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Sample records for vegetation appears green

  1. Heavy metals in green vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible portions of five varieties of green vegetables, namely amaranth, chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, leafy cabbage and pumpkin leaves, collected from several areas in Dar es Salaam, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper. Except for zinc, the levels of heavy metals in the vegetables ...

  2. Ultrasonographic appearance of the coelomic cavity in healthy green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Mason F; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen; Frank, Paul M

    2008-08-15

    To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the coelomic cavity in healthy green iguanas. Cross-sectional study. 26 healthy green iguanas (20 males and 6 females). For coelomic ultrasonography, animals were physically restrained in dorsal recumbency by an assistant; chemical restraint was not used. Qualitative and quantitative observations were recorded. Structures that could be visualized in all animals included the heart and cardiac chambers; liver; caudal vena cava; hepatic veins; portal vein; gallbladder; pyloric portion of the stomach; and, when distended, urinary bladder. Visualization of the kidneys was poor. The spleen could be identified in 17 animals, and the gonads could be identified in 22, but were most easily identified in males evaluated during November (ie, during the breeding season); no females were evaluated during the breeding season. Physiologic enlargement of the testes yielded an acoustic window for the spleen by displacing overlying intestine. Anechoic, free coelomic fluid was identified in 3 animals. Measurements of overall cardiac size, ventricular wall thickness, gallbladder size, thickness of the pyloric portion of the stomach, and splenic size were obtained. Only ventricular wall thickness was significantly correlated with body weight. Results suggested that ultrasonography allowed examination of most coelomic structures in green iguanas. The procedure was easily performed and was well tolerated in conscious animals.

  3. Phytochemical profile of some green leafy vegetables in South East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of eight common green leafy vegetables (GLV) in the raw and cooked forms as natural source of phytochemicals was assessed. The vegetables studied were the common ones found in southeast Nigeria and they included Ugu, Nchanwu, Okazi, Utazi, Oha, Nturukpa, Ahihara, and Onugbo. The vegetables ...

  4. Nutrient Content of Four Lesser – Known Green Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria. U. E. Inyang. Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria ... Green leafy vegetables as components of traditional foods .... promoting benefits of high fibre diets have made this class.

  5. Vegetation composition and structure significantly influence green roof performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, N.; Nagase, A.; Booth, R.; Grime, P. [Sheffield Univ., Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Landscape Architecture

    2005-07-01

    The majority of published literature on green roofs contains little specific information on the contribution of plants to the various functions and properties of green roofs. This paper reviewed previously published material in an attempt to shed light on the role of vegetation composition in green roof systems, with specific reference to hydrology and biodiversity support. Two ongoing experiments at the University of Sheffield were then considered: (1) a comparison of quality and quantity of runoff from different types of vegetation; and (2) a comparison of flowering seasons and biodiversity support of different vegetation. Results of the studies showed that there was no general pattern of variation in runoff that could be related to vegetation complexity or taxonomic composition of the communities. During the winter months, high precipitation quickly saturated the soil and percolate losses were similar for all treatments. In the summer, throughflow losses differed between treatments in relation to the structure of the plant canopy. Differing mechanisms resulted in variations in the volume of percolate that was collected. Lower volumes of percolate were observed in herb-only monocultures of Leontdon hispidus, a species with a high water content. Tap-rooted species were seen to more effectively absorb soil moisture. The biodiversity support study focused on the study of Sedum species and Labiatae species, which suggested that mixed vegetation containing these species had a far greater likelihood of attracting wild bees to support pollination. Results of the studies indicated that green roof vegetation with greater structural and species diversity may provide different benefits than sedum-dominated roots. Further studies are needed to investigate the trade-offs between vegetation types, and green roof functions and performance in order to justify calls for a wider diversity of green roof types. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-10-24

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  7. Vegetation impoverishment despite greening: a case study from central Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Stefanie M.; Tappan, G. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Recent remote sensing studies have documented a greening trend in the semi-arid Sahel and Sudan zones of West Africa since the early 1980s, which challenges the mainstream paradigm of irreversible land degradation in this region. What the greening trend means on the ground, however, has not yet been explored. This research focuses on a region in central Senegal to examine changes in woody vegetation abundance and composition in selected sites by means of a botanical inventory of woody vegetation species, repeat photography, and perceptions of local land users. Despite the greening, an impoverishment of the woody vegetation cover was observed in the studied sites, indicated by an overall reduction in woody species richness, a loss of large trees, an increasing dominance of shrubs, and a shift towards more arid-tolerant, Sahelian species since 1983. Thus, interpretation of the satellite-derived greening trend as an improvement or recovery is not always justified. The case of central Senegal represents only one of several possible pathways of greening throughout the region, all of which result in similar satellite-derived greening signals.

  8. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  9. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  10. Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat island and green roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susca, T.; Gaffin, S.R.; Dell'Osso, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the positive effects of vegetation with a multi-scale approach: an urban and a building scale. Monitoring the urban heat island in four areas of New York City, we have found an average of 2 deg. C difference of temperatures between the most and the least vegetated areas, ascribable to the substitution of vegetation with man-made building materials. At micro-scale, we have assessed the effect of surface albedo on climate through the use of a climatological model. Then, using the CO 2 equivalents as indicators of the impact on climate, we have compared the surface albedo, and the construction, replacement and use phase of a black, a white and a green roof. By our analyses, we found that both the white and the green roofs are less impactive than the black one; with the thermal resistance, the biological activity of plants and the surface albedo playing a crucial role. - Highlights: → The local morphology and the scarcity of vegetation in NYC core determines its UHI. → We introduce the evaluation of the effects of the surface albedo on climate change. → We use it to compare a black roof with a white and a green one. → Surface albedo has a crucial role in the evaluation of the environmental loads of the roofs. → Vegetation has positive effects on both the urban and the building scale. - Vegetation has positive effects both on an urban scale, mitigating the urban heat island effect; and on a building scale, where albedo, thermal insulation and biological activity of plants play a crucial role.

  11. Effects of industrial processing on folate content in green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delchier, Nicolas; Ringling, Christiane; Le Grandois, Julie; Aoudé-Werner, Dalal; Galland, Rachel; Georgé, Stéphane; Rychlik, Michael; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2013-08-15

    Folates are described to be sensitive to different physical parameters such as heat, light, pH and leaching. Most studies on folates degradation during processing or cooking treatments were carried out on model solutions or vegetables only with thermal treatments. Our aim was to identify which steps were involved in folates loss in industrial processing chains, and which mechanisms were underlying these losses. For this, the folates contents were monitored along an industrial canning chain of green beans and along an industrial freezing chain of spinach. Folates contents decreased significantly by 25% during the washing step for spinach in the freezing process, and by 30% in the green beans canning process after sterilisation, with 20% of the initial amount being transferred into the covering liquid. The main mechanism involved in folate loss during both canning green beans and freezing spinach was leaching. Limiting the contact between vegetables and water or using steaming seems to be an adequate measure to limit folates losses during processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determining Thermal Specifications for Vegetated GREEN Roofs in Moderate Winter Climats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Christoph Maria Ravesloot

    2015-01-01

    Because local weather conditions in moderate climates are changing constantly, heat transfer specifications of substrate and vegetation in vegetated green roofs also change accordingly. Nevertheless, it is assumed that vegetated green roofs can have a positive effect on the thermal performance of

  13. Insectivorous bats respond to vegetation complexity in urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Ille, Christina; Bruckner, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Structural complexity is known to determine habitat quality for insectivorous bats, but how bats respond to habitat complexity in highly modified areas such as urban green spaces has been little explored. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether a recently developed measure of structural complexity is as effective as field-based surveys when applied to urban environments. We assessed whether image-derived structural complexity (MIG) was as/more effective than field-based descriptors in this environment and evaluated the response of insectivorous bats to structural complexity in urban green spaces. Bat activity and species richness were assessed with ultrasonic devices at 180 locations within green spaces in Vienna, Austria. Vegetation complexity was assessed using 17 field-based descriptors and by calculating the mean information gain (MIG) using digital images. Total bat activity and species richness decreased with increasing structural complexity of canopy cover, suggesting maneuverability and echolocation (sensorial) challenges for bat species using the canopy for flight and foraging. The negative response of functional groups to increased complexity was stronger for open-space foragers than for edge-space foragers. Nyctalus noctula , a species foraging in open space, showed a negative response to structural complexity, whereas Pipistrellus pygmaeus , an edge-space forager, was positively influenced by the number of trees. Our results show that MIG is a useful, time- and cost-effective tool to measure habitat complexity that complemented field-based descriptors. Response of insectivorous bats to structural complexity was group- and species-specific, which highlights the need for manifold management strategies (e.g., increasing or reinstating the extent of ground vegetation cover) to fulfill different species' requirements and to conserve insectivorous bats in urban green spaces.

  14. Pathogens and Heavy Metals Concentration in Green Leafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of heavy metal and bacterial pathogen in randomly collected samples of green leafy from various stations of Bengaluru city was detected. Heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, chromium, nickel and lead were analyzed by tri-acid digestion method. The presence of heavy metals in general was in the order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Fe>Cr>Pb. Trace metal concentration in all green leafy vegetables of stations 1-5 were within permissible limit and it has been exceeded in station 6-10. This indicated high levels of soil contamination pose potential danger for the vegetables grown in the vicinity of Arakere lake, Bannerghatta road, Gottigere lake, Naganaikanakere, Bommasandra lake, Hulimavu lake, Kelaginakere and Amblipura lake. The total bacteria and coliforms were enumerated on TSA (Tryptone Soya Agar and VRBA (Violet Red Bile Agar media respectively. The total bacterial count in randomly collected samples of coriander ranged from 296 cfu/g to 8 cfu/g, in palak from 16 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g, whereas in case of cabbage was 104 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g which is an indication of improper pre-harvest and post harvest handling.

  15. Temperature and snowfall trigger alpine vegetation green-up on the world's roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Inouye, David W; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    Rapid temperature increase and its impacts on alpine ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the world's highest and largest plateau, are a matter of global concern. Satellite observations have revealed distinctly different trend changes and contradicting temperature responses of vegetation green-up dates, leading to broad debate about the Plateau's spring phenology and its climatic attribution. Large uncertainties in remote-sensing estimates of phenology significantly limit efforts to predict the impacts of climate change on vegetation growth and carbon balance in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, which are further exacerbated by a lack of detailed ground observation calibration. Here, we revealed the spatiotemporal variations and climate drivers of ground-based herbaceous plant green-up dates using 72 green-up datasets for 22 herbaceous plant species at 23 phenological stations, and corresponding daily mean air temperature and daily precipitation data from 19 climate stations across eastern and southern parts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1981 to 2011. Results show that neither the continuously advancing trend from 1982 to 2011, nor a turning point in the mid to late 1990s as reported by remote-sensing studies can be verified by most of the green-up time series, and no robust evidence for a warmer winter-induced later green-up dates can be detected. Thus, chilling requirements may not be an important driver influencing green-up responses to spring warming. Moreover, temperature-only control of green-up dates appears mainly at stations with relatively scarce preseason snowfall and lower elevation, while coupled temperature and precipitation controls of green-up dates occur mostly at stations with relatively abundant preseason snowfall and higher elevation. The diversified interactions between snowfall and temperature during late winter to early spring likely determine the spatiotemporal variations of green-up dates. Therefore, prediction of vegetation growth

  16. Modularized substrate culture:a new method for green leafy vegetable planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Quanxi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing general situation of green leafy vegetable production and main difficulty,we introduce the characteristics of modularized substrate culture for green leafy vegetable,and point out the important issues of modularized substrate culture which urgently need be solved in the coming future.

  17. Retention of nutrients in green leafy vegetables on dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheetal; Gowri, B S; Lakshmi, A Jyothi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of dehydration on nutrient composition of Amaranthus gangeticus, Chenopodium album, Centella asiatica, Amaranthus tricolor and Trigonella foenum graecum. The green leafy vegetables (GLV) were steam blanched for 5 min after pretreatment and dried in an oven at 60 °C for 10-12 h. The fresh and dehydrated samples were analyzed for selected proximate constituents, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients and dialyzable minerals. Dehydration seems to have little effect on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient content of the GLV. Among the vitamins, retention of ascorbic acid was 1-14%, thiamine 22-71%, total carotene 49-73% and β-carotene 20-69% respectively, of their initial content. Dialyzable iron and calcium in the fresh vegetables ranged between 0.21-3.5 mg and 15.36-81.33 mg/100 g respectively, which reduced to 0.05-0.53 mg and 6.94-58.15 mg/100 g on dehydration. Dehydration seems to be the simplest convenient technology for preserving these sources of micronutrients, especially when they are abundantly available. Irrespective of the losses of vitamins that take place during dehydration, dehydrated GLV are a concentrated natural source of micronutrients and they can be used in product formulations. Value addition of traditional products with dehydrated GLV can be advocated as a feasible food-based approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition.

  18. Quality Evaluation for Appearance of Needle Green Tea Based on Machine Vision and Process Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Chunwang; Zhu, Hongkai; Zhou, Xiaofen

    2017-01-01

    ), extreme learning machine (ELM) and strong predictor integration algorithm (ELM-AdaBoost). The comparison of the results showed that the ELM-AdaBoost model based on image characteristics had the best performance (RPD was more than 2). Its predictive performance was superior to other models, with smaller......, and modeling faster (0.014~0.281 s). AdaBoost method, which was a hybrid integrated algorithm, can further promote the accuracy and generalization capability of the model. The above conclusions indicated that it was feasible to evaluate the quality of appearance of needle green tea based on machine vision...

  19. Could small scale vegetable production contribute to a green economy in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available and produces for sale. Some of the practices on these farms are compatible with a green economy, and with interventions that improve alignment with green economy principles, small scale vegetable production could contribute to a green economy and open up...

  20. Analysis of the Influencing Factors and Key Driving Force concerning the Efficiency of Green Supply Chain of Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Yingtang; QIAO, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Like the general green supply chain, the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables also requires low negative effects of the environment and high resource utilization rate, as well as the healthiness and freshness of fruits and vegetables. Currently, the level of development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is low in China, and the freshness of fruits and vegetables can not be well maintained, so there is an urgent need to improve the operational efficiency of the green su...

  1. Observational Quantification of Climatic and Human Influences on Vegetation Greening in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjian Hua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to quantify the relative contributions of vegetation greening in China due to climatic and human influences from multiple observational datasets. Satellite measured vegetation greenness, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and relevant climate, land cover, and socioeconomic data since 1982 are analyzed using a multiple linear regression (MLR method. A statistically significant positive trend of average growing-season (April–October NDVI is found over more than 34% of the vegetated areas, mainly in North China, while significant decreases in NDVI are only seen in less than 5% of the areas. The relationships between vegetation and climate (temperature, precipitation, and radiation vary by geographical location and vegetation type. We estimate the NDVI changes in association with the non-climatic effects by removing the climatic effects from the original NDVI time series using the MLR analysis. Our results indicate that land use change is the dominant factor driving the long-term changes in vegetation greenness. The significant greening in North China is due to the increase in crops, grasslands, and forests. The socioeconomic datasets provide consistent and supportive results for the non-climatic effects at the provincial level that afforestation and reduced fire events generally have a major contribution. This study provides a basis for quantifying the non-climatic effects due to possible human influences on the vegetation greening in China.

  2. Measuring the pulse of urban green infrastructure: vegetation dynamics across residential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation can be an important component of urban green infrastructure. Its structure is a complex result of the socio-ecological milieu and management decisions, and it can influence numerous ecohydrological processes such as stormwater interception and evapotranspiration. Despi...

  3. Attribution of trends in global vegetation greenness from 1982 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Xu, L.; Bi, J.; Myneni, R.; Knyazikhin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices data provide evidence of changes in terrestrial vegetation activity over the past decades in the world. However, it is difficult to attribute cause-and-effect to vegetation trends because variations in vegetation productivity are driven by various factors. This study investigated changes in global vegetation productivity first, and then attributed the global natural vegetation with greening trend. Growing season integrated normalized difference vegetation index (GSI NDVI) derived from the new GIMMS NDVI3g dataset (1982-2011was analyzed. A combined time series analysis model, which was developed from simper linear trend model (SLT), autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) and Vogelsang's t-PST model shows that productivity of all vegetation types except deciduous broadleaf forest predominantly showed increasing trends through the 30-year period. The evolution of changes in productivity in the last decade was also investigated. Area of greening vegetation monotonically increased through the last decade, and both the browning and no change area monotonically decreased. To attribute the predominant increase trend of productivity of global natural vegetation, trends of eight climate time series datasets (three temperature, three precipitation and two radiation datasets) were analyzed. The attribution of trends in global vegetation greenness was summarized as relaxation of climatic constraints, fertilization and other unknown reasons. Result shows that nearly all the productivity increase of global natural vegetation was driven by relaxation of climatic constraints and fertilization, which play equally important role in driving global vegetation greenness.; Area fraction and productivity change fraction of IGBP vegetation land cover classes showing statistically significant (10% level) trend in GSI NDVIt;

  4. Sensory quality evaluation for appearance of needle-shaped green tea based on computer vision and nonlinear tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Wang; Zhu, Hong-Kai; Zhao, Jie-Wen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Chen, Quan-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Tea is one of the three greatest beverages in the world. In China, green tea has the largest consumption, and needle-shaped green tea, such as Maofeng tea and Sparrow Tongue tea, accounts for more than 40% of green tea (Zhu et al., 2017). The appearance of green tea is one of the important indexes during the evaluation of green tea quality. Especially in market transactions, the price of tea is usually determined by its appearance (Zhou et al., 2012). Human sensory evaluation is usually conducted by experts, and is also easily affected by various factors such as light, experience, psychological and visual factors. In the meantime, people may distinguish the slight differences between similar colors or textures, but the specific levels of the tea are hard to determine (Chen et al., 2008). As human description of color and texture is qualitative, it is hard to evaluate the sensory quality accurately, in a standard manner, and objectively. Color is an important visual property of a computer image (Xie et al., 2014; Khulal et al., 2016); texture is a visual performance of image grayscale and color changing with spatial positions, which can be used to describe the roughness and directivity of the surface of an object (Sanaeifar et al., 2016). There are already researchers who have used computer visual image technologies to identify the varieties, levels, and origins of tea (Chen et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2017). Most of their research targets are crush, tear, and curl (CTC) red (green) broken tea, curly green tea (Bilochun tea), and flat-typed green tea (West Lake Dragon-well green tea) as the information sources. However, the target of the above research is to establish a qualitative evaluation method on tea quality (Fu et al., 2013). There is little literature on the sensory evaluation of the appearance quality of needle-shaped green tea, especially research on a quantitative evaluation model (Zhou et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2017).

  5. 76 FR 24291 - Proposed National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Recommended Decision and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... the hearing indicates that the value of leafy green vegetables grown for the United States fresh and... the 2008 production value, lettuce crops accounted for 79 percent, cabbage accounted for 15 percent... Food Safety Guidelines for Lettuce and Leafy Greens Supply Chain''. These guidelines have not been...

  6. Water retention and evapotranspiration of green roofs and possible natural vegetation types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Matching vegetation to growing conditions on green roofs is one of the options to increase biodiversity in cities. A hydrological model has been applied to match the hydrological requirements of natural vegetation types to roof substrate parameters and to simulate moisture stress for specific

  7. Nitrate in leafy green vegetables and estimated intake | Brkić ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vegetarian diets are rich in vegetables. Green leafy vegetables are foods that contain considerable amounts of nitrate, which can have both positive and negative effects on the human body. Their potential carcinogenicity and toxicity have been proven, particularly after the reduction of nitrate to nitrite itself or ...

  8. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  9. Fibre and polyphenols of selected fruits, nuts and green leafy vegetables used in Serbian diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodevska Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are known as good sources of numerous bioactive compounds among which polyphenols and dietary fibre are considered essential because of their protective health effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the quality of selected plant foods of our region regarding amount of total phenols, fibres and ratio of certain fractions of fibre. Fifteen samples of plant foods (green leafy vegetables, fruits and nuts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total, soluble and insoluble fibre and fractions of fibre: beta-glucans, arabinoxylan, cellulose and resistant starch. Generally nuts were the richest sources of fibre and total phenols. However, when serving size was taken into consideration, it appeared that raspberry and blackberry were the richest in total, soluble fibre and cellulose. At the same time, almonds and hazelnuts were particulary rich in insoluble fibre, while walnuts had the highest polyphenol content. Analyzed plant foods were poor sources of arabinoxylan and beta-glucan. Data on resistant starch presence in cashew nut is the first confirmation that resistant starch can be found in significant amount in some nuts. The results give rare insight into the quality of selected plant foods regarding dietary fibre and polyphenols from the nutritive point of view. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46001

  10. Use of endotrophic mycorhiza and soil microorganisms and vegetation establishment on mineral green roof substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J. [GeoVerde Inc., Schaffhausen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    Green roofs have the potential to introduce colour and nature into urban and industrial areas. This paper showed how the addition of soil microorganisms into a green roof substrate can help establish vegetation. Microorganisms help the roots exploit essential nutrient and water reserves in the substrate by making them more readily available to the plant. Microorganisms facilitate uniform germination, plant development at the young stage, and prolonged vegetation development on the roof. Soil microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi can be added directly in to the seed blends. As the products are blended with the seed, they also fulfill the function of a seeding aid. Mycorrhizal and other soil fungi were examined on mineral roof substrates by means of dry and hydroseeding in greenhouse and field tests. Results of this developmental work and experiences from practical applications were presented. It was noted that vegetation on green roof areas must be able to withstand harsh environmental conditions. As such, the challenges include drought that causes water stress, warm and cold temperatures, wind, acid rain and air pollution. This paper also presented details of the following categories of green roof systems. Intensive green roofs are usually referred to as roof gardens. They are constructed over reinforced concrete decks and usually are accessible. Simple intensive green roofs are vegetated with lawns or ground covering plants. Regular maintenance including irrigation, fertilization and mowing is also required. Extensive green roofs are low maintenance and low weight. Growing media is usually composed of purely mineral material or a blend of mineral with a low proportion of organic matter. Substrate is low in nutrient content and the depth . Vegetation usually consists of succulents that require minimal maintenance. The requirements to install each of these types of green roof systems were also presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus viridis, Coriandrum sativum, and Trigonella foenum graecum in various sites in Raipur city, India. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to estimate the levels of these metals in vegetables. The mean concentration for each heavy metal in the samples was calculated and compared with the permissible levels set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. The intake of heavy metals in the human diet was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Our findings indicated the presence of heavy metals in vegetables in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb. Based on these findings, we conclude that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption.

  12. Linking Vital Rates of Landbirds on a Tropical Island to Rainfall and Vegetation Greenness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Saracco

    Full Text Available Remote tropical oceanic islands are of high conservation priority, and they are exemplified by range-restricted species with small global populations. Spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall and plant productivity may be important in driving dynamics of these species. Yet, little is known about environmental influences on population dynamics for most islands and species. Here we leveraged avian capture-recapture, rainfall, and remote-sensed habitat data (enhanced vegetation index [EVI] to assess relationships between rainfall, vegetation greenness, and demographic rates (productivity, adult apparent survival of three native bird species on Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands: rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons, bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus, and golden white-eye (Cleptornis marchei. Rainfall was positively related to vegetation greenness at all but the highest rainfall levels. Temporal variation in greenness affected the productivity of each bird species in unique ways. Predicted productivity of rufous fantail was highest when dry and wet season greenness values were high relative to site-specific 5-year seasonal mean values (i.e., relative greenness; while the white-eye species had highest predicted productivity when relative greenness contrasted between wet and dry seasons. Survival of rufous fantail and bridled white eye was positively related to relative dry-season greenness and negatively related to relative wet-season greenness. Bridled white-eye survival also showed evidence of a positive response to overall greenness. Our results highlight the potentially important role of rainfall regimes in affecting population dynamics of species on oceanic tropical islands. Understanding linkages between rainfall, vegetation, and animal population dynamics will be critical for developing effective conservation strategies in this and other regions where the seasonal timing, extent, and variability of rainfall is expected to change in the

  13. Simple saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Erik; Christensen, Lars P

    2005-08-24

    A simple, reliable, and gentle saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables was developed. The method involves an extraction procedure with acetone and the selective removal of the chlorophylls and esterified fatty acids from the organic phase using a strongly basic resin (Ambersep 900 OH). Extracts from common green vegetables (beans, broccoli, green bell pepper, chive, lettuce, parsley, peas, and spinach) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their content of major carotenoids before and after action of Ambersep 900 OH. The mean recovery percentages for most carotenoids [(all-E)-violaxanthin, (all-E)-lutein epoxide, (all-E)-lutein, neolutein A, and (all-E)-beta-carotene] after saponification of the vegetable extracts with Ambersep 900 OH were close to 100% (99-104%), while the mean recovery percentages of (9'Z)-neoxanthin increased to 119% and that of (all-E)-neoxanthin and neolutein B decreased to 90% and 72%, respectively.

  14. Unexplored vegetal green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial properties of silver ion are known from ancient times. The plant extract mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining popularity due to green chemistry for the generation of nanosized materials. Corchorus olitorus Linn and Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam are world crops having leaves of high nutritional value.

  15. Nutrient Content of Four Lesser – Known Green Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of four lesser – known leafy vegetable species (Heinsiacrinita, Lasiantheraafricana, Colocasiaesculenta and Ipomeabatatas) used for traditional food preparations by the Efik and Ibibio ethnic groups in Nigeria were analyzed for proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral contents. The leaves were ...

  16. Development of carotenoid-enriched vegetables with increased nutritional quality and visual appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are a class of red, orange and yellow pigments widely distributed in nature. Biotech approach has been proved to be effective in successfully engineering of carotenoid content in food crops with better health and visual appearance....

  17. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Raynolds, M K; Kuss, P; Kade, A N; Epstein, H E; Frost, G V; Kopecky, M A; Daniëls, F J A; Leibman, M O; Moskalenko, N G; Khomutov, A V; Matyshak, G V; Khitun, O V; Forbes, B C; Bhatt, U S; Vonlanthen, C M; Tichý, L

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect. (letter)

  18. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chi; Ouyang Zhiyun; Wang Meie; Chen Weiping; Jiao Wentao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree–shrub–herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. - Highlights: ► Land use did not affect PAHs in soils except for areas adjacent to industrial sources. ► Tree–shrub–herb and woodland cover amass more PAHs in soils than grassland cover. ► Urban development and soil property factors had little effect on PAHs in soils. - Industrial emissions aside, vegetative cover is the dominant factor controlling accumulation of PAHs in urban green space soils.

  19. Green vegetables and colon cancer: the mechanism of a protective effect by chlorophyll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important environmental determinants of the risk of colon cancer is the composition of the diet. Regular consumption of high amounts of red meat increases colon cancer risk. In contrast, consumption of green vegetables decreases the risk of colon cancer. This thesis provides a molecular

  20. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  1. The Role of Vegetation and Mulch in Mitigating the Impact of Raindrops on Soils in Urban Vegetated Green Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehtazi, B.; Montalto, F. A.; Sjoblom, K.

    2014-12-01

    Raindrop impulses applied to soils can break up larger soil aggregates into smaller particles, dispersing them from their original position. The displaced particles can self-stratify, with finer particles at the top forming a crust. Occurrence of this phenomenon reduces the infiltration rate and increases runoff, contributing to downstream flooding, soil erosion, and non point source pollutant loads. Unprotected soil surfaces (e.g. without vegetation canopies, mulch, or other materials), are more susceptible to crust formation due to the higher kinetic energy associated with raindrop impact. By contrast, soil that is protected by vegetation canopies and mulch layers is less susceptible to crust formation, since these surfaces intercept raindrops, dissipating some of their kinetic energy prior to their impact with the soil. Within this context, this presentation presents preliminary laboratory work conducted using a rainfall simulator to determine the ability of new urban vegetation and mulch to minimize soil crust formation. Three different scenarios are compared: a) bare soil, b) soil with mulch cover, and c) soil protected by vegetation canopies. Soil moisture, surface penetration resistance, and physical measurements of the volume of infiltrate and runoff are made on all three surface treatments after simulated rainfall events. The results are used to develop recommendations regarding surface treatment in green infrastructure (GI) system designs, namely whether heavily vegetated GI facilities require mulching to maintain infiltration capacity.

  2. Technogenic contamination of Bulgarian green leafy vegetation and its contribution to public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, P.; Vasilev, G.

    2007-01-01

    Main sources of excessive background ionizing radiation exposure for the Bulgarian public are the following: medical radiation procedures; occupational radiation exposure; enhanced natural radiation exposure (uranium mining and milling, artificial fertilizers, non-radioactive sources of energy, building materials etc.); environmental technogenic radionuclide contamination from global fallouts (1950-1970) and Chernobyl accident depositions (1986-1996 and after). The green leafy vegetation, incl. forage plants used for feeding of farm animals (sheep and cows) as well as leafy vegetables (lettuce, dock, spinach, parsley etc.) are one of the main reservoirs of technogenic radionuclides. Bulgaria is situated in the middle northern latitude zone (40 north - 50 north) where the global radioactive fallout from nuclear experiments (1945-1962) were most intensive. Bulgaria is also one of the countries most affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident on 26 April 1986. Respectively, the Bulgarian population dose burden is high compared with the other European countries (excluding the population near the site, i.e. Ukraine, Russia and Byelorussian). Both the global and Chernobyl fallout (globally distributed) contaminated the green leafy vegetation with technogenic radionuclides of two groups: Short-lived, mainly Iodine-131; Long-lived, mainly Cesium-137 and partially Strontium- 90. The effects on the Bulgarian public from technogenic radionuclide contamination of green leafy vegetation were analyzed. The analyses show the following chain in motion of technogenic radionuclides (Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 are chosen as representative): 1) Iodine-131: (duration of transfer - less than 30 to 60 days since fallout); a) fallout - meadow grass - sheep and cows - milk and dairy products - person; b) fallout - leafy vegetables - person; 2) Cesium-137 (duration of transfer - several days) (based on Chernobyl experience); a) fallout - meadow grass - forage - sheep, cows, etc. - milk and dairy

  3. Recent history of trends in vegetation greenness and large-scale ecosystem disturbances in Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Kumar, Vipin; Klooster, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Recent patterns of land cover and vegetation dynamics on the Euasian continent have been linked to changes in the global carbon cycle. Our study was conducted to evaluate patterns in a 19-yr record of global satellite observations of terrestrial vegetation from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) as a means to characterize major trends in both vegetation 'greenness' and ecosystem disturbance. The fraction absorbed of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) by vegetation canopies worldwide has been computed from the AVHRR at a monthly time interval from 1982 to 2000 and gridded at a spatial resolution of 8 km globally. Unlike previous studies of the AVHRR multiyear time-series of vegetation dynamics, the 8-km spatial resolution makes it possible to compare disturbance events and greenness trends at the same level of spatial detail. Positive trends in FPAR were detected throughout a major greenbelt of central-eastern Europe starting in the mid-1980s. This Eurasian greenbelt extended in a wide swath over the Urals, into the vicinity of Lake Baykal south of the central Siberian plateau, mainly along a latitude belt from 55 deg N to 65 deg N. There was also significantly positive greening in relatively large areas of Great Britain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, the Caucasus and southern India. Nonetheless, a strong downward trend in the FPAR time-series over most of Eurasia was observed by the end of the 1990s. Throughout the 19-yr time period, Eurasia was also impacted by many notable droughts and other disturbance events that could have substantially offset decadal carbon gains attributed to satellite-observed greening. Large-scale ecosystems disturbance events were identified in the FPAR time-series by locating anomalously low values (FPAR-LO) that lasted longer than 12 consecutive months at any 8-km pixel. We find verifiable evidence of numerous disturbance types across Eurasia, including regional patterns of severe droughts, forest fires and insect

  4. Influence of vegetation dynamic modeling on the allocation of green and blue waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Guiomar; Francés, Félix

    2015-04-01

    The long history of the Mediterranean region is dominated by the interactions and co-evolution between man and its natural environment. It is important to consider that the Mediterranean region is recurrently or permanently confronted with the scarcity of the water. The issue of climate change is (and will be) aggravating this situation. This raises the question of a loss of services that ecosystems provide to human and also the amount of available water to be used by vegetation. The question of the water cycle, therefore, should be considered in an integrated manner by taking into account both blue water (water in liquid form used for the human needs or which flows into the oceans) and green water (water having the vapor for resulting from evaporation and transpiration processes). In spite of this, traditionally, very few hydrological models have incorporated the vegetation dynamic as a state variable. In fact, most of them are able to represent fairly well the observed discharge, but usually including the vegetation as a static parameter. However, in the last decade, the number of hydrological models which explicitly take into account the vegetation development as a state variable has increased substantially. In this work, we want to analyze if it is really necessary to use a dynamic vegetation model to quantify adequately the distribution of water into blue and green water. The study site is located in the Public Forest Monte de la Hunde y Palomeras (Spain). The vegetation in the study area is dominated by Aleppo pine of high tree density with scant presence of other species. Two different daily models were applied (with static and dynamic vegetation representation respectively) in three different scenarios: dry year (2005), normal year (2008) and wet year (2010). The static vegetation model simulates the evapotranspiration considering the vegetation as a stationary parameter. Contrarily, the dynamic vegetation model connects the hydrological model with a

  5. Isoflavones from green vegetable soya beans and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoyun; Liu, Yanli; Li, Xiaoran; Xu, Qiongming; Feng, Yulin; Yang, Shilin

    2018-03-01

    Green vegetable soya beans, known as Maodou in China, are supplied as vegetable-type fruits of the soybean plant. Previous study indicated that green vegetable soya beans exhibited antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the material basis and pharmacological activities of green soybean plant were not unravelled clearly. In this study, we investigated the chemical ingredients and their pharmacological activities. Investigation of the chemical ingredients indicated that two new isoflavones, 2'-hydroxyerythrin A (1), and daidzein-7-O-β-d-{6″-[(E)-but-2-enoyl]}glycoside (2), together with seven known ones - 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone (3), daidzein (4), daidzin (5), genistein (6), formononetin (7), ononin (8), and isoerythrinin A (9) - were obtained. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. We evaluated the antimicrobial efficacies and free-radical scavenging potential of the isolated compounds (1-9). Compounds 1 and 9 exhibited the most pronounced efficacy against the tested bacterial strains with IC 50 values ranging from 10.6 to 22.6 μg mL -1 . The isolated compounds showed moderate radical scavenging properties with compound 6 being the most active, followed by compounds 3, 1 and 4. This study indicated that the isoflavones from soya beans could be considered as potential antioxidants or antimicrobials in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A multitemporal and non-parametric approach for assessing the impacts of drought on vegetation greenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrao, Hugo; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the frequency and duration of meteorological droughts and the subsequent temporal changes on the quantity of actively photosynthesizing biomass (greenness) estimated from satellite imagery on rainfed croplands in Latin America. An innovative non-parametric...... and non-supervised approach, based on the Fisher-Jenks optimal classification algorithm, is used to identify multi-scale meteorological droughts on the basis of empirical cumulative distributions of 1, 3, 6, and 12-monthly precipitation totals. As input data for the classifier, we use the gridded GPCC...... for the period between 1998 and 2010. The time-series analysis of vegetation greenness is performed during the growing season with a non-parametric method, namely the seasonal Relative Greenness (RG) of spatially accumulated fAPAR. The Global Land Cover map of 2000 and the GlobCover maps of 2005/2006 and 2009...

  7. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables from green markets in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenov Danijela D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available are valuable source of vitamins, minerals and fibers important for healthy human nutrition. However, an increased level of heavy metals in vegetables has been noticed in recent years. This study was conducted with an aim to analyze content of heavy metals, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and chromium (Cr in 11 vegetable species which are the most common in human diet. Vegetables were collected from three green markets (Limanska, Futoška and Riblja pijaca in Novi Sad, during September and October, from 2009 to 2011. Heavy metal contents were analyzed in edible parts of tomato, potato, spinach, onion, beetroot, parsley, parsnip, carrot, cauliflower, pepper and broccoli using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Varian, AAS 240FS. The results showed statistically significant differences in element concentrations among analyzed vegetables. In general, the highest metal pollution was observed in the year of 2011. Spinach was found to contain the highest metals content - 0.89 μg/g for Cd, 5.81 μg/g for Pb, and 3.67 μg/g for Cr. According to Serbian official regulations, 18.18% of all analyzed species exceeded maximum permissible level for Cd, 9.09% for Pb, while for Cr these limits are not defined. Elevated content of heavy metals in vegetables might be related to soil contamination, atmospheric depositions during transportation and marketing. Thus, a continuous monitoring of vegetables on markets should be performed in order to prevent potential health risks to consumers.

  8. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value plateau. A strong positive relationship between NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.

  9. Analysis of the Driving Forces in Vegetation Variation in the Grain for Green Program Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government introduced six ecological restoration programs to improve its natural environment. Although these programs have proven successful in improving local environmental conditions, some studies have questioned their effectiveness when regions suffer from extreme weather conditions. Using the Grain for Green Program (GGP region as a study area, we estimated vegetation activities in the GGP region from 2000 to 2010 to clarify the trends in vegetation growth and their driving forces. The results showed that: (1 vegetation activities improved in the GGP region during 2000-2010, with 58.94% of the area showing an increased trend in the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index; (2 26.33% of the increased vegetation was caused by human interference, and 11.61% by climate variation, human activity was the dominant cause, and resulted in 54.68% of the degradation compared to 4.74% from climate change; and, (3 the contribution of different land use types to the NDVI interannual variations showed that high contribution regions were focused in the arid and semiarid areas, where the vegetation growth is associated with variations in recipitation and temperature. However, conversions between farmland and grassland or forest had a significant effect on the change in the NDVI trend. Therefore, although climate conditions can affect vegetation growth, human activities are more important in vegetation changes, and appropriate human activities would contribute to its continual improvement. Hence, we recommend establishing an assessment and scientific management mechanism for eco-risks in the design and management of ecosystem restoration programs.

  10. The vegetation of the pale green patches in the mountain forest on the North side of Mt. Pangerango (West Java)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Everybody visiting the Cibodas Mountain Garden must have observed that on the North side of Mt. Pangerango there are roughly between 2300 and 2700 m several sizeable pale green patches visible in the dark green montane forest. They were never visited and it intrigued me to know their vegetation

  11. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m 3 ) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  12. The Soil-Root Strength Performance of Alternanthera Ficoidea and Zoysia Japonica as Green Roof Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Muhamad Firdaurs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of awareness on environmentalism has demanded that all parties involved in built environment to implement green technology in their construction projects. Great care must be taken when designing a green roof system including the selection of plants and appropriate substrates. This study was performed to investigate the soil-root composite strength of two types of green roof vegetation (A. Ficoidea and Z. Japonica at different growth periods for up to 6 months. Both plants were planted in six plastic plots (45 cm × 29 cm × 13 cm containing a mixture of perlite, vermiculite and organic soil. Every two months, a series of direct shear tests were conducted on a sample from each species to determine the root-soil shear strength. The tests continued until the 6th month. The average results showed that Z. Japonica had higher soil-root shear strength (49.1 kPa compared to A. Ficoidea after two months of growth. In the 4th month however, A. Ficoidea managed to surpass Z. Japonica (28.7 kPa versus 18.5 kPa in terms of shear strength. However, their average peak shear strength decreased sharply compared to the previous month. Lastly, in six months, A. Ficoidea sustained a higher average peak soil shear strength (56.5 kPa compared to Z. Japonica (14.3 kPa. Therefore, it can be concluded that A. Ficoidea may offer a better soil reinforcement than Z. japonica and thus it could potentially be a good choice of green roof vegetation.

  13. Detection of Minerals in Green Leafy Vegetables Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P.; Kumar, R.; Raib, A. Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of minerals in different green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, chenopodium, chickpea, mustard, and fenugreek, was calculated using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS can provide an easy, reliable, efficient, low-cost, and in situ chemical analysis with a reasonable precision. In situ LIBS spectra in the range 200-500 nm were carried out using fresh leaves and leaves in the pellet form. As the spectra suggest, magnesium and calcium are present in each vegetable; however, the amount of them varies. It is observed that the amount of iron is maximal in spinach. The nutrition value of the plants was analyzed, and it was revealed that they are low in calories and fat and high in protein, fiber, iron, calcium, and phytochemicals.

  14. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J; Mendiola, J A; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2012-10-26

    The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(9), E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100 min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154 mg/g fresh weight and 14.4 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1 mg/100 g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperspectral Monitoring of Green Roof Vegetation Health State in Sub-Mediterranean Climate: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Patrizia; Porti, Michele; Veltri, Simone; Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica

    2017-03-23

    In urban and industrial environments, the constant increase of impermeable surfaces has produced drastic changes in the natural hydrological cycle. Decreasing green areas not only produce negative effects from a hydrological-hydraulic perspective, but also from an energy point of view, modifying the urban microclimate and generating, as shown in the literature, heat islands in our cities. In this context, green infrastructures may represent an environmental compensation action that can be used to re-equilibrate the hydrological and energy balance and reduce the impact of pollutant load on receiving water bodies. To ensure that a green infrastructure will work properly, vegetated areas have to be continuously monitored to verify their health state. This paper presents a ground spectroscopy monitoring survey of a green roof installed at the University of Calabria fulfilled via the acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. This study is part of a larger research project financed by European Structural funds aimed at understanding the influence of green roofs on rainwater management and energy consumption for air conditioning in the Mediterranean area. Reflectance values were acquired with a field-portable spectroradiometer that operates in the range of wavelengths 350-2500 nm. The survey was carried out during the time period November 2014-June 2015 and data were acquired weekly. Climatic, thermo-physical, hydrological and hydraulic quantities were acquired as well and related to spectral data. Broadband and narrowband spectral indices, related to chlorophyll content and to chlorophyll-carotenoid ratio, were computed. The two narrowband indices NDVI 705 and SIPI turned out to be the most representative indices to detect the plant health status.

  16. Do leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat [RTE] salads carry a risk of foodborne pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercanoglu Taban, Birce; Halkman, A Kadir

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, there is an increasing demand for leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat (RTE) salads since people changed their eating habits because of healthier lifestyle interest. Nevertheless fresh leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads are recognized as a source of food poisoning outbreaks in many parts of the world. However, this increased proportion of outbreaks cannot be completely explained by increased consumption and enhanced surveillance of them. Both in Europe and in the USA, recent foodborne illness outbreaks have revealed links between some pathogens and some leafy green vegetables such as mostly lettuces and spinaches and their RTE salads since fresh leafy green vegetables carry the potential risk of microbiological contamination due to the usage of untreated irrigation water, inappropriate organic fertilizers, wildlife or other sources that can occur anywhere from the farm to the fork such as failure during harvesting, handling, processing and packaging. Among a wide range of pathogens causing foodborne illnesses, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate leafy green vegetables. Children, the elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised people are the most at risk for developing complications from foodborne illness as a result of eating contaminated leafy greens or their RTE salads. These outbreaks are mostly restaurant associated or they sometimes spread across several countries by international trade routes. This review summarizes current observations concerning the contaminated leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads as important vehicles for the transmission of some foodborne pathogens to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combining Estimation of Green Vegetation Fraction in an Arid Region from Landsat 7 ETM+ Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fractional vegetation cover (FVC, or green vegetation fraction, is an important parameter for characterizing conditions of the land surface vegetation, and also a key variable of models for simulating cycles of water, carbon and energy on the land surface. There are several types of FVC estimation models using remote sensing data, and evaluating their performance over a specific region is of great significance. Therefore, this study firstly evaluated three types of FVC estimation models using Landsat 7 ETM+ data in an agriculture region of Heihe River Basin, China, and then proposed a combination strategy from different individual models to improve the FVC estimation accuracy, which employed the multiple linear regression (MLR and Bayesian model average (BMA methods. The validation results indicated that the spectral mixture analysis model with three endmembers (SMA3 achieved the best FVC estimation accuracy (determination coefficient (R2 = 0.902, root mean square error (RMSE = 0.076 among the seven individual models using Landsat 7 ETM+ data. In addition, the MLR and BMA combination methods could both improve FVC estimation accuracy (R2 = 0.913, RMSE = 0.063 and R2 = 0.904, RMSE = 0.069 for MLR and BMA, respectively. Therefore, it could be concluded that both MLR and BMA combination methods integrating FVC estimates from different models using Landsat 7 ETM+ data could effectively weaken the estimation errors of individual models and improve the final FVC estimation accuracy.

  18. In vitro neuroprotective properties of some commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Southern Nigeria

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    E.E. Nwanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Green leafy vegetable is one of the major cuisines in Southern Nigeria and they are not only consumed for their palatability, but also for their nutritional and medicinal properties as reported in folklore. Notable among them are afang (Gnetum africanum, editan (Lasianthera africana and utazi (Gongronema latifolium. In this study, we investigated the effect of aqueous extracts from afang, editan and utazi leaves on cholinesterases [acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE] and monoamine oxidase (MAO activities. Fe2+ chelating abilities were also determined as an assessment of their neuroprotective potentials in vitro. We also assayed for their total phenol contents while the constituent phenolics were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that the extracts inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO activities and also chelated Fe2+ in concentration dependent manner. The HPLC-DAD characterization showed that gallic, caffeic and ellagic acids and rutin were the dominant phenolic compounds in the extracts; nevertheless, utazi had the highest distribution of identified phenolics while afang had the least. The ability of the aqueous extracts of the vegetables to inhibit key enzymes (AChE, BChE and MAO relevant to neurodegeneration, as well chelate metal ion could help suggest their possible neuroprotective properties. These vegetables could be use as dietary intervention in the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  19. [Low consumption of fruit, vegetables and greens: associated factors among the elderly in a Midwest Brazilian city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Martins, Bruna Bittar; de Abreu, Laísa Ribeiro Silva; Cardoso, Camila Kellen de Souza

    2015-12-01

    The scope of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of daily consumption of fruit, vegetables and greens by the elderly and its association with sociodemographic, lifestyle, morbidity and hospitalization variables. The study was part of the multiple-stage sampling cross-sectional research entitled the Goiânia Elderly Project (Projeto Idosos Goiânia). 416 elderly people were interviewed in their homes. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Poisson regression to analyze statistical associations. P values of fruit, vegetables and greens was 16.6%: fruit accounted for 44%, vegetables 39.7% and greens 32.5%. Factors statistically associated with daily consumption of fruits and vegetables were female sex, age between 70 and 79, higher education level, social class A/B and C, alcohol consumption, use of sweeteners, regular physical activity during leisure time, abdominal obesity and hospitalization. Public policies to promote health should develop strategies that encourage adequate intake of fruit, vegetables and greens among the elderly, since regular consumption of same can improve quality of life and prevent/control diseases.

  20. Salient beliefs about eating and buying dark green vegetables as told by Mid-western African–American women☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Jylana L.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables in the dark green group are the most nutritious, yet intake is low. Studies suggest that an increase in fruit and vegetables may improve diet-related health outcomes of African Americans. The aim of this exploratory study was to use the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to qualitatively assess salient, top-of-the-mind, beliefs (consequences, circumstances and referents) about eating and buying more dark green leafy vegetables each week over the next 3 months. Adult (n = 30), Midwestern African–American women, who buy and prepare food for their household participated in a face-to-face salient belief elicitation. A content analysis of verbatim text and a descriptive analysis were conducted. Findings suggest that the RAA can be used to identify salient consequences, circumstances and referents about eating and buying more dark green leafy vegetables. The use of the RAA allowed for the extraction of specific beliefs that may aid in the development of nutrition education programs that consider the varying priorities, motivators and barriers that subgroups within the population have in regard to buying and consuming dark green leafy vegetables. PMID:23415980

  1. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger Ulf

    2013-01-01

    vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... and GPP (R-2 = 0.85, p remote Arctic regions....... (C) 2013 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS) Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Faba Greens, Globe Artichoke’s Offshoots, Crenate Broomrape and Summer Squash Greens: Unconventional Vegetables of Puglia (Southern Italy With Good Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Renna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. [L.] scolymus Hayek, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. are widely cultivated for their immature inflorescences, fruits and seeds, respectively. Nevertheless, in some areas of Puglia (Southern Italy, other organs of these species are traditionally used as vegetables, instead of being considered as by-products. Offshoots (so-called cardoni or carducci of globe artichoke, produced during the vegetative growing cycle and removed by common cultural procedures, are used like to the cultivated cardoons (C. cardunculus L. var. altilis DC. The stems, petioles, flowers and smaller leaves of summer squash are used as greens (so-called cime di zucchini, like other leafy vegetables such as chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.. Also the plant apex of faba bean, about 5–10 cm long, obtained from the green pruning, are used as greens (so-called cime di fava like spinach leaves. Moreover, crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forssk., a root parasite plant that produces devastating effects on many crops (mostly legumes, is used like asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. to prepare several traditional dishes. In this study ethnobotanical surveys and quality assessment of these unconventional vegetables were performed. For their content of fiber, offshoots of globe artichokes can be considered a useful food to bowel. Summer squash greens could be recommended as a vegetable to use especially in the case of hypoglycemic diets considering both content and composition of their carbohydrates. For their low content of nitrate, faba greens could be recommended as a substitute of nitrate-rich leafy vegetables. Crenate broomrape shows a high antioxidant activity and may be considered as a very nutritious agri-food product. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that offshoots of globe artichoke, summer squash greens, faba greens and crenate broomrape have good

  3. Global changes in dryland vegetation dynamics (1988–2008 assessed by satellite remote sensing: comparing a new passive microwave vegetation density record with reflective greenness data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Andela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drylands, covering nearly 30% of the global land surface, are characterized by high climate variability and sensitivity to land management. Here, two satellite-observed vegetation products were used to study the long-term (1988–2008 vegetation changes of global drylands: the widely used reflective-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the recently developed passive-microwave-based Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD. The NDVI is sensitive to the chlorophyll concentrations in the canopy and the canopy cover fraction, while the VOD is sensitive to vegetation water content of both leafy and woody components. Therefore it can be expected that using both products helps to better characterize vegetation dynamics, particularly over regions with mixed herbaceous and woody vegetation. Linear regression analysis was performed between antecedent precipitation and observed NDVI and VOD independently to distinguish the contribution of climatic and non-climatic drivers in vegetation variations. Where possible, the contributions of fire, grazing, agriculture and CO2 level to vegetation trends were assessed. The results suggest that NDVI is more sensitive to fluctuations in herbaceous vegetation, which primarily uses shallow soil water, whereas VOD is more sensitive to woody vegetation, which additionally can exploit deeper water stores. Globally, evidence is found for woody encroachment over drylands. In the arid drylands, woody encroachment appears to be at the expense of herbaceous vegetation and a global driver is interpreted. Trends in semi-arid drylands vary widely between regions, suggesting that local rather than global drivers caused most of the vegetation response. In savannas, besides precipitation, fire regime plays an important role in shaping trends. Our results demonstrate that NDVI and VOD provide complementary information and allow new insights into dryland vegetation dynamics.

  4. The Energy Impact in Buildings of Vegetative Solutions for Extensive Green Roofs in Temperate Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Barozzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many bibliographical studies have highlighted the positive effects of green roofs as technological solutions both for new and renovated buildings. The one-year experimental monitoring campaign conducted has investigated, in detail, some aspects related to the surface temperature variation induced by the presence of different types of vegetation compared to traditional finishing systems for flat roofs and their impact from an energy and environmental point of view. The results obtained underlined how an appropriate vegetative solution selection can contribute to a significant reduction of the external surface temperatures (10 °C–20 °C for I > 500 W/m2 and 0 °C–5 °C for I < 500 W/m2, regardless of the season compared to traditional flat roofs. During the winter season, the thermal gradients of the planted surface temperatures are close to zero compared to the floor, except under special improving conditions. This entails a significant reduction of the energy loads from summer air conditioning, and an almost conservative behavior with respect to that from winter heating consumption. The analysis of the inside growing medium temperatures returned a further interesting datum, too: the temperature gradient with respect to surface temperature (annual average 4 °C–9 °C is a function of solar radiation and involves the insulating contribution of the soil.

  5. Impacts of updated green vegetation fraction data on WRF simulations of the 2006 European heat wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refslund, J.; Dellwik, E.; Hahmann, A. N.; Barlage, M. J.; Boegh, E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change studies suggest an increase in heat wave occurrences over Europe in the coming decades. Extreme events with excessive heat and associated drought will impact vegetation growth and health and lead to alterations in the partitioning of the surface energy. In this study, the atmospheric conditions during the heat wave year 2006 over Europe were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To account for the drought effects on the vegetation, new high-resolution green vegetation fraction (GVF) data were developed for the domain using NDVI data from MODIS satellite observations. Many empirical relationships exist to convert NDVI to GVF and both a linear and a quadratic formulation were evaluated. The new GVF product has a spatial resolution of 1 km2 and a temporal resolution of 8 days. To minimize impacts from low-quality satellite retrievals in the NDVI series, as well as for comparison with the default GVF climatology in WRF, a new background climatology using 10 recent years of observations was also developed. The annual time series of the new GVF climatology was compared to the default WRF GVF climatology at 18 km2 grid resolution for the most common land use classes in the European domain. The new climatology generally has higher GVF levels throughout the year, in particular an extended autumnal growth season. Comparison of 2006 GVF with the climatology clearly indicates vegetation stresses related to heat and drought. The GVF product based on a quadratic NDVI relationship shows the best agreement with the magnitude and annual range of the default input data, in addition to including updated seasonality for various land use classes. The new GVF products were tested in WRF and found to work well for the spring of 2006 where the difference between the default and new GVF products was small. The WRF 2006 heat wave simulations were verified by comparison with daily gridded observations of mean, minimum and maximum temperature and

  6. Green tea extract does not affect exogenous glucose appearance but reduces insulinemia with glucose ingestion in exercise recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian J; McGlory, Chris; MacInnis, Martin J; Allison, Mary K; Phillips, Stuart M; Gibala, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise, but via an unknown mechanism (Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Gillen JB, Skelly LE, Gibala MJ. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41: 1057-1063, 2016. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics on ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21 ± 2 yr old; body mass index = 23 ± 4 kg/m 2 , peak O 2 uptake = 38 ± 7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; means ± SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7 days in a double-blind, crossover design. In the fasted state, a primed constant infusion of [U- 13 C 6 ]glucose was started, and 1 h later, subjects performed a graded exercise test (25 W/3 min) on a cycle ergometer. Immediately postexercise, subjects ingested a 75-g glucose beverage containing 2 g of [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, and blood samples were collected every 10 min for 3 h of recovery. The rate of carbohydrate oxidation was lower during exercise after GTE vs. PLA (1.26 ± 0.34 vs. 1.48 ± 0.51 g/min, P = 0.04). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was not different between treatments after drink ingestion (GTE = 1,067 ± 133 vs. PLA = 1,052 ± 91 mM/180 min, P = 0.91). Insulin AUC was lower after GTE vs. PLA (5,673 ± 2,153 vs. 7,039 ± 2,588 µIU/180 min, P = 0.05), despite similar rates of glucose appearance (GTE = 0.42 ± 0.16 vs. PLA = 0.43 ± 0.13 g/min, P = 0.74) and disappearance (GTE = 0.43 ± 0.14 vs. PLA = 0.44 ± 0.14 g/min, P = 0.57). We conclude that short-term GTE supplementation did not affect glucose kinetics following ingestion of an oral glucose load postexercise; however, GTE was associated with attenuated insulinemia. These findings suggest GTE lowers the insulin required for a given glucose load during postexercise recovery, which warrants further mechanistic studies in humans. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Development of satellite green vegetation fraction time series for use in mesoscale modeling: application to the European heat wave 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for development of satellite green vegetation fraction (GVF) time series for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF data is in the WRF model used to describe the temporal evolution of many land surface parameters, in addition to the evolution of veg...

  8. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented.

  9. How Can Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Both Be Changed? Testing Two Interventions to Promote Consumption of Green Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, Simone; Avishai, Aya; Perugini, Marco; Richetin, Juliette; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-08-01

    Although correlational studies have demonstrated that implicit and explicit attitudes are both important in predicting eating behavior, few studies targeting food choice have attempted to change both types of attitudes. We tested the impact of (a) an evaluative learning intervention that uses the self to change attitudes (i.e., a Self-Referencing task) and (b) a persuasive communication in modifying implicit and explicit attitudes towards green vegetables and promoting readiness to change. The study targeted individuals who explicitly reported they did not like or only moderately liked green vegetables. Participants (N = 273) were randomly allocated to a 2 (self-referencing: present vs. absent) × 2 (persuasive message: present vs. absent) factorial design. The outcomes were implicit and explicit attitudes as well as readiness to increase consumption of green vegetables. Implicit attitudes increased after repeatedly pairing green vegetable stimuli with the self in the self-referencing task but did not change in response to the persuasive communication. The persuasive message increased explicit attitudes and readiness to change, but did not alter implicit attitudes. A three-way interaction with pre-existing explicit attitudes was also observed. In the absence of a persuasive message, the self-referencing task increased on readiness to change among participants with more negative pre-existing explicit attitudes. This study is the first to demonstrate that a self-referencing task is effective in changing both implicit attitudes and readiness to change eating behavior. Findings indicate that distinct intervention strategies are needed to change implicit and explicit attitudes towards green vegetables.

  10. The dual effect of vegetation green-up date and strong wind on the return period of spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jieling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model. We found that the joint return period showed better fitting results than without considering the integrated factor when the actual dust storm return period is longer than 2years. Also, for extremely severe dust storm events, the gap between simulation result and actual return period can be narrowed up to 0.4888years by using integrated factor. Furthermore, the risk map based on the return period results shows that the Mandula, Zhurihe, Sunitezuoqi, Narenbaolige stations are identified as high risk areas. In this study area, land surface is extensively covered by grasses and shrubs, vegetation green-up date can play a significant role in restraining spring dust storm outbreaks. Therefore, we suggest that Copula method can become a useful tool for joint return period evaluation and risk analysis of severe dust storms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting Opportunities for Greening and Patterns of Vegetation on Private Urban Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Austin R.; Grove, J. Morgan; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Pickett, Steward T. A.; Cadenasso, Mary L.

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines predictors of vegetative cover on private lands in Baltimore, Maryland. Using high-resolution spatial data, we generated two measures: “possible stewardship,” which is the proportion of private land that does not have built structures on it and hence has the possibility of supporting vegetation, and “realized stewardship,” which is the proportion of possible stewardship land upon which vegetation is growing. These measures were calculated at the parcel level and averaged by US Census block group. Realized stewardship was further defined by proportion of tree canopy and grass. Expenditures on yard supplies and services, available by block group, were used to help understand where vegetation condition appears to be the result of current activity, past legacies, or abandonment. PRIZM™ market segmentation data were tested as categorical predictors of possible and realized stewardship and yard expenditures. PRIZM™ segmentations are hierarchically clustered into 5, 15, and 62 categories, which correspond to population density, social stratification (income and education), and lifestyle clusters, respectively. We found that PRIZM 15 best predicted variation in possible stewardship and PRIZM 62 best predicted variation in realized stewardship. These results were further analyzed by regressing each dependent variable against a set of continuous variables reflective of each of the three PRIZM groupings. Housing age, vacancy, and population density were found to be critical determinants of both stewardship metrics. A number of lifestyle factors, such as average family size, marriage rates, and percentage of single-family detached homes, were strongly related to realized stewardship. The percentage of African Americans by block group was positively related to realized stewardship but negatively related to yard expenditures.

  12. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-07-01

    Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of heat-related mortality in an elderly urban population by

  13. EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN EATABLE VEGETABLES – A PROPOSAL FOR PRACTICAL CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S Paiva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The  carotenoids  are  natural  colored  pigments  varying  from  yellow  to  red.  They  are  divided  in  carotenes,  as  β-carotene  and lycopene, and their oxygenated derivatives, the xanthophylls, as astaxanthin present in shellfishes.  β-carotenes are precursors of vitamin A being an important anti-oxidant molecule. Both β-carotene and lycopene, have been  used  in  the  cancer  inhibition.  In  the  present  work,  we  detected  the  presence  of  carotenoids  using  thin  layer chromatography (TLC for the separation of the pigments of green eatable vegetables, aiming the application of those methods  in  the  practical  classes  of  the  Biological  Science  Course  of  UFPE.  Spinacia  oleracea  (spinach,  Brassica oleracea (cabbage and Lactuca sativa (lettuce were macerated with washed send in the presence of sodium sulfate followed by the addition of 25 ml of hexane until total homogeneity. The extracts were filtrated, washed with 10 ml of hexane, concentrated in vacuum  evaporator  and resuspended in hexane. The  hexanic extract was applied  on silica gel  G  plates  activated  at  120°C  for  30  min.  The  chromatogram  was  developed  in  hexane-benzene-pyridine  system (40:5:5.  All  the  used  solvents  were  from  analytical  grade,  β-carotene  (C40H56  and  astaxanthin  (C40H52O4  from Sigma  St.  Louis  – USA  were  used  as  standards.  Meanwhile,  the  lycopene  was  identified  by  a  comparison  with  the same compound present in a tomato extract. The results demonstrated that β-carotene has a higher concentration in the  spinach  and  cabbage  than  in  the  lettuce.  However,  lettuce  presented  more  lycopene  than  the  others  two vegetables. Astaxanthin was not detected in all studied vegetables. In conclusion, green eatable vegetables could be a  good  source  of

  14. Spatially dependent biotic and abiotic factors drive survivorship and physical structure of green roof vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Jason M; Palmer, Matthew I; Giampieri, Mario A; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2017-01-01

    Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C 4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C 3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m 2 plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA). Of 24 000 installed plants, 40% survived 23 months after planting. Within-roof factors explained 71% of variation in survivorship, with biotic (species identity and assemblage) factors accounting for 54% of the overall variation, and abiotic (growing medium depth and plot location) factors explaining 17% of the variation. Among-roof factors explained 29% of variation in survivorship and increased solar radiation correlated with decreased survivorship. While growing medium properties (pH, nutrients, metals) differed among roofs there was no correlation with survivorship. Percent cover and sward height increased with increasing survivorship. At low survivorship, cover of the HP assemblage was greater compared to the RS assemblage. Sward height of the HP assemblage was about two times greater compared to the RS assemblage. These results highlight the effects of local biotic and regional abiotic drivers on community composition and physical structure of green roof vegetation. As a result, initial green roof plant

  15. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  16. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  17. The Impact of Soil Reflectance on the Quantification of the Green Vegetation Fraction from NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, L. M.; Small, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    The green vegetation fraction (Fg) is an important climate and hydrologic model parameter. A common method to calculate Fg is to create a simple linear mixing rnodeP between two NDVI endmembers: bare soil NDVI (NDVI(sub o)) and full vegetation NDVI (NDVI(sub infinity)). Usually it is assumed that NDVI(sub o), is close to zero (NDVI(sub o) approx.-0.05) and is generally chosen from the lowest observed NDVI values. However, the mean soil NDVI computed from 2906 samples is much larger (NDVI=0.2) and is highly variable (standard deviation=O. 1). We show that the underestimation of NDVI(sub o) yields overestimations of Fg. The largest errors occur in grassland and shrubland areas. Using parameters for NDVI(sub o) and NDVI(sub infinity) derived from global scenes yields overestimations of Fg ((Delta) Fg*) that are larger than 0.2 for the majority of U.S. land cover types when pixel NDVI values are 0.2NDVI(sub pixel)NDVI values. When using conterminous U.S. scenes to derive NDV(sub o) and NDVI(sub infinity), the overestimation is less (0.10-0.17 for 0.2NDVI(sub pixel)NDVI cycle. We propose using global databases of NDVI(sub o) along with information on historical NDVI(sub pixel) values to compute a statistically most-likely estimate of Fg (Fg*). Using in situ measurements made at the Sevilleta LTER, we show that this approach yields better estimates of Fg than using global invariant NDVI(sub o) values estimated from whole scenes (Figure 2). At the two studied sites, the Fg estimate was adjusted by 52% at the grassland and 86% at the shrubland. More significant advances will require information on spatial distribution of soil reflectance.

  18. [The variability of vegetation beginning date of greenness period in spring in the north-south transect of eastern China based on NOAA NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Liu, Shi-rong; Sun, Peng-sen; Guo, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Lian-di

    2010-10-01

    NDVI based on NOAA/AVHRR from 1982 to 2003 are used to monitor variable rules for the growing season in spring of vegetation in the north-south transect of eastern China (NSTEC). The following, mainly, are included: (1) The changing speed of greenness period in spring of most regions in NSTEC is slow and correlation with the year is not distinct; (2) The regions in which greenness period in spring distinctly change mainly presented an advance; (3) The regions in which inter-annual fluctuation of greenness period in spring is over 10 days were found in 3 kinds of areas: the area covered with agricultural vegetation types; the areas covered with evergreen vegetation types; the areas covered with steppe vegetation types; (4) changes of vegetation greenness period in spring have spatio-temporal patterns.

  19. Inhibitory effect of sour pomegranate sauces on some green vegetables and kisir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiyikli, Seniz; Kisla, Duygu

    2012-04-16

    In this study, the antimicrobial effects of both traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples on some green vegetables and also on "kısır" which is a popular and traditional appetizer in Turkey were investigated. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate products on the naturally existing bacterial microflora of lettuce, spring onion, parsley and kısır were analyzed. Also, all these food samples were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC-43895) and antimicrobial effect of the pomegranate products on the inoculated microflora was detected. All the food samples were treated with pomegranate products for different time periods and the effect of treatment time was investigated. pH and titratable acidity values of the traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples were detected. The results showed that although the pomegranate products had an antimicrobial effect on the natural bacterial microflora of the food samples, the effect on inoculated food samples was more prominent and additionally the application time was found to be a crucial parameter for both cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of Vegetation and Mulch in Mitigating the Effects of Raindrop Impact on Runoff and Infiltration from Urban Vegetated Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehtazi, B.; Montalto, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Rain drop impact causes soil crust formation which, in turn, reduces infiltration rates and increases runoff, contributing to soil erosion, downstream flooding and non point source pollutant loads. Unprotected soil surfaces (e.g. without vegetation canopies, mulch, or other materials), are more susceptible to crust formation due to the higher kinetic energy associated with raindrop impact. This impulse breaks larger soil aggregates into smaller particles and disperses soil from its original position. The displaced soil particles self-stratify, with finer particles at the top forming the crust. By contrast, soil that is protected by vegetation canopies and mulch layers is less susceptible to crust formation, since these surfaces intercept raindrops, dissipating some of their kinetic energy prior to their impact with the soil. Very little research has sought to quantify the effect that canopies and mulch can have on this phenomenon. This presentation presents preliminary findings from ongoing study conducted using rainfall simulator to determine the ability of new urban vegetation and mulch to minimize soil crust formation. Three different scenarios are compared: a) bare soil, b) soil with mulch cover, and c) soil protected by vegetation canopies. Soil moisture, surface penetration resistance, and physical measurements of the volume of infiltrate and runoff are made on all three surface treatments after simulated rainfall events. The results are used to discuss green infrastructure facility maintenance and design strategies, namely whether heavily vegetated GI facilities require mulching to maintain infiltration capacity.

  1. Determination of Vitamin C, b-carotene and Riboflavin Contents in Five Green Vegetables Organically and Conventionally Grown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amin; Cheah, Sook Fun

    2003-03-01

    As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse β-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kai-lan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research.

  2. Potential effects of elevated base flow and midsummer spike flow experiments on riparian vegetation along the Green River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program has requested experimental flow releases from Flaming Gorge Dam for (1) elevated summer base flows to promote larval endangered Colorado pikeminnow, and (2) midsummer spike flows to disadvantage spawning invasive smallmouth bass. This white paper explores the effects of these proposed flow modifications on riparian vegetation and sediment deposition downstream along the Green River. Although modest in magnitude, the elevated base flows and possible associated reductions in magnitude or duration of peak flows would exacerbate a long-term trend of flow stabilization on the Green River that is already leading to proliferation of vegetation including invasive tamarisk along the channel and associated sediment deposition, channel narrowing and channel simplification. Midsummer spike flows could promote establishment of late-flowering plants like tamarisk. Because channel narrowing and simplification threaten persistence and quality of backwater and side channel features needed by endangered fish, the proposed flow modifications could lead to degradation of fish habitat. Channel narrowing and vegetation encroachment could be countered by increases in peak flows or reductions in base flows in some years and by prescription of rapid flow declines following midsummer spike flows. These strategies for reducing vegetation encroachment would need to be balanced with flow

  3. Retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids in green leafy vegetables: effect of different Indian culinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeenivasa J Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV is pigment-rich and nutritionally relevant functional food sources with unique phytochemical constituents that include carotenoids which are precursors for vitamin A and protect cells from oxidation and cellular damage. Cooking processes and other factors such as temperature, light and alteration in moisture content generally promote either isomerization (trans to cis form or oxidative degradation of carotenoids to epoxides. Rationale: Studies pertaining to the effect of cooking methods on dietary carotenoids bio accessibility and their retention percent are scarce, particularly in an Indian Diasporas. Objective: Present study was to determine the carotenoids retention based bio accessibility in GLV such as amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii, when subjected to domestic cooking methods of microwave cooking, sautéing, pressure cooking, steaming and deep frying in oil, for a time duration of 8 and 12 minutes, either with lid closed or open. Method: The retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids were quantified by rapid separation liquid chromatography (RSLC using RP-C-18 column (150mm×4.6µ with 70% acetonitrile, 20% dichlomethane and 10% methanol for 20 minutes at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Results: The maximum retention based bio accessibility of total carotenoids and β-carotene were observed with micro wave cooking, steaming and sautéing methods. (Spinach: 57.88% and 55.92%, Amaranth: 56.15% and 57.49%, Curry leaves: 50.55% and 52.66% respectively. Conclusion: The reduction in the contents of carotenes in GLVs in correlation to various cooking methods are discussed which would be valuable for food researchers, nutritionists as well as health practitioners and dietitians, in developing and promoting nutritionally balanced diets and minimize vitamin A deficiency in Indian context.

  4. Retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids in green leafy vegetables: effect of different Indian culinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeenivasa J Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV is pigment-rich and nutritionally relevant functional food sources with unique phytochemical constituents that include carotenoids which are precursors for vitamin A and protect cells from oxidation and cellular damage. Cooking processes and other factors such as temperature, light and alteration in moisture content generally promote either isomerization (trans to cis form or oxidative degradation of carotenoids to epoxides. Rationale: Studies pertaining to the effect of cooking methods on dietary carotenoids bio accessibility and their retention percent are scarce, particularly in an Indian Diasporas. Objective: Present study was to determine the carotenoids retention based bio accessibility in GLV such as amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii, when subjected to domestic cooking methods of microwave cooking, sautéing, pressure cooking, steaming and deep frying in oil, for a time duration of 8 and 12 minutes, either with lid closed or open. Method: The retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids were quantified by rapid separation liquid chromatography (RSLC using RP-C-18 column (150mm×4.6µ with 70% acetonitrile, 20% dichlomethane and 10% methanol for 20 minutes at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Results: The maximum retention based bio accessibility of total carotenoids and β-carotene were observed with micro wave cooking, steaming and sautéing methods. (Spinach: 57.88% and 55.92%, Amaranth: 56.15% and 57.49%, Curry leaves: 50.55% and 52.66% respectively. Conclusion: The reduction in the contents of carotenes in GLVs in correlation to various cooking methods are discussed which would be valuable for food researchers, nutritionists as well as health practitioners and dietitians, in developing and promoting nutritionally balanced diets and minimize vitamin A deficiency in Indian context.

  5. New Triterpenoid Saponins from Green Vegetable Soya Beans and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiuhua; Deng, Kejun; Zhao, Jianping; Chen, Yiyi; Xin, Xuhui; Liu, Yanli; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Shilin; Wang, Taoyun; Xu, Qiongming

    2017-12-20

    Ten compounds were isolated and identified from green vegetable soya beans, of which five are new triterpenoid saponins (1-5) and five are known compounds (6-10). The chemical structures of the five triterpenoid saponins (1-5) were elucidated to be 3β,24-dihydroxy-22β,30-epoxy-30-oxoolean-12-en 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 1; 3β,24-dihydroxy-22β,30-epoxy-30-oxoolean-12-en 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-(3″-O-formyl)-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 2; 22-keto-3β,24-dihydroxy oleanane-12-ene 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-(3″-O-formyl)-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 3; 3β,22β,24-trihydroxy oxyolean-18(19)-ene-29-acid 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 4; and punicanolic acid 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 5 from the spectroscopic data (IR, GTC/FID, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The nitric oxide release inhibitions of compounds 1-10 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were evaluated, and the data suggested that compounds 1, 2, and 5 might possess moderate anti-inflammatory activities, with IC 50 values of 18.8, 16.1, and 13.2 μM, respectively.

  6. Assessing onset and length of greening period in six vegetation types in Oaxaca, Mexico, using NDVI-precipitation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mendoza, L; Galicia, L; Cuevas-Fernández, M L; Magaña, V; Gómez, G; Palacio-Prieto, J L

    2008-07-01

    Variations in the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) for the state of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, were analyzed in terms of precipitation anomalies for the period 1997-2003. Using 10-day averages in NDVI data, obtained from AVHRR satellite information, the response of six types of vegetation to intra-annual and inter-annual fluctuations in precipitation were examined. The onset and temporal evolution of the greening period were studied in terms of precipitation variations through spectral analysis (coherence and phase). The results indicate that extremely dry periods, such as those observed in 1997 and 2001, resulted in low values of NDVI for much of Oaxaca, while good precipitation periods produced a rapid response (20-30 days of delay) from a stressed to a non-stressed condition in most vegetation types. One of these rapid changes occurred during the transition from dry to wet conditions during the summer of 1998. As in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, the NDVI reflects low frequency variations in precipitation on several spatial scales. Even after long dry periods (2001-2002), the various regional vegetation types are capable of recovering when a good rainy season takes place, indicating that vegetation types such as the evergreen forests in the high parts of Oaxaca respond better to rainfall characteristics (timing, amount) than to temperature changes, as is the case in most mid-latitudes. This finding may be relevant to prepare climate change scenarios for forests, where increases in surface temperature and precipitation anomalies are expected.

  7. Vegetation greenness and land carbon-flux anomalies associated with climate variations: a focus on the year 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variations in global land carbon uptake, and their driving mechanisms, is essential if we are to predict future carbon-cycle feedbacks on global environmental changes. Satellite observations of vegetation greenness have shown consistent greening across the globe over the past three decades. Such greening has driven the increasing land carbon sink, especially over the growing season in northern latitudes. On the other hand, interannual variations in land carbon uptake are strongly influenced by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO climate variations. Marked reductions in land uptake and strong positive anomalies in the atmospheric CO2 growth rates occur during El Niño events. Here we use the year 2015 as a natural experiment to examine the possible response of land ecosystems to a combination of vegetation greening and an El Niño event. The year 2015 was the greenest year since 2000 according to satellite observations, but a record atmospheric CO2 growth rate also occurred due to a weaker than usual land carbon sink. Two atmospheric inversions indicate that the year 2015 had a higher than usual northern land carbon uptake in boreal spring and summer, consistent with the positive greening anomaly and strong warming. This strong uptake was, however, followed by a larger source of CO2 in the autumn. For the year 2015, enhanced autumn carbon release clearly offset the extra uptake associated with greening during the summer. This finding leads us to speculate that a long-term greening trend may foster more uptakes during the growing season, but no large increase in annual carbon sequestration. For the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, a strong transition towards a large carbon source for the last 3 months of 2015 is discovered, concomitant with El Niño development. This transition of terrestrial tropical CO2 fluxes between two consecutive seasons is the largest ever found in the inversion records. The strong transition to a

  8. Vegetation greenness and land carbon-flux anomalies associated with climate variations: a focus on the year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chao; Ciais, Philippe; Bastos, Ana; Chevallier, Frederic; Yin, Yi; Rödenbeck, Christian; Park, Taejin

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the variations in global land carbon uptake, and their driving mechanisms, is essential if we are to predict future carbon-cycle feedbacks on global environmental changes. Satellite observations of vegetation greenness have shown consistent greening across the globe over the past three decades. Such greening has driven the increasing land carbon sink, especially over the growing season in northern latitudes. On the other hand, interannual variations in land carbon uptake are strongly influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate variations. Marked reductions in land uptake and strong positive anomalies in the atmospheric CO2 growth rates occur during El Niño events. Here we use the year 2015 as a natural experiment to examine the possible response of land ecosystems to a combination of vegetation greening and an El Niño event. The year 2015 was the greenest year since 2000 according to satellite observations, but a record atmospheric CO2 growth rate also occurred due to a weaker than usual land carbon sink. Two atmospheric inversions indicate that the year 2015 had a higher than usual northern land carbon uptake in boreal spring and summer, consistent with the positive greening anomaly and strong warming. This strong uptake was, however, followed by a larger source of CO2 in the autumn. For the year 2015, enhanced autumn carbon release clearly offset the extra uptake associated with greening during the summer. This finding leads us to speculate that a long-term greening trend may foster more uptakes during the growing season, but no large increase in annual carbon sequestration. For the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, a strong transition towards a large carbon source for the last 3 months of 2015 is discovered, concomitant with El Niño development. This transition of terrestrial tropical CO2 fluxes between two consecutive seasons is the largest ever found in the inversion records. The strong transition to a carbon source in the

  9. Harmonised investigation of the occurrence of human enteric viruses in the leafy green vegetable supply chain in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, P; Kozyra, I; Lazic, S; Bouwknegt, M; Rutjes, S; Willems, K; Moloney, R; de Roda Husman, A M; Kaupke, A; Legaki, E; D'Agostino, M; Cook, N; Rzeżutka, A; Petrovic, T; Vantarakis, A

    2012-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks have been attributed to the consumption of raw or minimally processed leafy green vegetables contaminated with enteric viral pathogens. The aim of the present study was an integrated virological monitoring of the salad vegetables supply chain in Europe, from production, processing and point-of-sale. Samples were collected and analysed in Greece, Serbia and Poland, from 'general' and 'ad hoc' sampling points, which were perceived as critical points for virus contamination. General sampling points were identified through the analysis of background information questionnaires based on HACCP audit principles, and they were sampled during each sampling occasion where as-ad hoc sampling points were identified during food safety fact-finding visits and samples were only collected during the fact-finding visits. Human (hAdV) and porcine (pAdV) adenovirus, hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) virus, norovirus GI and GII (NoV) and bovine polyomavirus (bPyV) were detected by means of real-time (RT-) PCR-based protocols. General samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, HAV, HEV, NoV GI, NoV GII and bPyV at 20.09 % (134/667), 5.53 % (13/235), 1.32 % (4/304), 3.42 % (5/146), 2 % (6/299), 2.95 % (8/271) and 0.82 % (2/245), respectively. Ad hoc samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, bPyV and NoV GI at 9 % (3/33), 9 % (2/22), 4.54 % (1/22) and 7.14 % (1/14), respectively. These results demonstrate the existence of viral contamination routes from human and animal sources to the salad vegetable supply chain and more specifically indicate the potential for public health risks due to the virus contamination of leafy green vegetables at primary production.

  10. The greening of the McGill Paleoclimate Model. Part I: Improved land surface scheme with vegetation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Mysak, Lawrence A.; Wang, Zhaomin [McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre (GEC3), Montreal, QC (Canada); Brovkin, Victor [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The formulation of a new land surface scheme (LSS) with vegetation dynamics for coupling to the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM) is presented. This LSS has the following notable improvements over the old version: (1) parameterization of deciduous and evergreen trees by using the model's climatology and the output of the dynamic global vegetation model, VECODE (Brovkin et al. in Ecological Modelling 101:251-261 (1997), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):1139, (2002)); (2) parameterization of tree leaf budburst and leaf drop by using the model's climatology; (3) parameterization of the seasonal cycle of the grass leaf area index; (4) parameterization of the seasonal cycle of tree leaf area index by using the time-dependent growth of the leaves; (5) calculation of land surface albedo by using vegetation-related parameters, snow depth and the model's climatology. The results show considerable improvement of the model's simulation of the present-day climate as compared with that simulated in the original physically-based MPM. In particular, the strong seasonality of terrestrial vegetation and the associated land surface albedo variations are in good agreement with several satellite observations of these quantities. The application of this new version of the MPM (the ''green'' MPM) to Holocene millennial-scale climate changes is described in a companion paper, Part II. (orig.)

  11. Association analysis between spatiotemporal variation of vegetation greenness and precipitation/temperature in the Yangtze River Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifang; Wang, Lunche; Singh, Ramesh P; Lai, Zhongping; Jiang, Liangliang; Yao, Rui

    2018-05-23

    The variation in vegetation greenness provides good understanding of the sustainable management and monitoring of land surface ecosystems. The present paper discusses the spatial-temporal changes in vegetation and controlling factors in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) using Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 2001-2013. Theil-Sen Median trend analysis, Pearson correlation coefficients, and residual analysis have been used, which shows decreasing trend of the annual mean NDVI over the whole YRB. Spatially, the regions with significant decreasing trends were mainly located in parts of central YRB, and pronounced increasing trends were observed in parts of the eastern and western YRB. The mean NDVI during spring and summer seasons increased, while it decreased during autumn and winter seasons. The seasonal mean NDVI shows spatial heterogeneity due to the vegetation types. The correlation analysis shows a positive relation between NDVI and temperature over most of the YRB, whereas NDVI and precipitation show a negative correlation. The residual analysis shows an increase in NDVI in parts of eastern and western YRB and the decrease in NDVI in the small part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the mid-western YRB due to human activities. In general, climate factors were the principal drivers of NDVI variation in YRB in recent years.

  12. Causes of spring vegetation greenness trends in the northern mid-high latitudes from 1982 to 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jiafu [ORNL; Shi, Xiaoying [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Shilong, Dr. Piao [Peking University; Xuhui, Dr. Wang [Peking University

    2012-01-01

    The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) is applied to explore the spatial temporal patterns of spring (April May) vegetation growth trends over the northern mid high latitudes (NMH) (>25 N) between 1982 and 2004. During the spring season through the 23 yr period, both the satellite-derived and simulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomalies show a statistically significant correlation and an overall greening trend within the study area. Consistently with the observed NDVI temperature relation, the CLM4 NDVI shows a significant positive association with the spring temperature anomaly for the NMH, North America and Eurasia. Large study areas experience temperature discontinuity associated with contrasting NDVI trends. Before and after the turning point (TP) of the temperature trends, climatic variability plays a dominant role, while the other environmental factors exert minor effects on the NDVI tendencies. Simulated vegetation growth is broadly stimulated by the increasing atmospheric CO2. Trends show that nitrogen deposition increases NDVI mostly in southeastern China, and decreases NDVI mainly in western Russia after the temperature TP. Furthermore, land use-induced NDVI trends vary roughly with the respective changes in land management practices (crop areas and forest coverage). Our results highlight how non-climatic factors mitigate or exacerbate the impact of temperature on spring vegetation growth, particularly across regions with intensive human activity.

  13. Modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Using Green Solvent for Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Vegetable Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kin, C.M.; Shing, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), most of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) known as genotoxic human carcinogen and mutagenic. PAHs represent as poorly degradable pollutants that exist in soils, sediments, surface water and atmosphere. A simple, rapid and sensitive extraction method termed modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro extraction (DLLME) using green solvent was developed to determine PAHs in vegetable samples namely radish, cabbage and cucumber prior to Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID). The extraction method is based on replacing chlorinated organic extraction solvent in the conventional DLLME with low toxic solvent, 1-bromo-3-methylbutane without using dispersive solvent. Several experimental factors such as type and volume of extraction solvents, extraction time, confirmation of 12 PAHs by GC-MS, recovery percentages on vegetable samples and the comparative analysis with conventional DLLME were carried out. Both DLLME were successfully extracted 12 types of PAHs. In modified DLLME, the recoveries of the analytes obtained were in a range of 72.72 - 88.07 % with RSD value below 7.5 % which is comparable to the conventional DLLME. The use of microliter of low toxic extraction solvent without addition of dispersive solvent caused the method is economic and environmental friendly which is fulfill the current requirement, green chemistry based analytical method. (author)

  14. Use of Vegetable Waste Extracts for Controlling Microstructure of CuO Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical syntheses involve either hazardous reactants or byproducts which adversely affect the environment. It is, therefore, desirable to develop synthesis processes which either do not involve hazardous reactants or consume all the reactants giving no byproducts. We have synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs adhering to some of the principles of green chemistry. The CuO NPs have been synthesized exploiting extracts of vegetable wastes, that is, Cauliflower waste and Potatoes and Peas peels. The extracts were aimed to work as capping agents to get control over the microstructure and morphology of the resulting CuO NPs. The green synthesized CuO NPs were characterized to explore the microstructure, morphology, optical bandgaps, and photocatalytic performances. XRD revealed that the CuO NPs of all the samples crystallized in a single crystal system, that is, monoclinic. However, the morphologies and the optical bandgaps energies varied as a function of the extract of vegetable waste. Similarly, the CuO NPs obtained through different extracts have shown different photocatalytic activities. The CuO NPs produced with extract of Cauliflower have shown high degradation of MB (96.28% compared to obtained with Potatoes peels (87.37% and Peas peels (79.11%.

  15. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Original title: Tussen groen en grijs Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their

  16. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  17. Do vegetated rooftops attract more mosquitoes? Monitoring disease vector abundance on urban green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gwendolyn K L; Jim, C Y

    2016-12-15

    Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting. Seven sites in a university campus were selected to represent three experimental treatments: green roofs (GR), ground-level blue-green spaces as positive controls (PC), and bare roofs as negative controls (NC). Mosquito-trapping devices were deployed for a year from March 2015 to 2016. Human-biting mosquito species known to transmit infectious diseases in the region were identified and recorded as target species. Generalized linear models evaluated the effects of site type, season, and weather on vector-mosquito abundance. Our model revealed site type as a significant predictor of vector mosquito abundance, with considerably more vector mosquitoes captured in PC than in GR and NC. Vector abundance was higher in NC than in GR, attributed to the occasional presence of water pools in depressions of roofing membrane after rainfall. Our data also demonstrated seasonal differences in abundance. Weather variables were evaluated to assess human-vector contact risks under different weather conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus, a competent vector of diseases including lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever, could be the most adaptable species. Our analysis demonstrates that green roofs are not particularly preferred by local vector mosquitoes compared to bare roofs and other urban spaces in a humid subtropical setting. The findings call for a better understanding of vector ecology in diverse urban landscapes

  18. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  19. Microbiological survey of raw and ready-to-eat leafy green vegetables marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losio, M N; Pavoni, E; Bilei, S; Bertasi, B; Bove, D; Capuano, F; Farneti, S; Blasi, G; Comin, D; Cardamone, C; Decastelli, L; Delibato, E; De Santis, P; Di Pasquale, S; Gattuso, A; Goffredo, E; Fadda, A; Pisanu, M; De Medici, D

    2015-10-01

    The presence of foodborne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Yersinia enterocolitica and norovirus) in fresh leafy (FL) and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable products, sampled at random on the Italian market, was investigated to evaluate the level of risk to consumers. Nine regional laboratories, representing 18 of the 20 regions of Italy and in which 97.7% of the country's population resides, were involved in this study. All laboratories used the same sampling procedures and analytical methods. The vegetable samples were screened using validated real-time PCR (RT-PCR) methods and standardized reference ISO culturing methods. The results show that 3.7% of 1372 fresh leafy vegetable products and 1.8% of 1160 "fresh-cut" or "ready-to-eat" (RTE) vegetable retailed in supermarkets or farm markets, were contaminated with one or more foodborne pathogens harmful to human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phylloquinone content from wild green vegetables may contribute substantially to dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Spagner, Camilla; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Nordic eatable wild plants are now sold in local stores and available to everyone. Wild vegetables may contain large amounts of vitamin K1. Due to the concomitant therapeutic use of anticoagulants among the populations, it is important to gain knowledge about the content...... phylloquinone content of 400-600 μg vitamin K1/100 g fresh weight. The average daily intake when consuming the average Danish diet is low (64 ±20 μg/d or 72±23 μg/10 MJ/d), however, inclusion of wild vegetables as in the New Nordic Diet increases the vitamin K1 intake to 233±51 μg/d or 260±50 μg/10 MJ/d...... of vitamin K1 in these products, as well as their contribution to the diet. The objective of this study was to measure the vitamin K1 content in four wild eatable plants and to estimate how much these wild vegetables contribute to the daily dietary vitamin K1 intake. Results: The wild vegetables had a high...

  1. The long-term trends (1982-2006) in vegetation greenness of the alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Wang, Cuizhen; Ji, Lei; Li, Jing; Wang, Kun; Dai, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The increased rate of annual temperature in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau exceeded all other areas of the same latitude in recent decades. The influence of the warming climate on the alpine ecosystem of the plateau was distinct. An analysis of alpine vegetation under changes in climatic conditions was conducted in this study. This was done through an examination of vegetation greenness and its relationship with climate variability using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite imagery and climate datasets. Vegetation in the plateau experienced a positive trend in greenness, with 18.0 % of the vegetated areas exhibiting significantly positive trends, which were primarily located in the eastern and southwestern parts of the plateau. In grasslands, 25.8 % of meadows and 14.1 % of steppes exhibited significant upward trends. In contrast, the broadleaf forests experienced a trend of degradation. Temperature, particularly summer temperature, was the primary factor promoting the vegetation growth in the plateau. The wetter and warmer climate in the east contributed to the favorable conditions for vegetation. The alpine meadow was mostly sensitive to temperature, while the steppes were sensitive to both temperature and precipitation. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to vegetation growth in the alpine region, the rising temperature coupled with reduced precipitation in the south did not favor vegetation growth due to low humidity and poor soil moisture conditions.

  2. Comparison of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities of building blocks in shinseoncho and kale green vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yeong

    2012-12-01

    Shinseoncho and kale were divided into stem [shinseoncho stems (SS) and kale stems (KS)] and leaf parts [shinseoncho leaves (SL) and kale leaves (KL)] and made into green vegetable juices for analyses of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities. Higher values of total acidity were observed in SL (0.736%) and KL (0.841%) than in SS (0.417%) and KS (0.335%) (p KL (218.494 μg/mL)> KS (107.269 μg/mL)> SS (75.894 μg/mL). KL exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (84.834%) (p SL (63.473%)> KS (52.894%)> SS (35.443%). ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that SL (66.088%) and KL (38.511%) had higher scavenging activities, whereas SS (7.695%) and KS (9.609%) demonstrated to be lower activities (pgreen vegetable juices and the consumption of them may be beneficial as a nutrition source and in health protection.

  3. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green

  4. Impacts of climate change on the microbial safety of pre-harvest leafy green vegetables as indicated by Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Hofstra, N.; Franz, E.

    2013-01-01

    The likelihood of leafy green vegetable (LGV) contamination and the associated pathogen growth and survival are strongly related to climatic conditions. Particularly temperature increase and precipitation pattern changes have a close relationship not only with the fate and transport of enteric

  5. Green Infrastructure Increases Biogeochemical Responsiveness, Vegetation Growth and Decreases Runoff in a Semi-Arid City, Tucson, AZ, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, T.; Papuga, S. A.; Luketich, A. M.; Rockhill, T.; Gallo, E. L.; Anderson, J.; Salgado, L.; Pope, K.; Gupta, N.; Korgaonkar, Y.; Guertin, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Green Infrastructure (GI) is often viewed as a mechanism to minimize the effects of urbanization on hydrology, water quality, and other ecosystem services (including the urban heat island). Quantifying the effects of GI requires field measurements of the dimensions of biogeochemical, ecosystem, and hydrologic function that we expect GI to impact. Here we investigated the effect of GI features in Tucson, Arizona which has a low intensity winter precipitation regime and a high intensity summer regime. We focused on understanding the effect of GI on soil hydraulic and biogeochemical properties as well as the effect on vegetation and canopy temperature. Our results demonstrate profound changes in biogeochemical and hydrologic properties and vegetation growth between GI systems and nearby control sites. In terms of hydrologic properties GI soils had increased water holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity. GI soils also have higher total carbon, total nitrogen, and organic matter in general than control soils. Furthermore, we tested the sampled soils (control and GI) for differences in biogeochemical response upon wetting. GI soils had larger respiration responses indicating greater biogeochemical activity overall. Long-term Lidar surveys were used to investigate the differential canopy growth of GI systems versus control sites. The results of this analysis indicate that while a significant amount of time is needed to observe differences in canopy growth GI features due increase tree size and thus likely impact street scale ambient temperatures. Additionally monitoring of transpiration, soil moisture, and canopy temperature demonstrates that GI features increase vegetation growth and transpiration and reduce canopy temperatures. These biogeochemical and ecohydrologic results indicate that GI can increase the biogeochemical processing of soils and increase tree growth and thus reduce urban ambient temperatures.

  6. Recovery Time After a Late-Dry Season Fire: the Effect on Fluxes, Surface Properties and Vegetation Green-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M. V.; D'Odorico, P.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Large regions of Africa burn on an annual basis. These fires damage vegetation, change surface albedo and modify the hydrologic cycle. Quantifying the magnitude and persistence of these changes is key in understanding the complex ways in which fire affects ecosystem functioning at smaller scales and will inform ongoing modeling efforts. We report the results of a field study in a semi-arid savanna in northern Botswana during the transition from dry to wet season (Oct-Dec) in 2012 and 2013. The goals of this study were to: (1) characterize the multifaceted effect that late dry-season fires have on fluxes and radiative surface processes during green-up, and (2) describe the timescales over which these variables recover to non-burnt levels. Our study synthesizes a suite of data, including flux tower measurements, vegetation sampling, time-lapse photography and concurrent remotely sensed variables over plots with variable burn patterns. Albedo decreased immediately after fire, converging on unburned values 10 days post-burn. The magnitude and direction of this response was comparable to the albedo change elicited by strong rainfall events. Soil temperature and soil heat flux were not significantly modified by fire. Carbon fluxes showed no discernible difference from an unburned control site immediately after fire. There was a small burst in ecosystem respiration at immediately following the first post-fire rainfall event, returning to baseline values after 3 days. Persistent CO2 release, which we attribute to soil respiration, occurred for 10 days after successive strong wetting events, confirming the centrality of available moisture in determining ecosystem function. Fire delayed the green-up in some plots, but this effect was variable and short-lived. One month after fire there was no evidence of a difference in ground observations of greenness between burnt and control plots or plots that differed in their time of burning. We attribute the relatively ephemeral

  7. Pattern of NDVI-based vegetation greening along an altitudinal gradient in the eastern Himalayas and its response to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Jiang, Jiang; Chen, Bin; Li, Yingkui; Xu, Yuyue; Shen, Weishou

    2016-03-01

    The eastern Himalayas, especially the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon Nature Reserve (YNR), is a global hotspot of biodiversity because of a wide variety of climatic conditions and elevations ranging from 500 to > 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The mountain ecosystems at different elevations are vulnerable to climate change; however, there has been little research into the patterns of vegetation greening and their response to global warming. The objective of this paper is to examine the pattern of vegetation greening in different altitudinal zones in the YNR and its relationship with vegetation types and climatic factors. Specifically, the inter-annual change of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and its variation along altitudinal gradient between 1999 and 2013 was investigated using SPOT-VGT NDVI data and ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM) data. We found that annual NDVI increased by 17.58% in the YNR from 1999 to 2013, especially in regions dominated by broad-leaved and coniferous forests at lower elevations. The vegetation greening rate decreased significantly as elevation increased, with a threshold elevation of approximately 3000 m. Rising temperature played a dominant role in driving the increase in NDVI, while precipitation has no statistical relationship with changes in NDVI in this region. This study provides useful information to develop an integrated management and conservation plan for climate change adaptation and promote biodiversity conservation in the YNR.

  8. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  10. Vegetation growth parameters and leaf temperature: Experimental results from a six plots green roofs' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, Patrizia; La Gennusa, Maria; Peri, Giorgia; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Scaccianoce, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides a contribution for populating database of three physical parameters needed to model energy performance of buildings with green roofs: “coverage ratio” (σ_f), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf temperature (T_f). On purpose, six plant species were investigated experimentally: Phyla nordiflora, Aptenia lancifolia, Mesembryanthenum barbatus, Gazania nivea, Gazania uniflora, and Sedum. Proper ranges of the cited parameters have been found for each species. The here indicated ranges of σ_f values refer to different growth levels of the species in the same lapse of time, that is four months. Single measured LAI values are also reported for the same plants. As for the T_f (upper and lower layer), ranges of revealed temperatures refer to those detected from 10:30 a.m. to 16:30 p.m. of a selected day. Additionally, the dependence of T_f on climatic parameters was investigated. A linear equation resulted the best fitting curve for all experimental T_f data and the corresponding solar radiation data (with autocorrelation coefficients between 0.80 and 0.98). Furthermore, the effect potentially produced on building energy consumption by these species was analyzed using a simulation tool. Estimated cooling energy savings range approximately between 8% and 20% depending on adopted plants. - Highlights: • Green roof modeling requires the knowledge of various physical parameters. • Coverage ratio, leaf area index and leaves temperatures were measured for six species. • A tentative correlation between leaf temperature and climatic parameters was shown. • A correlation between LAI and coverage ratio was checked and discussed. • Potential effects of studied species on building energy consumption were investigated.

  11. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  12. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  13. ESTIMATION OF HEAVY METAL LEVELS IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES PURCHASED FROM SUCEAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuța Elena PRISACARU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the levels of five important heavy metals were identified in vegetable samples purchased from Suceava local markets. The concentrations of Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb, Iron (Fe, Zinc (Zn and Copper (Cu were analysed using a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS from the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory within the Faculty of Food Engineering Suceava. The mean levels of heavy metals examined in spinach (Spinacia oleracea, ramsons (Allium ursinum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, orache (Atriplex hortensis and nettle (Urtica dioica were found to be in the order: Fe (13.52 µg/g > Cu (4.83 µg/g > Zn (3.623 µg/g > Cd (1.890 µg/g> Pb (0.290 µg/g. The highest concentration of heavy metal was identified in the case of Fe (51.333 µg/g in ramsons, whereas the lowest amount was identified for Pb (0.227 µg/g orache. The estimated daily intake for Cd is above 60 µg/kg b.w./day. The levels of the other metals are lower than the safe limits predicted by the FAO/WHO.

  14. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegranate wastes using vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Ververi, Maria; Adamopoulou, Anna; Kaderides, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new process for pomegranate peels application in food industries based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids using different vegetable oils as solvents. In this way, an oil enriched with antioxidants is produced. Sunflower oil and soy oil were used as alternative solvents and the effects of various parameters on extraction yield were studied. Extraction temperature, solid/oil ratio, amplitude level, and extraction time were the factors investigated with respect to extraction yield. Comparative studies between ultrasound-assisted and conventional solvent extraction were carried out in terms of processing procedure and total carotenoids content. The efficient extraction period for achieving maximum yield of pomegranate peel carotenoids was about 30min. The optimum operating conditions were found to be: extraction temperature, 51.5°C; peels/solvent ratio, 0.10; amplitude level, 58.8%; solvent, sunflower oil. A second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound extraction under different processing parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating water consumption of potential natural vegetation on global dry lands: building an LCA framework for green water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Montserrat; Pfister, Stephan; Roux, Philippe; Antón, Assumpció

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a framework for assessing direct soil-water consumption, also termed green water in the literature, in life cycle assessment (LCA). This was an issue that LCA had not tackled before. The approach, which is applied during the life cycle inventory phase (LCI), consists of quantifying the net change in the evapo(transpi)ration of the production system compared to the natural reference situation. Potential natural vegetation (PNV) is used as the natural reference situation. In order to apply the method, we estimated PNV evapotranspiration adapted to local biogeographic conditions, on global dry lands, where soil-water consumption impacts can be critical. Values are reported at different spatial aggregation levels: 10-arcmin global grid, ecoregions (501 units), biomes (14 units), countries (124 units), continents, and a global average, to facilitate the assessment for different spatial information detail levels available in the LCI. The method is intended to be used in rain-fed agriculture and rainwater harvesting contexts, which includes direct soil moisture uptake by plants and rainwater harvested and then reused in production systems. The paper provides the necessary LCI method and data for further development of impact assessment models and characterization factors to evaluate the environmental effects of the net change in evapo(transpi)ration.

  16. Effect of hydrofluoric acid on acid decomposition mixtures for determining iron and other metallic elements in green vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbe, S.A.; Afful, S.; Debrah, C.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of acid mixtures, HNO 3 - HCI0 4 -HF, HNO 3 - HCI - HF, HNO 3 - HCIO 4 and HNO 3 - HCI in the decomposition of four edible green vegetables, Gboma (Solanum macrocarpon), Aleefu (Amaranttius hibiridus), Shoeley (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and Ademe (Corchorus olitorius), for flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer analysis of Fe, Mn, Mg, Cu, Zn and Ca was studied. The concentrations of Fe were higher (120.61 -710.10 mg/kg), while the values of Cu were lower (2.31 - 4.84 mg/kg) in all the samples. The values of concentration for Fe were more reproducible when HF was included in the decomposition mixtures. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of the other elements when HF was included in the acid mixture as compared to the acid mixtures without HF. Therefore, the inclusion of HF in the acid decomposition mixtures would ensure total and precise estimation of Fe in plant materials, but not critical for analysis of Mn, Mg, Cu, Zn and Ca. Performance of the decomposition procedures was verified by applying the methods to analyse Standard Reference Material IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder. (au)

  17. Understanding African American women's decisions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables: an application of the reasoned action approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Jylana L; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ona, Fernando F; Juarez, Paul D; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2013-01-01

    Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Marion County, Indiana. African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effectivity of Green Coconut Water To Reduce Mercury Level In The Blood And To Improve Blood Profiles And Liver Cells Appearance (Study In Sprague Dawley Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrzag, Ehmeeda M.; Nur Kristina, Tri; Suwondo, Ari; Sunoko, Henna Rya

    2018-02-01

    When people are exposed to mercury chloride, it can produce a variety of health effects in the blood and liver. Coconut water contains Zn, Fe, Vit. C, Vit B11, Vit. B6, and Se to reduce mercury chloride level in the blood and improve blood profile and liver cells. Aim of this study was to analysis the effect of green coconut water supplementation in overcoming the toxic effect of Hg chlorid in the blood and liver of Sprague dawley rats exposed to Hg chloride. Samples were randomly about 36 animals rats exposed to HgCl2 through forced feeding by 20 mg/kgBW sondage per day for 14 days, which divided into control group, and intervention groups were given fresh green coconut water in each by 6, 8, and 10 mL/kgBW for intervention 7 and 17 days. The result of this study showed that there is a significant effect and the decrease in mercury levels in the blood. There is no significant affect on the hemoglobin level, hematocrit level and platelet count with the treatment of green coconut water in the mice with exposure Hg. There is no significant effect between treatments using green coconut water with SGPT levels; there is a decrease in SGPT levels at the increasing number of doses of green coconut water and the length of treatment.

  19. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  20. Vegetation greenness modelling in response to interannual precipitation and temperature changes between 2001 and 2012 in Liao River Basin in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Sheng; Tang, Jie; Li, Zhao-Yang; Li, Hai-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Liao River basin in Jilin Province is the place of origin of the Dongliao River. This study gives a comprehensive analysis of the vegetation coverage in the region and provides a potential theoretical basis for ecological restoration. The seasonal variation of vegetation greenness and dynamics based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in major land cover types in the region was studied. Analyzing the relationship NDVI, temperature and rainfall, we derived a set of predictor variables from 2001 to 2012 using the MODIS Terra level 1 Product (MOD02QKM). The results showed a general increasing trend in NDVI value in the region, while 34.63 % of the region showed degradation. NDVI values begin to rise from April when plants are regreening and they drop in September when temperature are decreasing and the leaves are falling in the study area and temperature was found decreasing during the period of 2001-2012 while rainfall showed an increasing trend. This model could be used to observe the change in vegetation greenness and the dynamic effects of temperature and rainfall. This study provided important data for the environmental protection of the basin area. And we hope to provide scientific analysis for controlling water and soil erosion, maintaining the sustainable productivity of land resources, enhancing the treatment of water pollution and stimulating the virtuous cycle of the ecological system.

  1. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de V.W.T.; Graaf, de C.; Jager, G.

    2013-01-01

    Children’s consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children’s intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an

  2. A Daily Snack Containing Leafy Green Vegetables, Fruit, and Milk before and during Pregnancy Prevents Gestational Diabetes in a Randomized, Controlled Trial in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, Sirazul A; Potdar, Ramesh D; Gandhi, Meera; Kehoe, Sarah H; Brown, Nick; Sane, Harshad; Coakley, Patsy J; Marley-Zagar, Ella; Chopra, Harsha; Shivshankaran, Devi; Cox, Vanessa A; Jackson, Alan A; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-07-01

    Prospective observational studies suggest that maternal diets rich in leafy green vegetables and fruit may help prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our objective was to test whether increasing women's dietary intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk before conception and throughout pregnancy reduced their risk of GDM. Project SARAS ("excellent") (2006-2012) was a nonblinded, individually randomized, controlled trial in women living in slums in the city of Mumbai, India. The interventions included a daily snack made from leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk for the treatment group or low-micronutrient vegetables (e.g., potato and onion) for the control group, in addition to the usual diet. Results for the primary outcome, birth weight, have been reported. Women were invited to take an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 28-32 wk gestation to screen for GDM (WHO 1999 criteria). The prevalence of GDM was compared between the intervention and control groups, and Kernel density analysis was used to compare distributions of 120-min plasma glucose concentrations between groups. Of 6513 women randomly assigned, 2291 became pregnant; of these, 2028 reached a gestation of 28 wk, 1008 (50%) attended for an OGTT, and 100 (9.9%) had GDM. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the prevalence of GDM was reduced in the treatment group (7.3% compared with 12.4% in controls; OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86; P = 0.008). The reduction in GDM remained significant after adjusting for prepregnancy adiposity and fat or weight gain during pregnancy. Kernel density analysis showed that this was explained by the fact that fewer women in the treatment group had a 2-h glucose concentration in the range 7.5-10.0 mmol/L. In low-income settings, in which women have a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods, improving dietary micronutrient quality by increasing intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and/or milk may have an important protective effect against the development of GDM

  3. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center develops new products and techniques that can be used in operational meteorology. The majority of these products are derived from NASA polar-orbiting satellite imagery from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. One such product is a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the new SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on land surface models apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. The second phase of the project is to examine the impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate WRF model simulations were made for individual severe weather case days using the NCEP GVF (control) and SPoRT GVF (experimental), with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results in these case studies, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and lower direct surface heating, which typically resulted in lower (higher) predicted 2-m temperatures (2-m dewpoint temperatures). The opposite was true

  4. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  5. Sudden Onset of Life-Threatening Methaemoglobinaemia After Intake of Inappropriately Stored Vegetable (Collard Greens Meal in a 2.5-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cakmak Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired methaemoglobinaemia most commonly occurs due to intake of or contact to certain drugs, such as local anesthetics. However, intake of certain vegetables which are essential for a healthy diet may also cause methaemoglobinaemia due to their high nitrate or nitrite content, and prolonged and inappropriate storage after preparation of vegetable meals increases the risk. We present a 2.5-year-old girl with Down's syndrome who presented with central cyanosis due to severe methaemoglobinemiae with a methaemoglobin level of 62% after intake of collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala soup. Although development of methaemoglobinaemia after food intake has been reported rarely before, recognition of this potentially life-threatening condition early in its course may be life-saving. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 353-357

  6. Systems of Vegetal Façade and Green Roofs used as a Sustainable Option in Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chanampa, Mariana; Vidal Rivas, Pilar; Alonso Ojembarrena, Javier; Olivieri, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Green architecture contributes not only in reducing the building’s thermal loads but also in reducing the effects of the urban heat island in densely built-up areas in a hardly natural environment. The current green systems are built in situ/on site and are very expensive, hence the need to create industrialized prevegetated systems which improve the buildings’ energy savings and reduce the times of construction works. The present paper describes three green systems for façades (gabion façade...

  7. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry

    2013-05-01

    Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

  9. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2010-02-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green vegetables in salad from salad bars in The Netherlands. Pathogen growth was modeled in Aladin (Agro Logistics Analysis and Design Instrument) using time-temperature profiles in the chilled supply chain and one particular restaurant with a salad bar. A second-order Monte Carlo risk assessment model was constructed (using @Risk) to estimate the public health effects. The temperature in the studied cold chain was well controlled below 5 degrees C. Growth of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was minimal (17 and 15%, respectively). Growth of L. monocytogenes was considerably greater (194%). Based on first-order Monte Carlo simulations, the average number of cases per year in The Netherlands associated the consumption leafy greens in salads from salad bars was 166, 187, and 0.3 for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The ranges of the average number of annual cases as estimated by second-order Monte Carlo simulation (with prevalence and number of visitors as uncertain variables) were 42 to 551 for E. coli O157:H7, 81 to 281 for Salmonella, and 0.1 to 0.9 for L. monocytogenes. This study included an integration of modeling pathogen growth in the supply chain of fresh leafy vegetables destined for restaurant salad bars using software designed to model and design logistics and modeling the public health effects using probabilistic risk assessment software.

  10. Application of HPLC and ESI-MS techniques in the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids from green leafy vegetables (GLVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diets containing high proportions of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of onset of chronic diseases. The role of herbal medicines in improving human health is gaining popularity over the years, which also increases the need for safety and efficiency of these products. Green leafy vegetables (GLVs are the richest source of phenolic compounds with excellent antioxidant properties. Increased consumption of diets containing phenolic compounds may give positive and better results to human health and significantly improves the immune system. Highly selective, susceptible and versatile analytical techniques are necessary for extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds from plant extracts, which helps to utilize their important biological properties. Recent advances in the pre-treatment procedures, separation techniques and spectrometry methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds. The online coupling of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC–MS has become a useful tool in the metabolic profiling of plant samples. In this review, the separation and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids from GLVs by LC–MS have been discussed along with the general extraction procedures and other sources of mass spectrometer used. The review is devoted to the understanding of the structural configuration, nature and accumulation pattern of phenolic acids and flavonoids in plants and to highlighting the recent developments in the chemical investigation of these compounds by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. It concludes with the advantages of the combination of these two methods and prospects. Keywords: Green leafy vegetables, Phenolic acids, Flavonoids, HPLC, ESI-MS

  11. Effectiveness of washing procedures in reducing Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on a raw leafy green vegetable (Eruca vescicaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pezzuto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Foodborne pathogens can contaminate raw vegetables at any stage of their production process with a potential for human infection. Appropriate washing can mitigate the risk of foodborne illness consequent to vegetable consumption by reducing pathogen levels, but few data are available to assess the efficacy of different practices. In the present work, six different washing methods, in the presence or absence of sanitisers (peracetic acid and percitric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite and vinegar, were tested for their effectiveness in reducing Salmonella and Listeria counts after artificial contamination of raw rocket (Eruca vescicaria. Results showed that washing with sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/L was the only method able to produce a significant 2 Log reduction of Salmonella counts, but only in the case of high initial contamination (7 Log CFU/g, suggesting potential harmful effects for consumers could occur. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, all the examined washing methods were effective, with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution and a solution of peracetic and percitric acids displaying the best performances (2 and 1.5 Log reductions, respectively. This highlights the importance of targeting consumers on fit for purpose and safe washing practices to circumvent vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens.

  12. Simulation of green roof runoff under different substrate depths and vegetation covers by coupling a simple conceptual and a physically based hydrological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Konstantinos X; Valiantzas, John D; Ntoulas, Nikolaos; Kargas, George; Nektarios, Panayiotis A

    2017-09-15

    In spite of the well-known green roof benefits, their widespread adoption in the management practices of urban drainage systems requires the use of adequate analytical and modelling tools. In the current study, green roof runoff modeling was accomplished by developing, testing, and jointly using a simple conceptual model and a physically based numerical simulation model utilizing HYDRUS-1D software. The use of such an approach combines the advantages of the conceptual model, namely simplicity, low computational requirements, and ability to be easily integrated in decision support tools with the capacity of the physically based simulation model to be easily transferred in conditions and locations other than those used for calibrating and validating it. The proposed approach was evaluated with an experimental dataset that included various green roof covers (either succulent plants - Sedum sediforme, or xerophytic plants - Origanum onites, or bare substrate without any vegetation) and two substrate depths (either 8 cm or 16 cm). Both the physically based and the conceptual models matched very closely the observed hydrographs. In general, the conceptual model performed better than the physically based simulation model but the overall performance of both models was sufficient in most cases as it is revealed by the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index which was generally greater than 0.70. Finally, it was showcased how a physically based and a simple conceptual model can be jointly used to allow the use of the simple conceptual model for a wider set of conditions than the available experimental data and in order to support green roof design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  14. Effectiveness of Washing Procedures in Reducing Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on a Raw Leafy Green Vegetable (Eruca vesicaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Belluco, Simone; Losasso, Carmen; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Bordin, Paola; Piovesana, Alessia; Comin, Damiano; Mioni, Renzo; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Foodborne pathogens can contaminate raw vegetables at any stage of their production process with a potential for human infection. Appropriate washing can mitigate the risk of foodborne illness consequent to vegetable consumption by reducing pathogen levels, but few data are available to assess the efficacy of different practices. In the present work, six different washing methods, in the presence or absence of sanitisers (peracetic acid and percitric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite) and vinegar, were tested for their effectiveness in reducing Salmonella and Listeria counts after artificial contamination of raw rocket ( Eruca vesicaria ). Results showed that washing with sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/L) was the only method able to produce a significant 2 Log reduction of Salmonella counts, but only in the case of high initial contamination (7 Log CFU/g), suggesting potential harmful effects for consumers could occur. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes , all the examined washing methods were effective, with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution and a solution of peracetic and percitric acids displaying the best performances (2 and 1.5 Log reductions, respectively). This highlights the importance of targeting consumers on fit for purpose and safe washing practices to circumvent vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens.

  15. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E; Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G; Epstein, H E; Yu, Q; Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E; Comiso, J C; Jia, G J; Kaplan, J O; Kumpula, T; Kuss, P; Matyshak, G

    2009-01-01

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G [Earth Cryosphere Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Epstein, H E; Yu, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E [Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (Finland); Comiso, J C [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States); Jia, G J [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Kaplan, J O [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kumpula, T [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland); Kuss, P [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Matyshak, G [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  18. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Application of HPLC and ESI-MS techniques in the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids from green leafy vegetables (GLVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Ramesh

    2017-12-01

    Diets containing high proportions of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of onset of chronic diseases. The role of herbal medicines in improving human health is gaining popularity over the years, which also increases the need for safety and efficiency of these products. Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are the richest source of phenolic compounds with excellent antioxidant properties. Increased consumption of diets containing phenolic compounds may give positive and better results to human health and significantly improves the immune system. Highly selective, susceptible and versatile analytical techniques are necessary for extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds from plant extracts, which helps to utilize their important biological properties. Recent advances in the pre-treatment procedures, separation techniques and spectrometry methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds. The online coupling of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has become a useful tool in the metabolic profiling of plant samples. In this review, the separation and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids from GLVs by LC-MS have been discussed along with the general extraction procedures and other sources of mass spectrometer used. The review is devoted to the understanding of the structural configuration, nature and accumulation pattern of phenolic acids and flavonoids in plants and to highlighting the recent developments in the chemical investigation of these compounds by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. It concludes with the advantages of the combination of these two methods and prospects.

  20. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Tufts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation, together with related oxidative stress, is linked with the etiology of kwashiorkor, a form of severe acute malnutrition in children. A diet rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals may offer potential for the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor. We selected and assayed five leafy green vegetables, two wild fruits, and six medicinal plants from Kenya for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Consensus regarding medicinal plant use was established from ethnobotanical data. Methods. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay and Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro targeting the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Results. Mangifera indica (leaves used medicinally showed the greatest antioxidant activity (5940 ± 632 µM TE/µg and total phenolic content (337 ± 3 mg GAE/g but Amaranthus dubius (leafy vegetable showed the greatest inhibition of TNF-α (IC50 = 9 ± 1 μg/mL, followed by Ocimum americanum (medicinal plant (IC50 = 16 ± 1 μg/mL. Informant consensus was significantly correlated with anti-inflammatory effects among active medicinal plants (r2=0.7639, P=0.0228. Conclusions. Several plant species commonly consumed by Kenyan children possess activity profiles relevant to the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor and warrant further investigation.

  1. Validation for Vegetation Green-up Date Extracted from GIMMS NDVI and NDVI3g Using Variety of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Q.; Jiao, W.

    2017-12-01

    Phenology is a sensitive and critical feature of vegetation change that has regarded as a good indicator in climate change studies. So far, variety of remote sensing data sources and phenology extraction methods from satellite datasets have been developed to study the spatial-temporal dynamics of vegetation phenology. However, the differences between vegetation phenology results caused by the varies satellite datasets and phenology extraction methods are not clear, and the reliability for different phenology results extracted from remote sensing datasets is not verified and compared using the ground observation data. Based on three most popular remote sensing phenology extraction methods, this research calculated the Start of the growing season (SOS) for each pixels in the Northern Hemisphere for two kinds of long time series satellite datasets: GIMMS NDVIg (SOSg) and GIMMS NDVI3g (SOS3g). The three methods used in this research are: maximum increase method, dynamic threshold method and midpoint method. Then, this study used SOS calculated from NEE datasets (SOS_NEE) monitored by 48 eddy flux tower sites in global flux website to validate the reliability of six phenology results calculated from remote sensing datasets. Results showed that both SOSg and SOS3g extracted by maximum increase method are not correlated with ground observed phenology metrics. SOSg and SOS3g extracted by the dynamic threshold method and midpoint method are both correlated with SOS_NEE significantly. Compared with SOSg extracted by the dynamic threshold method, SOSg extracted by the midpoint method have a stronger correlation with SOS_NEE. And, the same to SOS3g. Additionally, SOSg showed stronger correlation with SOS_NEE than SOS3g extracted by the same method. SOS extracted by the midpoint method from GIMMS NDVIg datasets seemed to be the most reliable results when validated with SOS_NEE. These results can be used as reference for data and method selection in future's phenology study.

  2. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e reprodutivo de cultivares de trigo e sua associação com a emissão de folhas Vegetative and reproductive development of wheat cultivars and its association with leaf appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Cristine Walter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a relação da duração das fases vegetativa, reprodutiva e total do ciclo de desenvolvimento com o número final de folhas e com a velocidade de aparecimento de folhas no colmo principal, em cultivares brasileiras de trigo, variando-se a data de semeadura. Um experimento de campo foi realizado em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, com 13 datas de semeadura ao longo de três anos (2005, 2006 e 2007. Foram utilizados seis genótipos de trigo com ciclos de desenvolvimento variando de precoce a tardio: 'BRS LOURO', 'CEP 52', 'BRS 177', 'CEP 51', 'NOVA ERA' e 'BRS TARUMÃ'. Para cada cultivar e data de semeadura, foi determinada a duração, em °C dia, das fases vegetativa (emergência - antese e reprodutiva (antese - maturidade fisiológica e do ciclo total (emergência - maturidade fisiológica, o número final de folhas e o filocrono (tempo para aparecimento de duas folhas sucessivas no colmo principal e a relação entre essas variáveis por meio de análise de regressão. Os resultados indicam que a duração do ciclo total das cultivares de trigo tem relação direta com a duração da fase vegetativa e não com a fase reprodutiva, a qual foi similar entre as cultivares, e que a duração da fase vegetativa tem relação direta com o número final de folhas e não com a velocidade de aparecimento dessas folhas no colmo principal.The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the duration of vegetative, reproductive and total developmental cycle with the main stem final leaf number and with the main stem leaf appearance rate in Brazilian wheat cultivars, varying the sowing date. A field experiment was carried out in Santa Maria, RS, in 13 sowing dates during three years (2005, 2006 and 2007. Six wheat genotypes with developmental cycle varying from early to late were used: BRS LOURO, CEP 52, BRS 177, CEP 51, NOVA ERA, and BRS TARUMÃ. For each cultivar and sowing date, the

  3. Multi-feature machine learning model for automatic segmentation of green fractional vegetation cover for high-throughput field phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Tehran, Pouria; Virlet, Nicolas; Sabermanesh, Kasra; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2017-01-01

    Accurately segmenting vegetation from the background within digital images is both a fundamental and a challenging task in phenotyping. The performance of traditional methods is satisfactory in homogeneous environments, however, performance decreases when applied to images acquired in dynamic field environments. In this paper, a multi-feature learning method is proposed to quantify vegetation growth in outdoor field conditions. The introduced technique is compared with the state-of the-art and other learning methods on digital images. All methods are compared and evaluated with different environmental conditions and the following criteria: (1) comparison with ground-truth images, (2) variation along a day with changes in ambient illumination, (3) comparison with manual measurements and (4) an estimation of performance along the full life cycle of a wheat canopy. The method described is capable of coping with the environmental challenges faced in field conditions, with high levels of adaptiveness and without the need for adjusting a threshold for each digital image. The proposed method is also an ideal candidate to process a time series of phenotypic information throughout the crop growth acquired in the field. Moreover, the introduced method has an advantage that it is not limited to growth measurements only but can be applied on other applications such as identifying weeds, diseases, stress, etc.

  4. Multi-feature machine learning model for automatic segmentation of green fractional vegetation cover for high-throughput field phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Sadeghi-Tehran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurately segmenting vegetation from the background within digital images is both a fundamental and a challenging task in phenotyping. The performance of traditional methods is satisfactory in homogeneous environments, however, performance decreases when applied to images acquired in dynamic field environments. Results In this paper, a multi-feature learning method is proposed to quantify vegetation growth in outdoor field conditions. The introduced technique is compared with the state-of the-art and other learning methods on digital images. All methods are compared and evaluated with different environmental conditions and the following criteria: (1 comparison with ground-truth images, (2 variation along a day with changes in ambient illumination, (3 comparison with manual measurements and (4 an estimation of performance along the full life cycle of a wheat canopy. Conclusion The method described is capable of coping with the environmental challenges faced in field conditions, with high levels of adaptiveness and without the need for adjusting a threshold for each digital image. The proposed method is also an ideal candidate to process a time series of phenotypic information throughout the crop growth acquired in the field. Moreover, the introduced method has an advantage that it is not limited to growth measurements only but can be applied on other applications such as identifying weeds, diseases, stress, etc.

  5. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  6. Recipes and nutritional value of dishes prepared from green-leafy vegetables in an urban district of Antananarivo (Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianatoandro, Verohanitra Annie; Avallone, Sylvie; Picq, Christian; Ralison, Charlotte; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    The recipes of 50 multi-ingredient dishes consumed by the population in an urban district were noted down. The nutritional value was determined as well as the cook value of the dishes in order to evaluate the severity of the thermal treatment. The recipes were simple and involved steps such as boiling, mixing, and cutting. Fibre contents were rather low except when the leaf stems were included. All the dishes had very high beta-carotene content (15.8-25.0 mg/100 g dry matter) and retinol activity equivalent (RAE) (1.3-2.3 mg RAE/100 g dry matter) because of the high proportion of fresh leafy vegetables (from 41.2% to 58.8% of the total dry matter of the ingredients). When meat was added to the preparation, the micronutrient content (iron, zinc, and retinol) was not increased significantly. In three dishes, a positive correlation was found between the thermal treatment severity and the 13-cis-beta-carotene amount.

  7. Application of HPLC and ESI-MS techniques in the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids from green leafy vegetables (GLVs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh Kumar Bonta

    2017-01-01

    Diets containing high proportions of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of onset of chronic diseases.The role of herbal medicines in improving human health is gaining popularity over the years,which also increases the need for safety and efficiency of these products.Green leafy vegetables(GLVs)are the richest source of phenolic compounds with excellent antioxidant properties. Increased consumption of diets containing phenolic compounds may give positive and better results to human health and significantly improves the immune system.Highly selective,susceptible and versatile analytical techniques are necessary for extraction,identifica-tion, and quantification of phenolic compounds from plant extracts, which helps to utilize their important biological properties. Recent advances in the pre-treatment procedures, separation techniques and spectro-metry methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds.The online coupling of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry(LC–MS)has become a useful tool in the metabolic profiling of plant samples.In this review,the separation and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids from GLVs by LC–MS have been discussed along with the general extraction procedures and other sources of mass spectrometer used. The review is devoted to the understanding of the structural configuration, nature and accumulation pattern of phenolic acids and flavonoids in plants and to highlighting the recent developments in the chemical investigation of these compounds by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.It concludes with the advantages of the combination of these two methods and prospects.

  8. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  9. Advising Consumption of Green Vegetables, Beef, and Full-Fat Dairy Products Has No Adverse Effects on the Lipid Profiles in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, Ellen José; Wieffer, Romy; van der Kraats, Judith

    2017-05-19

    In children, little is known about lipid profiles and the influence of dietary habits. In the past, we developed a dietary advice for optimizing the immune system, which comprised green vegetables, beef, whole milk, and full-fat butter. However, there are concerns about a possible negative influence of the full-fat dairy products of the diet on the lipid profile. We investigated the effect of the developed dietary advice on the lipid profile and BMI (body mass index)/BMI- z -score of children. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 1-16 years, of whom a lipid profile was determined in the period between June 2011 and November 2013 in our hospital. Children who adhered to the dietary advice were assigned to the exposed group and the remaining children were assigned to the unexposed group. After following the dietary advice for at least three months, there was a statistically significant reduction in the cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoproteins) ratio ( p children, but has a significant beneficial effect on the cholesterol/HDL ratio, non-HDL-cholesterol, and the HDL-cholesterol.

  10. Understanding African American Women’s Decisions to Buy and Eat Dark Green Leafy Vegetables: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Jylana L.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Ona, Fernando F.; Juarez, Paul D.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Design Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Setting Marion County, Indiana. Participants African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Main Outcome Measure(s) Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Analysis Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Results Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Conclusions and Implications Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. PMID:24021457

  11. Development of a dynamic growth-death model for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in minimally processed leafy green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Robin C; Delaquis, Pascal

    2011-11-15

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, an occasional contaminant of fresh produce, can present a serious health risk in minimally processed leafy green vegetables. A good predictive model is needed for Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) purposes, which adequately describes the growth or die-off of this pathogen under variable temperature conditions experienced during processing, storage and shipping. Literature data on behaviour of this pathogen on fresh-cut lettuce and spinach was taken from published graphs by digitization, published tables or from personal communications. A three-phase growth function was fitted to the data from 13 studies, and a square root model for growth rate (μ) as a function of temperature was derived: μ=(0.023*(Temperature-1.20))(2). Variability in the published data was incorporated into the growth model by the use of weighted regression and the 95% prediction limits. A log-linear die-off function was fitted to the data from 13 studies, and the resulting rate constants were fitted to a shifted lognormal distribution (Mean: 0.013; Standard Deviation, 0.010; Shift, 0.001). The combined growth-death model successfully predicted pathogen behaviour under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions when compared to new published data. By incorporating variability, the resulting model is an improvement over existing ones, and is suitable for QRA applications. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    . Finally, Bohren believes that reddened sunlight in combination with filtering done by naturally blue-colored water creates green light. Given our observations, this is the most likely explanation for the green light. Our observations and calculations indicate that, depending on the microphysical parameters of the cloud, sunlight transmitted by the cloud may appear green.

  13. View of the VO prototype made of two sectors of scintillating counters. WLS fibers embedded within connectors appear in green color. Beams of optical fibers inside black sheath collect and transport the emitted light to photo-multipliers a few meters apart.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    View of the VO prototype made of two sectors of scintillating counters. WLS fibers embedded within connectors appear in green color. Beams of optical fibers inside black sheath collect and transport the emitted light to photo-multipliers a few meters apart.

  14. Residential Greenness and Birthweight in the State of Massachusetts, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin C. Fong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation, or greenness, may benefit maternal health and consequently, fetal growth, by providing opportunities for physical activity and psychological restoration, and decreasing detrimental environmental exposures. We retrieved Massachusetts Birth Registry data from 2001–2013 and investigated the association between residential greenness and birthweight in full-term births (≥37 weeks gestation. We calculated average residential greenness during pregnancy using 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from satellites. We estimated associations between greenness and continuous birthweight, term low birthweight (TLBW: <2500 g, and small for gestational age (SGA: <10th percentile of birthweight stratified by sex and gestational age adjusted for individual and neighborhood covariates and considered nonlinearity and effect modification. Higher greenness exposure was associated with higher birthweight with stronger associations in the lower than higher range of greenness. Greenness was associated with lower odds of TLBW (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97, 0.99 per 0.1 increase in NDVI and SGA (OR 0.98; 95% 0.97, 0.99 and associations varied by population density (TLBW and socioeconomic status (TLBW, SGA. Our results suggest that greenness is beneficial to fetal growth exhibited by higher birthweight and lower odds of TLBW and SGA. Unlike prior studies, associations with TLBW and SGA appeared stronger among those with higher socioeconomic status.

  15. Characterization of Free, Conjugated, and Bound Phenolic Acids in Seven Commonly Consumed Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Ma, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Feng, Xiao-Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Phenolic acids are thought to be beneficial for human health and responsible for vegetables' health-promoting properties. Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic acids of seven commonly consumed vegetables, including kidney bean, cow pea, snow pea, hyacinth bean, green soy bean, soybean sprouts and daylily, from the regions of Beijing, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou, were identified and quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Three vegetables, namely green soy bean, soybean sprouts, and daylily ( Hemerocallis fulva L.), from the Beijing region contained higher concentrations of total phenolic acids than those from the Hangzhou and Guangzhou regions. The results indicated that the phenolic acid content in the seven vegetables appeared to be species-dependent. The highest content of phenolic acids was found in daylily, followed by green soy bean, while the least amounts were identified in kidney bean and hyacinth bean. Typically, phenolic acids are predominantly found in conjugated forms. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed some key compounds that differentiated the seven vegetables. Green soy bean, compared to the other six vegetables, was characterized by higher levels of syringic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and sinapic acid. Other compounds, particularly p -coumaric acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, exhibited significantly higher concentrations in daylily. In addition, p -coumaric acid was the characteristic substance in cow pea. Results from this study can contribute to the development of vegetables with specific phytochemicals and health benefits.

  16. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  17. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  18. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Ramos-González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by incorporating the use of morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA as a tool to describe the spatial pattern and connectivity of the city's urban green areas. Analysis of a previously developed IKONOS 4-m spatial resolution classification of the city of San Juan from 2002 revealed a larger area of vegetation (green areas or green infrastructure than previously estimated by moderate spatial resolution imagery. The city as a whole had approximately 42% green cover and 55% impervious surfaces. Although the city appeared greener in its southern upland sector compared to the northern coastal section, where most built-up urban areas occurred (66% impervious surfaces, northern San Juan had 677 ha more green area cover dispersed across the city than the southern component. MSPA revealed that most forest cover occurred as edges and cores, and green areas were most commonly forest cores, with larger predominance in the southern sector of the municipality. In dense, built-up, urban land, most of the green areas occurred in private yards as islets. When compared to other cities across the United States, San Juan was most similar in green cover features to Boston, Massachusetts, and Miami, Florida. Per capita green space for San Juan (122.2 m²/inhabitant was also comparable to these two U.S. cities. This study explores the intra-urban vegetation variation in the city of San Juan, which is generally overlooked by moderate spatial resolution classifications in Puerto Rico. It serves as a starting point for green infrastructure mapping and landscape pattern analysis of the urban green spaces

  19. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, the EU Commission has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present...... article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  20. Characterization of Free, Conjugated, and Bound Phenolic Acids in Seven Commonly Consumed Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids are thought to be beneficial for human health and responsible for vegetables’ health-promoting properties. Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic acids of seven commonly consumed vegetables, including kidney bean, cow pea, snow pea, hyacinth bean, green soy bean, soybean sprouts and daylily, from the regions of Beijing, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou, were identified and quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. Three vegetables, namely green soy bean, soybean sprouts, and daylily (Hemerocallis fulva L., from the Beijing region contained higher concentrations of total phenolic acids than those from the Hangzhou and Guangzhou regions. The results indicated that the phenolic acid content in the seven vegetables appeared to be species-dependent. The highest content of phenolic acids was found in daylily, followed by green soy bean, while the least amounts were identified in kidney bean and hyacinth bean. Typically, phenolic acids are predominantly found in conjugated forms. Principle component analysis (PCA revealed some key compounds that differentiated the seven vegetables. Green soy bean, compared to the other six vegetables, was characterized by higher levels of syringic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and sinapic acid. Other compounds, particularly p-coumaric acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, exhibited significantly higher concentrations in daylily. In addition, p-coumaric acid was the characteristic substance in cow pea. Results from this study can contribute to the development of vegetables with specific phytochemicals and health benefits.

  1. Studying the Association between Green Space Characteristics and Land Surface Temperature for Sustainable Urban Environments: An Analysis of Beijing and Islamabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Naeem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trends of urbanization lead to vegetation degradation in big cities and affect the urban thermal environment. This study investigated (1 the cooling effect of urban green space spatial patterns on Land Surface Temperature (LST; (2 how the surrounding environment influences the green space cool islands (GCI, and vice versa. The study was conducted in two Asian capitals: Beijing, China and Islamabad, Pakistan by utilizing Gaofen-1 (GF-1 and Landsat-8 satellite imagery. Pearson’s correlation and normalized mutual information (NMI were applied to investigate the relationship between green space characteristics and LST. Landscape metrics of green spaces including Percentage of Landscape (PLAND, Patch Density (PD, Edge Density (ED, and Landscape Shape Index (LSI were selected to calculate the spatial patterns of green spaces, whereas GCI indicators were defined by Green Space Range (GR, Temperature Difference (TD, and Temperature Gradient (TG. The results indicate that both vegetation composition and configuration influence LST distributions; however, vegetation composition appeared to have a slightly greater effect. The cooling effect can be produced more effectively by increasing green space percentage, planting trees in large patches with equal distribution, and avoiding complex-shaped green spaces. The GCI principle indicates that LST can be decreased by increasing the green space area, increasing the water body fraction, or by decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces. GCI can also be strengthened by decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces and increasing the fraction of water body or vegetation in the surrounding environment. The cooling effect of vegetation and water could be explained based on their thermal properties. Beijing has already enacted the green-wedge initiative to increase the vegetation canopy. While designing the future urban layout of Islamabad, the construction of artificial lakes within the urban green

  2. Recent shifts in Himalayan vegetation activity trends in response to climatic change and environmental drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, N. B.; Mainali, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    Climatic changes along with anthropogenic disturbances are causing dramatic ecological impacts in mid to high latitude mountain vegetation including in the Himalayas which are ecologically sensitive environments. Given the challenges associated with in situ vegetation monitoring in the Himalayas, remote sensing based quantification of vegetation dynamics can provide essential ecological information on changes in vegetation activity that may consist of alternative sequence of greening and/or browning periods. This study utilized a trend break analysis procedure for detection of monotonic as well as abrupt (either interruption or reversal) trend changes in smoothed normalized difference vegetation index satellite time-series data over the Himalayas. Overall, trend breaks in vegetation greenness showed high spatio-temporal variability in distribution considering elevation, ecoregion and land cover/use stratifications. Interrupted greening was spatially most dominant in all Himalayan ecoregions followed by abrupt browning. Areas showing trend reversal and monotonic trends appeared minority. Trend type distribution was strongly dependent on elevation as majority of greening (with or without interruption) occurred at lower elevation areas at higher elevation were dominantly. Ecoregion based stratification of trend types highlighted some exception to this elevational dependence as high altitude ecoregions of western Himalayas showed significantly less browning compared to the ecoregions in eastern Himalaya. Land cover/use based analysis of trend distribution showed that interrupted greening was most dominant in closed needleleafed forest following by rainfed cropland and mosaic croplands while interrupted browning most dominant in closed to open herbaceous vegetation found at higher elevation areas followed by closed needleleafed forest and closed to open broad leafed evergreen forests. Spatial analysis of trend break timing showed that for majority of areas experiencing

  3. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  4. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  5. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  6. leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prerequisite for successful in vitro culture is the establishment of an aseptic technique, thus the experiment was to investigate suitable sterilization regimes for the leaf explants of Gnetum africanum, an endangered green leafy vegetable. Three sterilization regimes were tested to establish the best regime using three to four ...

  7. CT appearance of splenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelson, D.S.; Cohen, B.A.; Armas, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Splenosis is an unusual complication of splenic trauma. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of splenosis is described. One should consider this diagnosis when faced with a history of splenic trauma and multiple round or oval masses at CT.

  8. CT appearance of splenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.S.; Cohen, B.A.; Armas, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Splenosis is an unusual complication of splenic trauma. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of splenosis is described. One should consider this diagnosis when faced with a history of splenic trauma and multiple round or oval masses at CT

  9. On Multiple Appearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    reduction and epoché to focus on how dancing bodies appear in a stage context. To test these tools’ ability to explore dancing bodies from a third-person perspective, I analyse the Danish choreographer Kitt Johnson’s solo performance Drift (2011) - focussing on her shifting physical appearance. While...... phenomenology helps me to describe the multiple and radically different guises that Johnson assumes in her piece, my analysis, ultimately, does not aim to distil a truer, more real being from her appearances as is often the case in phenomenological philosophy. I complement my analytical approach...... with the Deleuzian notion of becoming animal and suggest that Johnson stages what could, in Judith Butler’s terms, be called a critical contingency of bodily appearance....

  10. Response of coastal vegetation and the need for green belts along the Tamil Nadu coast, India: The December 2004 tsunami experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    in coastal areas as protective shield against the tsunami. An amount of Rupees 648 lakhs has been allocated in 2006. It has also been proposed to cover the remaining parts of the coast with a bio-shield in phased manner, for which a proposal costing about... of trees effectively reduces the force of devastating storm surges and waves; (d) Trees are beneficial for biodiversity and can induce habitats for wild life (Clark, 1996); (e) People inhabiting hazard prone coasts would benefit from green belts in terms...

  11. Arctic, Antarctic, and temperate green algae Zygnema spp. under UV-B stress: vegetative cells perform better than pre-akinetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Albert, Andreas; Aigner, Siegfried; Uhl, Jenny; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Trumhová, Kateřina; Pichrtová, Martina

    2018-02-22

    Species of Zygnema form macroscopically visible mats in polar and temperate terrestrial habitats, where they are exposed to environmental stresses. Three previously characterized isolates (Arctic Zygnema sp. B, Antarctic Zygnema sp. C, and temperate Zygnema sp. S) were tested for their tolerance to experimental UV radiation. Samples of young vegetative cells (1 month old) and pre-akinetes (6 months old) were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm, 400 μmol photons m -2  s -1 ) in combination with experimental UV-A (315-400 nm, 5.7 W m -2 , no UV-B), designated as PA, or UV-A (10.1 W m -2 ) + UV-B (280-315 nm, 1.0 W m -2 ), designated as PAB. The experimental period lasted for 74 h; the radiation period was 16 h PAR/UV-A per day, or with additional UV-B for 14 h per day. The effective quantum yield, generally lower in pre-akinetes, was mostly reduced during the UV treatment, and recovery was significantly higher in young vegetative cells vs. pre-akinetes during the experiment. Analysis of the deepoxidation state of the xanthophyll-cycle pigments revealed a statistically significant (p UV-absorbing phenolic compounds was significantly higher (p UV-B stress than pre-akinetes.

  12. Wedgelet Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2004-01-01

    Statistical region-based segmentation methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images based on learning the variation in shape and pixel intensities in a training set. For low resolution 2D images correspondences can be recovered reliably....... The wedgelet regression trees employed are based on triangular domains and estimated using cross validation. The wedgelet regression trees are functional descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. The wedgelet enhanced appearance model...

  13. Tuberculous peritonitis: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, R.D.; Hunter, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    Rare, sporadic cases of tuberculous peritonitis do occur in the United States and other advanced countries. Because there are few descriptions of the CT appearance of the peritoneal forms of tuberculous (TB), this report illustrates a case of tuberculous peritonitis with prominent CT findings and discusses the differentiation of this entity from other, more common diseases

  14. Comparing wildlife habitat and biodiversity across green roof type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffman, R.R. [Oklahoma Univ., Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Landscape Architecture

    2007-07-01

    Green roofs represent restorative practices within human dominated ecosystems. They create habitat, increase local biodiversity, and restore ecosystem function. Cities are now promoting this technology as a part of mitigation for the loss of local habitat, making the green roof necessary in sustainable development. While most green roofs create some form of habitat for local and migratory fauna, some systems are designed to provide specific habitat for species of concern. Despite this, little is actually known about the wildlife communities inhabiting green roofs. Only a few studies have provided broad taxa descriptions across a range of green roof habitats, and none have attempted to measure the biodiversity across green roof class. Therefore, this study examined two different vegetated roof systems representative of North America. They were constructed under alternative priorities such as energy, stormwater and aesthetics. The wildlife community appears to be a result of the green roof's physical composition. Wildlife community composition and biodiversity is expected be different yet comparable between the two general types of green roofs, known as extensive and intensive. This study recorded the community composition found in the two classes of ecoroofs and assessed biodiversity and similarity at the community and group taxa levels of insects, spiders and birds. Renyi family of diversity indices were used to compare the communities. They were further described through indices and ratios such as Shannon's, Simpson's, Sorenson and Morsita's. In general, community biodiversity was found to be slightly higher in the intensive green roof than the extensive green roof. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Satnam; Webb, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    The discovery that dietary (inorganic) nitrate has important vascular effects came from the relatively recent realization of the 'nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway'. Dietary nitrate has been demonstrated to have a range of beneficial vascular effects, including reducing blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation, preserving or improving endothelial dysfunction, enhancing exercise performance in healthy individuals and patients with peripheral arterial disease. Pre-clinical studies with nitrate or nitrite also show the potential to protect against ischaemia-reperfusion injury and reduce arterial stiffness, inflammation and intimal thickness. However, there is a need for good evidence for hard endpoints beyond epidemiological studies. Whilst these suggest reduction in cardiovascular risk with diets high in nitrate-rich vegetables (such as a Mediterranean diet), others have suggested possible small positive and negative associations with dietary nitrate and cancer, but these remain unproven. Interactions with other nutrients, such as vitamin C, polyphenols and fatty acids may enhance or inhibit these effects. In order to provide simple guidance on nitrate intake from different vegetables, we have developed the Nitrate 'Veg-Table' with 'Nitrate Units' [each unit being 1 mmol of nitrate (62 mg)] to achieve a nitrate intake that is likely to be sufficient to derive benefit, but also to minimize the risk of potential side effects from excessive ingestion, given the current available evidence. The lack of data concerning the long term effects of dietary nitrate is a limitation, and this will need to be addressed in future trials. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate‐nitrite‐nitric oxide pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Satnam; Webb, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery that dietary (inorganic) nitrate has important vascular effects came from the relatively recent realization of the ‘nitrate‐nitrite‐nitric oxide (NO) pathway’. Dietary nitrate has been demonstrated to have a range of beneficial vascular effects, including reducing blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation, preserving or improving endothelial dysfunction, enhancing exercise performance in healthy individuals and patients with peripheral arterial disease. Pre‐clinical studies with nitrate or nitrite also show the potential to protect against ischaemia‐reperfusion injury and reduce arterial stiffness, inflammation and intimal thickness. However, there is a need for good evidence for hard endpoints beyond epidemiological studies. Whilst these suggest reduction in cardiovascular risk with diets high in nitrate‐rich vegetables (such as a Mediterranean diet), others have suggested possible small positive and negative associations with dietary nitrate and cancer, but these remain unproven. Interactions with other nutrients, such as vitamin C, polyphenols and fatty acids may enhance or inhibit these effects. In order to provide simple guidance on nitrate intake from different vegetables, we have developed the Nitrate ‘Veg‐Table’ with ‘Nitrate Units’ [each unit being 1 mmol of nitrate (62 mg)] to achieve a nitrate intake that is likely to be sufficient to derive benefit, but also to minimize the risk of potential side effects from excessive ingestion, given the current available evidence. The lack of data concerning the long term effects of dietary nitrate is a limitation, and this will need to be addressed in future trials. PMID:22882425

  17. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA Activated Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange Mouithys-Mickalad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD. The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  18. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  19. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Statistical region-based registration methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images. At low resolution, images correspondences can be recovered reliably in real-time. However, as resolution increases this becomes infeasible due...... representation are superior to wavelet representations at high dimensionality-reduction rates. At low reduction rates an edge enhanced wavelet representation provides better segmentation accuracy than the full standard AAM model....

  20. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  1. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented

  2. Realistic Material Appearance Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří; Hatka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 81 (2010), s. 13-14 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : bidirectional texture function * texture modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/RO/haindl-realistic material appearance modelling.pdf

  3. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  4. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 viability on leafy green vegetables by treatment with a bacteriophage mixture and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Akhtar, Mastura; Feirtag, Joellen; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2011-02-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been recognized as a major foodborne pathogen responsible for frequent gastroenteritis outbreaks. Phages and essential oils can be used as a natural antimicrobial method to reduce bacterial pathogens from the food supply. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a bacteriophage cocktail, BEC8, alone and in combination with the essential oil trans-cinnameldehyde (TC) on the viability of a mixture of EHEC O157:H7 strains applied on whole baby romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. The EHEC O157:H7 strains used were Nal(R) mutants of EK27, ATCC 43895, and 472. Exponentially growing cells from tryptic soy (TS) broth cultures were spot inoculated on leaves and dried. EHEC cells were placed at low, medium, and high inoculum levels (10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) CFU/mL, respectively). Appropriate controls, BEC8 (approx. 10(6) PFU/leaf), and TC (0.5% v/v) were applied on treated leaves. The leaves were incubated at 4, 8, 23, and 37 °C in Petri dishes with moistened filter papers. EHEC survival was determined using standard plate count on nalidixic acid (50 μg/mL) Sorbitol MacConkey agar. No survivors were detected when both leaves were treated with BEC8 or TC individually at low inoculum levels after 24 h at 23 and 37 °C. When the EHEC inoculum size increased and/or incubation temperature decreased, the efficacy of BEC8 and TC decreased. However, when the two treatments were combined, no survivors were detected after 10 min at all temperatures and inoculum levels on both leafy greens. These results indicated that the BEC8/TC combination was highly effective against EHEC on both leafy greens. This combination could potentially be used as an antimicrobial to inactivate EHEC O157:H7 and reduce their incidence in the food chain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  6. Uterine Leiomyoma: Hysterosalpingographic Appearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of genital tract. The etiology of myomasis unknown. Leiomyoma shows a broad spectrum of radiographic appearances depending on thenumber, size, and location of the tumor. The diagnostic method for uterine leiomyomas is basedprimarily on the clinical situation. Despite of the varied diagnostic options such as; transvaginalsonography, sonohysterography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy and MRI; hysterosalpingography isstill one of the valuable imaging methods for identification of uterine leiomyoma.The various features of the proved leiomyoma are illustrated in this pictorial review. The incidence,risk factors and clinical features will also be discussed briefly.

  7. Wavelet Enhanced Appearance Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Forchhammer, Søren; Cootes, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    Generative segmentation methods such as the Active Appearance Models (AAM) establish dense correspondences by modelling variation of shape and pixel intensities. Alas, for 3D and high-resolution 2D images typical in medical imaging, this approach is rendered infeasible due to excessive storage......-7 wavelets on face images have shown that segmentation accuracy degrades gracefully with increasing compression ratio. Further, a proposed weighting scheme emphasizing edges was shown to be significantly more accurate at compression ratio 1:1, than a conventional AAM. At higher compression ratios the scheme...

  8. Selective Hydrodeoxygenation of Vegetable Oils and Waste Cooking Oils to Green Diesel Using a Silica-Supported Ir-ReOx Bimetallic Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sibao; Simonetti, Trent; Zheng, Weiqing; Saha, Basudeb

    2018-05-09

    High yields of diesel-range alkanes are prepared by hydrodeoxygenation of vegetable oils and waste cooking oils over ReO x -modified Ir/SiO 2 catalysts under mild reaction conditions. The catalyst containing a Re/Ir molar ratio of 3 exhibits the best performance, achieving 79-85 wt % yield of diesel-range alkanes at 453 K and 2 MPa H 2 . The yield is nearly quantitative for the theoretical possible long-chain alkanes on the basis of weight of the converted oils. The catalyst retains comparable activity upon regeneration through calcination. Control experiments using probe molecules as model substrates suggest that C=C bonds of unsaturated triglycerides and free fatty acids are first hydrogenated to their corresponding saturated intermediates, which are then converted to aldehyde intermediates through hydrogenolysis of acyl C-O bonds and subsequently hydrogenated to fatty alcohols. Finally, long-chain alkanes without any carbon loss are formed by direct hydrogenolysis of the fatty alcohols. Small amounts of alkanes with one carbon fewer are also formed by decarbonylation of the aldehyde intermediates. A synergy between Ir and partially reduced ReO x sites is discussed to elucidate the high activity of Ir-ReO x /SiO 2. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  10. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-02

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  11. Saliency Changes Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzel, Dirk; Schönhammer, Josef; Burra, Nicolas; Born, Sabine; Souto, David

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the deployment of attention is linked to saliency. In contrast, very little is known about how salient objects are perceived. To probe the perception of salient elements, observers compared two horizontally aligned stimuli in an array of eight elements. One of them was salient because of its orientation or direction of motion. We observed that the perceived luminance contrast or color saturation of the salient element increased: the salient stimulus looked even more salient. We explored the possibility that changes in appearance were caused by attention. We chose an event-related potential indexing attentional selection, the N2pc, to answer this question. The absence of an N2pc to the salient object provides preliminary evidence against involuntary attentional capture by the salient element. We suggest that signals from a master saliency map flow back into individual feature maps. These signals boost the perceived feature contrast of salient objects, even on perceptual dimensions different from the one that initially defined saliency. PMID:22162760

  12. Modeling a Hydrologically Optimal Green Roof Media Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Questions/MethodsA key environmental concern in managing urban ecosystems is controlling stormwater runoff to ameliorate pollution problems and sewage overflows. Vegetated green roofs have become an important green infrastructure tool to collect, store, and gradually r...

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, Solazyme, engineered microalgae to produce oils tailored to customers’ needs that can mimic or enhance properties of traditional vegetable oils.

  14. Multiseasonal-multispectral remote sensing of phenological change for natural vegetation inventory. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Variations in phenological development among plant species was noted, as well as the tendency for the seasonal appearance of some vegetation types to be dominated by the appearance of one or a few similarly developing species. Most of the common plants in the study area could be characterized by temporal aspects of their phenological development. There was a strong similarity among the spectral signatures of vegetation types in which the spectral return was dominated by green plant material. When the soil background dominated the spectral return from a vegetation stand, then the spectral radiance and the vegetation physiognomy were apparently related. When the deciduous shrubs lost their leaves, their spectral signature altered with a slight decrease of radiance in the visible wavelengths and a strong decrease in the near infrared. As the foliage of perennial grasses cured from August to November, its apparent green radiance remained unchanged, red radiance increased over 50 percent, and near infrared radiance decreased approximately 30 percent. A reflective mineral surface exhibited high radiance levels in all four bands, thus providing a marked contrast to the absorption characteristics of vegetation canopies.

  15. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  16. Visualising the environmental appearance of audio products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilma, M. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Stevels, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]|[Philips Consumer Electronics, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Christiaans, H.; Kandachar, P. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Can environmental friendliness be communicated by the design style and appearance of products? (such as form, colour, style or material)? Consumers are interested in buying environmental products and design styles might be used as communicative tools. However, current 'green' products show something else. Environmental aspects are chiefly promoted by marketing programs based on technical items like the use of materials, hazardous substances, energy consumption, etc. By a qualitative and exploratory research the environmental design styles according to consumers' opinions were analysed with larger audio products as case study. Visible distinctive differences can be identified between the most and the least environmental rated products. A 'Green flagship', which claims to be environmentally orientated, wasn't recognised as such by consumers. And women and men perceive environmental friendliness in another way. From this research can be concluded that more attention is needed to visualise the good technical environmental performance of products. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars, based on modeling supply chain logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; Franz, E

    2010-10-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference between simulating supply chain logistics (MOD) and assuming fixed storage times (FIX) in microbial risk estimation for the supply chain of fresh-cut leafy green vegetables destined for working-canteen salad bars. The results of the FIX model were previously published (E. Franz, S. O. Tromp, H. Rijgersberg, and H. J. van der Fels-Klerx, J. Food Prot. 73:274-285, 2010). Pathogen growth was modeled using stochastic discrete-event simulation of the applied logistics concept. The public health effects were assessed by conducting an exposure assessment and risk characterization. The relative growths of Escherichia coli O157 (17%) and Salmonella enterica (15%) were identical in the MOD and FIX models. In contrast, the relative growth of Listeria monocytogenes was considerably higher in the MOD model (1,156%) than in the FIX model (194%). The probability of L. monocytogenes infection in The Netherlands was higher in the MOD model (5.18×10(-8)) than in the FIX model (1.23×10(-8)). The risk of listeriosis-induced fetal mortality in the perinatal population increased from 1.24×10(-4) (FIX) to 1.66×10(-4) (MOD). Modeling the probabilistic nature of supply chain logistics is of additional value for microbial risk assessments regarding psychrotrophic pathogens in food products for which time and temperature are the postharvest preventive measures in guaranteeing food safety.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Prof Richard P. Wool of the University of Delaware, created high-performance materials using vegetable oils, feathers, and flax. Can be used as adhesives, composites, foams, and circuit boards.

  19. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  20. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  1. Mineral elements of some green vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Tabassum, R.; Yousaf, M.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the mineral components of Allium porrum Linn, Brassica rapa and Medicago denticulata were studied. Extraction of minerals was carried out in three different ways (I) Ash solution was prepared and used for the determination of Na, K, Ca, P, Fe and Mg. (II) Perchloric acid extraction was employed for Na, K, Fe, Mg, Cu and Zinc. (III) Solvent extraction was used for Na and K. Determination of calcium was done titrimetrically, Na and K. Flame photometrically, P, Fe and Mg Spectrophotometrically, Cu and Zinc Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometrically. Allium porrum Linn was rich in Ca, K and Zinc, in Brassica rapa Fe, Mg and Na in Medicago denticalata P contents were greater. (author)

  2. Mineral elements of some green vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A S; Tabassum, R; Yousaf, M [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    Some of the mineral components of Allium porrum Linn, Brassica rapa and Medicago denticulata were studied. Extraction of minerals was carried out in three different ways (I) Ash solution was prepared and used for the determination of Na, K, Ca, P, Fe and Mg. (II) Perchloric acid extraction was employed for Na, K, Fe, Mg, Cu and Zinc. (III) Solvent extraction was used for Na and K. Determination of calcium was done titrimetrically, Na and K. Flame photometrically, P, Fe and Mg Spectrophotometrically, Cu and Zinc Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometrically. Allium porrum Linn was rich in Ca, K and Zinc, in Brassica rapa Fe, Mg and Na in Medicago denticalata P contents were greater. (author)

  3. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  4. Effects of Warming Hiatuses on Vegetation Growth in the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been hiatuses in global warming since the 1990s, and their potential impacts have attracted extensive attention and discussion. Changes in temperature not only directly affect the greening of vegetation but can also indirectly alter both the growth state and the growth tendency of vegetation by altering other climatic elements. The middle-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (NH constitute the region that has experienced the most warming in recent decades; therefore, identifying the effects of warming hiatuses on the vegetation greening in that region is of great importance. Using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data and climatological observation data from 1982–2013, we investigated hiatuses in warming trends and their impact on vegetation greenness in the NH. Our results show that the regions with warming hiatuses in the NH accounted for 50.1% of the total area and were concentrated in Mongolia, central China, and other areas. Among these regions, 18.8% of the vegetation greenness was inhibited in the warming hiatus areas, but 31.3% of the vegetation grew faster. Because temperature was the main positive climatic factor in central China, the warming hiatuses caused the slow vegetation greening rate. However, precipitation was the main positive climatic factor affecting vegetation greenness in Mongolia; an increase in precipitation accelerated vegetation greening. The regions without a warming hiatus, which were mainly distributed in northern Russia, northern central Asia, and other areas, accounted for 49.9% of the total area. Among these regions, 21.4% of the vegetation grew faster over time, but 28.5% of the vegetation was inhibited. Temperature was the main positive factor affecting vegetation greenness in northern Russia; an increase in temperature promoted vegetation greening. However, radiation was the main positive climatic factor in northern central Asia; reductions in radiation

  5. The potential of building envelope greening to achieve quietness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Renterghem, T.; Hornikx, M.C.J.; Forssén, J.; Botteldooren, D.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of noise is one of the multiple benefits of building envelope greening measures. The potential of wall vegetation systems, green roofs, vegetated low screens at roof edges, and also combinations of such treatments, have been studied by means of combining 2D and 3D full-wave numerical

  6. GREEN ROOFS — A GROWING TREND

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are “green roofs”. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

  7. Trends in the design, construction and operation of green roofs to improve the rainwater quality. State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Andrés Morales Mojica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The green roofs appear as technology for the improvement water quality. This article identifies trends in the conditions of design, construction and operation of green roofs, which aim is to improve the quality of rainwater. A literature review was carried out in order to collect 45 original research papers from databases as Scopus, Science Direct, and Redalyc. From the information collected trends in increments and reductions in the concentrations of the main water quality parameters, seasons of the year with the best results, types of green roofs , types of substrate and most common components, construction trends (dimensions, inclination, Materials and layers and vegetation used in these systems have been determined. The results show that green roofs have the ability to neutralize acid rain. Extensive type roofs are the ones most commonly used, due to its characteristics of construction, functionality and low maintenance requirements.

  8. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  9. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    O.M. Ramos-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by...

  10. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  11. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  12. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  13. Ovarian metastases: Computed tomographic appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Hulnick, D.H.; Bosniak, M.A.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomographic scans of 34 patients with ovarian metastases were reviewed to assess the radiographic appearances and to correlate these with the primary neoplasms. Primary neoplasms were located in the colon (20 patients), breast (six), stomach (five), small bowel (one), bladder (one), and Wilms tumor of the kidney (one). The radiographic appearance of the metastatic lesions could be described as predominantly cystic (14 lesions), mixed (12 lesions), or solid (seven lesions). The cystic and mixed lesions tended to be larger in overall diameter than the solid. The metastases from gastric carcinoma appeared solid in four of five cases. The metastases from the other neoplasms had variable appearances simulating primary ovarian carcinoma

  14. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  15. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  16. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  17. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  18. Fast Newton active appearance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are statistical models of shape and appearance widely used in computer vision to detect landmarks on objects like faces. Fitting an AAM to a new image can be formulated as a non-linear least-squares problem which is typically solved using iterative methods. Owing to

  19. Using soil microbial inoculations to enhance substrate performance on extensive green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineux, Chloe J; Gange, Alan C; Newport, Darryl J

    2017-02-15

    Green roofs are increasing in popularity in the urban environment for their contribution to green infrastructure; but their role for biodiversity is not often a design priority. Maximising biodiversity will impact positively on ecosystem services and is therefore fundamental for achieving the greatest benefits from green roofs. Extensive green roofs are lightweight systems generally constructed with a specialised growing medium that tends to be biologically limited and as such can be a harsh habitat for plants to thrive in. Thus, this investigation aimed to enhance the soil functioning with inoculations of soil microbes to increase plant diversity, improve vegetation health/performance and maximise access to soil nutrients. Manipulations included the addition of mycorrhizal fungi and a microbial mixture ('compost tea') to green roof rootzones, composed mainly of crushed brick or crushed concrete. The study revealed that growing media type and depth play a vital role in the microbial ecology of green roofs, with complex relationships between depth and type of substrate and the type of microbial inoculant applied, with no clear pattern being observed. For bait plant measurements (heights, leaf numbers, root/shoot biomass, leaf nutrients), a compost tea may have positive effects on plant performance when grown in substrates of shallower depths (5.5cm), even one year after inoculums are applied. Results from the species richness surveys show that diversity was significantly increased with the application of an AM fungal treatment and that overall, results suggest that brick-based substrate blends are most effective for vegetation performance as are deeper depths (although this varied with time). Microbial inoculations of green roof habitats appeared to be sustainable; they need only be done once for benefits to still been seen in subsequent years where treatments are added independently (not in combination). They seem to be a novel and viable method of enhancing

  20. Inventory of Green Spaces and Woody Plants in the Urban Landscape in Ariogala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Straigytė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Regulation of urban greenery design, management and protection was approved in 2008 in Lithuania after the Green Space Law was passed, allowing protection of public green spaces and woody plants. Protection of these resources first requires an inventory, and we have created a digital database that will help in management of urban green spaces. Material and Methods: An inventory of green spaces and woody plants was conducted in the public urban territory of Ariogala, using GIS technology. A digital cartographic database was created using ArcGis 9.1 software. Results and Conclusion: Most of the woody plants in the survey area are deciduous trees, and the survey results highlighted the major green space management problems. Often, planted trees grow under power lines, and their crowns touch the power cables. Near blocks of flats, trees are often in the wrong place-planted too close to buildings, trees shade windows and their roots heave pavers and penetrate building foundations. According to the inventory, street trees sustain the most damage, most commonly showing injuries on their trunks and roots. Leaves of Aesculus hipocastanum L. show massive damage from Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, and Tilia cordata Mill. are damaged by Cercospora microsora Sacc. T. cordata is a favourite city tree, but is susceptible to infestation and when damaged appears unsightly, ending its vegetation period very early. The inventory of green spaces also showed that there are sufficient public parks.

  1. Interpretation of variations in MODIS-measured greenness levels of Amazon forests during 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Arindam; Myneni, Ranga B; Ganguly, Sangram; Vermote, Eric; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates variations in satellite-measured greenness of Amazon forests using ten years of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data. Corruption of optical remote sensing data with clouds and aerosols is prevalent in this region; filtering corrupted data causes spatial sampling constraints, as well as reducing the record length, which introduces large biases in estimates of greenness anomalies. The EVI data, analyzed in multiple ways and taking into account EVI accuracy, consistently show a pattern of negligible changes in the greenness levels of forests both in the area affected by drought in 2005 and outside it. Small random patches of anomalous greening and browning—especially prominent in 2009—appear in all ten years, irrespective of contemporaneous variations in precipitation, but with no persistence over time. The fact that over 90% of the EVI anomalies are insignificantly small—within the envelope of error (95% confidence interval) in EVI—warrants cautious interpretation of these results: there were no changes in the greenness of these forests, or if there were changes, the EVI data failed to capture these either because the constituent reflectances were saturated or the moderate resolution precluded viewing small-scale variations. This suggests a need for more accurate and spatially resolved synoptic views from satellite data and corroborating comprehensive ground sampling to understand the greenness dynamics of these forests. (letter)

  2. Interpretation of Variations in Modis-Measured Greenness Levels of Amazon Forests During 2000 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Arindam; Ganguly, Sangram; Vermote, Eric; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates variations in satellite-measured greenness of Amazon forests using ten years of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data. Corruption of optical remote sensing data with clouds and aerosols is prevalent in this region; filtering corrupted data causes spatial sampling constraints, as well as reducing the record length, which introduces large biases in estimates of greenness anomalies. The EVI data, analyzed in multiple ways and taking into account EVI accuracy, consistently show a pattern of negligible changes in the greenness levels of forests both in the area affected by drought in 2005 and outside it. Small random patches of anomalous greening and browning-especially prominent in 2009-appear in all ten years, irrespective of contemporaneous variations in precipitation, but with no persistence over time. The fact that over 90% of the EVI anomalies are insignificantly small-within the envelope of error (95% confidence interval) in EVI-warrants cautious interpretation of these results: there were no changes in the greenness of these forests, or if there were changes, the EVI data failed to capture these either because the constituent reflectances were saturated or the moderate resolution precluded viewing small-scale variations. This suggests a need for more accurate and spatially resolved synoptic views from satellite data and corroborating comprehensive ground sampling to understand the greenness dynamics of these forests.

  3. Evolution, Appearance, and Occupational Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Little

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a “kernel of truth” in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term “task-congruent selection” to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases

  4. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  5. The influence of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs on rainwater runoff quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua

    2017-08-15

    This study investigates the ability of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs to retain rainwater and reduce pollutant leaching. The substrates in dual-substrate-layer green roofs consist of an upper organic nutrition layer for plant growth and a lower inorganic adsorption layer for water retention and pollutant reduction. One traditional single-substrate-layer extensive green roof was built for comparison with dual-substrate-layer green roofs. During the experimental period, dual-substrate-layer green roofs supported better natural vegetation growth, with coverage exceeding 90%, while the coverage in single-substrate-layer green roof was over 80%. Based on the average retention value of the total rainfall for four types of simulated rains (the total rainfall depth (mm) was 43.2, 54.6, 76.2 and 86.4, respectively), the dual-substrate-layer green roofs, which used the mixture of activated charcoal with perlite and vermiculite as the adsorption substrate, possessed better rainfall retention performance (65.9% and 55.4%) than the single-substrate-layer green roof (52.5%). All of the dual-substrate-layer green roofs appeared to be sinks for organics, heavy metals and all forms of nitrogen in all cases, while acted as sources of phosphorus contaminants in the case of heavy rains. In consideration of the factors of water retention, pollution reduction and service life of the green roof, a mixture of activated charcoal and/or pumice with perlite and vermiculite is recommended as the adsorption substrate. The green roofs were able to mitigate mild acid rain, raising the pH from approximately 5.6 in rainfall to 6.5-7.6 in green roof runoff. No signs of a first flush effect for phosphate, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, organics, zinc, lead, chromium, manganese, copper, pH or turbidity were found in the green roof runoff. Cost analysis further proved the practicability of dual-substrate-layer green roofs in retaining rainwater, and

  6. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  7. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  8. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  9. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  10. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  11. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Y. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

  12. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  13. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  14. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  15. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  16. Proceedings of the 5. annual international greening rooftops for sustainable communities conference, awards and trade show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss a broad range of benefits associated with green roof construction. In addition to creating green space, green roofs save energy, mitigate the urban heat island effect, clean stormwater runoff, attenuate sound, and provide aesthetic value. Strategies to promote the widespread adoption of green roof technology in North America were presented along with federal policies and standards that support green roof applications. Some timely green roofing topics were also addressed, such as the residential green roof market and urban agriculture. Innovative research programs and demonstration programs were highlighted along with policy developments in countries where green roof technology has been widely implemented. Public outreach, training and education programs were also reviewed. The conference was divided into the following sessions: stormwater policy development; green roofs in Minnesota and Chicago; stormwater management and other benefits of green roofs; greening the green roof system; development of green roof standards and policies; stormwater management and life cycle calculation; stormwater research; overcoming the challenge of the residential green roof market; feasibility and impact assessments of green roof programs; green roof design case studies; energy and thermal performance; urban agriculture and green roofs; green roof policy, incentives and regulations in the City of Minneapolis; innovative uses of green roofs; green roof growing medium and vegetation; green walls and green roof gardens; studies on the benefits of green roofs; and, careers in greening. The conference featured 47 presentations, of which 34 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Vegetation coupling to global climate: Trajectories of vegetation change and phenology modeling from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jeremy Isaac

    Important systematic shifts in ecosystem function are often masked by natural variability. The rich legacy of over two decades of continuous satellite observations provides an important database for distinguishing climatological and anthropogenic ecosystem changes. Examples from semi-arid Sudanian West Africa and New England (USA) illustrate the response of vegetation to climate and land-use. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, pastoral and agricultural practices compete for land area, while degradation may follow intensification. The Nouhao Valley is a natural experiment in which pastoral and agricultural land uses were allocated separate, coherent reserves. Trajectories of annual net primary productivity were derived from 18 years of coarse-grain (AVHRR) satellite data. Trends suggested that pastoral lands had responded rigorously to increasing rainfall after the 1980's droughts. A detailed analysis at Landsat resolution (30m) indicated that the increased vegetative cover was concentrated in the river basins of the pastoral region, implying a riparian wood expansion. In comparison, riparian cover was reduced in agricultural regions. We suggest that broad-scale patterns of increasing semi-arid West African greenness may be indicative of climate variability, whereas local losses may be anthropogenic in nature. The contiguous deciduous forests, ocean proximity, topography, and dense urban developments of New England provide an ideal landscape to examine influences of climate variability and the impact of urban development vegetation response. Spatial and temporal patterns of interannual climate variability were examined via green leaf phenology. Phenology, or seasonal growth and senescence, is driven by deficits of light, temperature, and water. In temperate environments, phenology variability is driven by interannual temperature and precipitation shifts. Average and interannual phenology analyses across southern New England were conducted at resolutions of 30m (Landsat

  18. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  19. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  20. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  1. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  2. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksit Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing “greener” construction without making significant changes in the urban environment.

  3. Adolescent perceptions of cigarette appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Allison; Moodie, Crawford; MacKintosh, Anne M; Hastings, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    To reduce the possibility of cigarette appearance misleading consumers about harm caused by the product, the European Commission's draft Tobacco Products Directive proposed banning cigarettes implied a more pleasant and palatable smoke for young smokers. A long brown cigarette was viewed as particularly unattractive and communicated a stronger and more harmful product. This exploratory study provides some support that standardising cigarette appearance could reduce the appeal of cigarettes in adolescents and reduce the opportunity for stick design to mislead young smokers in terms of harm. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Appearance, discrimination, and reaction qualifications

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    When are selectors for advantaged social positions morally justified in giving weight to the appearance of the candidates? In order to address this issue adequately, we need to know when a person’s appearance can be a legitimate qualification for a position. Some of the hardest cases are jobs that involve interacting with clients or customers who prefer to deal with good-looking employees or who respond more favourably to them. But there is also a wide range of difficult cases in which an unc...

  5. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  6. Optical appearance of white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  7. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  8. SMEX02 Watershed Vegetation Sampling Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the vegetation parameters stand density, plant height, phenological stage, ground cover, green and dry biomass, row spacing, stem and leaf...

  9. African leafy vegetables consumed by households in the Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pureed green leafy vegetables was shown to have a beneficial effect ..... was regarded as very nutritious; “having it is just like having meat”. ...... chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc.

  10. Green investment: Trends and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment

  11. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  12. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

    2013-02-01

    This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

  13. Thermal insulation performance of green roof systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Serdar; Morgan, Susan; Retzlaff, William; Once, Orcun [southern Illinois University (United States)], e-mail: scelik@siue.edu, e-mail: smorgan@siue.edu, e-mail: wretzla@siue.edu, e-mail: oonce@siue.edu

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing costs of energy, good building insulation has become increasingly important. Among existing insulation techniques is the green roof system, which consists of covering the roof of a building envelop with plants. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of vegetation type and growth media on the thermal performance of green roof systems. Twelve different green roof samples were made with 4 different growth media and 3 sedum types. Temperature at the sample base was recorded every 15 minutes for 3 years; the insulation behavior was then analysed. Results showed that the insulation characteristics were achieved with a combination of haydite and sedum sexangulare. This study demonstrated that the choice of growth media and vegetation is important to the green roof system's performance; further research is required to better understand the interactions between growth media and plant roots.

  14. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  15. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yanwei; Zhang Jingwen; Wu Jianlin; Zhou Yong; Li Mingwu; Lei Zhen; Shi Lifu

    2006-01-01

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  16. Benign chondroblastoma - malignant radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Treugut, H.; Mueller, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    The very rare benign chondroblastoma occasionally invades soft tissues and may grow beyond the epiphysis into the metaphysis. In the present case such a tumour did not show the typical radiological appearances, but presented malignant features both on plain films and on the angiogram. The importance of biopsy of tumours which cannot be identified with certainty must be stressed before radical surgery is carried out.

  17. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  19. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kransdorf, M.J.; Murphey, M.D.; Temple, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.)

  20. The imaging appearance of crayons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, Aaron S.; Jones, Blaise V.; Lall, Neil U.; Tawfik, Kareem O.

    2017-01-01

    A crayon fragment was determined to be the source of a foreign body inflammatory process in the masticator space of a 15-month-old boy. The appearance of the crayon on CT and MR imaging was unexpected, leading to a further analysis of the imaging features of crayons. To investigate and characterize the imaging appearance of crayons at CT and MRI. The authors obtained CT and MR images of 22 crayons from three manufacturers and three non-pigmented crayons cast by the authors. CT attenuation of the crayons and diameter of the MRI susceptibility signal dropout were plotted versus brand and color. All crayons demonstrated a longitudinal central hypo-attenuating tract. Crayon attenuation varied by brand and color. All of the crayons demonstrated a signal void on T1 and T2 imaging and signal dropout on susceptibility-weighted imaging, the diameter of which varied by brand and color. Understanding the imaging appearance of crayons could help in the correct identification of a crayon as a foreign body on imaging studies, even when it is located in unusual places. (orig.)

  1. MR appearance of central neurocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.H.; Han, M.H.; Kim, D.G.; Chi, J.G.; Suh, D.C.; Kim, S.J.; Cha, S.H.; Han, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    To provide a detailed description of the MR appearances of central neurocytoma, MR images of 13 patients with central neurocytoma were retrospectively reviewed and compared with CT examinations. The histology was confirmed by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. In 12 patients the tumors were histologically benign and located in the anterior part of the lateral ventricle, 6 of which extended to the 3rd ventricle. There was one case of a histologically malignant variant involving the thalamus and lateral ventricle. The tumors were primarily solid, but contained cysts (85%, 11/13), calcifications (69%, 9/13), and signal void from tumor vessels (62%, 8/13), frequently producing heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Most of the solid portion appeared isointense or slightly hyperintense relative to the cerebral cortex on all MR pulse sequences. Calcifications were iso- or hypointense on MR, making them difficult to characterize with MR alone. Intratumoral hemorrhage was seen in 2 patients on MR but not on CT. Contrast enhancement was variable in degree and pattern. Coronal and sagittal MR images were valuable in evaluating the tumor extent and origin site, and in planning the surgical approach. It is concluded that MR imaging appears to be more useful than CT in the overall evaluation of central neurocytoma, even though calcification is better characterized with CT. (orig.)

  2. The imaging appearance of crayons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, Aaron S.; Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lall, Neil U. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ochsner Health System, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Tawfik, Kareem O. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A crayon fragment was determined to be the source of a foreign body inflammatory process in the masticator space of a 15-month-old boy. The appearance of the crayon on CT and MR imaging was unexpected, leading to a further analysis of the imaging features of crayons. To investigate and characterize the imaging appearance of crayons at CT and MRI. The authors obtained CT and MR images of 22 crayons from three manufacturers and three non-pigmented crayons cast by the authors. CT attenuation of the crayons and diameter of the MRI susceptibility signal dropout were plotted versus brand and color. All crayons demonstrated a longitudinal central hypo-attenuating tract. Crayon attenuation varied by brand and color. All of the crayons demonstrated a signal void on T1 and T2 imaging and signal dropout on susceptibility-weighted imaging, the diameter of which varied by brand and color. Understanding the imaging appearance of crayons could help in the correct identification of a crayon as a foreign body on imaging studies, even when it is located in unusual places. (orig.)

  3. VEGETABLE PEELS: A PROMISING FEED RESOURCE FOR LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN; Syeda Ayesha SULTANA; Mohammad Hasanul KARIM; Md. Imran AHMED

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different vegetable peels available in Rangunia, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Total 10 different vegetable peels i.e., Banana blossom (Musa sapientum), Bottle gourd peel (Lagenaria siceraria), Brinjal peel (Solanum melongena), Gram husk (Cicer arietinum), Green banana peel (Musa sapieutum), Green coconut peel (Cocos nucifera), Pea husk (Pisum sativum), Potato peel (Solanum tuberosum), Pumpkin peel (Cucurbita maxima), Ripe banana peel...

  4. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  5. CONFIRMAÇÃO DA IDENTIDADE DA alfa-CRIPTOXANTINA E INCIDÊNCIA DE CAROTENÓIDES MINORITÁRIOS PROVITAMÍNICOS A EM VERDURAS FOLHOSAS VERDES CONFIRMATION OF THE IDENTITY OF alpha-CRYPTOXANTHIN AND INCIDENCE OF MINOR PROVITAMIN A CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Z. MERCADANTE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos trabalhos comprovaram que os carotenóides principais de folhas verdes são invariavelmente luteína, beta-caroteno, violaxantina e neoxantina. No entanto, há discordância em torno dos carotenóides minoritários. Portanto, a espectrometria de massas por impacto de elétrons e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos foram utilizados para confirmar a identidade de carotenóides minoritários com atividade provitamínica A em verduras folhosas brasileiras. Os carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, incluindo os isômeros cis e trans de beta-caroteno, foram separados em coluna de C18 polimérica, Vydac 201TP54, com metanol/água (98:2 como fase móvel. Os espectros UV-visível e de massas confirmaram o carotenóide monoidroxilado como sendo alfa-criptoxantina e não beta-criptoxantina como aponta a literatura internacional. Todas as onze folhas analisadas (agrião, alface crespa, alface lisa, almeirão, caruru, chicória, couve, espinafre, rúcula, salsinha e taioba apresentaram alfa-criptoxantina, 13-cis-beta-caroteno e 9-cis-beta-caroteno, enquanto que alfa-caroteno foi encontrado em apenas quatro folhas (caruru, couve, salsinha e taioba.The main carotenoids from green leafy vegetables have been consistently found to be lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. However, there is a controversy about the identity of minor carotenoids. Therefore, electron impact mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector were used in order to confirm the identity of the minor provitamin A carotenoids in Brazilian green leaves. The provitamin A carotenoids, including the cis and trans isomers of beta-carotene, were separated on a polymeric C18 column, Vydac 201TP54, with MeOH/H2O (98:2 as mobile phase. The UV-visible and mass spectra confirmed that the monohydroxy carotenoid present in Brazilian green leafy vegetable to be alpha-cryptoxanthin, and not beta

  6. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  7. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  8. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  9. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  10. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  11. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  12. Scintigraphic appearances of Gaucher's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Araki, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Sanshin; Yamada, Kayoko; Seto, Kazuhiko

    1985-01-01

    Gaucher's disease is an inborn error of metabolism in which glucocerebroside accumlates within reticuloendotherial cells of spleen, liver and bone marrow. The scintigraphic appearances are described in a 19-year-old man with Gaucher's disease. The colloid scan showed increased uptake in the lung and bone marrow of legs where the reticuloendotherial system was activated. The bone scan demonstrated increased activity in the metaphyseal and diaphyseal region infiltrated by Gaucher's cell. Ga-67 was thought to be accumlated in the progressive focus of the disease. (author)

  13. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  14. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  15. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-K.; Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C.; Cazzato, R.L.; Duddalwar, V.A.; Chang, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  16. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament.

  17. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Cargill, Inc., developed a vegetable-oil-based transformer fluid that is much less flammable, provides superior performance, is less toxic, and has a substantially lower carbon footprint.

  19. Optical appearance of distant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.; Kline, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the recent evolutionary and K-corrections of Bruzual and Kron to predict the optical appearance of galaxies spanning a wide range of magnitudes and redshifts. It is found that nearly all galaxies with J< or approx. =25 are resolved in 1-arcsec seeing. At fixed apparent magnitude, galaxies with large redshifts are more diffuse in appearance than those at small z. This fact causes the most distant galaxies at any magnitude level to be missed, and, depending on the measurement algorithm employed, may cause the luminosities of detected galaxies to be seriously underestimated. Both of these effects deserve consideration when attempting to interpret number counts of faint galaxies. Observations made with the Space Telescope are expected to resolve nearly all galaxies at J< or approx. =27.5; however, several factors conspire to render Space Telescope observations less effective than certain ground-based CCD observations for the optical detection of distant galaxies. Finally, we note that most of our conclusions are unaffected by changes in the assumed cosmology

  20. Green and lean management

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book focusses on the challenges and changes organizational management faces in an era when the need to develop environmentally aware processes meets high levels of competition. It covers the synergetic effects, how re-use, recycling, waste reduction, and other sustainable production strategies can add value, low costs and time of production. Sustainable business behavior is not only an environmental perspective on management, but more and more contains an organizational perspective. Taking into account these issues, green and lean management appears as the way managers can drive their employees to continuously improve the management processes that add value to the organization and costumers. This book provides information on principles, strategies, models, and applications of green and lean management, and at the same time communicates the latest research activity relating to this scientific field world-wide.

  1. Residential Surrounding Greenness, Self-Rated Health and Interrelations with Aspects of Neighborhood Environment and Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Ester; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Previous research suggests that green environments positively influence health. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed; one of them is facilitation of social interaction. Further, greener neighborhoods may appear more aesthetic, contributing to satisfaction and well-being. Aim of this study was to analyze the association of residential surrounding greenness with self-rated health, using data from 4480 women and men aged 45-75 years that participated in the German population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. We further aimed to explore the relationships of greenness and self-rated health with the neighborhood environment and social relations. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m around participants' residence. As a result, we found that with higher greenness, poor self-rated health decreased (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; per 0.1 increase in NDVI), while neighborhood satisfaction (1.41, 1.23-1.61) and neighborhood social capital (1.22, 1.12-1.32) increased. Further, we observed inverse associations of neighborhood satisfaction (0.70, 0.52-0.94), perceived safety (0.36, 0.22-0.60), social satisfaction (0.43, 0.31-0.58), and neighborhood social capital (0.53, 0.44-0.64) with poor self-rated health. These results underline the importance of incorporating green elements into neighborhoods for health-promoting urban development strategies.

  2. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  3. Ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Ben, R. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Dehghanpisheh, K.; Chatham, W.W.; Alarcon, G.S. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Lee, D.H.; Oakes, J. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Surgery

    2006-11-15

    We describe the ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads. Retrospective analysis of imaging in a series of five patients initially referred for evaluation of periarticular soft-tissue swelling of the hands involving the dorsum of the PIP and MP joints. Two patients had associated Dupuytren's contractures. Ultrasound and radiographs of the hands in all patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical history and physical exams. Radiographs in four patients demonstrated dorsal soft-tissue thickening. Ultrasound exams showed increased dorsal subcutaneous thickening, with either diffuse or focal hypoechoic areas corresponding to the areas of soft-tissue fullness identified on physical exam. No erosions or synovial proliferation were identified either by radiographs or ultrasound of the underlying joints. Knuckle pads can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from synovitis on physical examination. Musculoskeletal ultrasound can quickly identify these superficial lesions and exclude underlying synovial proliferation.

  4. Climate contributions to vegetation variations in Central Asian drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Li; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia comprises a large fraction of the world's drylands, known to be vulnerable to climate change. We analyzed the inter-annual trends and the impact of climate variability in the vegetation greenness for Central Asia from 1982 to 2011 using GIMMS3g normalized difference vegetation index...

  5. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  6. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksit, Barbara; Majcherek, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing "greener" construction without making significant changes in the urban environment. The article includes a presentation and analysis of selected solutions of biological surfaces known as green roofs and green walls, specifying various solutions and their most important features. The case study focuses primarily on material and design solutions, as well as the potential benefits, risks and limitations in their use. Plants structures on the surfaces of vertical and horizontal partitions continue to be a very interesting alternative to take into account when applying for grants, such as LEED or BREEAM certificates.

  7. Strong impacts of daily minimum temperature on the green-up date and summer greenness of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Fu, Yongshuo H; Wang, Shiping; Cong, Nan; Janssens, Ivan A

    2016-09-01

    Understanding vegetation responses to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) helps in elucidating the land-atmosphere energy exchange, which affects air mass movement over and around the TP. Although the TP is one of the world's most sensitive regions in terms of climatic warming, little is known about how the vegetation responds. Here, we focus on how spring phenology and summertime greenness respond to the asymmetric warming, that is, stronger warming during nighttime than during daytime. Using both in situ and satellite observations, we found that vegetation green-up date showed a stronger negative partial correlation with daily minimum temperature (Tmin ) than with maximum temperature (Tmax ) before the growing season ('preseason' henceforth). Summer vegetation greenness was strongly positively correlated with summer Tmin , but negatively with Tmax . A 1-K increase in preseason Tmin advanced green-up date by 4 days (P greenness by 3.6% relative to the mean greenness during 2000-2004 (P green-up date (P > 0.10) and higher summer Tmax even reduced greenness by 2.6% K(-1) (P greenness were probably due to the accompanying decline in water availability. The dominant enhancing effect of nighttime warming indicates that climatic warming will probably have stronger impact on TP ecosystems than on apparently similar Arctic ecosystems where vegetation is controlled mainly by Tmax . Our results are crucial for future improvements of dynamic vegetation models embedded in the Earth System Models which are being used to describe the behavior of the Asian monsoon. The results are significant because the state of the vegetation on the TP plays an important role in steering the monsoon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of atmospheric sulfur dioxide on the incidence of injury symptoms in vegetable crops and on their growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T; Ishikawa, H

    1971-05-01

    Four types of fruit crops (tomato, eggplant, cucumber, and green pepper), two types of root crops (turnip and radish), and four types of leaf crops (Chinese cabbage, cabbage, lettuce, and spinach) were continuously exposed for periods of 14-56 days to gas with a concentration of 0-0.26 ppm in order to study the effects of SO/sub 2/ on vegetable crops. The injury symptoms which were observed included: grayish-white or brown flecks on the leaves, yellowing of the leaves, and morphological changes in the leaves. The green peppers and radishes had the greatest resistance to SO/sub 2/ of all the vegetable crops tested; no injury symptoms appeared at 0.26 ppm; and there was no inhibition of their growth. The spinach was the most sensitive, injury symptoms appearing in one day (during summer and autumn) at 0.26 ppm. The other crops displayed a medium degree of sensitivity. That is, no injury symptoms appeared at a low concentration of 0.065 ppm; inhibition of growth was observed only in turnips, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage; but the others were not inhibited. There were no direct effects on flowering and fruiting within the experimental range of gas concentrations. Injury symptoms tended to appear less readily during the winter season.

  9. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S VEGETABLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the situation of Romania’s vegetable market in the period 2007-2011 based on the statistical data regarding the main vegetables: tomatoes, onion, garlic, cabbage, green peppers and melons. The vegetable production increased by 33.99 from 3,166.8 tons in 2007 to 4,176.3 tons in 2011.This was due to the yield gain as follows: 58.55 % for melons, 27.62 % for green peppers, 27.05 % for tomatoes, 25.99 % for dry garlic, 24.96 % for dry onion, 12.61 % for white cabbage. In 2011, the contribution of various categories of vegetables to production was: 24.55 % white cabbage, 21.81 % tomatoes, 15.45 % melons, 9.44 % onion, 6.06 % green pepper, 1.59 % garlic and 21.1 % other vegetables. The contribution of the micro regions to vegetable production in 2011 was: 19.46 % South Muntenia, 18.95 % South East Romania, 17.30 % South West Oltenia, 15.92 % North East Romania, 10.43 % West Romania, 8.47 % North West Romania, 6.54 % Central Romania, 2.93 % Bucharest Ilfov. Vegetable production per inhabitant is higher in Romania compared to the average production per capita in the EU. The average consumption increased as a postive aspect reflecting the obtained production and import. Vegetable production should increase in order to cover much better the doestic market needs and support export to the EU market.

  11. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  12. Utilization of Yard for Vegetable Hydroponics in Serut Village, Panti Sub-District, Jember District

    OpenAIRE

    dewanti, parawita

    2018-01-01

    Vegetables as a horticultural product is a food source that is always consumed by humans daily, including in urban areas. Assorted Vegetables can be eaten raw or processed and it takes as a decoration on the food. Needs vegetables including lettuce, green pakcoy and other vegetables from day to day continues to increase. Therefore, it needs supply of vegetables from the area around the town of Jember including Serut Village, District Panti Sub-District, Jember District. Serut village has the ...

  13. Detecting inter-annual variability in the phenological characteristics of southern Africa’s vegetation using satellite imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available provides consistent measurements of vegetation greenness which captures phenological cycles and vegetation function. Understanding the inter-annual variability in phenology is imperative, as phenological changes will be one of the first signs of the impact...

  14. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  15. Greening the global water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Falkenmark, M.; Gerten, D.; Gordon, L.; Karlberg, L.; Rockström, J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryRecent developments of global models and data sets enable a new, spatially explicit and process-based assessment of green and blue water in food production and trade. An initial intercomparison of a range of different (hydrological, vegetation, crop, water resources and economic) models, confirms that green water use in global crop production is about 4-5 times greater than consumptive blue water use. Hence, the full green-to-blue spectrum of agricultural water management options needs to be used when tackling the increasing water gap in food production. The different models calculate considerable potentials for complementing the conventional approach of adding irrigation, with measures to increase water productivity, such as rainwater harvesting, supplementary irrigation, vapour shift and soil and nutrient management. Several models highlight Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, as a key region for improving water productivity in agriculture, by implementing these measures. Virtual water trade, mostly based on green water, helps to close the water gap in a number of countries. It is likely to become even more important in the future, when inequities in water availability are projected to grow, due to climate, population and other drivers of change. Further model developments and a rigorous green-blue water model intercomparison are proposed, to improve simulations at global and regional scale and to enable tradeoff analyses for the different adaptation options.

  16. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Facial appearance affects science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, Ana I; Callan, Mitchell J; Skylark, William J

    2017-06-06

    First impressions based on facial appearance predict many important social outcomes. We investigated whether such impressions also influence the communication of scientific findings to lay audiences, a process that shapes public beliefs, opinion, and policy. First, we investigated the traits that engender interest in a scientist's work, and those that create the impression of a "good scientist" who does high-quality research. Apparent competence and morality were positively related to both interest and quality judgments, whereas attractiveness boosted interest but decreased perceived quality. Next, we had members of the public choose real science news stories to read or watch and found that people were more likely to choose items that were paired with "interesting-looking" scientists, especially when selecting video-based communications. Finally, we had people read real science news items and found that the research was judged to be of higher quality when paired with researchers who look like "good scientists." Our findings offer insights into the social psychology of science, and indicate a source of bias in the dissemination of scientific findings to broader society.

  18. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  19. Utilization of Baked-Smashed Sweet Potato and Vegetables on Patisserie Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, A.; Subekti, S.; Sudewi, S.; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2018-02-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  20. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  1. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  2. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of U.S. Youth, 2009-2010. NCHS Data Brief. Number 156

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Rossen, Lauren M.; Harris, Diane M.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), 2010 encourage Americans, including youth, to increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Individuals are encouraged to "eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark-green and red and orange vegetables." Fruits and vegetables are sources of many under-consumed nutrients and consuming…

  3. Monitoring urban greenness dynamics using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muye Gan

    Full Text Available Urban greenness is increasingly recognized as an essential constituent of the urban environment and can provide a range of services and enhance residents' quality of life. Understanding the pattern of urban greenness and exploring its spatiotemporal dynamics would contribute valuable information for urban planning. In this paper, we investigated the pattern of urban greenness in Hangzhou, China, over the past two decades using time series Landsat-5 TM data obtained in 1990, 2002, and 2010. Multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was used to derive vegetation cover fractions at the subpixel level. An RGB-vegetation fraction model, change intensity analysis and the concentric technique were integrated to reveal the detailed, spatial characteristics and the overall pattern of change in the vegetation cover fraction. Our results demonstrated the ability of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis to accurately model the vegetation cover fraction in pixels despite the complex spectral confusion of different land cover types. The integration of multiple techniques revealed various changing patterns in urban greenness in this region. The overall vegetation cover has exhibited a drastic decrease over the past two decades, while no significant change occurred in the scenic spots that were studied. Meanwhile, a remarkable recovery of greenness was observed in the existing urban area. The increasing coverage of small green patches has played a vital role in the recovery of urban greenness. These changing patterns were more obvious during the period from 2002 to 2010 than from 1990 to 2002, and they revealed the combined effects of rapid urbanization and greening policies. This work demonstrates the usefulness of time series of vegetation cover fractions for conducting accurate and in-depth studies of the long-term trajectories of urban greenness to obtain meaningful information for sustainable urban development.

  4. Emprego da poda verde para a obtenção de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo em 'Niagara Branca' Green pruning to obtain two harvests by vegetative cicle on Niagara grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de épocas de poda verde em dois anos consecutivos visando obter a segunda safra de uva em um mesmo ciclo vegetativo na cv. Niágara Branca (Vitis labrusca L., cultivada no sistema em espaldeira. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul (RS, nas safras de 2003/2004 e 2004/2005. Os tratamentos constaram de três épocas de poda verde, realizadas imediatamente após a quarta folha acima do último cacho, e dois anos consecutivos de avaliação. Todas as plantas foram submetidas à superação de dormência mediante aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada a 2%. Analisou-se a duração dos estádios fenológicos, o período de maturação, a produção por planta, a massa fresca do cacho, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e a acidez total titulável. Observou-se que a época de realização da poda verde não afetou a quantidade, nem a qualidade da uva produzida na primeira colheita, apenas atrasando-a em uma semana. A poda verde realizada no início de novembro possibilitou a segunda colheita de uva, realizada entre março e abril, sendo uma alternativa de ampliação do período de oferta do produto no mercado.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green prunings on two consecutive years to obtain a second harvest of 'Niagara Branca' (Vitis labrusca grapevine in the same season. The experiment was carried out at Estação Experimental Agronômica of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, located at Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 growth seasons. The grapevines were conducted by cordon training. The treatments involved three dates of green pruning, performed at fourth leaf situated above the last grape, and two seasons. All the plants were sprayed with hidrogenate cianamide (2% to overcome dormency. Fenology, plant production, weight of grapes, °Brix and titratable acid were evaluated. The green pruning time

  5. Green functions of vortex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1981-01-01

    We study the euclidean Green functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarly for abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral. We explore the requirement that the Green functions depend only on the boundary of this surface. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green functions of the abelian Wilson loop and abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case, an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green functions of the Wilson and vortex operators, for a general gauge theory. The surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail. (orig.)

  6. Relationships between declining summer sea ice, increasing temperatures and changing vegetation in the Siberian Arctic tundra from MODIS time series (2000–11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrieux, L P; Bartholomeus, H; Herold, M; Verbesselt, J

    2012-01-01

    The concern about Arctic greening has grown recently as the phenomenon is thought to have significant influence on global climate via atmospheric carbon emissions. Earlier work on Arctic vegetation highlighted the role of summer sea ice decline in the enhanced warming and greening phenomena observed in the region, but did not contain enough details for spatially characterizing the interactions between sea ice, temperature and vegetation photosynthetic absorption. By using 1 km resolution data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) as a primary data source, this study presents detailed maps of vegetation and temperature trends for the Siberian Arctic region, using the time integrated normalized difference vegetation index (TI-NDVI) and summer warmth index (SWI) calculated for the period 2000–11 to represent vegetation greenness and temperature respectively. Spatio-temporal relationships between the two indices and summer sea ice conditions were investigated with transects at eight locations using sea ice concentration data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). In addition, the derived vegetation and temperature trends were compared among major Arctic vegetation types and bioclimate subzones. The fine resolution trend map produced confirms the overall greening (+1% yr −1 ) and warming (+0.27% yr −1 ) of the region, reported in previous studies, but also reveals browning areas. The causes of such local decreases in vegetation, while surrounding areas are experiencing the opposite reaction to changing conditions, are still unclear. Overall correlations between sea ice concentration and SWI as well as TI-NDVI decreased in strength with increasing distance from the coast, with a particularly pronounced pattern in the case of SWI. SWI appears to be driving TI-NDVI in many cases, but not systematically, highlighting the presence of limiting factors other than temperature for plant growth in the region. Further unravelling those limiting

  7. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  8. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  9. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  10. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red–green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Kirk; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red–green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour b....... Conclusions Acknowledgements Appendix. Modelling the correlation between greenness and brightness References   Fig. 1. Simulated image of a vegetation canopy (left), with distribution of pixel greenness and brightness (right). View Within Article...

  11. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  12. Habitat connectivity and local conditions shape taxonomic and functional diversity of arthropods on green roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaker, Sonja; Obrist, Martin Karl; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Moretti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Increasing development of urban environments creates high pressure on green spaces with potential negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. There is growing evidence that green roofs – rooftops covered with vegetation – can contribute mitigate the loss of urban green spaces by

  13. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red-green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton G

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red-green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour b...

  14. 'Greening' Ralco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwahlen, Robert; Duran, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Chile's biggest ever hydro power plant is due to be completed and come on line in 2002. The 570MW Ralco plant (on the river Rio Biobio) will supply 15% of the total electricity produced in Chile to the national grid. A comprehensive environmental impact statement was prepared and accepted in 1997. Four of the environmental concerns that must be addressed in hydro electric project planning are discussed briefly as are the effects on the downstream river regime, water quality, vegetation, terrestrial and aquatic fauna, landscape, social impacts and resettlement. (UK)

  15. Responses of Vegetation Growth to Climatic Factors in Shule River Basin in Northwest China: A Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Qi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation response to climatic factors is a hot topic in global change research. However, research on vegetation in Shule River Basin, which is a typical arid region in northwest China, is still limited, especially at micro scale. On the basis of Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data and daily meteorological data, employing panel data models and other mathematical models, the aim of this paper is to reveal the interactive relationship between vegetation variation and climatic factors in Shule River Basin. Results show that there is a widespread greening trend in the whole basin during 2000–2015, and 80.28% of greening areas (areas with vegetation improvement are distributed over upstream region, but the maximum vegetation variation appears in downstream area. The effects of climate change on NDVI lag about half to one month. The parameters estimated using panel data models indicate that precipitation and accumulated temperature have positive contribution to NDVI. With every 1-mm increase in rainfall, NDVI increases by around 0.223‰ in upstream area and 0.6‰ in downstream area. With every 1-°C increase in accumulated temperature, NDVI increases by around 0.241‰ in upstream area and 0.174‰ in downstream area. Responses of NDVI to climatic factors are more sensitive when these factors are limiting than when they are not limiting. NDVI variation has performance in two seasonal and inter-annual directions, and the range of seasonal change is far more than that of inter-annual change. The inverted U-shaped curve of the variable intercepts reflects the seasonal change. Our results might provide some scientific basis for the comprehensive basin management.

  16. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  17. Food appearances in children's television programmes in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Berg, Christina

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to advertisements cannot fully explain the associations between young children's dietary intake and the time they spend in front of the television. It is therefore of importance to study television content other than advertisements in this aspect. The present study aimed to examine the nature and extent of verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages in children's television programmes on Icelandic public service television. A total of 27 h of children's programmes (domestic and internationally produced) were watched. All verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages were coded, as well as the context in which the foods/beverages were discussed or appeared. Children's programmes on Icelandic public service television. Two food groups were of special interest for their importance from a public health perspective: high-calorie and low-nutrient (HCLN) foods and fruits and vegetables (F&V). The χ 2 test and logistic regression were performed to analyse if the occurrence of the two groups was associated with the context where foods/beverages appeared. Of the 125 different programmes, a food or beverage appeared in 86 %. Of the total food appearances (n 599), HCLN foods accounted for 26 % and F&V for 23 %. HCLN foods were presented as desirable by appearing more frequently with child characters (Pfood and eating is presented in children's programmes, as young childhood is a critical period for founding healthy habits for later life.

  18. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  19. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  20. Green roof rainfall-runoff modelling: is the comparison between conceptual and physically based approaches relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs are commonly considered as efficient tools to mitigate urban runoff as they can store precipitation, and consequently provide retention and detention performances. Designed as a compromise between water holding capacity, weight and hydraulic conductivity, their substrate is usually an artificial media differentiating significantly from a traditional soil. In order to assess green roofs hydrological performances, many models have been developed. Classified into two categories (conceptual and physically based), they are usually applied to reproduce the discharge of a particular monitored green roof considered as homogeneous. Although the resulted simulations could be satisfactory, the question of robustness and consistency of the calibrated parameters is often not addressed. Here, a modeling framework has been developed to assess the efficiency and the robustness of both modelling approaches (conceptual and physically based) in reproducing green roof hydrological behaviour. SWMM and VS2DT models have been used for this purpose. This work also benefits from an experimental setup where several green roofs differentiated by their substrate thickness and vegetation cover are monitored. Based on the data collected for several rainfall events, it has been studied how the calibrated parameters are effectively linked to their physical properties and how they can vary from one green roof configuration to another. Although both models reproduce correctly the observed discharges in most of the cases, their calibrated parameters exhibit a high inconsistency. For a same green roof configuration, these parameters can vary significantly from one rainfall event to another, even if they are supposed to be linked to the green roof characteristics (roughness, residual moisture content for instance). They can also be different from one green roof configuration to another although the implemented substrate is the same. Finally, it appears very difficult to find any

  1. Picosecond dynamics of conformation changes in malachite green dye produced by photoionization of malachite green leucocyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, D A; Cremers, T L

    1983-01-07

    The appearance of malachite green dye absorption following photoionization of malachite green leucocyanide has been examined using picosecond flash photolysis. The rate of absorption increase depends upon solvent viscosity and exhibits a two-step behavior in viscous glycerol solutions. 21 references, 4 figures.

  2. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  3. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  4. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  5. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  6. Consumer Acceptance Comparison Between Seasoned and Unseasoned Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yiming; Albiol Tapia, Marta; Okada, Kyle; Castaneda Lazo, Nuria Blanca; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Phillips, Carter; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2018-02-01

    Recent findings show that approximately 87% of the U.S. population fail to meet the vegetable intake recommendations, with unpleasant taste of vegetables being listed as the primary reason for this shortfall. In this study, spice and herb seasoning was used to enhance palatability of vegetables, in order to increase consumer acceptance. In total, 749 panelists were screened and recruited as specific vegetable likers of the vegetable being tested or general vegetable likers. Four sessions were designed to evaluate the effect of seasoning within each type of vegetable, including broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, and green bean. Each panelist was only allowed to participate in one test session to evaluate only one vegetable type, so as to mitigate potential learning effect. Overall, the results showed that seasoned vegetables were significantly preferred over unseasoned vegetables (P trend of seasoned vegetable being preferred remained. The findings from this study demonstrate the effect of seasoning in enhancing consumer liking of vegetables, which may lead to increased consumption to be assessed in future studies. To improve the sensory properties of vegetables, masking the bitter taste of vegetables using spice and herb seasoning are gaining increasing attention. Our findings suggest that the overall liking of vegetables could be improved by incorporating spice and herb seasonings that are specifically formulated for each vegetable. Ultimately, developing and commercializing spice and herb seasonings may aid to increase vegetable consumption, as well as expanding the vegetable seasoning market. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  7. Predicting gender differences in liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2015-12-01

    We studied the factors that predict liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among schoolchildren. Additionally, we examined if there were gender differences in the predictors that explain the hypothesized higher scores in liking vegetables and preferences among girls. The data from the PRO GREENS project included 424 Finnish children (response rate 77%) aged 11 to 12. The children completed validated measures about social and environmental factors related to their liking for vegetables and preferences both at baseline 2009 and follow-up 2010. The associations were examined with regression and mediation analyses. The strongest predictors of both girls' and boys' liking and preferences were higher levels of eating vegetables together with the family, previous vegetable intake and a lower level of perceived barriers. Liking was additionally predicted by a lower level of parental demand that their child should eat vegetables. Girls reported higher levels of liking and preferences in the follow-up. This gender difference was mainly explained by girls' lower level of perceived barriers related to vegetable intake and girls' higher previous vegetable intake. Interventions that aim to increase the low vegetable intake among boys by increasing their liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables could benefit from targeting perceived barriers, namely boys' perception and values concerning the consumption of vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  9. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Empirical analysis of vegetation dynamics and the possibility of a catastrophic desertification transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, Haim; Kent, Rafi; Michael, Yaron; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2017-01-01

    The process of desertification in the semi-arid climatic zone is considered by many as a catastrophic regime shift, since the positive feedback of vegetation density on growth rates yields a system that admits alternative steady states. Some support to this idea comes from the analysis of static patterns, where peaks of the vegetation density histogram were associated with these alternative states. Here we present a large-scale empirical study of vegetation dynamics, aimed at identifying and quantifying directly the effects of positive feedback. To do that, we have analyzed vegetation density across 2.5 × 106 km2 of the African Sahel region, with spatial resolution of 30 × 30 meters, using three consecutive snapshots. The results are mixed. The local vegetation density (measured at a single pixel) moves towards the average of the corresponding rainfall line, indicating a purely negative feedback. On the other hand, the chance of spatial clusters (of many "green" pixels) to expand in the next census is growing with their size, suggesting some positive feedback. We show that these apparently contradicting results emerge naturally in a model with positive feedback and strong demographic stochasticity, a model that allows for a catastrophic shift only in a certain range of parameters. Static patterns, like the double peak in the histogram of vegetation density, are shown to vary between censuses, with no apparent correlation with the actual dynamical features. Our work emphasizes the importance of dynamic response patterns as indicators of the state of the system, while the usefulness of static modality features appears to be quite limited.

  11. Elephant movement closely tracks precipitation-driven vegetation dynamics in a Kenyan forest-savanna landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Beck, Pieter Sa; Ngene, Shadrack M; Skidmore, Andrew K; Douglas-Hamilton, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the ranging behavior of elephants in relation to precipitation-driven dynamics of vegetation. Movement data were acquired for five bachelors and five female family herds during three years in the Marsabit protected area in Kenya and changes in vegetation were mapped using MODIS normalized difference vegetation index time series (NDVI). In the study area, elevations of 650 to 1100 m.a.s.l experience two growth periods per year, while above 1100 m.a.s.l. growth periods last a year or longer. We find that elephants respond quickly to changes in forage and water availability, making migrations in response to both large and small rainfall events. The elevational migration of individual elephants closely matched the patterns of greening and senescing of vegetation in their home range. Elephants occupied lower elevations when vegetation activity was high, whereas they retreated to the evergreen forest at higher elevations while vegetation senesced. Elephant home ranges decreased in size, and overlapped less with increasing elevation. A recent hypothesis that ungulate migrations in savannas result from countervailing seasonally driven rainfall and fertility gradients is demonstrated, and extended to shorter-distance migrations. In other words, the trade-off between the poor forage quality and accessibility in the forest with its year-round water sources on the one hand and the higher quality forage in the low-elevation scrubland with its seasonal availability of water on the other hand, drives the relatively short migrations (the two main corridors are 20 and 90 km) of the elephants. In addition, increased intra-specific competition appears to influence the animals' habitat use during the dry season indicating that the human encroachment on the forest is affecting the elephant population.

  12. Perceived personal safety in relation to urban woodland vegetation – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Märit; Fors, Hanna; Lindgren, Therese; Wiström, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Urban woodland vegetation provides people with many aesthetic, ecological and psychological benefits, but can also generate problems concerning people’s perception of safety. This paper reviews existing knowledge about perceived personal safety in relation to vegetation, particularly woodland vegetation, in urban green spaces such as parks and residential areas. Individual and social factors, but also vegetation character, maintenance and design, proved to be important for perceived personal ...

  13. Hydraulic and Vegetative Models of Historic Environmental Conditions Isolate the Role of Riparian Vegetation in Inducing Channel Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, R.; Schmidt, J. C.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    An enduring question in geomorphology is the role of riparian vegetation in inducing or exacerbating channel narrowing. It is typically difficult to isolate the role of vegetation in causing channel narrowing, because narrowing typically occurs where there are changes in stream flow, sediment supply, the invasion of non-native vegetation, and sometimes climate change. Therefore, linkages between changes in vegetation communities and changes in channel form are often difficult to identify. We took a mechanistic approach to isolate the role of the invasive riparian shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp) in influencing channel narrowing in the Colorado River basin. Detailed geomorphic reconstructions of two sites on the Yampa and Green Rivers, respectively, in Dinosaur National Monument show that channel narrowing has been progressive and that tamarisk encroachment has also occurred; at the same time, dams have been constructed, diversions increased, and spring snowmelt runoff has been occurring earlier in spring. We simulated hydraulic and sediment transport conditions during the two largest floods of record -- 1984 and 2011. Two-dimensional hydraulic models were built to reflect these conditions and allowed us to perform sensitivity tests to determine the dominant determinants of the observed patterns of erosion and deposition. Channel and floodplain topography were constrained through detailed stratigraphic analysis, including precise dating of deposits based on dating of buried tamarisk plants in a series of floodplain trenches and pits. We also used historical air photos to establish past channel topography. To parameterize the influence of riparian vegetation, we developed a model that links detailed terrestrial laser scan (TLS) measurements of stand structure and its corresponding hydraulic roughness at the patch scale to reach-scale riparian vegetation patterns determined from airborne LiDaR (ALS). This model, in conjunction with maps of the ages and establishment

  14. The moderated relationship of appearance valence on appearance self consciousness: development and testing of new measures of appearance schema components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Moss

    Full Text Available This paper describes the creation and psychometric properties of two independent measures of aspects of appearance schematicity--appearance salience and valence, assessed by the CARSAL and CARVAL, and their relation to appearance self-consciousness. Five hundred and ninety two participants provided data in a web based task. The results demonstrate the sound psychometric properties of both scales. This was demonstrated by good item total characteristics, good internal reliability of each scale, and the independence of the two scales shown through principal components analysis. Furthermore, the scales show independent and moderated relationships with valid measures of appearance related psychosocial distress. Negatively valenced appearance information was associated with increased appearance self-consciousness. More crucially, the impact of negative valence on appearance self-consciousness was exacerbated by the moderating effect increased salience of appearance.

  15. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E; Swearingin, Ryan M; Pullins, Craig K; Rice, Matthew E

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  16. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Swearingin, Ryan M.; Pullins, Craig K.; Rice, Matthew E.

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  17. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  18. DIVERSITY OF SOIL ARTHROPOD IN GREEN BARRIER AREA PT. PUSRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hidayat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to inventory and identify as well as acknowledge the correlation between vegetation type with soil arthropods in the Green Barrier area of PT Pusri. PT. Pusri green Barrier area is 28 hectares and dominated by 10 types of vegetation, such as, the Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus Wild, Bambu (Bambusa Sp, Beringin (Ficus benyamina, Buah Roda (Hura crepitans L, Jati (Tectona grandis L, Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba , Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L, Mahony (Swietenia macrophylla King, Pulai (Alstonia scholaris, and Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L. Soil arthropods were collected by using pit fall traps and funnel barlese-tullgren in every type of vegetation, between July-August 2015. Identification of arthropod genera Identification has been done in Entomology Laboratory of the Agriculture Plant Disease Faculty Sriwijaya University, and analysis of soil organic in the Laboratory of Soil Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University. The results were obtained into 3 classes of soil arthropods belonging to the 10 orders, 28 families and 35 genera. The diversity index value of soil arthropods in various types of vegetation is classified moderately (H= 1-3, and no type of soil arthropods were dominant, mean that soil arthropods with different types spread over in the various types of vegetation in the area of Green Barrier PT. Pusri. Light intensity abiotic factors play an important role in the life of the soil arthropod communities in vegetation Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L with a correlation coefficient 1.00 Keywords: soil arthropods, community structure, a biotic factors, Green Barrier PT. Pusri

  19. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  20. Green Roofs and Green Walls for Biodiversity Conservation: A Contribution to Urban Connectivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavie Mayrand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs and walls have recently emerged as conservation tools, and they offer promising additional opportunities to enhance biodiversity in cities. However, their ecological conditions remain poorly considered when planning wildlife corridors. To discuss the role of vegetated buildings in landscape connectivity, we reviewed the ecological and technical specificities of green walls and green roofs in light of the key factors concerning urban wildlife (patch size, quality, abundance, and isolation. Green roofs and walls show limited patch sizes, distinct habitat quality at the building scale, and limited redundancy of patch quality within the landscape. We also highlight that the abundance of roof and wall patches is often low. Future research is needed to establish if walls can be vertical corridors for wildlife, thereby reducing the isolation of green roofs. We argue that creating 3D ecological connectivity within the city requires substantial modifications of the design and maintenance of existing green building systems. We suggest that research is needed to integrate the biotic and abiotic characteristics of green buildings to make them more closely resemble those of open green spaces.

  1. Evaluation of the New York City Green Carts program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Farley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to fresh fruits and vegetables is a concern, particularly among low-income populations. Mobile vending is one strategy to expand produce availability and access to increase consumption. In 2008, New York City launched a mobile vending initiative, Green Carts. We report on the evaluation. Three waves of cross-sectional observational surveys of produce availability, variety, and quality were conducted during the summers of 2008, 2009, and 2011 in a stratified random sample of stores and carts comparing establishments in Green Cart neighborhoods (n = 13 with comparison neighborhoods (n = 3. Bivariate analyses for availability, variety, and quality comparing Green Cart and comparison neighborhoods were presented across years, and logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to test whether fruit and vegetable availability, variety, and quality increased in Green Cart compared with comparison neighborhoods, adjusting for clustering and neighborhood demographics. Establishments selling fruits and vegetables in Green Cart neighborhoods increased between 2008 and 2011 (50% to 69%, p <0.0001; there was no comparable increase in comparison neighborhoods. Establishments selling more than 10 fruits and vegetables types increased from 31% to 38% (p = 0.0414 in Green Cart neighborhoods; there was no change in comparison neighborhoods. Produce quality was high among comparison establishments, with 95% and 94% meeting the quality threshold in 2008 and 2011, while declining in Green Cart neighborhood establishments from 96% to 88% (p < 0.0001. Sustained produce availability was found in Green Cart neighborhoods between 2008–2011. Green Carts are one strategy contributing to improving produce access among New Yorkers.

  2. Familiarization and Detection of Green Monopropellants Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary Rachel (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) are green monopropellants which will be appearing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for processing in the next few years. These are relatively safe replacements for hydrazine as a monopropellant; however, little is known about methods of leak detection, vapor scrubbing, air emissions, or cleanup that will be required for safe and environmentally benign operations at KSC. The goal of this work is to develop leak detection and related technologies for the two new green monopropellants.

  3. Familiarization and Detection of Green Monopropellants Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) are green monopropellants which will be appearing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for processing in the next few years. These are relatively safe replacements for hydrazine as a monopropellant; however, little is known about methods of leak detection, vapor scrubbing, air emissions, or cleanup that will be required for safe and environmentally benign operations at KSC. The goal of this work is to develop leak detection and related technologies for the two new green monopropellants.

  4. Water availability as a driver of spatial and temporal variability in vegetation in the La Mancha plain (Spain): Implications for the land-surface energy, water and carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Sietse

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation is water limited in large areas of Spain and therefore a close link exists between vegetation greenness observed from satellite and moisture availability. Here we exploit this link to infer spatial and temporal variability in moisture from MODIS NDVI data and thermal data. Discrepancies in the precipitation - vegetation relationship indicate areas with an alternative supply of water (i.e. not rainfall), this can be natural where moisture is supplied by upwelling groundwater, or can be artificial where crops are irrigated. As a result spatial and temporal variability in vegetation in the La Mancha Plain appears closely linked to topography, geology, rainfall and land use. Crop land shows large variability in year-to-year vegetation greenness; for some areas this variability is linked to variability in rainfall but in other cases this variability is linked to irrigation. The differences in irrigation treatment within one plant functional type, in this case crops, will lead to errors in land surface models when ignored. The magnitude of these effects on the energy, carbon and water balance are assessed at the scale of 250 m to 200 km. Estimating the water balance correctly is of particular important since in some areas in Spain more water is used for irrigation than is supplemented by rainfall.

  5. Atypical imaging appearances of intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, S. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Adams, W.M. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Mukonoweshuro, W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: William.mukonoweshuro@phnt.swest.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Meningiomas are the commonest primary, non-glial intracranial tumours. The diagnosis is often correctly predicted from characteristic imaging appearances. This paper presents some examples of atypical imaging appearances that may cause diagnostic confusion.

  6. Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D. Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Green roofs involve growing vegetation on rooftops and are one tool that can help mitigate the negative effects of pollution. This review encompasses published research to date on how green roofs can help mitigate pollution, how green roof materials influence the magnitude of these benefits, and suggests future research directions. The discussion concentrates on how green roofs influence air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon sequestration, longevity of roofing membranes that result in fewer roofing materials in landfills, water quality of stormwater runoff, and noise pollution. Suggestions for future directions for research include plant selection, development of improved growing substrates, urban rooftop agriculture, water quality of runoff, supplemental irrigation, the use of grey water, air pollution, carbon sequestration, effects on human health, combining green roofs with complementary related technologies, and economics and policy issues. - Green roofs can help mitigate air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, sequester carbon, conserve energy, reduce the urban heat island, and improve water quality.

  7. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Jochem O; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A H

    2018-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data analysis. We evaluated whether the association of green space with being overweight and physical activity depended upon definition of greenspace. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults. Distance to the nearest park entrance and surrounding green space, based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or a detailed Dutch land-use database (TOP10NL), was calculated for each residential address. We used logistic regression analyses to study the association of green space exposure with being overweight and being moderately or vigorously physically active outdoors at least 150min/week (self-reported). To study the shape of the association, we specified natural splines and quintiles. The distance to the nearest park entrance was not associated with being overweight or outdoor physical activity. Associations of surrounding green space with being overweight or outdoor physical activity were highly non-linear. For NDVI surrounding greenness, we observed significantly decreased odds of being overweight [300m buffer, odds ratio (OR) = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.91] and increased odds for outdoor physical activity [300m buffer, OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17] in the highest quintile compared to the lowest quintile. For TOP10NL surrounding green space, associations were mostly non-significant. Associations were generally stronger for subjects living in less urban areas and for the smaller buffers. Associations of green space with being overweight and outdoor physical activity differed considerably between different green space definitions. Associations were strongest for NDVI surrounding greenness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  8. Decreased surface albedo driven by denser vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Li; Zhang, Yangjian; Zhu, Juntao

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has fundamental ecological and environmental significance to China and Asia through its influence on regional and continental climates. In recent years, climate warming has caused unprecedented changes to land surface processes on the TP, which would unavoidably undermine the ecological and environmental functions of the TP. Among the numerous land surface processes potentially impacted by climate warming, the effect of vegetation greenness on surface energy balance is one of the most critical, but has been long ignored. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of land surface albedo (LSA) on the TP and evaluated the vegetation greenness in relation to patterns of LSA. We found that LSA has been decreasing in most of the vegetated grasslands on the TP from 2000 to 2013, as compared to a flat trend for desert area. The regions where LSA has been decreasing were spatially correlated to areas of increased vegetation greenness. Along rising altitude, LSA decreasing rate exhibited an overall decreasing trend. Across the TP, elevated vegetation greenness in grasslands acted as a primary factor pulling down LSA. The driving effects of vegetation greenness on LSA vary with grassland types, as revealed by a more significant relationship between vegetation greenness and LSA for the sparsely vegetated zone (i.e. steppe) than the more densely vegetated zone (i.e. meadow). Furthermore, the driving effect of vegetation greenness on LSA exhibited an obvious dependence on altitude as effects with rising altitude were relatively strong up to 3000 m, then weakened from 3500 m to 5000 m, and then the effects again increased from 5000 to 6000 m. The growing season LSA trend revealed in this study emphasizes the need to give greater attention to the growing season LSA flux in future surface energy balance studies. (letter)

  9. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  10. Recent ecological transitions in China: greening, browning, and influential factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yihe; Zhang, Liwei; Feng, Xiaoming; Zeng, Yuan; Fu, Bojie; Yao, Xueling; Li, Junran; Wu, Bingfang

    2015-03-01

    Ecological conservation and restoration are necessary to mitigate environmental degradation problems. China has taken great efforts in such actions. To understand the ecological transition during 2000-2010 in China, this study analysed trends in vegetation change using remote sensing and linear regression. Climate and socioeconomic factors were included to screen the driving forces for vegetation change using correlation or comparative analyses. Our results indicated that China experienced both vegetation greening (restoration) and browning (degradation) with great spatial heterogeneity. Socioeconomic factors, such as human populations and economic production, were the most significant factors for vegetation change. Nature reserves have contributed slightly to the deceleration of vegetation browning and the promotion of greening; however, a large-scale conservation approach beyond nature reserves was more effective. The effectiveness of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program lay between the two above approaches. The findings of this study highlighted that vegetation trend detection is a practical approach for large-scale ecological transition assessments, which can inform decision-making that promotes vegetation greening via proper socioeconomic development and ecosystem management.

  11. Recent ecological transitions in China: greening, browning, and influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yihe; Zhang, Liwei; Feng, Xiaoming; Zeng, Yuan; Fu, Bojie; Yao, Xueling; Li, Junran; Wu, Bingfang

    2015-03-04

    Ecological conservation and restoration are necessary to mitigate environmental degradation problems. China has taken great efforts in such actions. To understand the ecological transition during 2000-2010 in China, this study analysed trends in vegetation change using remote sensing and linear regression. Climate and socioeconomic factors were included to screen the driving forces for vegetation change using correlation or comparative analyses. Our results indicated that China experienced both vegetation greening (restoration) and browning (degradation) with great spatial heterogeneity. Socioeconomic factors, such as human populations and economic production, were the most significant factors for vegetation change. Nature reserves have contributed slightly to the deceleration of vegetation browning and the promotion of greening; however, a large-scale conservation approach beyond nature reserves was more effective. The effectiveness of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program lay between the two above approaches. The findings of this study highlighted that vegetation trend detection is a practical approach for large-scale ecological transition assessments, which can inform decision-making that promotes vegetation greening via proper socioeconomic development and ecosystem management.

  12. Seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Myneni, R.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple evidences of widespread greening and increasing terrestrial carbon uptake have been documented. In particular, enhanced gross productivity of northern vegetation has been a critical role leading to observed carbon uptake trend. However, seasonal photosynthetic activity and its contribution to observed annual carbon uptake trend and interannual variability are not well understood. Here, we introduce a multiple-source of datasets including ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple process-based global vegetation models to understand how seasonal variation of land surface vegetation controls a large-scale carbon exchange. Our analysis clearly shows a seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity in growing season during last decades. Particularly, increasing gross productivity in late spring and early summer is obvious and dominant driver explaining observed trend and variability. We observe more asymmetric productivity enhancement in warmer region and this spatially varying asymmetricity in northern vegetation are likely explained by canopy development rate, thermal and light availability. These results imply that continued warming may facilitate amplifying asymmetric vegetation activity and cause these trends to become more pervasive, in turn warming induced regime shift in northern land.

  13. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  14. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  15. Elevated CO2 as a driver of global dryland greening

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Xuefei; Wang, Lixin; McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    While recent findings based on satellite records indicate a positive trend in vegetation greenness over global drylands, the reasons remain elusive. We hypothesize that enhanced levels of atmospheric CO2 play an important role in the observed greening through the CO2 effect on plant water savings and consequent available soil water increases. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compare soil water content under ambient and elevated CO2 treatments across a range of climate regimes, vegetation types, soil textures and land management practices. Based on 1705 field measurements from 21 distinct sites, a consistent and statistically significant increase in the availability of soil water (11%) was observed under elevated CO2 treatments in both drylands and non-drylands, with a statistically stronger response over drylands (17% vs. 9%). Given the inherent water limitation in drylands, it is suggested that the additional soil water availability is a likely driver of observed increases in vegetation greenness.

  16. Elevated CO2 as a driver of global dryland greening

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Xuefei

    2016-02-12

    While recent findings based on satellite records indicate a positive trend in vegetation greenness over global drylands, the reasons remain elusive. We hypothesize that enhanced levels of atmospheric CO2 play an important role in the observed greening through the CO2 effect on plant water savings and consequent available soil water increases. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compare soil water content under ambient and elevated CO2 treatments across a range of climate regimes, vegetation types, soil textures and land management practices. Based on 1705 field measurements from 21 distinct sites, a consistent and statistically significant increase in the availability of soil water (11%) was observed under elevated CO2 treatments in both drylands and non-drylands, with a statistically stronger response over drylands (17% vs. 9%). Given the inherent water limitation in drylands, it is suggested that the additional soil water availability is a likely driver of observed increases in vegetation greenness.

  17. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  18. Drought-induced vegetation stress in southwestern North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyang; Goldberg, Mitchell; Tarpley, Dan; Kogan, Felix; Yu Yunyue; Friedl, Mark A; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Trends towards earlier greenup and increased average greenness have been widely reported in both humid and dry ecosystems. By analyzing NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2007, we report complex trends in both the growing season amplitude and seasonally integrated vegetation greenness in southwestern North America and further highlight regions consistently experiencing drought stress. In particular, greenness measurements from 1982 to 2007 show an increasing trend in grasslands but a decreasing trend in shrublands. However, vegetation greenness in this period has experienced a strong cycle, increasing from 1982 to 1993 but decreasing from 1993 to 2007. The significant decrease during the last decade has reduced vegetation greenness by 6% in shrublands and 13% in grasslands (16% and 21%, respectively, in the severe drought years). The greenness cycle correlates to both annual precipitation and dry season length derived from NOAA North America Regional Reanalysis data. If drought events continue as predicted by climate models, they will exacerbate ecosystem degradation and reduce carbon uptake.

  19. Antimicrobial effect of Malaysian vegetables against enteric bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanain Al-Talib

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Garlic had excellent antimicrobial effects against enteric bacteria and was recommended to be given to patients with gastroenteritis. The other vegetables (pennywort, mint, parsley and celery showed no inhibitory effects on enteric bacteria but still can be used for its richness in vitamins and fibers. The performance of the well diffusion method was better than that of the disc diffusion method in detecting the antibacterial effects of green vegetables.

  20. Is 'green finance' actually green? 'Make The Planet Great Again' or 'Green-washing', we must choose. Report on green bonds and climate bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Maxime; Plihon, Dominique; Zippert, Jean-Sebastien; Chaussalet, Alexis; Planche, Jeanne; Poulain, Melanie

    2017-12-01

    As Paris dreams of becoming the capital of green finance, the author proposes a discussion of the emerging market of green bonds, and formulates a set of recommendations for this new financial instrument not to be polluted by green-washing operations. He first describes what a green bond is, and then comments what the green bond market represents, discusses development perspectives for this market, comments the Paris dream of becoming the world capital of a green and sustainable finance. He explains why this green bond market appears to be so interesting, and what guarantees that a green bond will finance green projects. He discusses the role of rating agencies, whether the emitter of a green bond must be green, and the impact of green bonds on climate, on the environment and on populations. He discusses the possible evolution towards a constraining regulation, and examines whether this system can be an operational financing source for energy transition. Recommendations concern the market regulation by public authorities, the creation of a new rating agency for green finance, how to make the world bond market climate-compatible, and the creation of other financing channels for actors who have no access to the bond market

  1. A national assessment of green infrastructure and change for the conterminous United States using morphological image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; T.G. Wade; P. Vogt

    2010-01-01

    Green infrastructure is a popular framework for conservation planning. The main elements of green infrastructure are hubs and links. Hubs tend to be large areas of ‘natural’ vegetation and links tend to be linear features (e.g., streams) that connect hubs. Within the United States, green infrastructure projects can be characterized as: (...

  2. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  3. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  4. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  5. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  6. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  7. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    followed by numerical and experimental verification. The approach comprises verifying all design and fabrication steps required to produce a desired appearance. We expect that the procedure in the future will yield structurally colored surfaces with appealing prescribed visual appearances.......We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design...

  8. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  9. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  10. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  11. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  12. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  13. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  14. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  15. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  16. Consumer attitudes towards vegetable attributes: potential buyers of pesticide-free vegetables in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Lorenz; Aigelsperger, Lisa; Hauser, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Considering the inappropriate use of synthetic pesticides on vegetables in West Africa, the rationale behind this research was to assess the extent to which consumers can function as demanders of risk reduced vegetables and hence act as innovators towards vegetable safety. Using the cases of Kumasi and Accra in Ghana, the study examined possible consumer responses to product certification that communicates freedom from pesticides (e.g., organic certification). Generally, search attributes such as the fresh and healthy appearance of a vegetable were found to be central to consumer choice. While consumers stress the importance of health value, they are mostly unaware of agro-chemical risks related to vegetable consumption.

  17. Comparing Different Approaches for Mapping Urban Vegetation Cover from Landsat ETM+ Data: A Case Study on Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Canters

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban growth and its related environmental problems call for sustainable urban management policies to safeguard the quality of urban environments. Vegetation plays an important part in this as it provides ecological, social, health and economic benefits to a city’s inhabitants. Remotely sensed data are of great value to monitor urban green and despite the clear advantages of contemporary high resolution images, the benefits of medium resolution data should not be discarded. The objective of this research was to estimate fractional vegetation cover from a Landsat ETM+ image with sub-pixel classification, and to compare accuracies obtained with multiple stepwise regression analysis, linear spectral unmixing and multi-layer perceptrons (MLP at the level of meaningful urban spatial entities. Despite the small, but nevertheless statistically significant differences at pixel level between the alternative approaches, the spatial pattern of vegetation cover and estimation errors is clearly distinctive at neighbourhood level. At this spatially aggregated level, a simple regression model appears to attain sufficient accuracy. For mapping at a spatially more detailed level, the MLP seems to be the most appropriate choice. Brightness normalisation only appeared to affect the linear models, especially the linear spectral unmixing.

  18. Retrofitted green roofs and walls and improvements in thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Renato Castiglia; Wilkinson, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Increased urbanization has led to a worsening in the quality of life for many people living in large cities in respect of the urban heat island effect and increases of indoor temperatures in housing and other buildings. A solution may be to retrofit existing environments to their former conditions, with a combination of green infrastructures applied to existing walls and rooftops. Retrofitted green roofs may attenuate housing temperature. However, with tall buildings, facade areas are much larger compared to rooftop areas, the role of green walls in mitigating extreme temperatures is more pronounced. Thus, the combination of green roofs and green walls is expected to promote a better thermal performance in the building envelope. For this purpose, a modular vegetated system is adopted for covering both walls and rooftops. Rather than temperature itself, the heat index, which comprises the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity is used in the evaluation of thermal comfort in small scale experiments performed in Sydney - Australia, where identical timber framed structures prototypes (vegetated and non-vegetated) are compared. The results have shown a different understanding of thermal comfort improvement regarding heat index rather than temperature itself. The combination of green roof and walls has a valid role to play in heat index attenuation.

  19. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  20. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  1. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  2. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  3. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  4. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  5. Updated vegetation information in high resolution WRF simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    modify the energy distribution at the land surface. In weather and climate models it is important to represent the vegetation variability accurately to obtain reliable results. The weather research and forecasting (WRF) model uses green vegetation fraction (GVF) time series to represent vegetation...... seasonality. The GVF of each grid cell is additionally used to scale other parameters such as LAI, roughness, emissivity and albedo within predefined intervals. However, the default GYP used by WRF does not reflect recent climatic changes or change in management practices since it was derived more than 20...

  6. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G.

    2004-01-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  7. 29 CFR 1921.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE IN ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS UNDER SECTION 41 OF THE LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Hearing and Related Matters § 1921.10 Appearances. (a) Representation. The parties may appear...

  8. 39 CFR 953.7 - Default; Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default; Appearances. 953.7 Section 953.7 Postal... § 953.7 Default; Appearances. If a timely reply to the appeal is not filed, the presiding officer shall... Inspector or his or her designee is in default. Whenever the General Counsel or the Chief Postal Inspector...

  9. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...

  10. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...

  11. Interactive Appearance Prediction for Cloudy Beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2016-01-01

    Juice appearance is important to consumers, so digital juice with a slider that varies a production parameter or changes juice content is useful. It is however challenging to render juice with scattering particles quickly and accurately. As a case study, we create an appearance model that provide...

  12. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses. PMID:26232489

  13. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  14. Penicilllium discolor, a new species from cheese, nuts and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.; Rassing, Birgitte A.

    1997-01-01

    The new species Penicillum discolor, frequently isolated from nuts, vegetables and cheese is described. It is characterised by rough, dark green conidia, synnemateous growth on malt agar and the production of the secondary metabolites chaetoglobosins A, B and C, palitantin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol...

  15. Effect of vegetation on rock and soil type discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of naturally occurring vegetation on the spectral reflectance of earth materials in the wavelength region of 0.45 to 2.4 microns is determined by computer averaging of in situ acquired spectral data. The amount and type of vegetation and the spectral reflectance of the ground are considered. Low albedo materials may be altered beyond recognition with only ten per cent green vegetation cover. Dead or dry vegetation does not greatly alter the shape of the spectral reflectance curve and only changes the albedo with minimum wavelength dependency. With increasing amounts of vegetation the Landsat MSS band ratios 4/6, 4/7, 5/6, and 5/7 are significantly decreased whereas MSS ratios 4/5 and 6/7 remain entirely constant.

  16. Advances in Remote Sensing for Vegetation Dynamics and Agricultural Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Compton; Puma, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  17. Integrating vegetation and green infrastructure into sustainable transportation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Baldauf; Greg McPherson; Linda Wheaton; Max Zhang; Tom Cahill; Chad Bailey; Christina Hemphill Fuller; Eearl Withycombe; Kori Titus

    2013-01-01

    An international consensus has emerged that people living, working, and going to school near roads with high volumes of traffic face increased risks for adverse health effects (1), most likely from acute and chronic exposures to elevated levels of air pollution, including particulate matter (PM), gaseous criteria pollutants, and air toxics.

  18. Unexplored vegetal green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Eyaane Meva

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... 4Clinical Biology Laboratory, General Hospital of Douala, P.O Box 4856, Douala, Cameroon. 5Department of ... highlight positive impact of pH, reaction time and reactants quantities. Key words: .... suppressed the growth of food poisoning bacterial such ..... effect on human health and nutrition. J. Food Sci.

  19. Green Power Partnership Fortune 500® Partners List

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This Top Partner list presents Green Power Partners that also appear on the Fortune 500® list.

  20. Struma ovarii. MR and CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joja, Ikuo; Mitsumori, Akihito; Hiraki, Yoshio; Kudo, Takafumi; Nakagawa, Tomio; Asakawa, Toru; Ando, Masaaki; Akamatsu, Nobuo.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the appearance of struma ovarii on MR and CT images. All 13 patients showed both cystic and solid components with a multilobulated surface and thickened septa. Various signal intensities were seen on both T1WI and T2WI. The cystic component, which showed low signal intensity on T2WI, showed high density on CT images. The characteristic MR and CT appearance of struma ovarii appears to be that of multicystic tumor indicating the presence of viscid materials containing iodine. (author)

  1. A survey on parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables in Ihiala LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables sold in some selected markets in Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State Nigeria between January and June 2014. Vegetable samples which includes Amaranthus spp (green leaf), Telfara Occidentalis (pumpkin leaf), Talinium ...

  2. Collective action on improving environmental and economic performance of vegetable production: Exploring pesticides safety in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravindakshan, S.; Sherief, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    From the chemical input-intensive yield-enhancement practices of the Green Revolution era, agricultural research and development focus is gradually shifting towards establishing Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) in fruits and vegetable sector. The dominant problems affecting fruits and vegetables in

  3. River flow response to changes in vegetation cover in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was hypothesised in this study that annual river yield (river flow as a fraction of rainfall) in the Molenaars catchment near Paarl, South Africa co-varies with an index of green vegetation cover derived from satellite data (the normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI). The catchment was partitioned into 'upland' and ...

  4. Association between urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilla, Ihlebæk; Geir, Aamodt; Renata, Aradi; Bjørgulf, Claussen; Halvorsen, Thorén Kine

    2017-10-01

    The need for studies from more countries on the relationship between urban green space and health has been emphasized. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two types of measurement of urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway. Self-reported measures on mental disorders, asthma, type 2 diabetes and musculoskeletal pain of 8638 participants in the Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) were linked to two types of green space variables: the vegetation cover greenness derived from satellite data, which shows the city's vegetation cover regardless of property boundaries, and the land use greenness derived from municipal plans showing information about publicly accessible vegetation-covered areas. Associations between greenness and health measures were analysed by logistic regression models controlling for possible individual and contextual confounders. Increasing vegetation cover greenness was associated with fewer self-reported mental disorders for both men and women after controlling for possible confounders. The proportion of women who reported high levels of musculoskeletal pain increased with increasing degrees of both of the greenness measurements, but no significant association was observed for men. No association was found for asthma and diabetes type 2 for either men or women. Although there was a positive association between vegetation cover greenness and self-reported mental disorders, the main findings showed mixed results. The lack of clear associations between urban green space and lifestyle-related health disorders in Oslo might have been influenced by a large proportion of the inhabitants having easy access to green areas.

  5. Phenological Characterization of Desert Sky Island Vegetation Communities with Remotely Sensed and Climate Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are expected to impact the synchronicity and interactions between the Sonoran Desert and the forested sky islands which represent steep biological and environmental gradients. The main objectives were to examine how well satellite greenness time series data and derived phenological metrics (e.g., season start, peak greenness can characterize specific vegetation communities across an elevation gradient, and to examine the interactions between climate and phenological metrics for each vegetation community. We found that representative vegetation types (11, varying between desert scrub, mesquite, grassland, mixed oak, juniper and pine, often had unique seasonal and interannual phenological trajectories and spatial patterns. Satellite derived land surface phenometrics (11 for each of the vegetation communities along the cline showed numerous distinct significant relationships in response to temperature (4 and precipitation (7 metrics. Satellite-derived sky island vegetation phenology can help assess and monitor vegetation dynamics and provide unique indicators of climate variability and patterns of change.

  6. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type?2 diabetes: A meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping?Yu; Fang, Jun?Chao; Gao, Zong?Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu?Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta‐analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Meth...

  7. New views on changing Arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    trend data could be extracted. While other studies have used TM data to map change across two to three points in time to evaluate change in boreal or arctic vegetation under climate change (Masek 2001, Ranson et al 2004), the time-series analysis of Fraser et al (2011) allows the detection of subtle trends not typically discernible with two-date comparisons. Second, the findings of Fraser et al confirm that vegetation in the Arctic appears to be responding to warming, particularly winter warming. Their maps represent a basic empirical dataset whose spatial patterns should be replicated by model-based approaches. Third, the comparatively fine resolution of this study relative to previous satellite studies allows Fraser et al to more precisely locate where greening occurs. They note increases in shrub cover, confirming findings from studies that used other approaches to reach similar conclusions (Stow et al 2004, Tape et al 2006). They also find evidence that both shrub and herbaceous growth occurs more in landscape positions already favorable to productive vegetation, such as lower hillslopes and valleys, and less so on uplands. Such findings will certainly factor into discussions of the mechanism by which warming could facilitate vegetative growth in Arctic communities (Forbes et al 2010, Sturm et al 2005). The work of Fraser et al (2011) also adds to a growing body of work leveraging free Landsat data from the US Geological Survey's (USGS) archive. As the longest-running continuous satellite image dataset for land processes, Landsat data provide unparalleled witness to the enormous changes occurring on Earth since 1972 (Wulder et al 2008). By opening the US holdings of the Landsat archive to all humans on the planet (Woodcock et al 2008), the USGS in 2008 catalyzed a blossoming of approaches to capture and characterize that change (Goodwin et al 2010, Hais et al 2009, Hansen et al 2010, Huang et al 2010, Kennedy et al 2010, Potapov et al 2011, Vogelmann et al 2009

  8. Appearance is a function of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Gregory L; Rankin, Marlene K

    2010-03-01

    Increasingly, third-party insurers deny coverage to patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities because these are not seen as "functional." Recent facial transplants have demonstrated that severely deformed patients are willing to undergo potentially life-threatening surgery in search of a normal physiognomy. Scant quantitative research exists that objectively documents appearance as a primary "function" of the face. This study was designed to establish a population-based definition of the functions of the human face, rank importance of the face among various anatomical areas, and determine the risk value the average person places on a normal appearance. Voluntary adult subjects (n = 210) in three states aged 18 to 75 years were recruited using a quota sampling technique. Subjects completed study questionnaires of demography and bias using the Gamble Chance of Death Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The face ranked as the most important anatomical area for functional reconstruction. Appearance was the fifth most important function of the face, after breathing, sight, speech, and eating. Normal facial appearance was rated as very important for one to be a functioning member of American society (p = 0.01) by 49 percent. One in seven subjects (13 percent) would accept a 30 to 45 percent risk of death to obtain a "normal" face. Normal appearance is a primary function of the face, based on a large, culturally diverse population sample across the lifespan. Normal appearance ranks above smell and expression as a function. Restoration of facial appearance is ranked the most important anatomical area for repair. Normal facial appearance is very important for one to be a functional member of American society.

  9. Angiographic appearances of rare renal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Taenzer, V.

    1980-01-01

    Oncocytomas, called oxyphil proximal tubular adenomas in the Anglo Saxon literature, and benign hypernephromas are non-malignant, usually symptomless, rare tumours belonging to the renal adenomas. Oncocytomas have angiographic appearances sufficiently uniform to permit a tentative diagnosis. Histologically benign hypernephromas do not possess characteristic angiographic appearances and, in the presence of tumour in the renal vein or necrotic avascular areas, must be regarded as potentially malignant. (orig.) [de

  10. Mammographic appearances of male breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, A H; Evans, G F; Levy, K R; Amirkhan, R H; Schumpert, T D

    1999-01-01

    Various male breast diseases have characteristic mammographic appearances that can be correlated with their pathologic diagnoses. Male breast cancer is usually subareolar and eccentric to the nipple. Margins of the lesions are more frequently well defined, and calcifications are rarer and coarser than those occurring in female breast cancer. Gynecomastia usually appears as a fan-shaped density emanating from the nipple, gradually blending into surrounding fat. It may have prominent extensions into surrounding fat and, in some cases, an appearance similar to that of a heterogeneously dense female breast. Although there are characteristic mammographic features that allow breast cancer in men to be recognized, there is substantial overlap between these features and the mammographic appearance of benign nodular lesions. The mammographic appearance of gynecomastia is not similar to that of male breast cancer, but in rare cases, it can mask malignancy. Gynecomastia can be mimicked by chronic inflammation. All mammographically lucent lesions of the male breast appear to be benign, similar to such lesions in the female breast.

  11. Evaluation of Green Roof Water Quantity and Quality Performance in an Urban Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this report we present an analysis of water benefits from an array of observed green roof and control (non-vegetated) roof project sites throughout NYC. The projects are located on a variety of building sites and represent a diverse set of available extensive green roof instal...

  12. Climatic drivers of vegetation based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Jeroen; Martens, Brecht; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Molini, Annalisa; Miralles, Diego

    2017-04-01

    - while at seasonal scales the vegetative response is dominated by solar radiation in most regions. At the higher latitudes, the trends in all vegetation diagnostics agree with the hypothesis of a greening pattern explained by the increase in temperature. At the same time, substantial differences can be observed between the responses of the different vegetation indices as well. As an example, the VOD - thought to be a close proxy for vegetation water content - shows a larger sensitivity to precipitation than traditional optical indices like the NDVI. Our findings help to further understand the physical attributes of vegetation that each remotely-sensed vegetation index is responding to in order to optimize their use in global bio-geoscience research.

  13. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  14. Choice architectural nudge interventions to promote vegetable consumption based on automatic processes decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Friis Rasmussen, Rasmus; Møller Andersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    that had a default portion size of vegetable had he intended impact of increasing vegetable consumption. This emphasises the importance of portion sizes in out of home eating as well as underlines the effect of the one-unit bias. The remaining two nudges were not successful in increasing vegetable intake......, but promoted health by decreasing total energy intake which suggests that visual variety of fruit and greens prompts a healthy-eater subconscious behaviour....

  15. Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Nuzzo, Erin; Rice, Kristen R; Sargent, James D

    2012-03-01

    The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily. Although brand recognition is an independent, potent risk factor for alcohol outcomes among adolescents, alcohol brand appearances in popular music have not been assessed systematically. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and contextual elements associated with alcohol brand appearances in US popular music. Qualitative content analysis. We used Billboard Magazine to identify songs to which US adolescents were most exposed in 2005-07. For each of the 793 songs, two trained coders analyzed independently the lyrics of each song for references to alcohol and alcohol brand appearances. Subsequent in-depth assessments utilized Atlas.ti to determine contextual factors associated with each of the alcohol brand appearances. Our final code book contained 27 relevant codes representing six categories: alcohol types, consequences, emotional states, activities, status and objects. Average inter-rater reliability was high (κ = 0.80), and all differences were easily adjudicated. Of the 793 songs in our sample, 169 (21.3%) referred explicitly to alcohol, and of those, 41 (24.3%) contained an alcohol brand appearance. Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% versus 17.1%, P brand appearances were associated commonly with wealth (63.4%), sex (58.5%), luxury objects (51.2%), partying (48.8%), other drugs (43.9%) and vehicles (39.0%). One in five songs sampled from US popular music had explicit references to alcohol, and one-quarter of these mentioned a specific alcohol brand. These alcohol brand appearances are associated commonly with a luxury life-style characterized by wealth, sex, partying and other drugs. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Greening the Judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kidd

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of South Africa’s environmental law is relatively new. Most of South Africa’s judges received their formal legal educations before promulgation of the major part of our environmental law and almost certainly before environmental law was taught at universities. In recent years, there have been increasing instances of cases involving environmental matters coming to the courts. How are judges performing in these cases? It would appear that the judges’ performance is rather 'chequered' in environmental cases, which suggests that the judiciary needs to become more attuned to environmental law. I call this process, for purposes of this note, ‘greening the judiciary’. What I mean by this is not that judges must decide all environmental cases in a way that favours the environment, but that they must correctly consider, interpret and apply the relevant environmental law, and give environmental considerations appropriate deliberation. This note aims to identify, in admittedly somewhat general terms, the current state of environmental decision-making by judges and to suggest what needs to happen for such decisions to be improved.

  17. Implementing a free school-based fruit and vegetable programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Krølner, Rikke; Suldrup Jørgensen, Thea

    2014-01-01

    Multi-component interventions which combine educational and environmental strategies appear to be most effective in increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in adolescents. However, multi-component interventions are complex to implement and often poorly implemented. Identification of barriers...

  18. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  19. Changes in Landscape Greenness and Climatic Factors over 25 Years (1989–2013) in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring and quantifying changes in vegetation cover over large areas using remote sensing can be achieved using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an indicator of greenness. However, distinguishing gradual shifts in NDVI (e.g. climate change) versus direct and ...

  20. Analysis of monotonic greening and browning trends from global NDVI time-series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Bruin, de S.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Dent, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices are widely used to detect greening and browning trends; especially the global coverage of time-series normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data which are available from 1981. Seasonality and serial auto-correlation in the data have previously been dealt

  1. Water quality and quantity investigation of green roofs in a dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, S; Razzaghmanesh, M

    2015-03-01

    Low-energy pollutant removal strategies are now being sought for water sensitive urban design. This paper describes investigations into the water quality and quantity of sixteen, low-maintenance and unfertilized intensive and extensive green roof beds. The factors of Slope (1° and 25°), Depth (100 mm and 300 mm), Growing media (type A, type B and type C) and Species (P1, P2 and P3) were randomized according to a split-split plot design. This consisted of twelve vegetated green roof beds and four non-vegetated beds as controls. Stormwater runoff was collected from drainage points that were installed in each area. Samples of run-off were collected for five rainfall events and analysed for water retention capacity and the water quality parameters of NO₂, NO₃, NH₄, PO₄, pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, Na, Ca, Mg and K. The results indicated significant differences in terms of stormwater water quality and quantity between the outflows of vegetated and non-vegetated systems. The water retention was between 51% and 96% and this range was attributed to the green roof configurations in the experiment. Comparing the quality of rainfall as inflow, and the quality of runoff from the systems showed that green roofs generally acted as a source of pollutants in this study. In the vegetated beds, the intensive green roofs performed better than the extensive beds with regard to outflow quality while in the non-vegetated beds, the extensive beds performed better than intensive systems. This highlights the importance of vegetation in improving water retention capacity as well as the role of vegetation in enhancing pollutant removal in green roof systems. In addition growing media with less organic matter had better water quality performance. Comparison of these results with national and international standards for water reuse confirmed that the green roof outflow was suitable for non-potable uses such as landscape irrigation and toilet flushing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Differences in fruit and vegetable intake and their determinants among 11-year-old schoolchildren between 2003 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Claudia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit and vegetable (FV intake in children in the Netherlands is much lower than recommended. Recurrent appraisal of intake levels is important for detecting changes in intake over time and to inform future interventions and policies. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in fruit and vegetable intake, and whether these could be explained by differences in potential determinants of FV intake in 11-year-old Dutch schoolchildren, by comparing two school samples assessed in 2003 and 2009. Methods For 1105 children of the Pro Children study in 2003 and 577 children of the Pro Greens study in 2009 complete data on intake and behavioural determinants were available. The self-administered questionnaire included questions on children's ethnicity, usual fruit and vegetable intake, mother's educational level, and important potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake. Multiple regression analysis was applied to test for differences in intake and determinants between study samples. Mediation analyses were used to investigate whether the potential mediators explained the differences in intake between the two samples. Results In 2009, more children complied with the World Health Organization recommendation of 400 g fruit and vegetables per day (17.0% than in 2003 (11.8%, p = 0.004. Fruit consumption was significantly higher in the sample of 2009 than in the sample of 2003 (difference = 23.8 (95%CI: 8.1; 39.5 grams/day. This difference was mainly explained by a difference in the parental demand regarding their child's intake (23.6%, followed by the child's knowledge of the fruit recommendation (14.2% and parental facilitation of consumption (18.5%. Vegetable intake was lower in the 2009 sample than in the 2003 sample (12.3 (95%CI -21.0; -3.6. This difference could not be explained by the assessed mediators. Conclusions The findings indicate that fruit intake among 11-year-olds improved somewhat between 2003

  3. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  4. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McCann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor’s reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  5. Radiological appearances of degenerative uterine leiomyomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetankov, K.; Hadjidekov, G.; Plachkov, I.; Yankova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyomas, are the most common uterine neoplasms. Although benign, they can be associated with significant morbidity and are the commonest indication for hysterectomy. They are often discovered incidentally when performing imaging for other reasons. Usually first identified with US, they can be further characterized with MRI. They are usually easily recognizable, but degenerate fibroids can have unusual appearances. Knowledge of the different appearances of fibroids on imaging is important as it enables prompt diagnosis and thereby guides treatment. (authors)

  6. In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Sautéing or steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that microwave cooking could impr...

  7. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  8. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  9. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  10. Arctic Tundra Greening and Browning at Circumpolar and Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, H. E.; Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing data have historically been used to assess the dynamics of arctic tundra vegetation. Until recently the scientific literature has largely described the "greening" of the Arctic; from a remote sensing perspective, an increase in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), or a similar satellite-based vegetation index. Vegetation increases have been heterogeneous throughout the Arctic, and were reported to be up to 25% in certain areas over a 30-year timespan. However, more recently, arctic tundra vegetation dynamics have gotten more complex, with observations of more widespread tundra "browning" being reported. We used a combination of remote sensing data, including the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS), as well as higher spatial resolution Landsat data, to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns of arctic tundra vegetation dynamics (greening and browning) at circumpolar and regional scales over the past 3-4 decades. At the circumpolar scale, we focus on the spatial heterogeneity (by tundra subzone and continent) of tundra browning over the past 5-15 years, followed by a more recent recovery (greening since 2015). Landsat time series allow us to evaluate the landscape-scale heterogeneity of tundra greening and browning for northern Alaska and the Yamal Peninsula in northwestern Siberia, Russia. Multi-dataset analyses reveal that tundra greening and browning (i.e. increases or decreases in the NDVI respectively) are generated by different sets of processes. Tundra greening is largely a result of either climate warming, lengthening of the growing season, or responses to disturbances, such as fires, landslides, and freeze-thaw processes. Browning on the other hand tends to be more event-driven, such as the shorter-term decline in vegetation due to fire, insect defoliation, consumption by larger herbivores, or extreme weather events (e.g. winter warming or early summer frost damage). Browning can also be caused by local or

  11. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Revisiting "Vegetables" to combat modern epidemic of imbalanced glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament.

  13. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  14. What Genes Tell about Iris Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrat...

  15. 'Unusual' MRI appearance of sphenoid sinus mucocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelle, A.; Pisani, R.; Andrioli, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a case of sphenoid sinus mucocele which exhibited unusual MRI features. However a review of the literature shows that these lesions may present with different MRI appearances probably related to the variability of the cyst content. Further series are needed for a better definition of the MRI behaviour of the lesions. (orig.)

  16. 39 CFR 3001.6 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission online as a Principal Account Holder, or signs a paper filed with the Commission, his/her personal appearance, online submission, or signature, shall constitute a representation to the Commission that he/she..., 1971, as amended at 38 FR 4327, Feb. 13, 1973; 51 FR 8827, Mar. 14, 1986; 58 FR 38976, July 21, 1993...

  17. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT... appear as counsel or other representative must conform to the standards of conduct and ethics required of...

  18. Object tracking using active appearance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that (near) real-time object tracking can be accomplished by the deformable template model; the Active Appearance Model (AAM) using only low-cost consumer electronics such as a PC and a web-camera. Successful object tracking of perspective, rotational and translational...

  19. 40 CFR 22.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 22.10 Section 22.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING... and ethics required of practitioners before the courts of the United States. ...

  20. Protean appearance of craniopharyngioma on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danziger, A.; Price, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas present a diverse appearance on computed tomography. Histological diagnosis is not always possible, but computed tomography is of great assistance in the delineation of the tumour as well as of the degree of associated hydrocephalus. Computed tomography also enables rapid non-invasive follow-up after surgery or radiotherapy, or both

  1. Physical Appearance and Student/Teacher Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Scientific and cultural research suggests that attractiveness does affect the ways that people perceive and respond to each other. In this paper, the author talks about the impact of one's appearance in academe as well as in the relationship between students and professors. From the research literature, popular writings, and many comments from his…

  2. Ultrasound appearances of Implanon implanted contraceptive devices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNeill, G

    2009-09-01

    Subdermal contraceptive devices represent a popular choice of contraception. Whilst often removed without the use of imaging, circumstances exist where imaging is required. Ultrasound is the modality of choice. The optimal technique and typical sonographic appearances are detailed in this article.

  3. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, M.J.; Bourke, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change

  4. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, M.J. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)], E-mail: mattbrookes@doctors.org.uk; Bourke, A.G. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

    2008-11-15

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change.

  5. Nodular fasciitis: MRI appearance and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, L.Y.J.; Shu, S.J.; Chan, M.K.; Chan, C.H.S.; Chan, A.C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MRI features of nodular fasciitis and to review the clinical, MRI and histologic aspects of the tumor. Design and patients: Three patients with biopsy-proven nodular fasciitis were selected for a retrospective study. A literature review was also carried out. Results and conclusions: All the lesions appeared slightly hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with fat saturation [either frequency saturation or Short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequences]. Two enhanced homogeneously after intravenous gadolinium, whereas the third showed heterogeneous enhancement with a nonenhancing area. Despite the difference in enhancing patterns, the histologic appearances of these lesions were similar. Our study shows that the MRI appearance of nodular fasciitis may not be related to the location of lesion. It is thought that the age of nodular fasciitis may reflect its gross morphology, and it is possible that the MRI and histologic appearances could correlate with the age of the lesion, but it would require a larger series to evaluate this concept. (orig.)

  6. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  7. Vegetation height and cover fraction between 60° S and 60° N from ICESat GLAS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Los

    2012-03-01

    global vegetation height product typically used in a climate model, a recent global tree height product, and a vegetation greenness product and is shown to produce realistic estimates of vegetation height. Finally, the GLAS bare soil cover fraction is compared globally with the MODIS bare soil fraction (r = 0.65 and with bare soil cover fraction estimates derived from AVHRR NDVI data (r = 0.67; the GLAS tree-cover fraction is compared with the MODIS tree-cover fraction (r = 0.79. The evaluation indicates that filters applied to the GLAS data are conservative and eliminate a large proportion of spurious data, while only in a minority of cases at the cost of removing reliable data as well.

    The new GLAS vegetation height product appears more realistic than previous data sets used in climate models and ecological models and hence should significantly improve simulations that involve the land surface.

  8. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we

  9. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  10. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F

    2017-12-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWoert, Nicholaus D; Rowe, D Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A; Rugh, Clayton L; Fernandez, R Thomas; Xiao, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervious surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfaces account for a large portion of this impervious cover. Establishing vegetation on rooftops, known as green roofs, is one method of recovering lost green space that can aid in mitigating stormwater runoff. Two studies were performed using several roof platforms to quantify the effects of various treatments on stormwater retention. The first study used three different roof surface treatments to quantify differences in stormwater retention of a standard commercial roof with gravel ballast, an extensive green roof system without vegetation, and a typical extensive green roof with vegetation. Overall, mean percent rainfall retention ranged from 48.7% (gravel) to 82.8% (vegetated). The second study tested the influence of roof slope (2 and 6.5%) and green roof media depth (2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 cm) on stormwater retention. For all combined rain events, platforms at 2% slope with a 4-cm media depth had the greatest mean retention, 87%, although the difference from the other treatments was minimal. The combination of reduced slope and deeper media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, vegetated green roof systems not only reduced the amount of stormwater runoff, they also extended its duration over a period of time beyond the actual rain event.

  12. Non-Starchy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Amaranth or Chinese spinach Artichoke Artichoke hearts Asparagus Baby corn Bamboo shoots Beans (green, wax, Italian) Bean ...

  13. Phosphopantetheinylation in the green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein, Eva; Pu, Yuan; Beld, Joris

    2016-01-01

    available microalgal genome data revealed that most green microalgae appear to carry two PPTases forming clusters with each C. reinhardtii PPTase, while microalgae of other divisions carry one or two PPTases and do not cluster in the pattern of the green algal data. This new understanding on the PPTases...... in microalgae shows that microalgae are already primed for biotechnological applications in contrast to other organisms. Thus, microalgae have great potential for metabolic engineering efforts in the realm of biofuel and high-value products including direct engineering of the fatty acid or secondary metabolism...

  14. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  15. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M C Volgenant

    Full Text Available Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation. Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  16. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  17. Endometrial ablation: normal appearance and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drylewicz, Monica R; Robinson, Kathryn; Siegel, Cary Lynn

    2018-03-14

    Global endometrial ablation is a commonly performed, minimally invasive technique aimed at improving/resolving abnormal uterine bleeding and menorrhagia in women. As non-resectoscopic techniques have come into existence, endometrial ablation performance continues to increase due to accessibility and decreased requirements for operating room time and advanced technical training. The increased utilization of this method translates into increased imaging of patients who have undergone the procedure. An understanding of the expected imaging appearances of endometrial ablation using different modalities is important for the abdominal radiologist. In addition, the frequent usage of the technique naturally comes with complications requiring appropriate imaging work-up. We review the expected appearance of the post-endometrial ablated uterus on multiple imaging modalities and demonstrate the more common and rare complications seen in the immediate post-procedural time period and remotely.

  18. Possible Tau Appearance Experiment with Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    1999-12-27

    We suggest an experimental measurement that could detect the appearance of tau neutrinos due to {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos by measuring the energy spectra of neutrino induced showers. {tau} neutrinos deposit a large fraction of their energy in showers generated by {nu}{sub {tau}} charge current interactions and the subsequent {tau} -lepton decay. The appearance of {nu}{sub {tau}} will enhance the spectrum of neutrino induced showers in energy ranges corresponding to the neutrino oscillation parameters. A shower rate lower than the ''no oscillation'' prediction is an indication for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub s} oscillations. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  19. Tau appearance in atmospheric neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    If the correct interpretation of the Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data is ν μ → ν τ oscillation, the contained data sample should already have more than 10 τ appearance events. We study the challenging task of detecting the τ, focusing on the decay chain τ ± → ρ ± → π ± π 0 in events with quasi-elastic τ production. The background level, which is currently quite uncertain because of a lack of relevant neutral current data, can be measured by the near detector in the K2K experiment. Our estimates of the background suggest that it may be possible to detect τ appearance in Super-Kamiokande with 5-10 years of running

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination...... of the following frozen vegetables: red spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), green spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var...... conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between consumption of a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf...

  1. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M.; Anderson, Andrew R.; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. - Highlights: • Green streets can be used for both stormwater and air quality management. • Design considerations must be made to minimize human exposure to air pollutants. • Urban vegetation can improve air quality with careful selection and placement.

  2. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Shariatinajafabadi

    Full Text Available Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI, has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7. Data were collected over three years (2008-2010. Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%, while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%. Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration, thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  3. CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaohong, Wang; Hong, Shan; Zaibo, Jiang; Xinghe, Deng; Xiaochun, Meng; Bingbing, Ye; Mingyue, Luo; Yunya, Lin [Sun Yat-sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). The Third Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology

    2004-06-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy. Methods: Precontrast and postcontrast CT scans were employed in 38 patients who were clinically and ultrasonographically suspected of tubal pregnancy. 34 of them were verified as tubal pregnancy through operative pathology. Results: 1. The direct CT imaging feature was the whole pregnancies sac (4/34, 11.8%) or half-baked pregnancies sac (14/34, 41.2%); 2. The indirect CT imaging features were: (1) abnormal density image, which could be enhanced, in a cystic mass around adnexal area (8/34, 23.5%); (2) mix density mass around adnexal area, which was mainly solid and had mild to moderate inhomogeneous enhancement (19/34, 55.9%); (3) large area irregular shadow with high density were found beside the uterus, with no enhancement (3/34, 8.8%). (4) bloody density in uterus-rectum-fossa (23/34, 67.6%). 3. The CT imaging features of tubal pregnancy was classified as: (1) Pregnant sac type (4/34, 11.8%); (2) Cystic (8/34, 23.5%); (3) Massive type (17/34, 50%); (4) Chronic mass type (2/34, 5.9%); (5) Bleeding type (3/34, 8.8%). 4. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the pregnancy location; 5. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the clinical significant. Conclusion: The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy has some features, which can help in the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of the pelvis masses. CT scan is an effective supplementary attempt to the clinically and ultrasonographically suspected tubal pregnancy patients.

  4. Scintigraphic appearance of the piriformis muscle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, R.D. Jr.; Yedinak, M.A.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.; Howard, W.H.; Bunker, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first report in the nuclear medicine literature of the scintigraphic appearance of the piriformis muscle syndrome. This syndrome previously has been thought to be a purely clinical diagnosis and imaging modalities have been ignored. However, its confusing clinical presentation can lead to unnecessary surgical exploration. This case is presented to illustrate the characteristic scintigraphic pattern and suggest the role of nuclear medicine scanning in establishing the diagnosis

  5. CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohong; Shan Hong; Jiang Zaibo; Deng Xinghe; Meng Xiaochun; Ye Bingbing; Luo Mingyue; Lin Yunya

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy. Methods: Precontrast and postcontrast CT scans were employed in 38 patients who were clinically and ultrasonographically suspected of tubal pregnancy. 34 of them were verified as tubal pregnancy through operative pathology. Results: 1. The direct CT imaging feature was the whole pregnancies sac (4/34, 11.8%) or half-baked pregnancies sac (14/34, 41.2%); 2. The indirect CT imaging features were: (1) abnormal density image, which could be enhanced, in a cystic mass around adnexal area (8/34, 23.5%); (2) mix density mass around adnexal area, which was mainly solid and had mild to moderate inhomogeneous enhancement (19/34, 55.9%); (3) large area irregular shadow with high density were found beside the uterus, with no enhancement (3/34, 8.8%). (4) bloody density in uterus-rectum-fossa (23/34, 67.6%). 3. The CT imaging features of tubal pregnancy was classified as: (1) Pregnant sac type (4/34, 11.8%); (2) Cystic (8/34, 23.5%); (3) Massive type (17/34, 50%); (4) Chronic mass type (2/34, 5.9%); (5) Bleeding type (3/34, 8.8%). 4. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the pregnancy location; 5. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the clinical significant. Conclusion: The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy has some features, which can help in the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of the pelvis masses. CT scan is an effective supplementary attempt to the clinically and ultrasonographically suspected tubal pregnancy patients

  6. Owl's eye appearance: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Mukul; Asha, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Hyper-functioning thyroid nodule may present various scintigraphic appearances on thyroid scans. Autonomously hyper functioning thyroid nodules often show degenerative changes. These changes may give rise to peripheral photopenic areas on a thyroid scan. In this report we present a case of hyper functioning nodule showing appearance of an owl's eye. Although rare, such pattern can be seen in a variety of benign and malignant thyroid conditions. A 42-year-old man presented with a solitary thyroid nodule in the right lobe and weight loss for four months. The thyroid hormone profile confirmed hyperthyroidism. Thyroid function testing revealed T4=136.8 nmol/l (Normal = 66.0-181.0 nmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) = 0.283 (Normal =0.27- 4.2 μIU/ml). Antithyroglobulin antibodies and antimicrosmal antibodies were negative. The patient was referred for thyroid scan and uptake. A Thyroid scan was obtained after the intravenous injection of 5 mCi (185MBq) of 99m Tc pertechnetate. Anterior view obtained using a parallel hole collimator. The scan showed peripheral photopenic area with a central focal area of increased uptake giving the appearance of 'Owl's eye'. 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake was increased. A scintigraphic 'Owl's eye' sign has been described in thyroid cyst, benign autonomous nodule and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. This Owl's eye pattern appears to be caused by a focus of functioning tissue overlapping a large cold area in a nodule that has cystic,degenerative and necrotic changes in the middle of a benign and malignant pathology. Hyper functioning nodules may scintigraphically show Owl's eye pattern due to intra nodular degeneration, with residual hyper functioning tissue within or overlapping the degenerative area

  7. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  8. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  9. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  10. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  11. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  12. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  13. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  14. Determination of adulteration of malachite green in green pea and some prepared foodstuffs by micellar liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Vipin; Agrawal, Nitasha; Durgbanshi, Abhilasha; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Bose, Devasish

    2014-01-01

    A simple, fast, and robust micellar LC method was developed for the separation and identification of the nonpermitted color malachite green in green pea and some ready-to-eat foodstuffs. Malachite green (4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl) phenyl-methyl]-N,N-dimethylaniline) is a hazardous dye that is used to treat fungal and protozoan infections in fish and is a common adulterant (coloring agent) in green pea and other green vegetables because of its green color. In the present work, malachite green was determined in various foodstuffs using a direct injection technique on an RP C18 column with isocratic elution. The optimum mobile phase consisted of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 6% pentanol buffered at pH 5. Detection was carried out at 620 nm. Malachite green was eluted in 9.2 min without any interference caused by endogenous compounds. Linearities (r > 0.9999), intraday and interday precision (RSD less than 1.00%) in micellar media, and robustness were studied for method validation. LOD and LOQ were 0.10 and 0.25 ppm, respectively. The simplicity of the developed method makes it useful for routine analysis in the area of food QC.

  15. Green along the highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijers, E.; Kos, G.; Cornelissen, T.

    2008-01-01

    The results of downwind measurements of air quality around vegetation near a motorway are presented and discussed. The study (first ever in the Netherlands) was performed by order of the Innovation Programme Air Quality. At a carefully selected location measurements of PM and NOx were carried out downwind from a motorway in front of and (at various distances) behind a parallel orientated vegetation strip. Results are compared with synchronized data collected at a nearby location without vegetation (the 'reference' situation) and at the same distances from the motorway. Major findings are: Comparing measurements in front of and behind the vegetation strip show that the presence of vegetation tends to lower PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations immediately behind the vegetation. However, no such change is apparent in the concentrations of NO and NO2. The comparison with measurements executed without vegetation ('reference') indicate that concentration levels close to the vegetation strip are similar or somewhat higher. At a larger distance from motorway and vegetation (>30 m) NO and NO2 concentrations tend to be lower than what is observed in the reference situation. This could not be determined for PM [nl

  16. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  17. Monitoring of the Green Roofs Installation in Brno-City District, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebrova, Tatiana; Beckovsky, David; Selnik, Petr

    2017-12-01

    In spite of the rapidly growing interest to the green roofs, there is insufficient information about their local quantities and areas in Czech Republic as well as in Central Europe. There is a lack of technical information that leads to the further development, application and environmental contribution of green roofs under local climatic conditions. The purpose of the research is to follow the tendency of how the process of green roofs’ popularization is performed in the Czech Republic and to determine basic parameters of the installed green roofs. These parameters include total quantity, area and the most common roof vegetation type (extensive or intensive); how many green roofs were installed over the last years and as a result, how the proportion of the green roofs to the conventional ones is changing. For initial evaluation Brno-City District was chosen as the next stage of university environmental project EnviHUT following the genesis of green roofs under local weather conditions.

  18. Impact evaluation of green-grey infrastructure interaction on built-space integrity: an emerging perspective to urban ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Kumar, Prashant

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the role of urban green infrastructure (GI) in maintaining integrity of built-space. The latter is considered as a lateral ecosystem function, worth including in future assessments of integrated ecosystem services. The basic tenet is that integrated green-grey infrastructures (GGIs) would have three influences on built-spaces: (i) reduced wind withering from flow deviation; (ii) reduced material corrosion/degeneration from pollution removal; and (iii) act as a biophysical buffer in altering the micro-climate. A case study is presented, combining the features of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in micro-environmental modelling with the emerging science on interactions of GGIs. The coupled seasonal dynamics of the above three effects are assessed for two building materials (limestone and steel) using the following three scenarios: (i) business as usual (BAU), (ii) summer (REGEN-S), and (iii) winter (REGEN-W). Apparently, integrated ecosystem service from green-grey interaction, as scoped in this paper, has strong seasonal dependence. Compared to BAU our results suggest that REGEN-S leads to slight increment in limestone recession (<10%), mainly from exacerbation in ozone damage, while large reduction in steel recession (up to 37%) is observed. The selection of vegetation species, especially their bVOC emission potential and seasonal foliage profile, appears to play a vital role in determining the impact GI has on the integrity of the neighbouring built-up environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antihepatic Fibrosis Effect of Active Components Isolated from Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Involves the Inactivation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunge; Jiang, Chunyu; Xia, Xichun; Mu, Teng; Wei, Lige; Lou, Yuntian; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Yuqing; Bi, Xiuli

    2015-07-08

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a vegetable with numerous nutritional properties. In the current study, a total of 23 compounds were isolated from green asparagus, and 9 of these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time. Preliminary data showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-extracted fraction of green asparagus exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, giving an IC50 value of 45.52 μg/mL. The biological activities of the different compounds isolated from the EtOAc-extracted fraction with respect to antihepatic fibrosis were investigated further. Four compounds, C3, C4, C10, and C12, exhibited profound inhibitory effect on the activation of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells induced by TNF-α. The activation t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, which led to the production of fibrotic matrix (TGF-β1, activin C) and accumulation of TNF-α, was dramatically decreased by these compounds. The mechanisms by which these compounds inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells appeared to be associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, as well as the ERK phosphorylation cascade.

  20. Snow effects on alpine vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Zhang, Li; Qiu, Yubao; Ji, Lei; Tian, Feng; Wang, Cuizhen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between snow and vegetation is important for interpretation of the responses of alpine ecosystems to climate changes. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is regarded as an ideal area due to its undisturbed features with low population and relatively high snow cover. We used 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets during 2001–2010 to examine the snow–vegetation relationships, specifically, (1) the influence of snow melting date on vegetation green-up date and (2) the effects of snow cover duration on vegetation greenness. The results showed that the alpine vegetation responded strongly to snow phenology (i.e., snow melting date and snow cover duration) over large areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Snow melting date and vegetation green-up date were significantly correlated (p growth was influenced by different seasonal snow cover durations (SCDs) in different regions. Generally, the December–February and March–May SCDs played a significantly role in vegetation growth, both positively and negatively, depending on different water source regions. Snow's positive impact on vegetation was larger than the negative impact.

  1. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  2. Distribution of green open space in Malang City based on multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasyim, A. W.; Hernawan, F. P.

    2017-06-01

    Green open space is one of the land that its existence is quite important in urban areas where the minimum area is set to reach 30% of the total area of the city. Malang which has an area of 110,6 square kilometers, is one of the major cities in East Java Province that is prone to over-land conversion due to development needs. In support of the green space program, calculation of green space is needed precisely so that remote sensing which has high accuracy is now used for measurement of green space. This study aims to analyze the area of green open space in Malang by using Landsat 8 image in 2015. The method used was the vegetation index that is Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). From the study obtained the calculation of green open space was better to use the vegetation index method to avoid the occurrence of misclassification of other types of land use. The results of the calculation of green open space using NDVI found that the area of green open space in Malang City in 2015 reached 39% of the total area.

  3. Vegetation Identification With LIDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helt, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific terrain element of interest is vegetation, and in particular, tree type. Data taken on April 12th, 2005, were taken over a 10 km 20 km region which is mixed use agriculture and wetlands...

  4. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  5. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  6. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  7. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, N.; Skolnik, S.; Bilmer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  8. Comparison of hydrocephalus appearance at spinaldysraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshani, Besnik; Lenjani, Basri

    2013-01-01

    Congenital malformation of spinal dysraphism followed by hydrocephalus are phenomenon reveals during intrauterine child growth. Prime objective of this work was to present Comparison of hydrocephalus appearance at spinal dysraphism respectively at its meningocele and myelomeningocele forms in Neurosurgery Clinic in UCC in Prishtina. It is perfected with retrospective and prospective method precisely of its epidemiologic part summarizing notices from patients' histories which in 2000-2006 are hospitalized in Neurosurgery Clinic from (QFLPK)--Pediatric Clinic and Children Box (Department)--Gynecology Clinic and from Sanitary Regional Center throughout Kosova. Our study objects were two groups, as the first group 90 patients with spinal dysraphism where neurosurgery operations were done and classified types of dysraphism. At myelomeningocele hydrocephalus has dominated and in a percent of appearance and as acute of its active form was 97% of hydrocephalus form where subjected to cerebrospinal liquid derivation with ventriculo -peritoneal shunt in comparison with meningocele we do not have involvation of spinal nerve element, hydrocephalus takes active form with intervention indication in 60% of cases. Reflection in shown deficit aspect is totally different at myelomeningoceles where lower paraplegia dominate more than paraparesis. The second patient operative technique developed by hydrocephalus with neurosurgical intervention indication has to do with placing of (VP) ventriculo- peritoneal system (shant) at myelomeningoceles with hydrocephalus 58 cases and 12 cases meningoceles with hydrocephalus. Post operative meningitis (shant meningitis): from 70 operated cases of hydrocephalus with spinal dysraphism shunts complications from all types are just cases. Finally that appearance of hydrocephalus compared at spinal dysraphism dominate at myellomeningoceles as in notice time aspect, it is persisting and further acute, with vital motivation for neurosurgical

  9. Postoperative CT appearance in chronic subdural hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Takaaki; Nishikawa, Michio; Handa, Hajime; Iwaki, Kazuo; Sawai, Teruaki; Munaka, Masahiro

    1988-05-01

    Postoperative CT appearances in 65 cases of chronic subdural hematomas were evaluated in terms of patient's age, preoperative neurological symptoms and CT findings, final outcomes, and so on. All of the cases were treated with trepanation and irrigation. CT appearances were divided into four different types as follows; Type Ia: No abnormal findings in the subdural sapce, Type Ib: The same as above except for a linear high density suggestive of thickened outer membrane, Type II: Persistence subdural fluid collection and widened cortical sulci which indicate underlining brain atrophy, Type III: Remaining hematoma and/or density changes during follow-up period. Although the mean age of the patients in type Ib was higher than those in type Ia and reexpansion of the brain appear to delay in type Ib and preoperative CT in type Ib tended to show mixed density, final outcome in both groups were excellent. Characteristics in type II were that most of cases were in the eighth decade, preceding head injury was unclear, preoperative psychiatric symptoms and disturbance of consciousness were common and postoperative improvement of the symptoms was not satisfactory compared to other types. Aged patients as in type Ib and type II and thick hematomas of over 2 cm depth with mixed or high density tended to show type III postoperatively. All of the nine patients who required reoperation were included in this type. The present study indicates that thick hematomas with sizable mass effect and mixed or high density in the aged must be carefully treated, such as with placement of the subdural drainage or keeping the patient in the Trendelenburg position, to facilitate postoperative reexpansion of the brain.

  10. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Schee, Jan, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.c, E-mail: jan.schee@fpf.slu.c [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezrucovo nam. 13, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-07

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a {approx} 1.

  11. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C.L. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Sahdev, A.; Rockall, A.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Singh, N. [Department of Pathology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Cancer Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm{sup 3}) and mucinous (6358.2 cm{sup 3}) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  12. Vegetation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  13. Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so

  14. Appearance and methods of prostatic arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Gang; Yang Zhigang; Meng Fanzhe; Zhang Yingguang; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Ming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the methods of prostatic arteriography and evaluate the arteriographic appearance of prostatic blood supply. Methods: Selective and super-selective prostatic arteriographies were performed in 62 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer. Results: The prostatic blood supply originated mainly from inferior vesical artery or internal pudendal artery or prostatic artery (80%). Prostatic arteriography could be performed successfully with skillful catheterization and high resolution DSA. Conclusions: Prostatic arteriography is helpful for evaluating the origin and quantity of prostate vasculature and important to differentiate benign prostatic hyperplasia from prostatic cancer

  15. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.; Al-Zwae, K.; Nair, S.; Cast, J.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP

  16. Rapid Material Appearance Acquisition Using Consumer Hardware

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír; Krupička, Mikuláš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 10 (2014), s. 19785-19805 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Grant - others:EC FP7, European Reintegration Grant(BE) 239294 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : measurement setup * material appearance * BTF * ABRDF * visual psychophysics Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.245, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/filip-0433583.pdf

  17. An intragastric trichobezoar: computerised tomographic appearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris B

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old lady presented with a history of abdominal pain and distension since two months. The ultrasound examination showed an epigastric mass, which was delineated as a filling defect in the stomach on barium studies. The computerised tomographic scan showed a gastric mass with pockets of air in it, without post-contrast enhancement. This case highlights the characteristic appearance on computerised tomography of a bezoar within the stomach, a feature that is not commonly described in medical literature.

  18. CT appearance of amiodarone-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, A.A.; Hayward, C.

    1989-01-01

    Basal peripheral pleuroparenchymal opacities are described on CT of early cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, asbestosis and bleomycin pneumonitis. These diseases may be caused by free radical effects on phospholipid metabolism causing cell wall damage. Amiodarone hydrochloride alters phospholipid synthesis metabolically. Amiodarone pneumonitis might be expected to show similar CT appearances. Sixteen patients who have developed new respiratory symptoms while taking amiodarone have been scanned prone and supine and at inspiration and expiration by means of a scanner with 2-mm sections at 1-cm intervals. All have been previously healthy nonsmokers with no relevant occupational history. Previous chest radiographs have been normal. Results are presented

  19. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  20. Appearance-related bullying and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker

    2013-01-01

    Bullying encompasses verbal aggression, physical aggression, and social exclusion. It involves "harm-doing" that is carried out repeatedly, over time, and within a relationship, involving a power imbalance between the bully and the bullied. Being bullied may have considerable adverse sequelae, including psychologic or psychiatric harm. Much bullying is appearance-related, and it would be surprising if some individuals with skin disease were not bullied given the high visibility of skin diseases. The limited evidence available does suggest that individuals with skin disease, particularly those with acne, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, are often bullied, which can adversely affect them psychologically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.