WorldWideScience

Sample records for vegetated urban sites

  1. Urbanization, urban climate and influence of vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese

    thermal consequences of the ongoing rapid urbanization in African contexts. The magnitude of UHI and its impacts on human comfort and wellbeing, as well as effectiveness of urban vegetation in mitigating the UHI effects in the context of tropical Africa, are rarely studied. This project, therefore......This PhD thesis deals with urbanization-induced changes in land use/cover (LULC), associated local-level warming and the role of vegetation in mitigating the local thermal climate change in cities of Ethiopia. The thesis consists of four research papers that address these environmental changes...... warming in tropical dry climates and effects of different urban vegetation in mitigating local warming, and 3) knowledge of human bioclimatology in a tropical warm climate by examining influences of urban thermal environment on workplace comfort and wellbeing. The changes in urban LULC as well...

  2. Urbanization, urban climate and influence of vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese

    This PhD thesis deals with urbanization-induced changes in land use/cover (LULC), associated local-level warming and the role of vegetation in mitigating the local thermal climate change in cities of Ethiopia. The thesis consists of four research papers that address these environmental changes...... warming in tropical dry climates and effects of different urban vegetation in mitigating local warming, and 3) knowledge of human bioclimatology in a tropical warm climate by examining influences of urban thermal environment on workplace comfort and wellbeing. The changes in urban LULC as well...... impacts on work activities by reducing effective working hours as people take extra breaks due to thermal stress. In summary, this PhD project contributes to the science of urban environmental studies by integrating data from a wide range of sources and using diverse analytical approaches. The project has...

  3. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-05-31

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued.

  4. Mapping urban vegetation cover using WorldView-2 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavayas, François; Ramos, Yuddy; Boyer, André

    2012-06-01

    There are clear indications that densification of built-up areas within cities and new developments in their outskirts, in conjunction with urban population activities, are at the origin of climate changes at the local level and have a direct impact on air and water quality. Densification of the vegetation cover is often mentioned as one of the most important means to mitigate the impacts of climate changes and to improve the quality of the urban environment. Decision making on vegetation cover densification presupposes that urban planners and managers know exactly the actual situation in terms of vegetation location, types and biomass. However, in many cities, inventories of vegetation cover are usually absent. This study examines the feasibility of an automatic system for vegetation cover inventory and mapping in urban areas based on WorldView-2 imagery. The city of Laval, Canada, was chosen as the experimental site. The principal conclusions are as follows: a) conversion of digital counts to ground reflectances is a crucial step in order to fully exploit the potential of WV-2 multispectral images for mapping vegetation cover and recognizing vegetation classes; b) the combined use of NDVIs computed using the three infrared available bands and the red band provides an accurate means of differentiating vegetation cover from other land covers; and c) it is possible to separate trees from other vegetation types and to identify tree species even in dense urban areas using spectral signature characteristics and segmentation algorithms.

  5. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination on Vegetables Grown in Long-term Wastewater Irrigated Urban Farming Sites in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lente, I.; Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment was done of heavy-metal contamination and its related health risks in urban vegetable farming in Accra. Samples of irrigation water (n = 120), soil (n = 144) and five different kinds of vegetable (n = 240) were collected and analyzed for copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel...... higher. Health risk assessments showed for all elements that normal consumption of each of the vegetables assessed poses no risk. The highest hazard index obtained was 42 % for wastewater irrigated cabbage. Though within permissible limits, cabbage and ayoyo had the highest potential risk. Compared...... and cobalt. All water, soil and vegetable samples contained detectable concentrations of each of the seven heavy metals except for irrigation water which had no detectable chromium, cadmium and cobalt. All heavy-metal levels were below permissible limits except lead on vegetables which was 1.8–3.5 times...

  6. Urban environment and vegetation: comfort and urban heat island mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Magliocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the outcomes of an experimental simulation on the microclimatic effects and on thermal comfort of vegetation in urban environment, conducted by means of a three-dimensional microclimate model, ENVI- met 3.1. The simulation considers a wide range of hypothetical cases of typical city areas with different characteristics related to: building density, building height, vegetation type and density. The results of the study show how different combinations of amount and type of vegetation, density and height of buildings affect the urban heat island phenomenon in Mediterranean climate.

  7. Wall Vegetation Characteristics of Urban and Sub-Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Yalcinalp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately, we live in a greedy little world and horizontal areas are often too expensive to leave to nature on them. Therefore, creating gardens on vertical surfaces of urban areas has recently been very important to supporting sustainability because these surfaces are still found to be commercially useless compared with green areas which are generally under pressure from commercial demands and politics. However, these artificial vertical green surfaces are still too far from being common, while too many ordinary walls are spontaneously covered with vegetation already. In this study, we try to address the dynamics of wall vegetation as it has a great potential to make the cities more sustainable. Totally 70 walls (35 in urban and 35 in sub-urban areas in Trabzon city were examined regarding their ecological, physical and vegetation characteristics. Having identified 1540 plant samples collected from the walls during a year-round intensive field study, we performed statistical analyzes to enumerate the wall vegetation depending on the ecological characteristics; to evaluate if there are different wall vegetation compositions in urban and sub-urban areas; and finally to evaluate growth conditions and basic challenges for the wall vegetation.

  8. Urban Farmers' Adoption of Improved Dry Season Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the adoption of improved vegetable production technologies among urban farmers in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to ascertain the technologies adopted in dry season urban vegetable production, reasons for participation in the production, sources of ...

  9. [Structure and heterogeneity of urban vegetation landscape in Shenyang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wenduo; Liu, Changfu; Li, Haimei; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Yue

    2003-12-01

    Studies on the structure and heterogeneity of urban vegetation landscape in Shenyang city showed that the most vegetation patches were in the street corner, accounted for more than 50% of the total vegetation patch, and their area was only 4.45% of the total vegetation area. In terms of the size of the patches, the average area of shelter vegetation and park vegetation was 66.97 hm2 and 59.31 hm2, respectively, while that of street corner vegetation and garden vegetation was 0.71 hm2 and 0.38 hm2, respectively. Street corner vegetation had the highest index of landscape diversity, while park vegetation had the lowest one. In the seven districts of Shenyang city, all types of vegetation had a small landscape dominance and evenness, but patch vegetation had a more than 10 times of landscape dominance than corridor vegetation, indicating that there was somewhat imbalance in the allocation of different vegetation patch types. It's suggested that the quantity of patch vegetation should be increased, and the public vegetation should be distributed evenly. Increasing vegetation corridor is also important because it can link the downtown area to the suburb natural vegetation ecosystems. For example, the South Canal Belt Park of Shenyang is a good vegetation corridor, which can beautify Shenyang city, discharge sewage, drain flood, and improve microclimate.

  10. Modeling the effects of urban vegetation on air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Patrick J. McHale; Myriam Ibarra; Daniel Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Chris J. Luley

    1998-01-01

    Urban vegetation can directly and indirectly affect local and regional air quality by altering the urban atmospheric environment. Trees affect local air temperature by transpiring water through their leaves, by blocking solar radiation (tree shade), which reduces radiation absorption and heat storage by various anthropogenic surfaces (e.g., buildings, roads), and by...

  11. Effect of synthetic surfaces and vegetation in urban areas on human energy balance and comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas F. Stark; David R. Miller

    1977-01-01

    The thermal balance of a standard man was quantified for a variety of urban and rural summer daytime microclimates. The resulting net heat-load data were correlated with the relative amounts of vegetation and synthetic materials at each site. By extrapolating these results, it is possible to estimate the expected heat load of a proposed development before it is built...

  12. Vegetation type classification and vegetation cover percentage estimation in urban green zone using pleiades imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Open green space in the urban area has aims to maintain the availability of land as a water catchment area, creating aspects of urban planning through a balance between the natural environment and the built environment that are useful for the public needs. Local governments have to make the green zone plan map and monitor the green space changes in their territory. Medium and high resolution satellite imageries have been widely utilized to map and monitor the changes of vegetation cover as an indicator of green space area. This paper describes the use of pleaides imagery to classify vegetation types and estimate vegetation cover percentage in the green zone. Vegetation cover was mapped using a combination of NDVI and blue band. Furthermore, vegetation types in the green space were classified using unsupervised and supervised (ISODATA and MLEN) methods. Vegetation types in the study area were divided into sparse vegetation, low-medium vegetation and medium-high vegetation. The classification accuracies were 97.9% and 98.9% for unsupervised and supervised method respectively. The vegetation cover percentage was determined by calculating the ratio between the vegetation type area and the green zone area. These information are useful to support green zone management activities.

  13. Influence of urban vegetation on air pollution and noise exposure - A case study in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Jenny; Broberg, Malin; Strandberg, Bo; Thorsson, Pontus; Pleijel, Håkan

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution levels (NO2, PAHs, O3) were investigated, before (BLE) and after (ALE) leaf emergence, in the urban landscape of Gothenburg, Sweden. The aims were to study the 1) spatial and temporal variation in pollution levels between urban green areas, 2) effect of urban vegetation on air pollution levels at the same distance from a major emission source (traffic route), 3) improvement of urban air quality in urban parks compared to adjacent sites near traffic, 4) correlation between air pollution and noise in a park. O3 varied little over the urban landscape. NO2 varied strongly and was higher in situations strongly influenced by traffic. Four PAH variables were included: total PAH, total particle-bound PAH, the quantitatively important gaseous phenanthrene and the highly toxic particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene. The variation of PAHs was similar to NO2, but for certain PAHs the difference between highly and less polluted sites was larger than for NO2. At a vegetated site, NO2 and particulate PAH levels were lower than at a non-vegetated site at a certain distance from a busy traffic route. This effect was significantly larger ALE compared to BLE for NO2, indicating green leaf area to be highly significant factor for air quality improvement. For particulate PAHs, the effect was similar BLE and ALE, indicating that tree bark and branches also could be an important factor in reducing air pollution. Parks represented considerably cleaner local environments (park effect), which is likely to be a consequence of both a dilution (distance effect) and deposition. Noise and air pollution (NO2 and PAH) levels were strongly correlated. Comparison of noise levels BLE and ALE also showed that the presence of leaves significantly reduced noise levels. Our results are evidence that urban green spaces are beneficial for urban environmental quality, which is important to consider in urban planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation in the urban vegetation, surface temperature, air temperature nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiflett, Sheri A; Liang, Liyin L; Crum, Steven M; Feyisa, Gudina L; Wang, Jun; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2017-02-01

    Our study examines the urban vegetation - air temperature (Ta) - land surface temperature (LST) nexus at micro- and regional-scales to better understand urban climate dynamics and the uncertainty in using satellite-based LST for characterizing Ta. While vegetated cooling has been repeatedly linked to reductions in urban LST, the effects of vegetation on Ta, the quantity often used to characterize urban heat islands and global warming, and on the interactions between LST and Ta are less well characterized. To address this need we quantified summer temporal and spatial variation in Ta through a network of 300 air temperature sensors in three sub-regions of greater Los Angeles, CA, which spans a coastal to desert climate gradient. Additional sensors were placed within the inland sub-region at two heights (0.1m and 2m) within three groundcover types: bare soil, irrigated grass, and underneath citrus canopy. For the entire study region, we acquired new imagery data, which allowed calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST. At the microscale, daytime Ta measured along a vertical gradient, ranged from 6 to 3°C cooler at 0.1 and 2m, underneath tall canopy compared to bare ground respectively. At the regional scale NDVI and LST were negatively correlated (p<0.001). Relationships between diel variation in Ta and daytime LST at the regional scale were progressively weaker moving away from the coast and were generally limited to evening and nighttime hours. Relationships between NDVI and Ta were stronger during nighttime hours, yet effectiveness of mid-day vegetated cooling increased substantially at the most arid region. The effectiveness of vegetated Ta cooling increased during heat waves throughout the region. Our findings suggest an important but complex role of vegetation on LST and Ta and that vegetation may provide a negative feedback to urban climate warming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as...

  18. Evaluation of bispectral LIDAR data for urban vegetation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabucet, Jean; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Corpetti, Thomas; Launeau, Patrick; Lague, Dimitri; Michon, Cyril; Quenol, Herve

    2016-10-01

    Because of the large increase of urban population in the last decades, the question of sustainable development in urban areas is crucial. In this context, vegetation plays a significant role in urban planning, environmental protecting, and sustainable development policy making, heating and cooling requirements of buildings, displacement of animals dispersion, concentration of pollutants, and well-being. In numerous cities, vegetation is limited to public areas using GPS surveys or aerial remote sensing data. Recently, very high-resolution sensors as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data have permitted significant improvements in vegetation mapping in urban areas. This paper presents an evaluation of a new generation of airborne LIDAR bi-spectral discrete point (Optech titan) for mapping and characterizing urban vegetation. The methodology is based on a four-step approach: 1) the analysis of the quality of data in order to estimate noise between the green and near-infrared LIDAR point clouds; 2) this enables to remove the topographic effects and 3) a first classification, devoted to the elimination of the non-vegetation class, is performed based on the intensity value of the two channels; finally, in 4), the tree coverage is classified into seven categories of strata combination. To this end specific descriptors related to the organization of the point clouds are used. These first results show that compared to monospectral LiDAR data, bi-spectral LiDAR enables to improve significantly both the extraction and the characterization of urban objects. This reveals new perspectives for mapping and characterizing urban patterns and other complex structures.

  19. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-12-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wall Vegetation Characteristics of Urban and Sub-Urban Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emrah Yalcinalp; Alperen Meral

    2017-01-01

    ... on them. Therefore, creating gardens on vertical surfaces of urban areas has recently been very important to supporting sustainability because these surfaces are still found to be commercially useless...

  1. Rangeland dynamics: investigating vegetation composition and structure of urban and exurban prairie dog habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Rebecca; Meiman, Paul; Shannon, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Rapid human population growth and habitat modification in the western United States has led to the formation of urban and exurban rangelands. Many of these rangelands are also home to populations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Our study aimed to compare the vegetation composition of an urban and exurban rangeland, and explore the role that prairie dogs play in these systems. The percent absolute canopy cover of graminoids (grasses and grass-likes), forbs, shrubs, litter, and bare ground were estimated at sampling areas located on and off prairie dog colonies at an urban and an exurban site. Herbaceous forage quality and quantity were determined on plant material collected from exclosure cages located on the colony during the entire growing season, while a relative estimate of prairie dog density was calculated using maximum counts. The exurban site had more litter and plant cover and less bare ground than the urban site. Graminoids were the dominant vegetation at the exurban plots. In contrast, mostly introduced forbs were found on the urban prairie dog colony. However, the forage quality and quantity tests demonstrated no difference between the two colonies. The relative prairie dog density was greater at the urban colony, which has the potential to drive greater vegetation utilization and reduced cover. Exurban rangeland showed lower levels of impact and retained all of the plant functional groups both on- and off-colony. These results suggest that activities of prairie dogs might further exacerbate the impacts of humans in fragmented urban rangeland habitats. Greater understanding of the drivers of these impacts and the spatial scales at which they occur are likely to prove valuable in the management and conservation of rangelands in and around urban areas.

  2. Site vegetation report: Terrestrial vegetation survey (1993--1995) for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (EcMP) was designed to investigate the long-term ecological trends in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) (DOE 1993). Field sampling was conducted during 1993, 1994, and 1995, until the program was terminated in late 1995. This report presents the terrestrial vegetation data that were gathered by the EcMP. The site is located on the Colorado Piedmont, east of the Front Range, between Boulder and Golden, approximately 25 km (16 miles) northwest of Denver. The topography and proximity of the Site to the mountain front result in an interesting mixture of prairie and mountain plant species. The Site is one of the few large, relatively undisturbed areas of its kind that remains along the Colorado Piedmont. Until 1989, the primary mission of the Site was the production of nuclear weapons components (DOE 1993). After production ceased, Site personnel shifted their focus to cleanup and closure.

  3. Effect of vegetation on urban climate and healthy urban colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S.H.; Murthy, M.S.R.; Bhagya Lakshmi, O.; Shylaja, G. (Ecology and Environmental Biology Lab., Dept. of Botany, Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India))

    1991-01-01

    The role of plants in developing a healthy atmosphere is very desirable in the context of deteriorating environment resulting from increased urbanization, industrialization and improper environmental management. This investigation has attempted to screen plants for their ability to improve the design and development of healthy environments around buildings and urban centres of Hyderabad. Ability index values were computed on the basis of canopy area, physiological characters of trees growing in polluted environments, pollution stress and population load. Azadirachta indica, Pithecolobium dulce and Cassia fistula are suggested for plantations around buildings and urban centres for minimizing pollution. Certain susceptible trees like Pongamia glabra and Polyalthia longifolia have been suggested in the diagnosis and investigation of air quality through biological means. (orig.).

  4. Soil and vegetation carbon in urban ecosystems: The importance of urban definition and scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, S. M.; Hutyra, L.; Rao, P.; Finzi, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the importance of soils and vegetation in urban carbon metabolism that is caused, in part, by inconsistent definitions of 'urban' land use. In Massachusetts, the US census estimates that 36% of the state is 'urban', yet remote sensing observations reveal that 50% of this urban area is forest or forested wetlands. While both of these estimates can be correct, the importance of soils and vegetation on the carbon metabolism of urban areas is clearly dependent on whether municipal, physical, or social definitions of urban are applied. We quantified urban ecosystem contributions to terrestrial C pools in the Boston Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) using several alternative urban definitions. Aboveground biomass (DBH ≥ 5 cm) for the MSA was 7.2 ± 0.4 kg C/m2, reflecting a high proportion of forest cover. Vegetation C was highest in forest (11.6 ± 0.5 kg C/m2) followed by residential (4.6 ± 0.5 kg C/m2) and then other developed (2.0 ± 0.4 kg C/m2) land uses. Soil C (0 to 10 cm) followed the same pattern of decreasing C concentration from forest, to residential, to other developed land uses (4.1 ± 0.1, 4.0 ± 0.2, and 3.3 ± 0.2 kg C/m2, respectively). Soil N concentrations were higher in urban areas than non-urban areas of the same land use type, except for residential areas, which had similarly high soil N concentrations. Urban soil (1 m depth) and vegetation C stocks spanned a wide range, from 14.4 to 54.5 Tg C and from 4.2 to 27.3 Tg C, respectively, depending on the urban definition that was used. Conclusions about the importance of soils and vegetation in urban ecosystems are very sensitive to the definition of urban used by the investigators. Urban areas are rapidly expanding in their extent; a systematic understanding of how our development patterns influence urban carbon metabolism, including vegetation and soils, is necessary to inform future development choices.

  5. Attenuation of Road Traffic Noise by Vegetation in Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Radosavljević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the 20 th century and the beginning of the 21 st century have been characterized by rapid urban growth of cities, which resulted in overcrowding and the lack of land. The aftermath of such circumstances is the construction of many buildings near the main roads and the bus stations, which causes population exposure to significant levels of noise. In the cities aimed at maintaining sustainable urban environment, greenery is a key element that can be used to approach this issue successfully. Green facades, also known as vertical greenery systems, are becoming increasingly popular in urban areas. Vertical green systems on the facade walls, low belts of green vegetation and trees of different heights, widths and lengths contribute to reducing the level of traffic noise. The ability of greenery to attenuate noise is greater with the increasing frequency of traffic. This paper describes the effects of certain types of vegetation on traffic noise reduction, depending on the parameters such as: the type of vegetation, the dimensions of the green belt, the distance from the noise source, frequency range, etc.

  6. Focusing on the big picture: urban vegetation and eco ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees and vegetation can be key components of urban green infrastructure and green spaces such as parks and residential yards. Large trees, characterized by broad canopies, and high leaf and stem volumes, can intercept a substantial amount of stormwater while promoting evapotranspiration and reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loads. Urban vegetation cover, height, and volume are likely to be affected not only by local climatic characteristics, but also by complex socio-economic dynamics resulting from management practices and resident’s preferences. We examine the benefits provided by private greenspace and present preliminary findings related to the climatic and socio-economic drivers correlated with structural complexity of residential urban vegetation. We use laser (LiDAR) and multispectral remotely-sensed data collected throughout 1400+ neighborhoods and 1.2+ million residential yards across 8 US cities to carry out this analysis. We discuss principles and opportunities to enhance stormwater management using residential greenspace, as well as the larger implications for decentralized stormwater management at city-wide scale. We discuss principles and opportunities to enhance stormwater management using residential greenspace, as well as the larger implications for decentralized stormwater management at city-wide scale.

  7. Spatial Modeling of Urban Vegetation and Land Surface Temperature: A Case Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudong Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The coupling relationship between urban vegetation and land surface temperature (LST has been heatedly debated in a variety of environmental studies. This paper studies the urban vegetation information and LST by utilizing a series of remote sensing imagery covering the period from 1990 to 2007. Their coupling relationship is analyzed, in order to provide the basis for ecological planning and environment protection. The results show that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, urban vegetation abundance (UVA and urban forest abundance (UFA are negatively correlated with LST, which means that both urban vegetation and urban forest are capable in decreasing LST. The apparent influence of urban vegetation and urban forest on LST varies with the spatial resolution of the imagery, and peaks at the resolutions ranging from 90 m to 120 m.

  8. Urban Vegetation Mapping Based on the HJ-1 Ndvi Reconstrction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Han, Liu; Liujun, Zhu; Yinyou, Huang; Song, Guo

    2016-06-01

    HJ-1A/B NDVI (HJ NDVI) time-series data possess relatively high spatio-temporal resolution which is significant for the research on urban areas. However, its application is hindered by noise resulting from the restrictions of imaging quality and limits of the satellite platform. The NDVI noise reduction is necessary. Some noise-reduction techniques including the asymmetric Gaussian filter (AG), the double logistic filter (DL), the Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filter and the harmonic analysis (Hants) of NDVI time-series have been used to carry out the NDVI time series reconstruction, and based on the comparison results of different filter, S-G filter is the optimal in the application on urban areas. Finally,urban vegetation mapping is carried out based on the new HJ NDVI.

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fort Larned National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Fort Larned National Historic Site and surrounding areas. This project is authorized as...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site and surrounding areas. This project is...

  11. Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Spatial Vegetation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) , Island of Hawai'i and surrounding areas....

  12. Impact of vegetable crop agriculture on anopheline agressivity and malaria transmission in urban and less urbanized settings of the South region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akono, Patrick Ntonga; Mbida, Jean Arthur Mbida; Tonga, Calvin; Belong, Philippe; Ngo Hondt, Odette Etoile; Magne, Gaëlle Tamdem; Peka, Marie Florence; Lehman, Leopold Gustave

    2015-05-28

    The use of inland valley swamps for vegetable crop agriculture contributes to food security in urban and less urbanized settings in Africa. The impact of this agriculture on aggressive mosquitoes' diversity and malaria transmission in central Africa is poorly documented. This study is aimed at assessing the impact of vegetable crop agriculture on these entomological parameters in urban and less urbanized settings of the forest area, south of Cameroon. The human bait technique was used for the capture of aggressive mosquitoes from January to December 2012. For three consecutive days each month, captures were performed on volunteers in hydro-agricultural and river bank sites of Akonolinga and Yaoundé. Physico-chemical characteristics of mosquito breeding sites were recorded. Molecular alongside morpho-taxonomic techniques were used for the identification of mosquito species; ELISA test was used to reveal Plasmodium falciparum infected mosquitoes through the detection of CSP. Mosquito diversity, aggressivity and malaria transmission in sites and settings were determined and compared. Biting rates were higher in hydro-agricultural sites of less urbanized and urban settings (31.8 b/p/n and 28.6 b/p/n respectively) than in river banks sites (6.83 b/p/n and 3.64 b/p/n respectively; p agricultural sites 2 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 in the less urbanized setting, meanwhile in river bank sites, 3 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 species in the less urbanized setting. An. nili s.s. was found in river banks only. An. hancocki was not found to insure Plasmodium falciparum Welch transmission. EIR in hydro-agricultural sites varied from 1.86 ib/p/n (urban area) to 2.13 ib/p/n (less urbanized area) with higher rates in April/May and August. Overall, EIR was higher in less urbanized areas (p agriculture (p = 0.2). These results highlight the need for specific preventive measures that take into account the ecological peculiarities

  13. Positive effects of vegetation: urban heat island and green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, T; Gaffin, S R; Dell'osso, G R

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the positive effects of vegetation with a multi-scale approach: an urban and a building scale. Monitoring the urban heat island in four areas of New York City, we have found an average of 2 °C difference of temperatures between the most and the least vegetated areas, ascribable to the substitution of vegetation with man-made building materials. At micro-scale, we have assessed the effect of surface albedo on climate through the use of a climatological model. Then, using the CO(2) equivalents as indicators of the impact on climate, we have compared the surface albedo, and the construction, replacement and use phase of a black, a white and a green roof. By our analyses, we found that both the white and the green roofs are less impactive than the black one; with the thermal resistance, the biological activity of plants and the surface albedo playing a crucial role. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Homogenization of vegetation structure across residential neighborhoods: effects of climate, urban morphology, and socio-economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is a key driver regulating vegetation structure across rural ecosystems. In urban ecosystems, multiple interactions between humans and the environment can have homogenizing influences, confounding the relationship between vegetation structure and climate. In fact, vegetat...

  15. Global drivers and tradeoffs of three urban vegetation ecosystem services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynnamon Dobbs

    Full Text Available Our world is increasingly urbanizing which is highlighting that sustainable cities are essential for maintaining human well-being. This research is one of the first attempts to globally synthesize the effects of urbanization on ecosystem services and how these relate to governance, social development and climate. Three urban vegetation ecosystem services (carbon storage, recreation potential and habitat potential were quantified for a selection of a hundred cities. Estimates of ecosystem services were obtained from the analysis of satellite imagery and the use of well-known carbon and structural habitat models. We found relationships between ecosystem services, social development, climate and governance, however these varied according to the service studied. Recreation potential was positively related to democracy and negatively related to population. Carbon storage was weakly related to temperature and democracy, while habitat potential was negatively related to democracy. We found that cities under 1 million inhabitants tended to have higher levels of recreation potential than larger cities and that democratic countries have higher recreation potential, especially if located in a continental climate. Carbon storage was higher in full democracies, especially in a continental climate, while habitat potential tended to be higher in authoritarian and hybrid regimes. Similar to other regional or city studies we found that the combination of environment conditions, socioeconomics, demographics and politics determines the provision of ecosystem services. Results from this study showed the existence of environmental injustice in the developing world.

  16. Global drivers and tradeoffs of three urban vegetation ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Cynnamon; Nitschke, Craig R; Kendal, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Our world is increasingly urbanizing which is highlighting that sustainable cities are essential for maintaining human well-being. This research is one of the first attempts to globally synthesize the effects of urbanization on ecosystem services and how these relate to governance, social development and climate. Three urban vegetation ecosystem services (carbon storage, recreation potential and habitat potential) were quantified for a selection of a hundred cities. Estimates of ecosystem services were obtained from the analysis of satellite imagery and the use of well-known carbon and structural habitat models. We found relationships between ecosystem services, social development, climate and governance, however these varied according to the service studied. Recreation potential was positively related to democracy and negatively related to population. Carbon storage was weakly related to temperature and democracy, while habitat potential was negatively related to democracy. We found that cities under 1 million inhabitants tended to have higher levels of recreation potential than larger cities and that democratic countries have higher recreation potential, especially if located in a continental climate. Carbon storage was higher in full democracies, especially in a continental climate, while habitat potential tended to be higher in authoritarian and hybrid regimes. Similar to other regional or city studies we found that the combination of environment conditions, socioeconomics, demographics and politics determines the provision of ecosystem services. Results from this study showed the existence of environmental injustice in the developing world.

  17. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulo, G; Black, C R; Craigon, J; Young, S D

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal 'hazard quotient' (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 'site-vegetable' combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating urban vegetation fraction across 25 cities in pan-Pacific using Landsat time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuhao; Coops, Nicholas C.; Hermosilla, Txomin

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization globally is consistently reshaping the natural landscape to accommodate the growing human population. Urban vegetation plays a key role in moderating environmental impacts caused by urbanization and is critically important for local economic, social and cultural development. The differing patterns of human population growth, varying urban structures and development stages, results in highly varied spatial and temporal vegetation patterns particularly in the pan-Pacific region which has some of the fastest urbanization rates globally. Yet spatially-explicit temporal information on the amount and change of urban vegetation is rarely documented particularly in less developed nations. Remote sensing offers an exceptional data source and a unique perspective to map urban vegetation and change due to its consistency and ubiquitous nature. In this research, we assess the vegetation fractions of 25 cities across 12 pan-Pacific countries using annual gap-free Landsat surface reflectance products acquired from 1984 to 2012, using sub-pixel, spectral unmixing approaches. Vegetation change trends were then analyzed using Mann-Kendall statistics and Theil-Sen slope estimators. Unmixing results successfully mapped urban vegetation for pixels located in urban parks, forested mountainous regions, as well as agricultural land (correlation coefficient ranging from 0.66 to 0.77). The greatest vegetation loss from 1984 to 2012 was found in Shanghai, Tianjin, and Dalian in China. In contrast, cities including Vancouver (Canada) and Seattle (USA) showed stable vegetation trends through time. Using temporal trend analysis, our results suggest that it is possible to reduce noise and outliers caused by phenological changes particularly in cropland using dense new Landsat time series approaches. We conclude that simple yet effective approaches of unmixing Landsat time series data for assessing spatial and temporal changes of urban vegetation at regional scales can provide

  19. Profitability and sustainability of peri-urban vegetable productions systems in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.G.P.; Midmore, D.J.; Binh, P.T.; Valasayya, S.; Tru, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Results are reported of a study of the income and cropping systems of peri-urban vegetable farmers around Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, as well as the constraints and opportunities for vegetable production and marketing. Urban population growth is fuelling the demand for timely supplies of fresh

  20. The use of a satellite derived vegetation index for assessment of the urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Tarpley, J. D.; Mcnab, Alan L.; Karl, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite derived normalized difference (ND) vegetation index data, based on urban and rural region composed of a variety of land surface environments, are evaluated. These data are linearly related to the difference in observed urban and rural minimum temperatures. It is concluded that the difference in the ND index between urban and rural regions reflects the difference in the surface properties (evaporation and heat storage capacity) of these two environments and urban and rural minimum temperatures (the urban heat island effect).

  1. Interactions Between Urban Vegetation and Surface Urban Heat Islands: A Case Study in the Boston Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaas, E. K.; Miller, D. L.; Wang, J.; Friedl, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have used thermal data from remote sensing to characterize how land use and surface properties modify the climate of cities. However, relatively few studies have examined the impact of elevated temperature on ecophysiological processes in urban areas. In this paper, we use time series of Landsat data to characterize and quantify how geographic variation in Boston's surface urban heat island (SUHI) affects the growing season of vegetation in and around the city, and explore how the quality and character of vegetation patches in Boston affect local heat island intensity. Results from this analysis show strong coupling between Boston's SUHI and vegetation phenology at the scale of both individual landscape units and for the region as a whole, with significant detectable signatures in both surface temperature and growing season length extending 15 km from Boston's urban core. On average, land surface temperatures were about 7 °C warmer and the growing season was 18-22 days longer in Boston relative to adjacent rural areas. Within Boston's urban core, patterns of temperature and timing of phenology in areas with higher vegetation amounts (e.g., parks) were similar to those in adjacent rural areas, suggesting that vegetation patches provide an important ecosystem service that offsets the urban heat island at local scales. Local relationships between phenology and temperature were affected by the intensity of urban land use surrounding vegetation patches and possibly by the presence of exotic tree species that are common in urban areas. Results from this analysis show how species composition, land cover configuration, and vegetation patch sizes jointly influence the nature and magnitude of coupling between vegetation phenology and SUHIs, and demonstrate that urban vegetation provides a significant ecosystem service in cities by decreasing the local intensity of SUHIs.

  2. Response of vegetation phenology to urbanization in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuecao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Zhou, Yuyu [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Asrar, Ghassem R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mao, Jiafu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Xiaoma [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Li, Wenyu [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2016-12-18

    The influence of urbanization on vegetation phenology is gaining considerable attention due to its implications for human health, cycling of carbon and other nutrients in Earth system. In this study, we examined the relationship between change in vegetation phenology and urban size, an indicator of urbanization, for the conterminous United States. We studied more than 4500 urban clusters of varying size to determine the impact of urbanization on plant phenology, with the aids of remotely sensed observations since 2003–2012. We found that phenology cycle (changes in vegetation greenness) in urban areas starts earlier (start of season, SOS) and ends later (end of season, EOS), resulting in a longer growing season length (GSL), when compared to the respective surrounding urban areas. The average difference of GSL between urban and rural areas over all vegetation types, considered in this study, is about 9 days.Also, the extended GSL in urban area is consistent among different climate zones in the United States, whereas their magnitudes are varying across regions. We found that a tenfold increase in urban size could result in an earlier SOS of about 1.3 days and a later EOS of around 2.4 days. As a result, the GSL could be extended by approximately 3.6 days with a range of 1.6–6.5 days for 25th ~ 75th quantiles, with a median value of about 2.1 days. For different vegetation types, the phenology response to urbanization, as defined by GSL, ranges from 1 to 4 days. In conclusion, the quantitative relationship between phenology and urbanization is of great use for developing improved models of vegetation phenology dynamics under future urbanization, and for developing change indicators to assess the impacts of urbanization on vegetation phenology.

  3. Response of vegetation phenology to urbanization in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuecao; Zhou, Yuyu; Asrar, Ghassem R; Mao, Jiafu; Li, Xiaoma; Li, Wenyu

    2017-07-01

    The influence of urbanization on vegetation phenology is gaining considerable attention due to its implications for human health, cycling of carbon and other nutrients in Earth system. In this study, we examined the relationship between change in vegetation phenology and urban size, an indicator of urbanization, for the conterminous United States. We studied more than 4500 urban clusters of varying size to determine the impact of urbanization on plant phenology, with the aids of remotely sensed observations since 2003-2012. We found that phenology cycle (changes in vegetation greenness) in urban areas starts earlier (start of season, SOS) and ends later (end of season, EOS), resulting in a longer growing season length (GSL), when compared to the respective surrounding urban areas. The average difference of GSL between urban and rural areas over all vegetation types, considered in this study, is about 9 days. Also, the extended GSL in urban area is consistent among different climate zones in the United States, whereas their magnitudes are varying across regions. We found that a tenfold increase in urban size could result in an earlier SOS of about 1.3 days and a later EOS of around 2.4 days. As a result, the GSL could be extended by approximately 3.6 days with a range of 1.6-6.5 days for 25th ~ 75th quantiles, with a median value of about 2.1 days. For different vegetation types, the phenology response to urbanization, as defined by GSL, ranges from 1 to 4 days. The quantitative relationship between phenology and urbanization is of great use for developing improved models of vegetation phenology dynamics under future urbanization, and for developing change indicators to assess the impacts of urbanization on vegetation phenology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  5. Response of vegetation phenology to urbanization in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuecao [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Zhou, Yuyu [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Asrar, Ghassem R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Global Change Research Institute, College Park MD 20740 USA; Mao, Jiafu [Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Li, Xiaoma [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Li, Wenyu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China

    2016-12-18

    The influence of urbanization on vegetation phenology is gaining considerable attention due to its implications for human health, cycling of carbon and other nutrients in Earth system. In this study, we examined the relationship between change in vegetation phenology and urban size, an indicator of urbanization, for the conterminous United States. We studied more than 4500 urban clusters of varying size to determine the impact of urbanization on plant phenology, with the aids of remotely sensed observations since 2003–2012. We found that phenology cycle (changes in vegetation greenness) in rural areas starts earlier (start of season, SOS) and ends later (end of season, EOS), resulting in a longer growing season length (GSL), when compared to the respective surrounding urban areas. The average difference of GSL between urban and rural areas over all vegetation types, considered in this study, is about 9 days. Also, the extended GSL in urban area is consistent among different climate zones in the United States, whereas their magnitudes are varying across regions. We found that a tenfold increase in urban size could result in an earlier SOS of about 1.3 days and a later EOS of around 2.4 days. As a result, the GSL could be extended by approximately 3.6 days with a range of 1.6–6.5 days for 25th ~ 75th quantiles, with a median value of about 2.1 days. For different vegetation types, the phenology response to urbanization, as defined by GSL, ranges from 1 to 4 days. The quantitative relationship between phenology and urbanization is of great use for developing improved models of vegetation phenology dynamics under future urbanization, and for developing change indicators to assess the impacts of urbanization on vegetation phenology.

  6. Atmospheric carbon exchange associated with vegetation and soils in urban and suburban land uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowntree, R.A. [Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In studies of the global C cycle prior to the 1980s, urban ecosystems were largely ignored, in part because them were inadequate measures of phytomass and soil carbon for the various land uses associated with cities. In the last decade, progress has been made in gathering urban vegetation data and recently, estimates of urban land use carbon storage and fluxes have been attempted. Demographic trends in many countries suggest that urban areas are growing. Thus it is important to discover the appropriate concepts and methods for understanding greenhouse gas fluxes from urban-related vegetation and soils.

  7. ARCHAEOBOTANY IN URBAN SITES: THE CASE OF MUTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rinaldi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to show the importance of analyzing plant macroremains from urban excavations. Organic materials preserved below the historical city in waterlogged conditions are a fundamental resource, and the study of seeds and fruits gives a good contribution to historical and archaeological research. Archaeobotany in urban contexts provides important results when the examined material comes from several excavations that "photograph" the territory over quite a long period. An overview of archaeobotanical analyses carried out on material from archaeological sites of Modena (Emilia-Romagna, from the 2nd century BC to the 6th century AD, made by the Laboratory of Palynology and Palaeobotany of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, is presented. The floristic list of seed/fruit analyses result is reported and interesting subject matters are tackled concerning both cultivated/cultivable plants (fruits and nuts, vegetables/aromatics/spices/medicinal plants, fibre and oil plants, cereals and pulses, flowers and other ornamental plants and wild plants of no obvious use, together with wetland plants which are rare and endangered species in Emilia-Romagna today.

  8. Effect of heat waves on VOC emissions from vegetation and urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Kuik, F.; Lauer, A.; Bonn, B.; Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of VOC from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the 2006 heat wave. VOC emissions from vegetation are simulated with MEGAN 2.0 coupled with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during the heat wave period. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  9. Soil quality is key for planning and managing urban allotments intended for the sustainable production of home-consumption vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzel, F; Calderisi, M; Scatena, M; Pini, R

    2016-09-01

    The growing importance of urban allotments in planning and managing urban areas is due to the combined positive effects on ecosystem services, the economy and human well-being, especially of groups of the urban population that can be vulnerable (e.g. the elderly, immigrants, low-income families). Some studies have highlighted the potential risk of contamination by metals of vegetables grown in urban areas and the lack of appropriate site-specific risk assessments. However, surveys are still lacking on the possibilities of using urban soil as a good substrate to produce vegetables for home consumption. We assessed the soil quality in two areas in Pisa (Italy), one intended for urban horticulture and the other already cultivated for that purpose. We analysed the soils for the main chemical and physical characteristics (texture, bulk density, water stability index, pH, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorous) and elements (Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, K, Al and Mn). Our results showed that both areas had physical and chemical heterogeneity due to the effects of urbanization and to the different cultivation techniques employed. The metal content was lower than the guidelines limits, and the soil conditions (pH = 8) greatly reduced the metal mobility. Copper concentration in some of the cultivated area samples was higher than the limits, representing a possible stress factor for the microbial biodiversity and fauna. Our findings demonstrate that site-specific surveys are necessary before planning urban cultivation areas, and educating urban gardeners regarding sustainable cultivation techniques is a priority for a safe environment.

  10. Vegetation and other development options for mitigating urban air pollution impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to installing air pollution control devices and reducing emissions activities, urban air pollution can be further mitigated through planning and design strategies including vegetation planting, building design, installing roadside and near source structures, and modif...

  11. Assessment of farmers’ knowledge on fertilizer usage for peri-urban vegetable production in the Sunyani Municipality, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Dadzie, Frederick Asankom; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2015-01-01

    farmers’ knowledge on fertilizer usage for intensive vegetable production in peri-urban areas in Ghana where production and marketing of vegetables cause significant export of nutrients from farms. Data were collected from 180 peri-urban vegetable growers in Abesim and Yawhima in the Sunyani Municipality...... services, the media, and at the point of sales are recommended to improve sustainable use of fertilizers for peri-urban vegetable production....

  12. Marketing channel choice and marketing timing of peri-urban vegetable growers in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Wijk, van M.S.; Luyen, C.H.; Hoi, P.V.

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector in the peri-urban area of Hanoi. It supplies 62 to 80% of vegetable consumption, of which 28% comes from Dong Anh district, which borders Hanoi City. Growing vegetables is an important income source for the farmers in Dong Anh as it contributes about 30% to their

  13. Food Safety Is a Key Determinant of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Urban Beninese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Eunice S.; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Lachat, Carl K.; Dossa, Romain A.; Kolsteren, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in urban Beninese adolescents and elements to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable program. Design: Sixteen focus groups conducted with a key word guide. Setting and Participants: Two private and 2 public secondary schools in Cotonou, Benin. One hundred fifty-three…

  14. Historical vegetation change in Oakland and its implications for urban forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    1993-01-01

    The history of Oakland, California's urban forest was researched to determine events that could influence future urban forests. Vegetation in Oakland has changed drastically from a preurbanized area with approximately 2% tree cover to a present tree cover of 19%. Species composition of trees was previously dominated by coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia...

  15. Supplying Vegetables to Asian Cities: Is there a Case for Peri-Urban Production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midmore, D.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the dynamic interplay between peri-urban vegetable producers and their changing production and marketing environments in Asia, using examples from urban conglomerates in South, Southeast and East Asia. We discuss income generation, labour use, management of land and water

  16. Measurement of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables to improve human exposure assessments: field study of soil-plant-atmosphere transfers in urban areas, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, TianTian; Dumat, Camille; Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Kang, Yuan; Li, Ning; Bertoni, Georges; Laplanche, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    The quality of cultivated consumed vegetables in relation to environmental pollution is a crucial issue for urban and peri-urban areas, which host the majority of people at the global scale. In order to evaluate the fate of metals in urban soil-plant-atmosphere systems and their consequences on human exposure, a field study was conducted at two different sites near a waste incinerator (site A) and a highway (site B). Metal concentrations were measured in the soil, settled atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and vegetables. A risk assessment was performed using both total and bioaccessible metal concentrations in vegetables. Total metal concentrations in PM were (mg kg-1): (site A) 417 Cr, 354 Cu, 931 Zn, 6.3 Cd and 168 Pb; (site B) 145 Cr, 444 Cu, 3289 Zn, 2.9 Cd and 396 Pb. Several total soil Cd and Pb concentrations exceeded China's Environmental Quality Standards. At both sites, there was significant metal enrichment from the atmosphere to the leafy vegetables (correlation between Pb concentrations in PM and leaves: r = 0.52, p vegetables were therefore above or just under the maximum limit levels for foodstuffs according to Chinese and European Commission regulations. High metal bioaccessibility in the vegetables (60-79 %, with maximum value for Cd) was also observed. The bioaccessible hazard index was only above 1 for site B, due to moderate Pb and Cd pollution from the highway. In contrast, site A was considered as relatively safe for urban agriculture.

  17. Choreographing Urbanisms: Site, Spatiality and Experimental Dance in Philadelphia

    OpenAIRE

    Vriend, Laura Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between choreographic uses of space and social theories of space and urbanism in three site-specific choreographies in Philadelphia. Through in depth analysis of Headlong Dance Theater's Explanatorium, Nichole Canuso's Wandering Alice, and Kate Watson-Wallace's Car, I seek to understand how spaces and sites shape experimental dance in Philadelphia. By looking at how extant urban spatialities in Philadelphia shape choreography and how choreographies ...

  18. Field Plot Points for Fort Larned National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Fort Larned National Historic Site.

  19. The dust retention capacities of urban vegetation-a case study of Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zhiwei

    2013-09-01

    Urban vegetation increasingly plays an important role in the improvement of the urban atmospheric environment. This paper deals with the dust retention capacities of four urban tree species (Ficus virens var. sublanceolata, Ficus microcarpa, Bauhinia blakeana, and Mangifera indica Linn) in Guangzhou. The dust-retaining capacities of four tree species are studied under different pollution intensities and for different seasons. Remote sensing imagery was used to estimate the total aboveground urban vegetation biomass in different functional areas of urban Guangzhou, information that was then used to estimate the dust-retaining capacities of the different functional areas and the total removal of airborne particulates in urban Guangzhou by foliage. The results showed that urban vegetation can remove dust from the atmosphere thereby improving air quality. The major findings are that dust retention, or capture, vary between the four species of tree studied; it also varied between season and between types of urban functional area, namely industrial, commercial/road traffic, residential, and clean areas. Dust accumulation over time was also studied and reached a maximum, and saturation, after about 24 days. The overall aboveground biomass of urban vegetation in Guangzhou was estimated to be 52.0 × 10(5) t, its total leaf area 459.01 km(2), and the dust-retaining capacity was calculated at 8012.89 t per year. The present study demonstrated that the foliage of tree species used in urban greening make a substantial contribution to atmospheric dust removal and retention in urban Guangzhou.

  20. [Application of biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes in urban biodiversity conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Qiu, Ling; Chen, Cun-gen

    2010-09-01

    Based on the biotope classification system with vegetation structure as the framework, a modified biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes was developed, and applied to the study of the greenbelts in Helsingborg in southern Sweden. An evaluation of the vegetation cover continuity in the greenbelts was carried out by the comparisons of the vascular plant species richness in long- and short-continuity forests, based on the identification of woodland continuity by using ancient woodland indicator species (AWIS). In the test greenbelts, long-continuity woodlands had more AWIS. Among the forests where the dominant trees were more than 30-year-old, the long-continuity ones had a higher biodiversity of vascular plants, compared with the short-continuity ones with the similar vegetation structure. The modified biotope mapping model integrated with the continuity features of vegetation cover could be an important tool in investigating urban biodiversity, and provide corresponding strategies for future urban biodiversity conservation.

  1. Predicting daily use of urban forest recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer

    1988-01-01

    A multiple linear regression model explains 90% of the variance in daily use of an urban recreation site. Explanatory variables include season, day of the week, and weather. The results offer guides for recreation site planning and management as well as suggestions for improving the model.

  2. Siting Urban Agriculture as a Green Infrastructure Strategy for Land Use Planning in Austin, TX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Rogers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure refers to a type of land use design that mimics the natural water cycle by using the infiltration capacities of vegetation, soils, and other natural processes to mitigate stormwater runoff. As a multifunctional landscape, urban agriculture should be seen as a highly beneficial tool for urban planning not only because of its ability to function as a green stormwater management strategy, but also due to the multiple social and environmental benefits it provides. In 2012, the city of Austin adopted a major planning approach titled the “Imagine Austin Comprehensive Plan” (IACP outlining the city’s vision for future growth and land use up to 2039. The plan explicitly addresses the adoption of green infrastructure as a target for future land use with urban agriculture as a central component. Addressing this area of land use planning will require tools that can locate suitable areas within the city ideal for the development of green infrastructure. In this study, a process was developed to create a spatially explicit method of siting urban agriculture as a green infrastructure tool in hydrologically sensitive areas, or areas prone to runoff, in east Austin. The method uses geospatial software to spatially analyze open access datasets that include land use, a digital elevation model, and prime farmland soils. Through this method a spatial relationship can be made between areas of high surface runoff and where the priority placement of urban farms should be sited as a useful component of green infrastructure. Planners or geospatial analysts could use such information, along with other significant factors and community input, to aid decision makers in the placement of urban agriculture. This spatially explicit approach for siting potential urban farms, will support the integration of urban agriculture as part of the land use planning of Austin.

  3. Assessing the drivers shaping global patterns of urban vegetation landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C; Nitschke, C; Kendal, D

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation is one of the main resources involve in ecosystem functioning and providing ecosystem services in urban areas. Little is known on the landscape structure patterns of vegetation existing in urban areas at the global scale and the drivers of these patterns. We studied the landscape structure of one hundred cities around the globe, and their relation to demography (population), socioeconomic factors (GDP, Gini Index), climate factors (temperature and rain) and topographic characteristics (altitude, variation in altitude). The data revealed that the best descriptors of landscape structure were amount, fragmentation and spatial distribution of vegetation. Populated cities tend to have less, more fragmented, less connected vegetation with a centre of the city with low vegetation cover. Results also provided insights on the influence of socioeconomics at a global scale, as landscape structure was more fragmented in areas that are economically unequal and coming from emergent economies. This study shows the effects of the social system and climate on urban landscape patterns that gives useful insights for the distribution in the provision of ecosystem services in urban areas and therefore the maintenance of human well-being. This information can support local and global policy and planning which is committing our cities to provide accessible and inclusive green space for all urban inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Accuracy Assessment Points for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation classification and mapping of Friendship Hill National Historic Site.

  5. Urban outdoor water use and response to drought assessed through mobile energy balance and vegetation greenness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. L.; Anderson, R. G.; Shiflett, S. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2017-08-01

    Urban vegetation provides many highly valued ecosystem services but also requires extensive urban water resources. Increasingly, cities are experiencing water limitations and managing outdoor urban water use is an important concern. Quantifying the water lost via evapotranspiration (ET) is critical for urban water management and conservation, especially in arid or semi-arid regions. In this study, we deployed a mobile energy balance platform to measure evaporative fraction throughout Riverside, California, a warm, semi-arid, city. We observed the relationship between evaporative fraction and satellite derived vegetation index across 29 sites, which was then used to map whole-city ET for a representative mid-summer period. Resulting ET distributions were strongly associated with both neighborhood population density and income. By comparing 2014 and 2015 summer-period water uses, our results show 7.8% reductions in evapotranspiration, which were also correlated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest a mobile energy balance measurement platform coupled with satellite imagery could serve as an effective tool in assessing the outdoor water use at neighborhood to whole city scales.

  6. Site investigation SFR. Vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Eva (Svensk Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden)); Aquilonius, Karin; Sivars Becker, Lena (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-09-15

    The streams in the model area of Forsmark have previously been thoroughly investigated regarding water chemistry, hydrology, bottom substrate, flooding, percentage coverage of macrophytes and fish migration. Retention of radionuclides in a stream ecosystem is assumed to occur by sorption to sediments or by uptake of radionuclides by macrophytes and it is therefore of interest to know the biomass and production of macrophytes in the streams included in a safety assessment. The general aim of this study was to examine the relation between biomass and the percentage cover of vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area. In this study streams within and nearby the candidate area in Forsmark was investigated. The somewhat larger streams Forsmarksaan and Olandsaan nearby the candidate area, are assumed to be more similar to future streams developing in Forsmark due to landrise, than the smaller streams present in the candidate area today. In total 22 vegetation samples were gathered in order to estimate the biomass at the sites. Percentage coverage of macrophytes, and dominating species were noted and the above ground macrophytes were sampled for biomass analysis. In the smaller streams, the biomass varied between 6 and almost 358 g dry weight per square metre. In the larger streams, the dry biomass varied between 0 and 247 g dry weight per square meter. There were no significant difference between macrophyte biomass in smaller and the larger stream. In total 13 macrophyte species were found. The biomass dry weight at 100% covering degree varied depending on macrophyte species. Although this was a rather small study, it is evident that the biomasses do vary a wide range between sampling squares in the area. However, although it may be difficult to use this data set to estimate the biomass in a specific square meter in the stream section, the relation between biomass weight and covering degree is sufficient to be used when fitting biomass to macrophyte coverage for entire

  7. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  8. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. Multivariate ordination and clustering analyses were used to classify the vegetation. As a...

  9. Study on urban heat island effect and its response to the vegetation eco-environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Saiping; Zhao, Qianjun; Yin, Kai; Cui, Bei; Zhang, Xiupeng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of urbanization, urban heat island effect issue is becoming more and more severe. What's more, the vegetation eco-environmental quality (VEEQ) is severely damaged, resulting in the decline of urban ecosystem function. Therefore, it is of great significance to use remote sensing technique to analyze the response of urban heat island to VEEQ quantitatively. As is known to all, vegetation is the main body in the vegetation ecological environment system. Water and heat conditions are the important driving forces for its formation and evolution. Good soil condition is the basis for vegetation survival. Besides, the terrain is conducive to the judgment of the vegetation distribution. Accordingly, several indexes involving vegetation index, heat index, soil moisture index, soil brightness index, elevation factor and slope factor were selected and extracted from Landsat8 OLI images to establish the evaluation index system of VEEQ. Based on Landsat8 TIRS images, this paper applied the radiative transfer equation method to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) and the urban island grade was divided based on the mean and standard deviation values of LST. The principal component analysis method was utilized to determine the weigh value of each index and then a comprehensive evaluation model of VEEQ was established. Furthermore, the quantitative relationship between LST and VEEQ was analyzed. The results showed that, there existed obvious heat island effects in Haidian District of Beijing city and its surrounding areas. The poor quality areas and the high quality areas of vegetation ecological environment had strengthening and weakening thermal environment effects respectively. There was a strong negative relationship between LST and VEEQ.

  10. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S. H.; Quak, M.; Nabarro, S. D. A.; Norford, L.

    2013-10-01

    Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighbourhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the flux associated with the aboveground vegetation. In addition, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. Palm trees, banana plants and turfgrass were also included in the survey with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. Both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that vegetation sequesters 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. An uptake of 1.4 ton km-2 day-1 (510 ton km-2 yr-1) was estimated as the difference between assimilation by photosynthesis minus the aboveground biomass respiration during daytime (4.0 ton km-2 day-1) and release by plant respiration at night (2.6 ton km-2 day-1). However, when soil respiration is added to the daily aboveground flux, the biogenic component becomes a net source amounting to 4% of the total CO2 flux and represents the total contribution of urban vegetation to the carbon flux to the atmosphere.

  11. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Velasco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighbourhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the flux associated with the aboveground vegetation. In addition, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. Palm trees, banana plants and turfgrass were also included in the survey with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. Both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that vegetation sequesters 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. An uptake of 1.4 ton km−2 day−1 (510 ton km−2 yr−1 was estimated as the difference between assimilation by photosynthesis minus the aboveground biomass respiration during daytime (4.0 ton km−2 day−1 and release by plant respiration at night (2.6 ton km−2 day−1. However, when soil respiration is added to the daily aboveground flux, the biogenic component becomes a net source amounting to 4% of the total CO2 flux and represents the total contribution of urban vegetation to the carbon flux to the atmosphere.

  12. Sustainable Impact of Landfill Siting towards Urban Planning in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin Tey, Jia; Goh, Kai Chen; Ern Ang, Peniel Soon

    2017-10-01

    Landfill is one of the most common, widely used waste management technique in Malaysia. The ever increasing of solid waste has made the role of landfill become prominent despite the negative impacts that caused by the landfill is unavoidable. The public and government regulations are getting more aware with the negative impacts that could be brought by the landfill towards the community. It led to the cultural shift to integrate the concept of sustainability into the planning of siting a landfill in an urban area. However, current urban planning tends to emphasize more on the environmental aspect instead of social and economic aspects. This is due to the existing planning guidelines and stakeholder’s understandings are more on the environmental aspect. This led to the needs of incorporating the concept of sustainability into the urban planning. Thus, this paper focuses on the industry stakeholders view on the negative impacts that will cause by the landfill towards the urban planning. The industry stakeholders are those who are related to the decision-making in the selection of a landfill site in the government department. The scope of the study is within the country of Malaysia. This study was conducted through the semi-structured interviews with a total of fifteen industry stakeholders to obtain their perspective on the issues of impacts of siting a landfill in the urban area. The data obtained was analysed using the software, QSR NVivo version 10. Results indicate that landfill bought significant sustainability-related impacts towards landfill siting in urban planning. The negative impacts stated by the respondents are categorized under all three sustainable aspects such as environmental, social and economic. Among the results are such as the pollution, such as the generation of leachate, the objection in siting a landfill site against by the public, and the negotiating and getting money contribution from local authorities. The results produced can be served

  13. Influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover in urban river basin: case study in Campinas/SP, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Silva, Alessandra; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: In most Brazilian municipalities, urban development was not based on adequate planning; one of the consequences was the reduction of the original vegetation, limiting the forest formations to scarce and isolated fragments. In Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, the vegetation fragmentation was mainly related to the expeditions and to the cycles of sugar cane and coffee. In this way, the present study aims to identify, quantify and evaluate the remaining arboreal vegetation spatial distribution in the Anhumas River Basin - Campinas/SP, Brazil. This study was developed with the aid of GIS software and field visits in order to construct a diagnosis of these areas and subsidize future actions required and to discuss the influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover. The area was initially occupied by the Atlantic Forest (semi-deciduous forest) and drains one of the oldest urban occupation areas in the municipality; according to researchers, based on the water and geomorphological conditions of the basin, it can be subdivided into high, medium and low course. With a total area of 156,514 km2, only 16.74% are classified as green areas; where just 1.07% and 6.17% of total area represents forests and reforestation areas, respectively. The remaining green areas consists of: wetlands close to water bodies, but with no presence of trees and shrubs (area of 0.12% of the basin); urban green space, including parks and squares (2.19%); and natural field, constituted by natural non-arboreous vegetation (7.18%). In a scenario like this, a characteristic situation is the forest fragmentation; this process results in native vegetation remnants, isolated and more susceptible to external interference, coming from, for example, the proximity to agricultural areas or others land uses. The ecological knowledge of the remnants and their correct management can not only make it possible to diagnose current problems and to estimate future influences, but also to point out the

  14. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the major routes of these harmful elements to human beings. The human dietary intake of heavy metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green vegetables consumed daily ...

  15. Technical inefficiency in dry season vegetable farming among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stochastic production frontier function is applied to estimate output-oriented technical inefficiency of urban women cultivating waterleaf. By means of MLE, asymptotically consistent and efficient maximum likelihood (ML) estimates are obtained together with inefficiency determinants. Empirical result reveals the mean level of ...

  16. UAV Remote Sensing for Urban Vegetation Mapping Using Random Forest and Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV remote sensing has great potential for vegetation mapping in complex urban landscapes due to the ultra-high resolution imagery acquired at low altitudes. Because of payload capacity restrictions, off-the-shelf digital cameras are widely used on medium and small sized UAVs. The limitation of low spectral resolution in digital cameras for vegetation mapping can be reduced by incorporating texture features and robust classifiers. Random Forest has been widely used in satellite remote sensing applications, but its usage in UAV image classification has not been well documented. The objectives of this paper were to propose a hybrid method using Random Forest and texture analysis to accurately differentiate land covers of urban vegetated areas, and analyze how classification accuracy changes with texture window size. Six least correlated second-order texture measures were calculated at nine different window sizes and added to original Red-Green-Blue (RGB images as ancillary data. A Random Forest classifier consisting of 200 decision trees was used for classification in the spectral-textural feature space. Results indicated the following: (1 Random Forest outperformed traditional Maximum Likelihood classifier and showed similar performance to object-based image analysis in urban vegetation classification; (2 the inclusion of texture features improved classification accuracy significantly; (3 classification accuracy followed an inverted U relationship with texture window size. The results demonstrate that UAV provides an efficient and ideal platform for urban vegetation mapping. The hybrid method proposed in this paper shows good performance in differentiating urban vegetation mapping. The drawbacks of off-the-shelf digital cameras can be reduced by adopting Random Forest and texture analysis at the same time.

  17. Perception of personal safety in urban recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert W. Schroeder; L.M. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    Photograph of 17 urban recreation sites in Chicago and Atlanta were evaluated by college students (n = 68) in Illinois, Georgia, and Michigan, for either perceived security, scenic quality, or both. For most raters, high visibility and developed park features significantly enhanced perceived security. Scenic quality, on the other hand, was enhanced for the majority of...

  18. Trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI associated with urban development in northern West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Esau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves of northern West Siberia has promoted rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development leaves significant footprints on the sensitive northern environment, which is already stressed by the global warming. This study reports the region-wide changes in the vegetation cover as well as the corresponding changes in and around 28 selected urbanized areas. The study utilizes the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from high-resolution (250 m MODIS data acquired for summer months (June through August over 15 years (2000–2014. The results reveal the increase of NDVI (or “greening” over the northern (tundra and tundra-forest part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern, forested part shows the widespread decrease of NDVI (or “browning”. These region-wide patterns are, however, highly fragmented. The statistically significant NDVI trends occupy only a small fraction of the region. Urbanization destroys the vegetation cover within the developed areas and at about 5–10 km distance around them. The studied urbanized areas have the NDVI values by 15 to 45 % lower than the corresponding areas at 20–40 km distance. The largest NDVI reduction is typical for the newly developed areas, whereas the older areas show recovery of the vegetation cover. The study reveals a robust indication of the accelerated greening near the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the wider browning trends at their background. Literature discussion suggests that the observed urban greening could be associated not only with special tending of the within-city green areas but also with the urban heat islands and succession of more productive shrub and tree species growing on warmer sandy soils.

  19. Trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in northern West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Igor; Miles, Victoria V.; Davy, Richard; Miles, Martin W.; Kurchatova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves of northern West Siberia has promoted rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development leaves significant footprints on the sensitive northern environment, which is already stressed by the global warming. This study reports the region-wide changes in the vegetation cover as well as the corresponding changes in and around 28 selected urbanized areas. The study utilizes the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from high-resolution (250 m) MODIS data acquired for summer months (June through August) over 15 years (2000-2014). The results reveal the increase of NDVI (or "greening") over the northern (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern, forested part shows the widespread decrease of NDVI (or "browning"). These region-wide patterns are, however, highly fragmented. The statistically significant NDVI trends occupy only a small fraction of the region. Urbanization destroys the vegetation cover within the developed areas and at about 5-10 km distance around them. The studied urbanized areas have the NDVI values by 15 to 45 % lower than the corresponding areas at 20-40 km distance. The largest NDVI reduction is typical for the newly developed areas, whereas the older areas show recovery of the vegetation cover. The study reveals a robust indication of the accelerated greening near the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the wider browning trends at their background. Literature discussion suggests that the observed urban greening could be associated not only with special tending of the within-city green areas but also with the urban heat islands and succession of more productive shrub and tree species growing on warmer sandy soils.

  20. Carbonaceous aerosols at urban influenced sites in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Braathen, O.-A.; Simpson, D.; Steinnes, E.

    2008-11-01

    Little is known regarding levels and source strength of carbonaceous aerosols in Scandinavia. In the present study, ambient aerosol (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) are reported for a curbside site, an urban background site, and a suburban site in Norway in order to investigate their spatial and seasonal variations. Aerosol filter samples were collected using tandem filter sampling to correct for the positive sampling artefact introduced by semi volatile OC. Analyses were performed using the thermal optical transmission (TOT) instrument from Sunset Lab Inc., which corrects for charring during analysis. Finally, we estimated the relative contribution of OC from wood burning based on the samples content of levoglucosan. Levels of EC varied by more than one order of magnitude between sites, likely due to the higher impact of vehicular traffic at the curbside and the urban background sites. In winter, the level of particulate organic carbon (OCp) at the suburban site was equal to (for PM10) or even higher (for PM2.5) than the levels observed at the curbside and the urban background sites. This finding was attributed to the impact of residential wood burning at the suburban site in winter, which was confirmed by a high mean concentration of levoglucosan (407 ng m-3). This finding indicates that exposure to primary combustion derived OCp could be equally high in residential areas as in a city center. It is demonstrated that OCp from wood burning (OCwood) accounted for almost all OCp at the suburban site in winter, allowing a new estimate of the ratio TCp/levoglucosan for both PM10 and PM2.5. Particulate carbonaceous material (PCM = Organic matter + Elemental matter) accounted for 46 83% of PM10 at the sites studied when considering the positive artefact of semi volatile OC, thus being the major contributor to PM.

  1. Floristic composition and species diversity of urban vegetation in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamokete N.V. Dingaan

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: The urban vegetation of Bloemfontein is species-rich and should be properly managed and conserved. In particular, the wetlands and rocky outcrops on hills and ridges, which are the most threatened habitats in the study area, need special management.

  2. Validity of a Competing Food Choice Construct regarding Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Urban College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…

  3. Data and methods comparing social structure and vegetation structure of urban neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Grove; Mary L. Cadenasso; William R., Jr. Burch; Steward T. Pickett; Kirsten Schwarz; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; Matthew Wilson; Austin Troy; Christopher Boone

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and the adoption of geographic information systems (GIS) have greatly increased the availibility of high-resolution spatial and attribute data for examing the relationship between social and vegetation structure in urban areas. There are several motivations for understanding this relationship. First, the United States has experienced a...

  4. Vegetation and other development options for mitigating urban air pollution impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Baldauf; David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    While air pollution control devices and programs are the primary method of reducing emissions, urban air pollution can be further mitigated through planning and design strategies, including vegetation preservation and planting, building design and development, installing roadside and near-source structures, and modifying surrounding terrain features.

  5. The use of a vegetation index for assessment of the urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, K. P.; Mcnab, A. L.; Karl, T. R.; Brown, J. F.; Hood, J. J.; Tarpley, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    A vegetation index and radiative surface temperature were derived from NOAA-11 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data for the Seattle, WA region from 28 June through 4 July 1991. The vegetation index and surface temperature values were computed for locations of weather observation stations within the region and compared to observed minimum air temperatures. These comparisons were used to evaluate the use of AVHRR data to assess the influence of the urban environment on observed minimum air temperatures (the urban heat island effect). AVHRR derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and radiant surface temperature data from a one week composite product were both related significantly to observed minimum temperatures, however, the vegetation index accounted for a greater amount of the spatial variation observed in mean minimum temperatures. The difference in the NDVI between urban and rural regions appears to be an indicator of the difference in surface properties (i.e., evaporation and heat storage capacity) between the two environments that are responsible for differences in urban and rural minimum temperatures.

  6. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Jiao, Wentao

    2012-02-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree-shrub-herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation in vegetable production among urban farmers in Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf, O.R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture in Nigerian cities has contributed immensely to provision of fresh vegetables and the overall food security in the urban space. Though this vegetable production takes place throughout the year, resource utilization that contributes to productivity among the various groups of urban cultivators is improperly understood. This paper addresses this issue in Ilorin, focusing on seventy farmers drawn from the two major groups of cultivators; Fadama and Okiti. Data were gathered through the use of focus group discussion (FGD, non participant observation, and questionnaire survey. Tabulation, percentages and trend description were employed in data analysis. Multiple Regression Analysis isolated utilization of pump machine, harvest from vegetable plots, utilization of modern input and type of labour used as the determinants of efficiency with a total percentage contribution of 89.6 to land-use, the major resource. Among the major findings is that the operational scale of Fadama cultivators is larger with a corresponding increase in profit compared to Okiti cultivators. It is also discovered that although the two systems are faced with similar constraints of environmental and inaccessibility to input problems, there exist some fundamental differences based on scale and production efficiency. Some solutions proffered to the identified problem include the recognition and integration of urban farmers into urban land use structure so that they can form cooperatives through which they can access productive inputs.

  8. Vegetation Management and Host Density Influence Bee-Parasite Interactions in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hamutahl; Quistberg, Robyn D; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-12-08

    Apocephalus borealis phorid flies, a parasitoid of bumble bees and yellow jacket wasps in North America, was recently reported as a novel parasitoid of the honey bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Little is known about the ecology of this interaction, including phorid fecundity on bee hosts, whether phorid-bee parasitism is density dependent, and which local habitat and landscape features may correlate with changes in parasitism rates for either bumble or honey bees. We examined the impact of local and landscape drivers and host abundance on phorid parasitism of A. mellifera and the bumble bee Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Apidae). We worked in 19 urban gardens along the North-Central Coast of California, where phorid parasitism of honey bees was first reported in 2012. We collected and incubated bees for phorid emergence, and surveyed local vegetation, ground cover, and floral characteristics as well as land cover types surrounding gardens. We found that phorid parasitism was higher on bumble bees than on honey bees, and phorids produced nearly twice as many pupae on individual bumble bee hosts than on honey bee hosts. Parasitism of both bumble and honey bees increased with abundance of honey bees in a site. Differences in landscape surroundings did not correlate with parasitism, but local factors related to bee resource provisioning (e.g., tree and shrub abundance) positively correlated with increased parasitism. This research thus helps to document and describe conditions that may have facilitated phorid fly host shift to honey bees and further elucidate how resource provisioning in urban gardens influences bee-parasite interactions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. A total of 800 acres (324 ha) were mapped. Thirteen map classes were used to describe the...

  10. Monitoring the Change in Urban Vegetation in 13 Chilean Cities Located in a Rainfall Gradient. What is the Contribution of the Widespread Creation of New Urban Parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barrera, Francisco; Henríquez, Cristian

    2017-10-01

    The well-being of people living in cities is strongly dependent on the existence of urban vegetation because of the ecosystem services or benefits it provides. This is why governments develop plans to create green spaces, plant trees, promote the maintenance of vegetation in private spaces and also monitor their status over time. In Latin America, and particularly in Chile, the increase of urban vegetation has been stimulated through different initiatives and regulations. However, development of monitoring programs at the national level is scarce, so it is yet unknown if these initiatives and regulations have had positive effects. In this article, we monitor the change in urban vegetation in 13 Chilean cities located in a latitudinal gradient of practically zero to almost 1800 mm of annual rainfall. We calculated the trends in NDVI (2000-2016) as an indicator of change in urban greenery using data from the MODIS Subsets platform. Likewise, to assess whether the initiatives have had an effect we quantified the number of urban parks existing at the beginning of the period and how many were created during the study period. For this, we analysed official databases and high spatial resolution satellite images. Armed with said data, we assessed whether these new parks had impacted the tendency toward change in urban greenery. The results indicate that, in general, Chilean cities vary greatly inter-annually in urban greenery and have lost urban vegetation in the last 16 years, with significant losses in four of those cities. Two cities located in desert ecosystems represent an exception and showed positive trends in their urban vegetation. The rainfall in cities has an impact on the amount of vegetation, but not on their tendency to change, i.e. there are cities with loss of vegetation at all levels of precipitation. The creation of parks has not been able to reverse negative trends, which indicates the prevalence of other drivers of change that are not sufficiently

  11. Food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a urban population: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Gomes, Crizian Saar; Martins, Paula Andréa; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2015-10-05

    Environmental, social and individual factors influence eating patterns, which in turn affect the risk of many chronic diseases. This study aimed to estimate associations between environmental factors and the consumption of fruit and vegetables among adults in a Brazilian urban context. Data from the surveillance system for risk factors for chronic diseases (VIGITEL) of Brazilian Ministry of Health were used. A cross-sectional telephone survey (VIGITEL - 2008-2010) was carried out with 5826 adults in the urban area of Belo Horizonte. Individual variables were collected. The frequency of fruit and vegetables consumption was assessed from number of servings, weekly frequency and an intake score was calculated. Georeferenced variables were used to characterize the food environment. The density of healthy food outlets (stores specialized in selling fruit and vegetables), unhealthy food outlets (bars, snack bars and food trucks/trailers) and the neighborhood family income were investigated and associated with fruit and vegetables intake score. Weighted multilevel linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between the environment variables and the fruit and vegetables intake score. Higher fruit and vegetables intake scores were observed in neighborhoods with higher density of healthy food outlets and higher income. Lower scores were observed in neighborhood with higher density of unhealthy food outlets. These associations were adjusted by individual variables such as gender, age, physical activity, sugar sweetened beverages consumption, education level and smoking. The food environment might explain some of the socioeconomic disparities with respect to healthy food intake and health outcomes. Healthy food stores are less common in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods, and therefore, healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables are less available or are of a lower quality in lower income areas. Food environment characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic

  12. QUALITY ANALYSIS OF SINGLE TREE OBJECT WITH OBIA AND VEGETATION INDEX FROM LAPAN SURVEILLANCE AIRCRAFT MULTISPECTRAL DATA IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwita Mustika Sari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution remote sensing data as the acquisition result of LAPAN Surveillance Aircraft (LSA has the potential to analyze urban areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of LSA multispectral data utilization with an analysis of the single tree object in urban areas with OBIA and vegetation index. The method proposed in this study is a hierarchical classification to obtain the specific tree object that will be used further to analyze the quality of vegetation. In particular, analysis of the vegetation quality on the tree object was carried out by calculating the value of vegetation index NDVI. As a result, the overall accuracy of the hierarchical classification of objects in urban areas reached 88 %. In conclusion, the analysis of the quality of vegetation NDVI has been able to perceive the condition of trees in the urban area.

  13. Evaluation of Microclimatic Data on Localities with Different Ratio of Vegetation in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keresztesová Soňa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many authors (Akbari, Taha, 1992; Čaboun, 2008; Klein, 2013; Keresztesová, 2013 proved the influence of vegetation on microclimate as well as on the decrease of heat islands. We were interested in how different ratio of vegetation and open spaces influences microclimatic factors. From April to July 2012 microclimatic factors of two different localities with respect to various ratios of vegetation and open spaces were observed in Nitra, Slovakia. More specifically we observed the air temperature, relative air humidity and surface temperatures of four selected points in both localities. We have found out that in the park, i.e. in the locality with a higher portion of vegetation than open space was the course of temperatures more balanced, thanks to the attribute of vegetation to keep a stable microclimate. We have not observed any major Differences between the monitored points variously located in the vegetation in one locality, but on the other hand, we have observed remarkable differences between the two monitored localities. We may allege that the ratio of vegetation and open spaces makes significant contribution to microclimatic conditions of urban environment.

  14. Object-Based Point Cloud Analysis of Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning Data for Urban Vegetation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning (ALS is a remote sensing technique well-suited for 3D vegetation mapping and structure characterization because the emitted laser pulses are able to penetrate small gaps in the vegetation canopy. The backscattered echoes from the foliage, woody vegetation, the terrain, and other objects are detected, leading to a cloud of points. Higher echo densities (> 20 echoes/m2 and additional classification variables from full-waveform (FWF ALS data, namely echo amplitude, echo width and information on multiple echoes from one shot, offer new possibilities in classifying the ALS point cloud. Currently FWF sensor information is hardly used for classification purposes. This contribution presents an object-based point cloud analysis (OBPA approach, combining segmentation and classification of the 3D FWF ALS points designed to detect tall vegetation in urban environments. The definition tall vegetation includes trees and shrubs, but excludes grassland and herbage. In the applied procedure FWF ALS echoes are segmented by a seeded region growing procedure. All echoes sorted descending by their surface roughness are used as seed points. Segments are grown based on echo width homogeneity. Next, segment statistics (mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation are calculated by aggregating echo features such as amplitude and surface roughness. For classification a rule base is derived automatically from a training area using a statistical classification tree. To demonstrate our method we present data of three sites with around 500,000 echoes each. The accuracy of the classified vegetation segments is evaluated for two independent validation sites. In a point-wise error assessment, where the classification is compared with manually classified 3D points, completeness and correctness better than 90% are reached for the validation sites. In comparison to many other algorithms the proposed 3D point classification works on the original

  15. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  16. VEGETATION COVER ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES IN UTAH AND ARIZONA USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.; Jungho, I.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, R.; Gladden, J.; Waugh, J.

    2012-01-17

    Remote sensing technology can provide a cost-effective tool for monitoring hazardous waste sites. This study investigated the usability of HyMap airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (126 bands at 2.3 x 2.3 m spatial resolution) to characterize the vegetation at U.S. Department of Energy uranium processing sites near Monticello, Utah and Monument Valley, Arizona. Grass and shrub species were mixed on an engineered disposal cell cover at the Monticello site while shrub species were dominant in the phytoremediation plantings at the Monument Valley site. The specific objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate leaf-area-index (LAI) of the vegetation using three different methods (i.e., vegetation indices, red-edge positioning (REP), and machine learning regression trees), and (2) map the vegetation cover using machine learning decision trees based on either the scaled reflectance data or mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF)-derived metrics and vegetation indices. Regression trees resulted in the best calibration performance of LAI estimation (R{sup 2} > 0.80). The use of REPs failed to accurately predict LAI (R{sup 2} < 0.2). The use of the MTMF-derived metrics (matched filter scores and infeasibility) and a range of vegetation indices in decision trees improved the vegetation mapping when compared to the decision tree classification using just the scaled reflectance. Results suggest that hyperspectral imagery are useful for characterizing biophysical characteristics (LAI) and vegetation cover on capped hazardous waste sites. However, it is believed that the vegetation mapping would benefit from the use of 1 higher spatial resolution hyperspectral data due to the small size of many of the vegetation patches (< 1m) found on the sites.

  17. Social impacts of IPM-FFS on urban and peri-urban vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social relations, social empowerment and sharing of IPM information, and sustainability and institutionalization of IPM) for vegetable producers in an integrated pest management (IPM) project using farmer field schools (FFS) in Cotonou.

  18. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Pérez, Javier, E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); López-Abente, Gonzalo, E-mail: glabente@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Gómez-Barroso, Diana, E-mail: dgomez@externos.isciii.es [CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Morales-Piga, Antonio, E-mail: amorales@isciii.es [Rare Disease Research Institute (IIER), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid (Spain); Pardo Romaguera, Elena, E-mail: elena.pardo@uv.es [Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (RETI-SEHOP), University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Tamayo, Ibon, E-mail: ibontama@gmail.com [Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BIODonostia Research Institute, Department of Health of the Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia (Spain); Fernández-Navarro, Pablo, E-mail: pfernandezn@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  19. Assessing Riparian Vegetation Condition and Function in Disturbed Sites of the Arid Northwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Cornejo-Denman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation or modification of vegetation distribution and structure in arid riparian ecosystems can lead to the loss of ecological function. Mexico has 101,500,000 ha of arid lands, however there is a general lack of information regarding how arid riparian ecosystems are being modified. To assess these modifications, we use eight sites in the San Miguel River (central Sonora to analyze (1 riparian vegetation composition, structure and distribution using field sampling and remote sensing data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV; (2 productivity (proxies, using vegetation indices derived from satellite data; and (3 variability posed by riparian vegetation and vegetation adjacent to riparian habitats. The development of a simple yet informative Anthropogenic-disturbance Index (ADI allowed us to classify and describe each study site. We found sharp differences in vegetation composition and structure between sites due to the absence/presence of obligate-riparian species. We also report significant difference between EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index values for the dry season among vegetation types that develop near the edges of the river but differ in composition, suggesting that land cover changes form obligate-riparian to facultative-riparian species can lead to a loss in potential productivity. Finally, our tests suggest that sites with higher disturbance present lower photosynthetic activity.

  20. Response of Competing Vegetation to Site Preparation on West Gulf Coastal Plain Commercial Forest Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Henry A. Pearson; Ronald E. Thill; V. Clark Baldwin; Alton Martin

    1995-01-01

    The response of woody and herbaceous vegetation to site preparation, subsoil texture, and fertilization was measured on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The influences of these treatments on competing vegetation were short-term. Drastic soil disturbance and fertilization briefly increased herbage production. Shear-windrow and shear-disk were generally the most effective...

  1. Urban geochemistry: research strategies to assist risk assessment and remediation of brownfield sites in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, I; Farago, M E; Thums, C R; Parrish, R R; McGill, R A R; Breward, N; Fortey, N J; Simpson, P; Young, S D; Tye, A M; Crout, N M J; Hough, R L; Watt, J

    2008-12-01

    Urban geochemical maps of Wolverhampton and Nottingham, based on multielement analysis of surface soils, have shown distribution patterns of "total" metals concentrations relating to past and present industrial and domestic land use and transport systems. Several methods have been used to estimate the solubility and potential bioavailability of metals, their mineral forms and potential risks to urban population groups. These include sequential chemical extraction, soil pore water extraction and analysis, mineralogical analysis by scanning electron microscopy, source apportionment by lead isotope analysis and the development of models to predict metal uptake by homegrown vegetables to provide an estimate of risk from metal consumption and exposure. The results from these research strategies have been integrated with a geographical information system (GIS) to provide data for future land-use planning.

  2. NACP Woody Vegetation Characteristics of 1,039 Sites across the North Slope, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of (1) field measurements of woody vegetation (shrubs) at 26 diverse sites across the North Slope of Alaska during 2010 and 2011,...

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points for Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes the accuracy assessment points used to assess the alliance-level vegetation map of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (HOFU) developed...

  4. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, Frost Boil Sites, North Slope, Alaska, 2000-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set describes the environment, soil, and vegetation on nonsorted circles and earth hummocks at seven study sites along a N-S-transect from the Arctic Ocean...

  5. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  6. Low intake of fruits and vegetables in Thailand : magnitude, disease burden and urban influence

    OpenAIRE

    Bunngamchairat, Ariya

    2008-01-01

    Thailand is now encountering nutrition and epidemiology transitions triggered by economy, demography, globalization and urbanization influences. A rise in chronic non-communicable diseases, coupled with the existing malnutrition problems addresses the recent national concerns. Fruits and vegetables, as healthful food choices, can play an important part in alleviating this situation and preventing those health problems of both under- and overnutrition. This study aimed to demonstrate the curre...

  7. Vegetation indicators of transformation in the urban forest ecosystems of "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyvolova, Anna; Trifonova, Tatiana; Bykova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in the city are at the same time a component of its natural environment and part of urban developmental planning. It imposes upon urban forests a large functional load, both environmental (formation of environment, air purification, noise pollution reducing, etc.) and social (recreational, educational) which defines the special attitude to their management and study. It is not a simple task to preserve maximum accessibility to the forest ecosystems of the large metropolises with a minimum of change. The urban forest vegetates in naturally formed soil, it has all the elements of a morphological structure (canopy layers), represented by natural species of the zonal vegetation. Sometimes it is impossible for a specialist to distinguish between an urban forest and a rural one. However, the urban forests are changing, being under the threat of various negative influences of the city, of which pollution is arguably the most significant. This article presents some indicators of structural changes to the plant communities, which is a response of forest ecosystems to an anthropogenic impact. It is shown that the indicators of the transformation of natural ecosystems in the city can be a reduction of the projective cover of moss layer, until its complete absence (in the pine forest), increasing the role of Acer negundo (adventive species) in the undergrowth, high variability of floristic indicators of the ground herbaceous vegetation, and a change in the spatial arrangement of adventive species. The assessment of the impact of the urban environment on the state of vegetation in the "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Natural-Historical Park was conducted in two key areas least affected by anthropogenic impacts under different plant communities represented by complex pine and birch forests and in similar forest types in the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve. The selection of pine forests as a model is due to the fact that, according to some scientists, pine (Pinus

  8. The impact of the expansion of urban vegetable farming on malaria transmission in major cities of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadouléton, Anges; N'guessan, Raphael; Allagbé, Hyacinthe; Asidi, Alex; Boko, Michel; Osse, Razack; Padonou, Gil; Kindé, Gazard; Akogbéto, Martin

    2010-12-12

    Urban agricultural practices are expanding in several cities of the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the impact of such practices on transmission of the malaria parasite in major cities of Benin. A cross sectional entomological study was carried out from January to December 2009 in two vegetable farming sites in southern Benin (Houeyiho and Acron) and one in the northern area (Azèrèkè). The study was based on sampling of mosquitoes by Human Landing Catches (HLC) in households close to the vegetable farms and in others located far from the farms. During the year of study, 71,678 female mosquitoes were caught by HLC of which 25% (17,920/71,678) were Anopheles species. In the areas surveyed, the main malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum was transmitted in the south by Anopheles gambiae s.s. Transmission was high during the two rainy seasons (April to July and October to November) but declined in the two dry seasons (December to March and August to September). In the north, transmission occurred from June to October during the rainy season and was vehicled by two members of the An. gambiae complex: Anopheles gambiae s.s. (98%) and Anopheles arabiensis (2%).At Houeyiho, Acron and Azèrèkè, the Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIRs) and the Human Biting Rates (HBRs) were significantly higher during the dry season in Households Close to Vegetable Farms (HCVF) than in those located far from the vegetable areas (HFVF) (p 0.05).The knock-down resistance (kdr) mutation was the main resistance mechanism detected at high frequency (0.86 to 0.91) in An. gambiae s.l. at all sites. The ace-1R mutation was also found but at a very low frequency (< 0.1). These findings showed that communities living close to vegetable farms are permanently exposed to malaria throughout the year, whereas the risk in those living far from such agricultural practices is limited and only critical during the rainy seasons. Measures must be taken by African governments to create

  9. The impact of the expansion of urban vegetable farming on malaria transmission in major cities of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindé Gazard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban agricultural practices are expanding in several cities of the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the impact of such practices on transmission of the malaria parasite in major cities of Benin. Method A cross sectional entomological study was carried out from January to December 2009 in two vegetable farming sites in southern Benin (Houeyiho and Acron and one in the northern area (Azèrèkè. The study was based on sampling of mosquitoes by Human Landing Catches (HLC in households close to the vegetable farms and in others located far from the farms. Results During the year of study, 71,678 female mosquitoes were caught by HLC of which 25% (17,920/71,678 were Anopheles species. In the areas surveyed, the main malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum was transmitted in the south by Anopheles gambiae s.s. Transmission was high during the two rainy seasons (April to July and October to November but declined in the two dry seasons (December to March and August to September. In the north, transmission occurred from June to October during the rainy season and was vehicled by two members of the An. gambiae complex: Anopheles gambiae s.s. (98% and Anopheles arabiensis (2%. At Houeyiho, Acron and Azèrèkè, the Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIRs and the Human Biting Rates (HBRs were significantly higher during the dry season in Households Close to Vegetable Farms (HCVF than in those located far from the vegetable areas (HFVF (p 0.05. The knock-down resistance (kdr mutation was the main resistance mechanism detected at high frequency (0.86 to 0.91 in An. gambiae s.l. at all sites. The ace-1R mutation was also found but at a very low frequency ( Conclusion These findings showed that communities living close to vegetable farms are permanently exposed to malaria throughout the year, whereas the risk in those living far from such agricultural practices is limited and only critical during the rainy seasons. Measures must be

  10. SAFARI 2000 Woody Vegetation Characteristics of Kalahari and Skukuza Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains species composition, basal area, height, and crown cover of all woody plants at six sites along the Kalahari Transect visited in...

  11. SAFARI 2000 Woody Vegetation Characteristics of Kalahari and Skukuza Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains species composition, basal area, height, and crown cover of all woody plants at six sites along the Kalahari Transect visited in...

  12. Geological characterization of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. Hence there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated places. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. Remediation is ......, can minimize the uncertainties on predictions of the fate of the contaminant. Based on the work, we were able to pinpoint the best strategies and solutions for future remediation efforts at the two sites....... in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. From two contaminated sites located around the city of Horsens, Denmark we carry out a geological characterization. The two sites are situated in urban areas. Existing data from the two field sites includes only lithological profiles from boreholes. In order...... geological models of the two sites were constructed. The 3D geological models will serve as a basis for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the field sites. The study demonstrates how detailed information about the geological setting in conjunction with contaminant transport modelling...

  13. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Davies

    Full Text Available Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa's thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas, followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation.

  14. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew B; Tambling, Craig J; Kerley, Graham I H; Asner, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa's thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed) around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas), followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation.

  15. Spatial variability of soil and vegetation characteristics in an urban park in Tel-Aviv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, Pariente; Zhevelev, Helena M.; Oz, Atar

    2010-05-01

    Mosaic-like spatial patterns, consisting of divers soil microenvironments, characterize the landscapes of many urban parks. These microenvironments may differ in their pedological, hydrological and floral characteristics, and they play important roles in urban ecogeomorphic system functioning. In and around a park covering 50 ha in Tel Aviv, Israel, soil properties and herbaceous vegetation were measured in eight types of microenvironments. Six microenvironments were within the park: area under Ceratonia siliqua (Cs-U), area under Ficus sycomorus (Fi-U), a rest area under F. sycomorus (Re-U), an open area with bare soil (Oa-S), an open area with biological crusts (Oa-C), and an open area with herbaceous vegetation (Oa-V). Outside the park were two control microenvironments, located, respectively, on a flat area (Co-P) and an inclined open area (Co-S). The soil was sampled from two depths (0-2 and 5-10 cm), during the peak of the growing season (March). For each soil sample, moisture content, organic matter content, CaCO3 content, texture, pH, electrical conductivity, and soluble ions contents were determined in 1:1 water extraction. In addition, prior to the soil sampling, vegetation cover, number of species, and species diversity of herbaceous vegetation were measured. The barbecue fires and visitors in each of the microenvironments were counted. Whereas the soil organic matter and vegetation in Fi-U differed from those in the control(Co-P, Co-S), those in Oa-V were similar to those in the control. Fi-U was characterized by higher values of soil moisture, organic matter, penetration depth, and vegetation cover than Cs-U. Open microenvironments within the park (Oa-S, Oa-C, Oa-V) showed lower values of soil penetration than the control microenvironments. In Oa-V unique types of plants such as Capsella bursa-pastoris and Anagallis arvensis, which did not appear in the control microenvironments, were found. This was true also for Fi-U, in which species like Oxalis pes

  16. Landscape morphology metrics for urban areas: analysis of the role of vegetation in the management of the quality of urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Marques de Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study has the objective to demonstrate the applicability of landscape metric analysis undertaken in fragments of urban land use. More specifically, it focuses in low vegetation cover, arboreal and shrubbery vegetation and their distribution on land use. Differences of vegetation cover in dense urban areas are explained. It also discusses briefly the state-of-the-art Landscape Ecology and landscape metrics. It develops, as an example, a case study in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this study, it selects the use of the area’s metrics, the relation between area, perimeter, core, and circumscribed circle. From this analysis, this paper proposes the definition of priority areas for conservation, urban parks, free spaces of common land, linear parks and green corridors. It is demonstrated that, in order to design urban landscape, studies of two-dimension landscape representations are still interesting, but should consider the systemic relation between different factors related to shape and land use.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen in soil and vegetation at sites differing in successional age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovel, de C.G.F.; Mierlo, van A.J.E.M.; Wilms, Y.J.O.; Berendse, F.

    2000-01-01

    We studied vegetation and soil development during primary succession in an inland drift sand area in the Netherlands. We compared five sites at which primary succession had started at different moments in the past, respectively 0, 10, 43 and 121 years ago, and a site at which succession had not yet

  18. The influence of vegetation, mesoclimate and meteorology on urban atmospheric microclimates across a coastal to desert climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Steven M; Shiflett, Sheri A; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2017-09-15

    Many cities are increasing vegetation in part due to the potential for microclimate cooling. However, the magnitude of vegetation cooling and sensitivity to mesoclimate and meteorology are uncertain. To improve understanding of the variation in vegetation's influence on urban microclimates we asked: how do meso- and regional-scale drivers influence the magnitude and timing of vegetation-based moderation on summertime air temperature (T a ), relative humidity (RH) and heat index (HI) across dryland cities? To answer this question we deployed a network of 180 temperature sensors in summer 2015 over 30 high- and 30 low-vegetated plots in three cities across a coastal to inland to desert climate gradient in southern California, USA. In a followup study, we deployed a network of temperature and humidity sensors in the inland city. We found negative T a and HI and positive RH correlations with vegetation intensity. Furthermore, vegetation effects were highest in evening hours, increasing across the climate gradient, with reductions in T a and increases in RH in low-vegetated plots. Vegetation increased temporal variability of T a , which corresponds with increased nighttime cooling. Increasing mean T a was associated with higher spatial variation in T a in coastal cities and lower variation in inland and desert cities, suggesting a climate dependent switch in vegetation sensitivity. These results show that urban vegetation increases spatiotemporal patterns of microclimate with greater cooling in warmer environments and during nighttime hours. Understanding urban microclimate variation will help city planners identify potential risk reductions associated with vegetation and develop effective strategies ameliorating urban microclimate. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Do vegetated rooftops attract more mosquitoes? Monitoring disease vector abundance on urban green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gwendolyn K L; Jim, C Y

    2016-12-15

    Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting. Seven sites in a university campus were selected to represent three experimental treatments: green roofs (GR), ground-level blue-green spaces as positive controls (PC), and bare roofs as negative controls (NC). Mosquito-trapping devices were deployed for a year from March 2015 to 2016. Human-biting mosquito species known to transmit infectious diseases in the region were identified and recorded as target species. Generalized linear models evaluated the effects of site type, season, and weather on vector-mosquito abundance. Our model revealed site type as a significant predictor of vector mosquito abundance, with considerably more vector mosquitoes captured in PC than in GR and NC. Vector abundance was higher in NC than in GR, attributed to the occasional presence of water pools in depressions of roofing membrane after rainfall. Our data also demonstrated seasonal differences in abundance. Weather variables were evaluated to assess human-vector contact risks under different weather conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus, a competent vector of diseases including lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever, could be the most adaptable species. Our analysis demonstrates that green roofs are not particularly preferred by local vector mosquitoes compared to bare roofs and other urban spaces in a humid subtropical setting. The findings call for a better understanding of vector ecology in diverse urban landscapes

  20. Landscape, vegetation characteristics, and group identity in an urban and suburban watershed: why the 60s matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Boone; Mary L. Cadenasso; J. Morgan Grove; Kirsten Schwarz; Geoffrey L. Buckley

    2010-01-01

    As highly managed ecosystems, urban areas should reflect the social characteristics of their managers, who are primarily residents. Since landscape features develop over time, we hypothesize that present-day vegetation should also reflect social characteristics of past residents. Using an urban-to-suburban watershed in the Baltimore Metropolitan Region, this paper...

  1. Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

  2. Impacts of Vegetation and Urban planning on micro climate in Hashtgerd new Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodoudi, Sahar; langer, Ines; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the microclimate results shows, that with vegetation the microclimate in street canopies will be change: • 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K • relative humidity increase by about 10 % • soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K • wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetation in urban areas of Quezon City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ian A; Gabiana, Christella C; Dumo, Joan Ruby E; Salmo, Severino G; Guzman, Maria Aileen Leah G; Valera, Nestor S; Espiritu, Emilyn Q

    2017-04-01

    Limited data have been published on the chemistry of urban soils and vegetation in the Philippines. The aim of this study is to quantify the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in soils and vegetation in the urban landscape of Quezon City, Philippines, and to elucidate the relationships between soil properties and the concentration of heavy metals pertaining to different land uses [i.e., protected forest (LM), park and wildlife area (PA), landfill (PL), urban poor residential and industrial areas (RA), and commercial areas (CA)]. Soil (0-15 cm) and senescent plant leaves were collected and were analyzed for soil properties and heavy metal concentrations. Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in urban soils were higher in areas where anthropogenic activities or disturbance (PL, RA, and CA) were dominant as compared to the less disturbed areas (LM and PA). Organic matter and available phosphorous were strongly correlated with heavy metal concentrations, suggesting that heavy metal concentrations were primarily controlled by these soil properties. The average foliar heavy metal concentrations varied, ranging from 0 to 0.4 mg/kg for Cd, 0-10 mg/kg for Cr, 2-22 mg/kg for Cu, 0-5 mg/kg for Pb, and 11-250 mg/kg for Zn. The concentrations of Cd and Cr exceeded the critical threshold concentrations in some plants. Leaves of plants growing in PL (i.e., landfill) showed the highest levels of heavy metal contamination. Our results revealed that anthropogenic activities and disturbance caused by the rapid urbanization of the city are major contributors to the heavy metal accumulation and persistence in the soils in these areas.

  4. An efficient unsupervised index based approach for mapping urban vegetation from IKONOS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, Julius Y.; Ananga, Erick O.; Pu, Ruiliang

    2016-08-01

    Despite the increased availability of high resolution satellite image data, their operational use for mapping urban land cover in Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be limited by lack of computational resources and technical expertise. As such, there is need for simple and efficient image classification techniques. Using Bamenda in North West Cameroon as a test case, we investigated two completely unsupervised pixel based approaches to extract tree/shrub (TS) and ground vegetation (GV) cover from an IKONOS derived soil adjusted vegetation index. These included: (1) a simple Jenks Natural Breaks classification and (2) a two-step technique that combined the Jenks algorithm with agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Both techniques were compared with each other and with a non-linear support vector machine (SVM) for classification performance. While overall classification accuracy was generally high for all techniques (>90%), One-Way Analysis of Variance tests revealed the two step technique to outperform the simple Jenks classification in terms of predicting the GV class. It also outperformed the SVM in predicting the TS class. We conclude that the unsupervised methods are technically as good and practically superior for efficient urban vegetation mapping in budget and technically constrained regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  6. Carbon dioxide sequestration by urban vegetation at neighbourhood scale in tropical cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S.; Quak, M.; Perrusquia, R.; Molina, L. T.; Norford, L.

    2013-12-01

    Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult to achieve due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the carbon exchange using as reference recent long-term sets of CO2 flux data from two residential neighborhoods in Singapore and Mexico City. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the aboveground biomass flux. In addition, tree surveys were conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations. The annual biomass growth for Singapore's trees was estimated using an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. For Mexico City, growth prediction equations for urban trees from California were used. Palm trees, banana plants, yuccas and turfgrass were also included in the surveys with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. For the case of Singapore, both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that aboveground vegetation sequesters 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. An uptake of 1.4 ton km-2 day-1 (510 ton km-2 yr-1) was estimated from the difference between the daily CO2 uptake by photosynthesis (3.95 ton km-2) and release by plant respiration at night (2.55 ton km-2). However, when soil respiration is added to photosynthesis and nocturnal plant respiration, the biogenic component amounts to 4% of

  7. Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J; Bell, Cameron

    2014-11-15

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) consist of emergent macrophytes that are placed on a floating mat in a pond for water treatment and aesthetic purposes. FTWs may have unique advantages with respect to treating urban runoff within existing retention ponds for excess nutrients. However, research is lacking in providing guidance on performance of specific species for treating urban runoff, and on timing of harvest. Harvesting is needed to remove nutrients permanently from the retention pond. We investigated vegetation effects on FTWs on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal performance and storage in above-ground FTW macrophyte tissues. The study evaluated pickerelweed (PW, Pontederia cordata L.) and softstem bulrush (SB, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) over time in microcosms flushed with water obtained from a nearby urban retention pond in northern Virginia near Washington, DC. While the literature exhibits a wide range of experimental sizes, using the term mesocosm, we have chosen the term microcosm to reflect the small size of our vessel; and do not include effects of sediment. The experiment demonstrated PW outperformed SB for P and N removal. Based upon analysis of the accumulated nutrient removal over time, a harvest of the whole PW and SB plants in September or October is recommended. However, when harvesting only the aerial parts, we recommend harvesting above-ground PW tissues in July or August to maximize nutrient removal. This is because PW translocates most of its nutrients to below-ground storage organs in the fall, resulting in less nutrient mass in the above-ground tissue compared to the case in the summer (vegetative stage). Further research is suggested to investigate whether vegetation can be overly damaged from multiple harvests on an annual basis in temperate regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heavy metal status of soil and vegetables grown on peri-urban area of Lahore district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Khan, Shahid Javid, Atif Muhmood, Tahir Mjeed, Abid Niaz and Abdul Majeed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of wastewater for growing vegetables has become a common practice around big cities. Wastewater contains organic material and inorganic elements essential for plant growth but also contain heavy metals which may be lethal for animals and humans if their concentration increases than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and their translocation in to the edible parts of the vegetables. For this purpose, during year 2009-10, 25 sewage water, 76 soil, 40 leaf and 30 vegetable samples (tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower were taken from peri-urban area of Lahore district. These samples were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd and Ni contents. The analysis showed that in wastewater concentration of Cu (100 %, Mn (72 %, Ni (32 % and Cd (44% were higher than the safe limits while Zn, Fe and Pb concentration was below permissible limits. In soil DTPA extractable concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cd was in safe limit and ranged between 1.30-8.02, 1.06 -5.42, 8.60-35.03, 8.7-30.07, 2.11-30.86, 0.28-1.76 and 0.05-0.52 mg kg-1 respectively. In vegetable, 100 % leaf and fruit samples were contaminated and accumulation of heavy metals was higher than the WHO/FAO recommended permissible limits.

  9. The Role of Vegetation in Mitigating Urban Land Surface Temperatures: A Case Study of Munich, Germany during the Warm Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadroddin Alavipanah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Heat Island (UHI is the phenomenon of altered increased temperatures in urban areas compared to their rural surroundings. UHIs grow and intensify under extreme hot periods, such as during heat waves, which can affect human health and also increase the demand for energy for cooling. This study applies remote sensing and land use/land cover (LULC data to assess the cooling effect of varying urban vegetation cover, especially during extreme warm periods, in the city of Munich, Germany. To compute the relationship between Land Surface Temperature (LST and Land Use Land Cover (LULC, MODIS eight-day interval LST data for the months of June, July and August from 2002 to 2012 and the Corine Land Cover (CLC database were used. Due to similarities in the behavior of surface temperature of different CLCs, some classes were reclassified and combined to form two major, rather simplified, homogenized classes: one of built-up area and one of urban vegetation. The homogenized map was merged with the MODIS eight-day interval LST data to compute the relationship between them. The results revealed that (i the cooling effect accrued from urban vegetation tended to be non-linear; and (ii a remarkable and stronger cooling effect in terms of LST was identified in regions where the proportion of vegetation cover was between seventy and almost eighty percent per square kilometer. The results also demonstrated that LST within urban vegetation was affected by the temperature of the surrounding built-up and that during the well-known European 2003 heat wave, suburb areas were cooler from the core of the urbanized region. This study concluded that the optimum green space for obtaining the lowest temperature is a non-linear trend. This could support urban planning strategies to facilitate appropriate applications to mitigate heat-stress in urban area.

  10. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  11. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  12. \\vspace{8mm}Inclusion of vegetation in the Town Energy Balance model for modelling urban green areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonsu, A.; Masson, V.; Shashua-Bar, L.; Erell, E.; Pearlmutter, D.

    2012-11-01

    Cities impact both local climate, through urban heat islands and global climate, because they are an area of heavy greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere due to heating, air conditioning and traffic. Including more vegetation into cities is a planning strategy having possible positive impacts for both concerns. Improving vegetation representation into urban models will allow us to address more accurately these questions. This paper presents an improvement of the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy model. Vegetation is directly included inside the canyon, allowing shadowing of grass by buildings, better representation of urban canopy form and, a priori, a more accurate simulation of canyon air microclimate. The surface exchanges over vegetation are modelled with the well-known Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) model that is integrated in the TEB's code architecture in order to account for interactions between natural and built-up covers. The design of the code makes possible to plug and use any vegetation scheme. Both versions of TEB are confronted to experimental data issued from a field campaign conducted in Israel in 2007. Two semi-enclosed courtyards arranged with bare soil or watered lawn were instrumented to evaluate the impact of landscaping strategies on microclimatic variables and evapotranspiration. For this case study, the new version of the model with integrated vegetation performs better than if vegetation is treated outside the canyon. Surface temperatures are closer to the observations, especially at night when radiative trapping is important. The integrated vegetation version simulates a more humid air inside the canyon. The microclimatic quantities (i.e., the street-level meteorological variables) are better simulated with this new version. This opens opportunities to study with better accuracy the urban microclimate, down to the micro (or canyon) scale.

  13. Topographically-controlled site conditions drive vegetation pattern on inland dunes in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerniak, Piotr; Jankowski, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The inland dunes of Central Europe are commonly overplanted by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monocultures in which the primary occurrence of the natural vegetation pattern is obliterated. We hypothesize that on naturally revegetated inland dunes the pattern is clear and driven by topographically-controlled site conditions. To test this hypothesis, we addressed the following research questions: (1) Does topography drive vegetation patterns on inland dunes and if so, what are main differences between vegetation in varying relief positions? (2) To what extent does topography involve the variability of microclimates and of soil properties, and how does the topographically-induced differentiation of these site conditions control vegetation patterns? We conducted interdisciplinary studies (applying floristic, pedological and microclimatic research techniques) on a naturally revegetated inland dune area situated on a military artillery training ground near Toruń, northern Poland. We investigated vegetation patterns with reference to three topographical position variants (north-facing slopes, south-facing slopes, and intra-dune depressions). We found distinct differences in vegetation characteristics covering the aforementioned topographical positions. This primarily concerned species composition of ground vegetation: Calluna vulgaris was dominant species on north-facing slopes, Corynephorus canescens on south-facing slopes, while Calamagrostis epigejos in intra-dune depressions. In comparison to dune slopes, the depressions were characterized by much higher biodiversity of vascular plant species. This followed the most favorable soil conditions for the existence of plants (higher moisture and nutrient pools) occurring in low topographical positions. However, tree succession was most advanced not in depressions, where the competitive impact of tall grasses on seedlings was recognized, but on north-facing slopes. Based on our results, we formulated some suggestions, which

  14. REMOVAL OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER BY VEGETATION IN AN URBAN PARK IN THE CITY OF ROME (ITALY): AN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PERSPECTIVE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. Silli; E. Salvatori; F. Manes

    2015-01-01

    .... Vegetation may contribute to reduce PM concentration, improving environmental and life quality of inhabitants, especially of those living in urban areas, also delivering important Ecosystem Services...

  15. VEGETATION BEHAVIOR AND ITS HABITAT REGION AGAINST FLOOD FLOW IN URBAN STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IL-KI CHOI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic effects on the vegetation behavior and on its habitat region against flood flow in the urban streams were analysed in this paper. Vegetation behavior was classified into stable, recovered, damaged and swept away stages. Criteria between recovered and damaged status were determined by the bending angle of the aquatic plants. Aquatic plants whose bending angle is lower than 30~50 degree is recovered, but they were damaged and cannot be recovered when the bending angle is higher than 30~50 degree. Phragmites japonica was inhabited in the hydraulic condition of high Froude number which shows that it was inhabited in the upstream reaches. Phragmites communis was inhabited in the relatively low Froude number compared with Phragmites japonica. This shows that it was inhabited in the downstream reaches. Persicaria blumei was found in the relatively wide range of flow velocity and flow depth, which shows that it was inhabited in the middle and downstream reaches. Criterion on the vegetation behavior of Persicaria thunbergii was not clear, which implies that it may be affected by the flow turbulence rather than flow velocity and flow depth.

  16. Nitrate in drinking water and vegetables: intake and risk assessment in rural and urban areas of Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav

    2017-06-06

    The study focuses on the estimation of health risk from nitrate present in the drinking water and vegetables in Nagpur and Bhandara districts in the state of Maharashtra, India. Drinking water samples from 77 locations from the rural as well as urban areas and 22 varieties of vegetable were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrate for a period of 1 year (two seasons). The daily intake of nitrate from these water and vegetable samples was then computed and compared with standard acceptable intake levels to assess the associated health risk. The mean nitrate concentration of 59 drinking water samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards limit of 45 mg/L in drinking water. The rural and urban areas were found to have mean nitrate concentration in drinking water as 45.69 ± 2.08 and 22.53 ± 1.97 mg/L, respectively. The estimated daily intake of drinking water samples from 55 study sites had nitrate concentration far below the safety margin indicating serious health risk. The sanitation survey conducted in 12 households reported contaminated source with positive E. coli count in 20 samples as the major factor of health risk. The average nitrate concentration was maximum in beetroot (1349.38 mg/kg) followed by spinach (1288.75 mg/kg) and amaranthus (1007.64 mg/kg). Among the samples, four varieties of the vegetables exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) with an assumption of 0.5 kg consumption of vegetables for an average of a 60-kg individual. Therefore, irrigation of these locally grown vegetables should be monitored periodically for nitrogen accumulation by the crop above the ADI limit. The application of nitrogenous fertilizers should also be minimized in the rural areas to help protect the nitrate contamination in groundwater sources.

  17. Predicting summer site occupancy for an invasive species, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in an urban environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Adams

    Full Text Available Invasive species are often favoured in fragmented, highly-modified, human-dominated landscapes such as urban areas. Because successful invasive urban adapters can occupy habitat that is quite different from that in their original range, effective management programmes for invasive species in urban areas require an understanding of distribution, habitat and resource requirements at a local scale that is tailored to the fine-scale heterogeneity typical of urban landscapes. The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula is one of New Zealand's most destructive invasive pest species. As brushtail possums traditionally occupy forest habitat, control in New Zealand has focussed on rural and forest habitats, and forest fragments in cities. However, as successful urban adapters, possums may be occupying a wider range of habitats. Here we use site occupancy methods to determine the distribution of brushtail possums across five distinguishable urban habitat types during summer, which is when possums have the greatest impacts on breeding birds. We collected data on possum presence/absence and habitat characteristics, including possible sources of supplementary food (fruit trees, vegetable gardens, compost heaps, and the availability of forest fragments from 150 survey locations. Predictive distribution models constructed using the programme PRESENCE revealed that while occupancy rates were highest in forest fragments, possums were still present across a large proportion of residential habitat with occupancy decreasing as housing density increased and green cover decreased. The presence of supplementary food sources was important in predicting possum occupancy, which may reflect the high nutritional value of these food types. Additionally, occupancy decreased as the proportion of forest fragment decreased, indicating the importance of forest fragments in determining possum distribution. Control operations to protect native birds from possum predation in

  18. Predicting summer site occupancy for an invasive species, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Amy L; Dickinson, Katharine J M; Robertson, Bruce C; van Heezik, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are often favoured in fragmented, highly-modified, human-dominated landscapes such as urban areas. Because successful invasive urban adapters can occupy habitat that is quite different from that in their original range, effective management programmes for invasive species in urban areas require an understanding of distribution, habitat and resource requirements at a local scale that is tailored to the fine-scale heterogeneity typical of urban landscapes. The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is one of New Zealand's most destructive invasive pest species. As brushtail possums traditionally occupy forest habitat, control in New Zealand has focussed on rural and forest habitats, and forest fragments in cities. However, as successful urban adapters, possums may be occupying a wider range of habitats. Here we use site occupancy methods to determine the distribution of brushtail possums across five distinguishable urban habitat types during summer, which is when possums have the greatest impacts on breeding birds. We collected data on possum presence/absence and habitat characteristics, including possible sources of supplementary food (fruit trees, vegetable gardens, compost heaps), and the availability of forest fragments from 150 survey locations. Predictive distribution models constructed using the programme PRESENCE revealed that while occupancy rates were highest in forest fragments, possums were still present across a large proportion of residential habitat with occupancy decreasing as housing density increased and green cover decreased. The presence of supplementary food sources was important in predicting possum occupancy, which may reflect the high nutritional value of these food types. Additionally, occupancy decreased as the proportion of forest fragment decreased, indicating the importance of forest fragments in determining possum distribution. Control operations to protect native birds from possum predation in cities should

  19. Knowledge, barriers, and stage of change as correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among urban and mostly immigrant black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Randi L; Lepore, Stephen J; Vandergrift, Jonathan L; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay; McGinty, Elizabeth; Pietrzak, Gabriel; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-08-01

    Daily fruit and vegetable consumption in black men is low and has remained relatively unchanged during the past 20 years. To examine awareness of fruit and vegetable recommendations promoted by federal agencies and correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among an urban and mostly immigrant population of adult black men. A cross-sectional study analyzing baseline data (n=490) from a randomized controlled trial. A large health care worker's union. Knowledge, perceived benefits, stage of readiness, perceived barriers, and daily servings of fruit and vegetable intake. One-way analysis of variance and t tests were used to compare fruit and vegetable intake across main study variables. Regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Fruit and vegetable intake was low (mean was three servings/day). Ninety-four percent were not aware that men should consume at least nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily and 59.8% were not aware that eating a colorful variety is important. In contrast, over half (54.7%) were aware that a single serving is equal to about a handful; 94.1% correctly reported fruit and vegetables as an important source of fiber; 79.6% correctly reported vitamin pills were not a substitute for eating fruits and vegetables; and 94.5% recognized that there are health benefits to eating fruits and vegetables, although identification of specific benefits was minimal. In regression analysis, a greater level of fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly associated with greater knowledge of fruit and vegetable recommendations, lower perceived barriers, and a more advanced stage of change (action vs contemplation/preparation). Perceived health benefits were not associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. There is a lack of awareness of the current fruit and vegetable recommendations. In addition, men reported fruit and vegetable intakes that were far below national recommendations. Greater efforts

  20. Vegetation inventory, mapping, and classification report, Fort Bowie National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studd, Sarah; Fallon, Elizabeth; Crumbacher, Laura; Drake, Sam; Villarreal, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    A vegetation mapping and characterization effort was conducted at Fort Bowie National Historic Site in 2008-10 by the Sonoran Desert Network office in collaboration with researchers from the Office of Arid lands studies, Remote Sensing Center at the University of Arizona. This vegetation mapping effort was completed under the National Park Service Vegetation Inventory program which aims to complete baseline mapping inventories at over 270 national park units. The vegetation map data was collected to provide park managers with a digital map product that met national standards of spatial and thematic accuracy, while also placing the vegetation into a regional and even national context. Work comprised of three major field phases 1) concurrent field-based classification data collection and mapping (map unit delineation), 2) development of vegetation community types at the National Vegetation Classification alliance or association level and 3) map accuracy assessment. Phase 1 was completed in late 2008 and early 2009. Community type descriptions were drafted to meet the then-current hierarchy (version 1) of the National Vegetation Classification System (NVCS) and these were applied to each of the mapped areas. This classification was developed from both plot level data and censused polygon data (map units) as this project was conducted as a concurrent mapping and classification effort. The third stage of accuracy assessment completed in the fall of 2010 consisted of a complete census of each map unit and was conducted almost entirely by park staff. Following accuracy assessment the map was amended where needed and final products were developed including this report, a digital map and full vegetation descriptions. Fort Bowie National Historic Site covers only 1000 acres yet has a relatively complex landscape, topography and geology. A total of 16 distinct communities were described and mapped at Fort Bowie NHS. These ranged from lush riparian woodlands lining the

  1. USE OF THE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DATA FOR VEGETATION INVENTORY ON URBAN A REAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubalska Joanna Lucyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology of the implementation of an inventory of vegetation in an urban area using photogrammetric data in the form of color NIR "true - orthophotomap" (true - ortho and the digital surface model (DSM created with data from airborne laser scanning, or alternatively, with an automatic correlation of images. The vegetation inventory was conducted by classification on the basis of the characteristics contained in pixels of georeferenced true - ortho while taking into account the elevation data in the form of gridded DSM. To carry out the classification Erdas Imagine software was used. The correct classification process was preceded by the creation of the input data for this task. This data was obtained from the processing of digital aerial photos taken by a Vexcel UltraCam camera with the ground resolution GSD = 10cm and point clouds acquired from ALS. This processing included the generation of digital terrain model in the SCOP++ environment and the digital surface model in an Opals and Inpho environment.T he Comparison of DSM created from two different sources of data showed the overall consistency and uniformity and the ability to use both models to generate a true - ortho product from digital aerial photographs. The work was performed on an INPHO photogrammetric workstation. "True - ortho" was generated from both the black and white NIR images and colour images. The classification carried out with the Erdas Imagine software proved that this software is suitable for classification based on the features extracted from the pixels with the simultaneous analysis of elevation data. Simultaneous use of data both from airborne laser scanning and colour infrared images made it possible to make an exact classification of vegetation on very difficult terrain, like built up urban areas. The results of the classification accuracy were evaluated by the visual verification in Google Street View application. At a time when airborne

  2. Assessing human metal accumulations in an urban superfund site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, M Katie; Peck, Christopher P; Calhoun, Michael W; West, Robert F; James, Kyle J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2017-09-01

    Butte, Montana is part of the largest superfund site in the continental United States. Open-pit mining continues in close proximity to Butte's urban population. This study seeks to establish baseline metal concentrations in the hair and blood of individuals living in Butte, MT and possible routes of exposure. Volunteers from Butte (n=116) and Bozeman (n=86) were recruited to submit hair and blood samples and asked to complete a lifestyle survey. Elemental analysis of hair and blood samples was performed by ICP-MS. Three air monitors were stationed in Butte to collect particulate and filters were analyzed by ICP-MS. Soil samples from the yards of Butte volunteers were quantified by ICP-MS. Hair analysis revealed concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and U to be statistically elevated in Butte's population. Blood analysis revealed that the concentration of As was also statistically elevated in the Butte population. Multiple regression analysis was performed for the elements As, Cu, and Mn for hair and blood samples. Soil samples revealed detectable levels of As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Cd, with As and Cu levels being higher than expected in some of the samples. Air sampling revealed consistently elevated As and Mn levels in the larger particulate sampled as compared to average U.S. ambient air data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Zoe G; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L; Leake, Jonathan R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities are more substantial than previously assumed. However, as more vegetation carbon densities are derived, substantial variability between these estimates is becoming apparent. Here, we review procedural differences evident in the literature, which may be drivers of variation in carbon storage assessments. Additionally, we quantify the impact that some of these different approaches may have when extrapolating carbon figures derived from surveys up to a city-wide scale. To understand how/why carbon stocks vary within and between cities, researchers need to use more uniform methods to estimate stores and relate this quantitatively to standardised 'urbanisation' metrics, in order to facilitate comparisons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Statistical analysis of vegetation and stormwater runoff in an urban watershed during summer and winter storms in Portland, Oregon, U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry; Megan Y. Mao

    2016-01-01

    Past research has examined the effect of urban trees, and other vegetation, on stormwater runoff using hydrological models or small-scale experiments. However, there has been no statistical analysis of the influence of vegetation on runoff in an intact urban watershed, and it is not clear how results from small-scale studies scale up to the city level. Researchers...

  5. Surface erosion at disturbed alpine sites: effects of vegetation cover and plant diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Pohl, M.; Alewell, C.; Körner, C.; Buttler, A.; Rixen, C.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between plant diversity and soil stability in disturbed alpine terrain is poorly studied. In this paper, we investigated the influence of plant cover and diversity on water run-off and sediment yield on ski slopes. Rainfall simulations were conducted on a micro-scale (25 x 25 cm) to be able to replicate plots with different degrees of vegetation cover. We selected plots with 10%, 30% and 60% of vegetation cover containing different combinations of plant diversities: (i) grass, (ii) herb, (iii) moss/ lichen, and all combinations of these plant groups. Each combination was replicated five times with an applied rain intensity of 375 ml min-1 for about 5 minutes. As could be expected, percent vegetation cover had a large effect on surface erosion: sediment yield decreased with increasing vegetation cover. However, within the plots with 60% cover, sediment yield was lower at higher plant diversity and functional group diversity. The findings of this study support the view that beside the re-establishment of a closed vegetation cover, plant diversity is a relevant factor to reduce surface erosion at disturbed sites in alpine ecosystems.

  6. Bioavailability of arsenic, cadmium, iron and zinc in leafy vegetables amended with urban particulate matter suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremlová, Jana; Száková, Jiřina; Sysalová, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Urban particulate matter (PM) can affect green plants either via deposition on the above-ground biomass, where the contaminants can penetrate the leaf surface, or indirectly via soil-root interaction. This experiment assessed the potential risk of PM-derived risk elements contained in vegetables. The bioavailable portions of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in leafy vegetables amended by PM via soil and/or foliar application were investigated in a model pot experiment, in which lettuce and chard were cultivated. By using the physiologically based extraction test simulating in vitro human digestive processes in the stomach and small intestine, the bioavailable portions of toxic elements from PM-amended plant biomass were extracted. Extractable portions of elements by a simulated gastric solution from biomass decreased for lettuce in the order Zn > Cd > As > Fe; while for chard, the order was As > Zn > Cd > Fe. No significant effects of PM physical fractions or soil were observed. Although the bioavailable element portions in the PM samples were lower compared to plants, the bioavailable element contents in foliar PM-amended plant leaves exceeded the control and soil PM amendment levels, even after biomass washing. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Variability of drainage and solute leaching in heterogeneous urban vegetation environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, H.; Beecham, S.; Hassanli, A. M.; Ingleton, G.

    2013-11-01

    Deep percolation enhancement from recycled wastewater irrigation may contribute to salt accumulation and water table elevation that can ultimately cause soil and ground water degradation. Variation of drainage rate and solute leaching were investigated in an urban park containing heterogeneous landscape plants that were irrigated with recycled wastewater. Field monitoring was undertaken at Veale Gardens in the Adelaide Parklands, Australia. Based on landscape variation in Veale Gardens, two landscape zones were defined: one being largely covered with turf grasses with few trees and shrubs (MG) with the second zone being mostly trees and shrubs with intermittent turf grasses (MT). Experiments were performed on two zero-tension lysimeters placed horizontally 100 cm below ground to monitor the variation of volume and quality indicators of drained water for four seasons. The outcomes showed a significant variation of drainage quantity and quality in the MT and MG zones. The low vegetation cover in the MG zone resulted in more drained water than in the high vegetation cover (MT zone). In both zones, more drainage water was collected in winter than in other seasons. This is in spite of the input water showing a maximum rate in summer. The seasonal salinities measured in the two lysimeters showed very similar trends with the lowest salinity rate in autumn with the levels increasing through winter and spring. Chemical analyses of leachate solute and salt loading indicated no impact from using recycled wastewater.

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of drainage and solute leaching in heterogeneous urban vegetation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, H.; Beecham, S.; Hassanli, A. M.; Ingleton, G.

    2013-05-01

    Deep percolation enhancement from recycled wastewater irrigation may contribute to salt accumulation and water table elevation that can ultimately cause soil and ground water degradation. The spatial and temporal variation of drainage rate and solute leaching were investigated in an urban park containing heterogeneous landscape plants that were irrigated with recycled wastewater. Field monitoring was undertaken at Veale Gardens in the Adelaide Parklands, Australia. Based on the landscape variation in Veale Gardens, two landscape zones were defined: one being largely covered with turf grasses with few trees and shrubs (MG) with the second zone being mostly trees and shrubs with intermittent turf grasses (MT). Experiments were performed using two zero-tension lysimeters placed horizontally 100 cm below ground to monitor the spatio-temporal behaviour of drained water and nutrient loadings for four seasons. The outcomes showed a large spatial and temporal variation of drainage quantity and quality in the MT and MG zones. The low vegetation cover in the MG zone resulted in more drained water than in the high vegetation cover (MT zone). In both zones, more drainage water was collected in winter than in other seasons. This is in spite of the input water showing a maximum rate in summer. The seasonal salinities measured in the two lysimeters showed very similar trends with the lowest salinity rate in autumn with the levels increasing through winter and spring. Chemical analyses of the leachate solute indicated no detrimental impact from using recycled wastewater during the study period.

  9. Comparison of atmospheric turbulence characteristics and turbulent fluxes from two urban sites in Essen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephan; Kordowski, Klaus

    2010-10-01

    From September 2006 to September 2007, the intersite variability of turbulence characteristics and turbulent heat fluxes was analysed at two urban stations in Essen, Germany. One site was situated within an urban residential setting while the other was located at the border of an urban park and suburban/urban residential housing. Therefore, the surroundings at both sites contributing to surface-atmosphere exchange differed in terms of surface cover and surface morphology. During the 1-year measurement period, 19% of data were characterised by stable atmospheric stratification. Since observations of urban turbulence characteristics under stable stratification are scarce, so far, this work adds additional input to this discussion. Turbulence characteristics, i.e. normalised standard deviations of wind components, were in agreement to empirical fits from other urban observations under both instable and stable atmospheric stratification. However, differences in magnitude of turbulence characteristics between sites were observable. Comparison of turbulent heat fluxes indicated typical urban features in the site located in the urban setting with increased surface heating and higher surface heat fluxes by about 30%. Also the temporal evolution of heat fluxes on the diurnal course was affected. Differences in momentum flux were of minor magnitude with about 6% variation on average between sites. Findings indicate that multiple urban flux measurements within one city may be characterised by general similarities in terms of turbulent characteristics but are still significantly influenced by differences in the surface cover of the flux footprint.

  10. Focusing on the big picture: urban vegetation and eco-hydrological services in U.S. cities (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees and vegetation can be key components of urban green infrastructure and green spaces such as parks and residential yards. Large trees, characterized by broad canopies, and high leaf and stem volumes, can intercept a substantial amount of stormwater while promoting evapotrans...

  11. Vegetation placement for summer built surface temperature moderation in an urban microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Andrew A; Torchia, Melissa; Laursen, Andrew E; Rothman, Lorne D

    2014-06-01

    Urban vegetation can mitigate increases in summer air temperature by reducing the solar gain received by buildings. To quantify the temperature-moderating influence of city trees and vine-covered buildings, a total of 13 pairs of temperature loggers were installed on the surfaces of eight buildings in downtown Toronto, Canada, for 6 months during the summer of 2008. One logger in each pair was shaded by vegetation while the other measured built surface temperature in full sunlight. We investigated the temperature-moderating benefits of solitary mature trees, clusters of trees, and perennial vines using a linear-mixed model and a multiple regression analysis of degree hour difference. We then assessed the temperature-moderating effect of leaf area, plant size and proximity to building, and plant location relative to solar path. During a period of high solar intensity, we measured an average temperature differential of 11.7 °C, with as many as 10-12 h of sustained cooler built surface temperatures. Vegetation on the west-facing aspect of built structures provided the greatest temperature moderation, with maximum benefit (peak temperature difference) occurring late in the afternoon. Large mature trees growing within 5 m of buildings showed the greatest ability to moderate built surface temperature, with those growing in clusters delivering limited additional benefit compared with isolated trees. Perennial vines proved as effective as trees at moderating rise in built surface temperature to the south and west sides of buildings, providing an attractive alternative to shade trees where soil volume and space are limited.

  12. Vegetation Placement for Summer Built Surface Temperature Moderation in an Urban Microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Andrew A.; Torchia, Melissa; Laursen, Andrew E.; Rothman, Lorne D.

    2014-06-01

    Urban vegetation can mitigate increases in summer air temperature by reducing the solar gain received by buildings. To quantify the temperature-moderating influence of city trees and vine-covered buildings, a total of 13 pairs of temperature loggers were installed on the surfaces of eight buildings in downtown Toronto, Canada, for 6 months during the summer of 2008. One logger in each pair was shaded by vegetation while the other measured built surface temperature in full sunlight. We investigated the temperature-moderating benefits of solitary mature trees, clusters of trees, and perennial vines using a linear-mixed model and a multiple regression analysis of degree hour difference. We then assessed the temperature-moderating effect of leaf area, plant size and proximity to building, and plant location relative to solar path. During a period of high solar intensity, we measured an average temperature differential of 11.7 °C, with as many as 10-12 h of sustained cooler built surface temperatures. Vegetation on the west-facing aspect of built structures provided the greatest temperature moderation, with maximum benefit (peak temperature difference) occurring late in the afternoon. Large mature trees growing within 5 m of buildings showed the greatest ability to moderate built surface temperature, with those growing in clusters delivering limited additional benefit compared with isolated trees. Perennial vines proved as effective as trees at moderating rise in built surface temperature to the south and west sides of buildings, providing an attractive alternative to shade trees where soil volume and space are limited.

  13. Accumulation and potential health risks of cadmium, lead and arsenic in vegetables grown near mining sites in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Anh T K; Nguyen, Ha T H; Nguyen, Minh N; Tran, Tuyet-Hanh T; Vu, Toan V; Nguyen, Chuyen H; Reynolds, Heather L

    2016-09-01

    The effect of environmental pollution on the safety of vegetable crops is a serious global public health issue. This study was conducted to assess heavy metal concentrations in soil, irrigation water, and 21 local vegetable species collected from four sites near mining activities and one control site in Northern Vietnam. Soils from vegetable fields in the mining areas were contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), while irrigation water was contaminated with Pb. Average concentrations of Pb and As in fresh vegetable samples collected at the four mining sites exceeded maximum levels (MLs) set by international food standards for Pb (70.6 % of vegetable samples) and As (44.1 % of vegetable samples), while average Cd concentrations in vegetables at all sites were below the MLs of 0.2. The average total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) across all vegetable species sampled was higher than the safety threshold of 1.0, indicating a health risk. Based on the weight of evidence, we find that cultivation of vegetables in the studied mining sites is an important risk contributor for local residents' health.

  14. Climate Induced Vegetational Evolution: Palynological and Thecamoebian Study from Coastal Archaeological Sites, Saurashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Farooqui, A.; Gaur, A.S.

    both the sites do not show equilibrium with the prevailing dry/arid climate and therefore, the pollen assemblage here represents the remnants of wetter middle Holocene vegetation in the region. Phytoliths of drought-tolerant summer season crops also... are phytolith of grass epidermal tissue without any taxonomic significance (Mulholland and Rapp Jr. 1992; Prasad et al. 2007). Besides short silica cell phytolith, volcaniform phytolith of Musa/Ensete and cuticular remains of crop plants (Wheat, Barley...

  15. Comparing Different Approaches for Mapping Urban Vegetation Cover from Landsat ETM+ Data: A Case Study on Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Canters

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban growth and its related environmental problems call for sustainable urban management policies to safeguard the quality of urban environments. Vegetation plays an important part in this as it provides ecological, social, health and economic benefits to a city’s inhabitants. Remotely sensed data are of great value to monitor urban green and despite the clear advantages of contemporary high resolution images, the benefits of medium resolution data should not be discarded. The objective of this research was to estimate fractional vegetation cover from a Landsat ETM+ image with sub-pixel classification, and to compare accuracies obtained with multiple stepwise regression analysis, linear spectral unmixing and multi-layer perceptrons (MLP at the level of meaningful urban spatial entities. Despite the small, but nevertheless statistically significant differences at pixel level between the alternative approaches, the spatial pattern of vegetation cover and estimation errors is clearly distinctive at neighbourhood level. At this spatially aggregated level, a simple regression model appears to attain sufficient accuracy. For mapping at a spatially more detailed level, the MLP seems to be the most appropriate choice. Brightness normalisation only appeared to affect the linear models, especially the linear spectral unmixing.

  16. Sporadic paediatric diarrhoeal illness in urban and rural sites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campylobacter was the predominant bacterial pathogen (17% urban, 15% rural), followed by Shigella and nontyphoidal Salmonella (both 4% urban and 5% rural). In both communities, susceptibilities of these pathogens to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics was low (<50%); 70% of all episodes of diarrhoea were ...

  17. Species pool versus site limitations of macrophytes in urban waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; van der Velde, G.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity in urban areas is affected by a multitude of stressors. In addition to physico-chemical stress factors, the native regional species pool can be greatly reduced in highly urbanized landscapes due to area loss and fragmentation. In this study, we investigated how macrophyte composition...... and diversity in urban water systems are limited by the regional species pool and local environmental conditions. Canonical correspondence analysis of the macrophyte species composition revealed that urban and semi-natural water systems differed and differences could be related to local abiotic variables...... such as pH and iron concentrations. Macrophytes in the semi-natural area were typical for slightly acid and oligotrophic conditions. In urban water systems, exotic species characteristic of eutrophic conditions were present. In the semi-natural areas, the number of macrophyte species exceeded the number...

  18. URBAN RAIN GAUGE SITING SELECTION BASED ON GIS-MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge location, a spatial decision support system (DSS aided by geographical information system (GIS has been developed. In terms of a series of criteria, the rain gauge optimal site-search problem can be addressed by a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA. A series of spatial analytical techniques are required for MCDA to identify the prospective sites. With the platform of GIS, using spatial kernel density analysis can reflect the population density; GIS buffer analysis is used to optimize the location with the rain gauge signal transmission character. Experiment results show that the rules and the proposed method are proper for the rain gauge site selection in urban areas, which is significant for the siting selection of urban hydrological facilities and infrastructure, such as water gauge.

  19. Urban Rain Gauge Siting Selection Based on Gis-Multicriteria Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanli; Jing, Changfeng; Du, Mingyi

    2016-06-01

    With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge location, a spatial decision support system (DSS) aided by geographical information system (GIS) has been developed. In terms of a series of criteria, the rain gauge optimal site-search problem can be addressed by a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). A series of spatial analytical techniques are required for MCDA to identify the prospective sites. With the platform of GIS, using spatial kernel density analysis can reflect the population density; GIS buffer analysis is used to optimize the location with the rain gauge signal transmission character. Experiment results show that the rules and the proposed method are proper for the rain gauge site selection in urban areas, which is significant for the siting selection of urban hydrological facilities and infrastructure, such as water gauge.

  20. Urban Malaria: Understanding its Epidemiology, Ecology, and Transmission Across Seven Diverse ICEMR Network Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Krogstad, Donald J; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Chery, Laura; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Ndiaye, Daouda; Mathanga, Don P; Eapen, Alex

    2015-09-01

    A major public health question is whether urbanization will transform malaria from a rural to an urban disease. However, differences about definitions of urban settings, urban malaria, and whether malaria control should differ between rural and urban areas complicate both the analysis of available data and the development of intervention strategies. This report examines the approach of the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) to urban malaria in Brazil, Colombia, India (Chennai and Goa), Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda. Its major theme is the need to determine whether cases diagnosed in urban areas were imported from surrounding rural areas or resulted from transmission within the urban area. If infections are being acquired within urban areas, malaria control measures must be targeted within those urban areas to be effective. Conversely, if malaria cases are being imported from rural areas, control measures must be directed at vectors, breeding sites, and infected humans in those rural areas. Similar interventions must be directed differently if infections were acquired within urban areas. The hypothesis underlying the ICEMR approach to urban malaria is that optimal control of urban malaria depends on accurate epidemiologic and entomologic information about transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. [Urban vegetation coverage change inside the Third-Ring Road of Shenyang City, China: a study with linear spectral unmixing technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Bo; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiao-Yu; He, Xing-Yuan

    2009-05-01

    Based on the Landsat TM images of 2001 and 2006, and by using linear spectral unmixing (LSU) technique, the information of urban vegetation coverage inside the Third-Ring Road of Shenyang City was extracted, and the dynamic change of the vegetation coverage in 2001-2006 was analyzed, in combining with a land use map derived from the visual interpretation of a QuickBird image of 2006. The results showed that in 2001-2006, the urban vegetation coverage in study area changed drastically. Urban greening and the cropland encroachment caused by urban sprawl coexisted, and the vegetation gain from urban greening was larger than the vegetation loss from cropland encroachment. The vegetation coverage of road, residence, public facilities, and park and square increased with varying degrees (5%-9%), while industrial land changed little. The spatial distribution of urban greening was relatively reasonable. Though the polarization of vegetation coverage between central city and suburban still existed, this polarization had been mitigated to some extent. With the increase of the distance from city center, the vegetation coverage increased in sequence of park and square (0.8% x km(-1)) < residence (1.5% x km(-1)) < industrial land (1.7% x km(-1)) < public facilities (2.4% x km(-1)) < road (2.9% x km(-1)). The polarization of vegetation coverage in public facilities and road were still serious, suggesting that more greening programs and strict conservation efforts were needed.

  2. Improving the Accuracy of Mapping Urban Vegetation Carbon Density by Combining Shadow Remove, Spectral Unmixing Analysis and Spatial Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, G.; Wang, G.; Wang, M.

    2016-12-01

    Mixed pixels and shadows due to buildings in urban areas impede accurate estimation and mapping of city vegetation carbon density. In most of previous studies, these factors are often ignored, which thus result in underestimation of city vegetation carbon density. In this study we presented an integrated methodology to improve the accuracy of mapping city vegetation carbon density. Firstly, we applied a linear shadow remove analysis (LSRA) on remotely sensed Landsat 8 images to reduce the shadow effects on carbon estimation. Secondly, we integrated a linear spectral unmixing analysis (LSUA) with a linear stepwise regression (LSR), a logistic model-based stepwise regression (LMSR) and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN), and utilized and compared the integrated models on shadow-removed images to map vegetation carbon density. This methodology was examined in Shenzhen City of Southeast China. A data set from a total of 175 sample plots measured in 2013 and 2014 was used to train the models. The independent variables statistically significantly contributing to improving the fit of the models to the data and reducing the sum of squared errors were selected from a total of 608 variables derived from different image band combinations and transformations. The vegetation fraction from LSUA was then added into the models as an important independent variable. The estimates obtained were evaluated using a cross-validation method. Our results showed that higher accuracies were obtained from the integrated models compared with the ones using traditional methods which ignore the effects of mixed pixels and shadows. This study indicates that the integrated method has great potential on improving the accuracy of urban vegetation carbon density estimation. Key words: Urban vegetation carbon, shadow, spectral unmixing, spatial modeling, Landsat 8 images

  3. Spontaneous vegetation succession at different central European mining sites: a comparison across seres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prach, Karel; Lencová, Kamila; Rehounková, Klára; Dvořáková, Helena; Jírová, Alena; Konvalinková, Petra; Mudrák, Ondřej; Novák, Jan; Trnková, Romana

    2013-11-01

    We performed detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) ordination to compare seven successional seres running in stone quarries, coal mining spoil heaps, sand and gravel pits, and extracted peatlands in the Czech Republic in central Europe. In total, we obtained 1,187 vegetation samples containing 705 species. These represent various successional stages aged from 1 to 100 years. The successional seres studied were more similar in their species composition in the initial stages, in which synathropic species prevailed, than in later successional stages. This vegetation differentiation was determined especially by local moisture conditions. In most cases, succession led to a woodland, which usually established after approximately 20 years. In very dry or wet places, by contrast, where woody species were limited, often highly valuable, open vegetation developed. Except in the peatlands, the total number of species and the number of target species increased during succession. Participation of invasive aliens was mostly unimportant. Spontaneous vegetation succession generally appears to be an ecologically suitable and cheap way of ecosystem restoration of heavily disturbed sites. It should, therefore, be preferred over technical reclamation.

  4. Fossil and Contemporary Fine Carbon Fractions at 12 Rural and Urban Sites in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schichtel, B; Malm, W; Bench, G; Fallon, S; McDade, C; Chow, J

    2007-03-01

    Fine particulate matter collected at two urban, four near-urban, and six remote sites throughout the United States were analyzed for total carbon (TC) and radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). Samples were collected at most sites for both a summer and winter season. The radiocarbon was used to partition the TC into fossil and contemporary fractions. On average, contemporary carbon composed about half of the carbon at the urban, {approx}70-97% at near-urban, and 82-100% at remote sites. At Phoenix, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington, one monitor was located within the urban center and one outside to assess the urban excess over background concentrations. During the summer the urban and rural sites had similar contemporary carbon concentrations. However, during the winter the urban sites had more than twice the contemporary carbon measured at the neighboring sites, indicating anthropogenic contributions to the contemporary carbon. The urban fossil carbon was 4-20 times larger than the neighboring rural sites for both seasons. Organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from TOR analysis were available. These and the radiocarbon data were used to estimate characteristic fossil and contemporary EC/TC ratios for the winter and summer seasons. These ratios were applied to carbon data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network to estimate the fraction of contemporary carbon at mostly rural sites throughout the United States. In addition, the ratios were used to develop a semiquantitative, lower bound estimate of secondary organic carbon (SOC) contribution to fossil and contemporary carbon. SOC accounted for more than one-third of the fossil and contemporary carbon.

  5. Application of Space Borne CO2 and Fluorescence Measurements to Detect Urban CO2 Emissions and Anthropogenic Influence on Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetzold, Johannes C.; Chen, Jia; Ruisinger, Veronika

    2017-04-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) is a NASA satellite mission dedicated to make global, space-based observations of atmospheric, column-averaged carbon dioxide (XCO2). In addition, the OCO-2 also measures Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF). In our research we have studied the combination of OCO-2's XCO2 and SIF measurements for numerous urban areas on the different continents. Applying GIS and KML visualization techniques as well as statistical approaches we are able to reliably detect anthropogenic CO2 emissions in CO2 column concentration enhancements over urban areas. Moreover, we detect SIF decreases over urban areas compared to their rural vicinities. We are able to obtain those findings for urban areas on different continents, of diverse sizes, dissimilar topographies and urban constructions. Our statistical analysis finds robust XCO2 enhancements of up to 3 ppm for urban areas in Europe, Asia and North America. Furthermore, the analysis of SIF indicates that urban construction, population density and seasonality influence urban vegetation, which can be observed from space. Additionally, we find that OCO-2's SIF measurements have the potential to identify and approximate green areas within cities. For Berlin's Grunewald Forest as well as Mumbai's Sanjay Gandhi and Tungareshwar National Parks we observe enhancements in SIF measurements at sub-city scales.

  6. Cultivar discrimination at different site elevations with remotely sensed vegetation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Basso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are (i to evaluate vegetation indices sensitivity to discriminate between two different cultivars; (ii to determine the effects of site elevation and developmental stages on cultivar discrimination. The experiment was carried out for the growing season 2007/08 at “Agro di Pesche” (Central Italy, Molise region. Four experimental fields were located at different elevation ranging between 590 m to 922 m above the sea level (asl. For each field, two potato (Soluanum Tuberosum L. cultivars were used. Leaf area was collected through non-destructive measurements, and a hand-held spectroradiometer was used to measure the reflected light from the canopy of the two cultivars. Results from the ANOVA show that the ratio between MCARI (Modified Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Index and OSAVI (Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, NDRE (Normalized Difference Red Edge and MCARI were able to discriminate among cultivars at different site elevations. NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was not able to discriminate the two cultivars because of the influence of soil reflectance and leaves distribution.

  7. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  8. Pesticides analysed in rainwater in Alsace region (Eastern France): Comparison between urban and rural sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Current-used pesticides commonly applied in Alsace region (Eastern France) on diverse crops (maize, vineyard, vegetables, etc.) were analysed, together with Lindane, in rainwater between January 2002 and June 2003 simultaneously on two sites situated in a typical rural (Erstein, France) and urban area (Strasbourg, France). Rainwater samples were collected on a weekly basis by using two automatic wet only collectors associated with an open collector for the measurement of rainwater height. Pesticides were analysed by GC-MSMS and extracted from rainwater by SPME. Two runs were performed. The first one was performed by using a PDMS (100 μm) fibre for pesticides where direct injection into GC is possible (alachlor, atrazine, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, captan, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, diflufenican, α- and β-endosulfan, iprodione, lindane, metolachlor, mevinphos, parathion-methyl, phosalone, phosmet, tebuconazole, triadimefon and trifluralin). The second run was performed by using PDMS/DVB fibre and this run concerns pesticides where a preliminary derivatisation step with pentafluorobenzylbromide (PFBBr) is required for very low volatiles (bromoxynil,2,4-MCPA, MCPP and 2,4-D) or thermo labiles (chlorotoluron, diuron and isoproturon) pesticides. Results showed that the more concentrated pesticides detected were those used as herbicides in large quantities in Alsace region for maize crops (alachlor, metolachlor and atrazine). Maximum concentrations for these herbicides have been measured during intensive applications periods on maize crops following by rapid decrease immediately after use. For Alachlor, most important peaks have been observed between 21 and 28 April 2003 (3327 ng L -1 at Erstein and 5590 ng L -1 at Strasbourg). This is also the case for Metolachlor where most important peak was observed during the same week. Concentrations of pesticides measured out of application periods were very low for many pesticides and some others where never detected

  9. Anatomical sites of colorectal cancer in a Semi-Urban Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    region from big urban cities have shown that the incidence of colorectal cancer is rising and with a proportionate right-ward shift. Objective: To assess the sub-site distribution and surgical treatment patterns of colorectal cancer in a semi-urban ...

  10. A review of fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin Region: response and ecological site characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Miller; Jeanne C. Chambers; David A. Pyke; Fred B. Pierson; C. Jason. Williams

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesizes the state of knowledge on fire effects on vegetation and soils in semi-arid ecosystems in the Great Basin Region, including the central and northern Great Basin and Range, Columbia River Basin, and the Snake River Plain. We summarize available literature related to: (1) the effects of environmental gradients, ecological site, and vegetation...

  11. Vegetation Plot Data of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plot level raw datasets--including Cover, Woody Stem, Plot/Environmental, and Soil--from vegetation sampling on Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites within the...

  12. Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    , authorities and the general public, especially if they had some incentives. These findings demonstrate the need to involve farmers as early as possible in intervention projects especially in informal farming practices, like urban agriculture, where restrictions are difficult to implement. This will ensure......Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk...

  13. THE IMPACT OF URBAN RIVER VALLEY LAND USE AND MORPHOLOGICAL CONDITION FOR RIVER VEGETATION IN RIVER BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marek Hamerla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the results of research about the relationship between hydromorphological condition and share of plants in river bed. Assessment, made in urbanized and heavy industry part of Upper Silesia, provide proof of strong relation between land use, land cover in river valley and type of river vegetation. Moreover, the relationship between hydromorphological indicators and groups of plants was defined.

  14. Physiological and developmental effects of O3 on cottonwood growth in urban and rural sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jillian W; Jones, Clive G; Dawson, Todd E

    2006-12-01

    Previously we found that cloned cottonwood saplings (Populus deltoides) grew twice as large in New York, New York, USA, compared to surrounding rural environments and that soils, temperature, CO2, nutrient deposition, and microclimatic variables could not account for the greater urban plant biomass. Correlations between final season biomass and cumulative O3 exposures, combined with twofold growth reductions in an open-top chamber experiment provided strong evidence that higher cumulative O3 exposures in rural sites reduced growth in the country. Here, we assess the field gas exchange, growth and development, and allocation responses underlying the observed growth differences and compare them with isolated O3 responses documented in the open-top chamber experiment. Cottonwoods showed no visible foliar injury, reduced photosynthesis of recently expanded foliage, early leaf senescence, protective reduction in stomatal conductance, or compensatory allocation to shoot relative to root biomass for either the chamber or field experiment. Instead, O3-impacted chamber plants had significantly higher conductance and reduced photosynthesis of older foliage that led to reduced leaf area production and a twofold biomass reduction in the absence of visible injury. Rural-grown field plants showed the same pattern of significantly higher conductance in the absence of concomitant increases in photosynthesis that was indicative of a loss of stomatal control. Incremental changes in foliar production were also significantly inversely related to fluctuations in ambient O3 exposures. The similarity in biomass, gas exchange, phenological, and allocation responses between chamber and field experiments indicate that mechanisms accounting for reduced growth at rural sites were consistent with those in the open-top chamber O3 experiment. This study shows the limitation of visible symptoms as a sole diagnostic factor for documenting detrimental O3 impacts and points toward a new approach to

  15. Association between tobacco consumption and alcohol, vegetable and fruit intake across urban and rural areas in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrão, Patrícia; Silva-Matos, Carla; Damasceno, Albertino; Lunet, Nuno

    2011-05-01

    Smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy diet are known to cluster, but evidence from developing countries at the early phases of the tobacco epidemics and with markedly different cultures, lifestyles and forms of tobacco use is scarce. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between tobacco consumption (manufactured cigarettes, hand-rolled cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) and alcohol, fruit and vegetable intake in Mozambique according to place of residence (urban/rural). A representative sample of 12 902 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years was evaluated in a national household survey conducted in 2003 using a structured questionnaire. Age- and education-adjusted ORs were computed to estimate the association between tobacco consumption and alcohol, fruit and vegetable intake. Tobacco use and overall alcohol drinking were positively associated, regardless of type of tobacco consumed, but smoking of hand-rolled cigarettes and consumption of smokeless tobacco was negatively associated with beer drinking. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes had a less frequent intake of fruit, but smokeless tobacco consumption and hand-rolled cigarette smoking were not inversely related with intake of fruit or vegetables. This pattern was relatively consistent across genders and urban/rural areas, with the observed differences likely to be explained either by random variation or heterogeneity in tobacco consumption patterns across genders or places of residence. Strong associations between tobacco consumption and the intake of alcoholic beverages, vegetable and fruit intake are found, but not consistently for all forms of tobacco use.

  16. Object-Based Classification of Ikonos Imagery for Mapping Large-Scale Vegetation Communities in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert k. Chong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective assessment of biodiversity in cities requires detailed vegetation maps.To date, most remote sensing of urban vegetation has focused on thematically coarse landcover products. Detailed habitat maps are created by manual interpretation of aerialphotographs, but this is time consuming and costly at large scale. To address this issue, wetested the effectiveness of object-based classifications that use automated imagesegmentation to extract meaningful ground features from imagery. We applied thesetechniques to very high resolution multispectral Ikonos images to produce vegetationcommunity maps in Dunedin City, New Zealand. An Ikonos image was orthorectified and amulti-scale segmentation algorithm used to produce a hierarchical network of image objects.The upper level included four coarse strata: industrial/commercial (commercial buildings,residential (houses and backyard private gardens, vegetation (vegetation patches larger than0.8/1ha, and water. We focused on the vegetation stratum that was segmented at moredetailed level to extract and classify fifteen classes of vegetation communities. The firstclassification yielded a moderate overall classification accuracy (64%, κ = 0.52, which ledus to consider a simplified classification with ten vegetation classes. The overallclassification accuracy from the simplified classification was 77% with a κ value close tothe excellent range (κ = 0.74. These results compared favourably with similar studies inother environments. We conclude that this approach does not provide maps as detailed as those produced by manually interpreting aerial photographs, but it can still extract ecologically significant classes. It is an efficient way to generate accurate and detailed maps in significantly shorter time. The final map accuracy could be improved by integrating segmentation, automated and manual classification in the mapping process, especially when considering important vegetation

  17. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 2 Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual is the second in a three-part series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 2. Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites presents specific ways to enable developers, engineers, or landscape architects to incorporate more trees into a development site. The proposed approach focuses...

  18. On-site and laboratory evaluations of soundscape quality in recreational urban spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre, Lærke C; Larsen, Thea M; Sørensen, A Josefine; Santurette, Sébastien; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Regulations for quiet urban areas are typically based on sound level limits alone. However, the nonacoustic context may be crucial for subjective soundscape quality. This study aimed at comparing the role of sound level and nonacoustic context for subjective urban soundscape assessment in the presence of the full on-site context, the visual context only, and without context. Soundscape quality was evaluated for three recreational urban spaces by using four subjective attributes: loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort. The sound level was measured at each site and simultaneous sound recordings were obtained. Participants answered questionnaires either on site or during laboratory listening tests, in which the sound recordings were presented with or without each site's visual context consisting of two pictures. They rated the four subjective attributes along with their preference toward eight sound sources. The sound level was found to be a good predictor of all subjective parameters in the laboratory, but not on site. Although all attributes were significantly correlated in the laboratory setting, they did not necessarily covary on site. Moreover, the availability of the visual context in the listening experiment had no significant effect on the ratings. The participants were overall more positive toward natural sound sources on site. The full immersion in the on-site nonacoustic context may be important when evaluating overall soundscape quality in urban recreational areas. Laboratory evaluations may not fully reflect how subjective loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort are affected by sound level.

  19. On-site and laboratory evaluations of soundscape quality in recreational urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lærke Cecilie; Larsen, Thea Mathilde; Sørensen, Anna Josefine

    2017-01-01

    Regulations for quiet urban areas are typically based on sound level limits alone. However, the nonacoustic context may be crucial for subjective soundscape quality. Aims: This study aimed at comparing the role of sound level and nonacoustic context for subjective urban soundscape assessment...... in the presence of the full on-site context, the visual context only, and without context. Materials and Methods: Soundscape quality was evaluated for three recreational urban spaces by using four subjective attributes: loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort. The sound level was measured at each site......, the availability of the visual context in the listening experiment had no significant effect on the ratings. The participants were overall more positive toward natural sound sources on site. Conclusion: The full immersion in the on-site nonacoustic context may be important when evaluating overall soundscape...

  20. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables irrigated by urban stormwater: a matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Tom

    Full Text Available Urban stormwater is a crucial resource at a time when climate change and population growth threaten freshwater supplies; but there are health risks from contaminants, such as toxic metals. It is vitally important to understand how to use this resource safely and responsibly. Our study investigated the extent of metal contamination in vegetable crops irrigated with stormwater under short- and long-term conditions. We created artificially aged gardens by adding metal-contaminated sediment to soil, simulating accumulation of metals in the soil from irrigation with raw stormwater over zero, five and ten years. Our crops--French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, and beetroot (Beta vulgaris--were irrigated twice a week for 11 weeks, with either synthetic stormwater or potable water. They were then tested for concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn. An accumulation of Pb was the most marked sign of contamination, with six of nine French bean and seven of nine beetroot leaf samples breaching Australia's existing guidelines. Metal concentration in a crop tended to increase with the effective age of the garden; but importantly, its rate of increase did not match the rate of increase in the soil. Our study also highlighted differences in sensitivity between different crop types. French bean demonstrated the highest levels of uptake, while kale displayed restrictive behaviour. Our study makes it clear: irrigation with stormwater is indeed feasible, as long as appropriate crops are selected and media are frequently turned over. We have also shown that an understanding of such risks yields meaningful information on appropriate safeguards. A holistic approach is needed--to account for all routes to toxic metal exposure, including especially Pb. A major outcome of our study is critical information for minimising health risks from stormwater irrigation of crops.

  1. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables irrigated by urban stormwater: a matter of time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Minna; Fletcher, Tim D; McCarthy, David T

    2014-01-01

    Urban stormwater is a crucial resource at a time when climate change and population growth threaten freshwater supplies; but there are health risks from contaminants, such as toxic metals. It is vitally important to understand how to use this resource safely and responsibly. Our study investigated the extent of metal contamination in vegetable crops irrigated with stormwater under short- and long-term conditions. We created artificially aged gardens by adding metal-contaminated sediment to soil, simulating accumulation of metals in the soil from irrigation with raw stormwater over zero, five and ten years. Our crops--French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), and beetroot (Beta vulgaris)--were irrigated twice a week for 11 weeks, with either synthetic stormwater or potable water. They were then tested for concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn. An accumulation of Pb was the most marked sign of contamination, with six of nine French bean and seven of nine beetroot leaf samples breaching Australia's existing guidelines. Metal concentration in a crop tended to increase with the effective age of the garden; but importantly, its rate of increase did not match the rate of increase in the soil. Our study also highlighted differences in sensitivity between different crop types. French bean demonstrated the highest levels of uptake, while kale displayed restrictive behaviour. Our study makes it clear: irrigation with stormwater is indeed feasible, as long as appropriate crops are selected and media are frequently turned over. We have also shown that an understanding of such risks yields meaningful information on appropriate safeguards. A holistic approach is needed--to account for all routes to toxic metal exposure, including especially Pb. A major outcome of our study is critical information for minimising health risks from stormwater irrigation of crops.

  2. Characterization and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils and vegetations near an electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chun-Ling; Li, Jun; Yin, Hua; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of PCBs generated from e-waste recycling, and their potential impacts on the soils and vegetations as well. The ΣPCBs concentrations in soil and plant samples ranged from 7.4 to 4000 ng g(-1) and from 6.7 to 1500 ng g(-1), respectively. For the plant samples, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. from vegetable field and the wild plant Bidens pilosa L. from the burning site showed relatively higher PCB concentrations than other species. For the soil samples, the e-waste burning site had relatively higher PCB concentrations than the adjacent areas, and vegetable soils had higher PCB concentrations than paddy soils. The PCB concentrations showed a clear decreasing trend with the increasing distance from the e-waste recycling site. PCB 28, 99, 101, 138, 153, and 180 were the predominant congeners. Principal component analysis results showed a potential fractionation of PCB compositions from the burning site to the surroundings. The PCB congener pattern at the burning site was similar to Arochlor 1260, pointing to an input of non-domestic e-waste. Similar PCB congeners were found in soils and related vegetables, indicating they derived from the same source. The consumption of vegetables grown in soils near e-waste recycling sites should be strictly avoided due to the high PCBs in the plant tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How Do Vegetation Density and Transportation Network Density Affect Crime across an Urban Central-Peripheral Gradient? A Case Study in Kitchener—Waterloo, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikang Du

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation, transportation networks, and crime has been under debate. Vegetation has been positively correlated with fear of crime; however, the actual correlation between vegetation and occurrences of crime is uncertain. Transportation networks have also been connected with crime occurrence but their impact on crime tends to vary over different circumstances. By conducting spatial analyses, this study explores the associations between crime and vegetation as well as transportation networks in Kitchener-Waterloo. Further, geographically weighted regression modeling and a dummy urban variable representing the urban center/other urban areas were employed to explore the associations across an urban central-peripheral gradient. Associations were analyzed for crimes against persons and crimes against property for four specific crime types (assaults, vehicle theft, sex offences, and drugs. Results suggest that vegetation has a reverse association with crimes against persons and crimes against property while transportation networks have a positive relationship with these two types of crime. Additionally, vegetation can be a deterrent to vehicle theft crime and drugs, while transportation networks can be a facilitator of drug-related crimes. Besides, these two associations appear stronger in the urban center compared to the urban periphery.

  4. Optimizing Site Selection in Urban Areas in Northern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenkers, K.; Kraft, T.; Bethmann, F.; Husen, S.; Schnellmann, M.

    2012-04-01

    There is a need to observe weak seismic events (MNetwork in northern Switzerland by additional 20 stations. The new network that will be in operation by the end of 2012, aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of M_c=1.0 and a location error network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a step-wise approach to find the optimum network configuration. Our approach is based on standard network optimization techniques regarding the localization error. As a new feature, our approach uses an ambient noise model to compute expected signal-to-noise ratios for a given site. The ambient noise model uses information on land use and major infrastructures such as highways and train lines. We ran a series of network optimizations with increasing number of stations until the requirements regarding localization error and magnitude of completeness are reached. The resulting network geometry serves as input for the site selection. Site selection is done by using a newly developed multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. We analyze the test measurement with respect to noise amplitude in different frequency bands, transient noise events and earthquake first arrivals. Finally, the most promising sites are classified taking into account results from the test measurements and updated information on local geology, availability of electricity and data transmission, and installation costs.

  5. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities in Urban Parks Are Similar to Those in Natural Forests but Shaped by Vegetation and Park Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Nan; Liu, Xinxin; Kotze, D Johan; Jumpponen, Ari; Francini, Gaia; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important mutualists for the growth and health of most boreal trees. Forest age and its host species composition can impact the composition of ECM fungal communities. Although plentiful empirical data exist for forested environments, the effects of established vegetation and its successional trajectories on ECM fungi in urban greenspaces remain poorly understood. We analyzed ECM fungi in 5 control forests and 41 urban parks of two plant functional groups (conifer and broadleaf trees) and in three age categories (10, ∼50, and >100 years old) in southern Finland. Our results show that although ECM fungal richness was marginally greater in forests than in urban parks, urban parks still hosted rich and diverse ECM fungal communities. ECM fungal community composition differed between the two habitats but was driven by taxon rank order reordering, as key ECM fungal taxa remained largely the same. In parks, the ECM communities differed between conifer and broadleaf trees. The successional trajectories of ECM fungi, as inferred in relation to the time since park construction, differed among the conifers and broadleaf trees: the ECM fungal communities changed over time under the conifers, whereas communities under broadleaf trees provided no evidence for such age-related effects. Our data show that plant-ECM fungus interactions in urban parks, in spite of being constructed environments, are surprisingly similar in richness to those in natural forests. This suggests that the presence of host trees, rather than soil characteristics or even disturbance regime of the system, determine ECM fungal community structure and diversity.IMPORTANCE In urban environments, soil and trees improve environmental quality and provide essential ecosystem services. ECM fungi enhance plant growth and performance, increasing plant nutrient acquisition and protecting plants against toxic compounds. Recent evidence indicates that soil-inhabiting fungal communities

  6. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  7. Seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon in precipitation over urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-07-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of carbon species in rainwater (bulk deposition) was studied for the first time at two sites located in urban area of Poznań City and protected woodland area (Jeziory), in central Poland, between April and December 2013. The mean concentration of total carbon (TC) for the first site was 5.86 mg L(-1), whereas for the second, 5.21 mg L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration accounted for, on average, 87 and 91 % of total carbon in precipitation at urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Significant changes in TC concentrations in rainwater were observed at both sites, indicating that atmospheric transformation, transport, and removal mechanisms of carbonaceous particles were affected by seasonal fluctuations in biogenic/anthropogenic emission and meteorological conditions (i.e., precipitation height and type, atmospheric transport). During the warm season, the DOC concentration in rainwater was mostly influenced by mixed natural and anthropogenic sources. In contrast, during the cold season, the DOC concentration significantly increased mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities, i.e., intensive coal combustion, domestic wood burning, high-temperature processes, etc. In addition, during the winter measurements, significant differences in mean DOC concentration (Kruskal-Wallis test, p urban and non-urban sites. These data imply that carbonaceous compounds are of crucial importance in atmospheric chemistry and should be considered as an important parameter while considering wet deposition, reactions with different substances, especially over polluted environments.

  8. Vegetation composition and structure of forest patches along urban-rural gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.C. Zipperer; G.R. Guntenspergen

    2009-01-01

    The urban landscape is highly altered by human activities and is a mosaic of different land covers and land uses. Imbedded in this are forest patches of different origins (Zipperer et al .• 1997). How these patches influence and are influenced by the urban landscape is of ecological importance when managing the urban forest for ecosystem goods and services.

  9. Hybrid method for building extraction in vegetation-rich urban areas from very high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekare, Ajith S.; Wickramasuriya, Rohan; Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Perez, Pascal; Singh, Gaurav

    2017-07-01

    A continuous update of building information is necessary in today's urban planning. Digital images acquired by remote sensing platforms at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions provide an excellent data source to achieve this. In particular, high-resolution satellite images are often used to retrieve objects such as rooftops using feature extraction. However, high-resolution images acquired over built-up areas are associated with noises such as shadows that reduce the accuracy of feature extraction. Feature extraction heavily relies on the reflectance purity of objects, which is difficult to perfect in complex urban landscapes. An attempt was made to increase the reflectance purity of building rooftops affected by shadows. In addition to the multispectral (MS) image, derivatives thereof namely, normalized difference vegetation index and principle component (PC) images were incorporated in generating the probability image. This hybrid probability image generation ensured that the effect of shadows on rooftop extraction, particularly on light-colored roofs, is largely eliminated. The PC image was also used for image segmentation, which further increased the accuracy compared to segmentation performed on an MS image. Results show that the presented method can achieve higher rooftop extraction accuracy (70.4%) in vegetation-rich urban areas compared to traditional methods.

  10. Development of a Tool for Siting Low Impact Development in Urban Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mikle, C.; de Beurs, K.; Julian, J.

    2013-12-01

    Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant loadings. Examples of LIDs include riparian buffers, grassed swales, detention/retention ponds, rain gardens, green roofs and rain barrels. Broad-scale decision support tools for siting LIDs have been developed for agricultural watersheds, but are rare for urban watersheds, largely due to greater land use complexity and lack of necessary high-resolution geospatial data. Here, we develop a framework to assist city planners and water quality managers in siting LIDs in urban watersheds. One key component of this research is a framework accessible to those interested in using it. Hence, development of the framework has centered around 1) determining optimal data requirements for siting LID in an urban watershed and 2) developing a tool compatible with both open-source and commercial GIS software. We employ a wide variety of landscape metrics to evaluate the tool. A case study of the Lake Thunderbird Watershed, an urbanized watershed southeast of Oklahoma City, illustrates the effectiveness of a tool that is capable of siting LID in an urban watershed.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF VEGETATION COVER ON SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO, FOLLOWING 13-YEAR-LONG RECLAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Henryk Dyguś

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented of vegetation survey on the alkaline and saline soda waste disposal site at Janikowo Soda Plant near Toruń (central Poland. The site was subject to reclamation using diverse techniques including sewage sludge and ash, starting from the year 2000 onwards. The survey was made to evaluate the status of plant succession as well as stability and diversity of vegetation cover. The vegetation was inventoried using the cover-frequency method, on a 10 x 10 m quadrat samples randomly distributed over the reclaimed area. Communities were classified using the Central-European approach by Braun-Blanquet (1964. In 2013, the vegetation was well established and provided a dense cover of the substrate. 108 plant species were found compared to some 5–8 plants which arrived spontaneously until the year 2000. Species richness increased 15 fold since the year when reclamation started. Species of graminoid and Asteraceae families prevailed in most patches of local vegetation. The vegetation cover on sites treated with a mixt of power plant ash and sewage sludge was less stable and less diverse than that on sites where sewage sludge only was applied. Annuals and biennials dominated in the vegetation on ash grounds while more competitive perennials prevailed on sewage sludge substrates. On the latter substrates there develop plant communities classified as an association of smooth meadow grass and common yarrow Poa pratensis-Achillea millefolium, whose species combination closely resembles that of seminatural fresh meadows. On the ash grounds, a variety of associations of ruderal plants were found with dominating Loesel mustard and common mugwort Sisymbrium loeselii-Artemisia vulgaris. Phytoindicatory methods using Ellenberg values have shown that waste substrates contained increased salt concentrations, however, there was no indication of increased heavy metal contents, as no plants tolerating excessive amounts of heavy metals were

  12. Ascorbic acid contents in selected vegetables in relation to variety, growing site, year and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Matějková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work give results from analyses of variety, growing site, year and storage influence on the ascorbic acid content by selected vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L., parsley (Petroselinum crispum Nyman ex A. W. Hill, onion (Allium cepa L., garlic (Allium sativum L. and leek (Allium porrum L.. The evaluation carried on during the years 2004 to 2006.The variety influence on ascorbic acid was statistically significant by carrot, parsley root and also parsley leaves and by garlic. In carrots had late varieties Olympia and Tinga significant higher vitamin C content (more than over 60 % compared to early to half-late varieties Delicia, Kráska, Stupická and Nerac F1. The growing site influence was significant only by parsley leaves and onion. The influence of the growing year was one of the most important factors, which influenced vitamin C contents in selected vegetables – except of carrot was this factor statistically significant by all sorts. Changes in vitamin C content in growing years were induced above all by different climatic conditions (temperatures and rainfall courses. Higher ascorbic acid content was by garlic in the year 2005, when lower tem­pe­ra­tu­res during July were noted compared to year 2004. In parsley root and leaves, onion and leek was noted higher ascorbic acid content in year 2005, when average temperatures in August were as far as 2°C lower than in year 2004. In the case of leek could the increase of ascorbic acid in year 2005 result also from minimal rainfall during October in comparison with October 2004. By all storaged vegetables was noted statistically significant decrease of vitamin C after 30-days storage. The losses of vitamin C were highest in carrot (45 %, followed by parsley (25 %, garlic (24 % and onion (22 %.Vitamin C content was the highest by parsley leaves (1692 mg . kg−1, parsley contained high vitamin C amounts also in root (515 mg . kg−1. Leek varieties contained 281 to

  13. Herbaceous Plants for Climate Adaptation and Intensely Developed Urban Sites In Northern Europe: A Case Study From the Eastern Romanian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöman Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the increasingly compact city, services currently provided for in parks will in future be compressed into smaller green unit-structures, often associated with paved surfaces. Left-over spaces in urban environments, such as traffic roundabouts and strips along paths, roads and other corridors, will be important in the future city in order to deliver different eco-system services, especially stormwater management. It is therefore essential to start now to develop the knowledge and experience needed to create sustainable plantings for these sites. This paper presents the findings of a field survey in eastern Romania that sought to identify potential species for urban paved plantings in the Scandinavian region (northern Europe. The research approach is rooted in the hypothesis that studies of natural vegetation systems and habitats where plants are exposed to environmental conditions similar to those in inner-city environments can: 1 identify new or non-traditional species and genotypes adapted to urban environments; and 2 supply information and knowledge about their use potential concerning growth, flowering, life form, etc. In total, 117 different herbaceous species, all of which experience water stress regimes comparable to those in urban paved sites in Scandinavia. The initial information obtained from this field survey present a base of knowledge of which species that have a future potential for use in urban environment, which is of great importance in the following work within this project instead of testing species randomly without this knowledge of the species tolerance and performance in similar habitats.

  14. QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE URBAN VEGETATION IN TANCREDO NEVES HABITATIONAL CONJUNCT, SANTA MARIA, RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Filippi Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tancredo Neves area, Santa Maria, RS, a census was conducted with the objective of investigating the urban vegetation of its streets and avenues thus allowing the qualitative evaluation of its vegetation components. From 112 vegetal species, which account for 2,778 units distributed irregularly, 14 species totalized 70, 6 of the total. Most of them have a new dimension, are in the seedling, stage and are not under any spinning. The prevailing area is limited, with a deep radicular system without causing any damage, and a satisfactory phyto-sanitary condition. The patterns regarding its distance from the curb and buildings and walls are in accordance with the literature. Only the distance from the lampposts is not accordance with these principles. The most frequent treatment needed consists of pruning the tree lightly (43,3%. Most of the damages were caused by pruning (46,0% which is done by local inhabitants. The vegetables are compatible, in their great majority (44,9% to the equipments and buildings.

  15. Field Plot Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic...

  16. Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy

  17. On-site and laboratory evaluations of soundscape quality in recreational urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lærke Cecilie; Larsen, Thea Mathilde; Sørensen, Anna Josefine

    2017-01-01

    Context: Regulations for quiet urban areas are typically based on sound level limits alone. However, the nonacoustic context may be crucial for subjective soundscape quality. Aims: This study aimed at comparing the role of sound level and nonacoustic context for subjective urban soundscape...... assessment in the presence of the full on-site context, the visual context only, and without context. Materials and Methods: Soundscape quality was evaluated for three recreational urban spaces by using four subjective attributes: loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort. The sound level was measured...... evaluating overall soundscape quality in urban recreational areas. Laboratory evaluations may not fully reflect how subjective loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort are affected by sound level....

  18. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  19. Passerine migrant stopover duration and spatial behaviour at an urban stopover site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewagen, Chad L.; Slayton, Eric J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.

    2010-09-01

    Migration routes of many Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds pass through the most urbanized regions of North America. Migrants are known to use urban habitats as stopover sites and often occur in cities at exceptional density; yet knowledge of migrant behaviour and ecology in such places is surprisingly limited. We radio-tracked ovenbirds ( Seiurus aurocapillus) during stopovers in a New York City park to obtain some of the first detailed information on how landbird migrants utilize an urban habitat as a stopover site. We examined fine-scale movement patterns, home range sizes, stopover durations, and how arrival condition affected each of these metrics. During both seasons, most birds moved widely throughout the site upon presumed arrival and then either continued migration that night or settled into a more defined area on subsequent days. Area usage varied markedly among individuals during both seasons, ranging 1-16 ha. Stopover durations averaged 3.0 days (range = 1-10 days) during spring and 2.9 days (range = 1-14 days) during autumn. Spatial behaviours and stopover durations were not influenced by arrival condition during spring, and during autumn only movement rates and displacement distances were significantly (negatively) condition-related. Our findings do not support previous assumptions that urban stopover habitats are only used by migrants briefly in times of urgency when alternatives are unavailable. At least half of the birds we studied stopped over for multiple days during both seasons, and bird movements were indicative of an ability to search for, locate, and occupy suitable micro-sites. Ovenbird behaviour in our study site was similar in many ways to what has been observed in recent telemetry studies of ovenbirds and other passerine migrants at various non-urban stopover sites.

  20. Nest-site limitation and nesting resources of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Russell; Philpott, Stacy M

    2009-06-01

    Urbanization impacts biodiversity, yet few studies examine general impacts of urbanization on insects. Furthermore, few studies examine availability and limitation of potential cavity nesting sites for ants, an important regulating factor in ant communities that may vary in different urban habitats. We compared three urban habitat types (gardens, vacant lots, and forests) in Toledo, OH, to examine availability and ant preferences for different cavity nesting resources (small and large hollow twigs and cavities). We added 72 artificial large hollow twigs (83 by 6 mm), small hollow twigs (140 by 2 mm), and spherical hollow cavities (6.52-31.1 cm(3) in volume, 1-mm opening) to six sites from May to August 2007 to determine whether nest-site limitation impacts ant communities. We collected natural nests to compare natural abundance and occupancy of cavity nests in different urban habitats. We opened artificial and natural nests to calculate the percentage occupied by cavity-nesting ants. Across all habitats, small twigs represented 81.1% of natural nests, spherical nests represented 10.1%, and large twigs 8.2%. Ants occupied 8.1% of natural large twigs, 14.6% of cavities, and 4.1% of small twigs. For artificial nests, 21.5% of large twigs, 1% of small twigs, and 1% of spheres were occupied. The high percentage of occupied artificial large twigs could imply this is a preferred and limiting resource in urban habitats. The results show that certain types of nesting resources may be an important factor mediating ant communities in urban green spaces.

  1. The environment and vegetation of the flux measurement site near Skukuza, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Scholes

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The SAFARI-2000 intensive study site is located 13 km WSW of Skukuza. Detailed measurements of the exchanges of energy, water, carbon dioxide and other substances between the savanna and the atmosphere have been made there since April 2000. This paper provides basic information regarding the climate, soils and vegetation at the site. The site is located near the top of a gentle rise in an undulating granitic landscape. Most of the data were collected within a 300 m square centred on the flux tower situated at 25@01.184' S, 31@29.813' E and oriented true north. The tower stands exactly on the ecotone between a ridgetop broad-leafed Combretum savanna on sandy soil and a midslope fme-leafed Acacia savanna on clayey soil. The ecotone is marked by a 10 m wide band of sedges. The tree basal area within the sample square was 6.8 mVha (@ 1.0 standard error, the tree density 128 @ 16 plants/ha and the tree crown cover 24 @ 4 . Shrubs, defined as woody plants greater than 0.5 m but less than 2.5 m tall, contributed a further 7.6 crown cover. The basal area weighted mean height of the trees was 9 m, and the maximum height 13m. Nineteen woody plant species were recorded within the square, with 70 of the woody plant basal area dominated by Combretum apiculatum, Sclerocarya birrea and Acacia nigrescens. The rooted basal area of grasses was 7.1 @ 0.6 and in June 2000 the grass standing crop was 400 g DM m2.

  2. Vegetation map of the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, J.W.; Boyd, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    Vegetation is one of our most valuable renewable resources; it is the primary producer of organic matter on which all nongreen organisms are dependent for energy, construction materials, aesthetic enjoyment, and other necessities of life. In order to secure the greatest possible returns from the utilization of the different types of vegetation, people need to know what species are present, the ecological processes in which they are involved, and the ways in which they are arranged in the landscape. This vegetation map is designed to help persons in a wide variety of activities to secure that information.

  3. Faculty supervision of NP program practicums: A comparison of rural and urban site differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Louise; Klein, Tracy; Skillman, Susan; Andrilla, C Holly

    2016-06-16

    Results of a survey of NP education programs were analyzed to describe factors influencing clinical placement of students in rural clinical rotations, methods used to evaluate NP students in their clinical rotations, and whether the frequency and type of faculty evaluations differed by urban or rural clinical sites.

  4. Ecophysiology of horse chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) in degraded and restored urban sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacek Oleksyn; Brian D. Kloeppel; Szymon Lukasiewicz; Piotr Karolewski; Peter B. Reich

    2007-01-01

    We explored changes in growth, phenology, net CO2 assimilation rate, water use efficiency, secondary defense compounds, substrate and foliage nutrient concentration of a degraded urban horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) site restored for three years using mulching (tree branches including foliage) and fertilization (...

  5. On-site and laboratory soundscape evaluations of three recreational urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anna Josefine; Larsen, Thea Mathilde; Bjerre, Lærke Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Soundscape quality was evaluated using four subjective psychological rating factors in three recreational urban spaces in which water and a variation of other natural and anthropogenic sound sources were present. The noise level was measured at each site during occupant peak flows and recordings...

  6. Nest site selection and breeding success in three Turdus thrush species coexisting in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-92 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  7. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  8. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmithals

    Full Text Available North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  9. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithals, Anja; Kühn, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  10. Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation Near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site--Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    2003-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, ( 3 ) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies.

  11. Vegetation type and age drive changes in soil properties, nitrogen and carbon sequestration in urban parks under cold climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Martti Setälä

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces provide ecosystem properties fundamental to the provision of ecosystem services, such as the sequestration of carbon and nutrients and serving as a reservoir for organic matter. Although urban vegetation influences soil physico-chemical properties, it remains unknown whether ecosystem properties depend on plant species portfolios. We tested the influence of three common functional plant groups (evergreen trees, deciduous trees, grass/lawn for their ability to modify soils in parks of various ages under cold climatic conditions in Finland. We hypothesized that (i plant functional groups affect soils differently resulting in divergent ecosystem properties, and (ii that these ecosystem properties also depend on park age. We included 41 urban parks of varying ages (10, 50 and > 100 years and additional control forests. Park soils were sampled for physico-chemical parameters up to 50 cm depth. Our data indicate that plant functional groups modify soils differently, especially between the evergreen and lawn treatments at 50 and > 100 year old parks. Soils under evergreen trees had the lowest pH and generally the highest percentage organic matter, percentage total carbon and percentage total nitrogen. Soil pH remained the same, whereas concentrations of organic matter, total carbon and total nitrogen declined by depth. Soils in the reference forests had lower pH but higher percentages organic matter, total carbon and total nitrogen than those in parks. We estimate that old parks with evergreen trees can store 35.5 kg C m-2 and 2.3 kg N m-2 – considerably more than in urban soils in warmer climates. Our data suggest that plant-soil interactions in urban parks, in spite of being constructed environments, are surprisingly similar to those in natural forests.

  12. Geotechnical, Hydrogeologic and Vegetation Data Package for 200-UW-1 Waste Site Engineered Surface Barrier Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.

    2007-11-26

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is designing and assessing the performance of engineered barriers for final closure of 200-UW-1 waste sites. Engineered barriers must minimize the intrusion and water, plants and animals into the underlying waste to provide protection for human health and the environment. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator is being used to optimize the performance of candidate barriers. Simulating barrier performance involves computation of mass and energy transfer within a soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum and requires a variety of input parameters, some of which are more readily available than others. Required input includes parameter values for the geotechnical, physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of the materials comprising the barrier and the structural fill on which it will be constructed as well as parameters to allow simulation of plant effects. This report provides a data package of the required parameters as well as the technical basis, rationale and methodology used to obtain the parameter values.

  13. The benefits of biotics in erosion control materials for critical sites : better business, improved soil and stronger vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrowich, M.; Nelson, R. [Verdyol Plant Research, Riverton, MB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the advantages of biotics in erosion control materials, such as the inclusion of hydraulic growth mediums (HGMs) and beneficial growth stimulants, for critical sites. Biotics provide organic additives, and the growth mediums stimulate natural microbial activity, soil aggregate formation, and other natural topsoil forming processes to ensure the long-term health of vegetation. HGMs provide a living base for plants to grow without having to overhaul the entire topsoil structure. The two main components are the biotic system for improving soil and promoting vegetation and a tackifier to secure the HGM to the soil, enhance soil formation processes, and allow vegetation to get established. HGMs are suitable for mining and industrial reclamation because they improve soils and are more cost effective and environmentally sound than trucking in new soil to a site. Two case studies showed how vegetation is quickly established for long-term protection and the benefits for businesses using these erosion-control techniques. The second case study described the manner in which Hydro Quebec successfully employed HGMs to reclaim sensitive roadsides that were being built at construction sites near James Bay. HGMs were found to offer the right solution to the specifics of the site, such as highly erodible subsoil, no available topsoil, and an extremely short growing season. It was concluded that HGMs with biotic components and strong tackifiers improve the performance and economics of erosion control and the overall health of soils for the long-term sustainability of vegetative cover at sensitive sites. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Validation of the marine vegetation model in Forsmark. SFR-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilonius, Karin (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A regression model implemented in GIS of the marine vegetation in Forsmark were developed by SKB /Aquilonius 2010/ based on field investigations and video surveys /Fredriksson 2005/ and from correlations of field data and physical properties /Carlen et al. 2007/. The marine vegetation model describes distribution and biomasses of the marine vegetation and is used as input data in the dose modeling within the safety assessments performed by the SKB. In this study the predictive performance of the vegetation model in the less examined parts of the marine area in Forsmark is evaluated. In general, the vegetation model works very well in predicting absence of biomass, except for Red algae. In total and for Fucus sp., the model also predicts the observed biomass fairly well. However, for phanerogams, Chara sp., filamentous algae and red algae the vegetation model works less well in predicting biomass

  15. Observation of ambient formaldehyde at urban and rural sites in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Peng, Wei; Xu, Xiaobin; Lin, Weili; Cheng, Hongbing; Yin, Liyuan; Zhou, Li

    2017-04-01

    Air quality issues in the North China Plain (NCP), including frequently occurred haze and photochemical pollution, has become more and more concerned in recent years. To facilitate a better understanding of the reginal air pollution problem, field campaigns carried out at present not only focus on urban areas but also expanded to surrounding rural areas. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the dominant carbonyl compounds in atmosphere, which closely related to photochemical pollution. As part of several field campaigns study on air pollutions in the NCP, ambient HCHO were measured at an urban site in Beijing from 2013 to 2016, as well as two rural sites Gucheng and Raoyang located in the middle of the NCP in summer of 2013, 2014, and 2016, respectively, using an in-situ HCHO analyzer (AL4021) based on Hantzsch reaction fluorescence method. Mixing ratios of HCHO at the urban and the rural sites of the NCP were at a similar level in summer, which were fairly higher than those reported at other Chinese sites or oversea sites. Different diurnal variation characteristics of HCHO can be seen between urban and rural sites, with two peaks for the former and one peak for the latter. Seasonal variation of HCHO at Beijing was interpreted with relative high concentrations in summer and autumn and low concentrations in winter and spring. In addition, variation of pollutants such as ozone (O3), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and carbon monoxide (CO) were discussed together with HCHO. And, photolysis rates of HCHO were calculated using simultaneously observed photolysis rate coefficients, demonstrating that the HCHO photolysis rate for yielding hydrogen and CO was faster than that for yielding H and HCO radicals. The results suggested that photochemical processes played an important role for the HCHO peak during daytime.

  16. Atmospheric particulate mercury at the urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    Particulate mercury concentrations were investigated during intensive field campaigns at the urban and forest sites in central Poland, between April 2013 and October 2014. For the first time, quantitative determination of total particulate mercury in coarse (PHg2.2) and fine (PHg0.7) aerosol samples was conducted in Poznań and Jeziory. The concentrations in urban fine and coarse aerosol fractions amounted to urban site during summer was mainly attributed to anthropogenic sources, with significant contribution from resuspension processes and long-range transport. The highest values of PHg0.7 and PHg2.2 were found during westerly and southerly wind events, reflecting local emission from highly polluted areas. The period from late fall to spring showed that advection from the southern part of Poland was the main factor responsible for elevated Hg concentrations in fine and coarse particles in the investigated region. Moreover, September 2013 could be given as an example of the influence of additional urban activities which occurred approx. 10 m from the sampling site-construction works connected with replacement of the road surface, asphalting, etc. The concentrations of particulate Hg (>600.0 pg m(-3)) were much higher than during the following months when any similar situation did not occur. Our investigations confirmed that Hg in urban aerosol samples was predominantly related to local industrial and commercial emissions, whereas the main source of Hg in particulate matter collected at the forest site was connected with regional anthropogenic processes. This paper provides the results of the first long-term measurements of size-fractionated particulate mercury conducted in central Poland, which could be an important insight into atmospheric Hg processes within such a scarcely investigated part of Europe.

  17. Soil metal concentrations and vegetative assemblage structure in an urban brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J. [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States)], E-mail: fgallagh@earthlink.net; Pechmann, Ildiko [Department of Radiology, UMDNJ - New Jersey Medical School, P. O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Bogden, John D. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, UMDNJ - New Jersey Medical School, P. O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Weis, Peddrick [Department of Radiology, UMDNJ - New Jersey Medical School, P. O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Anthropogenic sources of toxic elements have had serious ecological and human health impacts. Analysis of the soil samples from a brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, NJ, USA, showed that arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium exist at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Accumulation and translocation features were characterized for the dominant plant species of four vegetative assemblages. The trees Betula populifolia and Populus deltoides were found to be accumulating Zn in leaf tissue at extremely high levels. B. populifolia, P. deltoides and Rhus copallinum accumulated Cr primarily in the root tissue. A comparison of soil metal maps and vegetative assemblage maps indicates that areas of increasing total soil metal load were dominated by successional northern hardwoods while semi-emergent marshes consisting mostly of endemic species were restricted primarily to areas of low soil metal load. - The study yields insight into the impact of metal contaminates soils on vegetative assemblage structure and development.

  18. Mapping wildland-urban interfaces at large scales integrating housing density and vegetation aggregation for fire prevention in the South of France

    OpenAIRE

    Lampin-Maillet, C.; Jappiot, M.; Long, M; Bouillon, C.; Morge, D.; Ferrier, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Every year, more than 50,000 wildland fires affect about 500,000 ha of vegetation in southern European countries, particularly in wildland-urban interfaces (WUI). This paper presents a method to characterize and map WUIs at large scales and over large areas for wildland fire prevention in the South of France. Based on the combination of four types of building configuration and three classes of vegetation structure, 12 interface types were classified. Through spatial analysis, fire ignition de...

  19. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Vegetation on the Avifauna in Two Urban Parks in Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitsa Petrova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is related to the investigation of the impact that vegetation caused on the avifauna of the parks “Lauta” and “Tsar Simeon Garden” located in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. As a result of the study, we found that the biodiversity of the vegetation in park “Tsar Simeon Garden” is highly significant in comparison with the same in park “Lauta”. In the park “Tsar Simeon Garden” introduced plant species dominate over indigenous species, as compared with the park “Lauta”. The differences in the vegetation are caused by different management approaches carried out in the both parks. The degree of similarity between trees and bushes in both parks is low. The vegetation also had a significant influence on the avifauna living within the parks. The avian biodiversity in park “Lauta” is two times higher in comparison with the avian biodiversity in park “Tsar Simeon Garden”. The degree of similarity in the avifauna between both parks is significant, due the fact that all of the species, except one documented in “Tsar Simeon Garden” being documented in park “Lauta” as well. Eighteen new species of birds were recorded and described for the first time in the city of Plovdiv. The conservation status of the avifauna in park “Lauta” is quite significant in comparison with the same in park “Tsar Simeon Garden”.

  1. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in an Urban Supermarket by Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J.; Stites, Shana D.; Wallace, Samantha L.; Braitman, Leonard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictors of fresh fruit and vegetable purchases in a low-income population and identify subgroups in which interventions to increase such purchases might prove useful. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 209 shopping transactions from 30 households. Individual and household characteristics obtained from primary…

  2. Availability of, access to and consumption of fruits and vegetables in a peri-urban area in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Laubscher, Ria; Laurie, Sunette

    2013-07-01

    Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables were assessed in peri-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Caregivers of 400 randomly selected grade 6 and 7 learners were interviewed using a questionnaire that included unquantified food frequency questions. Using a repeated 24-h dietary recall, dietary intake was quantified for learners, caregivers and 2- to 5-year-old children in the household. Usual household fruit and vegetable consumption was expressed over three Living Standard Measure (LSM) categories. Average per capita intake of fruit and/or vegetables was 99 g for 2- to 5-year-old children and 124 g for caregivers. For consumers, fruits and/or vegetables contributed towards total dietary intake of fibre (16-21%), calcium (13-21%), vitamin A (27-31%) and vitamin C (47-62%). For households not consuming fruits (n = 297) and vegetables (n = 178) daily, cost was the major constraint (≥75%). Of all households, 52% had fruit trees and 25% had a vegetable garden. Animals destroying vegetables was the major constraint to 59% of vegetable growers. Household consumption of fruits and vegetables increased over the LSM categories. Caregivers in the higher LSM group more likely used printed material for information on healthy eating, had fruit trees, were confident about vegetable gardening and sold some of their produce. To enable peri-urban populations of low socio-economic status to consume more frequently a bigger variety of fruits and vegetables, the cost of purchasing these food items needs to be addressed by government and business sector. Households should further receive support to overcome constraints which hamper the success of home gardens. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Urban vegetation change after a hundred years in a tropical city (San José de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban vegetation is of key importance because a large proportion of the human population lives in cities. Nevertheless, urban vegetation is understudied outside central Europe and particularly, little is known about the flora of tropical Asian, African and Latin American cities. We present an estimate of how the vegetation has changed in the city of San José, Costa Rica, after about one century, with the repeat photography technique (based on a collection of 19th and early 20th century photographs by José Fidel Tristán and others and with data from the Costa Rican National Herbarium. We found little vegetation change in the landscape of San José during the 20th century, where a total of 95 families and 458 species were collected in the late 19th and early 20th century. The families with most species were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Cyperaceae, Acanthaceae, Malvaceae, Piperaceae and Verbenaceae. Similar results have been found in Europe, where the number of plant species often is stable for long periods even when the individual species vary. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1367-1386. Epub 2010 December 01.La vegetación urbana es de vital importancia ya que una proporción importante de la población humana vive en ciudades. Sin embargo, esta vegetación es poco estudiada fuera del centro de Europa y se sabe particularmente poco sobre la flora urbana de las ciudades tropicales de Asia, África y América Latina. Aquí presentamos una estimación de cómo ha cambiado la vegetación en la ciudad de San José, Costa Rica, durante un siglo, con la técnica de la fotografía repetida (sobre la base de una colección de fotografías del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX hechas por José Fidel Tristán y otros y con los datos del Herbario Nacional de Costa Rica. Encontramos pocos cambios en el paisaje de San José durante el siglo XX. En la ciudad se recolectaron 95 familias y 458 especies entre finales del siglo

  4. Impact of urban contamination of the La Paz River basin on thermotolerant coliform density and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric pathogens in river water, irrigated soil and fresh vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Violeta; Mamani, Nataniel; Iñiguez, Volga

    2016-01-01

    La Paz River in Andean highlands is heavily polluted with urban run-off and further contaminates agricultural lowlands and downstream waters at the Amazon watershed. Agricultural produce at this region is the main source of vegetables for the major Andean cities of La Paz and El Alto. We conducted a 1 year study, to evaluate microbial quality parameters and occurrence of multiple enteropathogenic bacteria (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli-EHEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella-EIEC/Shigella, Enteroaggregative E. coli-EAEC, Enteropathogenic E. coli-EPEC Enterotoxigenic E. coli-ETEC and Salmonella) and its resistance to 11 antibiotics. Four sampling locations were selected: a fresh mountain water reservoir (un-impacted, site 1) and downstream sites receiving wastewater discharges (impacted, sites 2-4). River water (sites 1-4, N = 48), and soil and vegetable samples (site 3, N = 24) were collected during dry (April-September) and rainy seasons (October-March). Throughout the study, thermotolerant coliform density values at impacted sites greatly exceeded the guidelines for recreational and agricultural water uses. Seasonal differences were found for thermotolerant coliform density during dry season in water samples nearby a populated and hospital compound area. In contrast to the un-impacted site, where none of the tested enteropathogens were found, 100 % of surface water, 83 % of soil and 67 % of vegetable samples at impacted sites, were contaminated with at least one enteropathogen, being ETEC and Salmonella the most frequently found. ETEC isolates displayed different patterns of toxin genes among sites. The occurrence of enteropathogens was associated with the thermotolerant coliform density. At impacted sites, multiple enteropathogens were frequently found during rainy season. Among isolated enteropathogens, 50 % were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline commonly

  5. Atmospheric wet and litterfall mercury deposition at urban and rural sites in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes in precipitation and litterfall were measured at multiple sites (six rural sites and an urban site across a broad geographic area in China. The annual deposition fluxes of Hg in precipitation at rural sites and an urban site were 2.0 to 7.2 and 12.6 ± 6.5 µg m−2 yr−1, respectively. Wet deposition fluxes of Hg at rural sites showed a clear regional difference with elevated deposition fluxes in the subtropical zone, followed by the temporal zone and arid/semi-arid zone. Precipitation depth is the primary influencing factor causing the variation of wet deposition. Hg fluxes through litterfall ranged from 22.8 to 62.8 µg m−2 yr−1, higher than the wet deposition fluxes by a factor of 3.9 to 8.7 and representing approximately 75 % of the total Hg deposition at the forest sites in China. This suggests that uptake of atmospheric Hg by foliage is the dominant pathway to remove atmospheric Hg in forest ecosystems in China. Wet deposition fluxes of Hg at rural sites of China were generally lower compared to those in North America and Europe, possibly due to a combination of lower precipitation depth, lower GOM concentrations in the troposphere and the generally lower cloud base heights at most sites that wash out a smaller amount of GOM and PBM during precipitation events.

  6. Soil metal concentrations and vegetative assemblage structure in an urban brownfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank J; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick

    2008-05-01

    Anthropogenic sources of toxic elements have had serious ecological and human health impacts. Analysis of the soil samples from a brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, NJ, USA, showed that arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium exist at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Accumulation and translocation features were characterized for the dominant plant species of four vegetative assemblages. The trees Betula populifolia and Populus deltoides were found to be accumulating Zn in leaf tissue at extremely high levels. B. populifolia, P. deltoides and Rhus copallinum accumulated Cr primarily in the root tissue. A comparison of soil metal maps and vegetative assemblage maps indicates that areas of increasing total soil metal load were dominated by successional northern hardwoods while semi-emergent marshes consisting mostly of endemic species were restricted primarily to areas of low soil metal load.

  7. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Charles; Gallagher, Frank J. [Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Rd., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Holzapfel, Claus, E-mail: holzapfe@andromeda.rutgers.ed [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark, 195 University Ave., Newark, NJ 07102-1811 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  8. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. On a national level, there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated sites. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. R...... the uncertainties of projections on the fate of the contaminant. Based on the work, we were able to pinpoint the best strategies and solutions for future remediation efforts at the two sites.......In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. On a national level, there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated sites. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken...... efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. We carry out a geological characterization of two contaminated sites situated in urban areas. The existing data from...

  9. Accuracy Assessment Points for Fort Laramie National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in August and September, 1998 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the...

  10. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on antimony phyto-uptake and compartmentation in vegetables cultivated in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Dumat, Camille; Maes, Arthur QuyManh; Sejalon-Delmas, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    1. Urban areas are often contaminated with various forms of persistent metal (loid) and emerging contaminants such as antimony (Sb). Thus, in the context of urban agriculture where sustainable practices such as biofertilizers application (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) could improve nutrient transfer from the soil to the vegetables, the effect of AMF on metal (loid) mobility and human bioaccessibility is still poorly known. 2. The role of AMF in Sb uptake by lettuce and carrot grown in artificial substrate spiked with different Sb chemical species was investigated. Plants were grown under hydroponic conditions and half of the treatments received a concentrated spore solution to obtain mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants. Three weeks before harvest, plants were exposed to 10 mg.L -1 of either Sb 2 O 3 or KSbO-tartrate (KSb). 3. The presence of AMF significantly increased its accumulation in carrots (all organs) with higher accumulation in roots. In lettuce, accumulation appeared to be dependent on the Sb chemical species. Moreover, it was observed for the first time that AMF changed the human bioaccessible fraction of Sb in edible organs. 4. The present results highlight a possible risk of Sb transfer from soil to edible plants cultivated in soil naturally containing AMF propagules, or when AMF are added as biofertilizers. After validating the influence of soil environment and AMF on Sb behavior in the field, these results should be considered in health risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of dustfall in rural and urban sites during three dust storms in northern China, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yanli; Qu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lianyou; Guo, Lanlan; Yang, Yanyan; Hu, Xia; Xiong, Yiying; Zhang, Guoming; Zhao, Mengdi; Liang, Bo; Dai, Jiadong; Zuo, Xiyang; Jia, Qingpan; Zheng, Hao; Han, Xujiao; Zhao, Shoudong; Liu, Qi

    2017-10-01

    Dust transport and deposition processes are important for understanding the environmental risk of dust storms. This study investigated characteristics of dustfall at two rural sites and four urban sites from dust sources to downwind regions during three dust storms (DS1: March 19-22, DS2: April 24-26, DS3: May 7-10, 2010). Analysis of near-surface instantaneous maximum wind speed and prevailing wind direction revealed the dust storms bursted out from northwestern arid and semiarid regions to eastern China. Microaggregates, angular, subangular, columnar, subrounded, and spherical particles were identified by scanning electron microscope. Dust deposition flux (DDF) during the dust storms was significantly high at sites near sand deserts and sandy land. During DS2, DDF was 25.1, 9.9, 2.3, and 1.5 g m-2 in Jingbian, Shapotou, Lanzhou, and Beijing, respectively. The three dust storms contributed 7.3% of Beijing's annual dustfall in 2010, which suggests anthropogenic dust might contribute the majority of annual dustfall in urban areas. The mass medium diameter of dustfall during DS2 in Shapotou, Jingbian, Lanzhou, and Beijing was 26.1, 9.0, 16.4, and 15.5 μm, respectively. Urban dustfall contained more heavy metals, sulfur and arsenic than rural dustfall. Cadmium contamination was identified in all urban dust particles. Anthropogenic pollutants in combination with mineral dust might lead to complex environmental risk on local, regional, and global scales. China's environmental pollution control should integrate reductions in land desertification and multisource anthropogenic emissions within the context of climate change mitigation.

  12. Influence of mycorhization and soil organic matters on lead and antimony transfers to vegetables cultivated in urban gardens: environmental and sanitary consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2014-05-01

    The European Environment Agency estimates that c.a. 250 000 sites required clean up and that about 100 000 ha could have been contaminated by metals in Europe. Numerous remediation techniques have been therefore tested and phytoremediation appears as a sustainable and low cost in situ technique particularly for large-scale remediation of polluted arable soils. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are already used in phytoextraction or phytostabilisation of many metal(loid)s (GU ET AL., 2013, SHARMA AND SHARMA, 2013). However, while plant inoculation with AMF will mostly result of an increase of the plant biomass, the response for lead accumulation in shoots is contrasted (LEBEAU ET AL., 2008). Furthermore, nothing is actually known for Sb transfer to plants phytoremediation-assisted AMF. Yet recently, many researches concern the accumulation of Sb in the environment, its (eco)toxicity and the risk of bioaccumulation in vegetables (FENG ET AL., 2013), especially in some China areas where Sb mining activities have widely contaminated arable lands (WU ET AL., 2011). Our research project, which is part of a national program for urban gardens (JASSUR, http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr), focused on polluted soils in associative urban gardens with both geogenic and anthropogenic origins for Pb and Sb. The impact of Pb and Sb on AMF density and diversity was studied using morphological and biomolecular approaches. The role of AMF symbiosis with Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) on Pb and Sb compartmentalization, speciation and phytoavailability was investigated. The influence of soil organic matters on these processes was examined. Eventually, the part of metal(loid)s available for humans in case of ingestion of lettuces unfit for human consumption (FOUCAULT ET AL., 2013; XIONG ET AL., 2013) will be assessed in relation with the influence of AMF symbiosis and organic matter. Key Words: Mycorrhiza, Antimony, Compartmentation, Speciation, Edible Plants, Urban Agriculture

  13. A site-specific approach for assessing the fire risk to structures at the wildland/urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Cohen

    1991-01-01

    The essence of the wildland/urban interface fire problem is the loss of homes. The problem is not new, but is becoming increasingly important as more homes with inadequate adherence to safety codes are built at the wildland/urban interface. Current regulatory codes are inflexible. Specifications for building and site characteristics cannot be adjusted to accommodate...

  14. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the 3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, pmanagement scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Bisdom, E.B.A., Dekker, L., Schoute, J.F.Th. (1993) Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure. Geoderma, 56, 105-118. Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D. (2000) Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33-65. Doerr, S.H. (1998) On

  15. Soil and vegetation influence in plants natural radionuclides uptake at a uranium mining site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charro, E.; Moyano, A.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the uptake of several radionuclides by the vegetation characteristic of a dehesa ecosystem in uranium mining-impacted soils in Central-West of Spain. The activity concentration for 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, and 224Ra was measured in soil and vegetation samples using a Canberra n-type HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. Transfer factors of natural radionuclides in different tissues (leaves, branches, twigs, and others) of native plants were evaluated. From these data, the influence of the mine, the physicochemical parameters of the soils and the type of vegetation were analyzed in order to explain the accumulation of radionuclides in the vegetation. A preferential uptake of 210Pb and 226Ra by plants, particularly by trees of the Quercus species (Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus ilex rotundifolia), has been observed, being the transfer factors for 226Ra and 210Pb in these tree species higher than those for other plants (like Pinus pinaster, Rubur ulmifolius and Populus sp.). The analysis of radionuclide contents and transfer factors in the vegetation showed no evidence of influence of the radionuclide concentration in soils, although it could be explained in terms of the type of plants and, in particular, of the tree's species, with special attention to the tree's rate of growth, being higher in slow growing species.

  16. Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection in the Sense of Environment Sensitive Sustainable Urbanization: Izmir, Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜdeş, Şule; Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz

    2017-10-01

    Each stage of the planning process should be based on the natural resource protection, in the sense of environmental sensitive and sustainable urban planning. Values, which are vital for the continuity of the life in the Earth, as soil, water, forest etc. should be protected from the undesired effects of the pollution and the other effects caused by the high urbanization levels. In this context, GIS-MCDM based solid waste landfill site selection is applied for Izmir, Turkey, where is a significant attraction place for tourism. As Multi criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used. In this study, geological, tectonically and hydrological data, as well as agricultural land use, slope, distance to the settlement areas and the highways are used as inputs for AHP analysis. In the analysis stage, those inputs are rated and weighted. The weighted criteria are evaluated via GIS, by using weighted overlay tool. Therefore, an upper-scale analysis is conducted and a map, which shows the alternative places for the solid waste landfill sites, considering the environmental protection and evaluated in the context of environmental and urban criteria, are obtained.

  17. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities....... Additionally, we quantify the impact that some of these different approaches may have when extrapolating carbon figures derived from surveys up to a city-wide scale. To understand how/why carbon stocks vary within and between cities, researchers need to use more uniform methods to estimate stores and relate...

  18. Three-dimensional geological modelling of anthropogenic deposits at small urban sites: a case study from Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, C; Cundy, A B; Royse, K R; Smith, M; Moles, N R

    2013-11-15

    Improvements in computing speed and capacity and the increasing collection and digitisation of geological data now allow geoscientists to produce meaningful 3D spatial models of the shallow subsurface in many large urban areas, to predict ground conditions and reduce risk and uncertainty in urban planning. It is not yet clear how useful this 3D modelling approach is at smaller urban scales, where poorly characterised anthropogenic deposits (artificial/made ground and fill) form the dominant subsurface material and where the availability of borehole and other geological data is less comprehensive. This is important as it is these smaller urban sites, with complex site history, which frequently form the focus of urban regeneration and redevelopment schemes. This paper examines the extent to which the 3D modelling approach previously utilised at large urban scales can be extended to smaller less well-characterised urban sites, using a historic landfill site in Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK as a case study. Two 3D models were generated and compared using GSI3D™ software, one using borehole data only, one combining borehole data with local geological maps and results from a desk study (involving collation of available site data, including ground contour plans). These models clearly delimit the overall subsurface geology at the site, and allow visualisation and modelling of the anthropogenic deposits present. Shallow geophysical data collected from the site partially validate the 3D modelled data, and can improve GSI3D™ outputs where boundaries of anthropogenic deposits may not be clearly defined by surface, contour or borehole data. Attribution of geotechnical and geochemical properties to the 3D model is problematic without intrusive investigations and sampling. However, combining available borehole data, shallow geophysical methods and site histories may allow attribution of generic fill properties, and consequent reduction of urban development risk and

  19. The Urban Heat Island Effect and the Role of Vegetation to Address the Negative Impacts of Local Climate Changes in a Small Brazilian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the influence of urban-geographical variables on determining heat islands and proposes a model to estimate and spatialize the maximum intensity of urban heat islands (UHI. Simulations of the UHI based on the increase of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, using multiple linear regression, in Iporá (Brazil are also presented. The results showed that the UHI intensity of this small city tended to be lower than that of bigger cities. Urban geometry and vegetation (UI and NDVI were the variables that contributed the most to explain the variability of the maximum UHI intensity. It was observed that areas located in valleys had lower thermal values, suggesting a cool island effect. With the increase in NDVI in the central area of a maximum UHI, there was a significant decrease in its intensity and size (a 45% area reduction. It is noteworthy that it was possible to spatialize the UHI to the whole urban area by using multiple linear regression, providing an analysis of the urban set from urban-geographical variables and thus performing prognostic simulations that can be adapted to other small tropical cities.

  20. Safe Re-use Practices in Wastewater-Irrigated Urban Vegetable Farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Abaidoo, R.C; Beernaerts, I.

    2012-01-01

    of stakeholders at different levels along the food chain. This paper presents an overview of safe re-use practices including farm-based water treatment methods, water application techniques, post-harvest handling practices, and washing methods. The overview is based on a comprehensive analysis of the literature......Irrigation using untreated wastewater poses health risks to farmers and consumers of crop products, especially vegetables. With hardly any wastewater treatment in Ghana, a multiple-barrier approach was adopted and safe re-use practices were developed through action research involving a number...... and our own specific studies, which used data from a broad range of research methods and approaches. Identifying, testing, and assessment of safe practices were done with the active participation of key actors using observations, extensive microbiological laboratory assessments, and field...

  1. {sup 212}Pb as tracer for PM deposition on urban vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, Mario; Spadoni, Massimo; Carloni, Serena; Guglietta, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    {sup 212}Pb concentration in outdoor air is closely correlated with fine suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere. Thanks to this association, this isotope can be used to trace the sinking processes of particulate matter due to the vegetation, also providing accurate estimations of the deposition velocity on foliar surfaces. This approach is particularly effective in areas with high thoron fluxes and, consequently, high {sup 212}Pb fluxes from soil. The contribution of vegetation to the improvement of air quality (AQImp) in the municipality area (MA) of Rome (Latium, Italy), almost entirely located on Th-enriched volcanic soils, was estimated by studying {sup 212}Pb deposition velocity on the grasses (0.9–2.5 mm·s{sup −} {sup 1}) and on the most common tree classes, namely conifers (1.5–15 mm·s{sup −} {sup 1}), evergreen (1–4 mm·s{sup −} {sup 1}) and deciduous (0.2–1.5 mm·s{sup −} {sup 1}). {sup 212}Pb activity in outdoor air was determined by gamma spectrometry after air pumping with accumulation on cellulose filters and after collection on artificial electrostatically charged surfaces (ECS). The high {sup 212}Pb activity values obtained from this analysis (0.90 ± 0.6 Bq m{sup −} {sup 3} and 0.58 ± 0.15 Bq m{sup −} {sup 3}, respectively near and far from the soil) are consistent both with the average regional thoron flux from volcanic soils (2.9 · 10{sup 4} Bq m{sup −} {sup 2}·h{sup −} {sup 1}) and with the thoron flux measured in the volcanic soils of the study area. Thoron and {sup 212}Pb fluxes were also measured both in laboratory and in the field under different soil moisture conditions. The total AQImp for the period from September 2014 to September 2015, calculated after the classification of the MA of Rome into six classes of vegetation, provided a value of 0.20 corresponding to 2.3 Tons per day of removed PM{sub 10}. The role of grasslands in the PM{sub 10} removal, the contribution of the vegetation to the

  2. Karg S., D.E. Robinson (2002): Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices. In: K. Viklund, R. Engelmark (eds.) Nordic Archaeobotany-NAG 2000 in Umeå.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices.......Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices....

  3. Site-specific diel mercury emission fluxes in landfill: Combined effects of vegetation and meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Boran; Hao, Yongxia; Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Mercury emission fluxes (MEFs) under different surface coverage conditions in a landfill were investigated in this study. The results show similar diel patterns of Hg emission flux under different coverage conditions, with peak fluxes occurring at midday and decreasing during night. We examined the effects of environmental factors on MEFs, such as the physiological characteristics of vegetation and meteorological conditions. The results suggest that growth of vegetation in the daytime facilitates the release of Hg in the anaerobic unit, while in the semi-aerobic unit, where vegetation had been removed, the higher mercury content of the cover soil prompted the photo-reduction pathway to become the main path of mercury release and increased MEFs. MEFs are positively correlated with solar radiation and air temperature, but negatively correlated with relative humidity. The correlation coefficients for MEFs with different environmental parameters indicate that in the anaerobic unit, solar radiation was the main influence on MEFs in September, while air temperature became the main determining factor in December. These observations suggest that the effects of meteorological conditions on the mercury release mechanism varies depending on the vegetation and soil pathways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Characteristics of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides at urban, suburban and rural sites in Ningbo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lei; Zhang, Huiling; Yu, Jie; He, Mengmeng; Xu, Nengbin; Zhang, Jingjing; Qian, Feizhong; Feng, Jiayong; Xiao, Hang

    2017-05-01

    Surface ozone (O3) is a harmful air pollutant that has attracted growing concern in China. In this study, the mixing ratios of O3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at three different sites (urban, suburban and rural) of Ningbo were continuously measured to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of O3 and its relationships with environmental variables. The diurnal O3 variations were characterized by afternoon maxima (38.7-53.1 ppb on annual average) and early morning minima (11.7-26.2 ppb) at all the three sites. Two seasonal peaks of O3 were observed in spring (April or May) and autumn (October) with minima being observed in winter (December). NOx levels showed generally opposite variations to that of O3 with diurnal and seasonal maxima occurring in morning/evening rush-hours and in winter, respectively. As to the inter-annual variations of air pollutants, generally decreasing and increasing trends were observed in NO and O3 levels, respectively, from 2012 to 2015 at both urban and suburban sites. O3 levels were positively correlated with temperature but negatively correlated with relative humidity and NOx levels. Significant differences in O3 levels were observed for different wind speeds and wind directions (p world. However, the recommended air quality standards for O3 were often exceeded during warm seasons, which could be a potential threat to both local population and plant growth.

  5. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  6. Eleventh-year response of loblolly pine and competing vegetation to woody and herbaceous plant control on a Georgia flatwoods site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Zutter; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Through 11 growing seasons, growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) increased after control of herbaceous, woody, or both herbaceous and woody vegetation (total control) for the first 3 years after planting on a bedded site in the Georgia coastal flatwoods. Gains in stand volume index from controlling either herbaceous or woody vegetation alone were approximately two-...

  7. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-04-30

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most

  8. Improving Urban Stormwater Runoff Quality by Nutrient Removal through Floating Treatment Wetlands and Vegetation Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Wang, Xue; Liu, Jia; Wu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Yongjun; Cao, Weixing

    2017-08-01

    Two floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) in experimental tanks were compared in terms of their effectiveness on removing nutrients. The results showed that the FTWs were dominated by emergent wetland plants and were constructed to remove nutrients from simulated urban stormwater. Iris pseudacorus and Thalia dealbata wetland systems were effective in reducing the nutrient. T. dealbata FTWs showed higher nutrient removal performance than I. pseudacorus FTWs. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) removal rates in water by T. dealbata FTWs were 3.95 ± 0.19 and 0.15 ± 0.01 g/m2/day, respectively. For I. pseudacorus FTWs, the TN and TP removal rates were 3.07 ± 0.15 and 0.14 ± 0.01 g/m2/day, respectively. The maximum absolute growth rate for T. dealbata corresponded directly with the maximum mean nutrient removal efficiency during the 5th stage. At harvest, N and P uptak of T. dealbata was 23.354 ± 1.366 g and 1.489 ± 0.077 g per plant, respectively, approximate twice as high as by I. pseudacorus.

  9. Lead and nutrient allocation in vegetables grown in soil from a battery site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sousa Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The steady growth of the Brazilian automotive industry and the resulting development of the battery market, which represent a large proportion of the lead (Pb used in the country, have made battery recycling one of the main sources of Pb soil contamination in Brazil. Plants cultivated in Pb-contaminated soil can take up this metal, which can affect the plant’s nutritional metabolism. The Pb can also be transferred into the edible parts of plants, thereby imposing threats to human health. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of Pb in edible parts of vegetables grown on soil contaminated by battery recycling activities. This study also investigated the effects of Pb on nutrient concentrations in plants. Plant species biomass, Pb concentration, and concentrations of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu in plant parts were measured. The results showed that Pb concentrations in the edible parts of vegetables grown in contaminated soil were above the threshold acceptable for human consumption. Among the vegetables evaluated, only lettuce dry matter production was reduced because of the high concentration of Pb in soil. The presence of Pb altered the concentration of micronutrients in the edible parts of kale, carrots, and okra, stimulating higher Mn and Cu concentrations in these plants when cultivated in contaminated soil.

  10. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: A collaborative study including 416 sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M.; Bay, Robin F.; Bean, Daniel W.; Bissonnete, Gabriel J.; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J.; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D.; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K.; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L.; Makarick, Lori J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Robinson, W. Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species.

  11. Optimal Facility Location Model Based on Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Siting Urban Refueling Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact factors and principles of siting urban refueling stations and proposes a three-stage method. The main objective of the method is to minimize refueling vehicles’ detour time. The first stage aims at identifying the most frequently traveled road segments for siting refueling stations. The second stage focuses on adding additional refueling stations to serve vehicles whose demands are not directly satisfied by the refueling stations identified in the first stage. The last stage further adjusts and optimizes the refueling station plan generated by the first two stages. A genetic simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem in the second stage and the results are compared to those from the genetic algorithm. A case study is also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and algorithm. The results indicate the proposed method can provide practical and effective solutions that help planners and government agencies make informed refueling station location decisions.

  12. Assessment of Urban Renenewal Studies in the Context of Florence's Old Industrial Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Özlem Aydın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the periphery of the historic city center of Florence, which is a settlement in Middle Italy, considered the symbol of Renaissance period train stations, small scale industrial structures were built under the influence of spread of industrialization in Continental Europe in the 19th century. Industrial buildings whose original functions are being lost nowadays are restricted to examples which started being built in the 18 th century, however, shaped in the 19 th century and were being able to brought until today with the increased industrialization activities in the first half of the 20 th century. The necessity of developing new thoughts aiming to revitalize areas around the city center and to reshape Florence, which witnessed a segmented growth due to increased industrialization in the first half of 20 th century, according to urban planning principles from 1990's onwards has been realized. Within the scope of integrated planning developed in the recent years, old industrial areas located in the historical city center peripheries whose functions have been lost are determined as urban renovation sites. In this study, Old Leopolda Train Station, Fiat Belfiore and Fiat Novoli factory sites as well as renovation/transformation work executed in old slaughter house sites, located in the west border of historical city center of Florence, have been studied with the help of technical surveys, personal interviews or published projects. Two approaches have been encountered when urban renovation projects executed in these areas where mixed-use strategies are adopted are examined. These are:  Preservation of some of the historical structures in the area, and demolition of some to create areas for new uses,  Demolition of all structures in the site to create areas for new uses. Not encountered in Florence, but there also exist renovation examples where almost all structures in the area are preserved. The results of research and observations have

  13. Levels of short chain chlorinated paraffins in pine needles and bark and their vegetation-air partitioning in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thanh; Yu, Junchao; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have been of considerable concern in recent years due to their high production volumes, environmental persistency and potential for long range atmospheric transport. Vegetation can take up considerable amounts of semivolatile organic compounds from the atmosphere and can act as indicators of local contamination. Paired pine needles and bark were sampled around Beijing during winter and summertime to investigate the distribution of SCCPs in urban areas. Levels in bark samples ranged 5.79-37.5 μg/g on a lipid normalized basis (lw) with a geometric mean (GM) of 16.9 μg/g lw whereas levels were 3.03-40.8 (GM 11.8) μ/g lw for needles. Average congener group abundance profiles showed equal contribution of all four carbon groups (C(10-13)) in wintertime where as higher abundances of C(10) and C(11) groups were found during summer. Uptake of SCCPs occurred mainly via kinetically limited gaseous deposition and particle bound deposition in the investigated area.

  14. Vegetation dynamics at a Mojave Desert restoration site, 1992 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey E. Ott; E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2011-01-01

    The Twist Hollow restoration site on BLM land near St. George, Utah, had been badly disturbed by sand mining, rock quarrying, dumping, off-road vehicles and target shooting prior to its closure and treatment. In December 1992 the site was sculpted and drill seeded with Indian ricegrass (Stipa hymenoides), sand dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus), galleta (Hilaria jamesii...

  15. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rates From Urban Vegetation in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Graessli, M.; Bai, J.; Huang, A.; Li, N.; Guenther, A.

    2005-12-01

    ionization or flame ionization detector. Second, single plant leaves were placed into a light and temperature controlled leaf cuvette. Scrubbed air was passed through the cuvette, and was then collected on adsorbent cartridges for later analysis. Sample cartridges were returned to the US and analyzed by GC with a mass spectrometry for detection and identification of compounds. Results indicate a wide range of emissions for isoprene and monoterpenes. The observed emissions are compared with previous studies and taxonomic relationships are described. The emission rate measurements will be combined with detailed satellite-based landcover distribution database and used to characterize regional biogenic VOC emissions. In addition, the results of the emission survey will be used to identify low emitting plants that can be recommended for planting in subtropical urban areas.

  16. Trace metals in vegetables and fruits cultivated around the surroundings of Tummalapalle uranium mining site, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allabaksh Murad Basha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables (Tomato – Solanum lycopersicum, green chilli – Capsicum annum and bitter gourd – Momordica charantia and fruits (Banana – Musa acuminata colla, papaya – Carica papaya and mosambi – Citrus limetta from the cultivated areas around the Tummalapalle uranium mining site were analyzed for trace metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Be, V, Co, Cd and U using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS. As per the estimated data, the concentrations of trace metals in vegetables and fruits are found in the range of 47.5–7.8 mg/kg for Al, 9.7–1.0 mg/kg for Cr, 3.8–1.0 mg/kg for Mn, 75.5–13.9 mg/kg for Fe, 1.4–0.2 mg/kg for Ni, 2.3–0.8 mg/kg for Cu, 9.2–3.1 mg/kg for Zn, 0.2–1.4 mg/kg for Pb, 19.2–1.9 μg/kg for Be, 96.1–15.8 μg/kg for V, 48.2–12.9 μg/kg for Co, 46.5–2.3 μg/kg for Cd and 16.4–2.7 μg/kg for U. The trace metals observed are compared to the literature reported values. Trace elemental data were subjected to statistical analysis to examine the interrelationship between the investigated trace elements and possible source identification of the trace metal contamination in vegetable and fruits. Daily intake of trace metals through ingestion of vegetables and fruits are also calculated.

  17. Comparison of metal bioavailability in frogs from urban and rural sites of Western Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolyar, O B; Loumbourdis, N S; Falfushinska, H I; Romanchuk, L D

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial fluctuations of heavy metals in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda from a river in Western Ukraine were investigated. Liver weight was seen to increase from spring to summer/autumn, most probably as a result of accumulation of metabolites, especially fat and glycogen. The concentrations of the metals found in the liver of the frog was in the order: Fe>Cu approximately Zn>Mn>Cd. For most metals, the highest concentration was recorded in the frogs inhabiting the urban site. The highest level of Cu in the liver was observed in the spring, in the agricultural site, while the highest level of other metals was observed in the summer. The most probable explanation for the high concentration of Cu in the rural site was that in this wetland there were discharge effluents from fungicides with Cu in their formula. Compared to other metals, the bioavailability of Cu was approximately 1000 times higher. The high concentration of Fe rather reflects its fluctuation in the water. Despite its very low concentration in the water (below the limit of detection), Cd was detected in the liver of frogs inhabiting both sites. This is an indication that tissues accumulate Cd, despite the very low concentration detected in the water. This may be an indication of intermittent exposure of frogs to Cd and possibly of other heavy metals.

  18. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  19. Vegetation Impact and Recovery from Oil-Induced Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Wetland Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Shapiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available April 20, 2010 marked the start of the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the largest marine oil spill in US history, which contaminated coastal wetland ecosystems across the northern Gulf of Mexico. We used hyperspectral data from 2010 and 2011 to compare the impact of oil contamination and recovery of coastal wetland vegetation across three ecologically diverse sites: Barataria Bay (saltmarsh, East Bird’s Foot (intermediate/freshwater marsh, and Chandeleur Islands (mangrove-cordgrass barrier islands. Oil impact was measured by comparing wetland pixels along oiled and oil-free shorelines using various spectral indices. We show that the Chandeleur Islands were the most vulnerable to oiling, Barataria Bay had a small but widespread and significant impact, and East Bird’s Foot had negligible impact. A year later, the Chandeleur Islands showed the strongest signs of recovery, Barataria Bay had a moderate recovery, and East Bird’s Foot had only a slight increase in vegetation. Our results indicate that the recovery was at least partially related to the magnitude of the impact such that greater recovery occurred at sites that had greater impact.

  20. Accuracy Assessment Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the sample points collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic Site.

  1. The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas: the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict F. Malele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of “coping” responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.

  2. Factors, origin and sources affecting PM1 concentrations and composition at an urban background site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Agostini, Chiara; Visin, Flavia; Formenton, Gianni; Harrison, Roy M.; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    PM1 is widely believed to provide better information on the anthropogenic fraction of particulate matter pollution than PM2.5. However, data on PM1 are still limited in Europe as well as comprehensive information about its chemical composition and source apportionment and this gap is more evident in the pollution hot-spots still remaining in Europe, such as the Po Valley (Northern Italy). Elemental and organic carbon, 7 water soluble inorganic ions and 17 elements were quantified in 117 PM1 samples collected at an urban background site in Venice-Mestre, a large city located in the eastern Po Valley, during winter (December 2013-February 2014) and summer (May-July 2014) periods. Results show a strong seasonality for PM1 mass concentration (averages ranging from 6 ± 2 in summer to 34 ± 24 μg m- 3 in winter) and for most of the analysed species. Components mainly related to road traffic, residential heating, biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosol (ammonium nitrate) reached their highest levels in winter, while mineral dust and marine components were elevated in summer. PMF analysis revealed 7 potential sources. Secondary inorganic aerosol (33%) and biomass burning (33%) are the major contributor in winter followed by EC-primary emissions (16%), aged sulphate (6%), road traffic (7%), fossil fuel combustion (%) and marine aerosol (3%). During summer, these sources account for 12%, 14%, 20%, 22%, 8%, 14% and 10%, respectively. Some PM1 sources are located near the sampling site (residential area, traffic road, industrial area) but a major contribution of long range transport is observed when high pollution events occur. The results give useful insights into PM1 composition in an urban area and chemical profiles of sources helpful in the interpretation of receptor model results.

  3. Atmospheric PAHs, NPAHs, and OPAHs at an urban, mountainous, and marine sites in Northern China: Molecular composition, sources, and ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmei; Yang, Lingxiao; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Chen, Jianmin; Chen, Xiangfeng; Gao, Ying; Jiang, Pan; Li, Yanyan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-01-01

    18 gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16 nitro-derivative (NPAHs), and 7 oxy-derivative (OPAHs) were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) at three locations in Northern China, an urban site (Jinan), a marine site (Tuoji island), and a mountain site (Mt. Tai). The combined gas and particulate concentrations of 18 PAHs, 16 NPAHs, and 7 OPAHs were highest at the urban site (305.91, 2.80, and 9.05 ng/m3, respectively) and lowest at the mountain location (37.83, 0.27, and 1.59 ng/m3, respectively). A noticeable increase in the high molecular weight PAHs was observed during polluted conditions compared to clean conditions. Diagnostic ratios clearly demonstrated that coal/biomass combustion was the major PAH source in Northern China. The particulate PAHs were the most aged at the mountain site due to long-distance atmospheric transport. The formation rate of NPAHs was most efficient at the mountain location and during heavily polluted days at the urban and marine sites. In addition, the main formation pathway for NPAHs was through the OH initiated secondary reaction. NO3 radicals most significantly contributed to the NPAHs formation at night, during clear weather, and at the mountain site. The logKp value was lowest at the urban site for most individual compounds and highest at the mountain site. Higher logKp was found for NPAHs and OPAHs compared with their corresponding parent PAHs. The linear regression of logKp vs logPL0 at the three sites suggested that the gas-particle partitioning of PAHs might be in non-equilibrium.

  4. Woody vegetation and soil characteristics of residential forest patches and open spaces along an urban-to-rural gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin L. Reichert; Sharon R. Jean-Philippe; Christopher Oswalt; Jennifer Franklin; Mark Radosevich

    2015-01-01

    As the process of urbanization advances across the country, so does the importance of urban forests, which include both trees and the soils in which they grow. Soil microbial biomass, which plays a critical role in nutrient transformation in urban ecosystems, is affected by factors such as soil type and the availability of water, carbon, and nitrogen. The aim of this...

  5. Offal dumping sites influence the relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) in urban landscape: a study from Kolkata metropolis, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Subhendu; Ghose, Dipankar; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-12-14

    Although Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) serve as major scavenging raptor in most of the urban areas, scientific studies on this important ecosystem service provider are almost non-existent in Indian context. The present study was carried out in a metropolis in eastern India to find out the factors influencing relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites. Separate generalized linear models (GLMs) were performed considering encounter rate and roosting Black Kite abundance as response variables. The study conclusively indicated that encounter rates of Black Kites were significantly influenced by the presence of garbage dumps in its vicinity. Numbers of Black Kites were also higher in the roosting sites situated closer to garbage dumps and open spaces. In addition, expected counts of Black Kites significantly increased in roosting sites situated away from buildings and water bodies. However, built-up area and tree cover around the roosting sites had no influence on the abundance of Black Kites therein. With rapid urbanization and changing offal disposal patterns, our findings would be useful to ensure continued availability of food and roosting sites of Black Kites in urban areas.

  6. Late Neolithic phytolith and charcoal records of human activities and vegetation change in Shijiahe culture, Tanjialing site, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850-4400 cal BP, the climate was warm and humid. Fire was intensively used to clear the vegetation. In the mid-period of the Shijiahe culture (c, 4400-4200 cal BP, the climate became slightly dry-cold and this was accompanied by decreasing water, leading to settlements. From c, 4200 cal BP, severe drought eroded the economic foundation of rice-cultivation. These conditions forced people to abandon the Shijiahe ancient city to find water in other regions, leading to the collapse of the Shijiahe culture.

  7. Late Neolithic phytolith and charcoal records of human activities and vegetation change in Shijiahe culture, Tanjialing site, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Hong; Li, Bing; Ma, Chun Mei; Zhu, Cheng; Wu, Li; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850-4400 cal BP), the climate was warm and humid. Fire was intensively used to clear the vegetation. In the mid-period of the Shijiahe culture (c, 4400-4200 cal BP), the climate became slightly dry-cold and this was accompanied by decreasing water, leading to settlements. From c, 4200 cal BP, severe drought eroded the economic foundation of rice-cultivation. These conditions forced people to abandon the Shijiahe ancient city to find water in other regions, leading to the collapse of the Shijiahe culture.

  8. Feedback on the radiological management of a urban site contaminated with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprieur, F.; Pierrard, O. [Institut de radioportection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: In November 2010, the IRSN is reached on a rare case of environmental tritium contamination on a site located in an urban area near Paris (Saint-Maur-des-Fosses - dpt 94). This contamination resulted from the presence in an enterprise's premises of an experimental device containing molecular sieve from the Valduc nuclear site, wrongly considered as un-used. First actions: IRSN has quickly performed an initial characterization of tritium contamination in the premises of the company and its close environment. The first results showed the existence of a strong local contamination (tritium activity> 150 000 Bq/m{sup 3} in air) and a important labeling in samples collected in the close vicinity of the company premises (between 1000 and 10000 Bq/kg f.w. in plants, between 500 and 1500 Bq/L in water). These results led IRSN to conduct multiple investigations: - tritium measurements on samples of water, air and plants collected in the area close to the building to know the importance and extent of environmental marking and follow its evolution over time. In this aim, 450 measurements were made between 2010 and 2013; - measurements of tritium in the urine of residents living near the contaminated building: the results showed traces of tritium for some of them but the assessments conducted by the IRSN from these results led to extremely low dosimetry estimates without consequences for the health of these people; - dosimetric evaluations of tritium exposure of employees and visitors of the company contaminated. Informing the public and stakeholders In November 2010, IRSN has collaborated with the mayor to facilitate early interventions in urban areas and in particular to facilitate contacts for access to private property. In this perspective, the IRSN participated in public meetings to explain the cause of this accident and the results of tritium measurements to residents. IRSN also published regularly on its web site briefing notes reflecting the results

  9. A contribution to the thermal and aero-dynamical modelling of the urban micro-climate. Analysis of the water and vegetation impact on the comfort conditions in outdoor spaces; Contribution a la modelisation thermo-aeraulique du microclimat urbain. Caracterisation de l'impact de l'eau et de la vegetation sur les conditions de confort en espaces exterieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinet, J.

    2000-11-01

    In summer, temperatures in cities may rise, thereby inducing the so-called 'urban heat island' and tremendous consequences on outdoor comfort, health risks, pollutant emission and energy consumption. Replacing vegetation and moist surfaces by concrete or asphalt may enhance these problems. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the impact of vegetation and water on urban micro-climate and comfort through numerical modelling; In the first part, a scientific literature review considers various topics applied to our problem such as urban micro-climate, simulations, urbanism, urban forestry and outdoor thermal comfort. This information is relevant to define and interpret further numerical modelling. Numerical simulations based on the coupling of the SOLENE. thermal program and the N3S CFD code are proposed to model wind flow, air and surface temperatures. The theoretical principles, hypothesis and coupling methodology are presented here. This set of numerical tools is combined in order to help urban or landscape planners, architects and engineers, to analyse the impacts of different projects on micro-climate and on outdoor thermal comfort, under hot summer conditions. To illustrate this approach, an open space in Montpellier (southern France) called the 'Place du Millenaire' and designed by Ricardo Bofill is studied, considering various cases (no vegetation, actual vegetation and vegetation in 30 years). The comparative results demonstrate improvements of urban form, micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort. (author)

  10. VOC Signatures at Selected Urban Sites in Mexico City during the MCMA 2002 and 2003 Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.

    2004-12-01

    During the MCMA 2002 and 2003 field campaigns, ambient VOC concentrations were measured using automated canister sampling methods at several urban sites within Mexico City. These data, along with previously reported measurements, are examined in terms of the similarities and differences that exist for locations near the urban core, in heavily industrial areas, and at downwind urban receptor sites. Data are also compared to similar measurements for US cities. The use of ratios of compounds at different locations is valuable for highlighting the effects of dilution versus chemical aging during transport from sources to receptors. These ratios can also be used to demonstrate the effects of local industrial sources on the VOC distribution at selected locations.

  11. Assessment of indoor and outdoor particulate air pollution at an urban background site in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Kloog, Itai; Abdul-Wahab, Sabah Ahmed; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Heibati, Behzad; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between indoor and outdoor particulate air pollution was investigated at an urban background site on the Payambar Azam Campus of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in Sari, Northern Iran. The concentration of particulate matter sized with a diameter less than 1 μm (PM 1.0 ), 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), and 10 μm (PM 10 ) was evaluated at 5 outdoor and 12 indoor locations. Indoor sites included classrooms, corridors, and office sites in four university buildings. Outdoor PM concentrations were characterized at five locations around the university campus. Indoor and outdoor PM measurements (1-min resolution) were conducted in parallel during weekday mornings and afternoons. No difference found between indoor PM 10 (50.1 ± 32.1 μg/m 3 ) and outdoor PM 10 concentrations (46.5 ± 26.0 μg/m 3 ), indoor PM 2.5 (22.6 ± 17.4 μg/m 3 ) and outdoor PM 2.5 concentration (22.2 ± 15.4 μg/m 3 ), or indoor PM 1.0 (14.5 ± 13.4 μg/m 3 ) and outdoor mean PM 1.0 concentrations (14.2 ± 12.3 μg/m 3 ). Despite these similar concentrations, no correlations were found between outdoor and indoor PM levels. The present findings are not only of importance for the potential health effects of particulate air pollution on people who spend their daytime over a period of several hours in closed and confined spaces located at a university campus but also can inform regulatory about the improvement of indoor air quality, especially in developing countries.

  12. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub.

  13. Optical properties of size-resolved particles at a Hong Kong urban site during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Lai, Senchao; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Yau, Pui Shan; Huang, Yu; Cheng, Yan; Wang, Tao; Xu, Zheng; Yuan, Chao; Zhang, Yingyi

    2015-03-01

    Visibility degradation in Hong Kong is related to the city's serious air pollution problems. To investigate the aerosols' optical properties and their relationship with the chemical composition and size distribution of the particles, a monitoring campaign was conducted at an urban site in the early winter period (from October to December, 2010). The particle light scattering coefficient (Bsp) and absorption coefficient (Bap) were measured. Two collocated Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor samplers (MOUDI110, MSP, USA) with nominal 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters of 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1, 0.56, 0.32, 0.18, 0.1, and 0.056 μm were used to collect size-resolved particle samples. The average Bsp and Bap were 201.96 ± 105.82 Mm- 1 and 39.91 ± 19.16 Mm- 1, with an average single scattering albedo (ωo) of 0.82 ± 0.07. The theoretical method of light extinction calculation was used to determine the extinction of the size-resolved particulate matters (PM). The reconstructed light scattering coefficient correlated well with the measured scattering value in the Hong Kong urban area. Droplet mode (0.56-1.8 μm) particles contributed most to the particle light extinction (~ 69%). Organic matter, ammonium sulphate and elemental carbon were the key components causing visibility degradation in the droplet (0.56-1.8 μm) and condensation (0.1-0.56 μm) size ranges. Five sources contributing to particle light extinction have been identified using positive matrix factorisation (PMF). Traffic/engine exhausts and secondary aerosols accounted for ~ 36% and ~ 32% of particle light extinction, respectively, followed by sea salt (15%). The remaining sources, soil/fugitive dust and tire dust, contributed by ~ 10% and 7%, respectively, to particle light extinction.

  14. Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Species in Water and Soils from Selected Urban Sites in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Woh, Pei Yee; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Amran, Fairuz; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira species were studied in water and soils from selected urban sites in Malaysia. A total of 151 water (n=121) and soil (n=30) samples were collected from 12 recreational lakes and wet markets. All samples were filtered and inoculated into semi-solid Ellinghausen and McCullough modified by Johnson and Harris (EMJH) media supplemented with additional 5-fluorouracil. The cultures were then incubated at 30°C and observed under a dark field microscope with intervals of 10 days. A PCR assay targeting the rrs gene was used to confirm the genus Leptospira among the isolates. Subsequently, the pathogenic status of the isolates was determined using primer sets G1/G2 and Sapro1/Sapro2, which target the secY and rrs genes, respectively. The isolates were identified at serogroup level using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) while their genetic diversity was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Based on dark field microscopy, 23.1% (28/121) water and 23.3% (7/30) soil cultures were positive for Leptospira spp. Of the 35 positive cultures, only 8 were pure and confirmed as Leptospira genus by PCR assay. Two out of 8 isolates were confirmed as pathogenic, 5 were saprophytic and one was intermediate. These 8 isolates were negative for the 25 reference hyperimmune rabbit sera tested in the MAT. PFGE showed that all 8 of these environmental Leptospira spp. were genetically diverse. In conclusion, the presence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in the urban Malaysian environment may indicate and highlight the importance of water screening, especially in recreational lakes, in order to minimize any chance of Leptospira infection. PMID:23363618

  15. Handling Imprecision in Qualitative Data Warehouse: Urban Building Sites Annoyance Analysis Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzougarene, F.; Chachoua, M.; Zeitouni, K.

    2013-05-01

    Data warehouse means a decision support database allowing integration, organization, historisation, and management of data from heterogeneous sources, with the aim of exploiting them for decision-making. Data warehouses are essentially based on multidimensional model. This model organizes data into facts (subjects of analysis) and dimensions (axes of analysis). In classical data warehouses, facts are composed of numerical measures and dimensions which characterize it. Dimensions are organized into hierarchical levels of detail. Based on the navigation and aggregation mechanisms offered by OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, facts can be analyzed according to the desired level of detail. In real world applications, facts are not always numerical, and can be of qualitative nature. In addition, sometimes a human expert or learned model such as a decision tree provides a qualitative evaluation of phenomenon based on its different parameters i.e. dimensions. Conventional data warehouses are thus not adapted to qualitative reasoning and have not the ability to deal with qualitative data. In previous work, we have proposed an original approach of qualitative data warehouse modeling, which permits integrating qualitative measures. Based on computing with words methodology, we have extended classical multidimensional data model to allow the aggregation and analysis of qualitative data in OLAP environment. We have implemented this model in a Spatial Decision Support System to help managers of public spaces to reduce annoyances and improve the quality of life of the citizens. In this paper, we will focus our study on the representation and management of imprecision in annoyance analysis process. The main objective of this process consists in determining the least harmful scenario of urban building sites, particularly in dense urban environments.

  16. Urban environmental stewardship and changes in vegetative cover and building footprint in New York City neighborhoods (2000-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter H. Locke; Kristen L. King; Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Christopher Small; Nancy F. Sonti; Dana R. Fisher; Jacqueline W.T. Lu

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the connections between vegetation cover change, environmental stewardship, and building footprint change in New York City neighborhoods from the years 2000 to 2010. We use a mixed-methods multidisciplinary approach to analyze spatially explicit social and ecological data. Most neighborhoods lost vegetation during the study period. Neighborhoods...

  17. Mapping wildland-urban interfaces at large scales integrating housing density and vegetation aggregation for fire prevention in the South of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampin-Maillet, Corinne; Jappiot, Marielle; Long, Marlène; Bouillon, Christophe; Morge, Denis; Ferrier, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Every year, more than 50,000 wildland fires affect about 500,000ha of vegetation in southern European countries, particularly in wildland-urban interfaces (WUI). This paper presents a method to characterize and map WUIs at large scales and over large areas for wildland fire prevention in the South of France. Based on the combination of four types of building configuration and three classes of vegetation structure, 12 interface types were classified. Through spatial analysis, fire ignition density and burned area ratio were linked with the different types of WUI. Among WUI types, isolated WUIs with the lowest housing density represent the highest level of fire risk. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Natural Vegetation at the Municipal Wastewater Site in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ruqia, Bibi; Hussain, Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in crops and soils from wastewater irrigation poses a significant threat to the human health. A study was carried out to investigate the removal potential of heavy metals (HM) by native plant species, namely Cannabis sativa L., Chenopodium album L., Datura stramonium L., Sonchus asper L., Amaranthus viridus L., Oenothera rosea (LHer), Xanthium stramonium L., Polygonum macalosa L., Nasturtium officinale L. and Conyza canadensis L. growing at the municipal wastewater site in Abbottabad city, Pakistan. The HM concentrations varied among plants depending on the species. Metal concentrations across species varied in the order iron (Fe) > zinc (Zn) > chromium (Cr) > nickel (Ni) > cadmium (Cd). Majority of the species accumulated more HM in roots than shoots. Among species, the concentrations (both in roots and shoots) were in the order C. sativa > C. album > X. stramonium > C. canadensis > A. viridus > N. officinale > P. macalosa > D. stramonium > S. asper > O. rosea. No species was identified as a hyperaccumulator. All species exhibited a translocation factor (TF) less than 1. Species like C. sativa, C. album and X. stramonium gave higher (> 1) biological concentration factor (BCF) and biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) especially for Fe, Cr and Cd than other species. Higher accumulation of heavy metals in these plant species signifies the general application of these species for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of HM from polluted soils.

  19. Kinetic study of phytotoxicity induced by foliar lead uptake for vegetables exposed to fine particles and implications for sustainable urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, TianTian; Austruy, Annabelle; Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2016-08-01

    At the global scale, foliar metal transfer occurs for consumed vegetables cultivated in numerous urban or industrial areas with a polluted atmosphere. However, the kinetics of metal uptake, translocation and involved phytotoxicity was never jointly studied with vegetables exposed to micronic and sub-micronic particles (PM). Different leafy vegetables (lettuces and cabbages) cultivated in RHIZOtest® devices were, therefore, exposed in a greenhouse for 5, 10 and 15days to various PbO PM doses. The kinetics of transfer and phytotoxicity was assessed in relation to lead concentration and exposure duration. A significant Pb accumulation in leaves (up to 7392mg/kg dry weight (DW) in lettuce) with translocation to roots was observed. Lead foliar exposure resulted in significant phytotoxicity, lipid composition change, a decrease of plant shoot growth (up to 68.2% in lettuce) and net photosynthesis (up to 58% in lettuce). The phytotoxicity results indicated plant adaptation to Pb and a higher sensitivity of lettuce in comparison with cabbage. Air quality needs, therefore, to be considered for the health and quality of vegetables grown in polluted areas, such as certain megacities (in China, Pakistan, Europe, etc.) and furthermore, to assess the health risks associated with their consumption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Carbonaceous species in PM2.5 at a pair of rural/urban sites in Beijing, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One-week integrated PM2.5 samples were collected over four years (2005–2008 at a pair of sites, one rural and one urban site, in the area of Beijing, China. Weekly organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC concentrations from these samples were measured to investigate their atmospheric concentrations, temporal variation patterns and the factors influencing these aspects. A slightly systematic decrease in annual mean concentration of OC and an opposite trend for EC at both sites was observed. Since OC accounted for about 70 % of total carbon (TC, i.e. OC + EC the total carbonaceous mass experienced a slight decline on a yearly basis over the study period. Its fraction of PM2.5 mass at the urban site in 2008 was significantly lower than observed 10 years earlier (1999, indicating that the relative importance of carbonaceous species in PM2.5 has decreased. In urban Beijing clear seasonal variations (by factors of 1.35 ~ 3.0 were shown in both OC and EC with higher weekly concentrations and fluctuations in winter and much lower values in summer and spring. The minimum seasonal urban excesses of OC (3.0 μg m−3 and EC (1.3 μg m−3 occurred in the summer of 2008, which were only one-ninth and one-seventh of their corresponding maximum values, respectively. This reduction in the urban-difference, coupled with more positive stable carbon isotope values of EC at the urban site in that summer relative to the preceding summers, supports that the special clean air campaign for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games very likely had noticeable impact on the ambient concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Beijing area, particularly on the local urban scale. Less consistent seasonal patterns in OC and EC, their scattered correlation, and higher mass ratios of OC to EC (OC/EC at the rural site indicate more complex and variable major sources regarding aerosol formation in the rural area. These emission sources include biomass burning during the harvest seasons

  1. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro

    2016-01-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals...... appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial...

  2. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  3. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantie Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the initial three years and decreased at an accelerated rate of 31.0 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the final three years, resulting in a total NPP loss of approximately 167 × 106 g∙C. The spatiotemporal of NPP varied obviously in the central area, suburb and exurb of Guangzhou driven by three patterns of weather and LULC changes. By the interactive effects and the weather variation dominated effects, NPP of most areas changed slightly with dynamic index less than 5% of NPP mean value in the central area and the suburb. The LULC change dominated effects caused obvious NPP reduction, by more than 15% of the NPP mean value, which occurred in some areas of the suburb and extended to the exurb with the outward urban sprawl. Importantly, conversion from wood grassland, shrublands and even forests to croplands occupied by urban landscapes proved to be a main process in the conversion from high-NPP coverage to low-NPP coverage, thereby leading to the rapid degradation of urban carbon stock capacity in urban fringe areas. It is helpful for government to monitor urban ecological health and safety and make relevant policies.

  4. Long term analysis of the columnar and surface aerosol relationship at an urban European coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, S.; Estellés, V.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous PM2.5, PM10 and columnar (ground and satellite based) AOD measurements have been analyzed at Burjassot site in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain) during the period 2007-2016. The site is representative of a south European city in the Western Mediterranean coastal area, influenced by local urban pollution but also from frequent Saharan dust events. First, multiannual statistics were performed to characterize the main aerosol burden characteristics. The averages and standard deviations resulted 18 ± 9 μg m-3, 25 ± 19 μg m-3, 0.15 ± 0.11, 0.23 ± 0.17, 0.19 ± 0.15 and 1.2 ± 0.3 for PM2.5, PM10, AERONET AOD, MODIS Terra AOD, MODIS Aqua AOD, and AERONET Ångström exponent AE, respectively. The AOD is always referred to 550 nm. PM10 and AOD showed seasonal patterns with maxima in summer and minima in winter. However, PM2.5 and AE did not show such an evident seasonality. The relationship between surface and columnar measurements show a poor correlation (r down to 0.30) for daily values, although the correlation increases to r up to 0.90 for yearly averages. The relationship between PM and AOD becomes more consistent when the databases are binned in intervals of 0.05 AOD. Results for AERONET and MODIS AOD are very similar, although for daily averages is slightly worse for satellite than ground based measurements. In order to explain some seasonality effects found, the mixing layer height has been included in the analysis. Results show that the correlation is maximum when PM2.5 is used and the mixing layer height is greater than 1 000 m (r > 0.90).

  5. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. High ozone episodes at a semi-urban site in India: Photochemical generation and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nidhi; Lakhani, Anita; Maharaj Kumari, K.

    2017-11-01

    The present study focused on investigating the possible atmospheric conditions influencing the high ozone episodes over a semi-urban site (27.16° N, 78.08° E) in Agra, India during July 2014-June 2016. During the study period, average concentration of ozone was 32.3 ± 22.7 ppb, and concentrations of its precursors viz carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO) and total nitrogen oxides (NOx*) were 527.3 ± 482.7 ppb, 6.5 ± 8.2 ppb, and 12.1 ± 7.8 ppb, respectively. The maximum monthly average ozone concentration was observed in June (48.2 ± 31.0 ppb) and it was nearly three times higher than the minimum levels observed in December (16.7 ± 10.5 ppb). Considering high ozone episodes, 78 days exceed hourly ozone limit of 90 ppb specified by National Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, CPCB, 2009) for India while 75 days exceed the daily maximum 8 hourly ozone limit of 70 ppb or above (NAAQS, EPA, 2015). Trajstat model was used for air-mass cluster analysis during episodic days; five clusters of air-masses were identified and among them, the cluster from northwest direction had the maximum frequency (35.4%). During the study period, four different types of high ozone episodes were identified and explained using prevailing meteorology. The episodes were attributed to local photochemistry and/or transport.

  7. Scheduling the Remediation of Port Hope: Logistical and Regulatory Challenges of a Multiple Site Urban Remediation Project - 13119

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson Jones, Andrea; Lee, Angela [MMM Group Limited, 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, Ontario, L3T 0A1 (Canada); Palmeter, Tim [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario, M2N 6A6 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Port Hope Project is part of the larger CAN$1.28 billion Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) in the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington, Ontario, Canada. Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) is the Project Proponent, Public Works and Government Services (PWGSC) is managing the procurement of services and the MMM Group Limited - Conestoga Rovers and Associates Joint Venture (MMM-CRA Joint Venture) is providing detailed design and construction oversight and administration services for the Project. The Port Hope Project includes the construction of a long-term waste management facility (LTWMF) in the Municipality of Port Hope and the remediation of 18 (eighteen) large-scale LLRW, numerous small-scale sites still being identified and industrial sites within the Municipality. The total volume to be remediated is over one million cubic metres and will come from sites that include temporary storage sites, ravines, beaches, parks, private commercial and residential properties and vacant industrial sites all within the urban area of Port Hope. Challenges that will need to be overcome during this 10 year project include: - Requirements stipulated by the Environmental Assessment (EA) that affect Project logistics and schedule. - Coordination of site remediation with the construction schedule at the LTWMF. - Physical constraints on transport routes and at sites affecting production rates. - Despite being an urban undertaking, seasonal constrains for birds and fish (i.e., nesting and spawning seasons). - Municipal considerations. - Site-specific constraints. - Site interdependencies exist requiring consideration in the schedule. Several sites require the use of an adjacent site for staging. (authors)

  8. Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control treatments in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Paul W. Footen; Robert B. Harrison; Thomas A. Terry; Constance A. Harrington; Scott M. Holub; Peter J. Gould

    2013-01-01

    We sampled trees grown with and without competing vegetation control in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation on a highly productive site in southwestern Washington to create diameter based allometric equations for estimating individual-tree bole, branch, foliar, and total...

  9. Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: site history, soils, landforms, woody and herbaceous vegetation, down wood, and inventory methods for the landscape experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Brian L., eds. Brookshire

    2000-01-01

    Describes vegetation and physical site conditions at the initiation (1991-1995) of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) in the southeastern Missouri Ozarks. Provides detailed information on sampling protocols and summarizes initial conditions of the landscape experiment prior to harvest treatments. Summaries are by plot, by ~800-acre...

  10. Effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control on 5-year seedling performance: a regional comparison of long-term soil productivity sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Fleming; Robert F. Powers; Neil W. Foster; J. Marty Kranabetter; D. Andrew Scott; Felix Jr. Ponder; Shannon Berch; William K. Chapman; Richard D. Kabzems; Kim H. Ludovici; David M. Morris; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul T. Sanborn; Felipe G. Sanchez; Douglas M. Stone; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We examined fifth-year seedling response to soil disturbance and vegetation control at 42 experimental locations representing 25 replicated studies within the North American Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) program. These studies share a common experimental design while encompassing a wide range of climate, site conditions, and forest types. Whole-tree harvest had...

  11. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers’ willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owusu Amponsah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. The indiscriminative use of pharmaceutical products by households in many of these countries is another source of health concern. Low quality water treatment in these countries has however been hampered by the high cost of infrastructure provision and maintenance. Cost-sharing among stakeholders appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers’ associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation. The results further show that the probability of being willing to pay by farmers who agreed that the current water they used for irrigation was harmful is approximately 5.3 times greater than that of those who did not. The analysis of the farmers’ ability to pay revealed that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m3. This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce.

  12. Photogrammetric Modelling for Urban Medieval Site Mapping. A Case Study from Curtea de Argeş, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor Constantin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed mapping of urban historical sites superposed on natural landforms within built-up areas is a real challenge. Digital photogrammetric techniques meet the requirements for mapping archaeological sites within dense built-up areas. The objectives are to reveal the landform value in medieval site development and to analyse its impact on the landforms. The aim of the present study is to highlight the contribution of geomatics technologies for the evaluation and preservation of historical sites using UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle imagery and field photos for 3D modelling. Curtea de Argeş medieval site, established on Argeş River terraces and attested since the 13th century, represents the town core for which the specific methodology was applied.

  13. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  14. Succinic acid production from fruit and vegetable wastes hydrolyzed by on-site enzyme mixtures through solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Wubliker; Zhang, Wenming; Xin, Fengxue; Dong, Weiliang; Zhang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a novel biorefinery concept of succinic acid (SA) production from fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) hydrolyzed by crude enzyme mixtures through solid state fermentation was designed. Enzyme complex solid mashes from various types of FVWs were on-site produced through solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. This solid was then added to FVW suspensions and undergo hydrolysis reaction to generate fermentable sugars and other essential nutrients for bacterial growth and product formation. The subsequent fungal hydrolysis produced 12.00g/L glucose and 13.83g/L fructose using 10% mass ratio (w/v) of FVW. Actinobacillus succinogenes used this FVW hydrolysate as the sole feedstock and produced 27.03g/L of succinic acid with high yield and productivity of 1.18gSA/g sugar and 1.28gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated that FVWs can be biotransformed to value added products which have considerable potential economics and environmental meaning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Diffusive flux of PAHs across sediment-water and water-air interfaces at urban superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minick, D James; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-09-01

    Superfund sites may be a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the surrounding environment. These sites can also act as PAH sinks from present-day anthropogenic activities, especially in urban locations. Understanding PAH transport across environmental compartments helps to define the relative contributions of these sources and is therefore important for informing remedial and management decisions. In the present study, paired passive samplers were co-deployed at sediment-water and water-air interfaces within the Portland Harbor Superfund Site and the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site. These sites, located along the Willamette River (Portland, OR, USA), have PAH contamination from both legacy and modern sources. Diffusive flux calculations indicate that the Willamette River acts predominantly as a sink for low molecular weight PAHs from both the sediment and the air. The sediment was also predominantly a source of 4- and 5-ring PAHs to the river, and the river was a source of these same PAHs to the air, indicating that legacy pollution may be contributing to PAH exposure for residents of the Portland urban center. At the remediated McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, flux measurements highlight locations within the sand and rock sediment cap where contaminant breakthrough is occurring. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2281-2289. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol at an urban background and a road site in Barcelona (Spain during SAPUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the contribution of potential sources to the submicron (PM1 organic aerosol (OA simultaneously detected at an urban background (UB and a road site (RS in Barcelona during the 30 days of the intensive field campaign of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, September–October 2010. A total of 103 filters at 12 h sampling time resolution were collected at both sites. Thirty-six neutral and polar organic compounds of known emission sources and photo-chemical transformation processes were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The concentrations of the trace chemical compounds analyzed are herein presented and discussed. Additionally, OA source apportionment was performed by multivariate curve resolution–alternating least squares (MCR-ALS and six OA components were identified at both sites: two were of primary anthropogenic OA origin and three of secondary OA origin, while a sixth one was not clearly defined. Primary organics from emissions of local anthropogenic activities (urban primary organic aerosol, or POA Urban, mainly traffic emissions but also cigarette smoke, contributed 43% (1.5 μg OC m−3 and 18% (0.4 μg OC m−3 to OA at RS and UB, respectively. A secondary primary source – biomass burning (BBOA – was found in all the samples (average values 7% RS; 12% UB; 0.3 μg OC m−3, but this component was substantially contributing to OA only when the sampling sites were under influence of regional air mass circulation (REG.. Three secondary organic aerosol (SOA components (describing overall 60% of the variance were observed in the urban ambient PM1. Products of isoprene oxidation (SOA ISO – i.e. 2-methylglyceric acid, C5 alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols – showed the highest abundance at both sites when the city was under influence of inland air masses. The overall concentrations of SOA ISO were similar at both sites (0.4 and 0.3 μg m−3, or 16% and 7%, at

  17. Factors that attract and repel visitation to urban recreation sites: a framework for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Klenosky; Cherie LeBlanc; Christine Vogt; Herbert Schroeder

    2008-01-01

    The mix of natural features and manmade elements in urban and metropolitan areas presents unique challenges for resource managers and planners. While some elements of the urban landscape (e.g., forested areas, parks, water features, and museums) may attract or encourage visitation, others (e.g., industrial and commercial activity, odors, noises, crime, litter, and...

  18. The application of remote sensing to identify and measure sealed soil and vegetated surfaces in urban environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kampouraki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Soil is an important non-renewable source. Its protection and allocation is critical to sustainable development goals. Urban development presents an important drive of soil loss due to sealing over by buildings, pavements and transport infrastructure. Monitoring sealed soil surfaces in urban environments is gaining increasing interest not only for scientific research studies but also for local planning and national authorities. The aim of this research was to investigate the...

  19. Dolomitic vegetation of the Sterkfontein Caves World Heritage Site and its importance in the conservation of Rocky Highveld Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Siebert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the vegetation of the Sterkfontein Caves (i.e. the natural area surrounding the caves is presented. Releves were compiled in 24 stratified random sample plots. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed six plant communities, also referred to as vegetation units. For each of these vegetation units the species richness was determined. Plant communities of conservation importance were identified and new associations were formally described.

  20. Development of a concept for non-monetary assessment of urban ecosystem services at the site level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Daniel; Artmann, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Determining the performance of ecosystem services at the city or regional level cannot accurately take into account the fine differences between green or gray structures. The supply of regulating ecosystem services in, for instance, parks can differ as parks vary in their land cover composition. A comprehensive ecosystem service assessment approach also needs to reflect land use to consider the demands placed on ecosystem services, which are mostly neglected by current research yet important for urban planning. For instance, if a sealed surface is no longer used, it could be unsealed to improve ecosystem service supply. Because of these scientific shortcomings, this article argues for a conceptual framework for the non-monetary assessment of urban ecosystem services at the site scale. This paper introduces a standardized method for selecting representative sites and evaluating their supply of and demand on ecosystem services. The conceptual design is supplemented by examples of Salzburg, Austria.

  1. Variability of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide at a semi-arid urban site in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Chinmay; Chandra, Naveen; Venkataramani, S; Lal, Shyam

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a major precursor for sulfate aerosols that play a critical role in climate regulation. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of COS measurements as a reliable means to constrain biospheric carbon assimilation. In a scenario of limited availability of COS data around the globe, we present gas-chromatographic measurements of atmospheric COS mixing ratios over Ahmedabad, a semi-arid, urban region in western India. These measurements, being reported for the first time over an Indian site, enable us to understand the diurnal and seasonal variation in atmospheric COS with respect to its natural, anthropogenic and photochemical sources and sinks. The annual mean COS mixing ratio over Ahmedabad is found to be 0.83±0.43ppbv, which is substantially higher than free tropospheric values for the northern hemisphere. Inverse correlation of COS with soil and skin temperature, suggests that the dry soil of the semi-arid study region is a potential sink for atmospheric COS. Positive correlations of COS with NO2 and CO during post-monsoon and the COS/CO slope of 0.78pptv/ppbv reveals influence of diesel combustion and tire wear. The highest concentrations of COS are observed during pre-monsoon; COS/CO2 slope of 44.75pptv/ppmv combined with information from air mass back-trajectories reveal marshy wetlands spanning over 7500km(2) as an important source of COS in Ahmedabad. COS/CO2 slopes decrease drastically (8.28pptv/ppmv) during post-monsoon due to combined impact of biospheric uptake and anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Simio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved.

  3. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  4. Successful strategies to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables: results from the Danish '6 a day' Work-site Canteen Model Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Trolle, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes in the consumption of fruits and vegetables in work-site canteens using the tools of continuous quality improvement, and to gain knowledge of practical strategies being effective in increasing the consumption. Design: Study design included baseline data collection...... per lunch meal served per customer (net weight; potatoes not included). Setting: Five workplaces in Denmark: a military base, an electronic component distributor, a bank, a town hall and a waste-handling facility. Subjects: Work-site canteen managers, staff and customers. Results: There were...... significant increases in the total consumption of fruits and vegetables for all five work-site canteens from baseline to end-point, 70 g per customer on average (67, 54, 39, 88 and 103 g, respectively). The follow-up data collection showed that the canteens either maintained or significantly increased...

  5. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO{sub 2} dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January -May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO{sub 2} concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  6. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO2 dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January–May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO2 concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  7. Comparing Three Approaches of Evapotranspiration Estimation in Mixed Urban Vegetation: Field-Based, Remote Sensing-Based and Observational-Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Nouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being the driest inhabited continent, Australia has one of the highest per capita water consumptions in the world. In addition, instead of having fit-for-purpose water supplies (using different qualities of water for different applications, highly treated drinking water is used for nearly all of Australia’s urban water supply needs, including landscape irrigation. The water requirement of urban landscapes, particularly urban parklands, is of growing concern. The estimation of evapotranspiration (ET and subsequently plant water requirements in urban vegetation needs to consider the heterogeneity of plants, soils, water, and climate characteristics. This research contributes to a broader effort to establish sustainable irrigation practices within the Adelaide Parklands in Adelaide, South Australia. In this paper, two practical ET estimation approaches are compared to a detailed Soil Water Balance (SWB analysis over a one year period. One approach is the Water Use Classification of Landscape Plants (WUCOLS method, which is based on expert opinion on the water needs of different classes of landscape plants. The other is a remote sensing approach based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite. Both methods require knowledge of reference ET calculated from meteorological data. The SWB determined that plants consumed 1084 mm·yr−1 of water in ET with an additional 16% lost to drainage past the root zone, an amount sufficient to keep salts from accumulating in the root zone. ET by MODIS EVI was 1088 mm·yr−1, very close to the SWB estimate, while WUCOLS estimated the total water requirement at only 802 mm·yr−1, 26% lower than the SWB estimate and 37% lower than the amount actually added including the drainage fraction. Individual monthly ET by MODIS was not accurate, but these errors were cancelled out to give good agreement on an annual time step. We

  8. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Lisboa Nobre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natal is a city with environment singularities. The urban legislation tried to preserve the features of the local landscape delimiting “Areas for Controlling Building High”, destined to protect the scenic value of some parts of the city. In 1979 was created a “NonÆdificandi” area to protect the scenery of Ponta Negra beach, one of the most famous view of the city. Since this time, the real state market, the building constructers and the land owners of this area have exerted constant pressure in sense to abolish or to modify this legal instrument.Nowadays, the public administration presented a new project which try to answer public and private interests.This paper is the result of an inclusion of the University in this polemic issue. Architecture and Urban Planning and Statistic students of two universities of the city (UFRN and UNP, helped the process collecting data and producing information. The proposed of the investigation was to know the users of this area and their opinion about the subject. It was done together with the Public agency, Secretaria Especial de Meio Ambiente e Urbanismo. At the end, the students presented their particular solutions for the problem, inside the disciplines of Landscaping and Urban Planning.

  9. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements at urban and forest sites in central Poland - Insight into seasonal variability and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    This paper includes the results of chemical composition of bulk deposition samples collected simultaneously at urban (Poznań city) and forest (Jeziory) sites in central Poland, between April 2013 and October 2014. Rainwater samples were analyzed for trace elements (As, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd) and physicochemical parameters. Overall, three metals, i.e. Zn, Pb and Cu were the most abundant anthropogenic constituents of rainwater samples from both locations. In Poznań city, the rainwater concentrations of trace elements did not differ significantly between spring and summer. However, they were elevated and more variable during the cold season (fall and winter), suggesting strong contribution from local high-temperature processes related to coal combustion (commercial and residential sector). In contrast to the urban site, relatively low variability in concentrations was found for Cu, Ni, Zn at the forest site, where direct impact of emission from vehicle traffic and coal-fired combustion (power plants) was much lower. The bulk deposition fluxes of Ni, As, Pb and Zn at this site exhibited a clear trend, with higher values during the cold season (fall and winter) than in spring and summer. At the urban site, the sums of total bulk deposition fluxes of Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, As, Cr, Cd were as follows: 8460.4, 4209.2, 2247.4, 1882.1, 606.6, 281.6 and 31.4 μg m- 2. In addition, during the winter season, a significantly higher deposition fluxes of Cu and Zn were observed for rain (on average 103.8 and 129.4 μg m- 2, respectively) as compared to snow (19.7 μg Cu m- 2 and 54.1 μg Zn m- 2). This suggests that different deposition pattern of trace elements for rain, mixed and snow was probably the effect of several factors: precipitation type, changes in emission and favorable meteorological situation during rain events.

  10. Vegetation and climate dynamics of southern Chile during the past 50,000 years: results of ODP Site 1233 pollen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Linda; Heusser, Cal; Pisias, Nicklas

    2006-03-01

    High-resolution pollen data from ODP Site 1233 (41°0.005S, 74°26.992W, 838 m water depth) provide a continuous, chronostratigraphically controlled ˜50,000-yr record of regional changes in vegetation from temperate South America. Deposited ˜38 km west of the transition from northern, summer-green, lowland forest to southern evergreen rain forest, the 135 m core documents the comparatively brief Holocene development of thermophilous vegetation (Lowland Deciduous Beech Forest and Valdivian Evergreen Forest), and the expansion of glacial, subantarctic vegetation (North Patagonian Evergreen Forest-Subantarctic Parkland) during Marine Isotope State (MIS) 2 and 3. Systematic variability in these terrestrial climate proxies that reflect latitudinal movement of the southern westerlies is mirrored in co-eval ocean conditions inferred from radiolaria census data and in Antarctic climate records.

  11. Seasonal variation in vegetation water content estimated from proximal sensing and MODIS time series in a Mediterranean Fluxnet site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguren, G.; Martín, M. P.; Nieto, H.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Jurdao, S.

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluates three different metrics of vegetation water content estimated from proximal sensing and MODIS satellite imagery: Fuel Moisture Content (FMC), Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT) and Canopy Water Content (CWC). Dry matter (Dm) and Leaf area Index (LAI) were also analyzed in order to connect FMC with EWT and EWT with CWC, respectively. This research took place in a Fluxnet site located in Mediterranean wooded grassland (dehesa) ecosystem in Las Majadas del Tietar (Spain). Results indicated that FMC and EWT showed lower spatial variation than CWC. The spatial variation within the MODIS pixel was not as critical as its temporal trend, so to capture better the variability, fewer plots should be sampled but more times. Due to the high seasonal Dm variability, a constant annual value would not work to predict EWT from FMC. Relative root mean square error (RRMSE) evaluated the performance of nine spectral indices to compute each variable. VARI provided the worst results in all cases. For proximal sensing, GEMI worked best for both FMC (RRMSE = 34.5%) and EWT (RRMSE = 27.43%) while NDII and GVMI performed best for CWC (RRMSE =30.27% and 31.58% respectively). For MODIS data, results were a bit better with EVI as the best predictor for FMC (RRMSE = 33.81%) and CWC (RRMSE = 27.56%) and GEMI for EWT (RRMSE = 24.6%). To explain these differences, proximal sensing measures only grasslands at nadir view angle, but MODIS includes also trees, their shades, and other artifacts at up to 20° view angle. CWC was better predicted than the other two water content variables, probably because CWC depends on LAI, which is highly correlated to the spectral indices. Finally, these empirical methods outperformed FMC and CWC products based on radiative transfer model inversion.

  12. The association of outdoor vegetation with ADHD-related behavior among children living in an urban community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Emerging research supports potential benefits of green space on children's behavior. Methods: We evaluated the cross-sectional association of outdoor vegetation (OV) and distance to parks with ADHD-like behavior in 560 eight-year-olds from a prospective, sociodemogr...

  13. Particle size distribution and its relationship to black carbon in two urban and one rural site in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, E; Reyes, E; Oyola, P; Ma, Rubio; López, G; Pérez, P; Martínez, R

    2014-07-01

    The size distribution of particles has been studied in three sites in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile in the winter of 2009 and a comparison with black carbon was performed. Two sites are located near busy streets in Santiago and the other site is located in a rural area about 40 km west of Santiago with little influence from vehicles, but large influence from wood burning. The campaign lasted 1 or 2 weeks in each site. We have divided the particle size measurements into four groups (10-39 nm, 40-62 nm, 63-174 nm, and 175-700 nm) in order to compare with the carbon monitor. In the sites near the street, black carbon has a high correlation (R = 0.85) with larger particles (175-700 nm). The correlation decreased when black carbon was compared with smaller particles, having very small correlation with the smallest sizes (10-39 nm). In the rural site, black carbon also has a high correlation (R = 0.86) with larger particles (175-700 nm), but the correlation between black carbon and the finest particles (10-39 nm) decreases to near 0. These measurements are an indication that wood burning does not generate particles smaller than -50 nm. In the urban sites, particle size distribution is peaked toward smaller particles (10-39 nm) only during rush hours, but at other times, particles size distribution is peaked toward larger sizes. When solar radiation was high, evidence of secondary particle formation was seen in the rural site, but not in the urban sites. The correlation between the number of secondary particles and solar radiation was R2 = 0.46, indicating that it there may be other variables that play a role in ultrafine particle formation. Implications: A study of the size distribution of particles and black carbon concentration in two street sites and one rural site shows that in the last site the number of particles ultrafine particles (d particles is about 2 times lower. Thus, the rural site has less of the particles that are more dangerous to health

  14. Rehabilitating a landfill site of lowland tropical landscape into an urban green space: A case study from the Open University of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Madurapperuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines vegetation, carbon sequestration, and spatial and temporal changes of green space at the premises of the Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL. The primary objective of this study is to examine floral diversity of the OUSL premises that was rehabilitated from a landfill site and to determine suitable trees for landfill sites based on growth performance and biomass carbon stocks. The girth and height of plants ⩾5 cm dbh were measured to estimate biomass carbon stocks of each individual tree. GPS coordinates of each individual tree were taken for spatial mapping. Urban green spaces were extracted from Satellite view of Google Earth for a decade using screen digitizing techniques. A total of 722 individuals, comprising 95 plant species belonging to 75 genera and 33 families, were recorded. Of the total species 45% were native species. The above-ground and below-ground biomass were estimated to be 50 (t C/ha and 10 (t C/ha respectively. These results are comparable with above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass in the dry zone forest (60 and 17 (t C/ha respectively. The study recognized that Terminalia catappa, Filicium decipiens, Mangifera indica, Cassia bacillaris and Tabebuia rosea species grow well in such landfill with effective carbon accumulation, and the species list presented in this paper will provide useful information that will help city planners to maximize biomass carbon sequestration by choosing optimal plants for landscaping in landfill sites.

  15. "I don't tell my husband about vegetable sales" : Gender aspects of urban agriculture in Eldoret, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simiyu, Robert Romborah

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the sustainable livelihood approach, this book explores gender dynamics in urban agriculture, which is an integral part of the diversified portfolio of livelihood strategies adopted by residents of Eldoret town to cope with hard economic times. It explores the motives, needs, preferences

  16. "I don't tell my husband about vegetable sales" : gender dynamics in urban agriculture in Eldoret, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simiyu, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the sustainable livelihood approach, this book explores gender dynamics in urban agriculture, which is an integral part of the diversified portfolio of livelihood strategies adopted by residents of Eldoret town to cope with hard economic times. It explores the motives, needs, preferences

  17. Sources identification of the atmospheric aerosol at urban and suburban sites in Indonesia by positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Muhayatun; Hopke, Philip K; Hidayat, Achmad; Diah Dwiana L

    2008-07-01

    Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne particulate matter were collected in Indonesia (west central Java) at an urban site in Bandung and in suburban Lembang from January 2002 to December 2004. The samples were collected using a Gent stacked filter sampler in two size fractions of Stain Reflectometer. The data sets were then analyzed using positive matrix factorization to identify the possible sources of fine and coarse atmospheric aerosols in both areas. The best solutions were found to be seven factors and five factors for elemental compositions of fine and coarse particulate matter in the urban area of Bandung and six factors and five factors for elemental compositions of fine and coarse particulate matter in the suburban area of Lembang, respectively. The sources are soil dust, motor vehicles, biomass burning, sea salt, and road dust. The PMF results showed that more than 50% of the PM2.5-10 mass at both sites comes from soil dust and road dust. The biomass burning factor contributes about 40% of the PM2.5 mass in case of suburban Lembang and about 20% in urban Bandung.

  18. On the simultaneous deployment of two single-particle mass spectrometers at an urban background and a roadside site during SAPUSS

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    M. Dall'Osto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS provides size-resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, continuous ATOFMS measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations: urban background (UB site and roadside (RS site in the city of Barcelona (Spain from 17 September to 18 October 2010. Two different instrumental configurations were used: ATOFMS (TSI 3800 with a converging nozzle inlet (high efficiency at about 800–2000 nm at the UB site and ATOFMS (TSI 3800-100 with an aerodynamic lens inlet (high efficiency at about 300–700 nm at the RS site. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that two ATOFMS instruments have been deployed in the same field study. The different instrument configurations had an impact on the observed particle types at the two sites. Nevertheless, 10 particle types were detected at both locations, including local and regional elemental carbon (22.7–58.9 % of total particles, fresh and aged sea salt (1.0–14.6 %, local and regional nitrate-containing aerosols (3–11.6 %, local lead-containing metallic particles (0.1–0.2 %, and transported Fe-nitrate particles (0.8–2.5 %. The ATOFMS at the UB also characterized four particle types: calcium-containing dust (0.9 %, Saharan dust (1.3 %, vanadium-containing particles (0.9 %, and vegetative debris (1.7 %. By contrast, the high statistical counts of fine particles detected at the RS allowed identification of eight particle types. Four of these contained organic nitrogen of primary and secondary origin, which highlights the complex nature of the sources and processes that contribute to this aerosol chemical component. Aminium salts were found related to coarse sulfate-rich particle types, suggesting heterogeneous reaction mechanisms for their formation. The other four particle

  19. Vis-NIR characterization of particulate matter in urban and industrial sites in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, R.; Montagnoli, M.; Salvatori, R.; Perrino, C.

    2010-12-01

    The optical properties of particulate matter are key parameters for the definition of the radiative balance of the atmosphere and require a deeper comprehension for improving modelling. Considering the cognitive gap evidenced by IPCC guidelines, additional tools are necessary for understanding how size distribution and mineralogy contribute to the complexity of a matrix such as particulate matter. Knowing that concentration and chemical composition are nowadays features that are “traditionally” investigated, the role of mineralogy and size distribution on the physico-chemical behaviour of airborne particles represent evidently primary goals for emerging approaches. From this point of view Vis-NIR spectroscopy could be considered an innovative technique. It is in fact a non-destructive and a relatively low-cost technique that provide information on the optical properties of materials. It is largely applied for Earth sciences purposes (for example: Pedology, Geology and Remote sensing) and requires a “calibration” with chemical or physical parameters. The difference between this technique and already developed methods (such as Aethalometry or other optical systems) consists on the simultaneous investigation of several wavelengths of the visible and near infrared regions instead of single bands. The development of this approach, focused on the relationship between light scattering and properties of materials, can provide important knowledge on the mineralogical composition of airborne particles and on the size distribution of particles. In addition of that the development of a database, constituted by airborne materials collected in different sites, can represent the link between remote or ground observations, radiative modelling and in situ sampling. The work carried out until now is based on field campaigns performed in the Mediterranean basin where PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in urban, traffic, industrial and background sites. Samples were

  20. Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plots, Observation and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2008 vegetation (classification) field plots (spatial database) and 2010 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the...

  1. Analysis of potential urban unstable areas and landslide-induced damages on Volterra historical site through a remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Soldato, Matteo; Bianchini, Silvia; Nolesini, Teresa; Frodella, William; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Multisystem remote sensing techniques were exploited to provide a comprehensive overview of Volterra (Italy) site stability with regards to its landscape, urban fabric and cultural heritage. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques allow precise measurements of Earth surface displacement, as well as the detection of building deformations on large urban areas. In the field of cultural heritage conservation Infrared thermography (IRT) provides surface temperature mapping and therefore detects various potential criticalities, such as moisture, seepage areas, cracks and structural anomalies. Between winter 2014 and spring 2015 the historical center and south-western sectors of Volterra (Tuscany region, central Italy) were affected by instability phenomena. The spatial distribution, typology and effect on the urban fabrics of the landslide phenomena were investigated by analyzing the geological and geomorphological settings, traditional geotechnical monitoring and advanced remote sensing data such as Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI). The ground deformation rates and the maximum settlement values derived from SAR acquisitions of historical ENVISAT and recent COSMO-SkyMed sensors, in 2003-2009 and 2010-2015 respectively, were compared with background geological data, constructive features, in situ evidences and detailed field inspections in order to classify landslide-damaged buildings. In this way, the detected movements and their potential correspondences with recognized damages were investigated in order to perform an assessment of the built-up areas deformations and damages on Volterra. The IRT technique was applied in order to survey the surface temperature of the historical Volterra wall-enclosure, and allowed highlighting thermal anomalies on this cultural heritage element of the site. The obtained results permitted to better correlate the landslide effects of the recognized deformations in the urban fabric, in order to provide useful

  2. Tree Species Establishment in Urban Forest in Relation to Vegetation Composition, Tree Canopy Gap Area and Soil Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Jankovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of density and growth of pine, birch and oak seedlings and saplings in canopy gaps in the urban boreal forest in Riga, Latvia, indicates that natural regeneration can increase diversity in small gaps caused by tree mortality, and can ensure conversion from even-aged pine forest. Abundant regeneration in small gaps showed that light (gap area was only one of the factors affecting tree regeneration in the gaps. The depth of the O layer and pH were suggested to be important factors for the establishment and growth of pine and birch. For oak, the main factors for establishment and growth were favorable moisture, higher pH and N concentration. Knowledge of ecological factors affecting the establishment of seedlings and growth of saplings of the most common trees species in the urban boreal forest is needed to predict successional trajectories and to aid management.

  3. Comparative Characterization of Atmospheric particles at an urban site and a roadside site in the City of Gaborone, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, B. T.; Khumoetsile, T.

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of individual atmospheric particles in the urban atmosphere is key to addressing a number of air quality issues ranging from pollution source apportionment, understanding their global biogeochemical cycling and environmental fate to the correlation of the particle morphology and chemical make-up to health related issues. Airborne particles were collected in the city of Gaborone Botswana using a High Volume air-sampler. Samples were collected in the summer and winter months at a location bordering a busy highway and a low income high-human population density locality where un-controlled fossil fuel burning provides for the requisite energy requirements of the population in this locality. Morphologies and elemental compositions of particles were obtained using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS). Preliminary results suggest a complex mix of aggregates of carbonaceous-diesel particles, complex carbonaceous matter, and inorganic nano-crystals. Ambient air morphology and concentrations of particles (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone (O3) will be discussed. There is a notable influence of high traffic volumes to particle chemistry.

  4. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

  5. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séraphin C. Atidégla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot. Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens.

  6. Larval breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae in visceral leishmaniasis endemic urban areas in Southeastern Brazil.

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    Cláudio Casanova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5% were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi.

  7. Characteristics and recent trends of sulfur dioxide at urban, rural, and background sites in north China: effectiveness of control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Huarong; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    SO2 measurements made in recent years at sites in Beijing and its surrounding areas are performed to study the variations and trends of surface SO2 at different types of sites in Northern China. The overall average concentrations of SO2 are (16.8 +/- 13.1) ppb, (14.8 +/- 9.4) ppb, and (7.5 +/- 4.0) ppb at China Meteorological Administration (CMA, Beijing urban area), Gucheng (GCH, relatively polluted rural area, 110 km to the southwest of Beijing urban area), and Shangdianzi (SDZ, clean background area, 100 km to the northeast of Beijing urban area), respectively. The SO2 levels in winter (heating season) are 4-6 folds higher than those in summer. There are highly significant correlations among the daily means of SO2 at different sites, indicating regional characteristics of SO2 pollution. Diurnal patterns of surface SO2 at all sites have a common feature with a daytime peak, which is probably caused by the downward mixing and/or the advection transport of SO2-richer air over the North China Plain. The concentrations of SO2 at CMA and GCH show highly significant downward trends (-4.4 ppb/yr for CMA and -2.4 ppb/yr for GCH), while a less significant trend (-0.3 ppb/yr) is identified in the data from SDZ, reflecting the character of SDZ as a regional atmospheric background site in North China. The SO2 concentrations of all three sites show a significant decrease from period before to after the control measures for the 2008 Olympic Games, suggesting that the SO2 pollution control has long-term effectiveness and benefits. In the post-Olympics period, the mean concentrations of SO2 at CMA, GCH, and SDZ are (14.3 +/- 11.0) ppb, (12.1 +/- 7.7) ppb, and (7.5 +/- 4.0) ppb, respectively, with reductions of 26%, 36%, and 13%, respectively, compared to the levels before. Detailed analysis shows that the differences of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction were not the dominant factors for the significant differences of SO2 between the pre-Olympics and

  8. Analysis of Urban Heat Island (UHI in Relation to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI: A Comparative Study of Delhi and Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakriti Grover

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation and occurrence of urban heat island (UHI is a result of rapid urbanization and associated concretization. Due to intensification of heat combined with high pollution levels, urban areas expose humans to unexpected health risks. In this context, the study aims at comparing the UHI in the two largest metropolitan cities of India, i.e., Delhi and Mumbai. The presence of surface UHI is analyzed using the Landsat 5 TM image of 5 May 2010 for Delhi and the 17 April 2010 image for Mumbai. The validation of the heat island is done in relation to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI patterns. The study reveals that built-up and fallow lands record high temperatures, whereas the vegetated areas and water bodies exhibit lower temperatures. Delhi, an inland city, possesses mixed land use and the presence of substantial tree cover along roads; the Delhi Ridge forests and River Yamuna cutting across the city have a high influence in moderating the surface temperatures. The temperature reaches a maximum of 35 °C in West Delhi and a minimum of 24 °C in the east at the River Yamuna. Maximum temperature in East Delhi goes to 30 °C, except the border areas. North, Central and south Delhi have low temperatures (28 °C–31 °C, but the peripheral areas have high temperatures (36 °C–37 °C. The UHI is not very prominent in the case of Delhi. This is proven by the correlations of surface temperature with NDVI. South Delhi, New Delhi and areas close to River Yamuna have high NDVI and, therefore, record low temperatures. Mumbai, on the other hand, is a coastal city with lower tree cover than Delhi. The Borivilli National Park (BNP is in the midst of dense horizontal and vertical growth of buildings. The UHI is much stronger where the heat is trapped that is, the built-up zones. There are four small rivers in Mumbai, which have low carrying capacity. In Mumbai suburban district, the areas adjoining the creeks, sea and the lakes act as

  9. A phytosociology survey and vegetation description of inselbergs in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Brand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No previous scientific surveys have been conducted on inselbergs in the Drakensberg. The aim of this study was to collect specimens, identify, describe and name the vegetation clusters and assess biogeographical connections with other Afromontane regions. A total of 103 relevés where sampled from six inselbergs. The plant sampling was carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method with the plant and environmental data entered in TURBOVEG and exported as a Cornell Condensed format file (CC! into Juice. Classification was completed using TWINSPAN (Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (modified, resulting in 4 major communities, 11 communities, 13 sub-communities and 18 variants. Ordination (indirect was carried out using CANOCO (version 4.5 to investigate the relationship between species. The four major communities identified are Rhodohypoxis rubella (wetland grass and forblands, Scirpus ficinioides – Crassula peploides (sheet rock grass and forblands, Pentaschistis exserta (high-altitude alpine grassland, previously undescribed, and Merxmuellera drakensbergensis – Helichrysum trilineatum (high-altitude alpine fynbos grassland, described in other vegetation and floristic studies. Four habitats were identified, namely wetlands, sheet rock shallow soil, highaltitude alpine grassland and deep soil high-altitude fynbos grasslands. Substrate and moisture availability appeared to be the defining micro-climatic conditions determining the different vegetation clusters whilst altitude is the overriding environmental factor influencing all vegetation.Conservation implications: Rising temperatures as a result of carbon dioxide increase is predicted to drastically decrease the number of endemic and near-endemic montane species, whilst altering the composition of vegetation units which comprise the alpine vegetation.

  10. Heterogeneity of Soil and Vegetation in the Urban Habitats of New Industrial Cities in the Desert Landscape of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier Abd EL-GHANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.

  11. Measurements of hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles during ultrafine particle formation events at urban, industrial, and coastal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kihong; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Seung Ho

    2009-09-01

    The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique was applied to determine the hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles in three sites of urban Gwangju, industrial Yeosu, and coastal Taean in South Korea. A database for the hygroscopicity and volatility of the known compositions and sizes of the laboratory-generated particles wasfirst constructed for comparison with the measured properties of atmospheric ultrafine particles. Distinct differences in hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles werefound between a "photochemical event" and a "combustion event" as well as among different sites. At the Gwangju site, ultrafine particles in the "photochemical event" were determined to be more hygroscopic (growth factor (GF) = 1.05-1.33) than those in the "combustion event" (GF = 1.02-1.12), but their hygroscopicity was not as high as pure ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the laboratory-generated database, suggesting they were internally mixed with less soluble species. Ultrafine particles in the "photochemical event" at the Yeosu site, having a variety of SO2, CO, and VOC emission sources, were more hygroscopic (GF = 1.34-1.60) and had a higher amount of volatile species (47-75%)than those observed at the Gwangju site. Ultrafine particle concentration at the Taean site increased during daylight hours with low tide, having a higher GF (1.34-1.80) than the Gwangju site and a lower amount of volatile species (17-34%) than the Yeosu site. Occasionally ultrafine particles were externally mixed according to their hygroscopicity and volatility, and TEM/EDS data showed that each type of particle had a distinct morphology and elemental composition.

  12. 'Solurban' project - Solar utilisation potential of urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D.; Scartezzini, J.-L.; Montavon, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment (LESO-PB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Compagnon, R. [Ecole d' ingenieurs et d' architectes de Fribourg (EIAF), University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HES-SO), Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined three urban locations in Switzerland with respect to their potentials for using solar energy and daylight to reduce energy demands in the lighting, heating and hot-water generation areas. The three urban areas examined included the Matthaeus district in Basle with its older residential apartment buildings, the Bellevaux residential district of Lausanne and the Meyrin district in Geneva - a nineteen-sixties satellite town. The calculation methodology and the three-dimensional digital models used are discussed. The results, including radiation availability and sky-access are discussed. Appropriate active and passive solar technologies are reviewed.

  13. Emotional, restorative and vitalizing effects of forest and urban environments at four sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Korpela, Kalevi; Lee, Juyoung; Morikawa, Takeshi; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Park, Bum-Jin; Li, Qing; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Kagawa, Takahide

    2014-07-15

    The present study investigated the well-being effects of short-term forest walking and viewing ("forest bathing"). The hypothesis in our study was that both environment (forest vs. urban) and activity (walking and viewing) would influence psychological outcomes. An additional aim was to enhance basic research using several psychological methods. We conducted the experiments using 45 respondents in four areas of Japan from August to September, 2011. The hypothesis in our study was supported, because significant interaction terms between the environment and activity were confirmed regarding the Profile of Mood States (POMS) indexes, Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS) and Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS). No statistical differences between the two experimental groups in any of the ten scales were found before the experiment. However, feelings of vigor and positive effects, as well as feelings of subjective recovery and vitality were stronger in the forest environment than in the urban environment.

  14. Emotional, Restorative and Vitalizing Effects of Forest and Urban Environments at Four Sites in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Takayama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the well-being effects of short-term forest walking and viewing (“forest bathing”. The hypothesis in our study was that both environment (forest vs. urban and activity (walking and viewing would influence psychological outcomes. An additional aim was to enhance basic research using several psychological methods. We conducted the experiments using 45 respondents in four areas of Japan from August to September, 2011. The hypothesis in our study was supported, because significant interaction terms between the environment and activity were confirmed regarding the Profile of Mood States (POMS indexes, Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS and Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS. No statistical differences between the two experimental groups in any of the ten scales were found before the experiment. However, feelings of vigor and positive effects, as well as feelings of subjective recovery and vitality were stronger in the forest environment than in the urban environment.

  15. Iodine-131 in vegetation collected near the Hanford Site: Concentration and count data for 1948--1951. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, R.W.; Duncan, J.P.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from DOE`s Hanford Site. A major objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate doses to the thyroid of individuals who were exposed to iodine-131. A principal pathway for many of these individuals was milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 released into the air from Hanford facilities. The HEDR Project work is conducted under several technical and administrative tasks, among which is the Environmental Monitoring Data Task. Members of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task have developed databases of historical environmental measurements. These databases include iodine-131 concentrations for vegetation samples collected on and around the Hanford Site since 1944, the initial year in which the chemical separation plants were operated and whose effluents led to the release of radioactive iodine. These data will be used to assist in the HEDR model validation studies. To date, the vegetation data for 1945--1947 have been published. Because the factors used from 1945--1951 to convert raw count data to iodine-131 activity levels and to adjust reported iodine-131 activity levels did not account for all parameters affecting counting efficiency. Other conversion and correction factors need to be applied.

  16. Mapping and Assessment of PM10 and O3 Removal by Woody Vegetation at Urban and Regional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Fusaro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is the follow up of the URBAN-MAES pilot implemented in the framework of the EnRoute project. The study aims at mapping and assessing the process of particulate matter (PM10 and tropospheric ozone (O3 removal by various forest and shrub ecosystems. Different policy levels and environmental contexts were considered, namely the Metropolitan city of Rome and, at a wider level, the Latium region. The approach involves characterization of the main land cover and ecosystems using Sentinel-2 images, enabling a detailed assessment of Ecosystem Service (ES, and monetary valuation based on externality values. The results showed spatial variations in the pattern of PM10 and O3 removal inside the Municipality and in the more rural Latium hinterland, reflecting the spatial dynamics of the two pollutants. Evergreen species displayed higher PM10 removal efficiency, whereas deciduous species showed higher O3 absorption in both rural and urban areas. The overall pollution removal accounted for 5123 and 19,074 Mg of PM10 and O3, respectively, with a relative monetary benefit of 161 and 149 Million Euro for PM10 and O3, respectively. Our results provide spatially explicit evidence that may assist policymakers in land-oriented decisions towards improving Green Infrastructure and maximizing ES provision at different governance levels.

  17. Contextual variations in costs for a community health strategy implemented in rural, peri-urban and nomadic sites in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, Charles Ouma; Edwards, Nancy; Kaseje, Dan C O

    2017-02-28

    Many low and middle income countries have developed community health strategies involving lay health workers, to complement and strengthen public health services. This study explores variations in costing parameters pertinent to deployment of community health volunteers across different contexts outlining considerations for costing program scale-up. The study used quasi experimental study design and employed both quantitative and qualitative methods to explore community health unit implementation activities and costs and compare costs across purposively selected sites that differed socially, economically and ecologically. Data were collected from November 2010 to December 2013 through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. We interviewed 16 key informants (eight District community health strategy focal persons, eight frontline field officers), and eight focus group discussions (four with community health volunteers and four with community health committee) and 560 sets of monthly cost data. Cost data were tabulated using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data were transcribed and coded using a content analysis framework. Four critical elements: attrition rates for community health volunteers, geography and population density, livelihood opportunity costs and benefits, and social opportunity benefits, drove cost variations across the three sites. Attrition rate was highest in peri-urban site where population is highly mobile and lowest in nomadic site. More households were covered by community health workers in the peri-urban area making per capita costs considerably less than in the nomadic settings where long distances had to be covered to reach sparsely distributed households. Livelihood opportunity costs for Community Health Volunteers were highest in nomadic setting, while peri-urban ones reported substantial employability benefits resulting from training. Social opportunity benefits were highest in rural site. Results show that costs of implementing

  18. Understory vegetation response after 30 years of interval prescribed burning in two ponderosa pine sites in northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine A. Scudieri; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Sally M. Haase; Andrea E. Thode; Stephen S. Sackett

    2010-01-01

    Southwestern USA ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson var. scopulorum Engelm.) forests evolved with frequent surface fires and have changed dramatically over the last century. Overstory tree density has sharply increased while abundance of understory vegetation has declined primarily due to the near cessation of fires. We...

  19. Site specific diel methane emission mechanisms in landfills: A field validated process based on vegetation and climate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Danhui; Hao, Yongxia; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Chai, Xiaoli

    2016-11-01

    Diel methane emission fluxes from a landfill that was covered by vegetation were investigated to reveal the methane emission mechanisms based on the interaction of vegetation characteristics and climate factors. The methane emissions showed large variation between daytime and nighttime, and the trend of methane emissions exhibited clear bimodal patterns from both Setaria viridis- and Neyraudia reynaudiana-covered areas. Plants play an important role in methane transportation as well as methane oxidation. The notable decrease in methane emissions after plants were cut suggests that methane transportation via plants is the primary way of methane emissions in the vegetated areas of landfill. Within plants, the methane emission fluxes were enhanced due to a convection mechanism. Given that the methane emission flux is highly correlated with the solar radiation during daytime, the convection mechanism could be attributed to the increase in solar radiation. Whereas the methane emission flux is affected by a combined impact of the wind speed and pedosphere characteristics during nighttime. An improved understanding of the methane emission mechanisms in vegetated landfills is expected to develop a reliable model for landfill methane emissions and to attenuate greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Establishment and Data Collection of Vegetation-related Studies on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Study Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Brookshire; Daniel C. Dey

    2000-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment designed to determine the effects of forest management practices on important ecosystem attributes. MOFEP treatments evaluated include even-aged, uneven-aged, and no management treatments. Forest vegetation provides a common ecological link among many organisms and ecological processes, and therefore...

  1. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2015-05-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. Managing such blooms requires a sufficient understanding of the controlling environmental factors. A range of them has been proposed in the literature as potential triggers for cyanobacterial biomass development and cyanotoxin (e.g. microcystin) production in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question of whether the relevance of environmental triggers may depend on site-specific combinations of environmental factors. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and microcystin dynamics in three urban lakes in Western Australia. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial biomass, cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations were different between lakes, thus suggesting a site-specific effect of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration. For instance, we found no correlation between cyanobacterial fraction and total phosphorous (TP) in the lake with the highest TP concentration, while correlations were significant and negative in the other two lakes. In addition, our study indicates that the difference of the correlation between total iron (TFe) and the cyanobacterial fraction between lakes might have been a consequence of differences in the cyanobacterial community structure, specifically the presence or absence of nitrogen-fixing species. In conclusion, our study suggests that identification of significant environmental factors under site-specific conditions is an important strategy to enhance successful outcomes

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of ACT for the community case management of malaria in urban settings in five African sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traoré Abdoulaye

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The community case management of malaria (CCMm is now an established route for distribution of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in rural areas, but the feasibility and acceptability of the approach through community medicine distributors (CMD in urban areas has not been explored. It is estimated that in 15 years time 50% of the African population will live in urban areas and transmission of the malaria parasite occurs in these densely populated areas. Methods Pre- and post-implementation studies were conducted in five African cities: Ghana, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Malawi. CMDs were trained to educate caregivers, diagnose and treat malaria cases in Results Qualitative findings: In all sites, interviews revealed that caregivers' knowledge of malaria signs and symptoms improved after the intervention. Preference for CMDs as preferred providers for malaria increased in all sites. Quantitative findings: 9001 children with an episode of fever were treated by 199 CMDs in the five study sites. Results from the CHWs registers show that of these, 6974 were treated with an ACT and 6933 (99% were prescribed the correct dose for their age. Fifty-four percent of the 3,025 children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. From the household survey 3700 children were identified who had an episode of fever during the preceding two weeks. 1480 (40% of them sought treatment from a CMD and 1213 of them (82% had received an ACT. Of these, 1123 (92.6% were administered the ACT for the correct number of doses and days; 773 of the 1118 (69.1% children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from onset of symptoms, and 768 (68.7% were treated promptly and correctly. Conclusions The concept of CCMm in an urban environment was positive, and caregivers were generally satisfied with the services

  3. Factors influencing non-native tree species distribution in urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer

    2010-01-01

    Non-native species are presumed to be pervasive across the urban landscape. Yet, we actually know very little about their actual distribution. For this study, vegetation plot data from Syracuse, NY and Baltimore, MD were used to examine non-native tree species distribution in urban landscapes. Data were collected from remnant and emergent forest patches on upland sites...

  4. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust at an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China: sources and human exposure and health risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust from an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The PCB concentrations in house dust at the e-waste site ranged from 12.4 to 87 765 ng x g(-1), with an average of 10 167 ng x g(-1). There was no significant difference in the PCB concentrations between indoor and outdoor dust. The PCB homologue pattern was dominated by tri-, penta-, hexa-, and tetra-CBs, which was not similar to that in Chinese technical PCB product. There was also no significant difference in the PCB compositions between indoor and outdoor dust. PCB sources in house dust at the e-waste site were apportioned by chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The results showed that the PCBs were derived primarily from Aroclor 1262 (36.7% ), Aroclor 1254 (26.7%), Aroclor 1242 (21.4%), and Aroclor 1248 (18.5%). The daily exposure doses were 42, 17, and 2.9 ng x (kg x d)(-1) for toddlers, children/adolescents, and adults in the e-waste area, respectively. Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients were higher than 1 for toddlers and children/adolescents indicating adverse effects for them. The lifetime average excess carcinogenic risk for population in the e-waste area was 4.5 x 10(-5), within the acceptable range of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentrations of PCBs in house dust in Guangzhou was 48.7 ng x g(-1). The low PCB level is consistent with the fact that technical PCBs were not widely used in China in the past. The risks of exposure to PCBs via house dust in Guangzhou are very low.

  5. Relationship of atmospheric pollution characterized by gas (NO2) and particles (PM10) to microbial communities living in bryophytes at three differently polluted sites (rural, urban, and industrial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; Gilbert, Daniel; Gaudry, André; Franchi, Marielle; Nguyen, Hung Viet; Fabure, Juliette; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a major problem for modern societies owing to its fatal effects on both human health and ecosystems. We studied the relationships of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric pollution and metal trace elements contained in atmospheric particles which were accumulated in bryophytes to microbial communities of bryophytes at three differently polluted sites in France (rural, urban, and industrial) over an 8-month period. The analysis of bryophytes showed an accumulation of Cr and Fe at the rural site; Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, and Pb at the urban site; and Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Sr, Cu, and Zn at the industrial site. During this study, the structure of the microbial communities which is characterized by biomasses of microbial groups evolved differently according to the site. Microalgae, bacteria, rotifers, and testate amoebae biomasses were significantly higher in the rural site. Cyanobacteria biomass was significantly higher at the industrial site. Fungal and ciliate biomasses were significantly higher at the urban and industrial sites for the winter period and higher at the rural site for the spring period. The redundancy analysis showed that the physico-chemical variables ([NO(2)], relative humidity, temperature, and site) and the trace elements which were accumulated in bryophytes ([Cu], [Sr], [Pb]) explained 69.3% of the variance in the microbial community data. Moreover, our results suggest that microbial communities are potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship underlined by the observed patterns.

  6. Seasonal variation of ozone and black carbon observed at Paknajol, an urban site in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putero, D.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Adhikary, B.; Duchi, R.; Shrestha, S. D.; Verza, G. P.; Landi, T. C.; Calzolari, F.; Busetto, M.; Agrillo, G.; Biancofiore, F.; Di Carlo, P.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.; Bonasoni, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in south Asia is considered as one of the global "hot spots" in terms of urban air pollution. It is facing severe air quality problems as a result of rapid urbanization and land use change, socioeconomic transformation, and high population growth. In this paper, we present the first full year (February 2013-January 2014) analysis of simultaneous measurements of two short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P), i.e., ozone (O3) and equivalent black carbon (hereinafter noted as BC) and aerosol number concentration at Paknajol, in the city center of Kathmandu. The diurnal behavior of equivalent BC and aerosol number concentration indicated that local pollution sources represent the major contributions to air pollution in this city. In addition to photochemistry, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and wind play important roles in determining O3 variability, as suggested by the analysis of seasonal changes of the diurnal cycles and the correlation with meteorological parameters and aerosol properties. Especially during pre-monsoon, high values of O3 were found during the afternoon/evening. This could be related to mixing and entrainment processes between upper residual layers and the PBL. The high O3 concentrations, in particular during pre-monsoon, appeared well related to the impact of major open vegetation fires occurring at the regional scale. On a synoptic-scale perspective, westerly and regional atmospheric circulations appeared to be especially conducive for the occurrence of the high BC and O3 values. The very high values of SLCF/P, detected during the whole measurement period, indicated persisting adverse air quality conditions, dangerous for the health of over 3 million residents of the Kathmandu Valley, and the environment. Consequently, all of this information may be useful for implementing control measures to mitigate the occurrence of acute pollution levels in the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding area.

  7. Elemental and Organic Carbon in Atmospheric Aerosols at Two Urban Background Sites in Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Jaroslav; Chi, X.; Maenhaut, W.; Civiš, M.; Hovorka, J.; Smolík, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 99, 2-4 (2008), s. 287-302 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1560; GA MŠk OC 106; GA MŠk ME 941; GA MŽP(CZ) SM/9/86/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : organic and elemental carbon * urban aerosols * air mass trajectory Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.456, year: 2008

  8. Experimental study of a digital mobile radio spread spectrum in an urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzein, G.; Salehudin, M.; Daniel, A.; Bai, J. J.; Citerne, J.

    1989-12-01

    The investigation and results of a digital mobile radio at 910 MHz, using the spread spectrum for immediate sequencing is reported. The use of this links is with a communication system or a measuring system for characterization of the urban mobile radio channel. Effective performance measurement, accomplished with good theoretical agreement, is obviously better than spread spectrum. Effective propagation measurement on the true linkage is shown from the spatial and temporal variations on the external signal reception and also on the instantaneous flutter fadings of the impulse response of channel transmissions. These measurements allow the termination of a statistical model of channel transmission and the improvement of the quality of the multipath linkage.

  9. Problematic use of social networking sites among urban school going teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Parth Singh; Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Solanki, Ram Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook, Orkut and Twitter are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends and meet other people based on shared interests. An exponential rise in usage of Social Networking Sites have been seen within the last few years. Their ease of use and immediate gratification effect on users has changed the way people in general and students in particular spend their time. Young adults, particularly teenagers tended to be unaware of just how much time they really spent on social networking sites. Negative correlates of Social Networking Sites usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. the aim of the study was to find out whether teenagers, specially those living in cities spend too much time on social networking websites. 200 subjects, both boys and girls were included in the cross sectional study who were given a 20 item Young's internet addiction test modified for social networking sites. The responses were analyzed using chi square test and Fisher's exact test. 24.74% of the students were having occasional or 'frequency' problems while 2.02% of them were experiencing severe problems due to excessive time spent using social networking sites. With the ever increasing popularity of social media, teenagers are devoting significant time to social networking on websites and are prone to get 'addicted' to such form of online social interaction.

  10. Agreement between the Perceived and Actual Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Environments among Low-Income Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Tiffany L; Gazmararian, Julie A; Goodman, Michael; Kleinbaum, David

    2015-11-01

    The food environment is described by two measures: store-level (actual) and individual-level (perceived). Understanding the relationship between actual and perceived fruit and vegetable (F&V) nutrition environments is important as their association may influence F&V purchases and consumption. The study objective was to assess agreement between perceived and actual environment measures of availability, quality, and affordability/price for fresh and canned/frozen F&V. African American WIC recipients (n=84) self-reported perceptions corresponding to chain food stores (n=13) which were then assessed by surveyors. Nearly 80% of participants had positive perceptions of stores' F&V availability, quality, and affordability. Store assessments indicated high F&V availability and quality and lowest prices for canned varieties. Kappa statistics, sensitivity, and specificity calculated agreement between perceived and actual measures. Results indicated slight to fair agreements. Agreements were highest for quality measures (kappa=0.25 (95% CI:0.08-0.42), p=.008). Research implications include promoting nutrition education and resident interviewing to understand F&V expectations.

  11. Impact of sewage contaminated water on soil, vegetables, and underground water of peri-urban Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hidayat; Khan, Ikhtiar; Ullah, Ihsan

    2012-10-01

    The use of sewage-contaminated municipal water for irrigation of crops is an old practice in many big cities of Pakistan. Since the wastewater is rich in nutrients, it increases crops yield substantially but at the cost of food quality. The objective of this study was to investigate sewage water irrigation as a source of accumulation of heavy metals in soil and its subsequent transfer to crops and underground water. Sewage water, soil, groundwater, and crop samples were collected from selected areas around Peshawar city and analyzed for heavy metals concentration by atomic absorption spectroscopic method. Analysis of data revealed a considerable impact of the irrigation practices in the peri-urban Peshawar. Statistical analysis of the data showed a positive correlation between heavy metals concentration and soil carbon contents on the one hand and cation exchange capacity on the other. A strongly negative correlation was observed between metal contents and soil pH. The vertical movement of heavy metals from contaminated soil has polluted crops and underground water. The results indicated higher concentration of toxic metals in soil accumulated due to long-term sewage-contaminated water irrigation and their subsequent transfer to our food chain. The practice, if continued un-noticed may pose a threat of phytotoxicity to the local population.

  12. [Fertility and Environmental Impacts of Urban Scattered Human Feces Used as Organic Granular Fertilizer for Leaf Vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wen-zhou; Qiao, Yu-xiang; Yu, Ning; Shi, Rong-hua; Wang, Guang-ming

    2015-09-01

    The disposal of urban scattered human feces has become a difficult problem for the management of modern city. In present study, the scattered human feces underwent the collection, scum removal, flocculation and dehydration, finally became the granular fertilizer; the effects of the ratio of fertilizer to soil on the growth of the pakchoi and the quality of soil and leaching water were evaluated, and the feasibility of granular fertilizer manuring the pakchoi was discussed by pot experiments. The results showed that the granular fertilizer significantly enhanced the production of the pakchoi which were not polluted by the intestinal microorganisms under the experiment conditions; meanwhile, at the proper ratio of fertilizer to soil, the concentration of these microorganisms in the leaching water was lower than that in the control check. Chemical analyses of soil revealed that the nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matters in soil became much richer in all treatments. In addition, the granular fertilizer improved the physical- chemical properties of soil, including raising the level of soil porosity and reducing the volume weight of soil. Application of granular fertilizer won't pollute the soil or leaching water; instead, it can also prevent nitrogen, potassium and intestinal microorganisms from leaching inio ground water at the proper ratio of granular fertilizer to soil.

  13. Problematic use of social networking sites among urban school going teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Parth Singh; Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Solanki, Ram Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networking sites like Facebook, Orkut and Twitter are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends and meet other people based on shared interests. An exponential rise in usage of Social Networking Sites have been seen within the last few years. Their ease of use and immediate gratification effect on users has changed the way people in general and students in particular spend their time. Young adults, particularly teenagers tended to be unaware of just how much time they really spent on social networking sites. Negative correlates of Social Networking Sites usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. Aims: the aim of the study was to find out whether teenagers, specially those living in cities spend too much time on social networking websites. Materials and Methods: 200 subjects, both boys and girls were included in the cross sectional study who were given a 20 item Young's internet addiction test modified for social networking sites. The responses were analyzed using chi square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: 24.74% of the students were having occasional or ‘frequency’ problems while 2.02% of them were experiencing severe problems due to excessive time spent using social networking sites. Conclusion: With the ever increasing popularity of social media, teenagers are devoting significant time to social networking on websites and are prone to get ‘addicted’ to such form of online social interaction. PMID:24250039

  14. Problematic use of social networking sites among urban school going teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Singh Meena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social networking sites like Facebook, Orkut and Twitter are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends and meet other people based on shared interests. An exponential rise in usage of Social Networking Sites have been seen within the last few years. Their ease of use and immediate gratification effect on users has changed the way people in general and students in particular spend their time. Young adults, particularly teenagers tended to be unaware of just how much time they really spent on social networking sites. Negative correlates of Social Networking Sites usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. Aims: the aim of the study was to find out whether teenagers, specially those living in cities spend too much time on social networking websites. Materials and Methods: 200 subjects, both boys and girls were included in the cross sectional study who were given a 20 item Young′s internet addiction test modified for social networking sites. The responses were analyzed using chi square test and Fisher′s exact test. Results: 24.74% of the students were having occasional or ′frequency′ problems while 2.02% of them were experiencing severe problems due to excessive time spent using social networking sites. Conclusion: With the ever increasing popularity of social media, teenagers are devoting significant time to social networking on websites and are prone to get ′addicted′ to such form of online social interaction.

  15. Cultural tailoring for mammography and fruit and vegetable intake among low-income African-American women in urban public health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Sugg-Skinner, Celette; Holt, Cheryl L; Clark, Eddie M; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Fu, Qiang; Booker, Angela C; Steger-May, Karen; Bucholtz, Dawn

    2005-07-01

    It is widely accepted that disease prevention efforts should consider cultural factors when addressing the needs of diverse populations, yet there is surprisingly little evidence that doing so enhances effectiveness. The Institute of Medicine has called for randomized studies directly comparing approaches that do and do not consider culture. In a randomized trial, 1227 lower-income African-American women from 10 urban public health centers were assigned to either a usual care control group, or to receive a series of six women's health magazines with content tailored to each individual. By random assignment, these magazines were generated from either behavioral construct tailoring (BCT), culturally relevant tailoring (CRT) or both (BCT + CRT). The CRT magazines were based on four cultural constructs: religiosity, collectivism, racial pride, and time orientation. All tailored magazines sent to women ages 40-65 promoted use of mammography; magazines sent to women ages 18-39 promoted fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Analyses examined changes from baseline to 18-month follow-up in use of mammography and servings of FV consumed daily. Women receiving BCT + CRT magazines were more likely than those in the BCT, CRT, and control groups to report getting a mammogram (76% vs. 65% vs. 64% vs. 55%, respectively), and had greater increases in FV servings consumed daily (+0.96 vs. + 0.43 vs. + 0.25 vs. + 0.59). Systematically integrating culture into tailored cancer prevention and control interventions may enhance their effectiveness in diverse populations.

  16. Evaluation of ecological quality in peri-urban rivers in Mexico City: a proposal for identifying and validating reference sites using benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Caro-Borrero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and management of aquatic ecosystems that are significantly influenced by urban activities requires the classification and establishment of potential reference sites. However, in Latin American countries, policies are not available that outlines the identification and evaluation of such sites. Therefore, this study represents a proposal for evaluating the ecological quality of peri-urban rivers in the conservation soil (CS areas/zones of Mexico City. The proposal accounts for the zone’s physicochemical, hydromorphological, and bacteriological characteristics along with its macroinvertebrate richness. Our evaluation was performed using a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA and indicator values (IndVal calculated for different species. River headwaters serve/work as a good physicochemical point for potential references sites. However, the hydromorphology of the CS has been gradually modified by numerous hydraulic alterations within the peri-urban zone. Using the CCA and IndVal, two types of sites were confirmed: sites in a good state of conservation and quality and sites modified by human activity, featuring lower discharge flow, poor quality hydromorphological values and Oligochaeta class organisms. At the sites featuring a good state of conservation and quality, higher hydromorphological values were positively correlated with discharge flow and certain macroinvertebrate taxa, including Nemouridae, Podonominae, Tanypodinae, Acarina, Baetis, Tipula, Antocha, Atopsyche, Glossosoma, Polycentropus, Hesperophylax and Limnephilus. In the sites modified by human activity, the genus Simulium was classified as a disturbance-tolerant organism. The river reach within the urban zone is basically an open-air drainage ditch. Evaluations of the ecological quality of the riparian zone were used to identify the most important hydromorphological qualities and discharge flow parameters and to select the most appropriate factors that should be

  17. Source apportionment of PM 10 at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A. K.

    2007-03-01

    PM 10 and its chemical species mass concentrations were measured once in a week at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata for a period of 24 h during November 2003 to November 2004. At each monitoring site, 53 sets of daily average PM 10 samples were collected during the study period. Approximately 55% of the monitoring days are weekdays, while 45% are weekends. The PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 68.2 to 280.6 μg m - 3 at the residential site, and 62.4 to 401.2 μg m - 3 at the industrial site. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH), fluoranthene (Fl), pyrene (Py), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) have been analyzed using Gas Chromatoghaphy. Metals in PM 10 deposited on quartz microfibre filter papers were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer. Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM 10 concentrations. Total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC) and organic carbon (OC) were analyzed using a Carbon analyzer. Exposed quartz microfibre filter papers were also analyzed for water-soluble anions of fluoride (F -), chloride (Cl -), nitrate (NO 3-), phosphate (PO 43-) and sulfate (SO 42-) using ion chromatography. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA)/absolute principal component scores (APCS) model was applied to the mass concentrations of PM 10 and its chemical species. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation identified five possible sources; solid waste dumping, vehicular emission, coal combustion, cooking and soil dust at residential site. The extracted possible sources at the industrial site were vehicular emissions, coal combustion, electroplating industry, tyre wear and secondary aerosol. A quantitative estimation by principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) model

  18. Size-resolved source apportionment of carbonaceous particulate matter in urban and rural sites in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Walter A.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2011-08-01

    Very little is currently known about the relationship between exposure to different sources of ambient ultrafine particles (PM 0.1) and human health effects. If human health effects are enhanced by PM 0.1's ability to cross cell membranes, then more information is needed describing the sources of ultrafine particles that are deposited in the human respiratory system. The current study presents results for the source apportionment of airborne particulate matter in six size fractions smaller than 1.8 μm particle diameter including ultrafine particles (PM 0.1) in one of the most polluted air basins in the United States. Size-resolved source apportionment results are presented at an urban site and rural site in central California's heavily polluted San Joaquin Valley during the winter and summer months using a molecular marker chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) method. Respiratory deposition calculations for the size-resolved source apportionment results are carried out with the Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry Model ( MPPD v 2.0), including calculations for ultrafine (PM 0.1) source deposition. Diesel engines accounted for the majority of PM 0.1 and PM 1.8 EC at both the urban and rural sampling locations during both summer and winter seasons. Meat cooking accounted for 33-67% and diesel engines accounted for 15-21% of the PM 0.1 OC at Fresno. Meat cooking accounted for 22-26% of the PM 0.1 OC at the rural Westside location, while diesel engines accounted for 8-9%. Wood burning contributions to PM 0.1 OC increased to as much as 12% of PM 0.1 OC during the wintertime. The modest contribution of wood smoke reflects the success of emissions control programs over the past decade. In contrast to PM 0.1, PM 1.8 OC had a higher fraction of unidentified source contributions (68-85%) suggesting that this material is composed of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) or primary organic aerosol (POA) that has been processed by atmospheric chemical reactions. Meat cooking was the largest

  19. Woodland vegetation history and human impacts in south-central Anatolia 16,000-6500 cal BP: Anthracological results from five prehistoric sites in the Konya plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabukcu, Ceren

    2017-11-01

    This article addresses the development and palaeoecological history of woodland vegetation in the inland high-altitude plateaux of south-central Anatolia using wood charcoal remains from the sites of Pınarbaşı, Boncuklu, Can Hasan III, Çatalhöyük East, and Çatalhöyük West spanning the period ∼16,000-6500 cal BP. The anthracological evidence highlights the role of Juniperus, Amygdalus and Pistacia as pioneer species during periods of woodland expansion in south-central Anatolia when temperatures started to increase following the Last Glacial Maximum (evidenced at Epipalaeolithic Pınarbaşı). During the early Holocene, three habitation sites (Boncuklu, Can Hasan III, Pınarbaşı A) provide evidence for the presence of diverse semi-arid and riparian woodland habitats in the Konya plain of south-central Anatolia. The anthracological data provide insights into the establishment and spread of regionally significant woodland vegetation types such as the oak and juniper-dominated semi-arid steppe woodlands. It is argued that within the context of early Holocene climatic amelioration, and the first sedentary communities practising agro-pastoral economies, anthropogenic woodland habitats were established.

  20. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic for Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS Imagine and MrSID images of the eastern portion of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site...

  1. 2016 Vegetation Photographs of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One representative photo taken from each coastal wetland elevation monitoring site. Photos were taken from one corner of the plot and oriented within the plot. In...

  2. Decontamination around the site of Chernobylsk; Decontamination autour du site de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesse, D.; Rzepka, J.P.; Maubert, H.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the decontamination of the site around the nuclear plant of Chernobylsk after the reactor accident of 1986. The work of decontamination in urban areas, buildings, fields and vegetation are detailed. The interventions to reduce the contamination of surface waters and to protect ground waters are also given. (N.C.).

  3. Urban Conservation Policies and Plans for a World Heritage Site Case: Antique Pergamon City and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçer, Mehmet

    2017-10-01

    Izmir’s Pergamon (Bergama) Antique City and Its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape entered the UNESCO World Heritage List with the participation of 21 countries in the 38th World Heritage Committee Meeting held in Doha, Qatar’s capital in between 15 - 25 June 2014. Bergama became the 999th WORLD HERITAGE. Bergama, which has been in operation since 2010, has entered the list as a Multi-layered Cultural Landscape Area. The main purpose of this paper will explain and summarize of urban and archaeological conservation efforts for Pergamon since 1992 to 2014. In the paper also aimed to give the conservation policies of public administrations which mainly central /Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Ministry of Environment/ and local /Bergama Municipality, Gen. Directorate of Vakiflar. Turkey is one of the 10 original member states to establish UNESCO. 9 cities in Turkey are included in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites. Further, 23 sites have been nominated and are included in the tentative list. The activities aimed to include the district of Bergama in the UNESCO World Heritage List are ongoing in the years 2009-2014. All the efforts have been made carry this unique antique city to the UNESCO Heritage List at 2014. As an Urban Conservation Planner, I had a change of preparing the FIRST Conservation Aimed Plans and urban designs for Urban and Archaeological Sites of Pergamon together with my team, in the years between 1992-94. We prepared conservation aimed plans for all of the areas of Acropolis, Middle City and Ottoman period urban conservation areas. Urban and archaeological sites of Pergamon the ancient city today, which is over two thousand years old, where scientists, archaeologists, architects, art historians, urban planners, sculptors and similar arts and culture, men talk about admiration, write about and write praises, face to face some deterioration and destruction. As a conservation planner working on Pergamon since 1992, I’ will concentrate the

  4. The migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soil-vegetation cover at accidental underground nuclear explosion site «Kraton 3»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Chevychelov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report studies on content and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr artificial radionuclides in soil-vegetation cover at «Kraton 3» accidental underground nuclear explosion site. This site is located in the territory of northwestern Yakutia, within the northern taiga subzone of the permafrost-taiga region of eastern Siberia boreal belt. In geomorphological aspect, this object belongs to steep slope of the divide connecting the flood-lands of the Markha River and peneplain of the divide. Sod-carbonate (redzina soils prevail in soil cover of «Kraton 3» underground nuclear explosion site. This type of soil is typically characterized by a thin soil profile, weak alkaline reaction, heavy granulometric composition, saturated soil-absorbing complex, and drastically decreasing profile distribution of humus. Despite the considerable time after the accident, the radiation situation at the site is still very disturbing. Gamma ray background radiation levels at the site varied from 10 to 200 μR/h, which were 2–25 folds higher than average natural background radiation. The isotope contamination densities in soils of sites interconnected along the drainage were 34–1025 kBq/m2 for 137Cs and 57–781 kBq/m2 for 90Sr, which exceeded 30–1000 times the global fallout levels of these radionuclides. The rates of vertical migration of studied radionuclides were also determined as 0.11–0.84 % (137Cs and 0.79–1.44 % (90Sr per year of total radiation contamination density. The minimum vertical migration rates of 137Cs (0.11 % were observed in leached sod-carbonate soil, while maximum rates (0.84 % were determined in immature sod-carbonate soil, the profile of which lacks organogenic and humus-accumulative horizons. The migratory capabilities of 137Cs and 90Sr in this soil were very close and made 0.84 and 0.79 % respectively. Migration factors of 137Cs and 90Sr in permafrost soils of the studied area were determined with the use of principal component

  5. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA youth in Baltimore, MD. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10–14 y dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. Results On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth’s healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06–1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15–1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23–1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03–1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01–1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04–1.16. Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9. In addition, youth shopping more

  6. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-08-24

    Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV) are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA) youth in Baltimore, MD. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10-14 y) dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice) and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake) controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD) servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth's healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15-1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23-1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03-1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01-1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04-1.16). Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9). In addition, youth shopping more frequently at supermarkets were more likely to have greater vegetable

  7. Combining active and passive seismic methods for the characterization of urban sites in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Ashraf; Poggi, Valerio; Fäh, Donat; Hassoup, Awad; Omran, Awad

    2017-07-01

    The geology at Kottamiya, Rehab City and Zahraa-Madinat-Nasr to the East of Cairo (Egypt) is composed of low-velocity sediments on top of a rigid rock basement. Such sediments include the loose sands of the Gebel Ahmar formation, marl and shales of Maadi formation, in addition to sparse quaternary soil covers. Due to the contrast of the seismic impedance with the underlying bedrock, these soft sediments have the potential of considerably amplifying the ground motion during an earthquake. For the evaluation of site-specific seismic hazard, we computed the seismic site response in these areas by developing 1-D velocity models and derived average seismic velocities, including Vs30. To do that, we applied different active and passive source techniques, including the horizontal to vertical Fourier spectral ratio of ambient vibration recordings and multichannel analysis of artificially generated surface waves. A set of models representing the velocity structure of the site is then obtained by combined inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves and ellipticity functions. While dispersion curves are used to constrain the uppermost low-velocity part of the soil profile, ellipticity helps in resolving the structure at the depth of the sediment-bedrock interface. From the retrieved velocity models, numerical ground-motion amplification is finally derived using 1-D SH-wave transfer function. We account for uncertainty in amplification by using a statistical model that accounts for the misfit of all the inverted velocity profiles. The study reveals that the different sites experience an important frequency-dependent amplification, with largest amplification occurring at the resonance frequencies of the sites. Amplification up to a factor of 5 is found, with some variability depending on the soil type (Vs30 ranges between 340 and 415 m s-2). Moreover, amplification is expected in the frequency range that is important for buildings (0.8-10 Hz), which is additional confirmation

  8. Radical budget and ozone chemistry during autumn in the atmosphere of an urban site in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Chen, Nan; Wang, Yuhang; Cao, Wenxiang; Zhu, Bo; Yao, Teng; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2017-03-01

    The ROx (=OH + HO2 + RO2) budget and O3 production at an urban site in central China (Wuhan) during autumn were simulated and analyzed for the first time using a UW Chemical Model 0-D box model constrained by in situ observational data. The daytime average OH, HO2, and RO2 concentrations were 2.2 × 106, 1.0 × 108, and 5.2 × 107 molecules cm-3, respectively. The average daytime O3 production rate was 8.8 ppbv h-1, and alkenes were the most important VOC species for O3 formation (contributing 45%) at this site. Our sensitivity test indicated that the atmospheric environment in Wuhan during autumn belongs to the VOC-limited regime. The daily average HONO concentration at this site during the study period reached 1.1 ppbv and played an important role in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Without the source of excess HONO, the average daytime OH, HO2, RO2, and O3 production rates decreased by 36%, 26%, 27%, and 31% respectively. A correlation between the HONO to NO2 heterogeneous conversion efficiency and PM2.5 × SWR was found at this site; based on this relationship, if the PM2.5 concentration met the World Health Organization air quality standard (25 µg m-3), the O3 production rate in this city would decrease by 19% during late autumn. The burning of agricultural biomass severely affected the air quality in Wuhan during summer and autumn. Agricultural burning was found to account for 18% of the O3 formation during the study period. Our results suggest that VOC control and a ban on agricultural biomass burning should be considered as high-priority measures for improving the air quality in this region.

  9. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management....

  10. Hourly elemental concentrations in PM2.5 aerosols sampled simultaneously at urban background and road site during SAPUSS – diurnal variations and PMF receptor modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hourly-resolved aerosol chemical speciation data can be a highly powerful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. Aerosol mass concentrations of seventeen elements (Na, Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb were obtained by time (1 h and size (PM2.5 particulate matter 2.5 mass fraction simultaneously measured at the UB and RS sites: (1 the regional aerosol sources impact both monitoring sites at similar concentrations regardless their different ventilation conditions; (2 by contrast, local industrial aerosol plumes associated with shipping oil combustion and smelters activities have a higher impact on the more ventilated UB site; (3 a unique source of Pb-Cl (associated with combustion emissions is found to be the major (82% source of fine Cl in the urban agglomerate; (4 the mean diurnal variation of PM2.5 primary traffic non-exhaust brake dust (Fe-Cu suggests that this source is mainly emitted and not resuspended, whereas PM2.5 urban dust (Ca is found mainly resuspended by both traffic vortex and sea breeze; (5 urban dust (Ca is found the aerosol source most affected by land wetness, reduced by a factor of eight during rainy days and suggesting that wet roads may be a solution for reducing urban dust concentrations.

  11. A stable isotope approach for source apportionment of chlorinated ethene plumes at a complex multi-contamination events urban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Pellegatti, Eleonora; Paramatti, Enrico; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Gargini, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of chlorinated aliphatic compounds such as chlorinated methanes, ethanes and ethenes was examined as an intrinsic fingerprint for apportionment of sources. A complex field site located in Ferrara (Italy), with more than 50years history of use of chlorinated aliphatic compounds, was investigated in order to assess contamination sources. Several contamination plumes were found in a complex alluvial sandy multi-aquifer system close to the river Po; sources are represented by uncontained former industrial and municipal dump sites as well as by spills at industrial areas. The carbon stable isotope signature allowed distinguishing 2 major sources of contaminants. One source of chlorinated aliphatic contaminants was strongly depleted in ¹³C (-40‰ which is commonly observed in recent production of chlorinated solvents. The degradation processes in the plumes could be traced interpreting the isotope enrichment and depletion of parent and daughter compounds, respectively. We demonstrate that, under specific production conditions, namely when highly chlorinated ethenes are produced as by-product during chloromethanes production, ¹³C depleted fingerprinting of contaminants can be obtained and this can be used to track sources and address the responsible party of the pollution in urban areas. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The occurrence and sources of heavy metal contamination in peri-urban and smelting contaminated sites in Baoji, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenbo; Li, Xuxiang; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition, soil, plant, ore, and coal cinder samples were collected and analyzed to determine heavy metal concentrations in a typical peri-urban industrial area of Baoji. The lead isotope ratio method was employed to trace the source and dispersion of atmospheric heavy metal contamination. Results showed that concentrations of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in atmospheric deposition significantly exceed soil background levels and Chinese soil environmental quality standards. The most polluted sites were located in the downwind direction of the smelter, which confirmed this site to be the major pollution source for this area. The other source of heavy metals in this area is a power plant. The investigation into lead isotopes revealed compositions in atmospheric deposition samples were similar to those in ores and coal cinders identifying smelting as the predominant pollution source of lead with the power plant having a minimal effect. Similar isotopic compositions were also found in plants, indicating that the major source of lead in plants was derived from atmospheric deposition, although some evidence was found to suggest uptake from the soil to the roots as an additional contaminant pathway.

  13. Abundance and sources of hydrophilic and hydrophobic water-soluble organic carbon at an urban site in Korea in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Shik; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Jeong, Jae-Uk

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of total water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and isolated WSOC fractions were examined to gain a better understanding of the pathway of organic aerosol production. 24 h PM(2.5) samples were collected during the summer (July 28-August 28, 2009) at an urban site in Korea. A glass column filled with XAD7HP resin was used to separate the filtered extracts into hydrophilic (WSOC(HPI)) and hydrophobic (WSOC(HPO)) fractions. The origins of air mass pathways arriving at the sampling site were mostly classified into three types, those originating over the East Sea of Korea that passed over the eastern inland urban and industrial regions (type I); those from the marine (western/southwestern/southern marine) and passed over the national industrial complex regions (type II); and those from northeastern China that passed through North Korea and metropolitan areas of South Korea (type III). Measurements showed an increase in the average WSOC fraction of total OC from the type II to III air mass (53 to 64%) periods. Also, higher SO(4)(2-)/SO(x) (=SO(2) + SO(4)(2-)) was observed in the type III air mass (0.70) than those in the types I (0.49) and II (0.43). According to the average values of WSOC/OC and SO(4)(2-)/SO(x), measurements suggest that the aerosols collected during the type III air mass period were more aged or photo-chemically processed than those during the types I and II air mass periods. The relationship between the SO(4)(2-)/SO(x) and WSOC/OC (R(2) = 0.64) suggests that a significant fraction of the observed WSOC at the site could be formed by an oxidation process similar to SO(4)(2-) aerosols, probably the oxidation process using OH radicals, or in-cloud processing. The photochemical production of WSOC(HPO) was also observed to significantly contribute to the total OC.

  14. Speciation of particulate carbonaceous species at an urban-background site in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatari, Michael; Lavrich, Richard; Preston, Bill; Gaita, Samuel; Hays, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Tropospheric aerosols have adverse implications on human health, climate, and visibility. Particles in combustion source emissions have complex physical and chemical characteristics. They regularly contain Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) molecules that can be harmful to human health. Combustion particles in the atmosphere can acts as mutagens or carcinogens and tend to be in the PM2.5 size range (particles with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 μm or less) and are thus able to access the alveolar region of the respiratory system. Much of the urban carbonaceous aerosol is related to traffic emissions. Generally, particle concentration levels and the abundance of molecular species in atmospheric aerosols are not well studied in developing countries. This study is the first to investigate hydrocarbons (HC) levels in the city of Nairobi, Kenya. The human population in Nairobi is increasing rapidly as is the use of on-road vehicles. Total-suspended particle matter (PM35) in Nairobi air was collected for 24h on quartz fiber filters using a high volume sampler (flow rate = 1130 LPM). The sampling system was used in earlier U.S. air pollution studies but was donated in 1997 by California Air Research Board (CARB) USA to the University of Nairobi's Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology via a World Health Organization (WHO) twinning program. The sampler was placed 20 m above the Earth's surface in a Main Campus building at the University of Nairobi. USEPA analyzed the particle mass for organic markers using direct thermal extraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS). A thermal optical method was used for determination of the organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon in the PM. Ten samples was analyzed for roughly sixty-four HC species. Four filter samples were taken in August and six in October 2006. Of these species, 21 to 26 were PAH. The results show different concentrations between August and October depicting the influence of a regional aerosol. The

  15. Validation of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Retrievals over a Tropical Urban Site, Pune, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sanjay; Kuman, P. Pradeep; Gupta, Pawan; Devara, P. C. S.; Aher, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, MODIS (Terra and Aqua; level 2, collection 5) derived aerosoloptical depths (AODs) are compared with the ground-based measurements obtained from AERONET (level 2.0) and Microtops - II sun-photometer over a tropical urban station, Pune (18 deg 32'N; 73 deg 49'E, 559 m amsl). This is the first ever systematic validation of the MODIS aerosol products over Pune. Analysis of the data indicates that the Terra and Aqua MODIS AOD retrievals at 550 nm have good correlations with the AERONET and Microtops - II sun-photometer AOD measurements. During winter the linear regression correlation coefficients for MODIS products against AERONET measurements are 0.79 for Terra and 0.62 for Aqua; however for premonsoon, the corresponding coefficients are 0.78 and 0.74. Similarly, the linear regression correlation coefficients for Microtops measurements against MODIS products are 0.72 and 0.93 for Terra and Aqua data respectively during winter and are 0.78 and 0.75 during pre-monsoon. On yearly basis in 2008-2009, correlation coefficients for MODIS products against AERONET measurements are 0.80 and 0.78 for Terra and Aqua respectively while the corresponding coefficients are 0.70 and 0.73 during 2009-2010. The regressed intercepts with MODIS vs. AERONET are 0.09 for Terra and 0.05 for Aqua during winter whereas their values are 0.04 and 0.07 during pre-monsoon. However, MODIS AODs are found to underestimate during winter and overestimate during pre-monsoon with respect to AERONET and Microtops measurements having slopes 0.63 (Terra) and 0.74 (Aqua) during winter and 0.97 (Terra) and 0.94 (Aqua) during pre-monsoon. Wavelength dependency of Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) shows presence of absorbing and scattering aerosol particles. For winter, SSA decreases with wavelength with the values 0.86 +/- 0.03 at 440 nm and 0.82 +/- 0.04 at 1020nm. In pre-monsoon, it increases with wavelength (SSA is 0.87 +/- 0.02 at 440nm; and 0.88 +/-0.04 at 1020 nm).

  16. Lead accumulation and association with Fe on Typha latifolia root from an urban brownfield site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Wu, Meiyin; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Zhu, Qingzhi; Zhang, Kewei; Liu, Chang-Jun; Tappero, Ryan

    2013-06-01

    Synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge microstructure spectroscopy techniques were applied to Typha latifolia (cattail) root sections and rhizosphere soils collected from a brownfield site in New Jersey to investigate lead (Pb) accumulation in T. latifolia roots and the role of iron (Fe) plaque in controlling Pb uptake. We found that Pb and Fe spatial distribution patterns in the root tissues are similar with both metals present at high concentrations mainly in the epidermis and at low concentrations in the vascular tissue (xylem and phloem), and the major Pb and Fe species in T. latifolia root are Pb(II) and Fe(III) regardless of concentration levels. The sequestration of Pb by T. latifolia roots suggests a potential low-cost remediation method (phytostabilization) to manage Pb-contaminated sediments for brownfield remediation while performing wetland rehabilitation.

  17. Ultrastructural alterations in the mouse lung caused by real-life ambient PM{sub 10} at urban traffic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, Constantini, E-mail: csamara@chem.auth.gr [Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thesaloniki (Greece); Kouras, Athanasios; Kaidoglou, Katerina [Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thesaloniki (Greece); Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida-Niki; Simou, Chrysanthi; Bousnaki, Maria [Laboratory of Histology-Embryology and Anthropology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thesaloniki (Greece); Kelessis, Apostolos [Environmental Department, Municipality of Thessaloniki, Kleanthous 18, 54 642 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-11-01

    Current levels of ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. Nevertheless, current knowledge does not allow precise quantification or definitive ranking of the health effects of individual PM components and indeed, associations may be the result of multiple components acting on different physiological mechanisms. In this paper, healthy Balb/c mice were exposed to ambient PM{sub 10} at a traffic site of a large city (Thessaloniki, northern Greece), in parallel to control mice that were exposed to filtered air. Structural damages were examined in ultrafine sections of lung tissues by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM). Ambient PM{sub 10} samples were also collected during the exposure experiment and characterized with respect to chemical composition and oxidative potential. Severe ultrastructural alterations in the lung tissue after a 10-week exposure of mice at PM{sub 10} levels often exceeding the daily limit of Directive 2008/50/EC were revealed mainly implying PM-induced oxidative stress. The DTT-based redox activity of PM{sub 10} was found within the range of values reported for traffic sites being correlated with traffic-related constituents. Although linkage of the observed lung damage with specific chemical components or sources need further elucidation, the magnitude of biological responses highlight the necessity for national and local strategies for mitigation of particle emissions from combustion sources. - Highlights: • Animal exposure to PM10 was conducted at a traffic site of a large city. • Chemical and toxicological characterization of PM10 was carried out. • Severe degenerative alterations in alveolar cells were revealed. • PM induced oxidative stress from carbonaceous species was suggested.

  18. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Source and meteorological influences on air quality (CO, CH4 & CO2) at a Southern Hemisphere urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, R. R.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Kubistin, D.; Caldow, C.; Fisher, J. A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Kettlewell, G.; Riggenbach, M.; Macatangay, R.; Krummel, P. B.; Langenfelds, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Wollongong, Australia is an urban site at the intersection of anthropogenic, biomass burning, biogenic and marine sources of atmospheric trace gases. The location offers a valuable opportunity to study drivers of atmospheric composition in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, a record of surface carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured with an in situ Fourier transform infrared trace gas analyser between April 2011 and August 2014. Clean air was found to arrive at Wollongong in approximately 10% of air masses. Biomass burning influence was evident in the average annual cycle of clean air CO during austral spring. A significant negative short-term trend was found in clean air CO (-1.5 nmol mol-1 a-1), driven by a reduction in northern Australian biomass burning. Significant short-term positive trends in clean air CH4 (5.4 nmol mol-1 a-1) and CO2 (1.9 μmol mol-1 a-1) were consistent with the long-term global average trends. Polluted Wollongong air was investigated using wind-direction/wind-speed clustering, which revealed major influence from local urban and industrial sources from the south. High values of CH4, with anthropogenic ΔCH4/ΔCO2 enhancement ratio signatures, originated from the northwest, in the direction of local coal mining. A pollution climatology was developed for the region using back trajectory analysis and ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Ozone production environments in austral spring and summer were associated with anticyclonic meteorology on the east coast of Australia, while ozone depletion environments in autumn and winter were associated with continental transport, or fast moving trajectories from southern latitudes. This implies the need to consider meteorological conditions when developing policies for controlling air quality.

  20. Use of Transient Electromagnetic Soundings (tem) to Locate Urban Solid Wastes Disposal Sites, in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Moran, T.; Hurtado, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities and their impact cause complex alterations in the natural quality of superficial and groundwater. Urban solid waste disposal represented an important source of contamination of groundwater. One of the main problems of the Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz area is the urgent necessity to close some dumps, actually in operation. At present, the municipal government has the project of selecting an urban waste disposal site that fulfills the official ecological norms, with appropriate geologic conditions and a useful life of 15 years. Study area, El Rebozo 1, is covered for sandy - clays from Filisola Formation. Also has outcrops of shales belonging to the Nanchital Formation. This Formation presents low porosity and permeability. It could serve as container in the construction of the landfill. We carried out 6 transient electromagnetic soundings (TEM), to determine the thickness and distribution of this formation in depth and to establish the existence of aquifers. The geophysical studies were carried out along a line of 680 m, with variable separation among stations between 150 m to 250 m, crossing the study area in SW direction. Results of TEM survey, geological, hydrological information and drilling survey confirmed the wide distribution in the studied area of the shale layer from the Nanchital Formation. The average thickness of the shale layer is 70 m and it presents low possibilities of storing an important aquifer. It could be considered as an impermeable layer that can be used as base for the construction of the landfill. Underlying the shale layer there are sandy-clays that could reduce the possible lixiviation from the landfill. Use of TEM provides larger advantages than the conventional electric methods (SEV's) and also more detailed information on the geologic and hydro-geologic conditions from the underground. The integration of geophysical methods with other disciplines allows more integrated systematic research in hydrogeology and

  1. Seismic site survey investigations in urban environments: The case of the underground metro project in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Colberg-Larsen, J.; Ploug, C.

    2009-05-01

    Near surface geophysics applications are gaining more widespread use in geotechnical and engineering projects. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey time, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of wide-scale geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face great challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic pre-investigation was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using seismic methods to obtain information about the subsurface layer locations and media properties in Copenhagen. Such information is needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling related to the Cityringen underground metro project. The pre-investigation objectives were to validate methods in an urban environment and optimize field survey procedures, processing and interpretation methods in urban settings in the event of further seismic investigations. The geological setting at the survey site is characterized by several interlaced layers of clay, till and sand. These layers are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present varying thickness, overlaying several different unit types of limestone at shallow depths. Specific results objectives were to map the bedrock surface, ascertain a structural geological framework and investigate bedrock media properties relevant to the construction design. The seismic test consisted of a combined seismic reflection and refraction analyses of a profile line conducted along an approximately 1400 m section in the northern part of Copenhagen, along the projected metro city line. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 10 m spacing. Complementarily, six vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were performed at boreholes located along the line. The reflection

  2. Retrieving Vegetation Water Content from MODIS, High Resolution and Ground Data in the SMOS VAS Cal/Val Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, F.; Cernicharo, J.; Martinez, B.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Ground measurements are required to calibrate/validate remote sensing products. This work describes a method to derive vegetation water content (VWC) maps at medium resolution from ground data, applied to the VAS (Valencia Anchor Station) cal/val area for SMOS soil moisture products. The method is based on a transfer function that establishes an empirical relationship between in-situ data and reflectance values retrieved from high resolution (CHRIS/PROBA, TM/LANDSAT) and medium resolution (MODIS/TERRA+AQUA) imagery. The up-scaling process is developed in two steps: (1) by using in-situ values with CHRIS and TM data to derive high resolution ground based maps over small regions, and (2) using the high resolution maps with MODIS data to produce the medium resolution ground based maps over the whole region. The convex hull technique has been proposed to assess the transfer function interpolation quality. Results obtained by applying the selected band combination of bands show cross validation errors (RC=0.221 kg/m2 and RC=0.051 kg/m2 for high-resolution and RC=0.386 kg/m2 for medium resolution) lower than traditional spectral indices ones, good correlations with observed data and a high interpolation capacity (70% and 95%). VWC mean values at medium resolution range between 0.04 kg/m2, for non-irrigated areas, and 0.7 kg/m2, for irrigated crops.

  3. Fractional bio-accessibility: A new tool for Pb risk assessment from urban garden soils and superfund sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pb contamination of urban soils and its strong association with elevated blood Pb concentrations, especially in children, has raised concerns about whether gardens should be recommended for urban areas. Reliable evaluation of the potential hazard to the public from exposure to urban garden soils gr...

  4. Endophytic root bacteria associated with the natural vegetation growing at the hydrocarbon-contaminated Bitumount Provincial Historic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Natalie P; Helgason, Bobbi L; Germida, James J

    2017-06-01

    The Bitumount Provincial Historic site is the location of 2 of the world's first oil-extracting and -refining operations. Despite hydrocarbon levels ranging from 330 to 24 700 mg·(kg soil)-1, plants have been able to recolonize the site through means of natural revegetation. This study was designed to achieve a better understanding of the plant-root-associated bacterial partnerships occurring within naturally revegetated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Root endophytic bacterial communities were characterized from representative plant species throughout the site by both high-throughput sequencing and culturing techniques. Population abundance of rhizosphere and root endosphere bacteria was significantly influenced (p bacteria was influenced by both plant species and sampling location. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the potential functional diversity of the root endophytic bacteria. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and 2 hydrocarbon-degrading genes (CYP153 and alkB) were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the interaction of plant species and sampling location. Our findings suggest that some of the bacterial communities detected are known to exhibit plant growth promotion characteristics.

  5. A landscape ecology approach identifies important drivers of urban biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Tabea; Knop, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Cities are growing rapidly worldwide, yet a mechanistic understanding of the impact of urbanization on biodiversity is lacking. We assessed the impact of urbanization on arthropod diversity (species richness and evenness) and abundance in a study of six cities and nearby intensively managed agricultural areas. Within the urban ecosystem, we disentangled the relative importance of two key landscape factors affecting biodiversity, namely the amount of vegetated area and patch isolation. To do so, we a priori selected sites that independently varied in the amount of vegetated area in the surrounding landscape at the 500-m scale and patch isolation at the 100-m scale, and we hold local patch characteristics constant. As indicator groups, we used bugs, beetles, leafhoppers, and spiders. Compared to intensively managed agricultural ecosystems, urban ecosystems supported a higher abundance of most indicator groups, a higher number of bug species, and a lower evenness of bug and beetle species. Within cities, a high amount of vegetated area increased species richness and abundance of most arthropod groups, whereas evenness showed no clear pattern. Patch isolation played only a limited role in urban ecosystems, which contrasts findings from agro-ecological studies. Our results show that urban areas can harbor a similar arthropod diversity and abundance compared to intensively managed agricultural ecosystems. Further, negative consequences of urbanization on arthropod diversity can be mitigated by providing sufficient vegetated space in the urban area, while patch connectivity is less important in an urban context. This highlights the need for applying a landscape ecological approach to understand the mechanisms shaping urban biodiversity and underlines the potential of appropriate urban planning for mitigating biodiversity loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Levels of particulate matter in rural, urban and industrial sites in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Viana, M.M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra del CSIC, C/Luis Sole y Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artinano, B.; Salvador, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Mediambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, CEAM. Parque tecnologico, C-4, sector oeste, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Santos, S. Garcia do; Patier, R. Fernandez [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra. Majadahonda-Pozuelo, km n. 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); De La Rosa, J.; De la Campa, A. Sanchez [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Huelva, Campus Universitario de la Rabida, La Rabida, 21819 Huelva (Spain); Menendez, M.; Gil, J.J. [Departamento Mineralogia y Petrologia. Universidad del Pais Vasco, Aptdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    This paper summarises the results of a series of studies on the interpretation of time series of levels of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter (PM, <10 {mu}m) in six regions of Spain in the period 1996-2000. In addition to the local pollution events, high PM10 episodes are recorded during African dust outbreaks, regional atmospheric recirculation events (mainly in spring to autumn), and to a lesser extent, under the influence of European and Mediterranean long range transported air masses. The lowest PM10 levels are usually recorded under Atlantic air mass advective conditions. All these regional and large-scale processes account for the relatively high PM10 levels recorded in regional background stations in Spain. Thus, the PM10 levels recorded at EMEP (Cooperative Program for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe) regional background stations between March 2001 and March 2002 are very close to the annual limit value proposed for 2010 by the EU Air Quality Directive 1999/30/CE. Chemical data obtained for the different monitoring stations during 2001 show a high mineral load in PM10 for most of the study sites in Spain. Furthermore, a high marine aerosol load is evidenced in the Canary Islands. These mineral and marine loads are lower when considering PM2.5, but a relatively high proportion (8-21%) of mineral dust is still present.

  7. A thick homogeneous vegetated cover design proves cost - and schedule-effective for the reclamation of uranium mills sites near Spokane, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacklaw, J.; Robertson, G.; Stoffel, D.; Ahmad, J.; Fordham, E. [Washington State Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has licensed two medium sized uranium mills with tailings impoundments covering 28 and 40 hectares (70 and 100 acres), respectively, The uranium mill licensees have submitted closure and reclamation plans to the state, and site-specific conditions have determined the closure design features, Conventional uranium mill cover designs usually incorporate an overall cap of one to three meters, which includes a low-permeability clay barrier layer. A technical evaluation of several uranium mill facilities that used this design was published in the fall of 1994 and reported that unexpected vegetation root damage had occurred in the low-permeability clay (or bentonite amended) barrier layers. The technical report suggested that the low-permeability design feature at some sites could be compromised within a very short time and the regulatory goal of 1,000 years performance might not be achieved. In October 1994, WDOH sponsored a technical forum meeting to consider design alternatives to address these reliability concerns. Representatives from the federal government, nuclear industry, licensees, engineering firms, and state regulatory agencies attended the workshop. Risk factors considered in the evaluation of the uranium mill reclamation plans include: (1) radon gas emanation through the cover (the air pathway), and (2) migration of hazardous and/or radioactive constituents (the groundwater pathway). Additional design considerations include site structural stability, longevity of 1,000 years, and no active (ongoing) maintenance. 9 refs.

  8. Environmental Impact Statement for BOMARC Missile Site, McGuire AFB, New Jersey. Volume 1, Sections 1 through 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-22

    the site is an Urban Land Unit. By definition, the Urban Land Units are variable in their composition U and morphology . 3.2.8.3 Test Pit Data for...production of vegetables, fruits, cranberries, blueberries , dairy products, field crops, ornamentals, and horses (Orange County Planning Board, 1988b

  9. Vegetative changes in boreal peatlands along salinity gradients resulting from produced water spills : implications for the environmental assessment and remediation of upstream oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, D.; Harris, C.; Meier, M. [AECOM Canada Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In the province of Alberta, there are approximately 8,000 registered oil effluent and produced pipelines that have significant potential for ruptures and spills due to the highly corrosive nature of the emulsions and produced water they transport. Most releases occur in or adjacent to northern boreal wetlands. The first objective in spill response involves assessment and remediation for residuals, which involves handling and disposal of large volumes of salinized water. This presentation reported on a study that addressed the issues regarding the ecological features of semi-terrestrial and semi-aquatic components of boreal wetland environments as a basis for environmental protection at salt release sites. The fate of salt ions in such environments was examined along with the implications for secondary succession and ecological restoration. The study also examined the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in soils or water beyond which there is an inhibition to wetlands plants and bryophyte secondary succession; the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in water beyond which there may be adverse effects on invertebrates, vertebrates and other non-plant taxa; and species sensitivity distributions for floral and faunal assemblages found in boreal wetland habitats. The presentation summarized the 3 phases of a project that examined pipeline ruptures at 9 sites. Field methods and site sampling summaries were presented. It was difficult to locate study sites with residual salt contamination in surface media at concentrations above effects threshold for many species. It was concluded that the departures between surface and subsurface salinity indicates a smaller potential for effects on site vegetation. tabs., figs.

  10. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  11. A vegetação secundária em um fragmento florestal urbano: influência de exóticas invasoras na comunidade vegetal. Secondary vegetation in a urban forest remnant: alien species influence on plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2016-06-01

    urbanization. However, some small reserves protected by laws still sustain natural vegetation remnants.This work was developed in one of these reserves the Alberto Löfgren State Park – PEAL. We aimed to detect the successional stage of secondary vegetation of PEAL and check the influence of alien species in the successional process.We conducted a phytosociological survey in a 4.8 ha continuous forest patch, where 30 plots of 20 x 20 m were randomly distributed and individual shrubs and trees with a perimeter at breast height – PBH ≥ 15 cm were sampled. A total of 121 species (35 exotic, belonging to 102 genera and 44 families were recorded. Eleven species were categorized as endangered. The Shannon diversity and the Pielou equability indexes were 3.38 and 0.70 respectively, and the total density was 1,400 ind.ha-1. Half of the 12 species of highest importance value was alien species. We concluded that PEAL has a high degree of biological invasion, which may cause serious damage to the natural succession process in areas under recovery. In order to prevent the spread of alien species into the natural forests of Cantareira Range, we recommend the adoption of an integrated program that includes the alien species control and regional native species enrichment if needed. In this work we indicated the exotic species that should be managed first in order to restore the ecological sucession.

  12. Modifications to the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum by Hedgerows - Observations from a field site in Northern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian

    2016-04-01

    UK farming practices have changed significantly over the past 100 years. This is evident in arable fields, where the use of larger machinery has led to the removal of hedgerows. In the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK this has led to a doubling in field size since 1892. The national-wide change is responsible for longer slope lengths, increased runoff velocities and greater potential for connectivity, which may be responsible for an increase in flood risk at the catchment scale. However there is a lack of physical evidence to support this theory. Hedgerows are a widespread, man-made boundary feature in the rural UK landscape. They play an important ecological role in providing shelter, changing the local climate, reducing erosion and have a strong influence on local soil properties. Their impact on hydrology has not been widely studied but it is hypothesised that their presence could alter soil moisture levels and the soil structure, therefore affecting runoff. This paper presents observations of a hedgerow on the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum, through 15 months field monitoring conducted in the River Skell catchment. Firstly, to assess soil moisture levels TDR probes were installed at different depths and distances from the hedgerow. To assess the soil quality and therefore its infiltration capacity, soil cores were collected to determine soil horizons and root density. Also, laboratory tests were undertaken to determine the soil type and the porosity. Secondly, to assess the physical impact of the hedgerow plant on the partitioning of rainfall, gauges were installed to capture the spatial distribution of rainfall, along a transect perpendicular to the hedgerow, as well as stemflow. Throughfall gauges were also installed within the hedgerow and leaf area index calculated. Thirdly, to assess the impact of the hedgerow on the micro-climate, temperature sensors and four leaf wetness sensors were installed to determine evapotranspiration and interception

  13. Vegetation-derived insights on the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides from the Nopal I natural analog site, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, B.W.; Pickett, D.A.; Pearcy, E.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico is a source term and contaminant transport natural analog to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In an attempt to characterize the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone at the Nopal I deposit, vegetation growing on ore piles was analyzed for {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 232}Th decay-series isotopes. Specimens of Phacelia robusta growing on high-grade piles of U ore were collected and analyzed by alpha autoradiography, and by alpha and gamma spectrometry. Activities for U, thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) isotopes (Bq/kg dried plant) were 300, 1,000, and 7,000 for {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 226}Ra, respectively. The {sup 226}Ra activities in these specimens are among the highest ever measured for plants; furthermore, the plant-to-soil {sup 226}Ra concentration ratio is higher than expected. These results demonstrate the large mobility and bio-availability of Ra in the Nopal I environment, and support previous indications of recent loss of {sup 226}Ra from the ore body. Comparison between the activities of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th decay-chain Th isotopes in the plants and in the ore substrate indicate that relative mobilization into pore solutions of {sup 228}Th > {sup 230}Th > {sup 232}Th, in a ratio of about 50--25:4:1, respectively. The similarity of the plant's {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio ({approximately}1.2) to that of a caliche deposit that formed adjacent to the Nopal ore body around 54 ka suggests the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio of U released from the ore is approximately 1.2. The U and {sup 226}Ra isotope activities of the plants and ore substrate, and solubility considerations, are used to assess a source term model of the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These results suggest the use of a natural analog source term model in performance assessments may be non-conservative.

  14. Observation of nighttime nitrous acid (HONO) formation at a non-urban site during PRIDE-PRD2004 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Cheng, Ya Fang; Cheng, Peng; Zhang, Yuan Hang; Dong, Shuofei; Zeng, Li Min; Wang, Xuesong; Slanina, Jacob; Shao, Min; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    Though the importance of HONO as an OH precursor has been recognized for years, its chemical formation pathway is still not well understood. This inhibited the simulations of HONO and observation-based formation rates provided an alternative for the air quality models. However, HONO formation rate derived from certain period may be significantly influenced by uncertainties in transport and emission processes. In this study the use of large sample and scaling methods were recommended in the calculation of HONO formation rate. During the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over Pear River Delta (PRIDE-PRD2004), good correlations between HONO and NO2 were found supporting the involvement of NO2 in HONO formation. An average NO2-to-HONO nighttime conversion rate CHONO of 1.6%h-1 was derived at a non-urban site Xinken. This conversion rate was comparable to other field measurements and could not be explained by gas phase reactions only. If assumed that HONO was formed only on the ground surface, the observed conversion rate could be explained by the reactions of NO2 on ground surfaces only if three deposited NO2 lead to one HONO released. The emission factor of HONO and its sampling interferences during the measurements were also evaluated in this article.

  15. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5)DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock

    2003-04-30

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), with a goal of characterizing the ambient fine particulate in this region, including examination of urban/rural variations, correlations between PM{sub 2.5} and gaseous pollutants, and influences of artifacts on PM{sub 2.5} measurements in this region. Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected were all part of existing local and/or state air quality programs. One urban site was located in the Lawrenceville section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at an air quality monitoring station operated by the Allegheny County Health Department. A second urban site was collocated at a West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) monitoring station at the airport in Morgantown, West Virginia. One rural site was collocated with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) at a former NARSTO-Northeast site near Holbrook, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The other rural site was collocated at a site operated by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OHEPA) and managed by the Ohio State Forestry Division in Gifford State Forest near Athens, Ohio. Analysis of data collected to date show that: (1) the median mass and composition of PM{sub 2.5} are similar for both Lawrenceville and Holbrook, suggesting that the sites are impacted more by the regional than by local effects; (2) there was no significant differences in the particulate trending and levels observed at both sites within seasons; (3) sulfate levels predominate at both sites, and (4) PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} mass concentration levels are consistently higher in summer than in winter, with intermediate levels being observed in the fall and spring. Data analysis focusing on relating the aerometric measurements to local and regional

  16. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  17. Fine and coarse PM composition and sources in rural and urban sites in Switzerland: local or regional pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Querol, X; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2012-06-15

    The chemical composition and sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Switzerland were studied. PM(1) and PM(10) samples were collected in winter and summer at an urban background site in Zurich and a rural background site in Payerne. Concentrations of major and trace elements, NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), organic and elemental carbon were determined. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM(10) and PM(1) concentrations varied similarly at both sites, with average PM(10) concentrations 24-25 μg/m(3) and 13-14 μg/m(3) in winter and summer, respectively, and average PM(1) concentrations 12-17 μg/m(3) and 6-7 μg/m(3). The influence of local sources was found to be higher in winter. PM was dominated by nitrate and organic matter in winter, and by mineral matter and organic matter in summer. Trace element concentrations related to road traffic (Zn, Cu, Sb, Sn) were higher at Zurich. Concentrations of Tl and Cs, attributed to the influence of a glass industry, were higher at Payerne. The elements mainly present in the coarse fraction were those related to mineral matter and brake and tyre abrasion (Cu, Mn, Ti, Sb, Sr, Bi, Li, La, Nd), and those in the fine fraction were related to high temperature anthropogenic processes (Pb, As, Cd, Tl, Cs). Common PM(1) and PM(1-10) sources identified by PMF were: ammonium nitrate, present in winter, negligible in summer; ammonium sulfate+K(biomass burning)+road traffic; and road traffic itself, related to exhaust emissions in PM(1) and to road dust resuspension in PM(1-10). Size-fraction specific sources were: a PM(1) glass industry source characterized by Cs, Tl, Rb, Li and Na, only present in Payerne; a PM(1) background source characterized by V, Ni, sulfate and Fe; two PM(1-10) mineral-related sources, with higher contribution in summer; a PM(1-10) salt source; and a PM(1-10) organic source, with higher contribution in summer, attributed to bioaerosols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  18. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing vegetation toxicity at the Savannah River Site - germination tests and root elongation trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Klaine, S.J.; Hook, D.D. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Plants form the basis of all ecosystems including wetlands. Although they are the most abundant life form and are the primary producers for all other organisms, they have received the least attention when it comes to environmental matters. Higher plants have rarely been used in ecotoxicity testing and may not respond in the same manner as algae, which have been used more frequently. The introduction of hazardous waste materials into wetland areas has the potential to alter and damage the ecological processes in these ecosystems. Measuring the impact of these contaminants on higher plants is therefore important and needs further research. Higher plants are useful for detecting both herbicidal toxicity and heavy metal toxicity. For phytotoxicity tests to be practical they must be simple, inexpensive, yet sensitive to a variety of contaminants. A difference between seed germination and root elongation tests is that seed germination tests measure toxicity associated with soils directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents that may be present in site samples.

  19. Total Vegetation 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1992 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University for use in the...

  20. Total Vegetation 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1984 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  1. Total Vegetation 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1965 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  2. Total Vegetation 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1973 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  3. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Antonio Cutolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further.

  4. Spatial distribution and concentration of sulfur in relation to vegetation cover and soil properties on a reclaimed sulfur mine site (Southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likus-Cieślik, Justyna; Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Szostak, Marta; Szulczewski, Melanie

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to assess the spatial distribution and concentration of sulfur in the topsoil layer and to determine the relationships between sulfur concentration, soil pH, soil electrical conductivity, and plant cover at the reforested site of the former sulfur mine (Southern Poland). Soil samples were collected from 0 to 20 cm (topsoil) from a total of 86 sampling points in a regular square grid with sides of 150 m. Plant cover was assayed in circular plots with an area of 100 m 2 , divided into a woody plant layer and herbaceous plant layer. Soil properties such as particle size distribution, pH in KCl and H 2 O, soil electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N T ), and total sulfur (S T ) were determined. The degree of soil contamination with sulfur was assessed based on the guidelines of the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation (IUNG), Poland. The results indicate that remediation and application of lime were not fully effective in spatial variation, because 33 points with sulfur contamination above 500 mg kg -1 were observed. These spots occurred irregularly in the topsoil horizons. This high sulfur concentration in the soil did not result in severe acidification (below 4.5) in all cases, most likely due to neutralization from the application of high doses of flotation lime. High vegetative cover occurred at some points with high soil sulfur concentrations, with two points having S concentration above 40,000 mg kg -1 and tree cover about 60%. Numerous points with high soil EC above 1500 μS cm -1 as well as limited vegetation and high soil sulfur concentrations, however, indicate that the reclamation to forest is still not completely successful.

  5. Not just a rural occurrence: differences in agricultural equipment crash characteristics by rural-urban crash site and proximity to town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Karisa K; Greenan, Mitchell; Ramirez, Marizen

    2014-09-01

    Although approximately one-third of agricultural equipment-related crashes occur near town, these crashes are thought to be a rural problem. This analysis examines differences between agricultural equipment-related crashes by their urban-rural distribution and distance from a town. Agricultural equipment crashes were collected from nine Midwest Departments of Transportation (2005-2008). Crash zip code was assigned as urban or rural (large, small and isolated) using Rural-Urban Commuting Areas. Crash proximity to a town was estimated with ArcGIS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of crashing in an urban versus rural zip codes and across rural gradients. ANOVA analysis estimated mean distance (miles) from a crash site to a town. Over four years, 4444 crashes involved agricultural equipment. About 30% of crashes occurred in urban zip codes. Urban crashes were more likely to be non-collisions (aOR=1.69[1.24-2.30]), involve ≥2 vehicles (2 vehicles: aOR=1.58[1.14-2.20], 3+ vehicles: aOR=1.68[0.98-2.88]), occur in a town (aOR=2.06[1.73-2.45]) and within one mile of a town (aOR=1.65[1.40-1.95]) than rural crashes. The proportion of crashes within a town differed significantly across rural gradients (Purban-rural distribution (Pagricultural equipment are unexpectedly common in urban areas and near towns and cities. Education among all roadway users, increased visibility of agricultural equipment and the development of complete rural roads are needed to increase road safety and prevent agricultural equipment-related crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10 in ambient air. Receptor modeling was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF for trace element data from an urban background site in Zürich, Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1−0.1, PM2.5−1 and PM10−2.5: secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  7. Carbonaceous and inorganic aerosols over a sub-urban site in peninsular India: Temporal variability and source characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, A. R.; Hegde, Prashant; Nair, Prabha R.

    2018-01-01

    PM10 aerosol samples collected from a sub-urban site in Coimbatore during pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter from 2014 to 2016 showed a large variability from 7.6 to 89 μg m- 3 with an annual average of 41 ± 21 μg m- 3 (N = 69). High abundance of PM10 and other components were recorded during winter and lowest during monsoon period. Total carbonaceous aerosols and water soluble ionic species contributed to 31% and 45% of PM10 mass respectively. SO42 - was the most abundant species (average 9.8 ± 4.8 μg m- 3) and constituted for 24% of total mass. Organic Carbon (OC) was the next most abundant species ranging from 1 to 16 μg m- 3 with an average of 7 ± 3.6 μg m- 3 accounting for 17% of PM10 mass concentration. POC (primary organic carbon) and SOC (secondary organic carbon) accounted for 56% and 44% of OC respectively. A major portion of OC ( 60%) was found to be water soluble. The correlation between OC and EC (elemental carbon) was found to be higher for night-time compared to daytime suggesting their origin from common sources during night-time. K+ was found to be strongly correlated with OC during night-time. WSOC showed good correlation with POC and K+ which was high especially during night-time. WSON (water soluble organic nitrogen) accounted for 34% of water soluble total nitrogen (WSTN). HCO3- exhibited significant positive correlation with Ca2 + during daytime indicating their crustal origin. The observations suggest that the region is influenced by biomass burning sources, however during day-time, secondary production and terrestrial sources (due to high temperature and wind) significantly influence the atmospheric aerosols over this region.

  8. Study of particulate matters and carbon monoxide at an urban site of India: Role of dust storm and biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R.

    2016-12-01

    Real time measurements of PM2.5, PM10 and CO were conducted under the Indian national project Modeling Atmospheric Pollutants and Networking (MAPAN) at an urban site of Udaipur in India from April 2011 to March 2012. The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and CO show highest values during morning and evening rush hours, while lowest in the afternoon hours. Yearly assessments of both particulate and gaseous species show higher values from winter to pre-monsoon period and lower values during the monsoon period. The biomass burning emission, long-range transport and local meteorology favoured elevated levels of pollutants in the pre-monsoon and winter seasons. However, the higher values of PM10/PM2.5 ratio during pre-monsoon season were caused by the episodes of dust storm. Flow of cleaner air, rainfall, negligible emissions from biomass burning sources resulted in the lowest levels of pollutants during monsoon season. The ambient levels of PM2.5, PM10 and CO during weekends were reduced by about 12%, 9% and 8.1%, respectively. In each season, the lowest PM10/PM2.5 ratio coincides with highest concentrations of pollutants indicating predominant emissions from anthropogenic sources. The levels of PM2.5 and CO increased with decrease in PBL depth, while PM10 and O3 tend to increased with increase in PBL depth. Exceptionally high mass concentrations of PM10 during the episode of dust storm were due to transport of dust from the Arabian Peninsula and Thar Desert. Relatively low levels of O3 and NOx during the storm periods indicate the role of heterogeneous removal.

  9. Ambient particulate matter and carbon monoxide at an urban site of India: Influence of anthropogenic emissions and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi; Sahu, L K; Beig, G; Tripathi, Nidhi; Jaaffrey, S N A

    2017-06-01

    Continuous measurements of PM2.5, PM10 and CO were conducted at an urban site of Udaipur in India from April 2011 to March 2012. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and CO were 42 ± 17 μg m(-3), 114 ± 31 μg m(-3) and 343 ± 136 ppbv, respectively. Concentrations of both particulate and CO showed high values during winter/pre-monsoon (dry) period and lowest in the monsoon season (wet). Local anthropogenic emission and long-range transport from open biomass burning sources along with favourable synoptic meteorology led to elevated levels of pollutants in the dry season. However, higher values of PM10/PM2.5 ratio during pre-monsoon season were caused by the episodes of dust storm. In the monsoon season, flow of cleaner air, rainfall and negligible emissions from biomass burning resulted in the lowest levels of pollutants. The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and CO showed highest values during morning and evening rush hours, while lowest in the afternoon hours. In winter season, reductions of PM2.5, CO and PM10 during weekends were highest of 15%, 13% and 9%, respectively. In each season, the highest PM2.5/PM10 ratio coincided with the highest concentrations of pollutants (CO and NOX) indicating predominant emissions from anthropogenic sources. Exceptionally high concentrations of PM10 during the episode of dust storm were due to transport from the Arabian Peninsula and Thar Desert. Up to ∼32% enhancements of PM10 were observed during strong dust storms. Relatively low levels of O3 and NOx during the storm periods indicate the role of heterogeneous removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  11. Relationship between carbonaceous components and aerosol light absorption during winter at an urban site of Gwangju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Shik; Son, Se-Chang

    2017-03-01

    To examine the relationship between the chemical composition of light-absorbing organic aerosols and the absorption properties of the aerosols, daily PM2.5 samples were collected during winter at an urban site of Gwangju, Korea, and analyzed for organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC and EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), humic-like substances (HULIS), and water-soluble inorganic substances. The real-time black carbon (BC) concentration in PM2.5 was also measured using a dual-spot aethalometer. During the study period, average WSOC/OC and HULIS-C/WSOC ratios were 0.53 and 0.52, respectively. K+/EC and K+/OC ratios indicate that biomass burning (BB) emissions are a possible source of the observed carbonaceous aerosols and K+. Moderate-to-strong correlations of HULIS with NO3-, oxalate, SO42 -, K+, CO, and ΔBC (= BC@370 nm - BC@880 nm) suggest that in addition to the primary BB emissions, secondary processing is another important contributor to the formation of HULIS in winter at the site. The average absorption Ångstrӧm exponent (α) of fine aerosols for the wavelengths of 370-950 nm and 590-950 nm was 1.29 and 1.18, respectively, but the aerosol α value was higher in the near UV wavelength range (370-520 nm), with an average of 1.51 (0.76-2.36), indicating that aerosol absorption characteristics during winter were influenced by BB aerosol sources, as well as by traffic emissions. Over the study period, the α370-520 nm value during the highest EC, highest OC, and Asian dust events was 1.42 ± 0.10 (1.26-1.59), 1.44 ± 0.15 (1.16-1.68), and 1.90 ± 0.28 (1.54-2.36), respectively. Higher α370-520 nm values during the Asian dust event were attributed to the influence of dust particles. In addition, the light absorption coefficients of aerosols at 370 nm were strongly correlated with OC (R2 = 0.76), water-insoluble OC (R2 = 0.70), and water-soluble HULIS (R2 = 0.64). These tight correlations suggest that water-insoluble fractions of OC, as well as the

  12. The ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a Mediterranean ecosystem of Castelporziano (Rome: site characteristics, climatic and meteorological conditions, and eco-physiology of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere-atmosphere interactions were investigated on a sandy dune Mediterranean ecosystem in a field campaign held in 2007 within the frame of the European Projects ACCENT and VOCBAS. The campaign was carried out in the Presidential estate of Castelporziano, a peri-urban park close to Rome. Former campaigns (e.g. BEMA performed in Castelporziano investigated the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC. These campaigns focused on pseudosteppe and evergreen oak groves whereas the contribution of the largely biodiverse dune vegetation, a prominent component of the Mediterranean ecosystem, was overlooked. While specific aspects of the campaign will be discussed in companion papers, the general climatic and physiological aspects are presented here, together with information regarding BVOC emission from the most common plant species of the dune ecosystem. During the campaign regular air movements were observed, dominated by moderate nocturnal land breeze and diurnal sea breeze. A regular daily increase of ozone concentration in the air was also observed, but daily peaks of ozone were lower than those measured in summer on the same site. The site was ideal as a natural photochemical reactor to observe reaction, transport and deposition processes occurring in the Mediterranean basin, since the sea-land breeze circulation allowed a strong mixing between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions and secondary pollutants. Measurements were run in May, when plant physiological conditions were optimal, in absence of severe drought and heat stress. Foliar rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were as high as generally recorded in unstressed Mediterranean sclerophyllous plants. Most of the plant species emitted high level of monoterpenes, despite measurements being made in a period in which emissions of volatile isoprenoids could be restrained by developmental and environmental factors, such as leaf age and relatively low air temperature

  13. Sites of Liberation or Sites of Despair?: The Challenges and Possibilities of Democratic Education in an Urban Public School in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantzopoulos, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the possibilities of critical democratic education through the lived experiences of students at an urban U.S. public school. I show how students shape their own educational trajectories amid larger meta-narratives about schooling to illuminate the complexities and paradoxes of democratic schools. I argue that democratic…

  14. Soil surface temperatures reveal moderation of the urban heat island effect by trees and shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas are major contributors to air pollution and climate change, causing impacts on human health that are amplified by the microclimatological effects of buildings and grey infrastructure through the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Urban greenspaces may be important in reducing surface...... the adverse impacts of urbanization on microclimate, soil processes and human health....... temperature extremes, but their effects have not been investigated at a city-wide scale. Across a midsized UK city we buried temperature loggers at the surface of greenspace soils at 100 sites, stratified by proximity to city centre, vegetation cover and land-use. Mean daily soil surface temperature over 11...

  15. Home Gardening Near a Mining Site in an Arsenic-Endemic Region of Arizona: Assessing Arsenic Exposure Dose and Risk via Ingestion of Home Garden Vegetables, Soils, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M.

    2013-01-01

    The human-health risk posed by gardening near the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund Site in Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common household vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their household gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water > garden soils > homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener’s daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10−8 to 10−4, 10−6 to 10−4, and 10−5 to 10−2, respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae >> Fabaceae > Amaranthaceae > Liliaceae > Brassicaceae > Solanaceae >> Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10−6. The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg−1, 5.39 mg kg−1, 11.6 mg kg−1 and 12.4 mg kg−1 for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities. PMID:23562690

  16. Evaluation of the urban tile in MOSES using surface energy balance observations

    OpenAIRE

    Best, M. J.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Villani, Maria Gabriella

    2006-01-01

    The UK Met Office has introduced a new scheme for its urban tile in MOSES 2.2\\ud (Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme version 2.2), which is currently implemented within\\ud the operational Met Office weather forecasting model. Here, the performance of the urban\\ud tile is evaluated in two urban areas: the historic core of downtown Mexico City and a light\\ud industrial site in Vancouver, Canada. The sites differ in terms of building structures and\\ud mean building heights. In both cases vegetation...

  17. Aerosol black carbon at an urban site-Srinagar, Northwestern Himalaya, India: Seasonality, sources, meteorology and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mudasir Ahmad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Beig, Gufran

    2017-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) mass concentration was measured first-time at a high altitude urban site-Srinagar (1600 m asl), in northwestern Himalaya, India using an Aethalometer during 2013 to study temporal variations (monthly, diurnal and seasonal), meteorological influences, source and its radiative forcing. Diurnal variations with two peaks (at 8-10 h and 20-23 h) and two dips (at 13-17 h and 0-3 h) were observed throughout the year with varying magnitude. November and April showed the highest (13.6 μg/m3) and the lowest (3.4 μg/m3) mean monthly BC concentration respectively. Seasonally, autumn displayed the highest (9.2 μg/m3) and spring the lowest (3.5 μg/m3) mean BC concentration. Annual average BC concentration was quite higher (6 μg/m3) than those reported for other high altitude stations. Wind speed, Minimum temperature and total precipitation showed a clear negative correlation with BC (r = -0.63, -0.51 and -0.55 respectively), while as, the evening relative humidity showed positive correlation (r = 0.56). During autumn, spring and winter seasons, the main source of BC at Srinagar is the biomass burning, while during summer season, equal contribution of BC is from fossil fuel and biomass burning. Back trajectory simulations revealed that, except summer, westerly air masses are the dominant winds, transporting BC from central Asia, west Asia, south Asia, Africa and some parts of Europe to Srinagar adding to its local sources. Clear-sky short wave radiative forcing of atmosphere due to BC was highest (58.2 W m-2) during autumn which leads to the increase in lower atmospheric heating rate by 1.6 K/d. The high concentration of BC observed over the high-altitude Himalayan Kashmir region has serious implications for the regional climate, hydrology and cryosphere which needs to be investigated.

  18. Temporal variability in aerosol composition at an urban site, Varanasi in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Kirpa; Norra, Stefan; Yuan, Chen; Venkata Satish, Rangu; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2017-04-01

    PM2.5 aerosol samples (n=31) were collected from an urban site, Varanasi (25° 28'N, 83°0' E) in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain during May 2015 to March 2016 using a mini-volume sampler (Leckel GmbH, Germany) at a flow rate of 200 l/hr. The PM2.5 samples were integrated for 7 days and were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC & EC), water-soluble OC (WSOC), organic and inorganic nitrogen (ON & IN) and water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS) to study the geochemical behavior of aerosols. The mass concentration of OC and EC varies from 4.2 to 105.2 (average: 32.8) μg m-3 and 1.2 to 7.0 (average: 4.6) μg m-3 during the study period with total carbonaceous aerosols (TCA=1.6*OC+EC), on an average, accounting for ˜59% of PM2.5 mass. Relatively high WSOC/OC ratio (average: 0.55±0.18; range 0.18-0.86) indicate a significant contribution from the secondary organic aerosols at Varanasi. The concentration of ON varies from less than detection limit to 5.3 (average: 2.4) μg m-3 which contribute to ˜12% of WSOC highlighting the presence of nitro-organic compounds in aerosols at Varanasi. The average WSIS contribution to PM2.5 is only 17% with a strong seasonal variability (range: 4-36%). Generally, carbonaceous and inorganic aerosol concentration is higher during winter, fall and post-monsoon that those in the summer when dust aerosol contribution is significant (as high as 75% of PM2.5 mass). This study highlights the role of nitro-organic compounds in secondary organic aerosols which is lacking in Indian aerosols. Furthermore, these aerosol samples could be very important for the study of particle morphology and composition using scanning-electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray due to lower impaction in the mini-volume sampler.

  19. Oxidative potential of ambient fine aerosol over a semi-urban site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anil; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2018-02-01

    Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) receives emissions from variety of pollutant sources such as post-harvest crop residue burning, vehicles, industries, power plants, and bio-fuel burning. Several studies have documented physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol over the IGP; however, their oxidative potential (OP) has not yet documented. Present study reports the OP (measured through dithiothreitol (DTT) assay) of soluble particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) over Patiala (30.3°N, 76.4°E, 249 m amsl), a semi-urban site located in the IGP, during winter 2014. Volume-normalized OP (range: 1.3-7.2 nmol DTT min-1 m-3, average: 3.8 ± 1.4, 1σ) is found to be ∼3 to 20 times higher, and mass-normalized OP (range: 13-50 pmol DTT min-1 μg-1, average: 27 ± 8, 1σ) is found to be similar or higher than those documented in literature. Further, observed OP is found to depend more on PM2.5 composition rather than mass concentration. Mass fractions of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) correlate positively whereas that of secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA, sum of the concentrations of SO42-, NO3- and NH4+) correlate negatively with OP μg-1 at considerable significance level (p < 0.05). Negative correlation of SIA with OP μg-1 has been assessed in laboratory experiment and attributed to their DTT inactive nature. It is suggested to use WSOC/SIA ratio as a measure of DTT activity of secondary particles over the study region. Further, biomass burning derived species are observed to be more DTT active than those derived from fossil fuel burning. It was also observed that the slope of OP μg-1 and WSOC/SIA ratio linear relationship enhances significantly in samples collected during days following foggy nights in comparison to that in samples collected during non-foggy period, which may be due to the production of redox-active species by fog processing. Such studies have implications in assessing

  20. Variabilities in CO2 and CO over an urban site in India: Inter-correlations and emissions characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, N. C.; Lal, S.; Sethuraman, V.; Patra, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    CO2, the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere, plays a pivotal role in climate change. The long term increase in its atmospheric abundance after the Industrial Revolution is attributed to the emissions from anthropogenic activities, especially fossil fuel combustion. CO is a product of inefficient combustion and can be used as a surrogate tracer for identifying the anthropogenic and biospheric signal of CO2 from the atmospheric observation. India is the second largest populous country in the world and share significant contribution in the emissions of greenhouse gases mainly CO2. The budget of CO2, estimated from top-down and bottom-up approaches, shows large uncertainties over the South Asian region than other continents. One of the major sources of these large uncertainties is the lack of spatial and temporal observations. An attempt has been made using a year-long period to study the variability of the levels of CO2 and CO at an urban site Ahmedabad (23.03oN, 72.58oE, 55m AMSL), in the western India using a highly sensitive cavity ring down spectroscopy technique. The diurnal cycles of CO2 and CO show distinct features to each other due to their diverse sources and sinks. Two significant peaks during the morning and evening hours have been observed in the diurnal cycle of CO2 while in the case of CO evening peak is significantly higher than the morning peak. The afternoon levels of CO2 are observed lower during monsoon, which shows the significant uptake of CO2 from the biosphere during this season. The diurnal amplitude of CO2 is found largest around 41 ppmv in autumn and lowest around 12 ppmv in monsoon. The seasonal cycles calculated from the afternoon average monthly CO2 show the minimum levels during monsoon and maximum during spring. In case of CO minimum levels are observed in monsoon while maximum are observed in winter. The seasonal amplitude is observed around 15.02 ppmv and 0.27 ppmv for CO2 and CO respectively. Further, the co

  1. Lateglacial vegetation development in Denmark – New evidence based on macrofossils and pollen from Slotseng, a small-scale site in southern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M.F.; Birks, H.H.; Christensen, C.

    2011-01-01

    that the period was relatively dry. In the Allerød period the Dryas-B. nana vegetation was initially replaced by an open Salix and grass dominated vegetation and some 400 years later, the first tree birches were documented presumably occupying moist and sheltered soils while drier land remained open...

  2. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    , was observed. Only the Spanish cities did not fit this pattern; there, ozone levels were again lower than in central European cities, probably due to the direct influence of strong car traffic emissions. In general, ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure were significantly higher at suburban sites than......In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning...

  3. Biogeochemical Modeling of In Situ U(VI) Reduction and Immobilization with Emulsified Vegetable Oil as the Electron Donor at a Field Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Parker, J.; Wu, W.; Schadt, C. W.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.; Orifrc Team

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model was developed to quantitatively describe the coupled hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological processes that occurred following injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor to immobilize U(VI) at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site (ORIFRC) in Tennessee. The model couples the degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), glycerol, hydrogen and acetate, reduction of nitrate, manganese, ferrous iron, sulfate and uranium, and methanoganesis with growth of multiple microbial groups. The model describes the evolution of geochemistry and microbial populations not only in the aqueous phase as typically observed, but also in the mineral phase and therefore enables us to evaluate the applicability of rates from the literature for field scale assessment, estimate the retention and degradation rates of EVO and LCFA, and assess the influence of the coupled processes on fate and transport of U(VI). Our results suggested that syntrophic bacteria or metal reducers might catalyze LCFA oxidation in the downstream locations when sulfate was consumed, and competition between methanogens and others for electron donors and slow growth of methanogen might contribute to the sustained reducing condition. Among the large amount of hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological parameter values, the initial biomass, and the interactions (e.g., inhibition) of the microbial functional groups, and the rate and extent of Mn and Fe oxide reduction appear as the major sources of uncertainty. Our model provides a platform to conduct numerical experiments to study these interactions, and could be useful for further iterative experimental and modeling investigations into the bioreductive immobiliztion of radionuclide and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

  4. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Abhinav; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-03-14

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains-work, travel and leisure-in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Adult participants (n=640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4-47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide encouragement across all sociodemographic groups.

  5. First characterization and comparison of TEB model simulations with in situ measurements regarding radiation balance in a single urban canyon at the BOKU site (Vienna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Revesz, Michael; Nadeem, Imran; Masson, Valéry; Weihs, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    According to the World Health Organization more than half of the world population lives in a city since 2010. Predictions foresee that by 2030 six out of ten people will live in an urban area. As a result, many cities are expanding in size. Almost 10% of all urban dwellers live in megacities (defined according to UN HABITAT as a city with a population of more than 10 million). There are several effects in cities which strongly influence human health. Visible influences like the severe emissions of air pollutants by industry and traffic (e.g. Mayer H., 1999, Grimmond et al., 2010) are obvious to people but thermal stress in urban areas is only recently recognized for its strong devastating effect on human health. As a consequence, the urban environment virtually influences all weather parameters that have an impact on human comfort and thermal stress. Within this study, we investigate effects of city growth and the development of outlying districts on the local climate of Vienna. We focus particularly on the influence of urban heat island and consequent the risk for heat related illnesses or thermal stress for people. To quantify radiation balance and other important meteorological factors, we performed an extensive field campaign with three types of net radiometer in three different heights at BOKU site in August 2016. The first results indicated a strong correlation (ρ=0.96) between the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model and the measurements of the top net radiometer regarding radiation balance at roof level, meanwhile the TEB results are slightly underestimated. Further check if the measurements are reasonable, a comparison of the input values (global and direct solar radiation) for the TEB simulation with Secondary Standard measurements of ARAD site Wien Hohe Warte shows a deviation under 2% concerning interquartile range on clear sky days. The next steps will enclose TEB simulations, coupled with the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, for

  6. Supplementary data of “Impacts of mesic and xeric urban vegetation on outdoor thermal comfort and microclimate in Phoenix, AZ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyun Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An advanced Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach called Subset Simulation is described in Au and Beck (2001 [1] was used to quantify parameter uncertainty and model sensitivity of the urban land-atmospheric framework, viz. the coupled urban canopy model-single column model (UCM-SCM. The results show that the atmospheric dynamics are sensitive to land surface conditions. The most sensitive parameters are dimensional parameters, i.e. roof width, aspect ratio, roughness length of heat and momentum, since these parameters control the magnitude of sensible heat flux. The relative insensitive parameters are hydrological parameters since the lawns or green roofs in urban areas are regularly irrigated so that the water availability for evaporation is never constrained.

  7. Temporal trajectories of wet deposition across hydro-climatic regimes: Role of urbanization and regulations at U.S. and East Asia sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeryang; Gall, Heather E.; Niyogi, Dev; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2013-05-01

    Dominant global patterns of urbanization and industrialization contribute to large-scale modification of the drivers for hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, as evident in Asia, Africa, and South America which are experiencing rapid population and economic growth. One manifestation of urbanization and economic development is decreases in air quality, increases in dry/wet deposition fluxes, and growing adverse impacts on public health and ecosystem integrity. We examined available long-term (1980-2010) observational data, gathered at weekly intervals, for wet deposition at 19 urban sites in the U.S., and monitoring data (2000-2009) available for 17 urban sites at a monthly scale in East Asia. Our analyses are based on data for four constituents (SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and Mg2+); differences in atmospheric chemistry and terrestrial sources of these constituents enabled a robust comparative analysis. We examined intra-annual variability and the long-term temporal trajectories of wet deposition fluxes to discern the relative role of anthropogenic and stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. Here, we show that: (1) temporal variability in wet deposition fluxes follows an exponential probability density function at all sites, evidence that stochasticity of rainfall is the dominant control of wet deposition variability; (2) the mean wet deposition flux, μΩ (ML-2T-1), has decreased in the U.S. over time since enactment of the Clean Air Act, with μΩ having become homogenized across varying hydro-climatic regimes; and (3) in contrast, μΩ values for East Asian cities are 3-10 times higher than U.S. cities, attributed to lax regulatory enforcement. Based on the observed patterns, we suggest a stochastic model that generates ellipses within which the μΩ temporal trajectories are inscribed. In the U.S., anthropogenic forcing (regulations) is dominant in the humid regions, while variability in hydro-climatic forcing explains inter-annual variability in arid regions. Our

  8. Home gardening near a mining site in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona: assessing arsenic exposure dose and risk via ingestion of home garden vegetables, soils, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M

    2013-06-01

    The human-health risk posed by gardening near a legacy mine and smelter in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their home gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water>garden soils>homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener's daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10(-8) to 10(-4), 10(-6) to 10(-4), and 10(-5) to 10(-2), respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae≫Fabaceae>Amaranthaceae>Liliaceae>Brassicaceae>Solanaceae≫Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10(-6). The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg(-1), 5.39 mg kg(-1), 11.6 mg kg(-1) and 12.4 mg kg(-1) for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metal accumulation related to population density in road dust samples taken from urban sites under different land uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-González, Juan Manuel; Torres-Mora, Marco Aurelio; Keesstra, Saskia; Brevik, Eric C.; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo

    2016-01-01

    Soil pollution is a key component of the land degradation process, but little is known about the impact of soil pollution on human health in the urban environment. The heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were analyzed by acid digestion (method EPA 3050B) and a total of 15 dust samples were

  10. Status of vegetation management activity in the Bald Eagle Management Area and other sites at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation management program for the Bald Eagle Management Area (BEMA) at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area (RMA, the Arsenal) was initiated in the...

  11. Lateglacial vegetation development in Denmark - New evidence based on macrofossils and pollen from Slotseng, a small-scale site in southern Jutland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Birks, Hilary H.; Christensen, Charlie; Holm, Jørgen; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Olsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the first unambiguous terrestrial palaeoecological record for the late glacial "Bølling warming" in Denmark. Pollen and macrofossil stratigraphies from pre-Bølling to 10,800 cal yr BP are presented from a small kettle hole in Southwest Denmark, during which the lake basin developed from an immature stage after the deglaciation to complete infilling in the early Holocene. Results show that the recently deglaciated landscape bore a discontinuous vegetation of pioneer plants. After the Bølling warming, an open Dryas octopetala- Betula nana community developed with Helianthemum oelandicum. Subarctic species were dominant and local successions were probably delayed by relatively unstable and infertile soils. There is no indication of a climate cooling during the period corresponding to the Older Dryas, but the occurrence of several drought tolerant and steppe species indicates that the period was relatively dry. In the Allerød period the Dryas- B. nana vegetation was initially replaced by an open Salix and grass dominated vegetation and some 400 years later, the first tree birches were documented presumably occupying moist and sheltered soils while drier land remained open. In the Younger Dryas period trees disappeared and the vegetation became open again and dominated by subarctic species. Following climate warming at the Younger Dryas-Holocene transition a shrub community of Empetrum and Juniperus developed. After approximately 200 years it was replaced by birch forest. Overall, the late-glacial vegetation cover had a more open and patchy character than inferred from previous pollen studies as assessment of the vegetation succession based on macrofossil evidence is essential. The inferred general vegetation development corresponds well with results of other studies in the region. Canonical ordinations (RDA) indicate that vegetation changes at the landscape scale during the Lateglacial period were driven by changes in climate, soils and

  12. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the trials was situated at a lower-altitude site (65 m above sea level [asl]), two at mid-altitude sites (878 and 1 262 m asl), and two at higher-altitude sites (1 469 and 1 590 m asl). Several vegetation management treatments developed to suit the predicted vegetation load at each site were implemented and varied ...

  13. Identical assemblage of Giardia duodenalis in humans, animals and vegetables in an urban area in southern Brazil indicates a relationship among them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Colli

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infects humans and other mammals by ingestion of cysts in contaminated water or food, or directly in environments with poor hygiene. Eight assemblages, designated A-H, are described for this species.We investigated by microscopy or by direct immunofluorescence technique the occurrence of G. duodenalis in 380 humans, 34 animals, 44 samples of water and 11 of vegetables. G. duodenalis cysts present in samples were genotyped through PCR-RFLP of β giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh genes and sequencing of gdh. The gdh gene was amplified in 76.5% (26/34 of the human faeces samples with positive microscopy and in 2.9% (1/34 of negative samples. In 70.4% (19/27 of the positive samples were found BIV assemblage. In two samples from dogs with positive microscopy and one negative sample, assemblages BIV, C, and D were found. Cysts of Giardia were not detected in water samples, but three samples used for vegetable irrigation showed total coliforms above the allowed limit, and Escherichia coli was observed in one sample. G. duodenalis BIV was detected in two samples of Lactuca sativa irrigated with this sample of water. BIV was a common genotype, with 100% similarity, between different sources or hosts (humans, animals and vegetables, and the one most often found in humans.This is the first study in Brazil that reports the connection among humans, dogs and vegetables in the transmission dynamics of G. duodenalis in the same geographic area finding identical assemblage. BIV assemblage was the most frequently observed among these different links in the epidemiological chain.

  14. Efficacy of plastic mesh tubes in reducing herbivory damage by the invasive nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an urban restoration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffels, Trevor R.; Systma, Mark D.; Carter, Jacoby; Taylor, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of stream corridors is becoming an increasingly important component of urban landscape planning, and the high cost of these projects necessitates the need to understand and address potential ecological obstacles to project success. The nutria(Myocastor coypus) is an invasive, semi-aquatic rodent native to South America that causes detrimental ecological impacts in riparian and wetland habitats throughout its introduced range, and techniques are needed to reduce nutria herbivory damage to urban stream restoration projects. We assessed the efficacy of standard Vexar® plastic mesh tubes in reducing nutria herbivory damage to newly established woody plants. The study was conducted in winter-spring 2009 at Delta Ponds, a 60-ha urban waterway in Eugene, Oregon. Woody plants protected by Vexar® tubes demonstrated 100% survival over the 3-month initial establishment period, while only 17% of unprotected plantings survived. Nutria demonstrated a preference for black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp trichocarpa) over red osier dogwood (Cornussericea) and willow (Salix spp). Camera surveillance showed that nutria were more active in unprotected rather than protected treatments. Our results suggest that Vexar® plastic mesh tubing can be an effective short-term herbivory mitigation tool when habitat use by nutria is low. Additionally, planting functionally equivalent woody plant species that are less preferred by nutria, and other herbivores, may be another method for reducing herbivory and improving revegetation success. This study highlights the need to address potential wildlife damage conflicts in the planning process for stream restoration in urban landscapes.

  15. Dietary Diversity and Vegetable and Fruit Consumption of Households in a Resource-Poor Peri-Urban South Africa Community Differ by Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Laurie, Sunette M

    2017-01-01

    Sociodemographic, living standard measure, consumption of vegetables and fruit, and dietary diversity in relation to household food security were assessed. Using a hunger score, households were categorized as food secure (n = 125) or food insecure (n = 273). Food secure respondents had a higher mean dietary diversity score (3.98; 95%CI [3.79, 4.18] versus 3.65; 95% [CI 3.53, 3.77]), were more likely to eat vitamin A-rich foods (OR 1.15; 95% CI [1.05, 1.26]), a more varied diet (DDS ≥ 4, OR 1.90; 95% CI [1.19, 3.13]), and vegetables daily (OR 3.37; 95% CI [2.00, 5.76]). Cost limited daily vegetable/fruit consumption in food insecure households. Respondents with ≥ 8 years of schooling were more likely (OR 2.07; 95% CI [1.22, 3.53]) and households receiving social grants were less likely (OR 0.37; 95% CI [0.19, 0.72]) to be food secure. Results highlight the association between dietary diversity and household food security.

  16. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra S. Coronel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  17. Comparison between Snow Albedo Obtained from Landsat TM, ETM+ Imagery and the SPOT VEGETATION Albedo Product in a Mediterranean Mountainous Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pimentel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Albedo plays an important role in snow evolution modeling quantifying the amount of solar radiation absorbed and reflected by the snowpack, especially in mid-latitude regions with semiarid conditions. Satellite remote sensing is the most extensive technique to determine the variability of snow albedo over medium to large areas; however, scale effects from the pixel size of the sensor source may affect the results of snow models, with different impacts depending on the spatial resolution. This work presents the evaluation of snow albedo values retrieved from (1 Landsat images, L (16-day frequency with 30 × 30 m pixel size and (2 SPOT VEGETATION albedo products, SV (10-day frequency with 1 × 1 km pixel size in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in South Spain, a Mediterranean site representative of highly heterogeneous conditions. Daily snow albedo map series were derived from both sources, and used as input for the snow module in the WiMMed (Watershed Integrated Management in Mediterranean Environment hydrological model, which was operational at the study area for snow monitoring for two hydrological years, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, in the Guadalfeo river basin in Sierra Nevada. The results showed similar albedo trends in both data sources, but with different values, the shift between both sources being distributed in space according to the altitude. This difference resulted in lower snow cover fraction values in the SV-simulations that affected the rest of snow variables included in the simulation. This underestimation, mainly due to the effects of mixed pixels composed by both snow and snow-free areas, produced higher divergences from both sources during the melting periods when the evapo-sublimation and melting fluxes are more relevant. Therefore, the selection of the albedo data source in these areas, where snow evapo-sublimation plays a very important role and the presence of snow-free patches is very frequent, can condition the final

  18. Seismic site characterization of an urban dedimentary basin, Livermore Valley, California: Site tesponse, basin-edge-induced surface waves, and 3D simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Leeds, Alena L.; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Allen, James P.; Schmitt, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty‐two accelerometers were deployed in the Livermore Valley, California, for approximately one year to study sedimentary basin effects. Many local and near‐regional earthquakes were recorded, including the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa, California, earthquake. The resulting ground‐motion data set is used to quantify the seismic response of the Livermore basin, a major structural depression in the California Coast Range Province bounded by active faults. Site response is calculated by two methods: the reference‐site spectral ratio method and a source‐site spectral inversion method. Longer‐period (≥1  s) amplification factors follow the same general pattern as Bouguer gravity anomaly contours. Site response spectra are inverted for shallow shear‐wave velocity profiles, which are consistent with independent information. Frequency–wavenumber analysis is used to analyze plane‐wave propagation across the Livermore Valley and to identify basin‐edge‐induced surface waves with back azimuths different from the source back azimuth. Finite‐element simulations in a 3D velocity model of the region illustrate the generation of basin‐edge‐induced surface waves and point out strips of elevated ground velocities along the margins of the basin.

  19. Factors influencing the selection of communal roost sites by the Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Aves: Cathartidae in an urban area in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber G. Novaes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing populations of the Black Vulture, Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793 and the capacity this bird has to live near humans has resulted in vulture-human conflicts. These conflicts increase the need for the effective management of vultures. Improved understanding of communal roosting dynamics is a key aspect of vulture biology that provides information for effective management that can mitigate conflicts. Here we investigated factors influencing roosting site selection by Black Vultures in Manaus. We monitored 40 native vegetation remnants (VR, visiting each VR twice (two independent observers between 5:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. once every two-three months from June to November 2011. Using maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic multimodel inference, we investigated the effects of VR covariates (size, shape, and location relative to feeding sites, to thermal power plants, and to other VRs on VR occupancy by roosting Black Vultures. Distance to feeding sites (mainly garbage-dumping sites was identified as the most important covariate (model-averaged β = -0.62, SE = 0.26 and the other variables had no significant effects. Our results indicate that Black Vultures adjusted to the nearest possible roost to the food source to reduce the cost of movement. This suggests that reducing Black Vulture access to food through simple waste management and sanitation policies, including public education, may help reduce vulture-human conflicts in Manaus.

  20. Atmospheric Concentrations, Gas/Particle Partitioning And Exposure Risk Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) At Background, Rural Village And Urban Sites In The North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Simonich, S.; Zhao, J.; Xue, M.; Wang, W.; Tao, S.

    2009-05-01

    Particle- and gas-phase PAHs were measured in air collected from a background site (Xiaolongmen), two rural village sites (Gubeikou and Donghe), and an urban site (Beijing) located in the North China Plain for four seasons from September 2007 to August 2008 in order to evaluate their concentrations, relative abundance, and gas/particle partitioning. Sixteen PAHs, included in the U.S.EPA priority pollutant list, were determined in the particle (PM10) and gas phases. The annual average 15 PAH concentration in Donghe was 730.7±608.0 ng/m3, which was 18.2, 3.0, 1.8 times higher than Xiaolongmen, Gubeikou and Beijing, respectively. A good linear relationship between gas/particle partitioning coefficients, Kp and subcooled liquid vapor pressure, pl was obtained. At the rural and urban sites, the regression slopes were much steeper than -1, indicating that adsorption of PAH to particulate matter dominated over absorption possibly because, at these sites, the freshly emitted particulate matter and PAHs had not yet reached equilibrium. However, gas/particle partitioning of PAHs approached equilibrium at the background site because of long- range transport of PAHs. In addition, the gas/particle partitioning was studied according to three different models: The Junge-Pankow adsorption model, the Koa absorption model, and the dual organic matter absorption model combined with the soot carbon adsorption model. The Junge-Pankow model and Koa model both under-predicted our experimental Kp values. However, the dual model fit our experimental Kp values well suggesting that the main partitioning mechanism was PAH adsorption onto soot carbon in this region of China. The different particulate matter characteristics (including organic matter and elemental carbon fraction and available adsorption sites), temperature variation during sampling, the presence of a non- exchangeable PAH fraction and non-equilibrium were considered possible reasons for why our experimental Kp values deviated

  1. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Keith H. Nislow; David J. Nowak; Stephen DeStefano; David I. King; D. Todd. Jones-Farrand

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat...

  2. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 3: Urban Tree Planting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright; Jennifer Tomlinson

    2006-01-01

    This is the third in a three-manual series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 3. Urban Tree Planting Guide provides detailed guidance on urban tree planting that is applicable at both the development site and the watershed scales. Topics covered include site assessment, planting design, site...

  3. Risk assessment and interpretation of heavy metal contaminated soils on an urban brownfield site in New York metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank; Deng, Yang; Wu, Meiyin; Feng, Huan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, soil samples were collected at 22 sites in Liberty State Park, New Jersey, in 2005, for metal enrichment and potential ecological risk assessment. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) showed that enrichment levels of trace metals followed an order of Cu > Pb > Zn > As > Cr > Hg while the potential ecological risk factor ([Formula: see text]) indicated that the potential ecological risk of the metals was in the order of Cu > Pb > As > Hg > Zn > Cr. Among these 22 sites, this investigation identified 9 sites at moderate ecological risk, 3 sites at considerable ecological risk, and 4 sites at high ecological risk according to the potential ecological risk index (RI). Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) of soil metal concentrations separated the study sites into four groups, which are supported by the significant difference in RI values. Geographically, three regions in the Liberty State Park brownfield site were determined based on the CA results and RI values. Subarea 1 had low ecological risk while subareas 2 and 3 had a greater potential for ecological risk. Significant correlations of Pb with Cr and Zn were observed in subareas 2 and 3, respectively. This study shows that statistical approaches coupled with a risk assessment index provide a more comprehensive interpretation of land contamination than a single approach in support of planning land redevelopment.

  4. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  5. Influence of vegetation in the energetic balance outdoor urban spaces: Analysis and evaluation of its microclimatic effect; Influencia de la vegetacion en el balance energetico de los espacios exteriores urbanos: Analisis y evaluacion de sus efectos microclimaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, J. Manuel [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Roset, Jaume [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    We present design guidelines to detect and to control the energy fluxes within and urban space. The main purpose is to create outdoor spaces with appropriate comfort conditions and to improve energy efficiency of adjacent buildings, by modifying its surrounding areas, approaching outdoor environment to the desired indoor conditions. The design guidelines as well as the concepts developed on this paper are explained in a language familiar to architects, urban planners and landscape designers, which have to take energetic and bioclimatic decisions up the first stage of a project process. A case study analysis of an urban scenery is presented, and conclusions about the advantage of using the vegetation as an instrument of microclimatic control are given. [Spanish] En este articulo se presentan pautas de diseno, que estan encaminadas, a saber detectar y en caso necesario reconducir, los flujos de energia dentro del espacio urbano. El proposito es crear espacios exteriores, con condiciones de confort ambiental, adecuadas a los usuarios de dicho espacio y por otro lado, mejorar la eficiencia energetica de los edificios, al modificar su entorno inmediato. Tanto las pautas de diseno, como los conceptos desarrollados en este trabajo, estan explicados con un discurso orientado al lenguaje de los profesionales dedicados al diseno urbano, arquitectonico y del paisaje, que son quienes deben hacer las consideraciones energeticas y bioclimaticas, desde las primeras etapas de un proyecto. Finalmente se presenta el ejemplo de un escenario urbano, donde se han realizado mediciones de los parametros climaticos, analizando cualitativa y cuantitativamente la influencia de la vegetacion y otros elementos del paisaje urbano sobre el microclima, y se dan conclusiones sobre la conveniencia de utilizar la vegetacion como un instrumento para el control microclimatico en los espacios exteriores urbanos.

  6. Towards an integrated approach for characterization of sinkhole hazards in urban environments: the unstable coastal site of Casalabate, Lecce, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, Marco; Leucci, Giovanni

    2010-06-01

    Sinkholes occur in many areas of the world, especially where carbonate rocks crop out. They are formed due to natural processes or caused by man's activities. In both cases, severe consequences have to be registered on the anthropogenic environment and related infrastructures. Knowledge of both the mechanism of the sinkhole formation and the localization of this subtle geohazard is therefore necessary for planners and decision makers to perform the most appropriate and suitable programs of land use and development. The Apulia region of southern Italy is characterized for most of its extension by carbonate rocks, which makes it one of the most remarkable examples of karst in the Mediterranean basin. The sinkhole formation in Apulia urban areas has recently produced severe damages, especially along its coastal planes, where different types of sinkholes occur. The detection of cavities, that could collapse and create a sinkhole, in an urban environment presents numerous difficulties (buried networks, reworked soils, etc). A methodology has been developed to respond to this need based on the integration of four complementary methods: geological analysis of outcrops and existing borehole descriptions, aerophotogrammetric interpretation of aerial photos, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The combination of these methods, applied to a test sector in the city of Casalabate, made it possible to locate the principal karstic conduits beneath the study area and identify a zone of high sinkhole geohazard associated with one such feature.

  7. Development of a community-sensitive strategy to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in Nashville's urban food deserts, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Celia; Haushalter, Alisa; Buck, Tracy; Campbell, David; Henderson, Trevor; Schlundt, David

    2013-07-25

    Food deserts, areas that lack full-service grocery stores, may contribute to rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases among low-income and racial/ethnic minority residents. Our corner store project, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative, aimed to increase availability of healthful foods in food deserts in Nashville, Tennessee. We identified 4 food deserts in which most residents are low-income and racially and ethnically diverse. Our objectives were to develop an approach to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, and 100% whole-wheat bread in Nashville's food deserts and to engage community members to inform our strategy. Five corner stores located in food deserts met inclusion criteria for our intervention. We then conducted community listening sessions, proprietor surveys, store audits, and customer-intercept surveys to identify needs, challenges to retailing the products, and potential intervention strategies. Few stores offered fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, or 100% whole-wheat bread, and none stocked items from all 4 categories. Major barriers to retailing healthful options identified by community members are mistrust of store owners, history of poor-quality produce, and limited familiarity with healthful options. Store owners identified neighborhood crime as the major barrier. We used community input to develop strategies. Engaging community residents and understanding neighborhood context is critical to developing strategies that increase access to healthful foods in corner stores.

  8. Trace Metals in Vegetables and Cereals- A Case Study of Indian Market-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaidya Nath Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Vegetables and Cereals are considered vital for properly-balanced diet given that they deliver vitamins, minerals, nutritional fiber, and phytochemicals. This study aimed to assess the concentration of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr and Hg in common vegetables and cereals in urban open markets in Varanasi district, India Materials & Methods: Total 260 edible portions of vegetable samples of 13 species were collected in March to October, 2016 from predefined market sites. These samples classified into roots, stems, leafy vegetables, fruits, and legumes. These samples (unwashed, acetic acid washed and boiled were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical evaluations were carried out using the IBM SPSS 21. Results: The results obtained reveal that unwashed vegetables and cereals as compared to washed and boiled samples contain higher trace metal concentration. The order of heavy metal concentration was observed in Cu>Pb>Cd>As in vegetable and cereals samples. Hg and Cr were not detected in any samples. The mean value of Cu, Cd and Pb in unwashed and washed vegetables and cereals were lower than PFA standard except As, whereas in boiled vegetables and cereals are lower than PFA standard but the mean value of Cd and Pb were many folds higher than the EU standard at all the market site samples. Leafy vegetables were found to contain the highest metals values especially Spinacia oleracea followed by roots vegetable like Brassica rapa, at all the studied sites. The market sites MS3 located in the vicinity of industrial zone and in proximity to national highway showed elevated levels of trace metals concentration in the vegetables and cereals as compared to other market sites. Conclusions: The results showed that, the As, Cu, Cd and Pb concentration were reduced to about 12.5%, 5.87%, 11.36% and 10.42% of the initial concentrations by 2% acetic acid washing and to 25%, 21.87%, 20.45% and 16.67% of the initial

  9. Lesser prairie-chicken nest site selection, microclimate, and nest survival in association with vegetation response to a grassland restoration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Zavaleta, Jennifer C.; Dixon, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict that the region of the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) will experience increased maximum and minimum temperatures, reduced frequency but greater intensity of precipitation events, and earlier springs. These climate changes along with different landscape management techniques may influence the persistence of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act and a priority species under the GPLCC, in positive or negative ways. The objectives of this study were to conduct (1) a literature review of lesser prairie-chicken nesting phenology and ecology, (2) an analysis of thermal aspects of lesser prairie-chicken nest microclimate data, and (3) an analysis of nest site selection, nest survival, and vegetation response to 10 years of tebuthiuron and/or grazing treatments. We found few reports in the literature containing useful data on the nesting phenology of lesser prairie-chickens; therefore, managers must rely on short-term observations and measurements of parameters that provide some predictive insight into climate impacts on nesting ecology. Our field studies showed that prairie-chickens on nests were able to maintain relatively consistent average nest temperature of 31 °C and nest humidities of 56.8 percent whereas average external temperatures (20.3–35.0 °C) and humidities (35.2–74.9 percent) varied widely throughout the 24 hour (hr) cycle. Grazing and herbicide treatments within our experimental areas were designed to be less intensive than in common practice. We determined nest locations by radio-tagging hen lesser prairie-chickens captured at leks, which are display grounds at which male lesser prairie-chickens aggregate and attempt to attract a female for mating. Because nest locations selected by hen lesser prairie-chicken are strongly associated with the lek at which they were captured, we assessed nesting habitat use on the basis of hens

  10. CONTEXTUALIZING PALIMPSEST OF COLLECTIVE MEMORY IN AN URBAN HERITAGE SITE: Case Study of Chahar Bagh, Shiraz - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahmoudi Farahani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A landscape or site, which has been inhabited for long, consists of layers of history. This history is sometimes reserved in forms of small physical remnants, monuments, memorials, names or collective memories of destruction and reconstruction. In this sense, a site/landscape can be presumed as what Derrida refers to as a “palimpsest”. A palimpsest whose character is identified in a duality between the existing layers of meaning accumulated through time, and the act of erasing them to make room for the new to appear. In this study, the spatial collective memory of the Chahar Bagh site which is located in the historical centre of Shiraz will be investigated as a contextualized palimpsest, with various projects adjacent one another; each conceptualized and constructed within various historical settings; while the site as a heritage is still an active part of the city’s cultural life. Through analysing the different layers of meaning corresponding to these adjacent projects, a number of principals for reading the complexities of similar historical sites can be driven.

  11. Influence of extreme events on health-related aerosol particle deposition in an urban site during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Paula; Castro, Amaya; Calvo, Ana Isabel; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Márcio; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Fraile, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Urban populations are exposed to aerosol particles that enter in the human respiratory track posing an important risk to human health. Particle sampling conventions have been established, expressed as curves describing "penetration" to the region of interest in terms of the particle aerodynamic diameter. The inhalable, thoracic, traqueo-bronchial and respirable fractions have been estimated according to the International Standard ISO 7708:1995. This study presents the analysis of aerosol size distributions and its deposition in the human respiratory tract according to ISO 7708. The influence of ambient conditions in an urban area affected by heat waves and wildfires in the summer months has been analyzed. A laser spectrometer PCASP-X was used to characterize the aerosol size distributions. This device registers particle sizes between 0.1 and 10 microns in 31 channels. The spectrometer was installed in the city of León (Spain), between June and September 2012, and 24 measurements were carried out daily to determine the size of the ambient particles in the urban area. The measurements were averaged over 15-minute intervals. A weather station was installed at 3 m above the ground to register automatically data on precipitation, pressure, temperature, relative humidity wind speed and direction. The refractive index of the particles was estimated for each value of relative humidity, as the relative humidity of the ambient atmosphere affects the size and the complex refractive index of aerosols. Afterwards, raw size bins were corrected from the estimated refractive indices using a program based on Mie Theory. The regional government provided data on the exact location of summer wildfires in the province of Leon, as well as data on the land area affected. A persistent and intense thermal inversion of subsidence caused an intense pollution episode in the city during the main wildfire, which broke out at a distance of about 60 km from the sampling point. Furthermore, the

  12. Why the peri-urban?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosics, Ivan; Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding due to a combination of population growth and outward spread of urban activities. The result is that urban and rural areas are no longer seperate territories. The newly emerging 'peri-urban' areas are the site of the most dynamic changes. Peri-urban problems and opportun......Urban areas are expanding due to a combination of population growth and outward spread of urban activities. The result is that urban and rural areas are no longer seperate territories. The newly emerging 'peri-urban' areas are the site of the most dynamic changes. Peri-urban problems...... and opportunities are best adressed at the level of the rural-urban region, which includes both peri-urban and rural hinterland areas....

  13. Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staedke Sarah G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of malaria in well-defined cohorts offer important data about the epidemiology of this complex disease, but few have been done in urban African populations. To generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment in Kampala, Uganda, a census, mapping and survey project was conducted. Methods All households in a geographically defined area were enumerated and mapped. Probability sampling was used to recruit a representative sample of children and collect baseline descriptive data for future longitudinal studies. Results 16,172 residents living in 4931 households in a densely-populated community (18,824 persons/km2 were enumerated. A total of 582 households were approached with at least one child less than 10 years of age in order to recruit 601 children living in 322 households. At enrollment, 19% were parasitaemic, 24% were anaemic, 43% used bednets, and 6% used insecticide-treated nets. Low G6PD activity (OR = 0.33, P = 0.009 and bednet use (OR = 0.64, P = 0.045 were associated with a decreased risk of parasitaemia. Increasing age (OR = 0.62 for each year, P Conclusion Detailed surveys of target populations in urban Africa can provide valuable descriptive data and provide a sampling frame for recruitment of representative cohorts for longitudinal studies. Plans to use a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the understanding of the distribution and determinants of malaria incidence and response to therapy in this population are discussed.

  14. Performance of a pilot demonstration-scale hybrid constructed wetland system for on-site treatment of polluted urban river water in Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang C; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Ge, Yuan; Zhao, Yaqian; Xiong, Jiaqing

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) systems have been used to treat various wastewaters across the world. However, large-scale applications of HCWs are scarce, particularly for on-site improvement of the water quality of highly polluted urban rivers in semi-arid regions. In this study, a large pilot-scale HCW system was constructed to improve the water quality of the Zaohe River in Xi'an, China. With a total area of about 8000 m(2), the pilot HCW system, composed of different configurations of surface and subsurface flow wetlands, was operated for 2 years at an average inflow volume rate of 362 m(3)/day. Local Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis from the riverbank were planted in the HCW system. Findings indicate a higher treatment efficiency for organics and suspended solids than nutrients. The inflow concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN), NH3-N, and total phosphorus (TP) were 125.6, 350.9, 334.2, 38.5, 27.2, and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. Average removal efficiencies of 94.4, 74.5, 92.0, 56.3, 57.5, and 69.2%, respectively, were recorded. However, the pollutant removal rates were highly seasonal especially for nitrogen. Higher removals were recorded for all pollutants in the autumn while significantly lower removals were recorded in the winter. Plant uptake and assimilation accounted for circa 19-29 and 16-23% of the TN and TP removal, respectively. Moreover, P. australis demonstrated a higher nutrient uptake ability and competitive potential. Overall, the high efficiency of the pilot HCW for improving the water quality of such a highly polluted urban river provided practical evidence of the applicability of the HCW technology for protecting urban water environments.

  15. Development of a Community-Sensitive Strategy to Increase Availability of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Nashville’s Urban Food Deserts, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushalter, Alisa; Buck, Tracy; Campbell, David; Henderson, Trevor; Schlundt, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Food deserts, areas that lack full-service grocery stores, may contribute to rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases among low-income and racial/ethnic minority residents. Our corner store project, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative, aimed to increase availability of healthful foods in food deserts in Nashville, Tennessee. Community Context We identified 4 food deserts in which most residents are low-income and racially and ethnically diverse. Our objectives were to develop an approach to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, and 100% whole-wheat bread in Nashville’s food deserts and to engage community members to inform our strategy. Methods Five corner stores located in food deserts met inclusion criteria for our intervention. We then conducted community listening sessions, proprietor surveys, store audits, and customer-intercept surveys to identify needs, challenges to retailing the products, and potential intervention strategies. Outcome Few stores offered fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, or 100% whole-wheat bread, and none stocked items from all 4 categories. Major barriers to retailing healthful options identified by community members are mistrust of store owners, history of poor-quality produce, and limited familiarity with healthful options. Store owners identified neighborhood crime as the major barrier. We used community input to develop strategies. Interpretation Engaging community residents and understanding neighborhood context is critical to developing strategies that increase access to healthful foods in corner stores. PMID:23886044

  16. Need for multiscale planning for conservation of urban bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Travis; Lehrer, Elizabeth W; Fidino, Mason; Kilgour, R Julia; Wolff, Patrick J; Magle, Seth

    2017-11-10

    For over a century there have been continual efforts to incorporate nature into urban planning. These efforts - known as urban reconciliation- aim to manage and create habitats that support biodiversity within cities. Given that species select habitat at different spatial scales, understanding the scale at which urban species respond to their environment is critical to the success of urban reconciliation efforts. We assessed species-habitat relationships for common bat species at local (50-m), medium (500-m), and broad (1-km) spatial scales in the Chicago metropolitan area and predicted bat activity across the greater Chicago region. We found that habitat characteristics across all measured scales were important predictors of silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) activity, and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) activity was significantly lower at urban sites compared to rural sites. We also found that open vegetation had a negative effect on silver-haired bat activity at the local scale but a positive effect at the medium-sized scale, indicating potential shifts in the relative importance of some habitat characteristics at varying scales. These results demonstrate that local-scale effects may be constrained by broader spatial patterns. Our findings highlight the importance of considering scale in urban reconciliation efforts and our landscape predictions provide information that can help prioritize urban conservation work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. non-traditional vegetable production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on farm features included farm size, input and out- put-ctotals, yield and quantity of agro-chemicals used. Other impor- tant areas covered include urban agriculture development related microeconomic policies of Ghana, national vegetable specific poli- cies- and projects, input and output prices and availability and ac-.

  18. Weathering steel as a potential source for metal contamination: Metal dissolution during 3-year of field exposure in a urban coastal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Simona; Vassura, Ivano; Chiavari, Cristina; Martini, Carla; Bignozzi, Maria C; Passarini, Fabrizio; Bernardi, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Surface and building runoff can significantly contribute to the total metal loading in urban runoff waters, with potential adverse effects on the receiving ecosystems. The present paper analyses the corrosion-induced metal dissolution (Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu) from weathering steel (Cor-Ten A) with or without artificial patinas, exposed for 3 years in unsheltered conditions at a marine urban site (Rimini, Italy). The influence of environmental parameters, atmospheric pollutants and surface finish on the release of dissolved metals in rain was evaluated, also by means of multivariate analysis (two-way and three-way Principal Component Analysis). In addition, surface and cross-section investigations were performed so as to monitor the patina evolution. The contribution provided by weathering steel runoff to the dissolved Fe, Mn and Ni loading at local level is not negligible and pre-patination treatments seem to worsen the performance of weathering steel in term of metal release. Metal dissolution is strongly affected by extreme events and shows seasonal variations, with different influence of seasonal parameters on the behaviour of bare or artificially patinated steel, suggesting that climate changes could significantly influence metal release from this alloy. Therefore, it is essential to perform a long-term monitoring of the performance, the durability and the environmental impact of weathering steel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. RODOVIAS EM ÁREAS URBANIZADAS E SEUS IMPACTOS NA PERCEPÇÃO DOS PEDESTRES / Impacts of highways in urban sites – the pedestrians’ perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Barbosa da Silva Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an opinion poll, applied to the inhabitants of an urban area along theBR-050 highway, in Uberlândia – MG, carried out to estimate the importance of the impacts originatedby the Barrier Effect and its characterization attributes. The Barrier Effect refers to the motorizedtransportation infrastructure impacts over the non-motorized transport. The method applied to thissurvey to determine the importance degree of each variable and its attributes of characterization relatedto the Barrier effect consists of a questionnaire, elaborated according to the Likert recommendations,and with the utilization of the Successive Intervals M ethod to determine the distance of the elements ofa scale. The method which has been considered appropriate and easy to apply produced satisfactoryelements to the proposed analysis. The results show that the highway, inserted in a urban site, limitate theon foot transport for the inhabitants of the surroundings of the highway (effects, resultants of the BarrierEffect. It also was possible to identify the importance of defining attributes of each limitation (causes.

  20. A method for locating potential tree-planting sites in urban areas: a case study of Los Angeles, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxia Wua; Qingfu Xiaoa; Gregory E. McPherson

    2008-01-01

    A GIS-based method for locating potential tree-planting sites based on land cover data is introduced. Criteria were developed to identify locations that are spatially available for potential tree planting based on land cover, sufficient distance from impervious surfaces, a minimum amount of pervious surface, and no crown overlap with other trees. In an ArcGIS...

  1. Seasonal variations and chemical characterization of ambient PM 10 at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata (Calcutta), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A. K.

    2006-07-01

    Monitoring of ambient PM 10 (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) has been done at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003 to November 2004. The measurements have been performed once a week during the study period. PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 68.2 to 280.6 μg/m 3 at a residential site and 62.4 to 401.2 μg/m 3 at an industrial site. Metal constituents of ambient PM 10 deposited on quartz microfibre filter papers were identified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM 10 concentrations. Results identified zinc with maximum contribution of PM 10 among measured metals having concentrations of 0.49 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 0.53 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. The PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) compounds namely, fluoranthene (Fl), pyrene (Py), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) have been analyzed using gas chromatography. The major PAH compound at the monitoring sites was BbF with 0.03 μg/m 3 at the residential site and 0.02 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC) and organic carbon (OC) of PM 10 were analyzed using a carbon analyzer. Exposed quartz microfibre filter papers were also analyzed for water-soluble anions of fluoride (F -), chloride (Cl -), nitrate (NO 3-), phosphate (PO 43-) and sulfate (SO 42-) using ion chromatography. Sulfate was found in maximum concentration among anionic species with a value of 1.2 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 1.7 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were collected

  2. ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER USAGE BY VEGETABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    ABSTRACT. Vegetables support rural and urban population both in terms of subsistence and income generation. Its cultivation however presents with problems that can be reduced with the use of organic fertilizers. Therefore, there is a need to assess the use of organic fertilizer among vegetable growers as it directly affects ...

  3. A comparison of the isotopic composition of lead in rainwater, surface vegetation and tree bark at the long-term monitoring site, Glensaugh, Scotland, in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, John G; Eades, Lorna J; Graham, Margaret C; Cloy, Joanna M; Bacon, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    The lead concentrations and isotopic ratios (206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/207Pb) of 31 rainwater (September 2006-December 2007) and 11 surface vegetation (moss, lichen, heather) samples (October 2007) from the rural upland catchment of Glensaugh in northeast Scotland and of nine bark samples (October 2007) from trees, predominantly Scots pine, in or near Glensaugh were determined. The mean 206Pb/207Pb ratios for rainwater in 2006 and 2007 were similar to th