonal scales), and (c) the time lag in the response of vegetation to their climate drivers, and vice versa. As expected, areas of high rainfall volumes are characterised by a strong control of radiation and temperature over vegetation. Furthermore, precipitation is the most important driver of vegetation variability over short terms in most regions of the world - which can be explained by the rapid response of leaf development towards available water content

  19. Searching for Contracting Patterns over Time: Do Prime Contractor and Subcontractor Relations Follow Similar Patterns for Professional Services Provision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomariov, Branco; Kingsley, Gordon; Boardman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares over a 12-year period (1) patterns of contracting between a state transportation agency and its prime contractors providing engineering design services with (2) patterns between these prime contractors and their subcontractors. We find evidence of different contracting patterns at each level that emerge over time and coexist in…

  20. The relation between dietary intake of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khosravi Boroujeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women aged 19-81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najaf Abad and Arak in "Isfahan Healthy Heart Program" (IHHP, was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods. RESULTS: Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or non-hydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association. Keywords: Vegetable Oils, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Lipids

  1. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  2. Novel expression patterns of carotenoid pathway-related gene in citrus leaves and maturing fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are abundant in citrus fruits and vary among cultivars and species. In the present study, HPLC and real-time PCR were used to investigate the expression patterns of 23 carotenoid biosynthesis gene family members and their possible relation with carotenoid accumulation in flavedo, juice s...

  3. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...

  4. Visualization of dietary patterns and their associations with age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURPOSE: We aimed to visualize the relationship of predominant dietary patterns and their associations with AMD. METHODS: A total of 8103 eyes from 4088 participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into three groups: control (n=2739), early AMD (n=4599), and adv...

  5. Prognostic significance of specific injury patterns in casualties of traffic-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir

    2015-11-01

    Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimates of fruit and vegetable intake in childhood and adult dietary behaviors of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Kreuter, Matthew K; Holt, Cheryl; Steger-May, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how estimates of one's fruit and vegetable intake in childhood are related to 3 current dietary behaviors among African American women: intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure to and preference for fruits and vegetables, and preference for trying new foods. Baseline data from a randomized dietary intervention trial. Ten urban public health centers in St. Louis, Missouri. 1227 African American women. A 33-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, items measuring estimates of childhood fruit and vegetable intake, adult fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to and preference for fruit and vegetable, and preference for trying new foods. Linear regression evaluated the association between predictors and continuous measures; logistic regression determined the association between predictors and categorical measures. Estimates of one's vegetable intake as a child were significantly related to exposure and preference for both fruits and vegetables, trying of new foods, and intake of both fruits and vegetables in adulthood. Estimates of eating fruit as a child were not significantly associated with these adult dietary behaviors. Developmental influences on adult dietary patterns may be stronger for vegetables than fruits among African American women. Additional emphasis is needed regarding exposure to and preference for vegetable intake in childhood.

  7. Vegetable, fruit and nitrate intake in relation to the risk of Barrett's oesophagus in a large Dutch cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszei, A.P.; Schouten, L.J.; Driessen, A.L.C.; Huysentruyt, C.J.R.; Keulemans, Y.C.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    There are few epidemiological data on the dietary risk factors of Barrett's oesophagus, a precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The present study investigated the association between vegetable, fruit and nitrate intake and Barrett's oesophagus risk in a large prospective cohort. The Netherlands

  8. Relative validity of fruit and vegetable intake estimated by the food frequency questionnaire used in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Tina B.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Rasmussen, Salka E.

    2007-01-01

    ) (r=0.57); and fruit, vegetables, and juice (F&V&J) (r=0.62). Sensitivities of correct classification by FFQ into the two lowest and the two highest quintiles of F&V&J intake were 58-67% and 50-74%, respectively, and specificities were 71-79% and 65-83%, respectively. F&V&J intake estimated from......Objective: To validate the fruit and vegetable intake estimated from the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) used in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Subjects and setting: The DNBC is a cohort of 101,042 pregnant women in Denmark, who received a FFQ by mail in gestation week 25. A validation...... study with 88 participants was made. A seven-day weighed food diary (FD) and three different biomarkers were employed as comparison methods. Results: Significant correlations between FFQ and FD-based estimates were found for fruit (r=0.66); vegetables (r=0.32); juice (r=0.52); fruit and vegetables (F&V...

  9. The association of outdoor vegetation with ADHD-related behavior among children living in an urban community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Emerging research supports potential benefits of green space on children's behavior. Methods: We evaluated the cross-sectional association of outdoor vegetation (OV) and distance to parks with ADHD-like behavior in 560 eight-year-olds from a prospective, sociodemogr...

  10. Patterns of work-related intimate partner violence and job performance among abusive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Perrin, Nancy A; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses different types of work-related intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and their relationship to perpetrators' work performance and employment. We determine if groups of abusive men with similar patterns of work-related IPV exist and then examine whether the patterns are related to their characteristics, job performance, and employment outcomes. Participants were 198 adult men (60% Latino, 40% non-Latino) from batterer intervention programs (BIPs) who self-reported their lifetime work-related IPV and job outcomes. Five distinct clusters were identified and named based on the pattern (predominance or absence) of different work-related abusive behaviors reported: (a) low-level tactics, (b) job interference, (c) job interference with threatened or actual violence, (d) extreme abuse without jealousy and (e) extreme abuse. Analyses revealed significant differences between the clusters on ethnicity, parental status, partner's employment status, income, education, and (among Latinos only) acculturation. The probability of men's work-related IPV substantially impacting their own job performance was nearly 4 times greater among those in the extreme abuse cluster than those in the low-level tactics cluster. These data inform the development of employee training programs and workplace policies for reducing IPV that affects the workplace.

  11. Patterns of diet-related practices and prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaillzadeh, A; Keshteli, A H; Feizi, A; Zaribaf, F; Feinle-Bisset, C; Adibi, P

    2013-10-01

    No studies have evaluated associations between patterns of diet-related practices as determined by latent class analysis (LCA) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to assess this relationship in a large sample of Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional study in 4763 adults, diet-related practices were assessed in four domains, 'meal pattern', 'eating rate', 'intra-meal fluid intake', and 'meal-to-sleep interval', using a pretested questionnaire. LCA was applied to identify classes of diet-related practices. We defined GERD as the presence of heartburn sometimes, often or always. The prevalence of GERD in the study population was 23.5% (n = 1120). We identified two distinct classes of meal patterns: 'regular' and 'irregular', three classes of eating rates: 'moderate', 'moderate-to-slow', and 'moderate-to-fast', two major classes of fluid ingestion with meals: 'moderate' and 'much intra-meal drinking', and two classes regarding the interval between meals and sleeping: 'short' and 'long meal-to-sleep' interval. After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects with 'irregular meal pattern' had higher odds of GERD compared with subjects with 'regular meal pattern' (OR: 1.21; 1.00-1.46). However, when taking into account BMI, the association disappeared. 'Long meal-to-sleep interval' was inversely associated with GERD compared with 'short meal-to-sleep interval' (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.95). 'Eating rate' and 'intra-meal fluid intake' were not significantly associated with GERD. Our data suggest certain associations between dietary patterns and GERD. These findings warrant evaluation in prospective studies to establish the potential value of modifications in dietary behaviors for the management of GERD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A visceral adiposity index-related dietary pattern and the cardiometabolic profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Behnaz; Moslehi, Nazanin; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Tahmasebinejad, Zhale; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-10-01

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI), an indicator of visceral adiposity, has been found to be associated with cardiometabolic disturbances in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The association of dietary intakes with VAI, and subsequently cardiometabolic variables is still unclear. The aims of this study were to identify a dietary pattern associated with VAI and to investigate whether this pattern is associated with cardiometabolic variables in PCOS women. The study was conducted on 53 PCOS women, aged 18-45 years, diagnosed according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria, and 167 age-matched normo-ovulatory women who were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Reduced rank regression was applied to determine a dietary pattern that explains the maximum variation of the VAI. Associations between the dietary pattern and cardiometabolic profiles were investigated using linear and logistic regression, adjusted for age and BMI. A VAI dietary pattern was identified characterized by high consumption of fried vegetables, vegetable oils (except olive oil), salty snacks, legumes, eggs, fast foods and low consumption of traditional sweets, high and low fat dairy, cruciferous vegetables, sugars and honey. A one standard deviation (SD) increase in dietary pattern score was significantly associated with higher triglycerides (TGs) (βcontrol = 0.22, p = 0.003; βcase = 0.48, p = 0.001) and TGs/HDL-C ratio (βcontrol = 0.23, p = 0.002; βcase = 0.52, p = 0.001) in both groups. After adjusting for age and BMI, a 1-SD increase in dietary pattern score was associated with increased risk of VAD in PCOS (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.15, 6.66) and control groups (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.41-4.12). In the control group, the risk of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, high LDL-C, low HDL-C, hyperglycemia and IGT + IFG increased significantly per 1-SD increase in dietary pattern score, which all remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI, except

  13. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages...... of overweight or obese people were calculated. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence for both sexes was unequivocally connected with eating rye. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence depended among women on consuming pork meat and alcoholic beverages. For men...

  14. The AMMA-CATCH Gourma observatory site in Mali: Relating climatic variations to changes in vegetation, surface hydrology, fluxes and natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, E.; Hiernaux, P.; Kergoat, L.; Grippa, M.; de Rosnay, P.; Timouk, F.; Le Dantec, V.; Demarez, V.; Lavenu, F.; Arjounin, M.; Lebel, T.; Soumaguel, N.; Ceschia, E.; Mougenot, B.; Baup, F.; Frappart, F.; Frison, P. L.; Gardelle, J.; Gruhier, C.; Jarlan, L.; Mangiarotti, S.; Sanou, B.; Tracol, Y.; Guichard, F.; Trichon, V.; Diarra, L.; Soumaré, A.; Koité, M.; Dembélé, F.; Lloyd, C.; Hanan, N. P.; Damesin, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Seghieri, J.; Becerra, S.; Dia, H.; Gangneron, F.; Mazzega, P.

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe Gourma site in Mali is one of the three instrumented meso-scale sites deployed in West-Africa as part of the African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project. Located both in the Sahelian zone sensu stricto, and in the Saharo-Sahelian transition zone, the Gourma meso-scale window is the northernmost site of the AMMA-CATCH observatory reached by the West African Monsoon. The experimental strategy includes deployment of a variety of instruments, from local to meso-scale, dedicated to monitoring and documentation of the major variables characterizing the climate forcing, and the spatio-temporal variability of surface processes and state variables such as vegetation mass, leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture and surface fluxes. This paper describes the Gourma site, its associated instrumental network and the research activities that have been carried out since 1984. In the AMMA project, emphasis is put on the relations between climate, vegetation and surface fluxes. However, the Gourma site is also important for development and validation of satellite products, mainly due to the existence of large and relatively homogeneous surfaces. The social dimension of the water resource uses and governance is also briefly analyzed, relying on field enquiry and interviews. The climate of the Gourma region is semi-arid, daytime air temperatures are always high and annual rainfall amounts exhibit strong inter-annual and seasonal variations. Measurements sites organized along a north-south transect reveal sharp gradients in surface albedo, net radiation, vegetation production, and distribution of plant functional types. However, at any point along the gradient, surface energy budget, soil moisture and vegetation growth contrast between two main types of soil surfaces and hydrologic systems. On the one hand, sandy soils with high water infiltration rates and limited run-off support almost continuous herbaceous vegetation with scattered woody plants. On the other

  15. Attachment quality is related to the synchrony of mother and infant monitoring patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Szilvia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Huffmeijer, Renske; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2017-06-01

    We investigated whether attachment quality is related to infant-mother dyadic patterns in monitoring animated social situations. Sixty 12-month-old infants and their mothers participated in an eye-tracking study in which they watched abstractly depicted distress interactions involving the separation of a "baby" and a "parent" character followed by reunion or further separation of the two characters. We measured infants' and their mothers' relative fixation duration to the two characters in the animations. We found that infant attachment disorganization moderated the correspondence between the monitoring patterns of infant-mother dyads during the final part of the animations resulting in reunion or separation. Organized infants and their mothers showed complementary monitoring patterns: the more the mothers focused their attention on the "baby" character, the more the infants focused their attention on the "parent" character, and vice versa. Disorganized infant-mother dyads showed the opposite pattern although the correlation was nonsignificant: mothers and their infants focused on the same character. The attachment-related differences in the nature of the synchrony in the attentional processes of infants and their mothers suggest that by 12 months the dyads' representations of social situations reflect their shared social-emotional experiences.

  16. Projections of Seasonal Patterns in Temperature- Related Deaths for Manhattan, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    Global average temperatures have been rising for the past half-century, and the warming trend has accelerated in recent decades. Further warming is expected over the next few decades, with significant regional variations. These warming trends will probably result in more frequent, intense and persistent periods of hot temperatures in summer, and generally higher temperatures in winter. Daily death counts in cities increase markedly when temperatures reach levels that are very high relative to what is normal in a given location. Relatively cold temperatures also seem to carry risk. Rising temperatures may result in more heat-related mortality but may also reduce cold-related mortality, and the net impact on annual mortality remains uncertain. Here we use 16 downscaled global climate models and two emissions scenarios to estimate present and future seasonal patterns in temperature-related mortality in Manhattan, New York. All 32 projections yielded warm-season increases and cold-season decreases in temperature-related mortality, with positive net annual temperature-related deaths in all cases. Monthly analyses showed that the largest percentage increases may occur in May and September. These results suggest that, over a range of models and scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, increases in heat-related mortality could outweigh reductions in cold-related mortality, with shifting seasonal patterns.

  17. Examination of the pattern of teachers' work stressors in relation to job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Slivar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress is affecting teachers in their daily work and is related to low job satisfaction, low work motivation, low affiliation to organization etc. The study explored not only the relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction but also the structure of patterns between various teacher's work stressors and particular elements of job satisfaction. In order to develop better understanding of the nature of the stressor experience, a study was undertaken to explore the stressor-job satisfaction relationship using sequential tree analysis. The study included 442 primary school teachers and 191 gymnasium school teachers. Results showed that different stressor patterns were associated with different levels of satisfaction and that there are differences in structure and in patterns of stressors among teachers from different types of schools.

  18. Intergenerational patterns of family violence related to alcohol abuse: a genogram-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Tondowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze intergenerational patterns of alcohol related violence (ARV. An intentional sample comprising 42 family members was selected according to a set of criteria, including history of ARV. A genogram based on anonymous semi-structured taped interviews was created. The Content Analysis pointed to different patterns of repetition of intergenerational ARV. The most recurrent ones were those of lineal consanguinity (father/son and through marriage. We observed similarities over the generations of each family as regards the pattern of alcohol consumption; the type of violence; the family reaction and the family life cycle in which ARV was intensified. Our results confirm the intergenerational reproduction of ARV. In conclusion, it is important to create intervention strategies to prevent intergenerational repetition of this association of behaviors.

  19. Modification of medullary respiratory-related discharge patterns by behaviors and states of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F C

    1992-02-07

    The modulatory influences of behaviors and states of arousal on bulbar respiratory-related unit (RRU) discharge patterns were studied in an unanesthetized, freely behaving guinea pig respiratory model system. When fully instrumented, this model system permits concurrent monitoring and recording of (i) single units from either Bötzinger complex or nucleus para-ambiguus; (ii) electrocorticogram; and, (iii) diaphragmatic EMG. In addition to being used in surveys of RRU discharge patterns in freely behaving states, the model system also offered a unique opportunity in investigating the effects of pentobarbital on RRU discharge patterns before, throughout the course of, and during recovery from anesthesia. In anesthetized preparations, a particular RRU discharge pattern (such as tonic, incrementing or decrementing) typically displayed little, if any notable variation. The most striking development following pentobarbital was a state of progressive bradypnea attributable to a significantly augmented RRU cycle duration, burst duration and an increase in the RRU spike frequencies during anesthesia. In freely behaving states, medullary RRU activities rarely adhered to a fixed, immutable discharge pattern. More specifically, the temporal organization (such as burst duration, cycle duration, and the extent of modulation of within-burst spike frequencies) of RRU discharge patterns regularly showed complex and striking variations, not only with states of arousal (sleep/wakefulness, anesthesia) but also with discrete alterations in electrocorticogram (ECoG) activities and a multitude of on-going behavioral repertoires such as volitional movement, postural modification, phonation, mastication, deglutition, sniffing/exploratory behavior, alerting/startle reflexes. Only during sleep, and on occasions when the animal assumed a motionless, resting posture, could burst patterns of relatively invariable periodicity and uniform temporal attributes be observed. RRU activities during

  20. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Lafay, Lionel; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires national food consumption survey. Weight and height, leisure time physical activity, SED (television viewing), and SES were reported by parents or children by answering questionnaires. Scores for lifestyle patterns were assessed with factor analysis and their relationship with OW was explored by logistic regression analysis. Two similar lifestyle patterns were identified in children aged 3-6 y and 7-11 y: "snacking and sedentary" and "varied food and physically active." The snacking and sedentary pattern was positively associated with OW in the youngest children (P-trend = 0.0161) and partly mediated the negative association of SES to OW. The varied food and physically active pattern was inversely correlated with OW in the eldest children only (P-trend = 0.0401). A third pattern called "big eaters at main meals" was derived in children aged 7-11 y and was positively correlated with OW (P-trend = 0.0165). From a public health perspective, the combinations of identifiable dietary and physical activity behaviors may be useful as a basis for recommendations on preventing OW.

  1. Soil losses from typic cambisols and red latosol as related to three erosive rainfall patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regimeire Freitas Aquino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity is one of the main factors related to water erosion in the tropics. This work focused on relating soil loss from a typic dystrophic Tb Haplic Cambisol (CXbd and a typic dystrophic Red Latosol (LVdf to different patterns of natural erosive rainfall. The experimental plots of approximately 26 m² (3 x 8.67 m consisted of a CXbd area with a 0.15 m m-1 slope and a LVdf area with 0.12 m m-1 slope, both delimited by galvanized plates. Drainpipes were installed at the lower part of these plots to collect runoff, interconnected with a Geib or multislot divisor. To calculate erosivity (EI30, rainfall data, recorded continuously at a weather station in Lavras, were used. The data of erosive rainfall events were measured (10 mm precipitation intervals, accuracy 0.2 mm, 24 h period, 20 min intervals, characterized as rainfall events with more than 10 mm precipitation, maximum intensity > 24 mm h-1 within 15 min, or kinetic energy > 3.6 MJ, which were used in this study to calculate the rainfall erosivity parameter, were classified according to the moment of peak precipitation intensity in advanced, intermediate and delayed patterns. Among the 139 erosive rainfall events with CXbd soil loss, 60 % were attributed to the advanced pattern, with a loss of 415.9 Mg ha-1, and total losses of 776.0 Mg ha-1. As for the LVdf, of the 93 erosive rainfall events with soil loss, 58 % were listed in the advanced pattern, with 37.8 Mg ha-1 soil loss and 50.9 Mg ha-1 of total soil loss. The greatest soil losses were observed in the advanced rain pattern, especially for the CXbd. From the Cambisol, the soil loss per rainfall event was greatest for the advanced pattern, being influenced by the low soil permeability.

  2. Learning causes reorganization of neuronal firing patterns to represent related experiences within a hippocampal schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sam; Robinson, Nick T M; Herrera, Lauren; Churchill, Jordana C; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-06-19

    According to schema theory as proposed by Piaget and Bartlett, learning involves the assimilation of new memories into networks of preexisting knowledge, as well as alteration of the original networks to accommodate the new information. Recent evidence has shown that rats form a schema of goal locations and that the hippocampus plays an essential role in adding new memories to the spatial schema. Here we examined the nature of hippocampal contributions to schema updating by monitoring firing patterns of multiple CA1 neurons as rats learned new goal locations in an environment in which there already were multiple goals. Before new learning, many neurons that fired on arrival at one goal location also fired at other goals, whereas ensemble activity patterns also distinguished different goal events, thus constituting a neural representation that linked distinct goals within a spatial schema. During new learning, some neurons began to fire as animals approached the new goals. These were primarily the same neurons that fired at original goals, the activity patterns at new goals were similar to those associated with the original goals, and new learning also produced changes in the preexisting goal-related firing patterns. After learning, activity patterns associated with the new and original goals gradually diverged, such that initial generalization was followed by a prolonged period in which new memories became distinguished within the ensemble representation. These findings support the view that consolidation involves assimilation of new memories into preexisting neural networks that accommodate relationships among new and existing memories.

  3. Normal cranial bone marrow MR imaging pattern with age-related ADC value distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Pan Shinong; Yin Yuming; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Liu Yunhui; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine MRI appearances of normal age-related cranial bone marrow and the relationship between MRI patterns and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Five hundred subjects were divided into seven groups based on ages. Cranial bone marrow MRI patterns were performed based on different thickness of the diploe and signal intensity distribution characteristics. ADC values of the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal bones on DWI were measured and calculated. Correlations between ages and ADC values, between patterns and ADC values, as well as the distribution of ADC values were analyzed. Results: Normal cranial bone marrow was divided into four types and six subtypes, Type I, II, III and IV, which had positive correlation with age increasing (χ 2 = 266.36, P 0.05). In addition, there was significant negative correlation between the ADC values and MRI patterns in the normal parietal and occipital bones (r = -0.691 and -0.750, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of MRI features and ADC values changes in different cranial bones showed significant correlation with age increasing. Familiar with the MRI appearance of the normal bone marrow conversion pattern in different age group and their ADC value will aid the diagnosis and differential of the cranial bone pathology.

  4. Evaluating broad scale patterns among related species using resource experiments in tropical hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-08-01

    A challenge in community ecology is connecting biogeographic patterns with local scale observations. In Neotropical hummingbirds, closely related species often co-occur less frequently than expected (overdispersion) when compared to a regional species pool. While this pattern has been attributed to interspecific competition, it is important to connect these findings with local scale mechanisms of coexistence. We measured the importance of the presence of competitors and the availability of resources on selectivity at experimental feeders for Andean hummingbirds along a wide elevation gradient. Selectivity was measured as the time a bird fed at a feeder with a high sucrose concentration when presented with feeders of both low and high sucrose concentrations. Resource selection was measured using time-lapse cameras to identity which floral resources were used by each hummingbird species. We found that the increased abundance of preferred resources surrounding the feeder best explained increased species selectivity, and that related hummingbirds with similar morphology chose similar floral resources. We did not find strong support for direct agonism based on differences in body size or phylogenetic relatedness in predicting selectivity. These results suggest closely related hummingbird species have overlapping resource niches, and that the intensity of interspecific competition is related to the abundance of those preferred resources. If these competitive interactions have negative demographic effects, our results could help explain the pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion observed at regional scales. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustsson, Anna L.M., E-mail: anna.augustsson@lnu.se [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Hogmalm, K. Johan [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Filipsson, Monika E.M. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination.

  6. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustsson, Anna L.M.; Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E.; Hogmalm, K. Johan; Filipsson, Monika E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination

  7. High diversity in neuropeptide immunoreactivity patterns among three closely related species of Dinophilidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Conzelmann, Markus; Jékely, Gáspár

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptides are conserved metazoan signaling molecules, and represent useful markers for comparative investigations on the morphology and function of the nervous system. However, little is known about the variation of neuropeptide expression patterns across closely related species in invertebrate...... groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi). The brains of all three species were found to consist of around 700 somata...... species. FMRFamide, MLD/pedal peptide, allatotropin, RNamide, excitatory peptide, and FVRIamide showed a broad localization within the brain, while calcitonin, SIFamide, vasotocin, RGWamide, DLamide, FLamide, FVamide, MIP, and serotonin were present in fewer cells in demarcated regions. The different...

  8. Characterizing use patterns and perceptions of relative harm in dual users of electronic and tobacco cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R.; Johnson, Patrick S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing. Questions regarding positive (e.g., smoking reduction/cessation) and negative (e.g., delay of cessation) potential public health consequences of e-cigarettes may be informed by studying dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. A cross-sectional online survey assessed demographics, product use patterns, and beliefs about relative product benefits and harms among dual users (n = 350) in the United States using th...

  9. Masking Period Patterns & Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Menezes, Denise C.; Porter, Heather L.; Griz, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Design Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-aged (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions, and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. Results The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. Conclusions This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated non-simultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise. PMID:26230495

  10. Masking Period Patterns and Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-Related Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Menezes, Denise C; Porter, Heather L; Griz, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-age (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated nonsimultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data, suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise.

  11. Patterns of dietary habits in relation to obesity in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Feizi, Awat; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-03-01

    Findings from few studies that investigated the relation between dietary behaviors and obesity are inconsistent. We aimed to assess the relation between patterns of dietary habits, identified by latent class analysis (LCA), and obesity in a large sample of Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional study on 7958 adults, dietary behaviors were assessed in five domains (meal patterns, eating rate, intra-meal fluid intake, meal-to-sleep interval, and fatty foods intake) using a pretested questionnaire. LCA was applied to identify classes of diet-related practices. Anthropometric measures were assessed through the use of a validated self-reported questionnaire. General and abdominal obesity were defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), and a waist circumference ≥ 88 cm for women and ≥ 102 cm for men. General and abdominal obesity were prevalent in 9.7 and 27.7 % of the study population, respectively. We identified three distinct classes of eating rates (moderate, moderate to slow, and moderate to fast), two classes of meal patterns (regular and irregular), two classes of intra-meal fluid intake (moderate and more intra-meal drinking), three classes of meal-to-sleep interval (short, moderate, and long meal-to-sleep interval), and three classes of fatty food intake (low to moderate, moderate to high, and low intake of fatty foods). After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with 'irregular meal pattern' were 21, 24, and 22 % more likely to be overweight/obese, abdominally overweight/obese, and abdominally obese, compared with those who had a 'regular meal pattern.' Individuals with 'more intra-meal drinking' had greater odds of overweight (OR 1.37; 1.19-1.458) and obesity (OR 1.51; 1.16-1.97) than those with 'moderate intra-meal drinking.' Moderate-to-high intake of fatty foods was inversely associated with abdominally overweight/obese (OR 0.85; 0.73-1.00) and abdominally obesity (OR 0.80; 0.68-0.96) compared with 'low-to-moderate intake of fatty foods

  12. Use of a twin dataset to identify AMD-related visual patterns controlled by genetic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Russell, Stephen R.

    2010-03-01

    The mapping of genotype to the phenotype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in a near future. In this study, we focused on the first step to discover this mapping: we identified visual patterns related to AMD which seem to be controlled by genetic factors, without explicitly relating them to the genes. For this purpose, we used a dataset of eye fundus photographs from 74 twin pairs, either monozygotic twins, who have the same genotype, or dizygotic twins, whose genes responsible for AMD are less likely to be identical. If we are able to differentiate monozygotic twins from dizygotic twins, based on a given visual pattern, then this pattern is likely to be controlled by genetic factors. The main visible consequence of AMD is the apparition of drusen between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. We developed two automated drusen detectors based on the wavelet transform: a shape-based detector for hard drusen, and a texture- and color- based detector for soft drusen. Forty visual features were evaluated at the location of the automatically detected drusen. These features characterize the texture, the shape, the color, the spatial distribution, or the amount of drusen. A distance measure between twin pairs was defined for each visual feature; a smaller distance should be measured between monozygotic twins for visual features controlled by genetic factors. The predictions of several visual features (75.7% accuracy) are comparable or better than the predictions of human experts.

  13. Properties of incident reporting systems in relation to statistical trend and pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalfsbeek, H.W.; Arsenis, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the properties deemed desirable for an incident reporting system in order to render it useful for extracting valid statistical trend and pattern information. The perspective under which a data collection system is seen in this paper is the following: data are essentially gathered on a set of variables describing an event or incident (the items featuring on a reporting format) in order to learn about (multiple) dependencies (called interactions) between these variables. Hence, the necessary features of the data source are highlighted and potential problem sources limiting the validity of the results to be obtained are identified. In this frame, important issues are the reporting completeness, related to the reporting criteria and reporting frequency, and of course the reporting contents and quality. The choice of the report items (the variables) and their categorization (code dictionary) may influence (bias) the insights gained from trend and pattern analyses, as may the presence or absence of a structure for correlating the reported issues within an incident. The issues addressed in this paper are brought in relation to some real world reporting systems on safety related events in Nuclear Power Plants, so that their possibilities and limitations with regard to statistical trend and pattern analysis become manifest

  14. PATTERN ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY IN RELATION TO KINETIC AND STATIC PERIMETRY AND VISUAL ACUITY IN RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Popović

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was conducted to assess whether pattern ERG is a sensitive test in evaluating the retinal function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. We wanted to determine how pattern ERG, reflecting the activity of inner retinal layers, is related to other psychophysical tests such as perimetry and visual acuity.Methods. An analysis was performed on 50 eyes of 25 patients with typical rod-cone retinitis pigmentosa. The standard Snellen visual acuity was tested. Visual field sensitivity was measured with automated static perimetry (Octopus G2 program where mean defect was taken as an index of visual field loss. In kinetic perimetry (Goldmann the average radius of the visual field measured with target II/4 and V/4 was calculated. Transient pattern ERG and all five flash ERG responses were also measured according to ISCEV standards. Amplitudes of pattern ERG P50 and N95 waves were compared to results of visual acuity and visual field testing.Results. In our group of 25 RP patients with visual acuity ranging from 0.16 to 1.0, PERG responses were preserved much better than full field ERGs. 72% of them had still recordable PERG responses, while 48% had cone and only 32% maximal responses. Scotopic rod responses were extinguished in all eyes. The normalized amplitudes of the PERG responses were also much higher (43.5% than cone (22.5% or maximal responses (4.5%. A strong correlation of both P50 and N95 amplitudes with Octopus mean defect index was found. In kinetic perimetry the correlation with PERG amplitudes was also high, but it was better with II/4 than with V/4 target. Patients with high preserved ERG responses had good visual acuity. In all patients with visual acuity less than 0.4 both flash and pattern ERG responses were already absent.Conclusions. This study shows that pattern ERG is an objective and sensitive test in evaluating the functional visual loss in retinitis pigmentosa. Amplitudes of P50 and N95 responses are linearly

  15. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...

  16. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-07-01

    Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of heat-related mortality in an elderly urban population by

  17. Patterns of students' computer use and relations to their computer and information literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Gerick, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that there is a complex relationship between students’ computer and information literacy (CIL) and their use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for both recreational and school use. Methods: This study seeks to dig deeper into these complex...... relations by identifying different patterns of students’ school-related and recreational computer use in the 21 countries participating in the International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS 2013). Results: Latent class analysis (LCA) of the student questionnaire and performance data from......, raising important questions about differences in contexts. Keywords: ICILS, Computer use, Latent class analysis (LCA), Computer and information literacy....

  18. Associations between access to farmers' markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Crawford, Thomas W; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2013-11-01

    We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A. Access to food venues was measured using a Geographic Information System incorporating distance, seasonality and business hours, to quantify access to farmers’ markets. Produce consumption was assessed by self-report of eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily. BMI and blood pressure were assessed by clinical measurements. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for dichotomous outcomes and multiple linear regression was used for continuous outcomes. As the study occurred in a university town and university students are likely to have different shopping patterns from non-students, we stratified analyses by student status. Eastern North Carolina. Low-income women of reproductive age (18–44 years) with valid address information accessing family planning services at a local health department (n 400). Over a quarter reported ever shopping at farmers’ markets (114/400). A larger percentage of women who shopped at farmers’ markets consumed five or more fruits and vegetables daily (42.1%) than those who did not (24.0%; P women reported shopping was 11.4 (SD 9.0) km (7.1 (SD 5.6) miles), while the mean distance to the farmers’ market closest to the residence was 4.0 (SD 3.7) km (2.5 (SD 2.3) miles). Among non-students, those who shopped at farmers’ markets were more likely to consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Future research should further explore potential health benefits of farmers’ markets.

  19. Analysis of Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery in the Mediterranean Basin using MODIS Derived Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawtree, Daniel; San Miguel, Jesus; Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter

    2010-05-01

    covering an area of at least 1,000 ha were identified. The land-cover / land-use of these large fires sites were then evaluated using the CORINE land-cover data set, and the sites dominated primarily by natural vegetation were identified. Once these candidate sites were identified, a subset was selected across a range of locations and site characteristics for post-fire recovery analysis. To evaluate the post-fire recovery sequence in these locations, time-series of NDVI, EVI, and LAI were derived using 250 meter resolution MODIS data (MOD13Q). The vegetation index values were then compared to pre-fire values to determine recovery relative to the pre-fire vegetative state. The variability in rates of recovery are then considered with respect to moisture availability, vegetation type, and local site conditions to evaluate if any patterns of recovery can be determined.

  20. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  1. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  2. Patterns of daily energy management at work: relations to employee well-being and job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; de Bloom, Jessica; Korpela, Kalevi

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed at identifying subgroups of employees with similar daily energy management strategies at work and finding out whether well-being indicators and job characteristics differ between these subgroups. The study was conducted by electronic questionnaire among 1122 Finnish employees. First, subgroups of employees with unique and distinctive patterns of energy management strategies were identified using latent profile analysis. Second, differences in well-being indicators and job characteristics between the subgroups were investigated by means of ANCOVA. Four subgroups (i.e., patterns) were identified and named: Passives (n = 371), Averages (n = 390), Casuals (n = 272) and Actives (n = 89). Passives used all three (i.e., work-related, private micro-break and physical micro-break) strategies less frequently than other subgroups, whereas Actives used work-related and physical energy management strategies more frequently than other subgroups. Averages used all strategies on an average level. Casuals' use of all strategies came close to that of Actives, notably in a shared low use of private micro-break strategies. Active and Casual patterns maintained vigor and vitality. Autonomy and social support at work played a significant role in providing opportunities for the use of beneficial energy management strategies. Autonomy and support at work seem to support active and casual use of daily energy management, which is important in staying energized throughout the working day.

  3. Diet patterns of island foxes on San Nicolas Island relative to feral cat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Kelly, Erica C.; Ferrara, Francesca J.; Drost, Charles A.; Westall, Tory L.; Hudgens, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are a species of conservation concern that occur on six of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. We analysed island fox diet on San Nicolas Island during 2006–12 to assess the influence of the removal of feral cats (Felis catus) on the food use by foxes. Our objective was to determine whether fox diet patterns shifted in response to the cat removal conducted during 2009–10, thus indicating that cats were competing with foxes for food items. We also examined the influence of annual precipitation patterns and fox abundance on fox diet. On the basis of an analysis of 1975 fox scats, use of vertebrate prey – deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), birds, and lizards – increased significantly during and after the complete removal of cats (n = 66) from the island. Deer mouse abundance increased markedly during and after cat removal and use of mice by foxes was significantly related to mouse abundance. The increase in mice and shift in item use by the foxes was consistent with a reduction in exploitative competition associated with the cat removal. However, fox abundance declined markedly coincident with the removal of cats and deer mouse abundance was negatively related to fox numbers. Also, annual precipitation increased markedly during and after cat removal and deer mouse abundance closely tracked precipitation. Thus, our results indicate that other confounding factors, particularly precipitation, may have had a greater influence on fox diet patterns.

  4. Pattern of relative growth in cockle Anadara antiquata in Ihamahu coastal waters, Central Maluku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahainenia, L.; Tuhumury, S. F.; Uneputty, P. A.; Tuhumury, N. C.

    2018-03-01

    Anadara antiquata is economically important species for fisheries and belong to phylum mollusc which also found in Maluku. However, the density of population begins to decrease recently due to high exploitation by people. The objective of the present study was to analyze relative growth pattern of A. antiquata including size distribution and growth pattern based on shell dimensions. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Ihamahu coastal waters. Data were collected by using purposive random sampling. All the individuals of A. antiquata found were measured the length, width and height by using a vernier caliper to the nearest 0.01mm. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 20 and Microsoft Excel software. The results indicated that the A. antiquata mostly found in seagrass bed with a muddy substrate. The size distribution of shell dimensions was different during sampling. Overall, the length ranged from 15.87 mm to 57.5 mm, the width from 15.50 mm to 48.60 mm and the height was from 9.36 mm to 35.9 mm. The population of A. antiquata consisted of juvenile and mature size. The mature size (> 30 mm) was more dominant in the population. The A. antiquata showed allometric relative growth pattern based on shell dimensions.

  5. A study of morphological patterns of lip prints in relation to gender of North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Khushboo; Gupta, Op

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a person's identity is a very important process in civil and criminal cases. Dental, fingerprint and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, in certain circumstances related to the scene of the crime or due to lack of experienced personnel, these techniques might be unavailable; so there is still an increasing need for reliable alternative methods of establishing identity. The objective of the study was to check for any peculiar lip patterns in relation to the sex of the individual and determine the most common lip patterns in the given population. This study was conducted on 150 subjects, which included 75 males and 75 females, in the age group of 18-30 years. After applying lipstick evenly, the lip print of each subject was obtained on a simple bond paper by a researcher, and later the lip print was then analyzed and interpreted. The intersected type was most commonly seen in females and branched in males. Reticular pattern was the least common type in both males and females. This study shows that the lip prints are unique to an individual and behold the potential for recognition of the sex of an individual.

  6. Vegetation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  7. Storminess-related rhythmic ridge patterns on the coasts of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Suursaar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Buried or elevated coastal ridges may serve as archives of past variations in sea level and climate conditions. Sometimes such ridges or coastal scarps appear in patterns, particularly on uplifting coasts with adequate sediment supply. Along the seacoasts of Estonia, where relative-to-geoid postglacial uplift can vary between 1.7 and 3.4 mm/yr, at least 27 areas with rhythmic geomorphic patterns have been identified from LiDAR images and elevation data. Such patterns were mainly found on faster emerging and well-exposed, tideless coasts. These are mostly located at heights between 1 and 21 m above sea level, the formation of which corresponds to a period of up to 7500 years. Up to approximately 150 individual ridges were counted on some cross-shore sections. Ten of these ridge patterns that formed less than 4500 years ago were chosen for detailed characterization and analysis in search of possible forcing mechanisms. Among these more closely studied cases, the mean ridge spacing varied between 19 and 28 m. Using land uplift rates from the late Holocene period, the timespans of the corresponding cross sections were calculated. The average temporal periodicity of the ridges was between 23 and 39 years with a gross mean value of 31 years. Considering the regular nature of the ridges, they mostly do not reflect single extreme events, but rather a decadal-scale periodicity in storminess in the region of the Baltic Sea. Although a contribution from some kind of self-organization process is possible, the rhythmicity in ancient coastal ridge patterns is likely linked to quasi-periodic 25−40-year variability, which can be traced to Estonian long-term sea level records and wave hindcasts, as well as in regional storminess data and the North Atlantic Oscillation index.

  8. Signatures of selection in loci governing major colour patterns in Heliconius butterflies and related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joron Mathieu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-coding change is one possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of adaptive wing colour pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies. Here we determine whether 38 putative genes within two major Heliconius patterning loci, HmYb and HmB, show evidence of positive selection. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes (ω were used to test for selection, as a means of identifying candidate genes within each locus that control wing pattern. Results Preliminary analyses using 454 transcriptome and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC sequences from three Heliconius species highlighted a cluster of genes within each region showing relatively higher rates of sequence evolution. Other genes within the region appear to be highly constrained, and no ω estimates exceeded one. Three genes from each locus with the highest average pairwise ω values were amplified from additional Heliconius species and races. Two selected genes, fizzy-like (HmYb and DALR (HmB, were too divergent for amplification across species and were excluded from further analysis. Amongst the remaining genes, HM00021 and Kinesin possessed the highest background ω values within the HmYb and HmB loci, respectively. After accounting for recombination, these two genes both showed evidence of having codons with a signature of selection, although statistical support for this signal was not strong in any case. Conclusions Tests of selection reveal a cluster of candidate genes in each locus, suggesting that weak directional selection may be occurring within a small region of each locus, but coding changes alone are unlikely to explain the full range of wing pattern diversity. These analyses pinpoint many of the same genes believed to be involved in the control of colour patterning in Heliconius that have been identified through other studies implementing different research methods.

  9. Visibility Network Patterns and Methods for Studying Visual Relational Phenomena in Archeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Brughmans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the archeological and non-archeological use of visibility networks reveals the use of a limited range of formal techniques, in particular for representing visibility theories. This paper aims to contribute to the study of complex visual relational phenomena in landscape archeology by proposing a range of visibility network patterns and methods. We propose first- and second-order visibility graph representations of total and cumulative viewsheds, and two-mode representations of cumulative viewsheds. We present network patterns that can be used to represent aspects of visibility theories and that can be used in statistical simulation models to compare theorized networks with observed networks. We argue for the need to incorporate observed visibility network density in these simulation models, by illustrating strong differences in visibility network density in three example landscapes. The approach is illustrated through a brief case study of visibility networks of long barrows in Cranborne Chase.

  10. Relative role of contemporary environment versus history in shaping diversity patterns of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2012-01-01

    What determines large-scale patterns of species diversity is a central and controversial topic in biogeography and ecology. In this study, we compared the effects of contemporary environment and historical contingencies on species richness patterns of woody plants in China, using fine-resolution ......-plant species richness across China, while historical contingencies generate regional deviations from this trend. Our findings imply that both species diversity and regional evolutionary and ecological histories should be taken into account for future nature conservation......., and the Tibetan Plateau, perhaps reflecting their special geological features and history. Nevertheless, partial regression indicated that historical effects were less important relative to contemporary environment. In conclusion, contemporary environment (notably climate) determines the general trend in woody...

  11. Ecosystem respiration, vegetation development and soil nitrogen in relation to breeding density of seagulls on a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, B. D.; Magnusson, B.

    2009-08-01

    Since its birth in 1963 by volcanic eruption in the North Atlantic Ocean off Iceland, Surtsey has been a unique natural laboratory on how organisms colonize volcanic islands and form ecosystems with contrasting structure and function. In July, 2004, ecosystem respiration rate, soil properties and surface cover of vascular plants were measured on 21 plots distributed among the main plant communities found 40 years after the primary succession started. The plots could be divided into two groups, inside and outside seagull (Larus sp.) colonies found on the island. Vegetation cover of the plots was strongly related to the density of seagull nests within and around them. The occurrence of seagull nests and increased vegetation also coincided with significant increase in ecosystem respiration, soil carbon and nitrogen, and with significantly lower soil pH and soil temperatures. The ecosystem respiration was high inside the gull colonies, similar to the highest fluxes measured in drained wetlands or agricultural fields in Iceland. The most important factor for vegetation succession and ecosystem function on Surtsey seems to be the amount of nitrogen, which was mainly brought in by the seagulls.

  12. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  13. Are diet and physical activity patterns related to cigarette smoking in adolescents? Findings from Project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    An inadequate diet and physical inactivity may compound the many deleterious effects of smoking on health. Some research indicates that smoking behavior is related to other health behaviors, but little research has examined how smoking may be related to dietary intake of key nutrients, consumption of fast food, sedentary lifestyle, or weight status. The purpose of this study was to describe smoking frequency among adolescents and its relationship to physical activity and dietary patterns. The research study employed a cross-sectional, population-based design. Adolescents self-reported cigarette smoking, physical activity, and eating behaviors on the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and reported dietary intake on a food frequency questionnaire completed in school classrooms. The sample included 4746 middle school and high school students from Minneapolis-St. Paul public schools. Mixed-model regression, which was controlled for sex, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, grade level (middle school or high school), and school, was used to examine the association of smoking with diet and physical activity patterns. Overall, reported smoking frequency was inversely related to participating in team sports, eating regular meals, and consuming healthful foods and nutrients. Smoking frequency was directly related to frequency of fast-food and soft drink consumption. Adolescents who smoke cigarettes may be less likely to engage in health-promoting lifestyle behaviors. Interventions are needed to prevent smoking and the unhealthy dietary practices and physical activity behaviors that may be associated with it.

  14. Gender Patterns in Bird-related Recreation in the USA and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show inter-related trends in both adult and youth populations in developed nations: a shift away from nature-based recreation, an overall decline in physical activity, and increasing obesity. For this study we examined gender patterns in a nature-based activity, observing wild birds, popular in two developed nations, the USA and UK. We collated data from several organizations and categorized data sources as representing activities that involve varying degrees of competitiveness and acting authoritatively. Patterns were consistent with the hypotheses that gender differences in preferred types of bird-related recreation reflected well documented gender-specific differences in preferences for competition and propensity to act authoritatively. Observing birds encompassed both a recreational hobby, "bird watching," that was female biased in the USA, and a competitive sport, "birding," that was heavily male biased among adults, but not youth, in both the USA and UK. Because of differences in gender participation in bird-related activities, fostering both competitive and noncompetitive bird-related activities is necessary to increase the likelihood of bringing larger segments of the population into nature-based recreation.

  15. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY PATTERN OF THE FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES OF SCHIZOPHRENICS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gnana Durai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Family, Twin and Adoption studies show the inheritance patterns of schizophrenia. The findings from these studies provide support to the claim that familial clustering of schizophrenia is a combined expression of genetic and environmental factors. AIMS: Following the line of previous research, this study attempts to find out any difference in the psychiatric morbidity pattern among the first-degree relatives of familial and sporadic schizophrenics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of 100 first-degree relatives (age between 18 to 55 years of familial (n=22 and sporadic (n=29 schizophrenics from psychiatric outpatient clinic, of a Government Hospital, India. The schizophrenics satisfied the DSM-IV criteria and all the first degree relatives interviewed never had any psychiatric consultation before or were abusing alcohol or other substances or having any organic pathology. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Informed consent from the patients and relatives was obtained. Survey questionnaires were administered and no personal identifying information was collected. Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Multi-Phasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ and Screening Test for Co-Morbid Personality Disorders (STCPD were administered to the participants.

  16. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dictus, W J; van Zoelen, E J; Tetteroo, P A; Tertoolen, L G; de Laat, S W; Bluemink, J G

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilized Xenopus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids HEDAF (5-(N-hexadecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) and TEDAF (5-(N-tetradecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) appear to partition into the plasma membrane. Under all experimental conditions used these molecules show partial recovery upon photobleaching indicating the existence of lipidic microdomains. In the unfertilized egg the mobile fraction of plasma membrane lipids (approximately 50%) has a fivefold smaller lateral diffusion coefficient (D = 1.5 X 10(-8) cm2/sec) in the animal than in the vegetal plasma membrane (D = 7.6 X 10(-8) cm2/sec). This demonstrates the presence of an animal/vegetal polarity within the Xenopus egg plasma membrane. Upon fertilization this polarity is strongly (greater than 100X) enhanced leading to the formation of two distinct macrodomains within the plasma membrane. At the animal side of the egg lipids are completely immobilized on the time scale of FPR measurements (D less than 10(-10) cm2/sec), whereas at the vegetal side D is only slightly reduced (D = 4.4 X 10(-8) cm2/sec). The immobilization of animal plasma membrane lipids, which could play a role in the polyspermy block, probably arises by the fusion of cortical granules which are more numerous here. The transition between the animal and the vegetal domain is sharp and coincides with the boundary between the presumptive ecto- and endoderm. The role of regional differences in the plasma membrane is discussed in relation to cell diversification in early development.

  17. Second home mobility in Finland: Patterns, practices and relations of leisure oriented mobile lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi Johanna Hiltunen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on leisure oriented mobile lifestyle between urban home and rural second home in Finland which is one of the world’s leading countries in terms of second home ownership and tourism. Spatial patterns and social practices of physical mobility related to second home use are revealed by using triangulation of research methods and data. Analysis is based on GIS data, questionnaire survey results and national statistics. A relational approach is applied to conceptualise and contextualise second home mobility which is influenced by many bio-physical and socio-cultural processes and changes. Relational elements and processes interlinked to past, present and future of second home related physical mobility are identified. Natural amenities form the physical geographical basis for rural second home distribution which correlates with length of shoreline, distance to urban areas and local land use in second home environments. Second home related spatial mobility patterns differ and depend on size of the urban region of origin. Helsinki metropolitan dwellers have the longest trips to second homes which is explained not merely by environmental but by historical, societal and social reasons as well. Second home related social mobility practices are dependent on cottage owners’ and users’ life phase and standard of second homes. Retiring baby boom generation is the largest and most active cottager group and after retirement the use of second homes increases remarkably. The vast majority of second home owners and users travel the cottage trips by private cars and wish to spend at least as much time at rural second home as present. However, they do not intend to give up the urban home which leads to the conclusion that leisure related lifestyle mobility in between urban and rural living environments will continue to characterise second home owners’ and users’ way of life.

  18. Groundwater controls on river channel pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätz, Nico; Colombini, Pauline; Cherubini, Paolo; Lane, Stuart N.

    2017-04-01

    Braided rivers are characterized by high rates of morphological change. However, despite the potential for frequent disturbance, vegetated patches may develop within this system and influence long-term channel dynamics and channel patterns through the "engineering effects" of vegetation. The stabilizing effect of developing vegetation on morphological change has been widely shown by flume experiments and (historic) aerial pictures analysis. Thus, there is a balance between disturbance and stabilization, mediated through vegetation, that may determine the long-term geomorphic and biogeomorphic evolution of the river. It follows that with a change in disturbance frequency relative to the rate of vegetation establishment, a systematic geomorphological shift could occur. Research has addressed how changes in disturbance frequency affect river channel pattern, but has rarely addressed the way in which the stabilizing effects of biogeomorphic succession interact with disturbance frequency to maintain a river in a more dynamic or a less dynamic state. Here, we quantify how the interplay between groundwater access, disturbance frequency and vegetation succession, drive changes in channel pattern. We studied this complex interplay on a transitional gravel-bed river system (braided, wandering, meandering) close to Geneva (Switzerland) - the Allondon River. Dendroecological analysis demonstrate that vegetation growth is driven by groundwater access. Groundwater access conditions the rate of vegetation stabilization at the sub-reach scale and, due to a reduction in flood-related disturbance frequency over the last 50 years, drives a change in channel pattern. Where groundwater is shallower, vegetation encroachment rates were high and as flood-related disturbance decreased, the river has shifted towards a meandering state. Where groundwater was deeper, vegetation growth was limited by water-access and thus vegetation encroachment rates were low. Even though there was a

  19. Evaluation of drinking patterns and their impact on alcohol-related aggression: a national survey of adolescent behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Valeria; Mezzasalma, Lorena; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Pieroni, Stefania; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2013-10-10

    Although there have been a wide range of epidemiological studies examining the impact of patterns of alcohol consumption among adolescents, there remains considerable variability in both defining these patterns and the ability to comprehensively evaluate their relationship to behavioural patterns. This study explores a new procedure for defining and evaluating drinking patterns and integrating well-established indicators. The composite measure is then used to estimate the impact of these patterns on alcohol-related aggressive behaviour among Italian adolescents. Data were collected as part of the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). A national sample of 14,199 students aged 15-19 years was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire completed in a classroom setting. Drinking patterns were established using principal component analysis. Alcohol-related aggression was analysed as to its relationship to patterns of drinking, behaviour of friends towards alcohol use, substance use/abuse, school performance, family relationships and leisure activities. Several specific drinking patterns were identified: "Drinking to Excess" (DE), "Drinking with Intoxication" (DI) and "Drinking but Not to Excess" (DNE). A higher percentage of males were involved in alcohol-related aggression compared with females. In males, the DE and DI patterns significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol-related aggression, whereas the DNE pattern was negatively associated. Similar results were found in females, although the DI pattern was not significantly associated with alcohol-related aggression. Overall, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, truancy, limited parental monitoring, frequent evenings spent outside of the home and peer influence associated strongly with alcohol-related aggression. Our findings suggest that drinking patterns, as uniquely monitored with an integrated metric, can: 1) explain drinking habits better than commonly

  20. Reactivation of Reward-Related Patterns from Single Past Episodes Supports Memory-Based Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, G Elliott; Büchel, Christian

    2016-03-09

    Rewarding experiences exert a strong influence on later decision making. While decades of neuroscience research have shown how reinforcement gradually shapes preferences, decisions are often influenced by single past experiences. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the influence of single learning episodes. Although recent work has proposed a role for episodes in decision making, it is largely unknown whether and how episodic experiences contribute to value-based decision making and how the values of single episodes are represented in the brain. In multiple behavioral experiments and an fMRI experiment, we tested whether and how rewarding episodes could support later decision making. Participants experienced episodes of high reward or low reward in conjunction with incidental, trial-unique neutral pictures. In a surprise test phase, we found that participants could indeed remember the associated level of reward, as evidenced by accurate source memory for value and preferences to re-engage with rewarded objects. Further, in a separate experiment, we found that high-reward objects shown as primes before a gambling task increased financial risk taking. Neurally, re-exposure to objects in the test phase led to significant reactivation of reward-related patterns. Importantly, individual variability in the strength of reactivation predicted value memory performance. Our results provide a novel demonstration that affect-related neural patterns are reactivated during later experience. Reactivation of value information represents a mechanism by which memory can guide decision making. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362868-13$15.00/0.

  1. Optical coherence tomography patterns as predictors of visual outcome in dengue-related maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Stephen C; Chee, Caroline K; Laude, Augustinus; Goh, Kong Y; Barkham, Timothy; Ang, Brenda S

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the presentations, long-term outcomes, and visual prognostic factors in dengue-related maculopathy of 41 patients with dengue fever and impaired vision from dengue-related maculopathy in a retrospective noninterventional and observational series. The medical records of patients with dengue-related maculopathy diagnosed over 18 months between July 2004 and December 2005 at The Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital and Communicable Disease Center, Singapore, were reviewed and followed up for 24 months. Visual acuity and symptoms (presence of scotoma on automated visual fields and Amsler grid) were correlated with optical coherence tomography evaluation. Mean age was 28.7 years and there were more men (53.7%). The most common visual complaints were blurring of vision (51.2%) and central scotoma (34.1%). Most patients recovered best-corrected visual acuity >20/40. Optical coherence tomography showed 3 patterns of maculopathy: 1) diffuse retinal thickening; 2) cystoid macular edema; and 3) foveolitis. The visual outcome was independent of the extent of edema, but scotomata persisted longest in patients with foveolitis and shortest with those with diffuse retinal thickening. Dengue-associated ocular inflammation is an emerging ophthalmic condition and often involves the posterior segment. Prognosis is variable. Patients usually regain good vision but may retain persistent scotomata even at 2 years despite clinical resolution of the disease. Optical coherence tomography patterns in dengue maculopathy are useful for characterization, monitoring, and prognostication of the visual defect.

  2. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface...... different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cosθ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability...... contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability....

  3. THE PRESENCE OF ADENOID VEGETATIONS AND NASAL SPEECH, AND HEARING LOSS IN RELATION TO SECRETORY OTITIS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela KOPACHEVA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the treatment of 68 children with secretory otitis media. Children underwent adenoid vegetations, nasal speech, conductive hearing loss, ventilation disturbance in Eustachian tube. In all children adenoidectomy was indicated.38 boys and 30 girls at the age of 3-17 were divided in two main groups: * 29 children without hypertrophic (enlarged adenoids, * 39 children with enlarged (hypertrophic adenoids.The surgical treatment included insertion of ventilation tubes and adenoidectomy where there where hypertrophic adenoids.Clinical material was analyzed according to hearing threshold, hearing level, middle ear condition estimated by pure tone audiometry and tympanometry before and after treatment. Data concerning both groups were compared.The results indicated that adenoidectomy combined with the ventilation tubes facilitates secretory otitis media heeling as well as decrease of hearing impairments. That enables prompt restoration of the hearing function as an important precondition for development of the language, social, emotional and academic development of children.

  4. Pesticides related knowledge, attitude and safety practices among small-scale vegetable farmers in lagoon wetlands, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Alex Adesuyi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The unsafe and indiscriminate use of pesticides in wetlands for agriculture represents a major hazard to the environment and human health globally. The hazard of pesticide exposure and farmers susceptibility is due to lack of knowledge regarding its safe use, proper pesticides handling and practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate vegetable farmers’ knowledge, practices and exposure level during pesticides preparation and application in their crop production. A total of eighty one (81 vegetable farmers were identified in these wetlands. Four (4 declined the usage of pesticides because they are organic farmers. In all, seventy seven (77 vegetable farms and farmers were sampled for this study using a structured questionnaire. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate high risks of exposure of the vegetable farmers to toxicity and health hazards to pesticides. 71.4% of the farmers agreed that pesticide use poses some potential risk to human health while 63.6% agreed that it poses risk also to the environment. The majority of the farmers (48.1% stored their pesticides in the open field. Some respondents also stored their pesticides in open shed meant just for pesticides (18.2, and locked chemical stores designated only for pesticides (14.3%. A worrying 6.5% of the farmers reported storing pesticides within their living area. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (?2 = 24.65, p< 0.05. Over 67% of the farmers indicated using at least one PPE during handling, preparation and spraying of pesticides. Among respondents who reported using PPE, less that 11% wore all the recommended six key PPE items (coveralls, protective boots, glasses/goggles, gloves, respirator, and hat. A substantial number of respondents reported not wearing respirators/nose mask (84.6%, coveralls (59.6%, or glasses/goggles (46.1% at all. The PPE most often

  5. Monitoring Urbanization-Related Land Cover Change on the U.S. Great Plains and Impacts on Remotely Sensed Vegetation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Jackson, T.; Henebry, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is currently in an era of rapid urban growth with >50% of global population living in urban areas. Urbanization occurs alongside urban population growth, as cities expand to meet the demands of increasing population. Consequently, there is a need for remote sensing research to detect, monitor, and measure urbanization and its impacts on the biosphere. Here we used MODIS and Landsat data products to (1) detect urbanization-related land cover changes, (2) investigate urbanization-related impacts on land surface phenology (LSP) across rural to urban gradients and (3) explore fractional vegetation and impervious surface area regionally across the US Great Plains and within 14 cities in this region. We used the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) and Land Cover Type (LCT) products from 2001, 2006, and 2011 for 30m classification of the peri-urban environment. We investigated the impacts of urbanization-related land cover change on urban LSP at 30m resolution using the NDVI product from Web Enabled Landsat Data (http://weld.cr.usgs.gov) with accumulated growing degree-days calculated from first-order weather stations. We fitted convex quadratic LSP models to a decade (2003-2012) of observations to yield these phenometrics: modeled peak NDVI, time (thermal and calendar) to modeled peak, duration of season (DOS), and model fit. We compared our results to NDVI from MODIS NBAR (500m) and we explored the utility of 4 μm radiance (MODIS band 23) at 1 km resolution to characterize fractional vegetation dynamics in and around urbanized areas. Across all 14 cities we found increases in urbanized area (>25 %ISA) exceeding 10% from 2001-2011. Using LSP phenometrics, we were able to detect changes from cropland to suburban LCTs. In general we found negative relationships between DOS and distance from city center. We found a distinct seasonal cycle of MIR radiance over cropland LCTs due to the spectral contrast between bare soils and green vegetation.

  6. Stride-related rein tension patterns in walk and trot in the ridden horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenvall, Agneta; Roepstorff, Lars; Eisersiö, Marie; Rhodin, Marie; van Weeren, René

    2015-12-30

    The use of tack (equipment such as saddles and reins) and especially of bits because of rein tension resulting in pressure in the mouth is questioned because of welfare concerns. We hypothesised that rein tension patterns in walk and trot reflect general gait kinematics, but are also determined by individual horse and rider effects. Six professional riders rode three familiar horses in walk and trot. Horses were equipped with rein tension meters logged by inertial measurement unit technique. Left and right rein tension data were synchronized with the gait. Stride split data (0-100 %) were analysed using mixed models technique to elucidate the left/right rein and stride percentage interaction, in relation to the exercises performed. In walk, rein tension was highest at hindlimb stance. Rein tension was highest in the suspension phase at trot, and lowest during the stance phase. In rising trot there was a significant difference between the two midstance phases, but not in sitting trot. When turning in trot there was a significant statistical association with the gait pattern with the tension being highest in the inside rein when the horse was on the outer fore-inner hindlimb diagonal. Substantial between-rider variation was demonstrated in walk and trot and between-horse variation in walk. Biphasic rein tensions patterns during the stride were found mainly in trot.

  7. Sexual Behavior Pattern and Related Factors in Women with Breast Cancer in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Sanaz; Dashti, Forouzandeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the most of treatment team efforts focused on the maintaining patient’s life, attention to sexual issues don’t be considered. This stud is designed to determine the sexual behavior pattern and related factors in women with breast cancer. Methods: This descriptive- correlation study was performed on 90 women that diagnosed with breast Cancer that was admitted to Sayed-Al-Shohada hospital of Isfahan in 2010. Sampling method was available (non- random sampling) and Sexual Behavior Pattern determined with 3 domains: sexual identity, sexual role and sexual function. Data collection tools, was a questionnaire that made by the researcher and was used after determining the validity and reliability. For data analysis, was used of Descriptive- analytic statistics, frequency and ANOVA and Pearson correlation analytical tests in the SPSS statistical software (version 16). Results: Cases had 60% of Desirable sexual identity, 50% of Desirable sexual role, 40% Desirable sexual function and were be able to play 47.61% Desirable sexual behavior. Participants that their husbands had Elementary education had more desirable sexual behavior (pSexual behavior than of were working and retired (psexual behavior (psexual behavior pattern that is one of the important aspects of health, Provide valuable information to nurses and medical team and will be enhance the quality of provided services. Adopt appropriate strategies and interventions to promote sexual health, breast cancer is recommended. PMID:26925917

  8. Pre-excitation pattern associated with accessory pathway related tachycardia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burazor Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pre-excitation is based on an accessory conduction pathway between the atrium and ventricle. The term Wolff- Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is used for patients with the pre-excitation/WPW pattern associated with AP-related tachycardia. Case Outline. We present a 52-year-old man with severe palpitation, fatigue, lightheadedness and difficulty breathing. The initial ECG showed tachyarrhythmia with heart rate between 240 and 300/min. He was treated with antiarrhythmics (Digitalis, Verapamil, Lidocaine with no response. Then, the patient was treated with electrical cardioversion and was referred to our Clinic for further evaluation with the diagnosis: “Ventricular tachycardia”. During in-hospital stay, the previously undiagnosed WPW pattern had been seen. Additional diagnostic tests confirmed permanent pre-excitacion pattern (ECG Holter recording, exercises test. The patient was referred to an electrophysiologist for further evaluation. Mapping techniques provided an accurate assessment of the position of the accessory pathway which was left lateral. The elimination of the accessory pathway by radiofrequent catheter ablation is highly effective in termination and elimination of tacchyarrhythmias. Conclusion. Symptomatic, life-threatening arrhythmia, first considered as ventricular tachycardia, reflected atrial fibrillation with ventricular pre-excitation over an accessory pathway in a patient with previously undiagnosed WPW syndrome.

  9. Common patterns and disease-related signatures in tuberculosis and sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertzdorf, Jeroen; Weiner, January; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Bauer, Torsten; Prasse, Antje; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2012-05-15

    In light of the marked global health impact of tuberculosis (TB), strong focus has been on identifying biosignatures. Gene expression profiles in blood cells identified so far are indicative of a persistent activation of the immune system and chronic inflammatory pathology in active TB. Definition of a biosignature with unique specificity for TB demands that identified profiles can differentiate diseases with similar pathology, like sarcoidosis (SARC). Here, we present a detailed comparison between pulmonary TB and SARC, including whole-blood gene expression profiling, microRNA expression, and multiplex serum analytes. Our analysis reveals that previously disclosed gene expression signatures in TB show highly similar patterns in SARC, with a common up-regulation of proinflammatory pathways and IFN signaling and close similarity to TB-related signatures. microRNA expression also presented a highly similar pattern in both diseases, whereas cytokines in the serum of TB patients revealed a slightly elevated proinflammatory pattern compared with SARC and controls. Our results indicate several differences in expression between the two diseases, with increased metabolic activity and significantly higher antimicrobial defense responses in TB. However, matrix metallopeptidase 14 was identified as the most distinctive marker of SARC. Described communalities as well as unique signatures in blood profiles of two distinct inflammatory pulmonary diseases not only have considerable implications for the design of TB biosignatures and future diagnosis, but they also provide insights into biological processes underlying chronic inflammatory disease entities of different etiology.

  10. X-ray diffraction pattern and relative crystallinity of irradiated arrowroot starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Aline G.; Garcia, Rafael H.L.; Del Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    After cereals, tubers and roots are the major source of starch for food and industrial uses. Arrowroot refers to any plant of the genus Marantha, but the term is most commonly used to describe the easily digested starch obtained from the rhizomes of Marantha arundinacae. The rhizomes of this herbaceous plant contain about 20% of starch. As few studies exist on arrowroot starch, the objective of this preliminary work was to study the X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) patterns of arrowroot starch when treated by γ-radiation with doses up to 15 kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. The XRD patterns of the arrowroot starch exhibited A-type crystalline arrangements with strong peaks at approximately 15º, 17º, 18º and 23º (2θ). A slight increase of diffractogram peaks intensity was noticed after the irradiation process. The crystallinity index was calculated using Bruker DIFFRAC.EVA version 4.2 software. Relative crystallinity seems to increase with radiation doses, and this effect is more noticeable at low doses. That can be attributed to different radiation sensitivity among the amorphous and crystalline regions of the arrowroot starch molecule. Present results will contribute to elucidate the behavior under radiation treatment of this starchy component increasingly employed by the food industry. (author)

  11. X-ray diffraction pattern and relative crystallinity of irradiated arrowroot starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Aline G.; Garcia, Rafael H.L.; Del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2017-01-01

    After cereals, tubers and roots are the major source of starch for food and industrial uses. Arrowroot refers to any plant of the genus Marantha, but the term is most commonly used to describe the easily digested starch obtained from the rhizomes of Marantha arundinacae. The rhizomes of this herbaceous plant contain about 20% of starch. As few studies exist on arrowroot starch, the objective of this preliminary work was to study the X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) patterns of arrowroot starch when treated by γ-radiation with doses up to 15 kGy in a "6"0Co source. The XRD patterns of the arrowroot starch exhibited A-type crystalline arrangements with strong peaks at approximately 15º, 17º, 18º and 23º (2θ). A slight increase of diffractogram peaks intensity was noticed after the irradiation process. The crystallinity index was calculated using Bruker DIFFRAC.EVA version 4.2 software. Relative crystallinity seems to increase with radiation doses, and this effect is more noticeable at low doses. That can be attributed to different radiation sensitivity among the amorphous and crystalline regions of the arrowroot starch molecule. Present results will contribute to elucidate the behavior under radiation treatment of this starchy component increasingly employed by the food industry. (author)

  12. Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary school cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbernd, S L; Reicks, M M; Mann, T L; Redden, J P; Mykerezi, E; Vickers, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable consumption in the United States is low despite the wealth of evidence that vegetables play an important role in reducing risk of various chronic diseases. Because eating patterns developed in childhood continue through adulthood, we need to form healthy eating habits in children. The objective of this study was to determine if offering vegetables before other meal components would increase the overall consumption of vegetables at school lunch. We served kindergarten through fifth-grade students a small portion (26-33 g) of a raw vegetable (red and yellow bell peppers) while they waited in line to receive the rest of their lunch meal. They then had the options to take more of the bell peppers, a different vegetable, or no vegetable from the lunch line. We measured the amount of each vegetable consumed by each child. Serving vegetables first greatly increased the number of students eating vegetables. On intervention days most of the vegetables consumed came from the vegetables-first portions. Total vegetable intake per student eating lunch was low because most students chose to not eat vegetables, but the intervention significantly increased this value. Serving vegetables first is a viable strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools. Long-term implementation of this strategy may have an important impact on healthy eating habits, vegetable consumption, and the health consequences of vegetable intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation of major volcanic center concentration on Venus to global tectonic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.; Aubele, Jayne C.

    1993-01-01

    Global analysis of Magellan image data indicates that a major concentration of volcanic centers covering about 40 percent of the surface of Venus occurs between the Beta, Atla, and Themis regions. Associated with this enhanced concentration are geological characteristics commonly interpreted as rifting and mantle upwelling. Interconnected low plains in an annulus around this concentration are characterized by crustal shortening and infrequent volcanic centers that may represent sites of mantle return flow and net downwelling. Together, these observations suggest the existence of relatively simple, large-scale patterns of mantle circulation similar to those associated with concentrations of intraplate volcanism on earth.

  14. Animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Patricia J; Vanak, Abi T; Muggeo, Vito M R; Ferreira, Salamon M; Slotow, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana), in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007-2009). Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal's perspective, for delineating seasons or other extrinsic shifts in ecological studies, rather than arbitrarily fixed definitions

  15. Animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana, in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007-2009. Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal's perspective, for delineating seasons or

  16. Cold season Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern and its relation to the Atlantic multidecadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Ding, Ruiqiang; Jin, Ze

    2017-06-01

    A prominent teleconnection pattern of multidecadal variability of cold season (November to April) upper-level atmospheric circulation over North Africa and Eurasia (NA-EA) is revealed by empirical orthogonal function analysis of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis data. This teleconnection pattern is characterized by an eastward propagating wave train with a zonal wavenumber of 5-6 between 20° and 40°N, extending from the northwest coast of Africa to East Asia, and thus is referred to as the Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern (AAMT). One-point correlation maps show that the teleconnectivity of AAMT is strong and further demonstrate the existence of the AAMT. The AAMT shapes the spatial structure of multidecadal change in atmospheric circulation over the NA-EA region, and in particular the AAMT pattern and associated fields show similar structures to the change occurring around the early 1960s. A strong in-phase relationship is observed between the AAMT and Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) and this connection is mainly due to Rossby wave dynamics. Barotropic modeling results suggest that the upper-level Rossby wave source generated by the AMV can excite the AAMT wave train, and Rossby wave ray tracing analysis further highlights the role of the Asian jet stream in guiding the wave train to East Asia. The AAMT acts as an atmospheric bridge conveying the influence of AMV onto the downstream multidecadal climate variability. The AMV is closely related to the coordinated change in surface and tropospheric air temperatures over Northwest Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Central China, which may result from the adiabatic expansion/compression of air associated with the AAMT.

  17. Parental Monitoring and Family Relations: Associations with Drinking Patterns among Male and Female Mexican Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parental monitoring and family relations are recognized as protective factors for youth alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived parental monitoring and family relations among subgroups of Mexican youths with different patterns of drinking behaviors and consequences. Methods A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) identified profiles of drinking behavior in a cross-sectional survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial regression examined associations between parental monitoring, family relations and drinking profiles among 22,224 students. Results Both lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were associated with heavier drinking profiles among males and females, but more strongly associated with female than male heavier drinking profiles. Being older, having parents with lower education, and not living with parents were also associated with lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations. There was a general trend of lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations as the profiles increased from Non/Infrequent-No Consequences to Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. Lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were more strongly associated with drinking profiles among females than among males. Both the parental monitoring and family relations scales had similar associations with drinking profiles. Conclusions Findings suggest drinking norms and values may contribute to any protective influences of parental monitoring and family relations on Mexican youths’ drinking. Research about changes in drinking norms, contextual factors, and youth-parent trust would inform the utility of parental monitoring or family relations as protective strategies against alcohol misuse among Mexican and Mexican American youths and also youths from other backgrounds. PMID:26256470

  18. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilles-Tirkkonen Tanja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58% of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC. Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group.

  19. Preliminary Finnish measures of eating competence suggest association with health-promoting eating patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-05-21

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group.

  20. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-01-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335

  1. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  2. [Relationship between fruit and vegetable gardening and health-related factors: male community gardeners aged 50-74 years living in a suburban area of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Daisuke; Yoshida, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aims of the study were as follows: 1) to investigate the relationship between community fruit and vegetable (FV) gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors by utilizing community gardens and 2) to determine the relationship of community FV gardening and other types of gardening on health-related factors among men aged 50-74 years living in a suburban area of Japan.Methods In this cross-sectional study, we targeted men aged 50-74 years living in a city in Gunma Prefecture. A survey solicited demographic characteristics, FV gardening information, and health-related factors [BMI, self-rated health status, FV intake, physical activity (PA), and perceived neighborhood social cohesion (PNSC)]. The participants were divided into three groups: community gardeners, other types of gardeners, and non-gardeners. Items related to community gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors were presented only to community gardeners. The relationship between community gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors were analyzed by computing correlation coefficients. The relationships between FV gardening and specific health-related factors were analyzed by logistic regression modeling.Results Significant positive correlations were observed between community FV gardening (the frequency of community gardening, the product of community gardening time and frequency of community gardening) and perceived changes in health-related factors (frequency of FV intake, amount of FV intake, and PA). The logistic regression models showed that 1) the number of participants with ≥23 METs h/week of PA was significantly greater among community gardeners than among non-gardeners; 2) the number of participants whose frequency of total vegetable intake, total vegetable intake (excluding juice), and total FV intake (excluding juice) was ≥5 times/day was significantly greater among other types of gardeners than non-gardeners; 3) participants

  3. Patterns of Tree Species Diversity in Relation to Climatic Factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9–14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  4. Endodontic treatment-related antibiotic prescribing patterns of South African oral health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, R; Solanki, G; Ramphoma, K; Myburgh, N G

    2017-11-01

    To assess the antibiotic prescribing patterns of South African dentists for patients undergoing endodontic treatment. This study used data from 2013 health insurance claims submitted by South African oral health professionals to determine the antibiotic prescribing patterns related to endodontic treatment. A logistic regression model was used to test the fully adjusted statistical significance of the association between the exploratory variables (gender, age group, event type, abscess treatment, chronic health) and the dependent variable (antibiotic prescription). Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported, and a 95% CI excluding 1 was considered statistically significant. Almost 10% of endodontic treatments were prescribed an antibiotic. There were no significant differences in prescribing patterns by gender, age and chronic health status. Prescriptions were more common at the preparatory stage (9.4%) of root canal treatment compared to the therapy (4.7%) and canal filling (2%) stages. Patients who received apical surgery (OR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.38-3.76) and treatment of an abscess (OR = 2.57; 95% 1.82-3.63) had a significantly increased odds of being prescribed an antibiotic. Almost three-quarters of prescriptions were for narrow spectrum antibiotics. The frequency of antibiotic prescribing by South African dental practitioners for patients undergoing endodontic treatment is relatively low and predominantly involved narrow spectrum antibiotics. It, however, remains important that antibiotics are only prescribed when clinically essential, such as when there are obvious systemic effects. These include fever above 37 degrees, malaise, lymphadenopathy, trismus, increase swelling, cellulitis, osteomyelitis and persistent infection. The wider dissemination and adherence to clear evidence-based prescribing guidelines for antibiotics in this clinical area are important. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  6. The Relation between Recombination Rate and Patterns of Molecular Evolution and Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José L.; Halligan, Daniel L.; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Charlesworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill–Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on DNA sequence polymorphisms from an African population that is geographically close to the putatively ancestral population for the species, and on sequence divergence from a related species. We observed reductions in sequence diversity in noncrossover (NC) regions that are inconsistent with the effects of hard selective sweeps in the absence of recombination. Overall, the observed patterns suggest that the recombination rate experienced by a gene is positively related to an increase in the efficiency of both positive and purifying selection. The results are consistent with a BGS model with interference among selected sites in NC regions, and joint effects of BGS, selective sweeps, and a past population expansion on variability in regions of the genome that experience crossing over. In such crossover regions, the X chromosome exhibits a higher rate of adaptive protein sequence evolution than the autosomes, implying a Faster-X effect. PMID:24489114

  7. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren eXu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain and complete/incomplete injury patients and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy.

  8. Age-related patterns of drug use initiation among polydrug using regular psychostimulant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Kaye, Sharlene; Torok, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    To determine age-related patterns of drug use initiation, drug sequencing and treatment entry among regular psychostimulant users. Cross-sectional study of 269 regular psychostimulant users, administered a structured interview examining onset of use for major licit and illicit drugs. The mean age at first intoxication was not associated with age or gender. In contrast, younger age was associated with earlier ages of onset for all of the illicit drug classes. Each additional year of age was associated with a 4 month increase in onset age for methamphetamine, and 3 months for heroin. By the age of 17, those born prior to 1961 had, on average, used only tobacco and alcohol, whereas those born between 1986 and 1990 had used nine different drug classes. The period between initial use and the transition to regular use, however, was stable. Age was also negatively correlated with both age at initial injection and regular injecting. Onset sequences, however, remained stable. Consistent with the age-related patterns of drug use, each additional year of age associated with a 0.47 year increase in the age at first treatment. While the age at first intoxication appeared stable, the trajectory through illicit drug use was substantially truncated. The data indicate that, at least among those who progress to regular illicit drug use, younger users are likely to be exposed to far broader polydrug use in their teens than has previously been the case. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. A comparative study of event-related coupling patterns during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Alejandro; Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos; Molina, Vicente; Suazo, Vanessa; Hornero, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The aim of this research is to explore the coupling patterns of brain dynamics during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). Approach. Event-related electroencephalographic (ERP) activity was recorded from 20 SCH patients and 20 healthy controls. The coupling changes between auditory response and pre-stimulus baseline were calculated in conventional EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma), using three coupling measures: coherence, phase-locking value and Euclidean distance. Main results. Our results showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to response in theta coupling and a statistically significant decrease in beta-2 coupling in controls. No statistically significant changes were observed in SCH patients. Significance. Our findings support the aberrant salience hypothesis, since SCH patients failed to change their coupling dynamics between stimulus response and baseline when performing an auditory cognitive task. This result may reflect an impaired communication among neural areas, which may be related to abnormal cognitive functions.

  10. Age related patterns of immunoglobulin serum levels in the Quechua Indians of Andean Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memeo, S. A.; Piantanelli, L.; Mazzufferi, G.; Guerra, L.; Nikolitz, M.; Fabris, N.

    1982-03-01

    Age-dependent changes of IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgD serum levels in a population of Quechua Indians of Peruvian Andes at 4 300 m were investigated. A first increase and a subsequent decrease in IgA and IgM levels were observed with advancing age. IgG and IgD only display an increase during development. More or less pronounced sex-related changes were also found in all Ig classes, the sex dependent pattern of IgA being the more evident one. It has been suggested that sexual, genetic and environmental influences strongly superimpose to high altitude related changes in Ig profile during ageing.

  11. Degree of food processing of household acquisition patterns in a Brazilian urban area is related to food buying preferences and perceived food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, G M; Trude, A C B; Kharmats, A Y; Martins, P A

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between local food environment and consumers' acquisition of ultra-processed food. Households were randomly selected from 36 census tracts in Santos City, Brazil. Mothers, of varying economic status, who had children ages 10 or younger (n = 538) were interviewed concerning: their household food acquisition of 31 groups of food and beverages, perceptions of local food environment, food sources destinations, means of transportation used, and socioeconomic status. Food acquisition patterns were classified based on the degree of industrial food processing. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between consumer behaviors and acquisition patterns. The large variety of fresh produce available in supermarkets was significantly related to lower odds of ultra-processed food purchases. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, higher odds for minimally-processed food acquisition were associated with: frequent use of specialized markets to purchase fruits and vegetables (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-2.34), the habit of walking to buy food (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30), and perceived availability of fresh produce in participants' neighborhood (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30). Acquisition of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the use of taxis as principal means of transportation to food sources (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.08-5.13), and negatively associated with perceived availability of a variety of fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88). The results suggest that interventions aiming to promote acquisition of less processed food in settings similar to Santos, may be most effective if they focus on increasing the number of specialized fresh food markets in local neighborhood areas, improve residents' awareness of these markets' availability, and provide appropriate transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Working memory-related functional brain patterns in never medicated children with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Massat

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by 3 clusters of age-inappropriate cardinal symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These clinical/behavioural symptoms are assumed to result from disturbances within brain systems supporting executive functions including working memory (WM, which refers to the ability to transiently store and flexibly manipulate task-relevant information. Ongoing or past medications, co-morbidity and differences in task performance are potential, independent confounds in assessing the integrity of cerebral patterns in ADHD. In the present study, we recorded WM-related cerebral activity during a memory updating N-back task using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in control children and never medicated, prepubescent children with ADHD but without comorbid symptoms. Despite similar updating performance than controls, children with ADHD exhibited decreased, below baseline WM-related activation levels in a widespread cortico-subcortical network encompassing bilateral occipital and inferior parietal areas, caudate nucleus, cerebellum and functionally connected brainstem nuclei. Distinctive functional connectivity patterns were also found in the ADHD in these regions, with a tighter coupling in the updating than in the control condition with a distributed WM-related cerebral network. Especially, cerebellum showed tighter coupling with activity in an area compatible with the brainstem red nucleus. These results in children with clinical core symptoms of ADHD but without comorbid affections and never treated with medication yield evidence for a core functional neuroanatomical network subtending WM-related processes in ADHD, which may participate to the pathophysiology and expression of clinical symptoms.

  13. Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xianwen; Li, Yanping; Liu, Ailing; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Xiaoqi; Du, Songming; Ma, Guansheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. Results Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) of obesity were 1.11 (0.89–1.38) for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15–2.81) for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09–1.56) and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13–2.56), respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Pdietary pattern. Conclusions The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and was inversely associated with the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:22905228

  14. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI of obesity were 1.11 (0.89-1.38 for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15-2.81 for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09-1.56 and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13-2.56, respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001, triglycerides (P<.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0435 and fasting glucose (P = 0.0082 and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0023, as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein

  15. Self-reported optometric practise patterns in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Angelica; Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Zangerl, Barbara; Assaad, Nagi; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The use of advanced imaging in clinical practice is emerging and the use of this technology by optometrists in assessing patients with age-related macular degeneration is of interest. Therefore, this study explored contemporary, self-reported patterns of practice regarding age-related macular degeneration diagnosis and management using a cross-sectional survey of optometrists in Australia and New Zealand. Practising optometrists were surveyed on four key areas, namely, demographics, clinical skills and experience, assessment and management of age-related macular degeneration. Questions pertaining to self-rated competency, knowledge and attitudes used a five-point Likert scale. Completed responses were received from 127 and 87 practising optometrists in Australia and New Zealand, respectively. Advanced imaging showed greater variation in service delivery than traditional techniques (such as slitlamp funduscopy) and trended toward optical coherence tomography, which was routinely performed in age-related macular degeneration by 49 per cent of respondents. Optical coherence tomography was also associated with higher self-rated competency, knowledge and perceived relevance to practice than other modalities. Most respondents (93 per cent) indicated that they regularly applied patient symptoms, case history, visual function results and signs from traditional testing, when queried about their management of patients with age-related macular degeneration. Over half (63 per cent) also considered advanced imaging, while 31 per cent additionally considered all of these as well as the disease stage and clinical guidelines. Contrary to the evidence base, 68 and 34 per cent rated nutritional supplements as highly relevant or relevant in early age-related macular degeneration and normal aging changes, respectively. These results highlight the emergence of multimodal and advanced imaging (especially optical coherence tomography) in the assessment of age-related macular degeneration

  16. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  17. Interspecific scaling patterns of talar articular surfaces within primates and their closest living relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Boyer, Doug M

    2014-01-01

    The articular facets of interosseous joints must transmit forces while maintaining relatively low stresses. To prevent overloading, joints that transmit higher forces should therefore have larger facet areas. The relative contributions of body mass and muscle-induced forces to joint stress are unclear, but generate opposing hypotheses. If mass-induced forces dominate, facet area should scale with positive allometry to body mass. Alternatively, muscle-induced forces should cause facets to scale isometrically with body mass. Within primates, both scaling patterns have been reported for articular surfaces of the femoral and humeral heads, but more distal elements are less well studied. Additionally, examination of complex articular surfaces has largely been limited to linear measurements, so that ‘true area' remains poorly assessed. To re-assess these scaling relationships, we examine the relationship between body size and articular surface areas of the talus. Area measurements were taken from microCT scan-generated surfaces of all talar facets from a comprehensive sample of extant euarchontan taxa (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Log-transformed data were regressed on literature-derived log-body mass using reduced major axis and phylogenetic least squares regressions. We examine the scaling patterns of muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) to body mass, as these relationships may complicate each model. Finally, we examine the scaling pattern of hindlimb muscle PCSA to talar articular surface area, a direct test of the effect of mass-induced forces on joint surfaces. Among most groups, there is an overall trend toward positive allometry for articular surfaces. The ectal (= posterior calcaneal) facet scales with positive allometry among all groups except ‘sundatherians', strepsirrhines, galagids, and lorisids. The medial tibial facet scales isometrically among all groups except lemuroids. Scaling coefficients are not correlated with sample

  18. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  19. A simple and selective method for the measurement of azadirachtin and related azadirachtoid levels in fruits and vegetables using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarritzu, Erika; Russo, Mariateresa; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-05-14

    Neem-based insecticides containing azadirachtin and related azadirachtoids are widely used in agriculture. Here, we report an analytical method for the rapid and accurate quantification of the insecticide azadirachtin A and B and other azadirachtoids such as salannin, nimbin, and their deacetylated analogues on tomatoes and peaches. Azadirachtoids were extracted from fruits and vegetables with acetonitrile. Using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer, azadirachtoids were selectively detected monitoring the multiple reaction transitions of sodium adduct precursor ions. For azadirachtin A, calibration was linear over a working range of 1-1000 microg/L with r > 0.996. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for azadirachtin A were 0.4 and 0.8 microg/kg, respectively. The presence of interfering compounds in the peach and tomato extracts was evaluated and found to be minimal. Because of the linear behavior, it was concluded that the multiple reaction transitions of sodium adduct ions can be used for analytical purposes, that is, for the identification and quantification of azadirachtin A and B and related azadirachtoids in fruit and vegetable extracts at trace levels.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression patterns of hedgehog-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie David

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes ten proteins that share sequence similarity with the Hedgehog signaling molecule through their C-terminal autoprocessing Hint/Hog domain. These proteins contain novel N-terminal domains, and C. elegans encodes dozens of additional proteins containing only these N-terminal domains. These gene families are called warthog, groundhog, ground-like and quahog, collectively called hedgehog (hh-related genes. Previously, the expression pattern of seventeen genes was examined, which showed that they are primarily expressed in the ectoderm. Results With the completion of the C. elegans genome sequence in November 2002, we reexamined and identified 61 hh-related ORFs. Further, we identified 49 hh-related ORFs in C. briggsae. ORF analysis revealed that 30% of the genes still had errors in their predictions and we improved these predictions here. We performed a comprehensive expression analysis using GFP fusions of the putative intergenic regulatory sequence with one or two transgenic lines for most genes. The hh-related genes are expressed in one or a few of the following tissues: hypodermis, seam cells, excretory duct and pore cells, vulval epithelial cells, rectal epithelial cells, pharyngeal muscle or marginal cells, arcade cells, support cells of sensory organs, and neuronal cells. Using time-lapse recordings, we discovered that some hh-related genes are expressed in a cyclical fashion in phase with molting during larval development. We also generated several translational GFP fusions, but they did not show any subcellular localization. In addition, we also studied the expression patterns of two genes with similarity to Drosophila frizzled, T23D8.1 and F27E11.3A, and the ortholog of the Drosophila gene dally-like, gpn-1, which is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The two frizzled homologs are expressed in a few neurons in the head, and gpn-1 is expressed in the pharynx. Finally, we compare the

  1. Distinct patterns of Internet and smartphone-related problems among adolescents by gender: Latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lee, Donghwan; Nam, Cho Rong; Kim, Da Yea; Park, Sera; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Youngjo; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-05-23

    Background and objectives The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA). Methods After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender. In addition to ANOVA and χ 2 tests, post-hoc tests were conducted to examine differences among the LCA subgroups. Results In the whole group (n = 555), four subtypes were identified: dual-problem users (49.5%), problematic Internet users (7.7%), problematic smartphone users (32.1%), and "healthy" users (10.6%). Dual-problem users scored highest for addictive behaviors and other psychopathologies. The gender-stratified LCA revealed three subtypes for each gender. With dual-problem and healthy subgroup as common, problematic Internet subgroup was classified in the males, whereas problematic smartphone subgroup was classified in the females in the gender-stratified LCA. Thus, distinct patterns were observed according to gender with higher proportion of dual-problem present in males. While gaming was associated with problematic Internet use in males, aggression and impulsivity demonstrated associations with problematic smartphone use in females. Conclusions An increase in the number of digital media-related problems was associated with worse outcomes in various psychosocial scales. Gaming may play a crucial role in males solely displaying Internet-related problems. The heightened impulsivity and aggression seen in our female problematic smartphone users requires further research.

  2. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP) on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lam C; Qin, Tingting; Slate, Elizabeth H; Zheng, W Jim

    2011-11-11

    To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP), to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and insensitivity to data variation commonly associated with microarray

  3. The Interrelatedness of Affective Factors in EFL Learning: An Examination of Motivational Patterns in Relation to Anxiety in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the motivational pattern in relation to the anxiety of Chinese learners of English. Based on a survey consisting of an anxiety questionnaire and a motivation questionnaire, the findings revealed an unbalanced pattern of two types of motivation clusters that resembled the integrative-instrumental duality, with the level of…

  4. Exploiting differential vegetation phenology for satellite-based mapping of semiarid grass vegetation in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Middleton, Barry R.; Vogel, John M.; Wu, Zhuoting; Velasco, Miguel G.

    2016-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a methodology for subpixel discrimination and large-area mapping of the perennial warm-season (C4) grass component of vegetation cover in mixed-composition landscapes of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. We describe the methodology within a general, conceptual framework that we identify as the differential vegetation phenology (DVP) paradigm. We introduce a DVP index, the Normalized Difference Phenometric Index (NDPI) that provides vegetation type-specific information at the subpixel scale by exploiting differential patterns of vegetation phenology detectable in time-series spectral vegetation index (VI) data from multispectral land imagers. We used modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI2) data from Landsat to develop the NDPI, and MSAVI2 data from MODIS to compare its performance relative to one alternate DVP metric (difference of spring average MSAVI2 and summer maximum MSAVI2), and two simple, conventional VI metrics (summer average MSAVI2, summer maximum MSAVI2). The NDPI in a scaled form (NDPIs) performed best in predicting variation in perennial C4 grass cover as estimated from landscape photographs at 92 sites (R2 = 0.76, p landscapes of the Southwest, and potentially for monitoring of its response to drought, climate change, grazing and other factors, including land management. With appropriate adjustments, the method could potentially be used for subpixel discrimination and mapping of grass or other vegetation types in other regions where the vegetation components of the landscape exhibit contrasting seasonal patterns of phenology.

  5. Expression pattern of neuronal intermediate filament α-internexin in anterior pituitary gland and related tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, D; Hölsken, A; Buchfelder, M; Schlaffer, S-M; Siegel, S; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, I; Fahlbusch, R; Buslei, R

    2015-08-01

    α-Internexin (INA) is a class IV neuronal intermediate filament protein that maintains the morphogenesis of neurons. It is expressed in developing neuroblasts and represents the major component of the cytoskeleton in cerebellar granule cells of adult central nervous system tissue. Data concerning INA expression in the human frontal pituitary lobe and related adenomas (PA) is missing. Using immunohistochemistry we examined the distribution pattern of INA in a large cohort of 152 PA, 11 atypical PA, 4 pituitary carcinomas and 20 normal pituitaries (overall n = 187). Quantity of INA protein expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated and grouped into five categories (0 = 0%; 1 = >0-5%; 2 = >5-35%; 3 = >35-80%; 4 = >80% of cells). Cellular staining intensity of INA appeared significantly higher in gonadotropinomas (Go, n = 62), null cell adenomas (NC, n = 7) and thyrotropinomas (TSHomas, n = 7) compared to the other tumor subtypes (p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, Go and NC showed a peculiar pseudorosette-like staining pattern surrounding blood vessels in 85.5% (59/69) of cases. Interestingly, areas exhibiting homogenous INA staining were often associated with oncocytic cell changes and decreased immunohistochemically detectable hormone expression. Only 8.5% (8/94) of other PA showed a comparable INA distribution (p ≤ 0.001). Go, NC as well as TSHomas exhibit high levels of intracellular INA protein indicating neuronal transdifferentiation. A possible impact on pathogenesis and endocrine activity needs further investigation.

  6. Spatio-temporal patterns of ptarmigan occupancy relative to shrub cover in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Rock and willow ptarmigan are abundant herbivores that require shrub habitats in arctic and alpine areas. Shrub expansion is likely to increase winter habitat availability for ptarmigan, which in turn influence shrub architecture and growth through browsing. Despite their ecological role in the Arctic, the distribution and movement patterns of ptarmigan are not well known, particularly in northern Alaska where shrub expansion is occurring. We used multi-season occupancy models to test whether ptarmigan occupancy varied within and among years, and the degree to which colonization and extinction probabilities were related to shrub cover and latitude. Aerial surveys were conducted from March to May in 2011 and April to May 2012 in a 21,230 km2 area in northeastern Alaska. In areas with at least 30 % shrub cover, the probability of colonization by ptarmigan was >0.90, indicating that moderate to extensive patches of shrubs (typically associated with riparian areas) had a high probability of becoming occupied by ptarmigan. Occupancy increased throughout the spring in both years, providing evidence that ptarmigan migrated from southern wintering areas to breeding areas north of the Brooks Range. Occupancy was higher in the moderate snow year than the high snow year, and this was likely due to higher shrub cover in the moderate snow year. Ptarmigan distribution and migration in the Arctic are linked to expanding shrub communities on a wide geographic scale, and these relationships may be shaping ptarmigan population dynamics, as well as rates and patterns of shrub expansion.

  7. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Vera; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level.

  8. The relative contributions of thermo-solutal Marangoni convections on flow patterns in a liquid bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, H.; Takagi, Y.; Okano, Y.; Gima, S.; Dost, S.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical simulation study was carried out to investigate the relative contributions of thermal and solutal Marangoni convections on transport structures in a liquid bridge under zero gravity. The liquid bridge in the model represents a three dimensional half-zone configuration of the Floating Zone (FZ) growth system. Three dimensional field equations of the liquid zone, i.e. continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion equations, were solved by the PISO algorithm. Computations were performed using the open source software OpenFOAM. The numerical simulation results show that the flow field becomes three-dimensional and time-depended when the solutal Marangoni number is larger than the critical value. It was also shown that not only flow patterns but also the azimuthal wave number (m) changes due to the competing contributions of thermal and solutal Marangoni convective flows.

  9. Solar radiation interception of various planting space patterns of maize and its relation to yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhir, N.

    2003-01-01

    A research was carried out to study solar radiation interception and its relation to yield of maize in various plant spacing patterns at high elevation. The goal of this research was to contribute the development of crop science, especially the plant ecophysiology. A field experiment was executed from March to August 1998 at Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology, Sukarami, West Sumatra. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design and each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment data was analyzed by ANOVA and path analysis. The results of experiment indicated that the percentage of solar radiation interception gave high contribution to the dry grain yield for Pioneer-7 cultivar, and the solar radiation interception was depend on LAI and leaf angle

  10. Relative growth pattern and hard tissue of vertebral centra by microradiography of bluefin tuna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, H.

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the growth feature and the structure of hard tissue, we studied the vertebral centrum of three species, bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus, bigeye tuna T. obesus and skipjack Katsuwonus pelamis (BL: 44.2, 39.5 and 40.0cm respectively). We examined the ratio of cetrum length to diameter in each vertebral centrum and obtained the value of 0.9-1.3 in most centra among three species. This indicates that the examined species belong to the equivalent type of the relative growth pattern of vertebral centra. The hard tissue was observed by microradiography, with the longitudinal and cross sections (about 100 μm) cut through the center of notochordal pore. The major centra of the vertebral column were composed of characteristic simple structure like a cross, when seen in the microradiographs of cross sections. Microradiographs indicated that the bone has complicated canals with minute spaces like the bone cavities

  11. Assemblage patterns of fish functional groups relative to habitat connectivity and conditions in floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, S.; Aycock, J.N.; Miranda, L.E.; Tietjen, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influences of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance patterns of fish functional groups in 17 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed that species-environmental relationships varied with the functional groups. Species richness and assemblage structure of periodic strategists showed strong and positive correlations with habitat connectivity. Densities of most equilibrium and opportunistic strategists decreased with habitat connectivity. Densities of certain equilibrium and opportunistic strategists increased with turbidity. Forested wetlands around the lakes were positively related to the densities of periodic and equilibrium strategists. These results suggest that decreases in habitat connectivity, forested wetland buffers and water quality resulting from environmental manipulations may cause local extinction of certain fish taxa and accelerate the dominance of tolerant fishes in floodplain lakes. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. The Lasting Influences of Early Food-Related Variety Experience: A Longitudinal Study of Vegetable Acceptance from 5 Months to 6 Years in Two Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Nöth, Andrea; Schaal, Benoist; Leathwood, Peter; Issanchou, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Children’s vegetable consumption falls below current recommendations, highlighting the need to identify strategies that can successfully promote better acceptance of vegetables. Recently, experimental studies have reported promising interventions that increase acceptance of vegetables. The first, offering infants a high variety of vegetables at weaning, increased acceptance of new foods, including vegetables. The second, offering an initially disliked vegetable at 8 subsequent meals markedly increased acceptance for that vegetable. So far, these effects have been shown to persist for at least several weeks. We now present follow-up data at 15 months, 3 and 6 years obtained through questionnaire (15 mo, 3y) and experimental (6y) approaches. At 15 months, participants who had been breast-fed were reported as eating and liking more vegetables than those who had been formula-fed. The initially disliked vegetable that became accepted after repeated exposure was still liked and eaten by 79% of the children. At 3 years, the initially disliked vegetable was still liked and eaten by 73% of the children. At 6 years, observations in an experimental setting showed that children who had been breast-fed and children who had experienced high vegetable variety at the start of weaning ate more of new vegetables and liked them more. They were also more willing to taste vegetables than formula-fed children or the no or low variety groups. The initially disliked vegetable was still liked by 57% of children. This follow-up study suggests that experience with chemosensory variety in the context of breastfeeding or at the onset of complementary feeding can influence chemosensory preferences for vegetables into childhood. PMID:26968029

  13. Book Review of Relational Patterns, Therapeutic Presence: Concepts and practice of Integrative Psychotherapy by Richard G. Erskine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marye O'Reilly-Knapp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of Relational Patterns, Therapeutic Presence: Concepts and practice of Integrative Psychotherapy by Richard G. Erskine. Published by Karnac Books: London, 2015 Paperback, Pages 366, ISBN 13: 978-1-78220-190-8

  14. Book Review of Relational Patterns, Therapeutic Presence: Concepts and practice of Integrative Psychotherapy by Richard G. Erskine

    OpenAIRE

    Marye O'Reilly-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Book Review of Relational Patterns, Therapeutic Presence: Concepts and practice of Integrative Psychotherapy by Richard G. Erskine. Published by Karnac Books: London, 2015 Paperback, Pages 366, ISBN 13: 978-1-78220-190-8

  15. Conserved regional patterns of GABA-related transcript expression in the neocortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Bazmi, H Holly; Mirnics, Karoly; Wu, Qiang; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2008-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in a number of cognitive, affective, sensory, and motor functions that depend on the circuitry of different cortical areas. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related genes. Consequently, the authors sought to determine whether this pattern of altered gene expression is restricted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or could also contribute to the dysfunction of other cortical areas in subjects with schizophrenia. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of eight GABA-related transcripts in four cortical areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary motor and primary visual cortices) of subjects (N=12) with schizophrenia and matched normal comparison subjects. Expression levels of seven transcripts were lower in subjects with schizophrenia, with the magnitude of reduction for each transcript comparable across the four areas. The largest reductions were detected for mRNA encoding somatostatin and parvalbumin, followed by moderate decreases in mRNA expression for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the GABA membrane transporter GAT-1, and the alpha 1 and delta subunits of GABA(A) receptors. In contrast, the expression of calretinin mRNA did not differ between the subject groups in any of the four areas. Because the areas examined represent the major functional domains (e.g., association, limbic, motor, and sensory) of the cerebral cortex, our findings suggest that a conserved set of molecular alterations affecting GABA neurotransmission contribute to the pathophysiology of different clinical features of schizophrenia.

  16. Inhibiting Interference - a grounded theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To generate a grounded theory explaining health professionals' pattern of behaviour and experience related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes during total joint replacement. BACKGROUND: Health professionals uphold standardised care for patients, and effect...... on quality is seen when relatives support patients during total joint replacement. Since health professionals often have problematic relationships with relatives, knowledge is needed of the health professionals' pattern of behaviour in relation to relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programme....... DESIGN: Grounded theory according to Glaser's methodology was used to generate substantive theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010 to 2011 by 44 health professionals in orthopaedic wards at two Danish hospitals. Data from nonparticipant observations...

  17. Patterns of development of trypanosomes and related parasites in insect hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneux, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    The trypanosome parasites of man and his domestic animals and the closely related Leishmania parasites pathogenic to man have widely different patterns of development in their various vector species. However, certain common features of the development of these parasites are exhibited when they develop in insects. These features include temporary storage in the crop; transformation from mammalian forms to primary multiplicative forms; avoidance of digestion by host enzymes; association with the peritrophic membrane; establishment of infection and, associated with this, attachment and colonization of surfaces; migration to different areas of gut to sites of development; formation of a reservoir of forms to ensure sufficient organisms are available for transformation to forms infective to the vertebrate host; subsequent transmission by bite or by contamination of host surfaces. The different features of development outlined above are discussed in relation to trypanosomes and related parasites. The utilization of different model systems for use in this type of study are discussed in view of difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of infected flies (e.g. Glossina, or sandflies), and the costs and frequent problems of maintaining such colonies. Recent studies (1) on Glossina-transmitted Salivarian trypanosomes are described which indicate possible behavioural differences between infected and uninfected flies that have a bearing on epidemiology and epizootiology; (2) on the fluid mechanics of the Glossina labrum infected and uninfected with trypanosomes; and (3) on attachment of trypanosomes and Leishmania to insect gut wall surfaces. (author)

  18. Do descriptive norms related to parents and friends predict fruit and vegetable intake similarly among 11-year-old girls and boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-14

    We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.

  19. Patterns in deer-related traffic injuries over a decade: the Mayo clinic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoot Dustin L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our American College of Surgeons Level 1 Trauma Center serves a rural population. As a result, there is a unique set of accidents that are not present in an urban environment such as deer related motor vehicle crashes (dMVC. We characterized injury patterns between motorcycle/all-terrain vehicles (MCC and automobile (MVC crashes related to dMVC (deer motor vehicle crash with the hypotheses that MCC will present with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS and that it would be related to whether the driver struck the deer or swerved. Methods The records of 157 consecutive patients evaluated at our institution for injury related to dMVC from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2006 were reviewed from our prospectively collected trauma database. Demographic, clinical, and crash specific parameters were abstracted. Injury severity was analyzed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each body region as well as the overall Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results Motorcycle crashes presented with a higher median ISS than MVCs (14 vs 5, p Within the MVC group, there was no difference between swerving and hitting the deer in any AIS group. Forty-seven percent of drivers were not wearing seat belts which resulted in similar median ISS (6 vs 5 and AIS of all body regions. Conclusions Motorcycle operators suffered higher ISS. There were no significant differences in median ISS if a driver involved in a deer-related motor vehicle crash swerved rather than collided, was helmeted, or restrained.

  20. Long-term trends in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay, USA, related to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert J.; Williams, Michael R.; Marion, Scott R.; Wilcox, David J.; Carruthers, Tim J.B.; Moore, Kenneth A.; Kemp, W.M.; Dennison, William C.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Peter Bergstrom,; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay supports a diverse assemblage of marine and freshwater species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) whose broad distributions are generally constrained by salinity. An annual aerial SAV monitoring program and a bi-monthly to monthly water quality monitoring program have been conducted throughout Chesapeake Bay since 1984. We performed an analysis of SAV abundance and up to 22 environmental variables potentially influencing SAV growth and abundance (1984-2006). Historically, SAV abundance has changed dramatically in Chesapeake Bay, and since 1984, when SAV abundance was at historic low levels, SAV has exhibited complex changes including long-term (decadal) increases and decreases, as well as some large, single-year changes. Chesapeake Bay SAV was grouped into three broad-scale community-types based on salinity regime, each with their own distinct group of species, and detailed analyses were conducted on these three community-types as well as on seven distinct case-study areas spanning the three salinity regimes. Different trends in SAVabundance were evident in the different salinity regimes. SAV abundance has (a) continually increased in the low-salinity region; (b) increased initially in the medium-salinity region, followed by fluctuating abundances; and (c) increased initially in the high-salinity region, followed by a subsequent decline. In all areas, consistent negative correlations between measures of SAV abundance and nitrogen loads or concentrations suggest that meadows are responsive to changes in inputs of nitrogen. For smaller case-study areas, different trends in SAV abundance were also noted including correlations to water clarity in high-salinity case-study areas, but nitrogen was highly correlated in all areas. Current maximum SAV coverage for almost all areas remain below restoration targets, indicating that SAV abundance and associated ecosystem services are currently limited by continued poor water quality, and specifically high

  1. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  2. Nanolithography and nanochemistry: probe-related patterning techniques and chemical modification for nanometer-sized devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    The size regime for devices produced by photolithographic techniques is limited. Therefore, other patterning techniques have been intensively studied to create smaller structures. Scanning-probe-based patterning techniques, such as dip-pen lithography, local force-induced patterning, and local-probe

  3. Sediment and Vegetation Controls on Delta Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors control the patterns of distributary channels formed on a delta, including water and sediment discharge, grain size, sea level rise rates, and vegetation type. In turn, these channel networks influence the shape and evolution of a delta, including what types of plant and animal life - such as humans - it can support. Previous fluvial modeling and flume experiments, outside of the delta context, have addressed how interactions between sediment and vegetation, through their influence on lateral transport of sediment, determine what type of channel networks develops. Similar interactions likely also shape delta flow patterns. Vegetation introduces cohesion, tending to reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, reinforcing existing channels and resulting in localized, relatively stable flow patterns. On the other hand, sediment transport processes can result in lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels, resulting in flow resembling that of a braided stream. While previous studies of deltas have indirectly explored the effects of vegetation through the introduction of cohesive sediment, we directly incorporate key effects of vegetation on flow and sediment transport into the delta-building model DeltaRCM to explore how these effects influence delta channel network formation. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiments at UT Austin. Here we present initial results of experiments exploring the effects of sea level rise rate, sediment grain size, vegetation type, and vegetation growth rate on delta channel network morphology. These results support the hypothesis that the ability for lateral transport of sediment to occur plays a key role in determining the evolution of delta channel networks and delta morphology.

  4. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement.......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing...

  5. Urban vegetation and income segregation in drylands: a synthesis of seven metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenerette, G Darrel; Buyantuev, Alexander; Miller, Greg; Pataki, Diane E; Gillespie, Thomas W; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across