WorldWideScience

Sample records for vegetated treatment system

  1. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  2. Abundance and fate of antibiotics and hormones in a vegetative treatment system receiving cattle feedlot runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTS) have been developed and built as an alternative to conventional holding pond systems for managing run-off from animal feeding operations. Initially developed to manage runoff nutrients via uptake by grasses, their effectiveness at removing other runoff contaminant...

  3. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  4. The state of the vegetative nervous system in patients with gonarthrosis for surgical treatment before and after surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaseva T.lu.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Analyzing the vegetative tensity of organism» functional systems before and after surgical treatment of elderly patients with metabolic-and-dystrophic gonarthrosis. Methods. The evaluation of vegetative homeostasis, reactivity of the vegetative nervous system by the data of variation pulsometry («REAN-POLY» RGPA-6/12, Taganrog in 60 patients with gonarthrosis at the age of 50-72 years and the disease duration — 9+1.5 years before and after surgical treatment: total tunnelization (Group I, tunnelization with osteotomy of leg bones for correction of limb biomechanical axis (Group II, treatment-and-diagnostic arthroscopy (Group III. Results. The reduction of the level of hypoxia tolerance and the decrease of the processes of general adaptation one month after surgery in Group I was registered in 40% of patients. As for patients of Group II, by the end of the period of fixation with the llizarov device — in 50%. As for those of Group III after arthroscopy — in 10% of patients. Among the patients whose 1С / 1С calculated parameter after surgical treatment was registered <1.0, its values were >10.0 before treatment in 70% of cases. At rest, marked vagotonia was registered with hypersympathicotonic reaction to orthotest, as well as with sharp decrease of the proportion of second-order slow waves while transition to standing position (VLF proportion <10.0%, thereby reflecting organism»s energy deficiency state. Conclusion. Preoperative examination. When VLF proportion after orthotest is registered <10.0%, such patients should be referred to risk group and prescribed in-depth examination. The index of centralization (1С dynamics for orthotest (1С test/1С rest is one of the criteria of functional recovery level for the particular patient: its increase points to the positive dynamics of restorative rehabilitative process, and the values <1.0 —to the negative one.

  5. An ecological vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP) for decentralized wastewater treatment: system development, treatment performance, and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajia; Dong, Wenyi; Sun, Feiyun; Li, Pu; Zhao, Ke

    2016-05-01

    An environment-friendly decentralized wastewater treatment process that is comprised of activated sludge process (ASP) and wetland vegetation, named as vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP), was developed for decentralized wastewater treatment. The long-term experimental results evidenced that the vegetation sequencing batch reactor (V-SBR) process had consistently stable higher removal efficiencies of organic substances and nutrients from domestic wastewater compared with traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The vegetation allocated into V-SBR system could not only remove nutrients through its vegetation transpiration ratio but also provide great surface area for microorganism activity enhancement. This high vegetation transpiration ratio enhanced nutrients removal effectiveness from wastewater mainly by flux enhancement, oxygen and substrate transportation acceleration, and vegetation respiration stimulation. A mathematical model based on ASM2d was successfully established by involving the specific function of vegetation to simulate system performance. The simulation results on the influence of operational parameters on V-ASP treatment effectiveness demonstrated that V-SBR had a high resistance to seasonal temperature fluctuations and influent loading shocking.

  6. [Treatment effect of biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system on greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Kun; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Unorganized discharge of greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater has brought several negative influences on the ecological environment in the rural area of Yangtze River Delta. Biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system is a potential ecological method for greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment. In order to explore the feasibility of this system and evaluate the contribution of vegetable uptake of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater, three types of vegetables, including Ipomoea aquatica, lettuce and celery were selected in this study. Results showed the combined system had a high capacity in simultaneous removal of organic matter, N and P. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP from the wastewater reached up to 93.2%-95.6%, 97.2%-99.6%, 73.9%-93.1% and 74.9%-90.0%, respectively. System with I. aquatica had the highest efficiencies in N and P removal, followed by lettuce and celery. However, plant uptake was not the primary pathway for TN arid TP removal in the combined system. The vegetable uptake of N and P accounted for only 9.1%-25.0% of TN and TP removal from the wastewater while the effect of microorganisms would be dominant for N and P removal. In addition, the highest amounts of N and P uptake in I. aquatica were closely related with the biomass of plant. Results from the study indicated that the biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system was an effective approach to treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater in China.

  7. Designing an agricultural vegetative waste-management system under uncertain prices of treatment-technology output products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, D; Raviv, O; Ayalon, O; Kan, I

    2018-05-01

    Setting up a sustainable agricultural vegetative waste-management system is a challenging investment task, particularly when markets for output products of waste-treatment technologies are not well established. We conduct an economic analysis of possible investments in treatment technologies of agricultural vegetative waste, while accounting for fluctuating output prices. Under a risk-neutral approach, we find the range of output-product prices within which each considered technology becomes most profitable, using average final prices as the exclusive factor. Under a risk-averse perspective, we rank the treatment technologies based on their computed certainty-equivalent profits as functions of the coefficient of variation of the technologies' output prices. We find the ranking of treatment technologies based on average prices to be robust to output-price fluctuations provided that the coefficient of variation of the output prices is below about 0.4, that is, approximately twice as high as that of well-established recycled-material markets such as glass, paper and plastic. We discuss some policy implications that arise from our analysis regarding vegetative waste management and its associated risks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: jwhunt@ucdavis.edu; Anderson, Brian [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, Bryn [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: bmphillips@ucdavis.edu; Tjeerdema, Ron [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: rstjeerdema@ucdavis.edu; Largay, Bryan [Largay Hydrologic Sciences, LLC, 160 Farmer Street Felton, CA 95018-9416 (United States)], E-mail: bryan.largay@sbcglobal.net; Beretti, Melanie [Resources Conservation District of Monterey County, 744-A La Guardia Street, Salinas, CA 93905 (United States)], E-mail: beretti.melanie@rcdmonterey.org; Bern, Amanda [California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Coast Region, 895 Aerovista Place, Suite 101, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 (United States)], E-mail: abern@waterboards.ca.gov

    2008-11-15

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems.

  9. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, John; Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Tjeerdema, Ron; Largay, Bryan; Beretti, Melanie; Bern, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems

  10. Treatment of chronic portal--systemic encephalopathy with vegetable and animal protein diets. A controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, M; Márquez, M A; Garcia Ramos, G; Ramos-Uribe, M H; Vargas, F; Villalobos, A; Ramos, C

    1982-12-01

    A controlled crossover clinical comparison of 40-g/day and 80-g/day vegetable protein diets vs a 40-g/day meat protein diet plus neomycin-milk of magnesia (as control therapy) was performed on 10 cirrhotic patients with mild chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy. The 40-g vegetable protein diet had a high fiber volume and contained low methionine and low aromatic amino acids. The 80-g vegetable protein diet was rich in branched-chain amino acids and fiber, with a similar content of sulfur-containing amino acids as compared to the 40-g meat protein diet. Serial semiquantitative assessments were done, including mental state, asterixis, number connection tests, electroencephalograms and blood ammonia levels. No patient developed deep coma while ingesting either vegetable protein diet or neomycin-milk of magnesia plus 40-g meat protein diet. A significant improvement in the number connection test times was observed during the 40-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) and during the 80-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) as compared to their previous 40-g meat protein--neomycin periods. In addition, during the period of 80-g vegetable protein diet, the patients showed a significant improvement in their electroencephalograms (P less than 0.05). The frequency of bowel movements significantly increased (P less than 0.05) during the 80-g vegetable protein diet period. During the 40-g vegetable protein diet, two cirrhotic--diabetic patients experienced hypoglycemia. Three patients complained of the voluminous 80-g vegetable protein diet. Patients with mild portal--systemic encephalopathy may be adequately controlled with vegetable protein diets as a single therapy.

  11. STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Jahn, M.; Kromphardt, C.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Roberts, S.J.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Forsberg, G.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Wikström, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with

  12. Vegetation responses to sagebrush-reduction treatments measured by satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Aaron; Beever, Erik; Merkle, Jerod A.; Chong, Geneva W.

    2018-01-01

    Time series of vegetative indices derived from satellite imagery constitute tools to measure ecological effects of natural and management-induced disturbances to ecosystems. Over the past century, sagebrush-reduction treatments have been applied widely throughout western North America to increase herbaceous vegetation for livestock and wildlife. We used indices from satellite imagery to 1) quantify effects of prescribed-fire, herbicide, and mechanical treatments on vegetative cover, productivity, and phenology, and 2) describe how vegetation changed over time following these treatments. We hypothesized that treatments would increase herbaceous cover and accordingly shift phenologies towards those typical of grass-dominated systems. We expected prescribed burns would lead to the greatest and most-prolonged effects on vegetative cover and phenology, followed by herbicide and mechanical treatments. Treatments appeared to increase herbaceous cover and productivity, which coincided with signs of earlier senescence − signals expected of grass-dominated systems, relative to sagebrush-dominated systems. Spatial heterogeneity for most phenometrics was lower in treated areas relative to controls, which suggested treatment-induced homogenization of vegetative communities. Phenometrics that explain spring migrations of ungulates mostly were unaffected by sagebrush treatments. Fire had the strongest effect on vegetative cover, and yielded the least evidence for sagebrush recovery. Overall, treatment effects were small relative to those reported from field-based studies for reasons most likely related to sagebrush recovery, treatment specification, and untreated patches within mosaicked treatment applications. Treatment effects were also small relative to inter-annual variation in phenology and productivity that was explained by temperature, snowpack, and growing-season precipitation. Our results indicated that cumulative NDVI, late-season phenometrics, and spatial

  13. Systems of water treatment based on macrophytes vegetation; Sistemi di depurazione delle acque basati sull`uso di vegetazione macrofita. I - Caratteristiche e funzionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borin, Maurizio [Padua, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Agronomia Ambientale e Produzioni Vegetali; Marchetti, Claudio

    1997-05-01

    The use of wetland macrophytes in systems of treatment of polluted waters is an outstanding example of ecotechnology. Wetland systems are an interface between the aquatic system at risk of being polluted and the terrestrial system which is the source of pollutant substances. They are a cost-effective alternative to more conventional engineered systems to treat potential pollutant substances. They are also a part of the natural hydrological cycle and provide a ready means of making treated wastewater available for reuse. Wetland treatment systems use rooted, water-tolerant plant species and shallow, flooded or saturated soil conditions to provide various types of wastewater treatment. They are very flexible in terms of features, vegetation and performance, but the following basic types can be classified as follows: natural wetlands, constructed surface flow wetlands, constructed subsurface flow wetlands (reed beds). In this paper an outlook of the features and the functioning processes is given.

  14. Ionizing energy treatment of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential of ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit and vegetables may be considered within four major use areas. The shelf life of such fruits as bananas, mangoes and pawpaws can be extended by a direct physiological effect on the fruit. This treatment renders the fruit less sensitive to ethylene, a natural senescence-promoting chemical, and retards the onset of the climactric rise in respiration which is associated with fruit ripening. Postharvest decay caused by radio-sensitive organisms can also be controlled by low irradiation treatments, although this is only applicable in cases where the host fruit is less sensitive to the treatment than the decay causing organism. The sprouting of onions and potatoes can be controlled by a single low dose treatment which has a direct effect on the meristematic tissue. By killing insects of quarantine significance the interstate and export marketing of Australian fresh fruit may be expanded, with a consequent expansion of these horticultural industries. Ionising energy treatment of fruit and vegetables is therefore a valuable postharvest tool to improve the quality of fresh produce on local and export markets

  15. Vegetation Response to Western Juniper Slash Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany ( Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue ( Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass ( Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments ( P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of pre-treatment tree

  16. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, Jonathan P; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J D; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R; Clark, Joanna M

    2016-11-18

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to 'end-of-pipe' solutions through management of ecosystem service provision.

  17. Influence of Vegetation on Long-term Phosphorus Sequestration in Subtropical Treatment Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhomia, R K; Reddy, K R

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable operation of a treatment wetland depends on its continued treatment of influent water to achieve desired outflow water quality targets. Water treatment or nutrient reduction is attained by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. We studied one of the world's largest treatment wetlands established to revive the Florida Everglades from impacts of excessive phosphorus (P) inputs. Phosphorus retained in the treatment wetlands is sequestered within the accumulated material via biotic and abiotic pathways that are influenced by the existing wetland vegetation. Recently accreted soils (RAS) provide a major sink for stored P, and long-term P removal efficiency of treatment wetlands is governed by the stability of accreted P because more stable P pools are less susceptible to mobilization and loss. We quantified reactive P (extracted with acid and alkali) and nonreactive P (not extracted with acid and alkali) pools in wetland soils by using an operationally defined P fractionation scheme and assessed the effect of emergent vs. submerged vegetation communities on stability of sequestered P. Reactive P comprised 63 to 79% of total P in wetland soils without a clear difference between two vegetation groups. The quantities of reactive P forms (inorganic vs. organic P) were significantly different between two vegetation types. A higher proportion of reactive P was stored as organic P in flocculent detrital organic matter (floc) and RAS under emergent vegetation (46-47% total P) in comparison with submerged vegetation (21-34% total P). The dominant P removal pathway in the submerged vegetation system was associated with calcium whereas plant uptake and peat burial appeared to be the main pathway in the emergent vegetation system. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Organic seed treatment of vegetables to prevent seedborne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadaro, D.; Herforth-Rahmé, J.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Seedborne pathogens of vegetables are responsible for the re-emergence of diseases of the past, as well as the introduction of diseases into new geographical areas. Seed treatment can be used to eradicate seedborne pathogens or to protect from soilborne pathogens. The European Commission Regulation

  19. Seed treatments to control seedborne fungal pathogens of vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Valeria; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    Vegetable crops are frequently infected by fungal pathogens, which can include seedborne fungi. In such cases, the pathogen is already present within or on the seed surface, and can thus cause seed rot and seedling damping-off. Treatment of vegetable seeds has been shown to prevent plant disease epidemics caused by seedborne fungal pathogens. Furthermore, seed treatments can be useful in reducing the amounts of pesticides required to manage a disease, because effective seed treatments can eliminate the need for foliar application of fungicides later in the season. Although the application of fungicides is almost always effective, their non-target environmental impact and the development of pathogen resistance have led to the search for alternative methods, especially in the past few years. Physical treatments that have already been used in the past and treatments with biopesticides, such as plant extracts, natural compounds and biocontrol agents, have proved to be effective in controlling seedborne pathogens. These have been applied alone or in combination, and they are widely used owing to their broad spectrum in terms of disease control and production yield. In this review, the effectiveness of different seed treatments against the main seedborne pathogens of some important vegetable crops is critically discussed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Forest Vegetation Simulator translocation techniques with the Bureau of Land Management's Forest Vegetation Information system database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Bottomley

    2008-01-01

    The BLM uses a database, called the Forest Vegetation Information System (FORVIS), to store, retrieve, and analyze forest resource information on a majority of their forested lands. FORVIS also has the capability of easily transferring appropriate data electronically into Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) for simulation runs. Only minor additional data inputs or...

  1. Results of gamma-ray treatment of vegetable seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshnakov, P

    1975-01-01

    Tests carried out (1973 and 1974) at the Chair of Gardening, VKHIA, Plovdiv, were aimed at producing stimulative effects through irradiation of vegetable seeds. Treatment with 2000 R enhanced the ripening of the early tomato variety Pioneer 2 by 18.6% and its overall yield by 14.0% on a two year mean, while the same treatment of Triumph variety proved ineffective. Kourtovska Kapiya pepper variety did not positively respond to gamma-rays irradiation with 1200 R. Irradiation with 2000 R raised the earliness of Bulgarski 12 eggplant variety by 10.8% and the yield by 6.0%.

  2. A review on acidifying treatments for vegetable canned food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derossi, A; Fiore, A G; De Pilli, T; Severini, C

    2011-12-01

    As is well known, pasteurization treatments are not sufficient for destroying heat resistance of spore forming microorganisms, which are prevented from germination and growing by pH reducing. So, the acidification process becomes one of the most important pre-treatments for the canning industry. It is commonly applied before pasteurization treatment with the purpose of inhibiting spore germination and for reducing heat resistance of the microorganism, thereby allowing to reduce the time or temperature values of the heat treatment. With the aim to reduce the pH of vegetables several techniques are available but their application is not easy to plan. Often, industries define operative conditions only on the basis of empirical experience, thus increasing the risk of microbial growth or imparting an unpleasant sour taste. With the aim of highlighting the correct plan and management of acidification treatments to reach safety without degrading quality of canned fruit and vegetables, the topics that are reviewed and discussed are the effects of low pH on heat resistance of the most important microorganisms, acidification techniques and significant process variables, the effect of low pH on sensorial properties, and future trends.

  3. The Role of Vegetation and Mulch in Mitigating the Impact of Raindrops on Soils in Urban Vegetated Green Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehtazi, B.; Montalto, F. A.; Sjoblom, K.

    2014-12-01

    Raindrop impulses applied to soils can break up larger soil aggregates into smaller particles, dispersing them from their original position. The displaced particles can self-stratify, with finer particles at the top forming a crust. Occurrence of this phenomenon reduces the infiltration rate and increases runoff, contributing to downstream flooding, soil erosion, and non point source pollutant loads. Unprotected soil surfaces (e.g. without vegetation canopies, mulch, or other materials), are more susceptible to crust formation due to the higher kinetic energy associated with raindrop impact. By contrast, soil that is protected by vegetation canopies and mulch layers is less susceptible to crust formation, since these surfaces intercept raindrops, dissipating some of their kinetic energy prior to their impact with the soil. Within this context, this presentation presents preliminary laboratory work conducted using a rainfall simulator to determine the ability of new urban vegetation and mulch to minimize soil crust formation. Three different scenarios are compared: a) bare soil, b) soil with mulch cover, and c) soil protected by vegetation canopies. Soil moisture, surface penetration resistance, and physical measurements of the volume of infiltrate and runoff are made on all three surface treatments after simulated rainfall events. The results are used to develop recommendations regarding surface treatment in green infrastructure (GI) system designs, namely whether heavily vegetated GI facilities require mulching to maintain infiltration capacity.

  4. Marketing system analysis of vegetables and fruits in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to analyze the different aspects of marketing system of vegetable and fruit in Raya Kobo and Harbu woredas, Amhara regional state using different indicators. Probit estimation for determinant of participation probability in vegetable and fruit production and OLS estimation technique were also applied for ...

  5. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  6. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of foods.

  7. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, S.Aa. (Departments of Psychology, University of Stockholm (Sweden)); Neppe, V. (Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Hoffman, H. (Department of Psychology, Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of Washington, Settle (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.).

  8. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christianson, S.Aa.; Neppe, V.; Hoffman, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.)

  9. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  10. Vegetable coagulants as alternative for treatment of wastewater in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servando López-León

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the various properties of natural coagulants, water, the chemical substance essential for life and the ideal solvent for a large number of compounds, it is commonly used with domestic, commercial and industrial purposes. After its use, it presents sewage to be retired before use it once again. To remove pollutant, water is subject to different physical, chemical and biological processes. Here, the clarification process uses aluminum and iron materials to remove the solids present; these materials are reported as health hazardous and toxic. In Mexico, regulatory frame work stablish that treated wastewater should do not exceed 0.2 mg/L of aluminum even though has been reported an increased risk of Alzheimer's in populations when water exceeds 0.1 mg/L. Natural coagulants have showed coagulation properties when are used in the clarification process, proven its advantages over traditional ones; such as low cost, good coagulant properties and safe health and non-toxic properties. Here, we enlist some vegetable species as alternatives to the traditional based on aluminum and iron. Additionally, these species are known to have origins on Mexico or being present extensively in the territory, making possible to think about them as alternative coagulants in the clarification process of the wastewater treatment process.

  11. Loblolly pine growth following operational vegetation management treatments compares favorably to that achieved in complete vegetation control research trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight K. Lauer; Harold E. Quicke

    2010-01-01

    Different combinations of chemical site prep and post-plant herbaceous weed control installed at three Upper Coastal Plain locations were compared in terms of year 3 loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) pine response to determine the better vegetation management regimes. Site prep treatments were different herbicide rates applied in either July or October. Site...

  12. Nutrient balances in Field vegetable production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeteson, J.J.; Langeveld, J.W.A.; Smit, A.L.; Haan, de J.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this review paper an overview of the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles in agricultural systems is presented. The information summarized provides general information on the important processes involved as they relate to losses from agricultural systems. Such background information is a

  13. Treatment of contaminated roadway runoff using vegetated filter strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of this field study was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of vegetated highway embankments as a stormwater runoff best management practice (BMP) for retention of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulates...

  14. 78 FR 27864 - Cold Treatment for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables; MidAmerica St. Louis Airport, Mascoutah, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 305 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0089] Cold Treatment for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables; Mid... fruits and vegetables upon arrival at the MidAmerica St. Louis Airport, Mascoutah, IL. We have determined... escape from shipments of fruits or vegetables before the fruits or vegetables undergo cold treatment...

  15. Influence of vegetation and gravel mesh on the tertiary treatment of wastewater from a cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlyssides, Apostolos G; Mai, Sofia T H; Barampouti, Elli Maria P; Loukakis, Haralampos N

    2009-07-01

    To estimate the influence of gravel mesh (fine and coarse) and vegetation (Phragmites and Arundo) on the efficiency of a reed bed, a pilot plant was included after the wastewater treatment plant of a cosmetic industry treatment system according to a 22 factorial experimental design. The maximum biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorous (TP) reduction was observed in the reactor, where Phragmites and fine gravel were used. In the reactor with Phragmites and coarse gravel, the maximum total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total suspended solids (TSS) reduction was observed. The maximum total solids reduction was measured in the reed bed, which was filled with Arundo and coarse gravel. Conclusively, the treatment of a cosmetic industry's wastewater by reed beds as a tertiary treatment method is quite effective.

  16. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  17. Non- chemical methods of seed treatment for control of seed- borne pathogens on vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Wickstrom, M.; Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Jahn, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of EU-project "Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production" (STOVE) was to evaluate non-chemical methods for control of seed-borne pathogens in organic vegetable production. Physical (hot air, hot water and electron) and biologi-cal (microorganisms and different agents of natural

  18. Treatment and utilization of septic tank effluent using vertical-flow constructed wetlands and vegetable hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Hua; Luo, Shi-Ming; Zhu, Xi-Zhen; Liu, Ying-Hu

    2003-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands is a typical ecological sanitation system for sewage treatment. The removal rates for COD, BOD5, SS, TN, and TP were 60%, 80%, 74%, 49% and 79%, respectively, when septic tank effluent was treated by vertical flow filter. So the concentration of COD and BOD5 in the treated effluent could meet the quality standard for irrigation water. After that the treated effluent was used for hydroponic cultivation of water spinach and romaine lettuce, the removal efficiencies of the whole system for COD, BOD5, SS, TN and TP were 71.4%, 97.5%, 96.9%, 86.3%, and 87.4%, respectively. And it could meet the integrated wastewater discharge standard for secondary biological treatment plant. It was found that using treated effluent for hydroponic cultivation of vegetables could reduce the nitrate content in vegetables. The removal rates for total bacteria and coliform index by using vertical flow bed system with cinder substrate were 80%-90% and 85%-96%, respectively.

  19. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonc, David; Plante, Luke

    2017-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2016 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  20. The fire-vegetation-climate system: how ecology can contribute to earth system science

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available and future state of global vegetation. A key complexity that is currently not well captured by Earth System models is that vegetation is not always deterministically responsive to climate and soils. Feedbacks within the Earth System, top-down controls...

  1. Ultrasonic system for NDE of fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhang, Kyung Young; Jung, Gyoo Hong; Kim, Man Soo

    1999-01-01

    The nondestructive internal quality evaluation of agricultural products has been strongly required from the needs for individual inspection. In recent, ultrasonic wave has been considered as a solution for this problem. This study is to construct the ultrasonic inspection system for fruits and vegetables on the basis of pre-knowledge that general frequency band(higher than 100 kHz) ultrasonic waves do not transmitted well due to severe attenuation. Our system includes ultrasonic pulser and receiver, transducers(50 kHz), acoustic hem, pneumatic controller and signal processing units (PC). In order to confirm the performance, several samples (apple, pear, persimmon, kiwi fruit, potato and radish) were tested, and the results showed sufficient possibility to apply to NDE of fruits and vegetables.

  2. Big data system for disaster warning of solar greenhouse vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Li, M; Zhao, L; Chen, M; Wen, D; Liu, R; Yang, X

    2017-01-01

    Background: Solar greenhouses are very popular in the north of China as a way of meeting the demand for fresh local winter vegetables. Nonetheless, they are more susceptible to biological and meteorological disasters, such as diseases, pests, fog, haze and cold temperatures. Although we have deployed many record keeping equipment and weather stations, we have lower efficiency of usage on data. Big data has great potential in the future. Thus, our aim is to investigate a big data system for di...

  3. Derivation of global vegetation biophysical parameters from EUMETSAT Polar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Haro, Francisco Javier; Campos-Taberner, Manuel; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Laparra, Valero; Camacho, Fernando; Sánchez-Zapero, Jorge; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the algorithm developed in LSA-SAF (Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis) for the derivation of global vegetation parameters from the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) sensor on board MetOp (Meteorological-Operational) satellites forming the EUMETSAT (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Polar System (EPS). The suite of LSA-SAF EPS vegetation products includes the leaf area index (LAI), the fractional vegetation cover (FVC), and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). LAI, FAPAR, and FVC characterize the structure and the functioning of vegetation and are key parameters for a wide range of land-biosphere applications. The algorithm is based on a hybrid approach that blends the generalization capabilities offered by physical radiative transfer models with the accuracy and computational efficiency of machine learning methods. One major feature is the implementation of multi-output retrieval methods able to jointly and more consistently estimate all the biophysical parameters at the same time. We propose a multi-output Gaussian process regression (GPRmulti), which outperforms other considered methods over PROSAIL (coupling of PROSPECT and SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrary Inclined Leaves) radiative transfer models) EPS simulations. The global EPS products include uncertainty estimates taking into account the uncertainty captured by the retrieval method and input errors propagation. A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess several sources of uncertainties in retrievals and maximize the positive impact of modeling the noise in training simulations. The paper discusses initial validation studies and provides details about the characteristics and overall quality of the products, which can be of interest to assist the successful use of the data by a broad user's community. The consistent generation and distribution of the EPS vegetation products will

  4. Some of the structural and functional features of the autonomic nervous system and diagnosis in clinical practice in the treatment and rehabilitation of patients from diverse backgrounds with vegetative violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Samosyuk

    2015-03-01

    educational-methodical manual "some structural and functional features of the autonomic nervous system and their Diagnostics in clinical and resort practice in the treatment and rehabilitation of patients from diverse backgrounds with vegetative violations" are known and new data on the operation of the autonomic nervous system. In particular, describes the effect of the left and right hemispheres of the brain, function of the insula sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The manual briefly describes the enteric nervous system, with its powerful vegetative-trophic and immuno-corrective function. An important place in the manual is the modern samples and tests to determine the functional of the autonomic nervous system, which together with the study of variational pulsometry parameters may serve as an objective criterion of the autonomic nervous system. The manual also provides autonomic disorders in different parts of the autonomic nervous system. Manual is intended for a wide range of doctors-clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with neurological and therapeutic profile, etc.

  5. [The prognostic significance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for phobic anxiety disorders, vegetative and cognitive impairments during conservative treatment including adaptol of some functional and organic diseases of nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Marchenko, A A; Puliatkina, O V

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the efficacy of adaptol in the treatment of 45 patients with somatoform dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and 30 patients with closed head injury. The condition of patients during the treatment was evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological scales. The serum level of BDNF before and after the treatment has been studied as well. Adaptol has been shown to enhance the production of BDNF, reduce significantly the intensity of anxiety, autonomic disorders and improve intellectual processes. The dose-dependent effect of the drug has been demonstrated. In conclusion, adaptol can be recommended for treatment of diseases that demand stimulation of neuroplasticity in the CNS.

  6. Microscale vegetation-soil feedback boosts hysteresis in a regional vegetation-climate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.H.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a positive feedback between vegetation cover and monsoon circulation may lead to the existence of two alternative stable states in the Sahara region: a vegetated state with moderate precipitation and a desert state with low precipitation. This could explain the sudden

  7. The practical and economic benefits of ionising radiation for the postharvest treatment of fruit and vegetables: an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    It can be concluded validly from the literature examined that all irradiated fruit and vegetables are safe for human consumption and suffer no major reduction in nutritional quality for doses of 2 kGy and below. However, the majority of crops are adversely affected at treatment doses with appearance and quality being reduced significantly. This is because the sensitivity of the crop to irradiation is greater than the sensitivity of the pathogen to physiological process which irradiation is attempting to control. Of the nine commodities in Australia that have potential for treatment with irradiation, only the banana, citrus, mushroom, onion and potato industries have production areas with sufficient concentration of growers. However, irradiation as a treatment for these five crops does not appear to be economically viable, as there is either insufficient demand or insufficient advantages in using irradiation when compared to existing industry practice. It is apparent that no single fruit or vegetable crop in Australia has either the volume of product or potential demand to justify full scale commercialisation. Thus the only possible route for commercialisation of fruit and vegetable irradiation is by using the facilities of a multi-purpose irradiation plant. Whether such a system would ever be commercially viable for fruits and vegetables has yet to be demonstrated; to date only low volume specialty items or research scale quantities have been processed in multi-purpose plants at highly subsidised rates

  8. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  9. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  10. Influence of hummocks and emergent vegetation on hydraulic performance in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Steffanie H.; Daniels, Joan S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Wass, Roland D.; Stiles, Eric A.; Barber, Larry B.

    2010-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments were conducted biannually at the start and end of the vegetation growing season in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland located near Phoenix, AZ. Tracer experiments were conducted prior to and following reconfiguration and replanting of a 1.2 ha treatment wetland from its original design of alternating shallow and deep zones to incorporate hummocks (shallow planting beds situated perpendicular to flow). Tracer test data were analyzed using analysis of moments and the one‐dimensional transport with inflow and storage numerical model to evaluate the effects of the seasonal vegetation growth cycle and hummocks on solute transport. Following reconfiguration, vegetation coverage was relatively small, and minor changes in spatial distribution influenced wetland hydraulics. During start‐up conditions, the wetland underwent an acclimation period characterized by small vegetation coverage and large transport cross‐sectional areas. At the start of the growing season, new growth of emergent vegetation enhanced hydraulic performance. At the end of the growing season, senescing vegetation created short‐circuiting. Wetland hydrodynamics were associated with high volumetric efficiencies and velocity heterogeneities. The hummock design resulted in breakthrough curves characterized by multiple secondary tracer peaks indicative of varied flow paths created by bottom topography.

  11. Vegetation Earth System Data Record from DSCOVR EPIC Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Song, W.; Yang, B.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was launched on February 11, 2015 to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L1 point where it began to collect radiance data of the entire sunlit Earth every 65 to 110 min in June 2015. It provides imageries in near backscattering directions with the scattering angle between 168° and 176° at ten ultraviolet to near infrared (NIR) narrow spectral bands centered at 317.5 (band width 1.0) nm, 325.0 (2.0) nm, 340.0 (3.0) nm, 388.0 (3.0) nm, 433.0 (3.0) nm, 551.0 (3.0) nm, 680.0 (3.0) nm, 687.8 (0.8) nm, 764.0 (1.0) nm and 779.5 (2.0) nm. This poster presents current status of the Vegetation Earth System Data Record of global Leaf Area Index (LAI), solar zenith angle dependent Sunlit Leaf Area Index (SLAI), Fraction vegetation absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the DSCOVR EPIC observations. Whereas LAI is a standard product of many satellite missions, the SLAI is a new satellite-derived parameter. Sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different radiative response to incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm), which in turn triggers various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. FPAR, LAI and SLAI are key state parameters in most ecosystem productivity models and carbon/nitrogen cycle. The product at 10 km sinusoidal grid and 65 to 110 min temporal frequency as well as accompanying Quality Assessment (QA) variables will be publicly available from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATBD) and product validation strategy are also discussed in this poster.

  12. LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Griesbaum, Luisa; Kiefer, Andreas; Hämmerle, Martin; Eitel, Jan; Koma, Zsófia

    2015-04-01

    lacks behind. We propose a novel concept, the LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA), which shall enhance sharing of i) reference datasets of single vegetation objects with rich reference data (e.g., plant species, basic plant morphometric information) and ii) approaches for information extraction (e.g., single tree detection, tree species classification based on waveform LiDAR features). We will build an extensive LiDAR data repository for supporting the development and benchmarking of LiDAR-based object information extraction. The LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA) uses international web service standards (Open Geospatial Consortium, OGC) for geospatial data access and also analysis (e.g., OGC Web Processing Services). This will allow the research community identifying plant object specific vegetation features from LiDAR data, while accounting for differences in LiDAR systems (e.g., beam divergence), settings (e.g., point spacing), and calibration techniques. It is the goal of LVISA to develop generic 3D information extraction approaches, which can be seamlessly transferred to other datasets, timestamps and also extraction tasks. The current prototype of LVISA can be visited and tested online via http://uni-heidelberg.de/lvisa. Video tutorials provide a quick overview and entry into the functionality of LVISA. We will present the current advances of LVISA and we will highlight future research and extension of LVISA, such as integrating low-cost LiDAR data and datasets acquired by highly temporal scanning of vegetation (e.g., continuous measurements). Everybody is invited to join the LVISA development and share datasets and analysis approaches in an interoperable way via the web-based LVISA geoportal.

  13. Design of electric control system for automatic vegetable bundling machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan

    2017-06-01

    A design can meet the requirements of automatic bale food structure and has the advantages of simple circuit, and the volume is easy to enhance the electric control system of machine carrying bunch of dishes and low cost. The bundle of vegetable machine should meet the sensor to detect and control, in order to meet the control requirements; binding force can be adjusted by the button to achieve; strapping speed also can be adjusted, by the keys to set; sensors and mechanical line connection, convenient operation; can be directly connected with the plug, the 220V power supply can be connected to a power source; if, can work, by the transmission signal sensor, MCU to control the motor, drive and control procedures for small motor. The working principle of LED control circuit and temperature control circuit is described. The design of electric control system of automatic dish machine.

  14. Monoterpenes released from fruit, plant, and vegetable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Hyeon

    2014-09-29

    To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs) from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST)-thermal desorption (TD) method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID), consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99). This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V) samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris), tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice) marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37%) for carrot, while it was myrcene (31%) for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  15. Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST-thermal desorption (TD method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS and flame ionization detector (FID, consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99. This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris, tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37% for carrot, while it was myrcene (31% for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  16. Efficacy of household washing treatments for the control of Listeria monocytogenes on salad vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastou, Aikaterini; Rhoades, Jonathan; Smirniotis, Petros; Makri, Ioanna; Kontominas, Michael; Likotrafiti, Eleni

    2012-10-15

    The efficacy of household decontamination methods at reducing Listeria monocytogenes on fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and parsley (Petroselinum sativum) was studied. Inoculated vegetable pieces were immersed in washing solutions and surviving L. monocytogenes enumerated. Parameters investigated were storage temperature prior to washing, dipping water temperature, agitation, acetic acid concentration and immersion time. The results indicated that the storage temperature significantly affects the efficacy of dipping vegetables in water for the control of L. monocytogenes, as the reduction in count was greatest when products had been stored at cooler temperatures. Decontamination with acetic acid (up to 2.0% v/v) was shown to have some effect in most cases, but the highest observed decrease in count was 2.6 log cfu/g. Experiments investigating the effect of exposure time to acetic acid (0.5% and 1.0% v/v, up to 30 min immersion) indicated that immersing the vegetables for more than 10 min is of minimal benefit. The most significant factor affecting washing and decontamination efficacy was the vegetable itself: L. monocytogenes colonizing cucumber epidermis was far more resistant to removal by washing and to acid treatment than that on the leafy vegetables, and L. monocytogenes on parsley was the most susceptible. This shows that published decontamination experiments (often performed with lettuce) cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other vegetables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) Vegetation Volume Index: An assessment tool for marsh habitat focused on the three-dimensional structure at CRMS vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Hundy, Laura C.; McGinnis, Tommy E.

    2015-12-04

    A Vegetation Volume (VV) variable and Vegetation Volume Index (VVI) have been developed for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The VV is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional vegetative structure present at each CRMS site and is based on vegetation data collected annually. The VV uses 10 stations per CRMS site to quantify four vegetation layers: carpet, herbaceous, shrub, and tree. For each layer an overall live vegetation percent cover and height are collected to create a layer volume; the individual layer volumes are then summed to generate a site vegetation volume profile. The VV uses the two-dimensional area of live vegetative cover (in square meters) multiplied by the height (in meters) of each layer to produce a volume (in cubic meters) for each layer present in a 2-meter by 2-meter station. These layers are additive, yielding a total volume for each of the 10 herbaceous vegetation stations and an overall CRMS marsh site average.

  18. Understory vegetation response to mechanical mastication and other fuels treatments in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey M. Kane; J. Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What influence does mechanical mastication and other fuel treatments have on: (1) canopy and forest floor response variables that influence understory plant development; (2) initial understory vegetation cover, diversity, and composition; and (3) shrub and non-native species density in a secondgrowth ponderosa pine forest....

  19. Comparison of total isothiocyanates content in vegetable juices during high pressure treatment, pasteurization and freezing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2007), s. 147-149 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : High-pressure treatments * Foods * Vegetable juices Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2007

  20. Effect of management systems and cover crops on organic matter dynamics of soil under vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production in conservation tillage has increased in Brazil, with positive effects on the soil quality. Since management systems alter the quantity and quality of organic matter, this study evaluated the influence of different management systems and cover crops on the organic matter dynamics of a dystrophic Red Latosol under vegetables. The treatments consisted of the combination of three soil tillage systems: no-tillage (NT, reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT and of two cover crops: maize monoculture and maize-mucuna intercrop. Vegetables were grown in the winter and the cover crops in the summer for straw production. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected between the crop rows in three layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m twice: in October, before planting cover crops for straw, and in July, during vegetable cultivation. The total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, oxidizable fractions, and the carbon fractions fulvic acid (C FA, humic acid (C HA and humin (C HUM were determined. The main changes in these properties occurred in the upper layers (0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m where, in general, TOC levels were highest in NT with maize straw. The MBC levels were lowest in CT systems, indicating sensitivity to soil disturbance. Under mucuna, the levels of C HA were lower in RT than NT systems, while the C FA levels were lower in RT than CT. For vegetable production, the C HUM values were lowest in the 0.05-0.10 m layer under CT. With regard to the oxidizable fractions, the tillage systems differed only in the most labile C fractions, with higher levels in NT than CT in the 0.0-0.05 m layer in both summer and winter, with no differences between these systems in the other layers. The cabbage yield was not influenced by the soil management system, but benefited from the mulch production of the preceding maize-mucuna intercrop as cover

  1. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by Apiaceae root vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Petersen, Thomas H; Fretté, Xavier C

    2014-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported.......Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported....

  2. [Clinical treatment of infective endocarditis with vegetations in pregnant women and the outcomes of gestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Zhang, J; Li, Y N; Meng, X; Liu, Y Y

    2016-05-25

    To investigate the clinical treatment of infective endocarditis with vegetations in pregnant women and the outcomes of the gestation. Nine cases of pregnant women diagnosed as infective endocarditis with vegetations in Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2001 to October 2015 were enrolled in retrospective analysis. Consultations were held by doctors from department of obstetrics, anesthesiology, cardiology, cardial surgery and extracorporeal circulation to decide the individualized treatment plan for the 9 cases of pregnant women after admissions. Clinical treatments including general treatment, anti-infection treatment, cardiac surgery, and termination of pregnancy surgery were completed through collaboration among related departments. The clinical characters, therapeutic regimens, maternal and neonatal outcomes of the 9 cases were analyzed. (1) Clinical characters: the ages of the 9 cases of pregnant women were from 25 to 36 years old. The onset gestational ages were from 19 to 36 weeks. fever, cough, sputum and progressive anemia were the main symptoms. Patients had cyanosis of lips, could not lie on the back or even be orthopnea, when heart failure happened. Heart murmur was audible and splenomegaly was touched in physical examination. Blood cultures were positive. Basic heart disease types: 7 cases of congenital heart diseases included 2 cases of aortic insufficiency, 1 case of mitral insufficiency, 1 case of patent ductus arteriosus, 1 case of right ventricular outflow tract stenosis and 2 cases of ventricular septal defect.Two cases of rheumatic heart diseases included 1 case of mitral stenosis, 1 case of mitral stenosis after artificial disc changed and jammed. According to endocardial vegetations attached position there were 3 cases of mitral valve vegetations, 2 cases of pulmonary valve vegetations, 3 cases of aortic vegetations and 1 case of right ventricular outflow tract neoplasm. Preoperative heart function classification

  3. Development of Vegetation and Surface Fuels Following Fire Hazard Reduction Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Stephens

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In dry western Unites States forests where past resource management has altered the ecological role of fire and stand characteristics alike, mechanical thinning and prescribed burning are commonly applied in wildfire hazard abatement. The reduced surface fuel loads and stand structures resulting from fuels modifications are temporary, yet few studies have assessed the lifespan of treatment effects. We sampled forest fuels and vegetation following fuels reduction in a chronosequence of time since treatment in the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade regions of California. Treatments altered overstory characteristics including stand density, basal area, and species composition. These effects were still present on the oldest treatment sites (8–15 years post-treatment. Other stand characteristics, particularly timelag fuel loads, seedling density, and shrub cover, exhibited substantial variability, and differences between treatment age classes and between treatment and control groups were not statistically significant.

  4. Transmission System Vegetation Management Program. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for Bonneville and the public, and interfere with their ability to maintain these facilities. They need to (1) keep vegetation away from the electric facilities; (2) increase their program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools they can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This DEIS establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this EIS). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed: manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 24 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, they consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides on any vegetation. Both would favor a management

  5. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-58)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barndt, Shawn L. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-05-31

    Vegetation Management at the Lines Creek Microwave site. The proposed work will be accomplished within the fenced area of the facility. BPA proposes bare ground vegetation management at the microwave site. Bare ground management is needed to prevent fire damage and maintain a vegetation free environment on the site. All work will be executed in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. The site will be checked 2-3 times during the growing season. Follow-up herbicide treatment will occur to eliminate any vegetation growing.

  6. Effectiveness of solar heating systems for the regeneration of adsorbents in recessed fruit and vegetable storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuzhakulov, S.M.; Uzakov, G.N.; Vardiyashvili, A.B

    2013-01-01

    A new method for the regeneration of adsorbents using solar heating systems is proposed. It provides energy saving through the control of the gas composition and humidity in recessed fruit and vegetable storages. The effectiveness of solar heating systems, such as a 'hot box' for the regeneration of adsorbents in fruit and vegetable storages is shown. (author)

  7. Potential use of ionizing radiation as quarantine treatment for fresh fruits, vegetables and flowers in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ricardo

    1990-01-01

    It is presented a brief description of the investigations Technology. Considering the potentiality of the country, to export non traditional and exotic fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, and ornamental fresh cut flowers, studies ares initiated to use ionizing radiation as quarantine treatments. This paper reports the initial data obtained with two species of fruit fly of high incidence in the fruit producer zones of Ecuador, whose stable and permanent microclimates allow to produce a sort of fruits along all year

  8. Determination Of Adsorption And Paraffin Characterization Of Treatment To Adsorb Vegetable Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminah, Neneng Siti; Mulijani, Sri; Sudirman; Ridwan

    2004-01-01

    Using vegetable oil repeatedly, beside affect on quality decline of food and the oil itself, it is harmful to human health. Some poisoning and carcinogenic symptom were founded with experiment using animals. According to that fact, the aim of the research is using paraffin and candle to adsorb used vegetable oil and to convert into solid sample, so it can be easily wasted. At first, 2 g of sample was poured into the heated oil, with gently stirrer until it turned cold and harden. Each sample and standard before and after treatment was characterized with Ftir, XRD, and DSc. The result shows that paraffins adsorbs 40 ml used vegetable oil with 2 g sample in proportion. That proportion is lower than the standard which can adsorb 66.67 ml vegetable oil in the same weight sample. The difference of paraffin and standard is caused by physical properties within that two materials, and it can be explained by Ftir, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSc). Based on result of Ftir analysis, standard consented of saturated hydrocarbon compound (alkanes) whereas paraffin consisted of unsaturated hydrocarbon compound (alkenes). Infrared spectrum after treatment showed the changes of compound, O-H and esters group were formed and it shows characterised the adsorption process. The result of DSc analysis showed that crystalline the melting point of standard is 75,3 o C and paraffin is 54,17 o C. The result of analysis XRD, described that standard and paraffin before treatment are crystalline whereas after treatment are am orf

  9. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable...... relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables...... with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively...

  10. Linking vegetable preferences, health and local food systems through community-supported agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jennifer L; Farrell, Tracy J; Rangarajan, Anusuya

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the influence of participation in community-supported agriculture (CSA) on vegetable exposure, vegetable intake during and after the CSA season, and preference related to locally produced vegetables acquired directly from CSA growers. Quantitative surveys were administered at three time points in two harvest seasons to four groups of CSA participants: new full-paying, returning full-paying, new subsidized and returning subsidized members. Questionnaires included a vegetable frequency measure and measures of new and changed vegetable preference. Comparisons were made between new and returning CSA members and between those receiving subsidies and full-paying members. The research was conducted in a rural county in New York, USA. CSA members who agreed to participate in the study. Analysis was based on 151 usable questionnaires. CSA participants reported higher intake of eleven different vegetables during the CSA season, with a sustained increase in some winter vegetables. Over half of the respondents reported trying at least one, and up to eleven, new vegetables. Sustained preferences for CSA items were reported. While those who choose to join a CSA may be more likely to acquire new and expanded vegetable preferences than those who do not, the CSA experience has the potential to enhance vegetable exposure, augment vegetable preference and increase overall vegetable consumption. Dietary patterns encouraged through CSA participation can promote preferences and consumer demand that support local production and seasonal availability. Emphasis on fresh and fresh stored locally produced vegetables is consistent with sustainable community-based food systems.

  11. Mapping coastal vegetation using an expert system and hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, K.S.; Skidmore, A.K.; Kloosterman, E.H.; Oosten, van H.; Kumar, L.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Mapping and monitoring salt marshes in the Netherlands are important activities of the Ministry of Public Works (Rijkswaterstaat). The Survey Department (Meetkundige Dienst) produces vegetation maps using aerial photographs. However, it is a time-consuming and expensive activity. The accuracy of the

  12. 78 FR 63373 - Cold Treatment for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables; MidAmerica St. Louis Airport, Mascoutah, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ..., PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236; (301) 851-2018. SUPPLEMENTARY... treatment) sufficient to kill certain insect pests associated with imported fruits and vegetables and with...

  13. Fast matrix treatment of 3-D radiative transfer in vegetation canopies: SPARTACUS-Vegetation 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robin J.; Quaife, Tristan; Braghiere, Renato

    2018-01-01

    A fast scheme is described to compute the 3-D interaction of solar radiation with vegetation canopies. The canopy is split in the horizontal plane into one clear region and one or more vegetated regions, and the two-stream equations are used for each, but with additional terms representing lateral exchange of radiation between regions that are proportional to the area of the interface between them. The resulting coupled set of ordinary differential equations is solved using the matrix-exponential method. The scheme is compared to solar Monte Carlo calculations for idealized scenes from the RAMI4PILPS intercomparison project, for open forest canopies and shrublands both with and without snow on the ground. Agreement is good in both the visible and infrared: for the cases compared, the root-mean-squared difference in reflectance, transmittance and canopy absorptance is 0.020, 0.038 and 0.033, respectively. The technique has potential application to weather and climate modelling.

  14. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Qual...

  15. Characteristics of nitrogen balance in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaopu; Luo, Yongxia; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from vegetable cropping systems has become a significant environmental issue in China. In this study, estimation of N balances in both open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China was established. Results showed that the total N input in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in 2010 was 5.44 and 2.60 Tg, respectively. Chemical fertilizer N input in the two cropping systems was 201 kg N ha(-1) per season (open-air) and 478 kg N ha(-1) per season (greenhouse). The N use efficiency (NUE) was 25.9 ± 13.3 and 19.7 ± 9.4% for open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems, respectively, significantly lower than that of maize, wheat, and rice. Approximately 30.6% of total N input was accumulated in soils and 0.8% was lost by ammonia volatilization in greenhouse vegetable system, while N accumulation and ammonia volatilization accounted for 19.1 and 11.1%, respectively, of total N input in open-air vegetable systems.

  16. INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL SYSTEM OF FORECAST VEGETATION FIRES IN NATURAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kogan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for spatial prediction for fire danger as function of weather and pyrological vegetation characteristics was constructed. The method of calculating the time conducted vegetable combustible materials in fire condition of each month of the season was suggested. Calculate the probability of fires and danger periods of plant formations in a monsoon climate. The geographic information system was developed, it was tested in the Middle Amur region in the Russian Far East.

  17. Innovative solutions in traceability to improve the competitiveness of a local fruit and vegetable retailing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Pakurár

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to investigate the network of local fruit and vegetable products from “farm to fork”, to uncover the hidden processes in traceability and to advise innovations in the retailing system to improve the competitiveness of the sector. Traceability is an ability to track any food that will be consumed throughout the processes of production, processing and distribution. The research investigates what the customer knows about the origin and treatments of purchased products and what further information would satisfy the consumer. The study explores the flow of information amongst the chain members: producers, wholesalers, small-scale retailers, and customers. Based on interviews and questionnaires, regression analysis and ordinal regression procedure were performed. Innovative solutions to make the retailing competitive should be aligned with the precise knowledge of the consumer. The results of the research show that deficiencies in data collection, data erosion, low level of cooperation of supply chain partners, not paying more attention for more detailed information, and inadequate control are the main problems of the traceability in fruit and vegetable chains.

  18. Nitrate removal from polluted water by using a vegetated floating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartucca, Maria Luce; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano; Del Buono, Daniele

    2016-01-15

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) water pollution is one of the most prevailing and relevant ecological issues. For instance, the wide presence of this pollutant in the environment is dramatically altering the quality of superficial and underground waters. Therefore, we set up a floating bed vegetated with a terrestrial herbaceous species (Italian ryegrass) with the aim to remediate hydroponic solutions polluted with NO3(-). The floating bed allowed the plants to grow and achieve an adequate development. Ryegrass was not affected by the treatments. On the contrary, plant biomass production and total nitrogen content (N-K) increased proportionally to the amount of NO3(-) applied. Regarding to the water cleaning experiments, the vegetated floating beds permitted to remove almost completely all the NO3(-) added from the hydroponic solutions with an initial concentration of 50, 100 and 150 mg L(-1). Furthermore, the calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated this species as successfully applicable for the remediation of solutions polluted by NO3(-). In conclusion, the results highlight that the combination of ryegrass and the floating bed system resulted to be effective in the remediation of aqueous solutions polluted by NO3(-). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Pan, Ligang; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Luan, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of selected metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in peri-urban areas of Beijing were investigated. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in greenhouse soils were 8.44, 0.25, 69.0, 0.09 and 22.0 mg kg(-1), dw, respectively. According to principal component analysis, As, Cd, Cr and Hg are mainly from anthropogenic source, but Pb is likely from natural source. Metal concentrations in all vegetable samples were decreased in the order of Cr>As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Compared with root and fruit vegetables, leaf vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals, except for Cd. By including soil pH, OM and greenhouse soil metals, 10 empirical models were derived using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts of different vegetables. Among the different vegetable groups, the highest intakes of metals occurred through consumption of leaf vegetables for the two age groups, except for Cd. The HI value of the studied metals were all below 1, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in greenhouse soils was of low risk to consumers in our study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Technology versus Agro-Ecology in Designing Vegetable Production Systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Stilma, E.S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Current open field vegetable production systems in the Netherlands do not meet market and societal demands. These demands could not be fulfilled by adapting current production systems. Other kinds of production systems are needed and therefore two types of systems are designed by 1) a technological

  1. Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruel Bárbara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

  2. The Rangeland Vegetation Simulator: A user-driven system for quantifying production, succession, disturbance and fuels in non-forest environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Reeves; Leonardo Frid

    2016-01-01

    Rangeland landscapes occupy roughly 662 million acres in the coterminous U.S. (Reeves and Mitchell 2011) and their vegetation responds quickly to climate and management, with high relative growth rates and inter-annual variability. Current national decision support systems in the U.S. such as the Interagency Fuels Treatment Decision Support System (IFT-DSS) require...

  3. Isotopic assessment of vegetation changes in grassland and woodland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieszen, L.L.; Archer, S.

    1990-01-01

    Dwight Billings is directly responsible for much of our understanding of plant ecophysiology, and he was one of the first to elucidate and interpret plant physiological processes in relation to ecosystem structure and function. Recent advances in stable isotope chemistry offer opportunities to identify, clarify, and trace further the linkages between plant and ecosystem-level processes, both past and present. It is within this framework of a new integrative technology, which facilitates the approaches developed by Billings, that we present this contribution. To date, there have been few studies of Great Basin vegetation processes using the techniques discussed here, and these have been described in Chapters 5 and 6, so most of our examples have been drawn from adjacent ecosystems

  4. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  5. Improvement of the Raman detection system for pesticide residues on/in fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Peng, Yankun; Zhai, Chen; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    Pesticide residue is one of the major challenges to fruits safety, while the traditional detection methods of pesticide residue on fruits and vegetables can't afford the demand of rapid detection in actual production because of timeconsuming. Thus rapid identification and detection methods for pesticide residue are urgently needed at present. While most Raman detection systems in the market are spot detection systems, which limits the range of application. In the study, our lab develops a Raman detection system to achieve area-scan thorough the self-developed spot detection Raman system with a control software and two devices. In the system, the scanning area is composed of many scanning spots, which means every spot needs to be detected and more time will be taken than area-scan Raman system. But lower detection limit will be achieved in this method. And some detection device is needed towards fruits and vegetables in different shape. Two detection devices are developed to detect spherical fruits and leaf vegetables. During the detection, the device will make spherical fruit rotate along its axis of symmetry, and leaf vegetables will be pressed in the test surface smoothly. The detection probe will be set to keep a proper distance to the surface of fruits and vegetables. It should make sure the laser shins on the surface of spherical fruit vertically. And two software are used to detect spherical fruits and leaf vegetables will be integrated to one, which make the operator easier to switch. Accordingly two detection devices for spherical fruits and leaf vegetables will also be portable devices to make it easier to change. In the study, a new way is developed to achieve area-scan result by spot-scan Raman detection system.

  6. Treatment of supermarket vegetable wastes to be used as alternative substrates in bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ana Isabel; Laca, Amanda; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2017-09-01

    Fruits and vegetables have the highest wastage rates at retail and consumer levels. These wastes have promising potential for being used as substrates in bioprocesses. However, an effective hydrolysis of carbohydrates that form these residues has to be developed before the biotransformation. In this work, vegetable wastes from supermarket (tomatoes, green peppers and potatoes) have been separately treated by acid, thermal and enzymatic hydrolysis processes in order to maximise the concentration of fermentable sugars in the final broth. For all substrates, thermal and enzymatic processes have shown to be the most effective. A new combined hydrolysis procedure including these both treatments was also assayed and the enzymatic step was successfully modelled. With this combined hydrolysis, the percentage of reducing sugars extracted was increased, in comparison with the amount extracted from non-hydrolysed samples, approximately by 30% in the case of tomato and green peeper wastes. For potato wastes this percentage increased from values lower than 1% to 77%. In addition, very low values of fermentation inhibitors were found in the final broth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Analytical treatment of the relationships between soil heat flux/net radiation ratio and vegetation indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, W.P.; Daughtry, C.S.T.; Oevelen, P.J. van

    1993-01-01

    Relationships between leaf area index (LAI) and midday soil heat flux/net radiation ratio (G/R n ) and two more commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) were used to analytically derive formulas describing the relationship between G/R n and VI. Use of VI for estimating G/R n may be useful in operational remote sensing models that evaluate the spatial variation in the surface energy balance over large areas. While previous experimental data have shown that linear equations can adequately describe the relationship between G/Rn and VI, this analytical treatment indicated that nonlinear relationships are more appropriate. Data over bare soil and soybeans under a range of canopy cover conditions from a humid climate and data collected over bare soil, alfalfa, and cotton fields in an arid climate were used to evaluate model formulations derived for LAI and G/R n , LAI and VI, and VI and G/R n . In general, equations describing LAI-G/R n and LAI-VI relationships agreed with the data and supported the analytical result of a nonlinear relationship between VI and G/R n . With the simple ratio (NIR/Red) as the VI, the nonlinear relationship with G/R n was confirmed qualitatively. But with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a nonlinear relationship did not appear to fit the data. (author)

  8. Development of Vegetation-Pervious Concrete in Grid Beam System for Soil Slope Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaohua; Liao, Wenyu; Dong, Zhijun; Wang, Shanyong; Tang, Waiching

    2017-01-01

    One of the most efficient and environmentally friendly methods for preventing a landslide on a slope is to vegetate it. Vegetation-pervious concretes have a promising potential for soil protection. In this study, the vegetation-pervious concrete with low alkalinity was developed and studied. Combined with a grid beam structure system, the stability and strength between the vegetation-pervious concrete and base soil are believed to be enhanced effectively. For improving plant adaptability, the alkalinity of concrete can be decreased innovatively by adding a self-designed admixture into the cement paste. The effects of the admixture content on alkalinity and compressive strength of the hardened pervious concrete were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and compression test, respectively. Meanwhile, the permeability of the vegetation-pervious concrete was studied as well. Through comparing with ordinary pervious concrete, the effect of low alkaline pervious concrete on vegetation growth was investigated in a small-scale field for ten weeks. The test results indicated that the alkalinity of the cement samples decreased with the increase of admixture content, and the vegetation grew successfully on previous concrete. By increasing the admixture content to approximately 3.6%, the compressive strength of pervious concrete was more than 25 MPa. PMID:28772454

  9. Treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenla, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    All aspects of treatment planning in radiotherapy are discussed in detail. Included are, among others, machine data and their acquisition, photon dose calculations and tests thereof, criteria of acceptability, sources of uncertainties, from 2D to 3D and from 3D to IMRT, dosimetric measurements for RTP validation, frequency of QA tests and suggested tolerances for TPS, time and staff requirements, model based segmentation, multi-dimensional radiotherapy (MD C RT), and biological IMRT process. (P.A.)

  10. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  11. Effect of Deficit Irrigation Treatments on Vegetative Characteristics and Quantity and Quality of Golden Delicious Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since Iran is located in arid and semi-arid region of the world, so consumption and saving of water must be taking into account. Water is often a valuable natural resource, thus proper application methods - for increase water efficiency can be very important. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI is one of the most important methods to increase water use efficiency and fruit quality. Apple is one of the most important fruit trees from economical point of view. Studies showed that regulated deficit irrigation led to growth reduction in apple trees and sometimes fruit quality increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect deficit irrigation on vegetative growth and fruit quantity and quality of Golden delicious apple trees in Gahvareh region of Kermanshah province. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted on 10 years old Golden delicious apple trees in a randomized complete block design with 5 irrigation treatments and three replications during 2006. Three apple trees assigned to each experimental unit. Irrigation treatments were: T1= early deficit irrigation (40% water requirement, T2= early deficit irrigation (60% water requirement, T3= late deficit irrigation (40% water requirement, T4=late deficit irrigation (60% water requirement, T5=control (C (100% water requirement. Early deficit irrigation starts 55 days after full bloom (15th Jun and continued 60 days (16th Aug, while late deficit irrigation starts 115 days after from full bloom (16th Aug and continued 40 days near to harvesting time (23th Sept. Control trees were full irrigated based on water requirement, which calculated based on national water document of Iran and irrigation amount was calculated based on the following formulas: Q=0.0184.L.H3/2 Where Q is volumetric flow rate (liter/Second, L is parshall flume crown length (cm and H is water height (cm. Irrigation time was calculated based on national water document of Iran and volumetric flow rate

  12. 3D treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng B; Li, Sicong

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The 3D treatment planning systems vary amongst the vendors and also the dose delivery systems they are designed to support. As such these systems have different planning tools to generate the treatment plans and convert the treatment plans into executable instructions that can be implemented by the dose delivery systems. The rapid advancements in computer technology and accelerators have facilitated constant upgrades and the introduction of different and unique dose delivery systems than the traditional C-arm type medical linear accelerators. The focus of this special issue is to gather relevant 3D treatment planning systems for the radiation oncology community to keep abreast of technology advancement by assess the planning tools available as well as those unique "tricks or tips" used to support the different dose delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions in Chinese vegetable systems: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaozhong; Zou, Chunqin; Gao, Xiaopeng; Guan, Xilin; Zhang, Wushuai; Zhang, Yueqiang; Shi, Xiaojun; Chen, Xinping

    2018-04-16

    China accounts for more than half of the world's vegetable production, and identifying the contribution of vegetable production to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions in China is therefore important. We performed a meta-analysis that included 153 field measurements of N 2 O emissions from 21 field studies in China. Our goal was to quantify N 2 O emissions and fertilizer nitrogen (N) based-emission factors (EFs) in Chinese vegetable systems and to clarify the effects of rates and types of N fertilizer in both open-field and greenhouse systems. The results indicated that the intensive vegetable systems in China had an average N 2 O emission of 3.91 kg N 2 O-N ha -1 and an EF of 0.69%. Although the EF was lower than the IPCC default value of 1.0%, the average N 2 O emission was generally greater than in other cropping systems due to greater input of N fertilizers. The EFs were similar in greenhouse vs. open-field systems but N 2 O emissions were about 1.4 times greater in greenhouses. The EFs were not affected by N rate, but N 2 O emissions for both open-field and greenhouse systems increased with N rate. The total and fertilizer-induced N 2 O emissions, as well as EFs, were unaffected by the type of fertilizers in greenhouse system under same N rates. In addition to providing basic information about N 2 O emissions from Chinese vegetable systems, the results suggest that N 2 O emissions could be reduced without reducing yields by treating vegetable systems in China with a combination of synthetic N fertilizer and manure at optimized economic rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnosis of vegetation recovery within herbaceous sub-systems in the West African Sahel Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, J.; Hanan, N. P.; Prihodko, L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Ji, W.; Ross, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The West African Sahel (WAS) region is an extensive water limited environment that features a delicate balance of herbaceous and woody vegetation sub systems. These play an important role in the cycling of carbon while also supporting the dominant agro-pastoral human activities in the region. Quantifying the temporal trends in vegetation with regard to these two systems is therefore very important in assessing resource sustainability and food security. In water limited areas, rainfall is a primary driver of vegetation productivity and past watershed scale studies in the WAS region have shown that increase in the slope of the productivity-to-rainfall relationship is indicative of increasing cover and density of herbaceous plants. Given the importance of grazing resources to the region, we perform a wall-to-wall pixel based analysis of changing short-term vegetation sensitivity to changing annual rainfall (hereafter referred to as dS) to examine temporal trends in herbaceous vegetation health. Results indicate that 43% of the Sahelian region has experienced changes (P Western and Central Mali and South Western Niger. Positive dS is indicative of herbaceous vegetation recovery, in response to changing management and rainfall conditions that promote long-term herbaceous community recovery following degradation during the 1970-1980s droughts.

  16. Application of a regularized model inversion system (REGFLEC) to multi-temporal RapidEye imagery for retrieving vegetation characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-10-14

    Accurate retrieval of canopy biophysical and leaf biochemical constituents from space observations is critical to diagnosing the functioning and condition of vegetation canopies across spatio-temporal scales. Retrieved vegetation characteristics may serve as important inputs to precision farming applications and as constraints in spatially and temporally distributed model simulations of water and carbon exchange processes. However significant challenges remain in the translation of composite remote sensing signals into useful biochemical, physiological or structural quantities and treatment of confounding factors in spectrum-trait relations. Bands in the red-edge spectrum have particular potential for improving the robustness of retrieved vegetation properties. The development of observationally based vegetation retrieval capacities, effectively constrained by the enhanced information content afforded by bands in the red-edge, is a needed investment towards optimizing the benefit of current and future satellite sensor systems. In this study, a REGularized canopy reFLECtance model (REGFLEC) for joint leaf chlorophyll (Chll) and leaf area index (LAI) retrieval is extended to sensor systems with a band in the red-edge region for the first time. Application to time-series of 5 m resolution multi-spectral RapidEye data is demonstrated over an irrigated agricultural region in central Saudi Arabia, showcasing the value of satellite-derived crop information at this fine scale for precision management. Validation against in-situ measurements in fields of alfalfa, Rhodes grass, carrot and maize indicate improved accuracy of retrieved vegetation properties when exploiting red-edge information in the model inversion process. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  17. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  18. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs

  19. Analyzing the vegetation response under different treatments after wildfires in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Javier; Cerdà, Artemi; Badía, David; Echeverría, Maite; Martí, Clara

    2014-05-01

    -facing slopes, and a delayed recovery on the south-facing slopes. The soil erosion control treatments shown a very efficient response when Chipped branches covered the soil. References Aznar, J.M., González-Pérez, J.A., Badía, D., Martí, C. 2013. At what depth are the properties of a Gypseous forest topsoil affected by burning?. Land Degradation and Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2258 Badía, D., Martí, C., Aznar, J.M., León, J. 2013. Influence of slope and parent rock on soil genesis and classification in semiarid mountainous environments. Geoderma 193-194: 13-21, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.10.020. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma, 191: 14-23. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78, 321-330. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and ersion in the inmediate post-fire period. Catena 74, 256-263. González-Pérez, J.A., González-Vila, F.J., Almendros, G., Knicker, H. 2004. The effect of fire on soil organic matter - a review. Enviroment International, 30: 855-870. Guénon, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115-128, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1109. Keeley, J.E. 2009. Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggests usage. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 18: 116-126. León, J., Bodí, M.B., Cerdà, A., Badía, D., 2013. The contrasted response of ash to wetting: The

  20. Two Stage Anaerobic Reactor Design and Treatment To Produce Biogas From Mixed Liquor of Vegetable Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiastuti, H.; Ghozali, M.; Wicaksono, H. K.; Hadiansyah, R.

    2018-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has become a common challenged problem to be solved for developing countries including Indonesia. Municipal solid waste generating is always bigger than its treatment to reduce affect of environmental pollution. This research tries to contribute to provide an alternative solution to treat municipal solid waste to produce biogas. Vegetable waste was obtained from Gedebage Market, Bandung and starter as a source of anaerobic microorganisms was cow dung obtained from a cow farm in Lembang. A two stage anaerobic reactor was designed and built to treat the vegetable waste in a batch run. The capacity of each reactor is 20 liters but its active volume in each reactor is 15 liters. Reactor 1 (R1) was fed up with mixture of filtered blended vegetable waste and water at ratio of 1:1 whereas Reactor 2 (R2) was filled with filtered mixed liquor of cow dung and water at ratio of 1:1. Both mixtures were left overnight before use. Into R1 it was added EM-4 at concentration of 10%. pH in R1 was maintained at 5 - 6.5 whereas pH in R1 was maintained at 6.5 - 7.5. Temperature of reactors was not maintained to imitate the real environmental temperature. Parameters taken during experiment were pH, temperature, COD, MLVSS, and composition of biogas. The performance of reactor built was shown from COD efficiencies reduction obtained of about 60% both in R1 and R2, pH average in R1 of 4.5 ± 1 and R2 of 7 ± 0.6, average temperature in both reactors of 25 ± 2°C. About 1L gas produced was obtained during the last 6 days of experiment in which CH4 obtained was 8.951 ppm and CO2 of 1.087 ppm. The maximum increase of MLVSS in R1 reached 156% and R2 reached 89%.

  1. Yield Responses of Black Spruce to Forest Vegetation Management Treatments: Initial Responses and Rotational Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 quantitatively summarize the early yield responses of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. to forest vegetation management (FVM treatments through a meta-analytical review of the scientific literature, and (2 given (1, estimate the rotational consequences of these responses through model simulation. Based on a fixed-effects meta-analytic approach using 44 treated-control yield pairs derived from 12 experiments situated throughout the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence and Canadian Boreal Forest Regions, the resultant mean effect size (response ratio and associated 95% confidence interval for basal diameter, total height, stem volume, and survival responses, were respectively: 54.7% (95% confidence limits (lower/upper: 34.8/77.6, 27.3% (15.7/40.0, 198.7% (70.3/423.5, and 2.9% (−5.5/11.8. The results also indicated that early and repeated treatments will yield the largest gains in terms of mean tree size and survival. Rotational simulations indicated that FVM treatments resulted in gains in stand-level operability (e.g., reductions of 9 and 5 yr for plantations established on poor-medium and good-excellent site qualities, resp.. The challenge of maintaining coniferous forest cover on recently disturbed sites, attaining statutory-defined free-to-grow status, and ensuring long-term productivity, suggest that FVM will continue to be an essential silvicultural treatment option when managing black spruce plantations.

  2. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  3. Advanced wastewater treatment system (SEADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a wastewater treatment technology identified as the Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Inc.'s Superior Extended Aerobic Digester System (SEADS). SEADS is an advanced miniaturized wastewater treatment plant that can meet advanced wastewater treatment standards for effluent public reuse. SEADS goes beyond primary and secondary treatment operations to reduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are typically found in excessive quantities in traditional wastewater treatment effluent. The objective of this evaluation will be to verify the performance and reliability of the SEADS to treat wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater and commercial industrial wastewater. SEADS utilizes remote telemetry equipment to achieve added reliability and reduces monitoring costs as compared to many package wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the SEADS technology evaluation will address its ability to treat low flows-from remote individual and clustered housing applications, and individual commercial applications in lieu of a main station conventional wastewater treatment plant. The unneeded reliance on particular soil types for percolation and the improved effluent water quality over septic systems alone look to make these types of package treatment plants a viable option for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow remote settings. Added benefits to be examined

  4. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs) efficiences for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited ...

  5. Research on Vegetable Pest Warning System Based on Multidimensional Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhen Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pest early warning technology is part of the prerequisite for the timely and effective control of pest outbreaks. Traditional pest warning system with artificial mathematical statistics, radar, and remote sensing has some deficiency in many aspects, such as higher cost, weakness of accuracy, low efficiency, and so on. In this study, Pest image data was collected and information about four major vegetable pests (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae in southern China was extracted. A multi-sensor network system was constructed to collect small-scale environmental data on vegetable production sites. The key factors affecting the distribution of pests were discovered by multi-dimensional information, such as soil, environment, eco-climate, and meteorology of vegetable fields, and finally, the vegetable pest warning system that is based on multidimensional big data (VPWS-MBD was implemented. Pest and environmental data from Guangzhou Dongsheng Bio-Park were collected from June 2017 to February 2018. The number of pests is classified as level I (0–56, level II (57–131, level III (132–299, and level IV (above 300 by K-Means algorithm. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the grey relational analysis algorithm were used to calculate the five key influence factors of rainfall, soil temperature, air temperature, leaf surface humidity, and soil moisture. Finally, Back Propagation (BP Neural Network was used for classification prediction. The result shows: I-level warning accuracy was 96.14%, recall rate was 97.56%; II-level pest warning accuracy was 95.34%, the recall rate was 96.45%; III-level pest warning accuracy of 100%, the recall rate was 96.28%; IV-level pest warning accuracy of 100%, recall rate was 100%. It proves that the early warning system can effectively predict vegetable pests and achieve the early warning of

  6. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  7. Production systems of traditional leafy vegetables: Challenges for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to access the indigenous or local knowledge associated with the production of these crops. This paper focuses on factors that are unique to TLV production systems. TLV production is dominated by women farmers in an attempt to sustain immediate household food security. The cultural environment within which the women ...

  8. Marketing System Analysis of Vegetables and Fruits in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    distances from main road, age, total size of land, farmers' experience, sex, number of ... This is also leading to high and fluctuating consumer prices and unfair share of the ... approaches of studying marketing system and incorporating both supply .... relationship between firm profits and market structure is attributed to the.

  9. TURBOVEG, a comprehensive data base management system for vegetation data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekens, S.M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The computer software package TURBOVEG was developed in The Netherlands for the processing of phytosociological data. This package comprises an easy-to-use database management system. The data bank to be managed can be divided into several databases which may consist of up to 100 000 relevés each.

  10. Assessment of nutrient removal in vegetated and unvegetated gravel bed mesocosm treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, J.M.; Werker, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are being considered more frequently as an option for wastewater treatment around the world. However, widespread application of this technology requires further understanding of the system performance. Such knowledge is necessary to develop improved models, better characterize the essential treatment processes and improve the reliability in performance. The goal of achieving predictable levels of wastewater amelioration with minimal performance variability is an essential part of securing regulatory approval for treatment wetland systems. Laboratory mesocosms or unit-wetlands are being utilized and novel in-situ calibration methods are being applied to reference and compare kinetics of wastewater contaminant transformations. Tracer studies are being applied to reference plant and biofilm development within and between mesocosms with respect to carbon and nitrogen. Through detailed characterization of these unit wetlands, aspects of nutrient removal are being systematically examined. This paper will highlight the unit-wetland approach and experimental results juxtaposed the relevant literature surrounding wetland treatment of wastewater. (author)

  11. Predictive modelling of vegetable firmness after thermal pre-treatments and steaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Dekkers, E.; Jasper, A.; Baár, C.; Verkerk, R.

    2014-01-01

    Texture is an important product property that strongly affects the quality evaluation of processed vegetables by consumers. The rate of texture decrease is dependent on the processing temperature and the type of vegetable. A large data set on instrumental texture measurements of carrot and broccoli

  12. Structure, root systems and periodicity of savanna plants and vegetations in Northern Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar-ten Bokkel Huinink, van W.A.E.

    1966-01-01

    From July 1958 to May 1959 an investigation was carried out of the relation between physiognomic characteristics of the vegetation and the habitat on some savannas in the vicinity of Zanderij, Surinam. Root systems, structure, periodicity and characteristics of the leaves were considered, both of

  13. Establishing riparian vegetation through use of a self-cleaning siphon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Ankeny; L. Bradford Sumrall; Kuo-Chin Hsu

    1999-01-01

    Storm water or overland flow can be captured and injected into a soil trench or infiltration gallery attached to a siphon and emplaced adjacent to a stream or arroyo bank. This injected soil water can be used by stream side vegetation for wildlife habitat, bank stabilization or other purposes. The siphon system has three hydrologically-distinct flow regimes: (1)...

  14. Evaluating radiative transfer schemes treatment of vegetation canopy architecture in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghiere, Renato; Quaife, Tristan; Black, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Incoming shortwave radiation is the primary source of energy driving the majority of the Earth's climate system. The partitioning of shortwave radiation by vegetation into absorbed, reflected, and transmitted terms is important for most of biogeophysical processes, including leaf temperature changes and photosynthesis, and it is currently calculated by most of land surface schemes (LSS) of climate and/or numerical weather prediction models. The most commonly used radiative transfer scheme in LSS is the two-stream approximation, however it does not explicitly account for vegetation architectural effects on shortwave radiation partitioning. Detailed three-dimensional (3D) canopy radiative transfer schemes have been developed, but they are too computationally expensive to address large-scale related studies over long time periods. Using a straightforward one-dimensional (1D) parameterisation proposed by Pinty et al. (2006), we modified a two-stream radiative transfer scheme by including a simple function of Sun zenith angle, so-called "structure factor", which does not require an explicit description and understanding of the complex phenomena arising from the presence of vegetation heterogeneous architecture, and it guarantees accurate simulations of the radiative balance consistently with 3D representations. In order to evaluate the ability of the proposed parameterisation in accurately represent the radiative balance of more complex 3D schemes, a comparison between the modified two-stream approximation with the "structure factor" parameterisation and state-of-art 3D radiative transfer schemes was conducted, following a set of virtual scenarios described in the RAMI4PILPS experiment. These experiments have been evaluating the radiative balance of several models under perfectly controlled conditions in order to eliminate uncertainties arising from an incomplete or erroneous knowledge of the structural, spectral and illumination related canopy characteristics typical

  15. Rangelands Vegetation under Different Management Systems and Growth Stages in North Darfur State, Sudan (Range Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed AAMA Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Um Kaddada, North Darfur State, Sudan, at two sites (closed and open for two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009 during flowering and seed setting stages to evaluate range attributes at the locality. A split plot design was used to study vegetation attributes. Factors studied were management systems (closed and open and growth stages (flowering and seed setting. Vegetation cover, plant density, carrying capacity, and biomass production were assessed. Chemical analyses were done for selected plants to determine their nutritive values. The results showed high significant differences in vegetation attributes (density, cover and biomass production between closed and open areas. Closed areas had higher carrying capacity compared to open rangelands. Crude protein (CP and ash contents of range vegetation were found to decrease while Crude fiber (CF and Dry matter yield (DM had increased with growth. The study concluded that closed rangelands are better than open rangelands because it fenced and protected. Erosion index and vegetation degradation rate were very high. Future research work is needed to assess rangelands characteristics and habitat condition across different ecological zones in North Darfur State, Sudan.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11093 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 332-343

  16. Transfer of tracers and pesticides in lab scale wetland systems: the role of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, R.; Imfeld, G.; Lange, J.

    2012-04-01

    between the vegetated and the non-vegetated column. In a second phase, vegetation transpiration progressively increased, as inferred from lower volumes of effluent water in the vegetated system. Overall, the behavior of pesticides and tracers, as inferred from the BTC's, were similar. This suggests that fluorescent tracers may be used as a reference for pesticides when studying the surface-groundwater interface. Both pesticides and tracers showed larger recovery rates (UR: 81.7 to 78.6%; SRB: 65.6 to 55.9%; IPU: 76.6 to 79.7%; MTX: 39.5 to 37.5%) and lower retention in the vegetated system. We attribute this finding to preferential flow paths along plant roots. Overall, our study suggests that wetland vegetation and rhizosheric processes may have a dual role in wetland pollutant transfer: while wetland vegetation may enhance retention and bio-degradation of contaminants in surface water, it may also generate preferential flow paths and hence facilitate pollutant transfer to groundwater. Acknowledgment: This study has been funded by the European Union (INTERREG) in the framework of the PhytoRet Project.

  17. Using MODIS-NDVI for the Modeling of Post-Wildfire Vegetation Response as a Function of Environmental Conditions and Pre-Fire Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M. Casady

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire vegetation response is influenced by the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors such as topography, climate, vegetation type and restoration practices. Previous research has analyzed the relationship of some of these factors to vegetation response, but few have taken into account the effects of pre-fire restoration practices. We selected three wildfires that occurred in Bandelier National Monument (New Mexico, USA between 1999 and 2007 and three adjacent unburned control areas. We used interannual trends in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS to assess vegetation response, which we define as the average potential photosynthetic activity through the summer monsoon. Topography, fire severity and restoration treatment were obtained and used to explain post-fire vegetation response. We applied parametric (Multiple Linear Regressions-MLR and non-parametric tests (Classification and Regression Trees-CART to analyze effects of fire severity, terrain and pre-fire restoration treatments (variable used in CART on post-fire vegetation response. MLR results showed strong relationships between vegetation response and environmental factors (p < 0.1, however the explanatory factors changed among treatments. CART results showed that beside fire severity and topography, pre-fire treatments strongly impact post-fire vegetation response. Results for these three fires show that pre-fire restoration conditions along with local environmental factors constitute key processes that modify post-fire vegetation response.

  18. Role of native and exotic woody vegetation in soil restoration in active gully systems (southern Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja Ramon, Pablo; Alvarado Moncayo, Dario; Vanacker, Veerle; Cisneros, Pedro; Molina, Armando; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Revegetation projects in degraded lands have the potential to recover essential soil functions. If vegetation restoration is combined with bioengineering techniques, such as the construction of retention dams in active gully systems, soil restoration could be enhanced. One important aspect of this process is the role of vegetation on restoration of soil chemical and physical properties. There is currently a lack of knowledge on the potential of soil restoration in active badland systems, as most studies have concentrated on the direct and visible effect of revegetation on erosion control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of revegetation and bioengineering works on the restoration of soil physical and chemical properties. The analyses are realized in a highly degraded area of 3 km2, located in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). First, the soil physical and/or chemical parameters that are most sensitive to track environmental change were evaluated. Second, the role of vegetation on soil restoration was quantified. . Soil samples were taken in sites with different vegetation cover, land use and physiographic position. The following physical and chemical parameters were measured: volumetric water content (θsat, θact), bulk density, pH, texture, organic matter, C and N content. Our first results do not show a clear relationship between volumetric water content at saturation (θsat), bulk density, or C content. The saturation water content does not vary significantly between different sites, or land use types. However, significant differences are found between sites at different stages of restoration; and this for most chemical and physical soil properties. Vegetation cover (%) appears to exert a strong control on the C content in the mineral soils. The highest C values are found in soils of forest plantations with Eucalyptus and Pinus species. These plantations are located in areas that were previously affected by active

  19. Evaluating the Sustainability of a Small-Scale Low-Input Organic Vegetable Supply System in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, Michal; Smith, Laurence G.

    2014-01-01

    Resource use and environmental impacts of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable supply system in the United Kingdom were assessed by emergy accounting and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The system consisted of a farm with high crop diversity and a related box-scheme distribution system. We...... compared empirical data from this case system with two modeled organic food supply systems representing high-and low-yielding practices for organic vegetable production. Further, these systems were embedded in a supermarket distribution system and they provided the same amount of comparable vegetables...

  20. Heavy Metals Levels in Soil and Vegetables in Different Growing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hura C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current project deals with an issue of actuality and scientific/technical necessity and aims to assess the factors contributing to the vulnerability of ecological systems and therefore endangering/compromising food safety. The goals of this ongoing study are to address the main risk factors on ecological system with particular regards to fresh growing vegetables and to establish technical monitoring system(s with a view to increase food safety. Herein, the authors present the research results obtained in 2011 in SIECOLEG Project regarding the assessment of some heavy metals (mainly lead, cadmium, cooper, and manganese of 80 samples soils and 25 samples vegetables from some ecological system. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured by Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS Schimadzu 6300 - with graphite furnace atomizer and autosampler. In soil: lead and cadmium concentrations ranged from 4.51 to 6.58 mg/kg and from 0.14 to 0.4 mg/kg, respectively. Cooper and manganese concentrations ranged from 20.73 to 6.58 mg/kg and from 218.1 to 298.3 mg/kg, respectively. In vegetables (tomatoes, cucumber, peppers, eggplant, cabbage: lead concentrations ranged from 0.0 (tomatoes to 4.35 mg/kg (cabbage; cooper concentrations ranged from 0.2 mg/kg (cucumber to 0.80 mg/kg (eggplant; manganese concentrations ranged from 0.0 mg/kg (tomatoes to 0.60 mg/kg (eggplant. Cadmium was not detected in any of analysed vegetable samples. Under these circumstances, the project intends to demonstrate the extent of this vulnerability and to elaborate measures for controlling and diminishing the effects of the involved factors in order to increase food safety and security for ecological fresh vegetables

  1. Monitoring the Effects of Forest Restoration Treatments on Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery with MODIS Multitemporal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J. D. van Leeuwen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how satellite based time-series vegetation greenness data and phenological measurements can be used to monitor and quantify vegetation recovery after wildfire disturbances and examine how pre-fire fuel reduction restoration treatments impact fire severity and impact vegetation recovery trajectories. Pairs of wildfire affected sites and a nearby unburned reference site were chosen to measure the post-disturbance recovery in relation to climate variation. All site pairs were chosen in forested uplands in Arizona and were restricted to the area of the Rodeo-Chediski fire that occurred in 2002. Fuel reduction treatments were performed in 1999 and 2001. The inter-annual and seasonal vegetation dynamics before, during, and after wildfire events can be monitored using a time series of biweekly composited MODIS NDVI (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data. Time series analysis methods included difference metrics, smoothing filters, and fitting functions that were applied to extract seasonal and inter-annual change and phenological metrics from the NDVI time series data from 2000 to 2007. Pre- and post-fire Landsat data were used to compute the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR and examine burn severity at the selected sites. The phenological metrics (pheno-metrics included the timing and greenness (i.e. NDVI for the start, peak and end of the growing season as well as proxy measures for the rate of green-up and senescence and the annual vegetation productivity. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments resulted in lower fire severity, which reduced annual productivity much less than untreated areas within the Rodeo-Chediski fire perimeter. The seasonal metrics were shown to be useful for estimating the rate of post-fire disturbance recovery and the timing of phenological greenness phases. The use of satellite time series NDVI data and derived pheno-metrics show potential for tracking vegetation

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of a Highly Diverse Vegetable Multi-Cropping System in Fengqiu County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity usually leads to greater sustainability in production practices. To understand the environmental implications of the development of village-level multi-cropping in rural China, we compared the environmental impact of a highly diverse vegetable multi-cropping system to a conventional wheat/maize rotation system based on the method of life cycle assessment (LCA. Using household level cultivation data, this study examined the gate-to-gate environmental impacts of on-site cultivation practices relating to the production of 10,000 nutrient equivalent units. Results show that vegetable multi-cropping resulted in decreased average land requirement, and diesel, water and electricity usage by 69.8%, 62.2%, 71.7%, and 63.4%, respectively, while average nitrogen (Total N, phosphorus (P2O5, and potassium (K2O usage in vegetable multi-cropping systems decreased by 16.3%, 42.1%, and 75.8%, respectively. Additional corresponding effects led to a decrease in the total global warming, eutrophication, and acidification potentials from external inputs by 21.6%, 16.7%, and 16.2% of the entire system, respectively. Moreover, the midpoint human toxicity potential from pesticide usage of the vegetable multi-cropping system was lower than that of the conventional system. However, the midpoint eco-toxicity potential from pesticide usage was higher due to certain highly toxic substances, and both human and eco-toxicity potentials from heavy metals were all higher by a few orders of magnitudes. Thus, to mitigate these detrimental consequences, some related measures are proposed for sustainable practices in the future implementation of multi-cropping systems.

  3. Interactions of Vegetation and Climate: Remote Observations, Earth System Models, and the Amazon Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetin, Gregory R.

    The natural composition of terrestrial ecosystems can be shaped by climate to take advantage of local environmental conditions. Ecosystem functioning, e.g. interaction between photosynthesis and temperature, can also acclimate to different climatological states. The combination of these two factors thus determines ecological-climate interactions. The ecosystem functioning also plays a key role in predicting the carbon cycle, hydrological cycle, terrestrial surface energy balance, and the feedbacks in the climate system. Predicting the response of the Earth's biosphere to global warming requires the ability to mechanistically represent the processes controlling ecosystem functioning through photosynthesis, respiration, and water use. The physical environment in a place shapes the vegetation there, but vegetation also has the potential to shape the environment, e.g. increased photosynthesis and transpiration moisten the atmosphere. These two-way ecoclimate interactions create the potential for feedbacks between vegetation at the physical environment that depend on the vegetation and the climate of a place, and can change throughout the year. In Chapter 1, we derive a global empirical map of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate using the response of satellite-observed greenness to interannual variations in temperature and precipitation. We infer mechanisms constraining ecosystem functioning by analyzing how the sensitivity of vegetation to climate varies across climate space. Our analysis yields empirical evidence for multiple physical and biological mediators of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate at large spatial scales. In hot and wet locations, vegetation is greener in warmer years despite temperatures likely exceeding thermally optimum conditions. However, sunlight generally increases during warmer years, suggesting that the increased stress from higher atmospheric water demand is offset by higher rates of photosynthesis. The sensitivity of vegetation

  4. Integrated Modeling of Solutions in the System of Distributing Logistics of a Fruit and Vegetable Cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Velychko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of preparing rationalistic solutions in the system of distributing logistics of a fruit and vegetable cooperative has been studied considering possible alternatives and existing limitations. Belonging of separate operations of the fruit and vegetable cooperative to technological, logistical or marketing business processes has been identified. Expediency of the integrated use of logistical concept DRP, decision tree method and linear programming in management of the cooperative has been grounded. The model for preparing decisions on organizing sales of vegetables and fruit which is focused on minimization of costs of cooperative services and maximization of profits for members of the cooperation has been developed. The necessity to consider integrated model of differentiation on levels of post gathering processing and logistical service has been revealed. Methodology of representation in the economical-mathematical model of probabilities in the tree of decisions concerning the expected amount of sales and margin for members of the cooperative using different channels has been processed. A formula which enables scientists to describe limitations in linear programming concerning critical duration of providing harvest of vegetables and fruit after gathering towards a customer has been suggested.

  5. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs) efficiencies for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    OpenAIRE

    R. Daren Harmel; Rehanon Pampell; Terry Gentry; Doug R. Smith; Chad Hajda; Kevin Wagner; Patti K. Smith; Rick L. Haney; Kori D. Higgs

    2018-01-01

    As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited on VTA effectiveness as a waste management alternative for smaller operations. This study evaluated the efficiencies of VTAs in reducing bacteria and nutrient runoff from small-scale swine operation...

  6. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. as cash-cover crop in an organic vegetable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna LENZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In organic vegetable systems green manure crops play an important role as a nitrogen source, but they cover the soil for several months without producing a direct income. Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. provides both heads to be harvested and particularly abundant plant residues to be possibly incorporated into the soil, so it may play a double role of cash and cover crop. This paper describes an on-farm study in which seed-propagated artichoke, cultivated as an annual crop, preceded zucchini squash and lettuce cultivated in sequence within a vegetable organic system. Artichoke produced about 7 t ha-1 of saleable heads and left, after harvest, 50.3 t ha-1 of fresh biomass usable as green manure. Zucchini squash and lettuce following artichoke showed a significant increase in yield when artichoke residues were incorporated into the soil. Furthermore, a residual positive effect of green manure on soil fertility was detected after lettuce harvest. 

  7. Wastewater Reuse: An Economic Perspective to Identify Suitable Areas for Poplar Vegetation Filter Systems for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest towards climate change, water and energy saving, and soil protection has led the research community to consider non-conventional water as a sustainable source for irrigation of energy crops. Vegetation filter systems are considered a reliable technique for sustainable biomass cultivation, enabling the use of reclaimed wastewater as water and nutrients sources during irrigation periods. In this study, a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial model was developed to identify areas potentially suitable for creating vegetation filter systems with poplars to size the plants of energy production. An economic assessment allowed us to identify the cost-effectiveness areas for biomass production that can be fertigated by reclaimed wastewater. Considering the Basilicata region as the test region, a surface area of 258,512 ha was investigated, identifying 73,331 ha of SRF soils sited downstream of 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, considering only areas that have positive net present value and are economically attractive, results indicate 1606 ha of SRF falling within the areas of influence of 39 WWTPs. The results show that the sector of dedicated crops, adjacent and linked with WWTPs, expresses a total capacity of 50.56 MW for thermal, 8.25 MW for electricity, and 31 MW for cogeneration (25.07 MWt and 5.94 MWe plants.

  8. Valuation of vegetable crops produced in the UVI Commercial Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Bailey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The UVI Commercial Aquaponic System is designed to produce fish and vegetables in a recirculating aquaculture system. The integration of these systems intensifies production in a small land area, conserves water, reduces waste discharged into the environment, and recovers nutrients from fish production into valuable vegetable crops. A standard protocol has been developed for the production of tilapia yielding 5 MT per annum. The production of many vegetable crops has also been studied but, because of specific growth patterns and differences of marketable product, no single protocol can be promoted. Each crop yields different value per unit area and this must be considered when selecting varieties to produce to provide the highest returns to the farmer. Variables influencing the value of a crop are density (plants/m2, yield (unit or kg, production period (weeks and unit value ($. Combining these variables to one unit, $/m2/week, provides a common point for comparison among crops. Farmers can focus production efforts on the most valuable crops or continue to produce a variety of crops meeting market demand with the knowledge that each does not contribute equally to profitability.

  9. New developments of a knowledge based system (VEG) for inferring vegetation characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Harrison, P. A.; Harrison, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    An extraction technique for inferring physical and biological surface properties of vegetation using nadir and/or directional reflectance data as input has been developed. A knowledge-based system (VEG) accepts spectral data of an unknown target as input, determines the best strategy for inferring the desired vegetation characteristic, applies the strategy to the target data, and provides a rigorous estimate of the accuracy of the inference. Progress in developing the system is presented. VEG combines methods from remote sensing and artificial intelligence, and integrates input spectral measurements with diverse knowledge bases. VEG has been developed to (1) infer spectral hemispherical reflectance from any combination of nadir and/or off-nadir view angles; (2) test and develop new extraction techniques on an internal spectral database; (3) browse, plot, or analyze directional reflectance data in the system's spectral database; (4) discriminate between user-defined vegetation classes using spectral and directional reflectance relationships; and (5) infer unknown view angles from known view angles (known as view angle extension).

  10. Co-evolution of Riparian Vegetation and Channel Dynamics in an Aggrading Braided River System, Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K. B.; Michal, T.

    2014-12-01

    Increased bank stability by riparian vegetation in braided rivers can decrease bed reworking rates and focus the flow. The magnitude of influence and resulting channel morphology are functions of vegetation strength vs. channel dynamics, a concept encapsulated in a dimensionless ratio between timescales for vegetation growth and channel reworking known as T*. We investigate this relationship in an aggrading braided river at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, and compare results to numerical and physical models. Gradual reductions in post-eruption sediment loads have reduced bed reworking rates, allowing vegetation to persist year-round and impact channel dynamics on the Pasig-Potrero and Sacobia Rivers. From 2009-2011, we collected data detailing vegetation extent, type, density, and root strength. Incorporating these data into RipRoot and BSTEM models shows cohesion due to roots increased from zero in unvegetated conditions to >10.2 kPa in densely-growing grasses. Field-based parameters were incorporated into a cellular model comparing vegetation growth and sediment mobility effects on braided channel dynamics. The model shows that both low sediment mobility and high vegetation strength lead to less active systems, reflecting trends observed in the field. An estimated T* between 0.8 - 2.3 for the Pasig-Potrero River suggests channels were mobile enough to maintain the braidplain width clear of vegetation and even experience slight gains in area through annual removal of existing vegetation. However, persistent vegetation focused flow and thus aggradation over the unvegetated fraction of braidplain, leading to an aggradational imbalance and transition to a more avulsive state. While physical models predict continued narrowing of the active braidplain as T* declines, the future trajectory of channel-vegetation interactions at Pinatubo as sedimentation rates decline appears more complicated due to strong seasonal variability in precipitation and sediment loads. By 2011

  11. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  12. Order of 6 Jan 1988 on the treatment by ionizing radiation of dried fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Order specifies the conditions required for authorizing possession with a view to sale or putting on sale dried vegetables and dried fruit which have been irradiated for purposes of insect control through exposure to cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation or to electron beams with an energy below or equal to 10 million electron-volts [fr

  13. Evaporative cooling system for storage of fruits and vegetables - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal Basediya, Amrat; Samuel, D V K; Beera, Vimala

    2013-06-01

    Horticultural produce are stored at lower temperature because of their highly perishable nature. There are many methods to cool the environment. Hence, preserving these types of foods in their fresh form demands that the chemical, bio-chemical and physiological changes are restricted to a minimum by close control of space temperature and humidity. The high cost involved in developing cold storage or controlled atmosphere storage is a pressing problem in several developing countries. Evaporative cooling is a well-known system to be an efficient and economical means for reducing the temperature and increasing the relative humidity in an enclosure and this effect has been extensively tried for increasing the shelf life of horticultural produce in some tropical and subtropical countries. In this review paper, basic concept and principle, methods of evaporative cooling and their application for the preservation of fruits and vegetables and economy are also reported. Thus, the evaporative cooler has prospect for use for short term preservation of vegetables and fruits soon after harvest. Zero energy cooling system could be used effectively for short-duration storage of fruits and vegetables even in hilly region. It not only reduces the storage temperature but also increases the relative humidity of the storage which is essential for maintaining the freshness of the commodities.

  14. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Conti, C.C.; Loureiro, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for 226 Ra, 0.55 for 228 Ra and 0.24 for 238 U (Bq kg -1 dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10 -4 to 10 -2 for 238 U and from 10 -2 to 10 -1 for 228 Ra

  15. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200, Cidade Universitaria Recife, PE, CEP 50740-540 (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Loureiro, F.A. [Estacao Experimental de Nova Friburgo, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pesagro (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for {sup 226}Ra, 0.55 for {sup 228}Ra and 0.24 for {sup 238}U (Bq kg{sup -1} dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} for {sup 238}U and from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra.

  16. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, D C; Ribeiro, F C A; Conti, C C; Loureiro, F A

    2009-02-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for (226)Ra, 0.55 for (228)Ra and 0.24 for (238)U (Bq kg(-1) dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10(-4) to 10(-2) for (238)U and from 10(-2) to 10(-1) for (228)Ra.

  17. An RFID-Based Tracing and Tracking System for the Fresh Vegetables Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mainetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative gapless traceability system able to improve the main business processes of the fresh vegetables supply chain. The performed analysis highlighted some critical aspects in the management of the whole supply chain, from the land to the table of the end consumer, and allowed us to reengineer the most important processes. In particular, the first steps of the supply chain, which include cultivation in greenhouses and manufacturing of packaged vegetables, were analyzed. The re-engineered model was designed by exploiting the potentialities derived from the combined use of innovative Radio Frequency technologies, such as RFID and NFC, and important international standards, such as EPCglobal. The proposed tracing and tracking system allows the end consumer to know the complete history of the purchased product. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the potential benefits of the reengineered processes in a real supply chain, a pilot project was implemented in an Italian food company, which produces ready-to-eat vegetables, known as IV gamma products. Finally, some important metrics have been chosen to carry out the analysis of the potential benefits derived from the use of the re-engineered model.

  18. Inward Processing Regime Promotion System in Vegetable Oil Industry: A Case Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Duru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine applicability of the Inward Processing Regime (IPR in enterprises which are vegetable oil producers and exporters. The data was obtained from 26 vegetable oil producer and exporter enterprises by using survey method. Frequency tables, indices, and percentage calculating were used to analyse Data. Also, SWOT analysis was used to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the sector, and relationship among some variables were examined with correlation coefficient. According to research findings, 25 of the enterprises (96% utilised the IPR. Since the enterprises started to use that system; availability of cheap raw material, rate of capacity utilisation, market share, and export value all have increased. In addition, raw material was found as an important expense item, and the most important problems were qualified as raw material inadequacy and high input prices.

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-70)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Kenneth [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-07-19

    Vegetation Management on sections of the McNary-Ross, McNary-Horse Heaven, Horse Heaven-Harvarlum, Harvarlum-Big Eddy, and Hanford-John Day Transmission lines. The treatment areas are identified in Step 1 of the Planning Steps shown below. The work will involve the control of noxious weeds in the subject rights-of-ways (ROWs). BPA, in cooperation with the various County Noxious Weed Control Boards and associated landowners, will provide resources to assist landowners in controlling noxious weeds on the subject ROWs. The Weed Board will perform all activities on behalf of BPA.

  20. Drought Dynamics and Vegetation Productivity in Different Land Management Systems of Eastern Cape, South Africa—A Remote Sensing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Graw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Cape Province in South Africa has experienced extreme drought events during the last decade. In South Africa, different land management systems exist belonging to two different land tenure classes: commercial large scale farming and communal small-scale subsistence farming. Communal lands are often reported to be affected by land degradation and drought events among others considered as trigger for this process. Against this background, we analyzed vegetation response to drought in different land management and land tenure systems through assessing vegetation productivity trends and monitoring the intensity, frequency and distribution of the drought hazard in grasslands and communal and commercial croplands during drought and non-drought conditions. For the observation period 2000–2016, we used time series of 250 m Vegetation Condition Index (VCI based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Climate Hazard Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS precipitation data with 5 km resolution. For the assessment of vegetation dynamics, we: (1 analyzed vegetation productivity in Eastern Cape over the last 16 years with EVI; (2 analyzed the impact of drought events on vegetation productivity in grasslands as well as commercial and communal croplands; and (3 compared precipitation-vegetation dynamics between the drought season 2015/2016 and the non-drought season 2011/2012. Change in total annual vegetation productivity could detect drought years while drought dynamics during the season could be rather monitored by the VCI. Correlation of vegetation condition and precipitation indicated areas experiencing significant vegetation productivity trends showing low and even negative correlation coefficients indicating other drivers for productivity change and drought impact besides rainfall.

  1. Evolution of the vegetation system in the Heihe River basin in the last 2000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of vegetation systems to the long-term changes in climate, hydrology, and social–economic conditions in river basins is critical for sustainable river basin management. This study aims to investigate the evolution of natural and crop vegetation systems in the Heihe River basin (HRB over the past 2000 years. Archived Landsat images, historical land use maps and hydrological records were introduced to derive the long-term spatial distribution of natural and crop vegetation and the corresponding biomass levels. The major findings are that (1 both natural and crop vegetation experienced three development stages: a pre-development stage (before the Republic of China, a rapid development stage (Republic of China – 2000, and a post-development stage (after 2000. Climate and hydrological conditions did not show significant impacts over crop vegetation, while streamflow presented synchronous changes with natural vegetation in the first stage. For the second stage, warmer temperature and increasing streamflow were found to be important factors for the increase in both natural and crop vegetation in the middle reaches of the HRB. For the third stage, positive climate and hydrological conditions, together with policy interventions, supported the overall vegetation increase in both the middle and lower HRB; (2 there was a significantly faster increase in crop biomass than that of native vegetation since 1949, which could be explained by the technological development; and (3 the ratio of natural vegetation to crop vegetation decreased from 16 during the Yuan Dynasty to about 2.2 since 2005. This ratio reflects the reaction of land and water development to a changing climate and altering social–economic conditions at the river basin level; therefore, it could be used as an indicator of water and land management at river basins.

  2. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  3. Assessment of vegetation establishment on tailings dam at an iron ore mining site of suburban Beijing, China, 7 years after reclamation with contrasting site treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

  4. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scale-dependent performances of CMIP5 earth system models in simulating terrestrial vegetation carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Luo, Y.; Yan, Y.; Hararuk, O.

    2013-12-01

    Mitigation of global changes will depend on reliable projection for the future situation. As the major tools to predict future climate, Earth System Models (ESMs) used in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report have incorporated carbon cycle components, which account for the important fluxes of carbon between the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial biosphere carbon reservoirs; and therefore are expected to provide more detailed and more certain projections. However, ESMs are never perfect; and evaluating the ESMs can help us to identify uncertainties in prediction and give the priorities for model development. In this study, we benchmarked carbon in live vegetation in the terrestrial ecosystems simulated by 19 ESMs models from CMIP5 with an observationally estimated data set of global carbon vegetation pool 'Olson's Major World Ecosystem Complexes Ranked by Carbon in Live Vegetation: An Updated Database Using the GLC2000 Land Cover Product' by Gibbs (2006). Our aim is to evaluate the ability of ESMs to reproduce the global vegetation carbon pool at different scales and what are the possible causes for the bias. We found that the performance CMIP5 ESMs is very scale-dependent. While CESM1-BGC, CESM1-CAM5, CESM1-FASTCHEM and CESM1-WACCM, and NorESM1-M and NorESM1-ME (they share the same model structure) have very similar global sums with the observation data but they usually perform poorly at grid cell and biome scale. In contrast, MIROC-ESM and MIROC-ESM-CHEM simulate the best on at grid cell and biome scale but have larger differences in global sums than others. Our results will help improve CMIP5 ESMs for more reliable prediction.

  6. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 1; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Schull, Mitchell A.; Samanta, Arindam; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multi-decade long Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from remote sensing measurements of multiple sensors is key to monitoring long-term changes in vegetation due to natural and anthropogenic influences. Challenges in developing such ESDRs include problems in remote sensing science (modeling of variability in global vegetation, scaling, atmospheric correction) and sensor hardware (differences in spatial resolution, spectral bands, calibration, and information content). In this paper, we develop a physically based approach for deriving LAI and FPAR products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data that are of comparable quality to the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products, thus realizing the objective of producing a long (multi-decadal) time series of these products. The approach is based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants which facilitates parameterization of the canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The methodology permits decoupling of the structural and radiometric components and obeys the energy conservation law. The approach is applicable to any optical sensor, however, it requires selection of sensor-specific values of configurable parameters, namely, the single scattering albedo and data uncertainty. According to the theory of spectral invariants, the single scattering albedo is a function of the spatial scale, and thus, accounts for the variation in BRF with sensor spatial resolution. Likewise, the single scattering albedo accounts for the variation in spectral BRF with sensor bandwidths. The second adjustable parameter is data uncertainty, which accounts for varying information content of the remote sensing measurements, i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, low information content), vs. spectral BRF (higher

  7. Highlights of Task Force meeting on irradiation as a quarantine treatment, with particular emphasis on insect pests of fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, E.; Borheg, I. de

    1991-01-01

    This report highlights the discussions and recommendations of the Meeting on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables convened 7-11 January 1991 by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. The topics covered had particular emphasis on the irradiation of insect pests of fresh fruits and vegetables. The meeting concluded that low-dose irradiation can be effective as a plant quarantine treatment against fruit flies, as well as against other insect species and mites

  8. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg -1 , respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Machine Vision-Based Measurement Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Quality Control in Postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, José; Munera, Sandra; Aleixos, Nuria; Cubero, Sergio; Molto, Enrique

    Individual items of any agricultural commodity are different from each other in terms of colour, shape or size. Furthermore, as they are living thing, they change their quality attributes over time, thereby making the development of accurate automatic inspection machines a challenging task. Machine vision-based systems and new optical technologies make it feasible to create non-destructive control and monitoring tools for quality assessment to ensure adequate accomplishment of food standards. Such systems are much faster than any manual non-destructive examination of fruit and vegetable quality, thus allowing the whole production to be inspected with objective and repeatable criteria. Moreover, current technology makes it possible to inspect the fruit in spectral ranges beyond the sensibility of the human eye, for instance in the ultraviolet and near-infrared regions. Machine vision-based applications require the use of multiple technologies and knowledge, ranging from those related to image acquisition (illumination, cameras, etc.) to the development of algorithms for spectral image analysis. Machine vision-based systems for inspecting fruit and vegetables are targeted towards different purposes, from in-line sorting into commercial categories to the detection of contaminants or the distribution of specific chemical compounds on the product's surface. This chapter summarises the current state of the art in these techniques, starting with systems based on colour images for the inspection of conventional colour, shape or external defects and then goes on to consider recent developments in spectral image analysis for internal quality assessment or contaminant detection.

  10. Vegetative-vascular dystonia: diagnosis and treatment with the inclusion of modern methods of physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Samosyuk

    2015-07-01

      В статье рассматриваются вопросы нейроциркуляторной дистонии и вегетативно-сосудистой дистонии, нозологическая принадлежность которых широко дискутируется в литературе. Авторы показывают в данной работе формирование клинического представления от «ВСД» и «НЦД», приводят классификацию, особенности их клинического течения и методики современной физиотерапии. Статья может представлять интерес широкому кругу врачей: неврологам, терапевтам, семейным врачам, врачам общей практики, студентам старших курсов медицинских ВУЗов и др.   Ключевые слова: вегетативно-сосудистая дистония, вегето-сосудистая дистония, диагностика, лечение, физиотерапия.   Abstract   The article discusses using neuro-circulator dystonia and vegetative-vascular dystonia, nosologic belonging which is widely discussed in the literature. In this paper, the authors show the formation of the clinical presentation of "VCD" and "NCD", lead classification, peculiarities of their clinical evolution and modern methods of physiotherapy. The article may be of interest to a wide range of doctors: neurologists, general practitioners, family doctors, physicians, undergraduate students of medical universities, etc.   Key words: vegetative-vascular dystonia, vegeto-vascular dystonia, diagnosis, treatment, physiotherapy.     Содержание   Вступление Соматоформные расстройства Лечение расстройств,

  11. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  12. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habashi, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  13. Effects of an Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Obesity-Induced Systemic Inflammation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J. Williams

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m2. Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNFα (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP ≥3.0 mg/mL who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16, these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK, zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5 and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39, respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease.

  14. Heavy metal analysis in soils and vegetation for assessing emission fields near tunnel ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer, T.

    1992-01-01

    In the environment of the ventilation system of the Tauern and Katschberg tunnels, lead, cadmium, zinc and copper were determined in soil and vegetation samples in order to determine the emission fields. Thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea in addition were used as active monitors. The surface-level exhaust portals produce relatively small atmospheric pollution fields. Via the detached exhaust tower at Urbanalm/Mosermandl (2.000 msm), a long-distance transport: Lead concentrations in soils are above average as far away as 1.5 kms of distance. The solubility of heavy metals increases in the order Pb [de

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-142- KeelerOregon City #2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barndt, Shawn L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-04-04

    Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-142- KeelerOregon #2). Bonneville Power Administration proposes to remove vegetation alongside Transmission Right-of-Ways

  16. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed fruits and vegetables for enhancing quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, P. K.; Halkman, H. B. D.

    2009-01-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. Minimal processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Unlike thermal processing, which has deteriorating effects on vitamins, flavoring compounds, and textural properties of foods, irradiation is a cold process. Besides its effectiveness in eliminating food-borne pathogens, ionizing radiation also reduces spoilage microorganisms, inhibits ethylene production, and retards the ripening process, resulting in extended shelf-life.

  17. Evaluation of the nitrate content in leaf vegetables produced through different agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnin, S G; Rath, S; Reyes, F G R

    2005-12-01

    The nitrate content of leafy vegetables (watercress, lettuce and arugula) produced by different agricultural systems (conventional, organic and hydroponic) was determined. The daily nitrate intake from the consumption of these crop species by the average Brazilian consumer was also estimated. Sampling was carried out between June 2001 to February 2003 in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Nitrate was extracted from the samples using the procedure recommended by the AOAC. Flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection at 460 nm was used for nitrate determination through the ternary complex FeSCNNO+. For lettuce and arugula, the average nitrate content varied (p hydroponic system. For watercress, no difference (p hydroponic samples, both having higher nitrate contents (p hydroponic system, represented 29% of the acceptable daily intake established for this ion.

  18. Role of vegetative nervous system in regulation of excretory function of irradiated dog stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostesha, N.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    Dogs and rats were exposed to γ/neutron- and X-radiation. The anterior part of dog's stomach was exposed to 10 Gy and 13 Gy respectively; rats were subjected to whole-body irradiation with absolutely lethal doses. Prior to irradiation, various parts of the vegetative nervous system of both types of animals were switched off pharmocologically. In addition to clinical investigation of radiation sickness the excretory function of the stomach was studied by the excretion of intravenously injected neutral red. The switching-off of the parasympathetic nervous system prior to irradiation stabilized the excretory processes in the stomach, increased the resistance of animals, and, vice wersa, the switching-off of the sympathetic nervous system destabilized the excetory processes and decreased the resistance of the organism

  19. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS)

  20. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  1. Ascorbic acid is the only bioactive that is better preserved by high hydrostatic pressure than by thermal treatment of a vegetable beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Francisco J; Esteve, Maria J; Frigola, Ana

    2010-09-22

    Variations in levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and total carotenoids), total antioxidant capacity, and color changes in a vegetable (tomato, green pepper, green celery, onion, carrot, lemon, and olive oil) beverage treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) were evaluated in this work. The effects of HHP treatment, four different pressures (100, 200, 300, and 400 MPa) and four treatment times for each pressure (from 120 to 540 s) were compared with those of thermal treatment (90-98 °C for 15 and 21 s). High pressure treatment retained significantly more ascorbic acid in the vegetable beverage than thermal treatment. However, no significant changes in total phenolics were observed between HHP treated and thermally processed vegetable beverage and unprocessed beverage. Color changes (a*, b*, L, chroma, h°, and ΔE) were less for pressurized beverage than thermally treated samples compared with unprocessed beverage.

  2. Mayombian ethnic, vegetables low intake, insulin treatment, diabetic nephropathy and severe diabetic retinopathy are determinants of blindness in diabetic Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Mvitu Muaka; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Enoch, Cibanda Yokobo; Igor, Longo Phemba

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the frequency and causes of blindness in diabetic Africans. METHODS The study was a cross-sectional survey carried out among known black diabetics consecutively admitted at the Teaching Hospital, University of Kinshasa, between 2005 and 2007. Examination methods included interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, eye examinations (visual acuity, tonometry, funduscopy), and fasting plasma glycaemia test. RESULTS Of the 227 patients examined, 15.9% had blindness. Univariate analyses showed significant association between female, severity of diabetic retinopathy, Mayombian ethnic group, use of insulin treatment, low intake of vegetables, diabetic nephropathy, open angle glaucoma and blindness in all diabetics. After logistic regression, only diabetic nephropathy, use of insulin treatment, macular oedema, Mayombian ethnic group and vegetables low intake were the independent risk factors of blindness in all diabetics. However, after logistic regression in the sub-group with diabetic retinopathy, only open angle glaucoma and proliferative diabetic retinopathy were the independent determinants of blindness. CONCLUSION The majority of the causes of blindness in these diabetic Africans are avoidable. It is recommended that appropriate diabetes care, nutrition education, periodic eye examination and laser photocoagulation facilities should be provided for treating diabetics in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24195057

  3. Effects of vegetation and soil-surface cover treatments on the hydrologic behavior of low-level waste trench caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, E.A.; Barnes, F.J.; Antonio, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field study at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different low-level radioactive waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on a decommissioned waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot is measured after each precipitation event. Soil moisture is measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Continued monitoring of the study site will provide data that will be used to analyze complex interactions between independent variables such rainfall amount and intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and soil and vegetation factors, as they influence water balance, and soil erosion. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Industrial wastewater treatment using higher aquatic vegetation in the former mining company of the Far Eastern Federal district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupskaya, L. T.; Zvereva, V. P.; Gula, K. E.; Gul', L. P.; Golubev, D. A.; Filatova, M. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes the results of studying the problems of industrial wastewater treatment using higher aquatic vegetation (hydrophytes) in the former mining enterprise of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD). They are aimed at reducing the negative environment impact of toxic tin ore wastes. The material of research were drainage, mine and slime waters as well as Lemna minor and Common reed grass (Phragmites communis). In the work conventional modern physico-chemical, chemical, biological and mathematical-statistical methods were used, as well as in the process of research the methods of atomic absorption spectrophotometry for AAS and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma on ISP-MS ELASN DRS II PerkinElmer was applied. The data obtained in the course of the experiment (2015-2016), indicate that a degree of wastewater treatment, using Lemna minor, is high. Virtually, all compounds of toxic chemical elements contained in industrial wastewater (zinc, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, iron, manganese, lead, etc.) were fully absorbed by a hydrophyte. Pollutant extraction was almost 95%. The obtained results of the study in laboratory conditions proved the possibility of effective use of the Lemna minor for the purification of drainage and mine waters. A key contribution of this paper is the relationship between possible toxic metals contained in industrial wastewater and a higher degree of absorption by their higher aquatic vegetation. These hydrophytes absorb these possible toxic metals in an aqueous medium and are contaminated with these heavy metals.

  5. Vegetable Cultivation Hydroponics System In Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak Subdistrict X Koto Singkarak Districts Solok

    OpenAIRE

    I Ketut Budaraga; Ramaiyulis; Ellyza nurdin

    2017-01-01

    Current conditions especially in urban agricultural land is getting narrower due to the rapid development. If left untreated it can lead to food security and environmental problems. One solution to allow the fulfillment of foodstuffs such as vegetables can be fulfilled for the people to exploit the potential of the narrow yard with continuous production of hydroponic systems. Interest dedication to the community to find ways to introduce a hydroponic vegetable crops that can supplement the fa...

  6. Vegetational response to native seed treatment and biosolids application in the rehabilitation of a spoilpile at Cooranbong Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M.; Whitehead, J. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science

    1998-08-01

    This study addresses two challenges which the minerals industry faces in the rehabilitation of minespoils. The first is to re-establish a soil ecosystem that will sustainably support native vegetation. The second is to overcome seed dormancy mechanisms that often lead to the failure of native plant establishment on sites affected by mining. This paper outlines the results of the ongoing study on the rehabilitation of a coal stockpile at Cooranbong Colliery, Dora Creek, New South Wales. The trial was established to determine the benefits of utilising dewatered biosolids as a soil conditioner for the growth of native trees by direct seeding techniques, and also to investigate the effectiveness of seed treatments on seed germination rates. Two seed treatment techniques, new to attempts to re-establish native species on minespoils, were trialed using, in turn, hot water and smoke. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Study on the thermal degradation of 3-MCPD esters in model systems simulating deodorization of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermacora, Alessia; Hrncirik, Karel

    2014-05-01

    The establishment of effective strategies for the mitigation of 3-MCPD esters in refined vegetable oils is restricted by limited knowledge of their mechanisms of formation and decomposition. In order to gain better understanding on the thermal stability of these compounds, a model system for mimicking oil refining conditions was developed. Pure 3-MCPD esters (3-MCPD dipalmitate and 3-MCPD dilaurate) were subjected to thermal treatment (180-260°C) and the degradation products where monitored over time (0-24h). After 24h of treatment, both 3-MCPD esters showed a significant degradation (ranging from 30% to 70%), correlating with the temperature applied. The degradation pathway, similar for both compounds, was found to involve isomerisation (very rapid, equilibrium was reached within 2h at 260°C), dechlorination and deacylation reactions. The higher relative abundance of non-chlorinated compounds, namely acylglycerols, in the first stages of the treatment suggested that dechlorination is preferred over deacylation with the conditions applied in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Implications of climate variability for the detection of multiple equilibria and for rapid transitions in the atmosphere-vegetation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathiany, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Claussen, M. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany); Fraedrich, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Paleoclimatic records indicate a decline of vegetation cover in the Western Sahara at the end of the African Humid Period (about 5,500 years before present). Modelling studies have shown that this phenomenon may be interpreted as a critical transition that results from a bifurcation in the atmosphere-vegetation system. However, the stability properties of this system are closely linked to climate variability and depend on the climate model and the methods of analysis. By coupling the Planet Simulator (PlaSim), an atmosphere model of intermediate complexity, with the simple dynamic vegetation model VECODE, we assess previous methods for the detection of multiple equilibria, and demonstrate their limitations. In particular, a stability diagram can yield misleading results because of spatial interactions, and the system's steady state and its dependency on initial conditions are affected by atmospheric variability and nonlinearities. In addition, we analyse the implications of climate variability for the abruptness of a vegetation decline. We find that a vegetation collapse can happen at different locations at different times. These collapses are possible despite large and uncorrelated climate variability. Because of the nonlinear relation between vegetation dynamics and precipitation the green state is initially stabilised by the high variability. When precipitation falls below a critical threshold, the desert state is stabilised as variability is then also decreased. (orig.)

  9. Potential for water salvage by removal of non-native woody vegetation from dryland river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, T.M.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Moore, G.W.; Morino, K.; Hultine, K.R.; Benyon, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Globally, expansion of non-native woody vegetation across floodplains has raised concern of increased evapotranspiration (ET) water loss with consequent reduced river flows and groundwater supplies. Water salvage programs, established to meet water supply demands by removing introduced species, show little documented evidence of program effectiveness. We use two case studies in the USA and Australia to illustrate factors that contribute to water salvage feasibility for a given ecological setting. In the USA, saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) has become widespread on western rivers, with water salvage programs attempted over a 50-year period. Some studies document riparian transpiration or ET reduction after saltcedar removal, but detectable increases in river base flow are not conclusively shown. Furthermore, measurements of riparian vegetation ET in natural settings show saltcedar ET overlaps the range measured for native riparian species, thereby constraining the possibility of water salvage by replacing saltcedar with native vegetation. In Australia, introduced willows (Salix spp.) have become widespread in riparian systems in the Murray-Darling Basin. Although large-scale removal projects have been undertaken, no attempts have been made to quantify increases in base flows. Recent studies of ET indicate that willows growing in permanently inundated stream beds have high transpiration rates, indicating water savings could be achieved from removal. In contrast, native Eucalyptus trees and willows growing on stream banks show similar ET rates with no net water salvage from replacing willows with native trees. We conclude that water salvage feasibility is highly dependent on the ecohydrological setting in which the non-native trees occur. We provide an overview of conditions favorable to water salvage. Copyright ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of soil herbicides on the antioxidant system of maize vegetative organs during ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Grigoryuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of soil herbicides Harnes, Frontier and Merlin on the activity of enzymes superoxid dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6, and benzidine peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7 in maize (Zea mays L.; cultivar Kadr 267 MV roots and leaves was studied in the field experiment. It was established that the adaptation of maize plants to the herbicides treatment was accompanied by significant activation of antioxidant enzymes both in roots (39%, 57%, and 67% above control level and leaves (50%, 64%, and 77% above control, respectively during different vegetation stages (shoots emergence; 3–5 leaves phase; florescence. The herbicides-induced changes of enzymes activity high correlated with ontogenetic dynamics of control plants activity: r = 0.98 for SOD; r = 0.96 for POD; r = 0.98 for CAT.

  11. Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucina, L.; Bültmann, Helga; Dierssen, Klaus; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Raus, Thomas; Carni, Andraz; Šumberová, Kateřina; Willner, Wolfgang; Dengler, J.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Hennekens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Vegetation classification consistent with the Braun-Blanquet approach is
    widely used in Europe for applied vegetation science, conservation planning
    and landmanagement. During the long history of syntaxonomy,many concepts
    and names of vegetation units have been proposed, but there

  12. Dynamics of global vegetation biomass simulated by the integrated Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Thornton, P. E.; Piao, S.; Yang, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.

    2014-12-01

    The global vegetation biomass stores huge amounts of carbon and is thus important to the global carbon budget (Pan et al., 2010). For the past few decades, different observation-based estimates and modeling of biomass in the above- and below-ground vegetation compartments have been comprehensively conducted (Saatchi et al., 2011; Baccini et al., 2012). However, uncertainties still exist, in particular for the simulation of biomass magnitude, tendency, and the response of biomass to climatic conditions and natural and human disturbances. The recently successful coupling of the integrated Earth System Model (iESM) (Di Vittorio et al., 2014; Bond-Lamberty et al., 2014), which links the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), Global Land-use Model (GLM), and Community Earth System Model (CESM), offers a great opportunity to understand the biomass-related dynamics in a fully-coupled natural and human modeling system. In this study, we focus on the systematic analysis and evaluation of the iESM simulated historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) biomass changes and the response of the biomass dynamics to various impact factors, in particular the human-induced Land Use/Land Cover Change (LULCC). By analyzing the iESM simulations with and without the interactive LULCC feedbacks, we further study how and where the climate feedbacks affect socioeconomic decisions and LULCC, such as to alter vegetation carbon storage. References Pan Y et. al: A large and persistent carbon sink in the World's forests. Science 2011, 333:988-993. Saatchi SS et al: Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2011, 108:9899-9904. Baccini A et al: Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps. Nature Clim Change 2012, 2:182-185. Di Vittorio AV et al: From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for

  13. Performance of slow rate systems for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakakis, V E; Paranychianakis, N V; Angelakis, A N

    2007-01-01

    The performance of slow rate (SR) systems in terms of treatment efficiency, environmental and health risks, and land sustainability was investigated over a three-year period in a rural community close to Iraklio, Greece. Four plant species (Acacia cyanophylla, Eucalyptus camandulensis, Populus nigra and Arundo donax) were used in order to investigate the role of vegetation in the treatment of wastewater and in biomass production. Wastewater effluent was pre-treated in a septic tank before its application to land. Applied hydraulic loading rates were based on crop water requirements which were determined separately for each plant species. The evaluation of treatment performance was accomplished by measuring COD, TKN, NH3-N, NO3-N, total and reactive P, TC and FC in soil solution samples taken at different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm). SR systems showed great potential for COD, TKN and NH4-N removal which reached 89, 90 and 94%, respectively at a depth of 15 cm. An outstanding removal was also observed for TC and FC which reached 99.99%. The concentration of both P and NO3-N in soil solution increased with the passage of time, but it was lower in winter. Despite the differences in the application rates among the SR systems planted with different plant species, the treatment efficiency was not affected. Moreover, increasing the soil depth from 15 to 60 cm had no effect on the treatment efficiency of the SR systems.

  14. Comparative Climates of the Trappist-1 Planetary System: Results from a Simple Climate-vegetation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of the planetary system hosted by the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 could open new paths for investigations of the planetary climates of Earth-sized exoplanets, their atmospheres, and their possible habitability. In this paper, we use a simple climate-vegetation energy-balance model to study the climate of the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets and the climate dependence on various factors: the global albedo, the fraction of vegetation that could cover their surfaces, and the different greenhouse conditions. The model allows us to investigate whether liquid water could be maintained on the planetary surfaces (i.e., by defining a “surface water zone (SWZ)”) in different planetary conditions, with or without the presence of a greenhouse effect. It is shown that planet TRAPPIST-1d seems to be the most stable from an Earth-like perspective, since it resides in the SWZ for a wide range of reasonable values of the model parameters. Moreover, according to the model, outer planets (f, g, and h) cannot host liquid water on their surfaces, even with Earth-like conditions, entering a snowball state. Although very simple, the model allows us to extract the main features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary climates.

  15. Implementation of system dynamic simulation method to optimize profit in supply chain network of vegetable product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tama, I. P.; Akbar, Z.; Eunike, A.

    2018-04-01

    Vegetables are categorized as a perishable product, which is a product with short lifespan thus requires proper handling and planning to reduce losses caused by the short lifespan. In order to reduce the losses, coordination among the players in the supply chain is required. On the other hand, the decision in the supply chain of vegetables and other farming products in the traditional market of developing country is independent among the players. This research is conducted by using System Dynamic Simulation method to develop model and scenario by coordinating the supply quantity amongst players in the supply chain. The scenarios are developed based on newsboy inventory model. This study aims to compare scenarios combining tiers involved in coordination program. The result shows that coordination in supply chain increases total supply chain profit, although there will always be players who experienced decrements in profit. The scenario of coordination among the farmer, the distributor, and the wholesaler resulted in the highest increase in total supply chain profit compared to other coordination scenarios, with an increased value of 10.49%.

  16. Comparative Climates of the Trappist-1 Planetary System: Results from a Simple Climate-vegetation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); Vecchio, Antonio, E-mail: tommaso.alberti@unical.it, E-mail: tommasoalberti89@gmail.com [LESIA—Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190, Meudon (France)

    2017-07-20

    The recent discovery of the planetary system hosted by the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 could open new paths for investigations of the planetary climates of Earth-sized exoplanets, their atmospheres, and their possible habitability. In this paper, we use a simple climate-vegetation energy-balance model to study the climate of the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets and the climate dependence on various factors: the global albedo, the fraction of vegetation that could cover their surfaces, and the different greenhouse conditions. The model allows us to investigate whether liquid water could be maintained on the planetary surfaces (i.e., by defining a “surface water zone (SWZ)”) in different planetary conditions, with or without the presence of a greenhouse effect. It is shown that planet TRAPPIST-1d seems to be the most stable from an Earth-like perspective, since it resides in the SWZ for a wide range of reasonable values of the model parameters. Moreover, according to the model, outer planets (f, g, and h) cannot host liquid water on their surfaces, even with Earth-like conditions, entering a snowball state. Although very simple, the model allows us to extract the main features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary climates.

  17. Commodity Systems Assessment Methodology of Postharvest Losses in Vegetable Amaranths: The Case of Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred Osei-Kwarteng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A semistructured questionnaire based on the commodity system assessment methodology (CSAM was used to determine postharvest losses in vegetable amaranths (VA. Fifty producers and retailers were randomly selected from five and four major VA producing areas and markets, respectively, and interviewed. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses. The survey revealed that absence of laws, regulation, incentives, and inadequate technical information affected the production of VA. The utmost preproduction challenge was poor quality seeds with poor seed yield (35%, low viability (19%, and nontrueness (46%. It was noted that some cultural practices including planting pattern and density, irrigation, and fertiliser use had effects on postharvest losses. Some postharvest practices used were cleaning with water, trimming, sorting, and grading. Usually the produce was transported to marketing centers by cars and motor cycle trailers. Generally poor temperature management after harvest was a big challenge for the postharvest handling of VA. The potential of vegetable amaranths as a commodity in the study area can be enhanced by providing the necessary institutional support, incentives, and use of good management practices along the value chain. An interdisciplinary approach and quantification of losses along the chain are recommended for any future study.

  18. Simulated climate change impact on summer dissolved organic carbon release from peat and surface vegetation: implications for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, Jonathan P; Bell, Michael; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R; Brazier, Richard E; Verhoef, Anne; Freeman, Chris; Clark, Joanna M

    2014-12-15

    Uncertainty regarding changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality has created interest in managing peatlands for their ecosystem services such as drinking water provision. The evidence base for such interventions is, however, sometimes contradictory. We performed a laboratory climate manipulation using a factorial design on two dominant peatland vegetation types (Calluna vulgaris and Sphagnum Spp.) and a peat soil collected from a drinking water catchment in Exmoor National Park, UK. Temperature and rainfall were set to represent baseline and future conditions under the UKCP09 2080s high emissions scenario for July and August. DOC leachate then underwent standard water treatment of coagulation/flocculation before chlorination. C. vulgaris leached more DOC than Sphagnum Spp. (7.17 versus 3.00 mg g(-1)) with higher specific ultraviolet (SUVA) values and a greater sensitivity to climate, leaching more DOC under simulated future conditions. The peat soil leached less DOC (0.37 mg g(-1)) than the vegetation and was less sensitive to climate. Differences in coagulation removal efficiency between the DOC sources appears to be driven by relative solubilisation of protein-like DOC, observed through the fluorescence peak C/T. Post-coagulation only differences between vegetation types were detected for the regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), suggesting climate change influence at this scale can be removed via coagulation. Our results suggest current biodiversity restoration programmes to encourage Sphagnum Spp. will result in lower DOC concentrations and SUVA values, particularly with warmer and drier summers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg −1 with a median value of 1.70 mg kg −1 , and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. -- Highlights: •Phthalate esters in soils from suburban intensive vegetable production systems were investigated. •Phthalate levels and risks of the vegetable soils with different plastic film use modes were examined. •Sources of phthalate esters in vegetable production soils were analyzed. -- PAE contamination of intensively managed vegetable soils varied widely depending on the mode of use of plastic film in different production systems

  20. Does withdrawing treatment from a pregnant persistent vegetative state patient resulting in her death constitute a termination of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McQuoid-Mason

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent article on the Texas case of Munoz v John Peter Smith Hospital, begs the question whether if the pregnant woman had been in a persistent vegetative state (PVS the courts in South Africa would have ordered the withdrawal of life-support treatment because she had expressed her wish not to be treated under such conditions in an advance directive, and that keeping her alive against her wishes would violate her constitutional rights to equality, dignity, privacy and bodily integrity. The answer seems to be yes in both instances. This applies even if the withdrawal of such support is opposed by the persons legally capable of consenting on her behalf in terms of the National Health Act. Where there is no advance directive - provided the treating clinicians conclude that any further treatment will be futile or that the benefits of further treatment are outweighed by the burdens and risks involved – life-support treatment may be withdrawn even against the wishes of persons entitled to consent on her behalf in terms of the National Health Act. Such legally competent persons may, however, apply to court to prevent the implementation of the decision of the clinicians.

  1. Changes in soil quality and plant available water capacity following systems re-design on commercial vegetable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alliaume, F.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Garcia, M.; Giller, K.E.; Dogliotti Moro, S.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of ecological functions due to soil degradation impacts viability of crop production systems world-wide, particularly in vegetable cropping systems commonly located in the most productive areas and characterized by intensive soil cultivation. This paper reports soil degradation caused by

  2. Smart plants, smart models? On adaptive responses in vegetation-soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Teuling, Ryan; van Dam, Nicole; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evapotranspiration regimes need a solid base describing the essence of the processes involved [1]. The essence of emerging patterns at large scales often originates from micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. A complicating factor in capturing this behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. To assess root water uptake by plants in a changing soil environment, a direct indication of the amount of energy required by plants to take up water can be obtained by measuring the soil water potential in the vicinity of roots with polymer tensiometers [2]. In a lysimeter experiment with various levels of imposed water stress the polymer tensiometer data suggest maize roots regulate their root water uptake on the derivative of the soil water retention curve, rather than the amount of moisture alone. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, or these changes may instead trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [3-7]. To investigate a possible relation between plant genotype, the plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the soil water potential, a proof of principle experiment was set up with Solanum Dulcamare plants. The results showed a significant difference in ABA response between genotypes from a dry and a wet environment, and this response was also reflected in the root water uptake. Adaptive responses may have consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant

  3. Leaf vegetables for use in integrated hydroponics and aquaculture systems: Effects of root flooding on growth, mineral composition and nutrient uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Schierup, Hans-Henrik; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture and hydroponics systems, the waste products from fish production are used to produce vegetables or other crops of economic value, and the water is recirculated to the fish tanks. We studied growth, productivity and nutrient uptake of four leaf vegetable species (Lactuca...... sativa, Ipomoea aquatica, Brassica rapa var. chinensis and Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) in a controlled growth experiment with three root flooding treatments (drained, half-flooded and flooded) to assess their preferred hydroponic growth requirements, biomass production and nutrient removal......, respectively. The two Brassica varieties produced much less aerial biomass (50-54 g DW/m2 during a 60-day period). Both I. aquatica and L. sativa are promising species to be included in integrated hydroponic and aquaculture facilities, with I. aquatica showing the most promise because of its higher growth...

  4. Review of Fruit & Vegetable Food System in South Dakota: Application and Policy Suggestions for Other Rural States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Stluka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables has been recognized as a possible reason for dietary deficiencies that contribute to rising chronic health issues and medical costs. Based on data generated by the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, South Dakota was listed as one of five states with the lowest daily adult vegetable intake (1.5 times per day. To continue the effort to promote a healthy diet, three independent surveys were developed and distributed to consumers, grocers, and growers (producers to investigate factors that affected low consumption of fruits and vegetables and to identify opportunities to increase future consumption. To highlight the influences of geographic and socioeconomic disadvantages on fruit and vegetable consumption, the surveys specifically included the consideration of consumers’ income; access and preparation of available fruits and vegetables; preparation skills and available time; perceptions of fresh, canned, and frozen products; and knowledge and role fruits and vegetables play in prevention of chronic disease in the sample selection and data analysis. Survey respondents were divided into two regions: non-food desert (Region 1 and food desert (Region 2. This paper provides a summary of the survey results and policy suggestions generated based on our findings.

  5. Scientific Verification Test of Orbitec Deployable Vegetable Production System for Salad Crop Growth on ISS- Gas Exchange System design and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldemire, Ashleigh

    2007-01-01

    The ability to produce and maintain salad crops during long term missions would be a great benefit to NASA; the renewable food supply would save cargo space, weight and money. The ambient conditions of previous ground controlled crop plant experiments do not reflect the microgravity and high CO2 concentrations present during orbit. It has been established that microgravity does not considerably alter plant growth. (Monje, Stutte, Chapman, 2005). To support plants in a space-craft environment efficient and effective lighting and containment units are necessary. Three lighting systems were previously evaluated for radish growth in ambient air; fluorescent lamps in an Orbitec Biomass Production System Educational (BPSE), a combination of red, blue, and green LED's in a Deployable Vegetable Production System (Veggie), and a combination of red and blue LED's in a Veggie. When mass measurements compared the entire possible growing area vs. power consumed by the respective units, the Veggies clearly exceeded the BPSE indicating that the LED units were a more resource efficient means of growing radishes under ambient conditions in comparison with fluorescent lighting. To evaluate the most productive light treatment system for a long term space mission a more closely simulated ISS environment is necessary. To induce a CO2 dense atmosphere inside the Veggie's and BPSE a gas exchange system has been developed to maintain a range of 1000-1200 ppm CO2 during a 21-day light treatment experiment. This report details the design and function of the gas exchange system. The rehabilitation, trouble shooting, maintenance and testing of the gas exchange system have been my major assignments. I have also contributed to the planting, daily measurements and harvesting of the radish crops 21-day light treatment verification test.

  6. GigaUnit Transplant System: A New Mechanical Tool for Transplanting Submerged Aquatic Vegetation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J

    2008-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) performs many important ecosystem functions, including wave attenuation and sediment stabilization, water quality improvement, primary production, food web support for secondary consumers...

  7. Mechanical fuel treatment effects on vegetation in a New Mexico dry mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn J. Mason; Terrell T. Baker; Douglas S. Cram; Jon C. Boren; Alexander G. Fernald; Dawn M. VanLeeuwen

    2009-01-01

    While the main objective of many silvicultural treatments in the western US is to reduce fire potential, their effects on overstory regeneration, midstory and herbaceous communities is of importance to land managers. To quantify these effects, we measured overstory regeneration, midstory density by species, herbaceous biomass, species richness and cover in commercial...

  8. Support Systems for Treatment Integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom

    Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately

  9. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  10. Interferon-α treatment in systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2011-01-01

    classification need treatment. This review on interferon treatment in systemic mastocytosis documents an effect of this biological agent in some patients with mastocytosis. However, the place of interferon-a, as mono- or combination therapy, in the treatment algorithm may only be definitely established...

  11. State of peroxidation processes in pregnant women with somatoform dysfunction of vegetative nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Syusyuka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extragenital pathology of pregnant women continues to be one of the main reasons of the serious complications of gestation which promotes increase of maternal and prenatal disease incidence. In accordance with International Classification of Diseases-10 neurocirculatory dystonia (NCD refers to the section “Somatoform vegetative dysfunction of heart and cardiovascular system”. Today a relationship between peroxidation intensity and severity level of the disease is proved and important role of the emotional stress in the development of NCD is determined. Object of the work – to estimate oxidative modification of proteins and antioxidative system of protection of the pregnant women with neurocirculatory dystonia. Group of examined persons and methods of investigations The main group consisted of 43 pregnant women with somatoform dysfunction of vegetative nervous system (SDVNS and 32 somatically healthy pregnant women who were improving their health and getting rehabilitation in a special department for pregnant women in sanatorium “Velikiy Lug”. Level of trait anxiety (TA and state anxiety (SA was objectified by means of technique of Ch. D. Spielberg which had been adapted by Yu. L. Hanin. Investigations of markers of oxidative modification of proteins (OMP were estimated in the blood serum with spectrophotometric method when length of the wave was 270nm (aliphatic aldehyde dinitrophenylhydrazones –APH and 363 nm (carbonyl dinitrophenylhydrazones – CPH. State of antioxidative system of protection was determined in accord with level of activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD. Results of investigations and their discussion Investigation of parameters of oxidative modification of proteins in groups under research permits to determine the highest content of spontaneous APH definitely, that the pregnant women with SDVNS have in comparison with women of control group (p<0.05. During estimation of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins the

  12. Vegetable Cultivation Hydroponics System In Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak Subdistrict X Koto Singkarak Districts Solok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Budaraga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Current conditions especially in urban agricultural land is getting narrower due to the rapid development. If left untreated it can lead to food security and environmental problems. One solution to allow the fulfillment of foodstuffs such as vegetables can be fulfilled for the people to exploit the potential of the narrow yard with continuous production of hydroponic systems. Interest dedication to the community to find ways to introduce a hydroponic vegetable crops that can supplement the family income of farmers. Benefits of the service is expected to increase peoples income and the public generally in Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak in particular and can provide lucrative benefits for the environment. Devotion execution method implemented by a lecture and demonstration. The materials used such as husks seeds of vegetables kale collards caisin hydroponic media such as slug biogas rope bamboo to place the plants grow. The results of this activity the community has been able to make a hydroponic vegetable cultivation system and has been applied to plant vegetables such as kale collards and caisin.

  13. Plant Growth Optimization by Vegetable Production System in HI-SEAS Analog Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Gill, Tracy R.; Quincy, Charles D.; Roberson, Luke B.; Binsted, Kim; Morrow, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) is a scientific payload designed to support plant growth for food production under microgravity conditions. The configuration of Veggie consists of an LED lighting system with modular rooting pillows designed to contain substrate media and time-release fertilizer. The pillows were designed to be watered passively using capillary principles but have typically been watered manually by the astronauts in low-Earth orbit (LEO). The design of Veggie allows cabin air to be drawn through the plant enclosure for thermal and humidity control and for supplying CO2 to the plants. Since its delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014, Veggie has undergone several experimental trials by various crews. Ground unit testing of Veggie was conducted during an 8-month Mars analog study in a semi-contained environment of a simulated habitat located at approximately 8,200 feet (2,500 m) elevation on the Mauna Loa volcano on the Island of Hawaii. The Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) offered conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) intended to simulate a planetary exploration mission. This paper provides data and analyses to show the prospect for optimized use of the current Veggie design for human habitats. Lessons learned during the study may provide opportunities for updating the system design and operational parameters for current Veggie experiments being conducted onboard the ISS and for payloads on future deep space missions.

  14. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  15. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  16. Stochastic soil water dynamics of phreatophyte vegetation with dimorphic root systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, R.W.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    As the direct uptake of deep groundwater by vegetation may be essential in semiarid regions, we incorporated this process in stochastic root zone water balance models. The direct water uptake by vegetation via deep tap roots is simulated using one additional empirical parameter. This is considered

  17. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-74)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howington, John [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Vegetation Management for five Substations in the Malin District. BPA proposes total vegetation management (bare ground) in the electrical substations, and, noxious weed management and maintenance of landscaping within the property boundaries of the listed facilities. These facilities are all located within the Malin District of the Redmond Region.

  18. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-82)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howington, John [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-08-13

    Vegetation Management for twenty-four Substations in the Burley District. BPA proposes total vegetation management (bare ground) in the electrical substations, and, noxious weed management and maintenance of landscaping within the property boundaries of the listed facilities. These facilities are all located within the Burley District of the Idaho Falls Region.

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-78)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howington, John [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Vegetation Management for ten Substations in the Redmond District. BPA proposes total vegetation management (bare ground) in the electrical substations, and, noxious weed management and maintenance of landscaping within the property boundaries of the listed facilities. These facilities are all located within the Redmond District of the Redmond Region.

  20. Radiation-resistant vegetative bacteria in a proposed system of radappertization of meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxcy, R.B.; Rowley, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    After irradiation in the frozen state with 1 Mrad fresh minced pork or chicken contained approximately 10-100 colony-forming units of highly radiation resistant asporogenous bacteria per gram. Some of these had greater radiation resistance than Clostridium botulinum spores. Much of the radiation resistance was apparent as a shoulder in the death curve, which was markedly reduced by heating prior or subsequent to irradiation. Nature of the meat, such as variation in fat content (5-44%), had no significant effect on the radiation resistance of bacteria therein. Even though these bacteria were isolated from meat, it was not a favourable microenvironment for their growth. The water activity was too low. Heat sensitivity of isolates indicated the pre-irradiation enzyme inactivation treatment required for radappertization of meats would destroy or injure most vegetative cells. Thus, the combined process of heat, irradiation, and unfavourable microenvironment would ensure that these radiation resistant cells would not be a problem in radappertized meats. (author)

  1. Radwaste treatment complex. DRAWMACS planned maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    This document describes the operation of the Planned Maintenance System for the Radwaste Treatment Complex. The Planned Maintenance System forms part of the Decommissioning and Radwaste Management Computer System (DRAWMACS). Further detailed information about the data structure of the system is contained in Database Design for the DRAWMACS Planned Maintenance System (AEA-D and R-0285, 2nd issue, 25th February 1992). Information for other components of DRAWMACS is contained in Basic User Guide for the Radwaste Treatment Plant Computer System (AEA-D and R-0019, July 1990). (author)

  2. Vegetation cover analysis using a low budget hyperspectral proximal sensing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Daquino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the implementation of a hyperspectral proximal sensing low-budget acquisition system and its application to the detection of terrestrian vegetation cover anomalies in sites of high environmental quality. Anomalies can be due to stress for lack of water and/or pollution phenomena and weed presence in agricultural fields. The hyperspectral cube (90-bands ranging from 450 to 900 nm was acquired from the hill near Segni (RM, approximately 500 m far from the target, by means of electronically tunable filters and 8 bit CCD cameras. Spectral libraries were built using both endmember identification method and extraction of centroids of the clusters obtained from a k-means analysis of the image itself. Two classification methods were applied on the hyperspectral cube: Spectral Angle Mapper (hard and Mixed Tuned Matching Filters (MTMF. Results show the good capability of the system in detecting areas with an arboreal, shrub or leafage cover, distinguishing between zones with different spectral response. Better results were obtained using spectral library originated by the k-means method. The detected anomalies not correlated to seasonal phenomena suggest a ground true analysis to identify their origin.

  3. Exploring options for sustainable farming systems development for vegetable family farmers in Uruguay using a modeling toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Aguerre, V.; Abbas, A.; Albin, A.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and environmental sustainability of family-based vegetable production systems in south Uruguay are seriously compromised after two decades of net decreasing prices and strategies based on specialization and intensification. This paper presents a model-based exploration of alternative

  4. Resource use in a low-input organic vegetable food supply system in UK - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads V.; Kulak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable farm in United Kingdom with high crop diversity and a related box scheme food supply system was assessed by emergy evaluation, an environmental accounting method based on the direct and indirect use of solar equivalent joules. The main...

  5. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  6. Temporal development of vegetation and geomorphology in a man-made beach-dune system by natural processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    with F. rubra and the invasive alien Rosa rugosa. It was concluded, that the main trends in the geomorphological and vegetational development of the man-made beach-dune system is similar to the development in natural dunes. In the future, further accretion and seaward dune formation may be expected...

  7. Energy and water flow through the soil - vegetation - atmosphere system: the fiction of measurements and the reality of models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Jia, L.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic concepts and definitions in models of the SVA system and then emphasizes inconsistencies between model variables and observations for the soil, vegetation and atmosphere elements. This is done first in a qualitative sense, then analytically for the observations of the

  8. MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRECTION AND REHABILITATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH SOMATOFORM DYSFUNCTION OF VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Syusyuka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurocirculatory dystonia (NCD takes one of the leading positions among different extragenital diseases in pregnant women, and it promotes complications of pregnancy, labor and postpartum period. NCD which is included into the diagnostic section “Somatoform vegetative dysfunction” – is polyetiologic functional disease of cardiovascular system based on disorders of neuroendocrine regulation with multiple and various clinical signs that become worse in stress influence. Object of the work – is to estimate influence of medical and psychological correction program on the psycho-emotional state and rate of gestation complications in pregnant women with somatoform dysfunction of vegetative nervous system (SDVNS. Materials and methods of investigations There 56 pregnant women with NCD and it is the evidence of somatoform dysfunction of vegetative nervous system within gestation period of 12-34 weeks were examined in the study. Presence of this extragenital pathology was clinically proved by therapeutist. I group included 29 pregnant women who participated in the complex program of medical and psychological correction and sanatorium rehabilitation. II group included 27 pregnant women having rehabilitation in accord with standards of sanatorium-resort therapy. Control group comprised 24 somatically healthy pregnant women. Level of trait and state anxiety were estimated under methods of Spielberg-Hanin. Estimation of type of attitude towards the disease and of other associated personal attitudes was carried out using Personality Questionnaire of the V.M. Bekhterev Institute (PQBI. Results and their discussion. High rate of combination of SDVNS with various somatic pathology both in group I and group II was found (86.2% and 85.2% correspondingly. By comparing the results before sanatorium health improvement it was defined that average and high levels of state anxiety were dominating in all groups (group І - 91.7%, group II – 85% and

  9. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  10. Quantifying the Vegetation Health Based on the Resilience in an Arid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar Abolfazl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper management of natural ecosystems is not possible without the knowledge of the health status of its components. Vegetation, as the main component of the ecosystem, plays an important role in its health. One of the key determinants of vegetation health is its resilience in the face of environmental disorders. This research was conducted in parts of the Namakzar-e Khaf watershed in Northeast of South Khorasan Province with the aim of quantifying the vegetative resilience on behalf of the ecosystem health in response to long-term precipitation changes. First, the annual precipitation standardization was performed during a thirty-year period by the SPI method. Then, the average variation in TNDVI index obtained from the Landsat satellite images was examined and the resilience was tested by calculating the four effective factors (amplitude, malleability, damping and hysteresis. According to the results, the amplitude in the survey period was 6.04% and the vegetation has had different values of damping over the years. The most prominent example of vegetation resilience occurred between 1986 and 1996, with malleability of 0.7 and damping of zero. Vegetation in this period, after the elimination of drought effects (1986, has not only returned to the amount of vegetation of reference year with severe precipitation (1996 but also increased by 0.25%. This increase, as the index of hysteresis, has been presented for the first time in the ecosystem health discussion quantitatively in the present study. A set of quantitative calculations showed that despite reduced annual precipitation and drought events, the vegetation has been able to maintain its resilience, which indicates the health of vegetation in the studied ecosystem.

  11. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-06-23

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides

  12. Effective mitigation of nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in intensive vegetable production systems using a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Min; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Changsheng [Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Di, Hong J. [Lincoln Univ., Christchurch (New Zealand). Center for Soil and Environment Research

    2011-07-15

    Vegetable production is one of the most intensive agricultural systems with high rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and irrigation, conditions conducive for nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) leaching, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), in decreasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions in vegetable production systems. Twenty-four undisturbed soil monolith lysimeters (610 mm in diameter; 700 mm in depth; surface area, 0.29 m{sup 2}) with two different soils, Huangzongrang (alfisol) and Chaotu (fluvisols), were collected and installed in a field lysimeter facility in Central China under irrigated vegetable production conditions. Urea fertilizer was applied at 650 kg N ha{sup -1}, and DCD was applied at 10 kg ha{sup -1} to the lysimeters planted with three kinds of vegetables (capsicum, Capsicum annuum L.; amaranth, Amaranthus mangostanus L.; radish, Raphanus sativus L.). The results showed that DCD reduced NO3- leaching by 58.5% and 36.2% and N{sub 2}O emissions factor by 83.8% and 72.7% in the two soils. The average NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N concentration in the drainage water was decreased from 4.9 mg NL{sup -1} to 2.3 mg NL{sup -1} and from 4.4 mg NL{sup -1} to 3.3 mg NL{sup -1}, in the Huangzongrang and Chaotu soils, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits, the use of DCD also increased the yields of capsicum and radish in alfisol soil significantly (P < 0.01); only the amaranth yield in fluvisol soil was declined (P < 0.01), and the other vegetables yields were not affected. Total N concentrations of the three vegetables were increased significantly (P < 0.01) with the application of DCD with urea compared with urea alone. These results showed that the nitrification inhibitor DCD has the potential to significantly reduce NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions and to make vegetable farming more environmentally

  13. System and process for biomass treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  14. Systemic treatment of Krukenberg tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolak Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Of all ovarian tumors with distinct biological features, 10-25% are secondary ovarian tumors. Among the most common cancers that cause ovarian metastasis are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrium, as well as gastric and lateral cancer. Krukenberg tumors remain asymptomatic until the tumor reaches a certain size, as in the case of primary ovarian cancer. Symptoms are non-specific: abdominal pain (42%, postmenopausal bleeding (18%, weight loss (6% and an increasing abdominal girth (15%. Diagnostic procedures should include physical examination, basic blood and biochemistry tests, radiographic imaging and endoscopy. There are currently no uniform guidelines to be followed in order to treat this cancer. However, the survival rate of selected subgroups of patients may be enhanced by means of cytoreductive surgery (performable among patients with good general health condition, where the metastases are limited only to the ovaries, where the primary tumor is derived from the colorectal cancer, and where there is the absence or minimal residual disease. It is still controversial to use adjuvant chemotherapy following the metastasectomy of Krukenberg tumors. Although this type of treatment seems to provide a survival benefit, there are currently no randomized prospective trials available so as to confirm or deny. Future research should, therefore, be focused on the potentially synergistic effect of surgery and perioperative administration of cytotoxic therapies targeted at high response rates. Studies on new molecularly targeted drugs can also be beneficial.

  15. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs efficiencies for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daren Harmel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited on VTA effectiveness as a waste management alternative for smaller operations. This study evaluated the efficiencies of VTAs in reducing bacteria and nutrient runoff from small-scale swine operations in three counties in Central Texas. Based on 4 yr of runoff data, the Bell and Brazos VTAs significantly reduced loads and concentrations of E. coli and nutrients (except NO3-N and had treatment efficiencies of 73–94%. Most notably, the Bell VTA reduced loads of E. coli, NH4-N, PO4-P, total N, and total P similar to that of the background (control. In spite of significant reductions, runoff from the Brazos VTA had higher concentrations and loads than the control site, especially following installation of concrete pens and increased pen washing, which produced standing water and increased E. coli and nutrient influx. The Robertson VTA produced fewer significant reductions and had lower treatment efficiencies (29–69%; however, E. coli and nutrient concentrations and loads leaving this VTA were much lower than observed at the Bell and Brazos County sites due to alternative solids management and enclosed pens. Based on these results and previous research, VTAs can be practical, effective waste management alternatives for reducing nutrient and bacteria losses from small-scale animal operations, but only if properly designed and managed. Keywords: Bacteria, Nutrients, Swine manure, Waste management, Water quality

  16. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centralized systems to indicate the presence of fecal pathogens, but are ineffective decentralized treatment process indicators as they generally occur at levels too low to assess log reduction targets. System challenge testing by spiking with high loads of fecal indicator organisms, like MS2 coliphage, has limitations, especially for large systems. Microbes that are endogenous to the decentralized system, occur in high abundances and mimic removal rates of bacterial, viral and/or parasitic protozoan pathogens during treatment could serve as alternative treatment process indicators to verify log reduction targets. To identify abundant microbes in wastewater, the bacterial and viral communities were examined using deep sequencing. Building infrastructure-associated bacteria, like Zoogloea, were observed as dominant members of the bacterial community in graywater. In blackwater, bacteriophage of the order Caudovirales constituted the majority of contiguous sequences from the viral community. This study identifies candidate treatment process indicators in decentralized systems that could be used to verify log removal during treatment. The association of the presence of treatment process indic

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively managed greenhouse vegetable cropping system in Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Feifei; Jiang Rongfeng; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo; Su Fang

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from a typical greenhouse vegetable system in Northern China were measured from February 2004 to January 2006 using a close chamber method. Four nitrogen management levels (NN, MN, CN, and SN) were used. N 2 O emissions occurred intermittently in the growing season, strongly correlating with N fertilization and irrigation. No peak emissions were observed after fertilization in the late Autumn season due to low soil temperature. 57-94% of the seasonal N 2 O emissions came from the initial growth stage, corresponding to the rewetting process in the soil. The annual N 2 O emissions ranged from 2.6 to 8.8 kg N ha -1 yr -1 , accounting for 0.27-0.30% of the annual nitrogen input. Compared with conventional N management, site-specific N management reduced N fertilization rate by 69% in 2004 and by 76% in 2005, and consequently reduced N 2 O emissions by 51% in 2004 and 27% in 2005, respectively. - High N 2 O emissions coming from the initial growth stage can be attributed to the rewetting process in the greenhouse soil.

  18. Identifying N fertilizer regime and vegetable production system in tropical Brazil using (15) N natural abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio T; Urquiaga, Segundo; Chalk, Phillip M; Mata, Maria Gabriela F; Souza, Paulo O

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted in areas of vegetable production in tropical Brazil, with the objectives of (i) measuring the variation in δ(15)  N in soils, organic N fertilizer sources and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from different farming systems, (ii) measuring whether plant δ(15)  N can differentiate organic versus conventional lettuce and (iii) identifying the factors affecting lettuce δ(15)  N. Samples of soil, lettuce and organic inputs were taken from two organic, one conventional and one hydroponic farm. The two organic farms had different N-sources with δ(15)  N values ranging from 0.0 to +14.9‰ (e.g. leguminous green manure and animal manure compost, respectively), and differed significantly (P hydroponic lettuce δ(15)  N (+4.5 ± 0.2‰) due to manure inputs. The N from leguminous green manure made a small contribution to the N nutrition of lettuce in the multi-N-source organic farm. To differentiate organic versus conventional farms using δ(15)  N the several subsets of mode of fertilization should be considered. Comparisons of δ(15)  N of soil, organic inputs and lettuce allowed a qualitative analysis of the relative importance of different N inputs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A Multipurpose Fruit and Vegetable Processing System for Advanced Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the one-year no-cost extension, we completed the fabrication of the multipurpose fruit and vegetable food processor (MFVP) and the remaining trials with its...

  20. Relative importance and interactions of furan precursors in sterilised, vegetable-based food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Buvé, Carolien; Vanratingen, Koen; Kebede, Biniam T; Goos, Peter; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation strategies aimed at an intervention in the reaction pathways for furan formation (e.g., by adjusting precursor concentrations) might offer an additional route for furan reduction in sterilised, vegetable-based foods, without adverse effects on other food safety or quality attributes. As a first step towards product reformulation, the aim of the present study was to determine the relative importance and interactions of possible furan precursors in these types of foods. Based on an I-optimal experimental design, potato purée (naturally low in furan precursors) was spiked with known amounts of sugars, ascorbic acid, olive oil and β-carotene, and subjected to a thermal sterilisation. Significant correlations were observed between furan concentrations after thermal treatment and starting concentrations of ascorbic acid and monosaccharides (i.e., fructose and glucose). Ascorbic acid had a clear furan-reducing effect as an antioxidant by protecting (polyunsaturated) fatty acids against oxidative degradation. Fructose and glucose were the main precursors, which can most probably be attributed to their high, but realistic, concentrations in the product. The contributions of fatty acids and β-carotene were strongly dependent on redox interactions with other food constituents. In the same potato purées, only low concentrations (0-2 ng g(-1) purée) of 2-methylfuran were detected, indicating that the direct importance of the spiked food constituents as a precursor for methylfuran formation was rather small. Based on the results of this study, reducing the amount of monosaccharides or adjusting the redox conditions of the matrix are suggested as two possible approaches for furan mitigation on the product side.

  1. A system for measuring fluxes of trace gases to and from soil and vegetation with a chamber technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Christer; Richter, Andreas; Backlin, Leif; Granat, Lennart

    1983-09-01

    A mobile system for measurements of gaseous fluxes of SO 2 NO x , O 3 and water vapour between the atmosphere and the vegetation soil system using a chamber technique is described. Equipment, instruments and instrumental sensitivities are listed. A gas-handling system including calibration procedures and information on the chamber construction is also presented. With this system it is possible to make measurements using a wide range of concentrations including subambient levels. The environment in the chamber can be kept very close to ambient conditions. The mechanisms regulating the flux can be studied. A limitation of this system is the problem of extrapolating the fluxes obtained to larger areas. (author)

  2. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  3. Treatment system operation, management, and finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truax, D.D. (Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State (United States))

    1990-06-01

    This article deals with literature on operation, management, and financing of wastewater treatment plants. Some topics discussed are system hydraulics and flow monitoring, odor, reliability, equipment age, management philosophy, performance, reducing operating cost, planning and response to emergencies, preventative maintenance, inspection systems, mechanical vibrations, safety, privatization, municipal leasing, user and impact fees.

  4. A minimal model of fire-vegetation feedbacks and disturbance stochasticity generates alternative stable states in grassland–shrubland–woodland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batllori, Enric; Ackerly, David D; Moritz, Max A

    2015-01-01

    Altered disturbance regimes in the context of global change are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g., amount, flammability) alter fire regimes. Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) constitute a paradigmatic example of temperate fire-prone vegetation. Although these ecosystems may be heavily impacted by global change, disturbance regime shifts and the implications of fire-vegetation feedbacks in the dynamics of such biomes are still poorly characterized. We developed a minimal modeling framework incorporating key aspects of fire ecology and successional processes to evaluate the relative influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on disturbance and vegetation dynamics in systems composed of grassland, shrubland, and woodland mosaics, which characterize many MTEs. In this theoretical investigation, we performed extensive simulations representing different background rates of vegetation succession and disturbance regime (fire frequency and severity) processes that reflect a broad range of MTE environmental conditions. Varying fire-vegetation feedbacks can lead to different critical points in underlying processes of disturbance and sudden shifts in the vegetation state of grassland–shrubland–woodland systems, despite gradual changes in ecosystem drivers as defined by the environment. Vegetation flammability and disturbance stochasticity effectively modify system behavior, determining its heterogeneity and the existence of alternative stable states in MTEs. Small variations in system flammability and fire recurrence induced by climate or vegetation changes may trigger sudden shifts in the state of such ecosystems. The existence of threshold dynamics, alternative stable states, and contrasting system responses to environmental change has broad implications for MTE management. (letter)

  5. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer

  7. Advances in HTGR Wastewater Treatment System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Qiu Yu; Wang Jianlong; Jia Fei

    2014-01-01

    The source terms of radioactive wastewater from HTR-PM were introduced. Concentration process should be used to reduce volume. A radioactive wastewater treatment system was designed by using Disc tubular reverse osmosis (DTRO) membrane system. The pretreatment system was simplify by using a cartridge filter. A three-stage membrane system was built. The operated characters to treat low and intermediate radioactive waste water were studied. A concentration rates of 25-50 is reached. The decontamination factor of the membrane system can reach 30-100. (author)

  8. Potential and Limitations of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Systems for Monitoring Altitudinal Vegetation Phenology in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. S. F.; Torres, R. S.; Morellato, P.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is a key component of ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling, and highly susceptible to climatic change. Phenological knowledge in the tropics is limited by lack of monitoring, traditionally done by laborious direct observation. Ground-based digital cameras can automate daily observations, but also offer limited spatial coverage. Imaging by low-cost Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) combines the fine resolution of ground-based methods with and unprecedented capability for spatial coverage, but challenges remain in producing color-consistent multitemporal images. We evaluated the applicability of multitemporal UAS imaging to monitor phenology in tropical altitudinal grasslands and forests, answering: 1) Can very-high resolution aerial photography from conventional digital cameras be used to reliably monitor vegetative and reproductive phenology? 2) How is UAS monitoring affected by changes in illumination and by sensor physical limitations? We flew imaging missions monthly from Feb-16 to Feb-17, using a UAS equipped with an RGB Canon SX260 camera. Flights were carried between 10am and 4pm, at 120-150m a.g.l., yielding 5-10cm spatial resolution. To compensate illumination changes caused by time of day, season and cloud cover, calibration was attempted using reference targets and empirical models, as well as color space transformations. For vegetative phenological monitoring, multitemporal response was severely affected by changes in illumination conditions, strongly confounding the phenological signal. These variations could not be adequately corrected through calibration due to sensor limitations. For reproductive phenology, the very-high resolution of the acquired imagery allowed discrimination of individual reproductive structures for some species, and its stark colorimetric differences to vegetative structures allowed detection of the reproductive timing on the HSV color space, despite illumination effects. We conclude that reliable

  9. Acquisition and treatment systems for experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouard, E.

    1988-01-01

    The acquisition and treatment systems for experimental data has been conceived to give a response to experimental requirements in a research reactor such OSIRIS. Its objective is to acquire and treat the ensemble of informations coming from one or many experiences, to archive useful data for an ulterior treatment and to give at the experimentator a tool ensemble for a better track of his experience. Its main characteristics are given in this text [fr

  10. Calibrating a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere system with a genetical algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.

    2009-04-01

    Accuracy of model prediction is well known for being very sensitive to the quality of the calibration of the model. It is also known that quantifying soil hydraulic parameters in a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere (SVA) system is a highly non-linear parameter estimation problem, and that robust methods are needed to avoid the optimization process to lead to non-optimal parameters. Evolutionary algorithms and specifically genetic algorithms (GAs) are very well suited for those complex parameter optimization problems. The SVA system in this study concerns a pine stand on a heterogeneous sandy soil (podzol) in the north of Belgium (Campine region). Throughfall and other meteorological data and water contents at different soil depths have been recorded during one year at a daily time step. The water table level, which is varying between 95 and 170 cm, has been recorded with a frequency of 0.5 hours. Based on the profile description, four soil layers have been distinguished in the podzol and used for the numerical simulation with the hydrus1D model (Simunek and al., 2005). For the inversion procedure the MYGA program (Yedder, 2002), which is an elitism GA, was used. Optimization was based on the water content measurements realized at the depths of 10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 70, 90, 110, and 120 cm to estimate parameters describing the unsaturated hydraulic soil properties of the different soil layers. Comparison between the modeled and measured water contents shows a good similarity during the simulated year. Impacts of short and intensive events (rainfall) on the water content of the soil are also well reproduced. Errors on predictions are on average equal to 5%, which is considered as a good result. A. Ben Haj Yedder. Numerical optimization and optimal control : (molecular chemistry applications). PhD thesis, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, 2002. Šimůnek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and M. Šejna, The HYDRUS-1D software package for simulating the one-dimensional movement

  11. Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems For Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m 3 per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m 3 of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m 3 per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m 3 of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during the first season of

  12. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-07-19

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during

  13. Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mucina, L.; Bültmann, H.; Dierssen, K.; Theurillat, J. P.; Raus, T.; Carni, A.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Willner, W.; Dengler, J.; Gavilán García, R.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, M.; Di Pietro, R.; Iakushenko, D.; Pallas, J.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Bergmeier, E.; Santos Guerra, A.; Ermakov, N.; Valachovič, M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Lysenko, T.; Didukh, Y. P.; Pignatti, S.; Rodwell, J. S.; Capelo, J.; Weber, H. E.; Solomeshch, A.; Dimopoulos, P.; Aguiar, C.; Hennekens, S. M.; Tichý, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2016), s. 3-264 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Europe * syntaxonomy * vegetation classification Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2016

  14. Coppicing systems as a way of understanding patterns in forest vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hédl, Radim; Ewald, J.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Kirkby, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-3 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : traditional coppices * vegetation dynamics * ecological restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  15. New antioxidants and antioxidant systems for improvement of the stability of vegetable oils and fish oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most vegetable oils and fish oils contain polyunsaturated fatty acids ranging from 18 carbons with two to three double bonds, to 22 or 24 carbons, and up to six double bonds. Nutritional research over the years has indicated that individual fatty acids from the diet play a complex role in nutrition ...

  16. Phosphorus in China's intensive vegetable production systems: over-fertilization,soil enrichment, and enviromental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    China’s vegetable production has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Total production amounted to 522.7 million Mg in 2009, which was more than nine times that in 1980 and represented >50% of the world production.Meanwhile, excessive use of animal manure and chemical fertilizers in vegetab...

  17. Assessment of water availability and its relationship with vegetation distribution over a tropical montane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streher, A. S.; Sobreiro, J. F. F.; Silva, T. S. F.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability is one of the main drivers of vegetation distribution, but assessing it over mountainous regions is difficult given the effects of rugged topography on hydroclimatic dynamics (orographic rainfall, soil water, and runoff). We assessed how water availability may influence the distribution of vegetation types in the Espinhaço Range, a South American tropical mountain landscape comprised of savannas, grasslands, rock outcrops, cloud forests, and semi-deciduous/deciduous forests. For precipitation, we used CHIRPS monthly and daily products (1981- 2016) and 112 rain gauge ground stations, and assessed potential evapotranspiration (PET) using the MODIS MOD16A3 (2000-2013) product. Vegetation types were classified according to the Global Ecoregions by WWF. We show that rainfall has well-defined rainy and dry seasons with a strong latitudinal pattern, there is evidence for local orographic effects. Dry forests (907 mm/yr; 8% cv) and caatinga vegetation (795 mm/yr; 7% cv) had the lowest average annual precipitation and low variance, whilst Atlantic tropical forest in the southeast (1267 mm/yr; 15% cv), cerrado savanna vegetation in the west (1086 mm/yr; 15% cv) and rupestrian grasslands above 800m (1261 mm/yr; 20% cv) received the highest annual precipitation, with the largest observed variance due to their wide latitudinal distribution. Forests and rupestrian grasslands in the windward side of the mountain had a higher frequency of intense rainfall events (> 20mm), accounting for 6% of the CHIRPS daily time series, suggesting orographic effects on precipitation. Annual average PET was highest for dry forests (2437 mm/yr) and caatinga (2461 mm/yr), intermediate for cerrado (2264 mm/yr) and lowest for Atlantic tropical forest (2083 mm/yr) and rupestrian grasslands (2136 mm/yr). All vegetation types received less rainfall than its PET capacity based on yearly data, emphasizing the need for ecophysiological adaptations to water use. Climate change threatens

  18. Deep brain stimulation for the early treatment of the minimally conscious state and vegetative state: experience in 14 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudy, Darko; Deletis, Vedran; Almahariq, Fadi; Marčinković, Petar; Škrlin, Jasenka; Paradžik, Veronika

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE An effective treatment of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) or vegetative state (VS) caused by hypoxic encephalopathy or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet available. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic reticular nuclei has been attempted as a therapeutic procedure mainly in patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic use of DBS for patients in VS or MCS. METHODS Fourteen of 49 patients in VS or MCS qualified for inclusion in this study and underwent DBS. Of these 14 patients, 4 were in MCS and 10 were in VS. The etiology of VS or MCS was TBI in 4 cases and hypoxic encephalopathy due to cardiac arrest in 10. The selection criteria for DBS, evaluating the status of the cerebral cortex and thalamocortical reticular formation, included: neurological evaluation, electrophysiological evaluation, and the results of positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI examinations. The target for DBS was the centromedian-parafascicular (CM-pf) complex. The duration of follow-up ranged from 38 to 60 months. RESULTS Two MCS patients regained consciousness and regained their ability to walk, speak fluently, and live independently. One MCS patient reached the level of consciousness, but was still in a wheelchair at the time the article was written. One VS patient (who had suffered a cerebral ischemic lesion) improved to the level of consciousness and currently responds to simple commands. Three VS patients died of respiratory infection, sepsis, or cerebrovascular insult (1 of each). The other 7 patients remained without substantial improvement of consciousness. CONCLUSIONS Spontaneous recovery from MCS/VS to the level of consciousness with no or minimal need for assistance in everyday life is very rare. Therefore, if a patient in VS or MCS fulfills the selection criteria (presence of somatosensory evoked potentials from upper extremities, motor and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with cerebral glucose

  19. Post-planting treatments and shading effects in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Klossas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Silvopastoral systems present difficulties in their management dueto their complexity. When trees are planted into grasslands, they need protection from livestock to prevent damage from trampling or browsing, especially during early years of establishment. One of the common post-planting protective treatments is the protection of individual trees with shelters. Trees also need protection from competition from herbaceous vegetation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of using different types of tree shelters and of controlling competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of planted young trees and, to assess the effects of heavy shadingon the herbage production and composition. The study was conducted in a Fraxinus angustifolia silvopastoral system of a 2 x 2.5 m spacing plantation in northern Greece. The effects of solid-walled (tubex and handmade by greenhouse nylon and wire mesh tree shelters as well as of herbicide application and mechanical removal of the competing herbaceous vegetation on tree height, height increment and the crown surface area of the trees were tested. The effects of artificial shading (80% on the production of the natural herbaceous vegetation were also investigated. All measurements were recorded three years after plantation. The use of solid wall tubex shelters resultedin higher tree height and higher crown surface area in comparison tothe other tested shelters. The solid wall Nylon shelters were more beneficial to the above growth parameters than the wire mesh ones. Both vegetation control treatments proved beneficial to all the growth parameters of Fraxinus angustifolia. The artificially applied heavy shading reduced herbage production by 54% compared to the control. The results indicated that post planting treatments in the Mediterranean droughty conditions are essential for the success of this tree species establishment. Furthermore, the later thinning of the dense spacing is important to maintain

  20. Post-planting treatments and shading effects in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Klossas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Silvopastoral systems present difficulties in their management due to their complexity. When trees are planted into grasslands, they need protection from livestock to prevent damage from trampling or browsing, especially during early years of establishment. One of the common post-planting protective treatments is the protection of individual trees with shelters. Trees also need protection from competition from herbaceous vegetation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of using different types of tree shelters and of controlling competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of planted young trees and, to assess the effects of heavy shading on the herbage production and composition. The study was conducted in a Fraxinus angustifolia silvopastoral system of a 2 x 2.5 m spacing plantation in northern Greece. The effects of solid-walled (tubex and handmade by greenhouse nylon and wire mesh tree shelters as well as of herbicide application and mechanical removal of the competing herbaceous vegetation on tree height, height increment and the crown surface area of the trees were tested. The effects of artificial shading (80% on the production of the natural herbaceous vegetation were also investigated. All measurements were recorded three years after plantation. The use of solid wall tubex shelters resulted in higher tree height and higher crown surface area in comparison to the other tested shelters. The solid wall Nylon shelters were more beneficial to the above growth parameters than the wire mesh ones. Both vegetation control treatments proved beneficial to all the growth parameters of Fraxinus angustifolia. The artificially applied heavy shading reduced herbage production by 54% compared to the control. The results indicated that post planting treatments in the Mediterranean droughty conditions are essential for the success of this tree species establishment. Furthermore, the later thinning of the dense spacing is important to

  1. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2.6% of the population in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In order to achieve disease control, combinations of systemic treatments are sometimes needed for variable time periods. However, no evidence-based guidelines...... exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  2. Assessing the reduction of the hydrological connectivity of gully systems through vegetation restoration: field experiments and numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Molina

    2009-10-01

    well, as the error on the simulated total outflow volumes is below 13% for 15 out of 16 cases. However, predicting infiltration amounts is difficult: the high sensitivity of model results to some crucial hydraulic parameters (runoff width, hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity is one of the reasons why the relationships between model parameter values and gully features are relatively weak.

    The results obtained from the field experiments show that gully systems are key elements in the hydrological connectivity of degraded landscapes. The transfer of overland flow and sediment from the slopes towards the river system highly depends on the presence/absence of vegetation in the gully beds and should therefore be accounted for in assessments of landscape degradation and/or recovery.

  3. Vegetation-climate feedback causes reduced precipitation in CMIP5 regional Earth system model simulation over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minchao; Smith, Benjamin; Schurgers, Guy; Lindström, Joe; Rummukainen, Markku; Samuelsson, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been demonstrated to play a significant role within the climate system, amplifying or dampening climate change via biogeophysical and biogeochemical exchange with the atmosphere and vice versa (Cox et al. 2000; Betts et al. 2004). Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change and studies of vegetation-climate feedback mechanisms on Africa are still limited. Our study is the first application of A coupled Earth system model at regional scale and resolution over Africa. We applied a coupled regional climate-vegetation model, RCA-GUESS (Smith et al. 2011), over the CORDEX Africa domain, forced by boundary conditions from a CanESM2 CMIP5 simulation under the RCP8.5 future climate scenario. The simulations were from 1961 to 2100 and covered the African continent at a horizontal grid spacing of 0.44°. RCA-GUESS simulates changes in the phenology, productivity, relative cover and population structure of up to eight plant function types (PFTs) in response to forcing from the climate part of the model. These vegetation changes feedback to simulated climate through dynamic adjustments in surface energy fluxes and surface properties. Changes in the net ecosystem-atmosphere carbon flux and its components net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration and emissions from biomass burning were also simulated but do not feedback to climate in our model. Constant land cover was assumed. We compared simulations with and without vegetation feedback switched "on" to assess the influence of vegetation-climate feedback on simulated climate, vegetation and ecosystem carbon cycling. Both positive and negative warming feedbacks were identified in different parts of Africa. In the Sahel savannah zone near 15°N, reduced vegetation cover and productivity, and mortality caused by a deterioration of soil water conditions led to a positive warming feedback mediated by decreased evapotranspiration and increased sensible heat flux between vegetation and

  4. Composting of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant mixed with a recirculated vegetal fraction in two ratios; Compostaje de fangos de E.D.A.R. en pilas con dos proporciones diferentes de estructurante vegetal recirculado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plana, R.; Dominguez, J. [Universidad de Vigo (Spain); Aguilera, F.

    2002-07-01

    Due to the next European Directives that are being prepared about the waste management, specially about the organic fraction (U. S. W. sewage sludges, pig slurries, etc.) it will be necessary a previous biological treatment of the waste before spreading it on the soil. the current work studies the windrow composting of sewage sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant mixed with a recirculated vegetal fraction in two different volumetric ratios (2:1 and 1:1). Temperature and oxygen consumption are measured to control the composting process, as well as the turning frequency and the quantity of products that is degradated. Although the process reaches thermofilic temperatures in both windrow, it is showed that in the 2:1 ratio more sludge is proportionally degradated. An economic study of the composting of this sewage sludge in different composting methods (dynamic and semi static) was made. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. System dynamics in complex psychiatric treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, R

    1988-05-01

    One of the major challenges facing contemporary psychiatry is the coordination of diverse services through organizational integration. With increasing frequency, psychiatric treatment takes place in complex treatment systems composed of multiple inpatient and outpatient programs. Particularly in public health care systems serving the chronically ill, contemporary practice demands a broad spectrum of programs, often geographically dispersed, that include crisis intervention teams, day treatment programs, substance abuse units, social rehabilitation programs and halfway houses (Bachrach 1983; Turner and TenHoor 1978). Individualized treatment planning often requires that a particular patient participate in two or more specialized programs either simultaneously or in a specified sequence. As a consequence of this specialization, treatment fragmentation has emerged as a significant clinical problem, and continuity of care has been highlighted as a valuable but elusive ingredient of optimal treatment. This paper will describe the dynamic interactions that result when several such programs are united under a common organizational roof. Using a large VA Psychiatry Service as an example, I will outline the hierarchical structure characteristic of such an organization, as well as the persistent pulls toward both integration and fragmentation that influence its operation.

  6. Treatment planning systems for high precision radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Computerized Treatment Planning System (TPS) play an important role in radiotherapy with the intent to maximize tumor control and minimize normal tissue complications. Treatment planning during earlier days was generally carried out through the manual summations of standard isodose charts on to patient body contours that were generated by direct tracing or lead wire representation, and relied heavily on the careful choices of beam weights and wedging. Since then there had been tremendous advances in field of Radiation Oncology in last few decades. The linear accelerators had evolved from MLC's to IGRT, the techniques like 3DCRT, IMRT has become almost routine affair. The simulation has seen transition from simple 2D film/fluoroscopy localization to CT Simulator with added development in PET, PET- CT and MR imaging. The Networking and advances in computer technology has made it possible to direct transfer of Images, contours to the treatment planning systems

  7. Systemic Treatments for Noninfectious Vitreous Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitreous inflammation, or vitritis, may result from many causes, including both infectious and noninfectious, including rheumatologic and autoimmune processes. Vitritis is commonly vision threatening and has serious sequelae. Treatment is frequently challenging, but, today, there are multiple methods of systemic treatment for vitritis. These categories include corticosteroids, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, T-cell inhibitors/calcineurin inhibitors, and biologic agents. These treatment categories were reviewed last year, but, even over the course of just a year, many therapies have made progress, as we have learned more about their indications and efficacy. We discuss here discoveries made over the past year on both existing and new drugs, as well as reviewing mechanisms of action, clinical dosages, specific conditions that are treated, adverse effects, and usual course of treatment for each class of therapy.

  8. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  9. WITHDRAWN: Systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Tom; Fish, Reg; Coles, Bernadette; Mason, Malcolm

    2018-02-07

    Systemic therapies for metastatic cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive of all skin cancers, remain disappointing. Few lasting remissions are achieved and the therapeutic aim remains one of palliation.Many agents are used alone or in combination with varying degrees of toxicity and cost. It is unclear whether evidence exists to support these complex regimens over best supportive care / placebo. To review the benefits from the use of systemic therapies in metastatic cutaneous melanoma compared to best supportive care/placebo, and to establish whether a 'standard' therapy exists which is superior to other treatments. Randomised controlled trials were identified from the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CCTR/CENTRAL databases. References, conference proceedings, and Science Citation Index/Scisearch were also used to locate trials. Cancer registries and trialists were also contacted. Randomised controlled trials of adults with histologically proven metastatic cutaneous melanoma in which systemic anti-cancer therapy was compared with placebo or supportive care. Study selection was performed by two independent reviewers. Data extraction forms were used for studies which appeared to meet the selection criteria and, where appropriate, full text articles were retrieved and reviewed independently. No randomised controlled trials were found comparing a systemic therapy with placebo or best supportive care in metastatic cutaneous melanoma. There is no evidence from randomised controlled clinical trials to show superiority of systemic therapy over best supportive care / placebo in the treatment of malignant cutaneous melanoma.Given that patients with metastatic melanoma frequently receive systemic therapy, it is our pragmatic view that a future systematic review could compare any systemic treatment, or combination of treatments, to single agent dacarbazine.

  10. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  11. Catastrophic shifts in vegetation-soil systems may unfold rapidly or slowly independent of the rate of change in the system driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Complex systems may switch between contrasting stable states under gradual change of a driver. Such critical transitions often result in considerable long-term damage because strong hysteresis impedes reversion, and the transition becomes catastrophic. Critical transitions largely reduce our capability of forecasting future system states because it is hard to predict the timing of their occurrence [2]. Moreover, for many systems it is unknown how rapidly the critical transition unfolds when the tipping point has been reached. The rate of change during collapse, however, is important information because it determines the time available to take action to reverse a shift [1]. In this study we explore the rate of change during the degradation of a vegetation-soil system on a hillslope from a state with considerable vegetation cover and large soil depths, to a state with sparse vegetation and a bare rock or negligible soil depths. Using a distributed, stochastic model coupling hydrology, vegetation, weathering and water erosion, we derive two differential equations describing the vegetation and the soil system, and their interaction. Two stable states - vegetated and bare - are identified by means of analytical investigation, and it is shown that the change between these two states is a critical transition as indicated by hysteresis. Surprisingly, when the tipping point is reached under a very slow increase of grazing pressure, the transition between the vegetated and the bare state can either unfold rapidly, over a few years, or gradually, occurring over decennia up to millennia. These differences in the rate of change during the transient state are explained by differences in bedrock weathering rates. This finding emphasizes the considerable uncertainty associated with forecasting catastrophic shifts in ecosystems, which is due to both difficulties in forecasting the timing of the tipping point and the rate of change when the transition unfolds. References [1] Hughes

  12. Genetic algorithm applied to a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere system: Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sébastien; Jacques, Diederik; Mallants, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Numerical models are of precious help for predicting water fluxes in the vadose zone and more specifically in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere (SVA) systems. For such simulations, robust models and representative soil hydraulic parameters are required. Calibration of unsaturated hydraulic properties is known to be a difficult optimization problem due to the high non-linearity of the water flow equations. Therefore, robust methods are needed to avoid the optimization process to lead to non-optimal parameters. Evolutionary algorithms and specifically genetic algorithms (GAs) are very well suited for those complex parameter optimization problems. Additionally, GAs offer the opportunity to assess the confidence in the hydraulic parameter estimations, because of the large number of model realizations. The SVA system in this study concerns a pine stand on a heterogeneous sandy soil (podzol) in the Campine region in the north of Belgium. Throughfall and other meteorological data and water contents at different soil depths have been recorded during one year at a daily time step in two lysimeters. The water table level, which is varying between 95 and 170 cm, has been recorded with intervals of 0.5 hour. The leaf area index was measured as well at some selected time moments during the year in order to evaluate the energy which reaches the soil and to deduce the potential evaporation. Water contents at several depths have been recorded. Based on the profile description, five soil layers have been distinguished in the podzol. Two models have been used for simulating water fluxes: (i) a mechanistic model, the HYDRUS-1D model, which solves the Richards' equation, and (ii) a compartmental model, which treats the soil profile as a bucket into which water flows until its maximum capacity is reached. A global sensitivity analysis (Morris' one-at-a-time sensitivity analysis) was run previously to the calibration, in order to check the sensitivity in the chosen parameter search space. For

  13. Supernatant treatment system design through testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, D.K.; Leonard, I.M.

    1988-12-01

    The main purpose of the Supernatant Treatment System (STS) is to remove more than 99.9 percent of the radioactive cesium (Cs-137) from the high-level waste stored in tank 8D-2. Cesium removal is accomplished in the STS by processing the supernatant (liquid) portion of the high-level waste through three or four ion exchange columns filled with zeolite. After treatment in the STS, the decontaminated supernatant is processed as low-level waste and finally encapsulated in cement for eventual disposal. The Cs-137 removed from the waste and absorbed onto zeolite ion exchange material is temporarily stored in tank 8D-1 until it can be encapsulated in glass and disposed of as high-level waste. This report discusses construction and testing of the STS. Design of the STS was started in 1982 in parallel with the selection of the ion exchange material. The construction of this system was accomplished in five phase in parallel with completion of design to allow for faster completion of the project. The existing high-level waste storage tanks -- 8D-1, 8D-2, and 8D-3 -- required major renovations to permit transfer of the high-level waste from tank 8D-2 to tank 8D-1, to house the components that comprise the STS in tank 8D-1, and to store decontaminated wastes in tank 8D-3. Testing in the STS started before construction was complete and was accomplished by first testing components individually. Then the system was retested using simulated supernatant. Integrated testing of the whole Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), which includes the STS, Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS), Cement Solidification System (CSS), and the Drum Cell, was also performed using simulated supernatant. Finally, slightly radioactive condensate water from tank 8D-1 was processed. After successfully completing this testing, the STS started operations with radioactive supernatant on May 23, 1988. 21 refs., 33 figs., 21 tabs

  14. Harvest time residues of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen in vegetables and soil in sugarcane-based intercropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Bhullar, Makhan S

    2015-05-01

    Terminal residues of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen applied in autumn sugarcane- and vegetables-based intercropping systems were analyzed in peas (Pisum sativum), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), garlic (Allium sativum), gobhi sarson (Brassica napus), and raya (Brassica juncea). The study was conducted in winter season in 2010-2011 and in 2011-2012 at Ludhiana, India. Pendimethalin at 0.56 kg and 0.75 kg ha(-1) was applied immediately after sowing of gobhi sarson, raya, peas, garlic, and 2 days before transplanting of cabbage seedlings. Oxyfluorfen at 0.17 kg and 0.23 kg ha(-1) was applied immediately after sowing of peas and garlic and 2 days before transplanting of cabbage seedlings intercropped in autumn sugarcane. Representative samples of these vegetables were collected at 75, 90, 100, and 165 days after application of herbicides and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with diode array detector for residues. The residue level of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen in mature vegetables was found to be below the limit of quantification which is 0.05 mg kg(-1) for both the herbicides. The soil samples were collected at 0, 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after the application of their herbicides. The residues of herbicides in soil samples were found to be below the detectability limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) after 60 days in case of pendimethalin and after 45 days in case of oxyfluorfen.

  15. 1998 Annual Status Report: Submersed and Floating-Leaf Vegetation in Pools 4, 8, 13, and 26 and La Grange Pool of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Yao

    2001-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation was investigated in five navigation pools in the Upper Mississippi River System using a new protocol named 'stratified random sampling' or SRS protocol for the first time in 1998...

  16. Treatment Algorithms in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangchan, Chayawee; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Bernatsky, Sasha R; Smith, C Douglas; Hudson, Marie; Inanç, Murat; Rothfield, Naomi F; Nash, Peter T; Furie, Richard A; Senécal, Jean-Luc; Chandran, Vinod; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Pope, Janet E

    2015-09-01

    To establish agreement on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment. SLE experts (n = 69) were e-mailed scenarios and indicated preferred treatments. Algorithms were constructed and agreement determined (≥50% respondents indicating ≥70% agreement). Initially, 54% (n = 37) responded suggesting treatment for scenarios; 13 experts rated agreement with scenarios. Fourteen of 16 scenarios had agreement as follows: discoid lupus: first-line therapy was topical agents and hydroxychloroquine and/or glucocorticoids then azathioprine and subsequently mycophenolate (mofetil); uncomplicated cutaneous vasculitis: initial treatment was glucocorticoids ± hydroxychloroquine ± methotrexate, followed by azathioprine or mycophenolate and then cyclophosphamide; arthritis: initial therapy was hydroxychloroquine and/or glucocorticoids, then methotrexate and subsequently rituximab; pericarditis: first-line therapy was nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, then glucocorticoids with/without hydroxychloroquine, then azathioprine, mycophenolate, or methotrexate and finally belimumab or rituximab, and/or a pericardial window; interstitial lung disease/alveolitis: induction was glucocorticoids and mycophenolate or cyclophosphamide, then rituximab or intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG), and maintenance followed with azathioprine or mycophenolate; pulmonary hypertension: glucocorticoids and mycophenolate or cyclophosphamide and an endothelin receptor antagonist were initial therapies, subsequent treatments were phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and then prostanoids and rituximab; antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: standard anticoagulation with/without hydroxychloroquine, then a thrombin inhibitor for venous thrombosis, versus adding aspirin or platelet inhibition drugs for arterial events; mononeuritis multiplex and central nervous system vasculitis: first-line therapy was glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide followed by maintenance with azathioprine or mycophenolate, and

  17. Design and dynamic simulation of a novel polygeneration system fed by vegetable oil and by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Palombo, Adolfo; Vanoli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel polygeneration system based on engines (RE) fed by rapeseed oil is investigated. ► RE are integrated with high temperature solar heating and cooling systems. ► The polygeneration system is dynamically investigated for a Mediterranean Climate. ► System performance is excellent from the energetic point of view. ► The system is economically profitable only in case of feed-in tariffs. - Abstract: In this paper the integration of vegetable oil-fed reciprocating engines with solar thermal collector is investigated, seeking to design a novel polygeneration system producing: electricity, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water, for a university building located in Naples (Italy), assumed as case study. The polygeneration system is based on the following main components: concentrating parabolic trough solar collector, double-stage LiBr–H 2 O absorption chiller and a reciprocating engine fed by vegetable oil. The engine operates at full load producing electrical energy which is in part consumed by the building lights and equipments, in part used by the system passive loads and the rest is eventually sold to the grid. In fact, the engine is grid connected in order to perform a convenient net metering. The system was designed and then simulated by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed using the TRNSYS software. The simulation tool developed by the authors allows one to analyze the results for different time basis (minutes, days, weeks, months and years), from both energetic and economic points of view. The economic results show that the system under investigation is profitable, especially if properly funded.

  18. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  19. AngioVac System Used for Vegetation Debulking in a Patient with Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abubakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AngioVac is a vacuum-based device approved in 2014 for percutaneous removal of undesirable materials from the intravascular system. Although numerous reports exist with regard to the use of the AngioVac device in aspiration of iliocaval, pulmonary, upper extremity, and right-sided heart chamber thrombi, very few data are present demonstrating its use in treatment of right-sided endocarditis. In this case report, we describe the novel device used in debulking a large right-sided tricuspid valve vegetation reducing the occurrence of septic embolisation and enhancing the efficacy of antibiotics in clearance of bloodstream infection. Further research is needed in larger RSIE patient populations to confirm the benefits and the potential of improved outcomes associated with the AngioVac device as well as identify its potential complications.

  20. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenović, Ivica; Lažetić, Goran; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of

  1. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  2. Improvements in patient treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Atkinson, C.A.; Babcock, R.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) software system is used to develop treatment planning information. In typical use BNCT-Rtpe consists of three main components: (1) Semi-automated geometric modeling of objects (brain, target, eyes, sinus) derived from MRI, CT, and other medical imaging modalities, (2) Dose computations for these geometric models with rtt-MC, the INEL Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code, and (3) Dose contouring overlaid on medical images as well as generation of other dose displays. We continue to develop a planning system based on three-dimensional image-based reconstructions using Bspline surfaces. Even though this software is in an experimental state, it has been applied for large animal research and for an isolated case of treatment for a human glioma. Radiation transport is based on Monte Carlo, however there will be implementations of faster methods (e.g. diffusion theory) in the future. The important thing for treatment planning is the output which must convey, to the radiologist, the deposition of dose to healthy and target tissue. Many edits are available such that one can obtain contours registered to medical image, dose/volume histograms and most information required for treatment planning and response assessment. Recent work has been to make the process more automatic and easier to use. The interface, now implemented for contouring and reconstruction, utilizes the Xwindowing system and the MOTIF graphical users interface for effective interaction with the planner. Much work still remains before the tool can be applied in a routine clinical setting

  3. Quorum-Sensing Regulation of Constitutive Plantaricin by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains under a Model System for Vegetables and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo G.; Filannino, Pasquale; Calasso, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the regulatory system of bacteriocin synthesis by Lactobacillus plantarum strains in vegetables and fruits in a model system. Sterile and neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) from L. plantarum strains grown in MRS broth showed in vitro antimicrobial activities toward various indicator strains. The highest activity was that of L. plantarum C2. The antimicrobial activity was further assayed on vegetable and fruit agar plates (solid conditions) and in juices (liquid conditions). A regulatory mechanism of bacteriocin synthesis via quorum sensing was hypothesized. The synthesis of antimicrobial compounds seemed to be constitutive under solid conditions of growth on vegetable and fruit agar plates. In contrast, it depended on the size of the inoculum when L. plantarum C2 was grown in carrot juice. Only the inoculum of ca. 9.0 log CFU ml−1 produced detectable activity. The genes plnA, plnEF, plnG, and plnH were found in all L. plantarum strains. The genes plnJK and plnN were detected in only three or four strains. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography purification and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of a mixture of eight peptides in the most active fraction of the CFS from L. plantarum C2. Active peptides were encrypted into bacteriocin precursors, such as plantaricins PlnJ/K and PlnH and PlnG, which are involved in the ABC transport system. A real-time PCR assay showed an increase in the expression of plnJK and plnG during growth of L. plantarum C2 in carrot juice. PMID:24242246

  4. Straight vegetable oil use in Micro-Gas Turbines: System adaptation and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prussi, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Riccio, G.; Martelli, F.; Pari, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The possibility to feed a Micro Gas Turbine with Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) has been investigated. → Correlative analysis and CFD were used to model the effect of SVO characteristics on atomization and evaporation. → Minor modifications to a the commercial MGT were adopted. → Measured power output and specific fuel consumption were close to standard fuel, taking into account the LHV of SVO. → Emissions were higher than for standard fossil fuel but strongly affected by SVO temperature. -- Abstract: The aim of this research work is to investigate the use of straight vegetable sunflower oil (SFO), a liquid biofuel, in a Micro-Gas Turbine (MGT). Compared to conventional diesel engines, micro-gas turbines represent a very reliable, clean and performing small scale cogeneration technology. Commercial gas turbines have already been tested with unconventional fuels, such as biomass derived fuels; however, research work on using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as fuel in MGTs are really scarce. The chemical and physical characteristics of SVO are different from fossil diesel oil and rather far from the common technical specifications for gas turbine liquid fuels, not only in terms of kinematic viscosity and Lower Heating Value, but also as regards other issues as contaminant levels and composition, fuel cold properties, ignition properties, etc. Therefore, particular attention has to be given to the atomization and evaporation phases, as these are the most critical steps to achieve stable and efficient long term operation. An analysis based on numerical correlations available from literature was initially adopted for the analysis of the atomization process, supported by CFD modeling to qualitatively investigate the flow pattern. Control parameters were revised and set so to produce a sunflower oil spray having evaporation time comparable to diesel, and minor adaptations to the fuel line were designed and installed on the MGT. Tests with blends and

  5. 71: Three dimensional radiation treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, J.A.; Wong, J.W.; Harms, W.B.; Drzymala, R.E.; Emami, B.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype 3-dimensional (3-D) radiation treatment planning (RTP) system has been developed and is in use. The system features a real-time display device and an array processor for computer intensive computations. The dose distribution can be displayed as 2-D isodose distributions superimposed on 2-D gray scale images of the patient's anatomy for any arbitrary plane and as a display of isodose surfaces in 3-D. In addition, dose-volume histograms can be generated. 7 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, Magda; Figueiredo, Luciene C; Soares, Geisla M Silva; Faveri, Marcelo

    2015-02-01

    Despite the fact that several clinical studies have shown additional benefits when certain systemic antibiotics are used as adjuncts to periodontal treatment, clear guidelines for the use of these agents in the clinical practice are not yet available. Basic questions concerning the use of systemic antibiotics to treat periodontitis remain unanswered, such as: which drug(s) should be used; which patients would most benefit from treatment; which are the most effective protocols (i.e. doses and durations); and in which phase of the mechanical therapy should the drug(s) be administered? Although not all of those questions have been directly addressed by controlled randomized clinical trials, recent concepts related to the ecology of periodontal diseases, as well as the major advances in laboratory and clinical research methods that have occurred in the past decade, have significantly broadened our knowledge in this field. This article endeavored to provide a 'state of the art' overview on the use of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontitis, based on the most recent literature on the topic as well as on a compilation of data from studies conducted at the Center of Clinical Trials at Guarulhos University (São Paulo, Brazil) from 2002 to 2012. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Quantifying the contribution of the root system of alpine vegetation in the soil aggregate stability of moraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Hudek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One fifth of the world's population is living in mountains or in their surrounding areas. This anthropogenic pressure continues to grow with the increasing number of settlements, especially in areas connected to touristic activities, such as the Italian Alps. The process of soil formation on high mountains is particularly slow and these soils are particularly vulnerable to soil degradation. In alpine regions, extreme meteorological events are increasingly frequent due to climate change, speeding up the process of soil degradation and increasing the number of severe erosion processes, shallow landslides and debris flows. Vegetation cover plays a crucial role in the stabilization of mountain soils thereby reducing the risk of natural hazards effecting downslope areas. Soil aggregate stability is one of the main soil properties that can be linked to soil loss processes. Soils developed on moraines in recently deglaciated areas typically have low levels of soil aggregation, and a limited or discontinuous vegetation cover making them more susceptible to degradation. However, soil structure can be influenced by the root system of the vegetation. Roots are actively involved in the formation of water-stable soil aggregation, increasing the stability of the soil and its nutrient content. In the present study, we aim to quantify the effect of the root system of alpine vegetation on the soil aggregate stability of the forefield of the Lys glacier, in the Aosta Valley (NW-Italy. This proglacial area provides the opportunity to study how the root system of ten pioneer alpine species from different successional stages can contribute to soil development and soil stabilization. To quantify the aggregate stability of root permeated soils, a modified wet sieving method was employed. The root length per soil volume of the different species was also determined and later correlated with the aggregate stability results. The results showed that soil aggregate

  8. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  9. Thermodynamic limits set relevant constraints to the soil-plant-atmosphere system and to optimality in terrestrial vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel; Renner, Maik

    2016-04-01

    The soil-plant-atmosphere system is a complex system that is strongly shaped by interactions between the physical environment and vegetation. This complexity appears to demand equally as complex models to fully capture the dynamics of the coupled system. What we describe here is an alternative approach that is based on thermodynamics and which allows for comparatively simple formulations free of empirical parameters by assuming that the system is so complex that its emergent dynamics are only constrained by the thermodynamics of the system. This approach specifically makes use of the second law of thermodynamics, a fundamental physical law that is typically not being considered in Earth system science. Its relevance to land surface processes is that it fundamentally sets a direction as well as limits to energy conversions and associated rates of mass exchange, but it requires us to formulate land surface processes as thermodynamic processes that are driven by energy conversions. We describe an application of this approach to the surface energy balance partitioning at the diurnal scale. In this application the turbulent heat fluxes of sensible and latent heat are described as the result of a convective heat engine that is driven by solar radiative heating of the surface and that operates at its thermodynamic limit. The predicted fluxes from this approach compare very well to observations at several sites. This suggests that the turbulent exchange fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere operate at their thermodynamic limit, so that thermodynamics imposes a relevant constraint to the land surface-atmosphere system. Yet, thermodynamic limits do not entirely determine the soil-plant-atmosphere system because vegetation affects these limits, for instance by affecting the magnitude of surface heating by absorption of solar radiation in the canopy layer. These effects are likely to make the conditions at the land surface more favorable for photosynthetic activity

  10. Vegetation and Carbon Cycle Dynamics in the High-Resolution Transient Holocene Simulations Using the MPI Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, V.; Lorenz, S.; Raddatz, T.; Claussen, M.; Dallmeyer, A.

    2017-12-01

    One of the interesting periods to investigate a climatic role of terrestrial biosphere is the Holocene, when, despite of the relatively steady global climate, the atmospheric CO2 grew by about 20 ppm from 7 kyr BP to pre-industrial. We use a new setup of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM1 consisting of the latest version of the atmospheric model ECHAM6, including the land surface model JSBACH3 with carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, coupled to the ocean circulation model MPI-OM, which includes the HAMOCC model of ocean biogeochemistry. The model has been run for several simulations over the Holocene period of the last 8000 years under the forcing data sets of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosols, solar irradiance and stratospheric ozone, as well as land-use changes. In response to this forcing, the land carbon storage increased by about 60 PgC between 8 and 4 kyr BP, stayed relatively constant until 2 kyr BP, and decreased by about 90 PgC by 1850 AD due to land use changes. At 8 kyr BP, vegetation cover was much denser in Africa, mainly due to increased rainfall in response to the orbital forcing. Boreal forests moved northward in both, North America and Eurasia. The boreal forest expansion in North America is much less pronounced than in Eurasia. Simulated physical ocean fields, including surface temperatures and meridional overturning, do not change substantially in the Holocene. Carbonate ion concentration in deep ocean decreases in both, prescribed and interactive CO2simulations. Comparison with available proxies for terrestrial vegetation and for the ocean carbonate chemistry will be presented. Vegetation and soil carbon changes significantly affected atmospheric CO2 during the periods of strong volcanic eruptions. In response to the eruption-caused cooling, the land initially stores more carbon as respiration decreases, but then it releases even more carbon die to productivity decrease. This decadal

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-106)SnoKing Tap to Monroe-Samamish Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Mark A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-09-30

    Vegetation Management along the SnoKing Tap to the Monroe-Samamish transmission line from structure 8/1 through structure 20/6. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridor. The right-of-way will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Approximately 12 miles of access roads will be cleared using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Approximately 65 tower sites will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Vegetation management is required for unimpeded operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. See Section 1of the attached checklist for a complete description of the proposal.

  12. LANDFIRE - A national vegetation/fuels data base for use in fuels treatment, restoration, and suppression planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Ryan; Tonja S. Opperman

    2013-01-01

    LANDFIRE is the working name given to the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project (http://www.landfire.gov). The project was initiated in response to mega-fires and the need for managers to have consistent, wall-to-wall (i.e., all wildlands regardless of agency/ownership), geospatial data, on vegetation, fuels, and terrain to support use of fire...

  13. [Maintenance and monitoring of water treatment system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoriero, G; Pozzoni, P; Tentori, F; Scaravilli, P; Locatelli, F

    2005-01-01

    Water treatment systems must be submitted to maintenance, disinfections and monitoring periodically. The aim of this review is to analyze how these processes must complement each other in order to preserve the efficiency of the system and optimize the dialysis fluid quality. The correct working of the preparatory process (pre-treatment) and the final phase of depuration (reverse osmosis) of the system need a periodic preventive maintenance and the regular substitution of worn or exhausted components (i.e. the salt of softeners' brine tank, cartridge filters, activated carbon of carbon tanks) by a competent and trained staff. The membranes of reverse osmosis and the water distribution system, including dialysis machine connections, should be submitted to dis-infections at least monthly. For this purpose it is possible to use chemical and physical agents according to manufacturer' recommendations. Each dialysis unit should predispose a monitoring program designed to check the effectiveness of technical working, maintenance and disinfections and the achievement of chemical and microbiological standards taken as a reference. Generally, the correct composition of purified water is monitored by continuous measuring of conductivity, controlling bacteriological cultures and endotoxin levels (monthly) and checking water contaminants (every 6-12 months). During pre-treatment, water hardness (after softeners) and total chlorine (after chlorine tank) should be checked periodically. Recently the Italian Society of Nephrology has developed clinical guidelines for water and dialysis solutions aimed at suggesting rational procedures for production and monitoring of dialysis fluids. It is hopeful that the application of these guidelines will lead to a positive cultural change and to an improvement in dialysis fluid quality.

  14. TFA Systems: A Unique Group Treatment of Spouse Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, Daniel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a group treatment model using Thought-Feeling-Action (TFA) Systems, an offense- and offender-specific group treatment for abusers. Describes use of TFA Systems in group of court-referred male spouse-abusers. Reviews evolution of TFA Systems, then focuses on TFA Systems treatment of spouse abusers. Notes that system can be adapted to other…

  15. Impacts of vegetation and temperature on the treatment of domestic sewage in constructed wetlands incorporated with Ferric-Carbon micro-electrolysis material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingwei; Zhu, Hui; Bañuelos, Gary; Yan, Baixing; Liang, Yinxiu; Yu, Jing; Li, Huai

    2017-10-03

    Ferric-Carbon Micro-Electrolysis (Fe/C-M/E) material had been widely used for the pretreatment of wastewater. Therefore, we hypothesized that Fe/C-M/E material could enhance the treatment of domestic sewage when it was integrated into constructed wetlands (CWs). In this study, CWs integrated with Fe/C-M/E material were developed. Druing the experiment of effect of vegetation on the performance of CWs, percentages of NH 4 + -N, NO 3 - -N, total nitrogen (TN), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removed in polyculture (W1) were up to 91.8%, 97.0%, 92.3%, and 85.4%, respectively, which were much higher than those in Lythrum salicaria monoculture (W2) and Canna indica monoculture (W3). In the experiment of temperature influences on the removal efficiency of CWs, temperature substantially influenced the performance of CWs. For example, NO 3 - -N removal percentages of W1, W2, and W3 at high temperature (25.5°C and 19.8°C) were relatively stable and greater than 85.4%. At 8.9°C, however, a sharp decline of NO 3 - -N removal percentage was observed in all CWs. Temperature also influenced the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal and soil microbial activity and biomass. Overall, the polyculture (Lythrum salicaria +Canna indica) showed the best performance during most of the operating time, at an average temperature ≥ 19.8°C, due to the functional complementarity between vegetation. All the CWs consistently achieved high removal efficiency (above 96%) for TP in all experiments, irrespective of vegetation types, phosphorous loadings, and temperatures. In conclusion, polyculture was an attractive solution for the treatment of domestic sewage during most of the operating time (average temperature ≥ 19.8°C). Furthermore, CWs with Fe/C-M/E material were ideally suitable for domestic sewage treatment, especially for TP removal.

  16. Investigating Strategies for Sustainable Vegetable Food Crop System in Three Agro Ecological Zones of the Humid Tropics Area of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    TATA NGOME, Precillia Ijang; AFARI-SEFA, Victor; NTSOMBOH-NTSEFONG, Godswill; OKOLLE, Justin; BILLA, Samuel Fru; MOMA, Crescence; ATEMKENG FONJI, Maureen; NGOME, Ajebesone Francis

    2018-01-01

    Vegetable cultivation remains an essential component of local people’s livelihoods. However, marked trend shifts in the varieties of vegetables due to large-scale commercial vegetable farming of exotic varieties in the broader market economy have resulted in the gradual disappearance of biodiversity involving vital species. The present study examined the situation of vegetable crop farming in three agro-ecological zones of Cameroon. Data were collected from a random sample of 235 respondents ...

  17. Effect of vegetation on the energy balance and evapotranspiration in tallgrass prairie: a paired study with eddy covariance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Zou, C.; Wilcox, B. P.; Stebler, E.

    2017-12-01

    Whole-year measurement with eddy covariance system was carried out over two adjoining plots with contrasting vegetation coverage in tallgrass prairie, one was treated with herbicide and mowing while the other one kept as undisturbed control. The magnitude and phase difference between soil heat storage and ground heat flux were explicitly examined for its relative weights and energy balance. Surface turbulent flux (sensible heat and latent heat) accounted for about 85% of available energy at both sites, implying that vegetation coverage didn't significantly influence the closure scenario of energy imbalance. The seasonal and daily pattern of energy partitioning were dramatically different between the contrasting sites during growing season. The treated site received slightly lower net radiation due to high albedo, had higher sensible heat, and reduced latent heat due to reduction on transpiration. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) in treated site was only accounts for about 73% of annual ET in control. Meanwhile, lower surface conductance and decoupling factor showed that vegetation removal would increase the sensibility of ET to vapor pressure deficit and soil drought. ET dynamics is controlled by leaf area and net radiation when soil moisture is high, while soil drought caused stomata closure and subdued ET during drought. Stomata closure and transpiration reduction caused decline in ET, surface conductance, and decoupling factor. Soil moisture storage served as an important reservoir to meet peak ET demand during growing season. In summary, ET was the dominant component of water balance in tallgrass prairie, and any land management alterring the albedo, soil mositure storage, or canopy phenology (e.g., NDVI) could significantly affect energy and water budgets in .

  18. Development of a laundry waste treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Ebara, K [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Takeshima, M [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works

    1977-12-01

    Fundamental and pilot plant experiments developed a laundry waste treatment system for nuclear power plants, consisting of a reverse osmosis unit for removal of radioactive materials and pre-concentration, and an evaporator for the final concentration. A sponge ball cleaning method was employed for the reverse osmosis unit and a heat-resistant antifoam reagent for the evaporator. The pilot plant test, using simulated wastes, showed a decontamination factor of above 10/sup 3/ and a volume reduction ratio of 10/sup -3/.

  19. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  20. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  1. Time-delay-induced dynamical behaviors for an ecological vegetation growth system driven by cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Kang; Ye, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2018-05-14

    In this paper, the modified potential function, the stationary probability distribution function (SPDF), the mean growth time and the mean degeneration time for a vegetation growth system with time delay are investigated, where the vegetation system is assumed to be disturbed by cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises. The results reveal some fact that the multiplicative and additive noises can both reduce the stability and speed up the decline of the vegetation system, while the strength of the noise correlation and time delay can both enhance the stability of the vegetation and slow down the depression process of the ecological system. On the other hand, with regard to the impacts of noises and time delay on the mean development and degeneration processes of the ecological system, it is discovered that 1) in the development process of the vegetation population, the increase of the noise correlation strength and time delay will restrain the regime shift from the barren state to the boom one, while the increase of the additive noise can lead to the fast regime shift from the barren state to the boom one. 2) Conversely, in the depression process of the ecological system, the increase of the strength of the correlation noise and time delay will prevent the regime shift from the boom state to the barren one. Comparatively, the increase of the additive and multiplicative noises can accelerate the regime shift from the boom state to the barren state.

  2. Irradiation chamber for photoactivation patient treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Troutner, V.H.; Goss, J.; King, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A flat plate irradiation chamber is described for use in a patient treatment system for altering cells, including treating the cells with a photoactivatable agent and passing the cells and the agent through a field of photoactivating radiation whereby the agent is caused to be activated and to affect the cells. The agent and the cells are contained in the irradiation chamber during irradiation. The flat plate irradiation chamber comprises: a rigid top sheet matably joined with a rigid bottom sheet, forming therebetween a rigid serpentine pathway for conducting the cells through the field of radiation; and pump block means for holding tubing means in fluid communication with the serpentine pathway and adapted for engaging a peristaltic pump whereby rotation of the pump causes the cells to flow through the serpentine pathway, and wherein the chamber is removable from the system and disposable

  3. EFICIÊNCIA DE ESPÉCIES VEGETAIS NA PURIFICAÇÃO DE ESGOTO SANITÁRIO VEGETAL SPECIES EFFICIENCY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Coutinho Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência de substratos e de espécies vegetais no tratamento de esgoto sanitário, num sistema do tipo zona de raízes com fluxo subsuperficial descendente, após decantação. O experimento foi conduzido no campus Samambaia, da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram taboa (Typha angustifolia L., lírio do brejo (Hedychium coronarium J. König, conta-de-lágrima (Coix lacryma-jobi L. e capim Angola (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T.Q. Nguyen. O sistema mostrou-se eficiente na remoção de poluentes do esgoto, atendendo aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira vigente, exceto para o nitrogênio amoniacal. A taboa e o lírio-do-brejo mostraram-se mais eficientes na redução da DBO, na oxigenação do substrato, na remoção do nitrogênio amoniacal e na remoção de coliformes. A taboa foi mais eficiente na remoção de fosfatos. A eficiência na remoção de coliformes atingiu níveis próximos à totalidade. Dentre os substratos avaliados, a casca de coco foi o menos eficiente na redução da DBO e da DQO e na remoção do nitrogênio amoniacal e dos coliformes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tratamento de esgotos; alagados.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of substrates and vegetal species to treat sanitary wastewater, in a subsurface downward flow root zone system, after previous decantation. The experiment was carried out at Samambaia Campus, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil. The vegetal species were narrow-leaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L., white ginger (Hedychium coronarium J. König, Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L., and para grass (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T.Q. Nguyen. The system revealed to be efficient on wastewater

  4. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged.

  5. Importance of early physical rehabilitation in improving functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Odynets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the expediency of early application of physical rehabilitation to improve the functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis of scientific and methodical literature, analysis of heart rate variability, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 135 women with postmastectomy syndrome who underwent radical mastectomy for Madden. Results: at the end of the research value of high-frequency component of the spectrum was significantly higher in women MG1 compared to MG on 257,72 ms² (p<0,01 and the stress index was lower on 107,01 c. u (p<0,001. Conclusions: the feasibility of early rehabilitation intervention to improve the functional state of the autonomic nervous system is not detected during the year classes on problem-oriented programs.

  6. Integrated radwaste treatment system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1997-10-01

    In May 1988, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) began pretreating liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This HLW was produced during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center from 1966 to 1972. Original reprocessing operations used plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) and thorium extraction (THOREX) processes to recover usable isotopes from spent nuclear fuel. The PUREX process produced a nitric acid-based waste stream, which was neutralized by adding sodium hydroxide to it. About two million liters of alkaline liquid HLW produced from PUREX neutralization were stored in an underground carbon steel tank identified as Tank 8D-2. The THOREX process, which was used to reprocess one core of mixed uranium-thorium fuel, resulted in about 31,000 liters of acidic waste. This acidic HLW was stored in an underground stainless steel tank identified as Tank 8D-4. Pretreatment of the HLW was carried out using the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), from May 1988 until May 1995. This system was designed to decontaminate the liquid HLW, remove salts from it, and encapsulate the resulting waste into a cement waste form that achieved US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criteria for low-level waste (LLW) storage and disposal. A thorough discussion of IRTS operations, including all systems, subsystems, and components, is presented in US Department of Energy (DOE) Topical Report (DOE/NE/44139-68), Integrated Radwaste Treatment System Lessons Learned from 2 1/2 Years of Operation. This document also presents a detailed discussion of lessons learned during the first 2 1/2 years of IRTS operation. This report provides a general discussion of all phases of IRTS operation, and presents additional lessons learned during seven years of IRTS operation

  7. Biofeedback systems and adaptive control hemodialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line monitoring devices to control functions such as volume, body temperature, and ultrafiltration, were considered more toys than real tools for routine clinical application. However, bio-feedback blood volume controlled hemodialysis (HD is now possible in routine dialysis, allowing the delivery of a more physiologically acceptable treatment. This system has proved to reduce the incidence of intra-HD hypotension episodes significantly. Ionic dialysance and the patient′s plasma conductivity can be calculated easily from on-line measurements at two different steps of dialysate conductivity. A bio-feedback system has been devised to calculate the patient′s plasma conductivity and modulate the conductivity of the dialysate continuously in order to achieve a desired end-dialysis patient plasma conductivity corresponding to a desired end-dialysis plasma sodium concentration. Another bio-feedback system can control the body tempe-rature by measuring it at the arterial and venous lines of the extra-corporeal circuit, and then modulating the dialysate temperature in order to stabilize the patients′ temperature at constant values that result in improved intra-HD cardiovascular stability. The module can also be used to quantify vascular access recirculation. Finally, the simultaneous computer control of ultrafiltration has proven the most effective means for automatic blood pressure stabilization during hemo-dialysis treatment. The application of fuzzy logic in the blood-pressure-guided biofeedback con-trol of ultrafiltration during hemodialysis is able to minimize HD-induced hypotension. In con-clusion, online monitoring and adaptive control of the patient during the dialysis session using the bio-feedback systems is expected to render the process of renal replacement therapy more physiological and less eventful.

  8. Coupled RipCAS-DFLOW (CoRD) Software and Data Management System for Reproducible Floodplain Vegetation Succession Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. A.; Miller, S.; Gregory, A.; Cadol, D. D.; Stone, M. C.; Sheneman, L.

    2016-12-01

    We present the Coupled RipCAS-DFLOW (CoRD) modeling system created to encapsulate the workflow to analyze the effects of stream flooding on vegetation succession. CoRD provides an intuitive command-line and web interface to run DFLOW and RipCAS in succession over many years automatically, which is a challenge because, for our application, DFLOW must be run on a supercomputing cluster via the PBS job scheduler. RipCAS is a vegetation succession model, and DFLOW is a 2D open channel flow model. Data adaptors have been developed to seamlessly connect DFLOW output data to be RipCAS inputs, and vice-versa. CoRD provides automated statistical analysis and visualization, plus automatic syncing of input and output files and model run metadata to the hydrological data management system HydroShare using its excellent Python REST client. This combination of technologies and data management techniques allows the results to be shared with collaborators and eventually published. Perhaps most importantly, it allows results to be easily reproduced via either the command-line or web user interface. This system is a result of collaboration between software developers and hydrologists participating in the Western Consortium for Watershed Analysis, Visualization, and Exploration (WC-WAVE). Because of the computing-intensive nature of this particular workflow, including automating job submission/monitoring and data adaptors, software engineering expertise is required. However, the hydrologists provide the software developers with a purpose and ensure a useful, intuitive tool is developed. Our hydrologists contribute software, too: RipCAS was developed from scratch by hydrologists on the team as a specialized, open-source version of the Computer Aided Simulation Model for Instream Flow and Riparia (CASiMiR) vegetation model; our hydrologists running DFLOW provided numerous examples and help with the supercomputing system. This project is written in Python, a popular language in the

  9. Marketing System of Fresh Friut and Vegetable: The Role of Modern and Wholesale Market in Jakarta and the Vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togar A. Napitupulu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing system of fresh fruits and vegetable in the context of the rapidly growing dynamic markets in Jakarta and the vicinity was studied. Unstructured interviews and observations of key persons, and panels were conducted, primarily in three main wholesale markets in Jakarta and the vicinity and some supermarkets. It was found that the availability of management services and associated facilities are not yet fully compatible with modern markets. Their role, therefore, in catering to the supermarkets is limited, in particular for vegetables due to requirements on quality and delivery schedules. In general, supermarkets procure their supply directly from production centers through special/dedicated suppliers, which currently amounts to about 1% to 5% of total production from production centers. If policy and conducive economic incentive are available, wholesale markets are not only domain of public investment anymore, but also private investments alike. The newly established wholesale markets show that they now have a higher rate of utilization than in the years before. It is therefore for the local government and the central government to furthers devise conducive policy and regulatory measures, and for the private to take this opportunity in terms of investment in developing the economy of the region. 

  10. Leaf area index retrieval using Hyperion EO-1 data-based vegetation indices in Himalayan forest system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra; Singh, Sarnam

    2016-04-01

    Present Study is being taken to retrieve Leaf Area Indexn(LAI) in Himalayan forest system using vegetation indices developed from Hyperion EO-1 hyperspectral data. Hemispherical photograph were captured in the month of March and April, 2012 at 40 locations, covering moist tropical Sal forest, subtropical Bauhinia and pine forest and temperate Oak forest and analysed using an open source GLA software. LAI in the study region was ranging in between 0.076 m2/m2 to 6.00 m2/m2. These LAI values were used to develop spectral models with the FLAASH corrected Hyperion measurements.Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used taking spectral reflectance values of all the possible combinations of 170 atmospherically corrected channels. The R2 was ranging from lowest 0.0 to highest 0.837 for the band combinations of spectral region 640 nm and 670 nm. The spectral model obtained was, spectral reflectance (y) = 0.02x LAI(x) - 0.0407.

  11. Variability of pesticide exposure in a stream mesocosm system: Macrophyte-dominated vs. non-vegetated sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beketov, Mikhail A. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: mikhail.beketov@ufz.de; Liess, Matthias [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    For flowing water bodies no information is available about patterns of contaminant distribution in flowing water compared to macrophyte-dominated structures. The aim of the study was to examine temporal dynamic and spatial cross-channel variability of pulse exposure of the insecticide thiacloprid in outdoor stream mesocosms. Two distinct cross-channel sections have been considered: macrophyte-dominated littoral and non-vegetated midstream. Median disappearance time ranged from 17 to 43 h (water phase, midstream). We showed that during the exposure pulse (10 h) thiacloprid concentrations in the macrophyte-dominated section were 20-60% lower than those in the non-vegetated section. This suggests that spatial variability in contaminant concentrations, particularly in streams containing macrophytes, should be taken into account to enable a more realistic assessment of (i) exposure and associated effects and (ii) mass transport of pesticides and other chemicals into river systems (e.g. losses with surface runoff). - Spatial cross-channel variability of contaminant concentrations is noteworthy and important.

  12. Variability of pesticide exposure in a stream mesocosm system: Macrophyte-dominated vs. non-vegetated sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Liess, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    For flowing water bodies no information is available about patterns of contaminant distribution in flowing water compared to macrophyte-dominated structures. The aim of the study was to examine temporal dynamic and spatial cross-channel variability of pulse exposure of the insecticide thiacloprid in outdoor stream mesocosms. Two distinct cross-channel sections have been considered: macrophyte-dominated littoral and non-vegetated midstream. Median disappearance time ranged from 17 to 43 h (water phase, midstream). We showed that during the exposure pulse (10 h) thiacloprid concentrations in the macrophyte-dominated section were 20-60% lower than those in the non-vegetated section. This suggests that spatial variability in contaminant concentrations, particularly in streams containing macrophytes, should be taken into account to enable a more realistic assessment of (i) exposure and associated effects and (ii) mass transport of pesticides and other chemicals into river systems (e.g. losses with surface runoff). - Spatial cross-channel variability of contaminant concentrations is noteworthy and important

  13. Micelles As Delivery System for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Aysen

    2017-01-01

    Micelles are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in certain solvents above concentrations called critical micelle concentration (CMC). Micelles are used in different fields like food, cosmetics, medicine, etc. These nanosized delivery systems are under spotlight in the recent years with new achievements in terms of their in vivo stability, ability to protect entrapped drug, release kinetics, ease of cellular penetration and thereby increased therapeutic efficacy. Drug loaded micelles can be prepared by dialysis, oil-in-water method, solid dispersion, freezing, spray drying, etc. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research on micelles (in vitro, in vivo and clinical) as delivery system for cancer treatment. Passive targeting is one route for accumulation of nanosized micellar drug formulations. Many research groups from both academia and industry focus on developing new strategies for improving the therapeutic efficacy of micellar systems (active targeting to the tumor site, designing multidrug delivery systems for overcoming multidrug resistance or micelles formed by prodrug conjugates, etc). There is only one micellar drug formulation in South Korea that has reached clinical practice. However, there are many untargeted anticancer drug loaded micellar formulations in clinical trials, which have potential for use in clinics. Many more products are expected to be on the market in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Grapevine fruiting cuttings: validation of an experimental system to study grapevine physiology. I. Main vegetative characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Ollat

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for producing fruiting cuttings of grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon is described. The main developmental features of these cuttings are presented. The clusters reach maturity after 5 months and the period of cluster development is not shortened. Before flowering, a careful control of stem and leaf growth improves the partitioning of stored carbon towards the roots and the cluster. Vegetative growth occurs mainly between fruit set and veraison. During ripening, the leaf to fruit ratio is between 20 and 30 cm2 of leaf area per gram of fruit. In the cuttings as well as in grapevines from the vineyard, free polyamine content in the leafblade does not change during development. Conjugate polyamine content does not evolve in the same way. It peaks at veraison for vineyard leaves but decreases continuously for cuttings. A proper nutrient solution provides a minerai composition in accordance with viticultural requirements. The cuttings also behave like vineyard plants in response to different levels of potassium in the nutrient solution.

  15. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  16. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  17. Selection of candidate salad vegetables for controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L.; Guo, S.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.

    Higher plants, as one of the essential biological components of CELSS, can supply food, oxygen and water for human crews during future long-duration space missions and Lunar/Mars habitats. In order to select suitable leaf vegetable varieties for our CELSS Experimental Facility (CEF), five varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng”, “Naichoutai”, “Dongfangkaixuan” and “Siji”), two of spinach (“Daye” and “Quanneng”), one of rape (“Jingyou No. 1”) and one of common sowthistle were grown and compared on the basis of edible biomass, and nutrient content. In addition, two series of experiments were conducted to study single leaf photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates at 30 days after planting, one which used various concentrations of CO2 (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol mol-1) and another which used various light intensities (100, 300, 500 and 700 μmol m-2 s-1). Results showed that lettuce cvs. “Nenlvnaiyou”, “Siji” and “Dasusheng” produced higher yields of edible biomass; common sowthisle would be a good source of β-carotene for the diet. Based on the collective findings, we selected three varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng” and “Siji”) and one of common sowthistle as the candidate crops for further research in our CEF. In addition, elevated CO2 concentration increased the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, and elevated light intensity increased the rate of photosynthesis for these varieties. These results can be useful for determining optimal conditions for controlling CO2 and water fluxes between the crops and the overall CELSS.

  18. Vegetation pattern formation in semiarid systems induced by long-range competition in the absence of facilitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Calabrese, Justin M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Lopez, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    Regular patterns and spatial organization of vegetation have been observed in many arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide, covering a diverse range of plant taxa and soil types. A key common ingredient in these systems is that plant growth is severely limited by water availability, and thus plants likely compete strongly for water. The study of such patterns is especially interesting because their features may reveal much about the underlying physical and biological processes that generated them in addition to giving information on the characteristics of the ecosystem. It is possible, for instance, to infer their resilience against anthropogenic disturbances or climatic changes that could cause abrupt shifts in the system and lead it to a desert state. Therefore much research has focused on identifying the underlying mechanisms that can produce spatial patterning in water-limited systems (Klausmeier, 1999). They are believed to arise from the interplay between long-range competition and facilitation processes acting at smaller distances (Borgogno et al., 2009). This combination of mechanisms is justified by arguing that water percolates more readily through the soil in vegetated areas (short range), and that plants compete for water resources over greater distances via long lateral roots (long range). However, recent studies have shown that even in the limit of local facilitation patterns may still appear (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013). In this work (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013b), we show that, under rather general conditions, long-range competition alone is the minimal ingredient to shape gapped and stripped vegetation patterns typical of models that also account for facilitation in addition to competition. To this end we propose a simple, general model for the dynamics of vegetation, which includes only long-range competition between plants. Competition is introduced through a nonlocal term, where the kernel function quantifies the intensity of the interaction

  19. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  20. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  1. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  2. Development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems with olive vegetable oil for cutaneous application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Arandas Monteiro e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Liquid-Crystalline Systems represent active compounds delivery systems that may be able to overcome the physical barrier of the skin, especially represented by the stratum corneum. To obtain these systems, aqueous and oily components are used with surfactants. Of the different association structures in such systems, the liquid-crystalline offer numerous advantages to a topical product. This manuscript presents the development of liquid-crystalline systems consisting, in which the oil component is olive oil, its rheological characterizations, and the location of liquid crystals in its phase map. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated using J-774 mouse macrophages as the cellular model. A phase diagram to mix three components with different proportions was constructed. Two liquid crystalline areas were found with olive oil in different regions in the ternary diagram with two nonionic surfactants, called SLC1 (S1 and SLC2 (S2. These systems showed lamellar liquid crystals that remained stable during the entire analysis time. The systems were also characterized rheologically with pseudoplastic behavior without thixotropy. The texture and bioadhesion assays showed that formulations were similar statistically (p < 0.05, indicating that the increased amount of water in S2 did not interfere with the bioadhesive properties of the systems. In vitro cytotoxic assays showed that formulations did not present cytotoxicity. Olive oil-based systems may be a promising platform for skin delivery of drugs.

  3. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  4. VEGETATIVE PROVISION INDICATORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AND PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY OF WOMEN ATHLET-SPRINTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Didenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a significant increase in physical activity during the preparation of qualified athletes-sprinters. However, it is clear that a simple increase in volume and intensity of training loads in preparation can not be infinite. Russian sport trainers see tactics mistakes. Some authors consider that optimum technique construction of training is possible when taking into account normalizing the volume and load intensity based on the types of circulation (TC. The aim of work was to study the bioelectrical activity of the heart, heart rate variability (HRV, central hemodynamics and physical performance (PP in sportswomen-sprinters qualifications from II-III level to HMS. Materials and research methods. Carried out a comprehensive survey of 30 sportswomen-sprinters, qualifications from II-III level to HMS. For the analysis of vegetative cardiovascular regulation mathematical methods of HRV were used. Central hemodynamics were studied by automated tetrapolar rheography. Determination of PP was performed by using a submaximal cycle ergometer test PWC170. The index of the functional state (IFC was counted on a formula suggested and patented by us. Results of research. The correct sinus rhythm is found in all sportswomen with sufficient voltage and not rejected electrical axis of the heart. Comparison of the mean values of HRV showed the presence in all groups of runners prevalence of a parasympathetic link of VNS. At sportswomen-sprinters qualifications MS-HMS had prevailed hypokinetic TC and the lowering of qualifications the ratio of TC varied: as a runner of qualification I level prevailed eukinetic TC, while the runners of qualifications II-III level has have appeared sportswomen-sprinters with hyperkinetic TC. PP was bigger in sprinters qualifications MS-HMS and tended to decrease with decreasing of the qualifications. Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between SI and CI, negative – between the CI and

  5. Development of Web GIS-Based VFSMOD System with Three Modules for Effective Vegetative Filter Strip Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Soo Kong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Non-Point Source Pollution has been rising as a significant environmental issue. The sediment-laden water problem is causing serious impacts on river ecosystems not only in South Korea but also in most countries. The vegetative filter strip (VFS has been thought to be one of the most effective methods to reduce the transport of sediment to down-gradient area. However, the effective width of the VFS first needs to be determined before VFS installation in the field. To provide an easy-to-use interface with a scientific VFS modeling engine, the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system was developed in this study. The Web GIS-based VFSMOD uses the UH and VFSM executable programs from the VFSMOD-w model as core engines to simulate rainfall-runoff and sediment trapping. To provide soil information for a point of interest, the Google Map interface to the MapServer soil database system was developed using the Google Map API, Javascript, Perl/CGI, and Oracle DB programming. Three modules of the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system were developed for various VFS designs under single storm, multiple storm, and long-term period scenarios. These modules in the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system were applied to the study watershed in South Korea and these were proven as efficient tools for the VFS design for various purposes.

  6. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS DOE/EIS-0285/SA-110-Covington-Columbia No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermeston, Mark W. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-10-02

    Vegetation Management along the Covington-Columbia No. 3, 230kV transmission lines from structure 1/1 through structure 12/1. Corridor width varies from 150 feet to 537.5 feet. The project area is located within King County, Washington. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridor. Approximately 568.4 acres of the right-of-way will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Vegetation management is required for unimpeded operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. See Section 1 of the attached checklist for a complete description of the proposal.

  7. Fresh Vegetables in the food service Industry its purchasing system; Gaishoku sangyo ni okeru seisen seikabutsu no chotatsu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, K. [Food Service Industry Survey and Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-05

    The environment which surrounds production, distribution, consumption of vegetables changes. A demand for the business a household economy demand of vegetables stagnates by the increase of eating out and lunches demand in the food consumption as a long-term tendency, and the tendency as vigorousness continues. In addition, a demand for domestic organic and special cultivation vegetables from the increase of the healthy and safe orientation of the consumer heightens. In this paper, what kind of new movement occurs in environmental change which surrounds these vegetables is arranged. (NEDO)

  8. Vegetation-climate feedback causes reduced precipitation and tropical rainforest cover in CMIP5 regional Earth system model simulation over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Smith, B.; Samuelsson, P.; Rummukainen, M.; Schurgers, G.

    2012-12-01

    We applied a coupled regional climate-vegetation model, RCA-GUESS (Smith et al. 2011), over the CORDEX Africa domain, forced by boundary conditions from a CanESM2 CMIP5 simulation under the RCP8.5 future climate scenario. The simulations were from 1961 to 2100 and covered the African continent at a horizontal grid spacing of 0.44°. RCA-GUESS simulates changes in the phenology, productivity, relative cover and population structure of up to eight plant function types (PFTs) in response to forcing from the climate part of the model. These vegetation changes feed back to simulated climate through dynamic adjustments in surface energy fluxes and surface properties. Changes in the net ecosystem-atmosphere carbon flux and its components net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration and emissions from biomass burning were also simulated but do not feed back to climate in our model. Constant land cover was assumed. We compared simulations with and without vegetation feedback switched "on" to assess the influence of vegetation-climate feedback on simulated climate, vegetation and ecosystem carbon cycling. Both positive and negative warming feedbacks were identified in different parts of Africa. In the Sahel savannah zone near 15°N, reduced vegetation cover and productivity, and mortality caused by a deterioration of soil water conditions led to a positive warming feedback mediated by decreased evapotranspiration and increased sensible heat flux between vegetation and the atmosphere. In the equatorial rainforest stronghold region of central Africa, a feedback syndrome characterised by reduced plant production and LAI, a dominance shift from tropical trees to grasses, reduced soil water and reduced rainfall was identified. The likely underlying mechanism was a decline in evaporative water recycling associated with sparser vegetation cover, reminiscent of Earth system model studies in which a similar feedback mechanism was simulated to force dieback of tropical

  9. Vegetation and land carbon feedbacks in the high-resolution transient Holocene simulations using the MPI Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, Victor; Lorenz, Stephan; Raddatz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Plants influence climate through changes in the land surface biophysics (albedo, transpiration) and concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases. One of the interesting periods to investigate a climatic role of terrestrial biosphere is the Holocene, when, despite of the relatively steady global climate, the atmospheric CO2 grew by about 20 ppm from 7 kyr BP to pre-industrial. We use a new setup of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM1 consisting of the latest version of the atmospheric model ECHAM6, including the land surface model JSBACH3 with carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, coupled to the ocean circulation model MPI-OM, which includes the HAMOCC model of ocean biogeochemistry. The model has been run for several simulations over the Holocene period of the last 8000 years under the forcing data sets of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosols, solar irradiance and stratospheric ozone, as well as land-use changes. In response to this forcing, the land carbon storage increased by about 60 PgC between 8 and 4 kyr BP, stayed relatively constant until 2 kyr BP, and decreased by about 90 PgC by 1850 AD due to land use changes. Vegetation and soil carbon changes significantly affected atmospheric CO2 during the periods of strong volcanic eruptions. In response to the eruption-caused cooling, the land initially stores more carbon as respiration decreases, but then it releases even more carbon due to productivity decrease. This decadal- scale variability helps to quantify the vegetation and land carbon feedbacks during the past periods when the temporal resolution of the ice-core CO2 record is not sufficient to capture fast CO2 variations. From a set of Holocene simulations with prescribed or interactive atmospheric CO2, we get estimates of climate-carbon feedback useful for future climate studies. Members of the Hamburg Holocene Team: Jürgen Bader1, Sebastian Bathiany2, Victor Brovkin1, Martin Claussen1,3, Traute Cr

  10. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.; Meeuwsen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance. The KW IWTS was designed to treat basin water and maintain basin clarity during fuel retrieval, washing, and packaging activities in the KW Basin. The original design was based on a mission that was limited to handling of KW Basin fuel. The use of the IWTS was extended by the decision to transfer KE fuel to KW to be cleaned and packaged using KW systems. The use was further extended for the packaging of two more Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing legacy fuel and scrap. Planning is now in place to clean and package Knock Out Pot (KOP) Material in MCOs using these same systems. Some washing of KOP material in the Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) is currently being done to remove material that is too small or too large to be included in the KOP Material stream. These plans will require that the IWTS remain operational through a campaign of as many as 30 additional MCOs, and has an estimated completion date in 2012. Recent operation of the IWTS during washing of canisters of KOP Material has been impacted by low pressure readings at the inlet of the P4 Booster Pump. The system provides a low pressure alarm at 10 psig, and low-low pressure interlock at 5 psig. The response to these low readings has been to lower total system flow to between 301 and 315 gpm. In addition, the IWTS operator has been required to operate the system in manual mode and make frequent adjustments to the P4 booster pump speed during PCM washes. The preferred mode of operation is to establish a setpoint of 317 gpm for the P4 pump speed and run IWTS in semi-automatic mode. Based on hydraulic modeling compared to field data presented in this report, the low P4 inlet pressure is attributed to restrictions in the 2-inch KOP inlet hose and in the KOP itself

  11. Efficacy of a store-based environmental change intervention compared with a delayed treatment control condition on store customers' intake of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Baquero, Barbara; Laraia, Barbara A; Ji, Ming; Linnan, Laura

    2013-11-01

    The present store-based intervention was designed to promote sales of fruits and vegetables (F&V) to increase intake among store customers--specifically customers of tiendas, small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores. Four tiendas were randomized to a 2-month environmental change intervention or a delayed treatment control condition. Employees and managers were trained to promote F&V sales, including how to implement a food marketing campaign and installing store equipment to promote fresh fruits and vegetables. The primary outcome was self-reported daily intake of F&V among a convenience sample of customers (at least forty per store) collected at baseline prior to randomization and then 4 months later. In addition, changes in availability of F&V in the tiendas, using unobtrusive observational methods, provided evidence of intervention fidelity. Tiendas in central North Carolina. Participants included 179 customers who were recent immigrants from Mexico and Central America. A group-by-time interaction approached significance on daily servings of F&V; intervention customers reported an increase in F&V intake over time and as a function of the intervention (P customers’ reported F&V intake. Such strategies can have a public health impact on underserved populations.

  12. Detection by thermoluminescence of an irradiation treatment of five species of dehydrated fruit and vegetables. Report on a CTCPA/AIFLD international interlaboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioni, E.; Anklam, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report considers only four of the five sets of results (one, six, fifteen and twenty-four months after irradiation). From the 765 samples analysed, 73 were rejected, because not enough minerals had been isolated [thereby not fulfilling the requirement that Glow 2 should be higher than ten times the Minimum Detectable integrated TL-intensity Level (MDL), see the European Standard EN 1788:1996]. Among the 692 remaining samples (352 non-irradiated and 340 irradiated), a total of 625 (90%) were correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated. 59 samples were classified as in doubt. Only 8 samples (1%) apparently were not correctly identified. However, the glow curves revealed that these 8 wrong results were due to labelling errors. Regarding the samples classified as in doubt, it should be kept in mind that in practice analysis of these samples would be repeated until an unequivocal result is obtained. Due to lack of sample material in this interlaboratory test, repetitions were not possible. In practice, enough sample material is usually available, thus higher identification rates can be expected. The present collaborative study has shown that identification of radiation treatment of the five dehydrated fruit and vegetables studied using TL analysis is possible. It has been proposed to the CEN/TC 275/WG8 to extend the applicability of the TL method as described in the European Standard EN 1788:1996, with some minor modifications, to dried fruit and vegetables. (orig.)

  13. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  14. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  15. A Monitoring System for Vegetable Greenhouses based on a Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-hong; Cheng, Xiao; Yan, Ke; Gong, Peng

    2010-01-01

    A wireless sensor network-based automatic monitoring system is designed for monitoring the life conditions of greenhouse vegetatables. The complete system architecture includes a group of sensor nodes, a base station, and an internet data center. For the design of wireless sensor node, the JN5139 micro-processor is adopted as the core component and the Zigbee protocol is used for wireless communication between nodes. With an ARM7 microprocessor and embedded ZKOS operating system, a proprietary gateway node is developed to achieve data influx, screen display, system configuration and GPRS based remote data forwarding. Through a Client/Server mode the management software for remote data center achieves real-time data distribution and time-series analysis. Besides, a GSM-short-message-based interface is developed for sending real-time environmental measurements, and for alarming when a measurement is beyond some pre-defined threshold. The whole system has been tested for over one year and satisfactory results have been observed, which indicate that this system is very useful for greenhouse environment monitoring. PMID:22163391

  16. Experiments in water-macrophyte systems to uncover the dynamics of pesticide mitigation processes in vegetated surface waters/streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Christoph; Bakanov, Nikita; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on the dynamics and the durability of the processes governing the mitigation of pesticide loads by aquatic vegetation in vegetated streams, which are characterized by dynamic discharge regimes and short chemical residence times, is scarce. In a static long-term experiment (48 h), the dissipation of five pesticides from the aqueous phase followed a biphasic pattern in the presence of aquatic macrophytes. A dynamic concentration decrease driven by sorption to the macrophytes ranged from 8.3 to 60.4% for isoproturon and bifenox, respectively, within the first 2 h of exposure. While the aqueous concentrations of imidacloprid, isoproturon, and tebufenozide remained constant thereafter, the continuous but decelerated concentration decrease of difenoconazole and bifenox in the water-macrophyte systems used here was assumed to be attributed to macrophyte-induced degradation processes. In addition, a semi-static short-term experiment was conducted, where macrophytes were transferred to uncontaminated medium after 2 h of exposure to simulate a transient pesticide peak. In the first part of the experiment, adsorption to macrophytes resulted in partitioning coefficients (logK D_Adsorp) ranging from 0.2 for imidacloprid to 2.2 for bifenox. One hour after the macrophytes were transferred to the uncontaminated medium, desorption of the compounds from the macrophytes resulted in a new phase equilibrium and K D_Desorp values of 1.46 for difenoconazole and 1.95 for bifenox were determined. A correlation analysis revealed the best match between the compound affinity to adsorb to macrophytes (expressed as K D_Adsorp) and their soil organic carbon-water partitioning coefficient (K OC) compared to their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (K OW) or a mathematically derived partitioning coefficient.

  17. Remote sensing of vegetation fires and its contribution to a fire management information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane P. Flasse; Simon N. Trigg; Pietro N. Ceccato; Anita H. Perryman; Andrew T. Hudak; Mark W. Thompson; Bruce H. Brockett; Moussa Drame; Tim Ntabeni; Philip E. Frost; Tobias Landmann; Johan L. le Roux

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, research has proven that remote sensing can provide very useful support to fire managers. This chapter provides an overview of the types of information remote sensing can provide to the fire community. First, it considers fire management information needs in the context of a fire management information system. An introduction to remote sensing then...

  18. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  20. The influence of vegetable bioactive compounds on systemic immune reactions to ionizing radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, Liuba; Plavan, Irina; Bahnarel, Ion; Rosca, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the summary of the scientific results analysis of the published in the last 10 years studies of the influence of secondary metabolites essential oils and essential-oil plants extracts, on the resistance/sensitivity of the animal and human body to the action of ionizing radiation. An essential problem is the development of new nanotechnologies for mitigation the onset of side effects caused by the use of ionizing radiation therapy of patients with different types of cancer. Widespread application of phyto therapy empiric reveals the beneficial effect of essential oils and essential-oil plants extracts on the immune system. The considered substances have natural antioxidant properties and contribute to the elimination of free radicals which are formed in the body under the action of stress, including ionizing radiation. This reveals about their use in mitigation of ionizing radiation action effects, as a radio protector agent. Unlike other preparations, used to activate the immune system, essential oils at low concentrations show a long-lasting system immune stimulation action. More of that, during their administration the onset of adverse reactions have not been demonstrated. (authors)

  1. Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Epstein, H.E.; Box, E.O.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Goswami, S.; Iversen, C.M.; Kattge, J.; Norby, R.J.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Xu, X.

    2014-01-01

    Background Earth system models describe the physical, chemical and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the

  2. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on biogas yield and specific energy in anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wholesale market wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Zeynali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic pre-treatment has been considered as an environmentally friendly process for enhancing the biodegradability of organic matter in anaerobic digestion. However the consumed energy during the pre-treatment is a matter of challenge especially where energy generation is the main purpose of a biogas plant. The aim of the present work was to study the efficiency of ultrasonic pre-treatment in enhancement of biogas production from fruits and vegetable wholesale market waste. Three sonication times (9, 18, 27 min operating at 20 kHz and amplitude of 80 μm were used on the substrate. The highest methane yield was obtained at 18 min sonication (2380 kJ kg−1 total solids while longer exposure to sonication led to lower methane yield. This amount of biogas was obtained in 12 d of batch time. The energy content of the biogas obtained from this reactor was two times of the input energy for sonication.

  3. Approaches to the production and use of microbial transglutaminase in emulsified meat and vegetable systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Glotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the technology of traditional and new forms of food, the modification of structure of proteins is carry out in two opposite directions: the hydrolytic destruction of high-molecular polymers and the artificial creation of polymeric structures of high molecular mass. The transglutaminase preparations (protein-glutamine (-glutamyltransferase, EC 2.3.2.13, TG are used in practical work for realization of the second direction. The main mechanisms of action are polymerization reactions, which lead to a change in the hydrophobicity of protein molecules. The main catalyzed reactions are acyl transfer, binding between glutamine and lysine residues of proteins and deamination. The authors analyzed the approaches to the preparation, properties and studied the joint effect of temperature and pH on the activity of the commercial preparation Revada TG 11 with the application of an enzymatic colorimetric test. The authors studied combined stuffing systems based on beef, pork, poultry mechanical deboning, as well as replacing part of the raw material with protein-carbohydrate compositions with Revada TG 11. The results were used to develop simulated meat systems of biopolymer compositions (SMSBC, approximate in structure and properties to the gels formed by actin and myosin during extraction from myofibrils under the traditional technological processes of meat products production - maturation, salt curing, fine meat grinding. SMSBC includes lupine flour bio-activated by germination, a preparations of dietary fiber as well as a preparation of transglutaminase Revada TG 11. The protein components of the secondary raw materials during the processing of milk such as sodium caseinate, and also whey were used to balance the amino acid composition of the food systems. For practical use, the following options for SMSBC introducing into the composition of minced meat emulsions were recommended by the authors: in the form of hydrated biopolymer dispersion at cutting

  4. Influence of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on the functional diversity of microbial communities in the vegetable cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Mallappa; Kumar, Upendra; Yadava, Raj Bahadur; Rai, Awadhesh Bahadur; Singh, Bijendra

    2018-05-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of different organic and inorganic fertilizers on the functional diversity of soil microbial community under a vegetable production system. The Biolog ® Eco-plate technique and indices, such as average well-colour development (AWCD), McIntosh and Shannon diversity were employed to study the diversity of soil microorganisms. The AWCD, i.e. overall utilization of carbon sources, suggested that different organic treatments had a significant impact on the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms. After 120h, the highest AWCD values were observed in poultry manure (2.5 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 ) (0.63) and farm yard manure (FYM) (10 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 ) (0.61). After 72h, the highest value of the McIntosh diversity index was recorded in poultry manure (2.5 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 ) (3.87), followed by poultry manure (2.5 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 )+biofertilizers (Azotobacter 500 g·ha -1 applied as seed treatment) (3.12). In the case of the Shannon diversity index, the highest values were noticed in organic treatments; however, there was no significant differences between organic and inorganic treatments. Biplot analysis showed a clear differentiation of organic treatments from the inorganic control. The amino acids, phenolics and polymer utilizing microorganisms were dominant in organic treatments. Inorganic control recorded the lowest values of the microbial diversity indices. Through this study, we have identified the best combination of organic nutrients, i.e. poultry manure (2.5 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 ) for the stimulation of metabolically active soil microbial communities. Copyright © 2018 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation and the vegetable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible uses of irradiation in the vegetable industry are considered. Interest has been increasing because of possible bans on chemical fumigants and clearance of irradiation as an acceptable process, up to certain dose limits, by Codex Alimentarius and the US FDA. Inhibition of sprouting in potatoes and onions would be one possibility for exploitation. However, the main incentive for vegetable irradiation would be as a quarantine treatment for exported products. The shelf-life of a few vegetables could also be increased by combining radiation with heat treatments. Costs in New Zealand and consumer attitudes are briefly considered

  6. Dosimetry audit of radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Chelminski, Krzysztof; Rostkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) various calculation algorithms are used. The accuracy of dose calculations has to be verified. Numerous phantom types, detectors and measurement methodologies are proposed to verify the TPS calculations with dosimetric measurements. A heterogeneous slab phantom has been designed within a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) of the IAEA. The heterogeneous phantom was developed in the frame of the IAEA CRP. The phantom consists of frame slabs made with polystyrene and exchangeable inhomogeneity slabs equivalent to bone or lung tissue. Special inserts allow to position thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) capsules within the polystyrene slabs below the bone or lung equivalent slabs and also within the lung equivalent material. Additionally, there are inserts that allow to position films or ionisation chamber in the phantom. Ten Polish radiotherapy centres (of 30 in total) were audited during on-site visits. Six different TPSs and five calculation algorithms were examined in the presence of inhomogeneities. Generally, most of the results from TLD were within 5 % tolerance. Differences between doses calculated by TPSs and measured with TLD did not exceed 4 % for bone and polystyrene equivalent materials. Under the lung equivalent material, on the beam axis the differences were lower than 5 %, whereas inside the lung equivalent material, off the beam axis, in some cases they were of around 7 %. The TLD results were confirmed with the ionisation chamber measurements. The comparison results of the calculations and the measurements allow to detect limitations of TPS calculation algorithms. The audits performed with the use of heterogeneous phantom and TLD seem to be an effective tool for detecting the limitations in the TPS performance or beam configuration errors at audited radiotherapy departments. (authors)

  7. Dosimetry audit of radiotherapy treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Chełmiński, Krzysztof; Rostkowska, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    In radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) various calculation algorithms are used. The accuracy of dose calculations has to be verified. Numerous phantom types, detectors and measurement methodologies are proposed to verify the TPS calculations with dosimetric measurements. A heterogeneous slab phantom has been designed within a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) of the IAEA. The heterogeneous phantom was developed in the frame of the IAEA CRP. The phantom consists of frame slabs made with polystyrene and exchangeable inhomogeneity slabs equivalent to bone or lung tissue. Special inserts allow to position thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) capsules within the polystyrene slabs below the bone or lung equivalent slabs and also within the lung equivalent material. Additionally, there are inserts that allow to position films or ionisation chamber in the phantom. Ten Polish radiotherapy centres (of 30 in total) were audited during on-site visits. Six different TPSs and five calculation algorithms were examined in the presence of inhomogeneities. Generally, most of the results from TLD were within 5 % tolerance. Differences between doses calculated by TPSs and measured with TLD did not exceed 4 % for bone and polystyrene equivalent materials. Under the lung equivalent material, on the beam axis the differences were lower than 5 %, whereas inside the lung equivalent material, off the beam axis, in some cases they were of around 7 %. The TLD results were confirmed with the ionisation chamber measurements. The comparison results of the calculations and the measurements allow to detect limitations of TPS calculation algorithms. The audits performed with the use of heterogeneous phantom and TLD seem to be an effective tool for detecting the limitations in the TPS performance or beam configuration errors at audited radiotherapy departments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  9. Systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sandro; Hadjinicolaou, Andreas V; Chiarion Sileni, Vanna; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Mocellin, Simone

    2018-02-06

    The prognosis of people with metastatic cutaneous melanoma, a skin cancer, is generally poor. Recently, new classes of drugs (e.g. immune checkpoint inhibitors and small-molecule targeted drugs) have significantly improved patient prognosis, which has drastically changed the landscape of melanoma therapeutic management. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2000. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma. We searched the following databases up to October 2017: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS. We also searched five trials registers and the ASCO database in February 2017, and checked the reference lists of included studies for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We considered RCTs of systemic therapies for people with unresectable lymph node metastasis and distant metastatic cutaneous melanoma compared to any other treatment. We checked the reference lists of selected articles to identify further references to relevant trials. Two review authors extracted data, and a third review author independently verified extracted data. We implemented a network meta-analysis approach to make indirect comparisons and rank treatments according to their effectiveness (as measured by the impact on survival) and harm (as measured by occurrence of high-grade toxicity). The same two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies according to Cochrane standards and assessed evidence quality based on the GRADE criteria. We included 122 RCTs (28,561 participants). Of these, 83 RCTs, encompassing 21 different comparisons, were included in meta-analyses. Included participants were men and women with a mean age of 57.5 years who were recruited from hospital settings. Twenty-nine studies included people whose cancer had spread to their brains. Interventions were categorised into five groups: conventional

  10. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: clinical picture and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , and the histology of deep skin biopsies. Symptomatic treatment with intensive physiotherapy and painkillers is important, but there is no known curative medical treatment. Spontaneous remission of NSF symptoms may occur with recovery of renal function after an episode of acute renal failure, or with kidney...

  11. Point-of-purchase health information encourages customers to purchase vegetables: objective analysis by using a point-of-sales system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshiko; Tanabe, Naohito; Honda, Akiko; Azuma, Tomoko; Seki, Nao; Suzuki, Tsubasa; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Point-of-purchase (POP) information at food stores could help promote healthy dietary habits. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the effects of such intervention on customers' behavior. We objectively evaluated the usefulness of POP health information for vegetables in the modification of customers' purchasing behavior by using the database of a point-of-sales (POS) system. Two supermarket stores belonging to the same chain were assigned as the intervention store (store I) and control store (store C). POP health information for vegetables was presented in store I for 60 days. The percent increase in daily sales of vegetables over the sales on the same date of the previous year was compared between the stores by using the database of the POS system, adjusting for the change in monthly visitors from the previous year (adjusted ∆sales). The adjusted ∆sales significantly increased during the intervention period (Spearman's ρ = 0.258, P for trend = 0.006) at store I but did not increase at store C (ρ = -0.037, P for trend = 0.728). The growth of the mean adjusted ∆sales of total vegetables from 30 days before the intervention period through the latter half of the intervention period was estimated to be greater at store I than at store C by 18.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval 1.6-35.9). Health-related POP information for vegetables in supermarkets can encourage customers to purchase and, probably, consume vegetables.

  12. Leaf optical system modeled as a stochastic process. [solar radiation interaction with terrestrial vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C. J.; Garratt, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    A stochastic leaf radiation model based upon physical and physiological properties of dicot leaves has been developed. The model accurately predicts the absorbed, reflected, and transmitted radiation of normal incidence as a function of wavelength resulting from the leaf-irradiance interaction over the spectral interval of 0.40-2.50 micron. The leaf optical system has been represented as Markov process with a unique transition matrix at each 0.01-micron increment between 0.40 micron and 2.50 micron. Probabilities are calculated at every wavelength interval from leaf thickness, structure, pigment composition, and water content. Simulation results indicate that this approach gives accurate estimations of actual measured values for dicot leaf absorption, reflection, and transmission as a function of wavelength.

  13. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-62) - Rocky Reach - Maple Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Mark A. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-04-16

    Vegetation Management along the Rocky Reach – Maple Valley No. 1 Transmission Line ROW from structure 98/2 to structure 110/1. The transmission line is a 500 kV line. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation along access roads and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. BPA plans to conduct vegetation management along existing access road and around structure landings for the purpose of maintaining access to structures site. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards.

  14. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The extent or spread ... different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Different types of treatment ...

  15. Vegetable Production in an Integrated Aquaponic System with Stellate Sturgeon and Spinach – Matador variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihai Petrea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the performances parameters, both in terms of quantity and quality, for spinach (Spinacia oleracea - Matador variety, growth in an aquaponic integrated system, along with stellate sturgeons (A. stellatus under three crops densities (V1 - 59 crops/m2, V2 – 48 crops/m2 and V3 – 39 crops/m2, by using hydroton as growing substrate, under a continuous flow hydraulic regime. The experiment was run in triplicate for each one of the three variants. The water quality was monitored and a series of growth parameters were determined, as follows: leaf area index (LAI, relative growth rate (RGR, average net assimilation rate (NAR, mean leaf area ratio (LAR and crop growth rate (CGR. Also the concentration of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, ash and dry matter for spinach leaf, from each of the three experimental variants was determined and compared with the one of marketable spinach, growth conventional, in soil. It can be concluded that statistical significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded in terms of growth performance and crops quality, between the experimental variants. Also the quality of spinach grown in aquaponic conditions, by using effluent derived from stellate sturgeon intensive aquaculture is similar to that of the marketable spinach, growth conventional.

  16. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y. [Univ. of Nebraski-Lincoln, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2002-06-15

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD{sub 5}, COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD{sub 5} and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  17. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD 5 , COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD 5 and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  18. Systemic treatment of breast cancer in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegheoova, O.

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is increasing due to trend of postponing child-bearing to later age. Breast cancer diagnosed during lactation has different biologic behaviour and worse prognosis than when diagnosed during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not constitute a negative prognostic factor per se for outcomes of breast cancer in pregnancy, therefore breast cancer should be treated while containing pregnancy. Pregnancy should not delay treatment. Therapy should follow standard procedures as closely as possible, though with different timing of treatment modalities. Experienced multidisciplinary team is crucial for achieving good treatment results and involvement of an informed patient in decision-making is a must. Properly managed treatment during pregnancy does not carry detrimental effect on development and well-being of children. (author)

  19. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  20. On-line system for preconcentration and determination of metals in vegetables by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Marcos A.; Santos, Walter N.L. dos; Lemos, Valfredo A.; Korn, Maria das Gracas A.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and lead in digested vegetable samples. The method involves solid-phase extraction of the metals using a minicolumn of Amberlite XAD-4 modified with dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and detection by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The elution of the metals from minicolumn was performed with 1.0 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid. Variables associated with flow preconcentration system performance, such as pH, buffer concentration, eluent concentration and sampling flow rate, were optimized. The developed procedure provides enrichment factors of 100, 72, 16, 91 and 53, for cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and lead, respectively. Detection limits (3σ B ) were 0.02 (Cd), 0.23 (Cu), 0.58 (Cr), 0.060 (Ni) and 0.54 (Pb) μg L -1 . The procedure was applied for determination of metals in samples of guarana and cabbage. The accuracy of the method was checked by the analysis of a certified reference material (NIST 1571, Orchard leaves). Results found were in agreement with certified values

  1. Vegetative and seedling regeneration of pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica): Efficacy of herbicide treatment. NODA note No. 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, A U; Bell, F W; Peterson, G W

    1996-11-01

    Pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) is a major competing plant commonly found in young conifer plantations in both boreal and northern hardwood forests. This note describes and presents results of a study conducted to determine, for pin cherry, the ratio of the current year`s seedling recruitment versus the previous year`s stem density; seed production; the soil seed bank; and the efficacy of a glyphosate herbicide treatment to control this competitor. The study was carried out in a seven-year-old jack pine plantation north of Atikokan, Ontario.

  2. Startup Report for Ground Water Extraction, Treatment, and Recharge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The document presents startup procedures, observations and measurements conducted during the startup of the Groundwater Extraction, Treatment and Recharge System, built for the 162nd Fighter Wing, Air...

  3. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  4. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  5. Food irradiation in the United States: irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh fruits and vegetables and for the control of microorganisms in meat and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Ralph T.; Engeljohn, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Recently there has been a renewed focus on food irradiation in the United States (US) for the disinfestation of fresh fruits and vegetables to eliminate pests from imported agricultural commodities that could threaten the economic viability of American agriculture and for the control of bacterium E. coli 0157:H7 in beef, a pathogen that threatens the safety of the US domestic food supply. In January 1999 USDA/APHIS published in the Federal Register a rule which authorized irradiation as a guarantee treatment for papayas for movement from Hawaii to the US mainland. This treatment was never used for a number of reasons. However, in December, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published its final rule to terminate production and consumption of methyl bromide, the only remaining broad spectrum fumigant for disinfesting agricultural commodities for pests of quarantine significance on imported and exported commodities. With increased global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide as a fumigant for regulatory pests treatment made it imperative that practical treatment options be explored including irradiation. In May 1996, USDA/APHIS published a Notice of Policy which sets forth a policy statement that share positions and policies of USDA concerning the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. Subsequently in July, 1997, USDA/APHIS amended its Hawaiian regulation by increasing the dose required for papayas intended for interstate movement and by allowing carambolas and litchis also to move interstate as well. Fruits from Hawaii to the US mainland are currently being irradiated and distributed in commerce throughout the US Irradiation treatments now afford movement of many exotic fruits to the US mainland that could not be done earlier due to the lack of available treatment methods. To help combat this potential public health problem, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treating red meat products. This process has been

  6. Volume definition system for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakuijala, Jyrki; Pekkarinen, Ari; Puurunen, Harri

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Volume definition is a difficult and time consuming task in 3D treatment planning. We have studied a systems approach for constructing an efficient and reliable set of tools for volume definition. Our intent is to automate body outline, air cavities and bone volume definition and accelerate definition of other anatomical structures. An additional focus is on assisting in definition of CTV and PTV. The primary goals of this work are to cut down the time used in contouring and to improve the accuracy of volume definition. Methods: We used the following tool categories: manual, semi-automatic, automatic, structure management, target volume definition, and visualization tools. The manual tools include mouse contouring tools with contour editing possibilities and painting tools with a scaleable circular brush and an intelligent brush. The intelligent brush adapts its shape to CT value boundaries. The semi-automatic tools consist of edge point chaining, classical 3D region growing of single segment and competitive volume growing of multiple segments. We tuned the volume growing function to take into account both local and global region image values, local volume homogeneity, and distance. Heuristic seeding followed with competitive volume growing finds the body outline, couch and air automatically. The structure management tool stores ICD-O coded structures in a database. The codes have predefined volume growing parameters and thus are able to accommodate the volume growing dissimilarity function for different volume types. The target definition tools include elliptical 3D automargin for CTV to PTV transformation and target volume interpolation and extrapolation by distance transform. Both the CTV and the PTV can overlap with anatomical structures. Visualization tools show the volumes as contours or color wash overlaid on an image and displays voxel rendering or translucent triangle mesh rendering in 3D. Results: The competitive volume growing speeds up the

  7. Making medical treatments resilient to technological disruptions in telemedicine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Telemedicine depends on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support remote treatment of patients. This dependency requires the telemedicine system design to be resilient for ICT performance degradation or subsystem failures. Nevertheless, using telemedicine systems create a dependency

  8. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  9. Automated system for review of radiotherapy treatment sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado Chamorro, P.; Sanz Freire, C. J.; Vazquez Galinanes, A.; Diaz Pascual, V.; Gomez amez, J.; Martinez Sanchez, S.; Ossola Lentati, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    In many modern radiotherapy services begins to leaf treatment implemented in electronic form. In our department has developed an automated reporting system, that check the following parameters: treatment completed correctly, number of sessions and cumulative dose administered. Likewise treatments are verified in the allocated separate unit, and over-writing table parameters.

  10. Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L; Gillman, Matthew W; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Souter, Irene; Toth, Thomas L; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2018-01-01

    Animal experiments suggest that ingestion of pesticide mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations decreases the number of live-born offspring. Whether the same is true in humans is unknown. To examine the association of preconception intake of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables (FVs) with outcomes of infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This analysis included 325 women who completed a diet assessment and subsequently underwent 541 ART cycles in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2007-2016) at a fertility center at a teaching hospital. We categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residues using a validated method based on surveillance data from the US Department of Agriculture. Cluster-weighted generalized estimating equations were used to analyze associations of high- and low-pesticide residue FV intake with ART outcomes. Adjusted probabilities of clinical pregnancy and live birth per treatment cycle. In the 325 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [4.0] y; body mass index, 24.1 [4.3]), mean (SD) intakes of high- and low-pesticide residue FVs were 1.7 (1.0) and 2.8 (1.6) servings/d, respectively. Greater intake of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with a lower probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of high-pesticide FV intake (<1.0 servings/d), women in the highest quartile (≥2.3 servings/d) had 18% (95% CI, 5%-30%) lower probability of clinical pregnancy and 26% (95% CI, 13%-37%) lower probability of live birth. Intake of low-pesticide residue FVs was not significantly related to ART outcomes. Higher consumption of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with lower probabilities of pregnancy and live birth following infertility treatment with ART. These data suggest that dietary pesticide exposure within the range of typical human exposure may be associated with adverse reproductive consequences.

  11. Uses of fruits, vegetables and herbs for the treatment of diabetes by the people of quetta city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, M.; Ayesha, A.; Durrani, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was conducted to record the ethno medicinal uses of plants to control diabetes mellitus. As a result twenty five (25) medicinal plants, belonging to 17 families, were reported which were being used locally to cure diabetes. The most dominant families were Cucurbitaceae (5 species) followed with Rosaceae (2 species), Lilliaceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species) and Myteraceae (2 species). Other families testified the use of only one species as a cure for diabetes mellitus. About hundred (100) informants were interviewed. Data was recorded with the help of a questionnaire and interviews. It is dire need to conserve such vital resources of knowledge from people and to promote their use in the primary health care system. (author)

  12. A comprehensive centralized control system for radiation waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive centralized control system is designed for the radiation waste treatment facility that lacking of coordinated operational mechanism for the radiation waste treatment. The centralized control and alarm linkage of various systems is implemented to ensure effectively the safety of nuclear facility and materials, improve the integral control ability through advanced informatization ways. (author)

  13. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  14. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr)

  15. Reduction of treatment delivery variances with a computer-controlled treatment delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Lash, K.L.; Matrone, G.M.; Lichter, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment delivery variances for 3-D conformal therapy performed at various levels of treatment delivery automation, ranging from manual field setup to virtually complete computer-controlled treatment delivery using a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. Materials and Methods: All external beam treatments performed in our department during six months of 1996 were analyzed to study treatment delivery variances versus treatment complexity. Treatments for 505 patients (40,641 individual treatment ports) on four treatment machines were studied. All treatment variances noted by treatment therapists or quality assurance reviews (39 in all) were analyzed. Machines 'M1' (CLinac (6(100))) and 'M2' (CLinac 1800) were operated in a standard manual setup mode, with no record and verify system (R/V). Machines 'M3' (CLinac 2100CD/MLC) and ''M4'' (MM50 racetrack microtron system with MLC) treated patients under the control of a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system (CCRS) which 1) downloads the treatment delivery plan from the planning system, 2) performs some (or all) of the machine set-up and treatment delivery for each field, 3) monitors treatment delivery, 4) records all treatment parameters, and 5) notes exceptions to the electronically-prescribed plan. Complete external computer control is not available on M3, so it uses as many CCRS features as possible, while M4 operates completely under CCRS control and performs semi-automated and automated multi-segment intensity modulated treatments. Analysis of treatment complexity was based on numbers of fields, individual segments (ports), non-axial and non-coplanar plans, multi-segment intensity modulation, and pseudo-isocentric treatments (and other plans with computer-controlled table motions). Treatment delivery time was obtained from the computerized scheduling system (for manual treatments) or from CCRS system logs. Treatment therapists rotate among the machines, so this analysis

  16. Comorbidities and treatment of trichotillomania systemic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Mina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichotillomania is a type of traumatic alopecia and is defined as the irresistible urge to pull out the hair. It is classified as impulse control disorder. This chronic, recurrent disorder with dermatologic expression has specific symptomatology, affects daily activities and leads to social isolation. Goal: The aim of the study was to investigate mannerism between symptoms in population with trichotillomania and to determine connection with other habits and disorders as well as treatment differences and efficiency. Material and methods: This prospective research was conducted within 880 people with trichotillomania from all around the world in a period from November 5th to December 15th, 2016. The data were collected by using a standardized internet questionnaire. Results: Symptoms of trichotillomania usually start between 9 and 13 years. 48,5% respondents localize their disorder on one specific body region. The most involved are scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes. 56,5% of the patients pull their hairs everyday, 61,6% even in company. Oral habits are present in 20,9%. Trichotillomania is associated with dermatillomania in 42.0%, nail biting habit in 37.0%, alcohol (21.7% and drug abuse (12.3%, anxiety (60.6%, affective (55.3%, obsessive-compulsive (19.4% and sleep disorders (11.3%. The most effective treatment seem to be combination of psychotherapy, antipsychotic and antidepressant. Conclusion: Trichotillomania shows diverse psychiatric appearance in most cases, so there is not specific treatment for this condition. It is necessary to treat trichotillomania with their comorbidities, especially the ones with oral habits, who present potential surgical patients.

  17. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingmei; Song, Qiujin; Tang, Yu; Li, Wanlu; Xu, Jianming; Wu, Jianjun; Wang, Fan; Brookes, Philip Charles

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable fields near villages in China are suffering increasing heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agriculture, traffic, mining and Chinese typical local private family-sized industry. 268 vegetable samples which included rape, celery, cabbages, carrots, asparagus lettuces, cowpeas, tomatoes and cayenne pepper and their corresponding soils in three economically developed areas of Zhejiang Province, China were collected, and the concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As) in all the samples were determined. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were employed to explore the potential health hazards of heavy metals in soils growing vegetables. Results showed that heavy metal contaminations in investigated vegetables and corresponding soils were significant. Pollution levels varied with metals and vegetable types. The highest mean soil concentrations of heavy metals were 70.36 mg kg −1 Pb, 47.49 mg kg −1 Cr, 13.51 mg kg −1 As, 0.73 mg kg −1 for Cd and 0.67 mg kg −1 Hg, respectively, while the metal concentrations in vegetables and corresponding soils were poorly correlated. The health risk assessment results indicated that diet dominated the exposure pathways, so heavy metals in soil samples might cause potential harm through food-chain transfer. The total non-cancer and cancer risk results indicated that the investigated arable fields near industrial and waste mining sites were unsuitable for growing leaf and root vegetables in view of the risk of elevated intakes of heavy metals adversely affecting food safety for local residents. Chromium and Pb were the primary heavy metals posing non-cancer risks while Cd caused the greatest cancer risk. It was concluded that more effective controls should be focused on Cd and Cr to reduce pollution in this study area. - Highlights: • Flourishing private economy caused increasing heavy metal damages.

  18. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingmei; Song, Qiujin; Tang, Yu; Li, Wanlu [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Jianming, E-mail: jmxu@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wu, Jianjun, E-mail: wujianjun@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Fan [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Brookes, Philip Charles [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Vegetable fields near villages in China are suffering increasing heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agriculture, traffic, mining and Chinese typical local private family-sized industry. 268 vegetable samples which included rape, celery, cabbages, carrots, asparagus lettuces, cowpeas, tomatoes and cayenne pepper and their corresponding soils in three economically developed areas of Zhejiang Province, China were collected, and the concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As) in all the samples were determined. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were employed to explore the potential health hazards of heavy metals in soils growing vegetables. Results showed that heavy metal contaminations in investigated vegetables and corresponding soils were significant. Pollution levels varied with metals and vegetable types. The highest mean soil concentrations of heavy metals were 70.36 mg kg{sup −1} Pb, 47.49 mg kg{sup −1} Cr, 13.51 mg kg{sup −1} As, 0.73 mg kg{sup −1} for Cd and 0.67 mg kg{sup −1} Hg, respectively, while the metal concentrations in vegetables and corresponding soils were poorly correlated. The health risk assessment results indicated that diet dominated the exposure pathways, so heavy metals in soil samples might cause potential harm through food-chain transfer. The total non-cancer and cancer risk results indicated that the investigated arable fields near industrial and waste mining sites were unsuitable for growing leaf and root vegetables in view of the risk of elevated intakes of heavy metals adversely affecting food safety for local residents. Chromium and Pb were the primary heavy metals posing non-cancer risks while Cd caused the greatest cancer risk. It was concluded that more effective controls should be focused on Cd and Cr to reduce pollution in this study area. - Highlights: • Flourishing private economy caused increasing

  19. Absorption of some mineral salts by root system of different woody species and accumulation over a whole vegetative cycle (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, J.; Gerard, J.M.

    1963-01-01

    The concentration power of plant tissues and the translocation speed of mineral salts are considerably varying with the absorbed salt, the botanical species, the considered tissue and the part of the vegetative cycle. In Grenoble, with Picea excelsa, the 'true dormancy' is short (half-november, end of december). It is accompanied by a pre-dormancy period (October, half-november) and a post dormancy period (January, february, march). In vegetative period, Picea excelsa leaves are less concentrating mineral salt than Acer campestris leaves (coefficient 2 for calcium - 3 for phosphates) and Populus nigra leaves (coefficient 3 for calcium, coefficient 5 for phosphates). (author) [fr

  20. Vegetation - Lassen Foothills [ds564

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In 2007 Aerial Information Systems, Inc. (AIS) was contracted by the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) to produce a vegetation map for approximately 100,000...

  1. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  2. Dinâmica vegetacional em pastagem natural submetida a tratamentos de queima e pastejo Vegetation dynamics of natural grassland under treatments of burning and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados durante três anos os efeitos de tratamentos de fogo e pastejo sobre a dinâmica da vegetação de uma pastagem natural localizada em Santa Maria, na região da Depressão Central, Rio Grande do Sul. Foi considerada a hipótese de resiliência, resultado das espécies componentes da pastagem terem evoluído sob influência de tais distúrbios. O experimento foi composto por oito parcelas experimentais submetidas a combinações de níveis de pastejo (pastejado, excluído e de fogo (queimado, não-queimado, em duas posições de relevo (encosta, baixada. A análise multivariada dos dados de composição de espécies foi baseada em ordenação e testes de aleatorização. A vegetação sob efeito de pastejo, independente da queima, apresentou trajetórias direcionais, enquanto sob exclusão as trajetórias foram caóticas. O efeito do pastejo parece ser determinante da dinâmica vegetacional (P=0,077.The effect of fire and grazing treatments on vegetation dynamics was evaluated during three years on a natural grassland located in Santa Maria, in the region of "Depressão Central", Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A hypothesis of resilience resulting from the fact that the species of the grassland evolved under the influence of these disturbances was considered. The experimental setup was formed by eight plots subjected to combinations of grazing (grazed, ungrazed and fire (burned, unburned levels, on two relief positions (convex, concave slope. Multivariate analysis of compositional data used ordination and randomization testing. Vegetation under grazing tended to show directional trajectories of floristic composition change, while under grazing exclusion the trajectories could be considered chaotic, independently from the plots being burned or not. Grazing effect seems to be determinant of vegetacional dynamics (P=0.077.

  3. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy E Foster

    Full Text Available Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m. We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC's land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh. Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities

  4. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tammy E; Stolen, Eric D; Hall, Carlton R; Schaub, Ronald; Duncan, Brean W; Hunt, Danny K; Drese, John H

    2017-01-01

    Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC) on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m). We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC's land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub) and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh). Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities, including important

  5. The Effects of Modern-Day Cropland and Pasture Management on Vegetation Fire: An Earth System Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, S. S.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a major component of the global carbon cycle, with some estimates of the associated emissions reaching 2.5 PgC/yr. This and the other impacts of biomass burning have driven efforts to improve its simulation in Earth system models. Recent global fire models usually include both bioclimatic and anthropogenic drivers of fire, with the latter (via population density and sometimes economic status) serving to increase or suppress burned area. Some models have added the representation of fire used in deforestation and cropland management, the extent and seasonal timing of which may not be accounted for by the usual approach to anthropogenic influence. Human land use can also limit fire by fragmenting landscapes, but this process is not included in most global models. Moreover, although people often use fire to manage grazing lands for livestock, these practices have not been explicitly modeled (except as performed by pre-industrial societies). This could be important for regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, where the seasonality of pasture burning tends to differ from that of other lands, potentially influencing savanna-forest dynamics. Recent efforts elucidating the effects of cropland and pasture on fire regimes at regional scales provide insight into these processes. Using this new understanding, we have developed a fire model with structurally distinct modules for burning of croplands, pasture, and primary and secondary lands, as well as fire use for deforestation. Parameters for each are rigorously constrained using remote-sensing observations of burned area. This structure allows us to disentangle agricultural practices and fragmentation effects from the endogenous processes driving fire on non-agricultural land, resulting in a better ability to simulate how fire works at large scales. This is critical for modeling the future of fire and all the parts of the Earth system that it affects, including vegetation distributions, nutrient cycling, and biosphere

  6. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G.; Levetin, E.; Van de water, P.; Myers, O.; Budge, A. M.; Krapfl, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Yin 2007) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Yin 2007). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that health effects of pollen can better be tracked for linkage with health outcome data including asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost work days. DREAM is based on the SKIRON/Eta modeling system and the Eta/NCEP regional atmospheric model. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterizations of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particle size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The dust production mechanism is based on the viscous/turbulent mixing, shear-free convection diffusion, and soil moisture. In addition to these sophisticated mechanisms, very high resolution databases, including elevation, soil properties, and vegetation cover are utilized. The DREAM model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust (PREAM). Pollen release will be estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) will provide information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, peak

  7. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 2; Implementation, Analysis and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Samanta, Arindam; Schull, Mitchell A.; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramajrushna R,; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of a new global monthly leaf area index (LAI) data set for the period July 1981 to December 2006 derived from AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data is described. The physically based algorithm is detailed in the first of the two part series. Here, the implementation, production and evaluation of the data set are described. The data set is evaluated both by direct comparisons to ground data and indirectly through inter-comparisons with similar data sets. This indirect validation showed satisfactory agreement with existing LAI products, importantly MODIS, at a range of spatial scales, and significant correlations with key climate variables in areas where temperature and precipitation limit plant growth. The data set successfully reproduced well-documented spatio-temporal trends and inter-annual variations in vegetation activity in the northern latitudes and semi-arid tropics. Comparison with plot scale field measurements over homogeneous vegetation patches indicated a 7% underestimation when all major vegetation types are taken into account. The error in mean values obtained from distributions of AVHRR LAI and high-resolution field LAI maps for different biomes is within 0.5 LAI for six out of the ten selected sites. These validation exercises though limited by the amount of field data, and thus less than comprehensive, indicated satisfactory agreement between the LAI product and field measurements. Overall, the intercomparison with short-term LAI data sets, evaluation of long term trends with known variations in climate variables, and validation with field measurements together build confidence in the utility of this new 26 year LAI record for long term vegetation monitoring and modeling studies.

  8. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  9. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

  10. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  11. Characterisation of the impacts of pre- and post- remedial contaminant loads from the Rum Jungle on riparian vegetation and fishes of the Finniss River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The status of the riparian vegetation and fish biodiversity in the Finniss River (FR) system is compared before and after remediation at the Rum Jungle (RJ) mine site. Whereas observations recorded during pre-remedial field studies in 1974 indicate no obvious effects of mine effluents on the riparian vegetation in the FR, the impacts in the Eeast Branch were severe. The tolerance to Cu that has been measured in one fish species (Gale et al., submitted) suggests the possibility that the exposure of the fish community to contaminant loadings over more than four decades may have led to the development of tolerance that may also contribute to the ecological recovery that has been observed

  12. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  13. Water dynamics of vegetable using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    Neutral ray is specifically adsorbed and scattered by hydrogen, which is construction element of water. We applied nondestructive visualization of water dynamics in vegetable using neutral ray. The neutron ray was produced by JRR-3M of JAERI. Water dynamics of epigeal part of vegetable, tree, seed, root and soil near root were observed. The distribution and behavior of water were seen by image. For examples, the dry process of cedar, water adsorption process of seed of broad beam, corn, morning glory, rice and wheat. The growing process of root in the soil was analyzed by CT images that constructed three-dimensional image. Water image of root-soil system made clear water dynamics of the optional site near root. The distribution of water in the cut carnation was observed before and after dry treatment. The change of distribution of water was observed. (S.Y.)

  14. Targeted nanodrug delivery systems for the treatment of Tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available patient treatment compliance and drug resistance pose a great challenge to TB treatment programs worldwide. To improve the current inadequate therapeutic management of TB, a polymeric anti-TB nanodrug delivery system for anti-TB drugs was developed...

  15. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  16. Indigenous knowledge systems for the treatment of hypertension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge systems for the treatment of hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia: ... are said to access traditional medicine (TM) for their disease management. ... Healers & Practitioners Association of Zambia (THPAZ) operating from within ...

  17. Modeling Jambo wastewater treatment system to predict water re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    C++ programme to implement Brown's model for determining water quality usage ... predicting the re-use options of the wastewater treatment system was a ... skins from rural slaughter slabs/butchers, slaughter .... City (Karnataka State, India).

  18. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  19. Zero insertion force socket for photoactivation patient treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutner, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    Automatic operating zero insertion force socket for use in a photoactivatable reagent treatment system wherein photoactivatable agents, in contact with patient blood cells, are irradiated extracorporeally and then returned to the patient

  20. On treatment of uncertainty in system planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flage, R.; Aven, T.

    2009-01-01

    In system planning and operation considerable efforts and resources are spent to reduce uncertainties, as a part of project management, uncertainty management and safety management. The basic idea seems to be that uncertainties are purely negative and should be reduced. In this paper we challenge this way of thinking, using a common industry practice as an example. In accordance with this industry practice, three uncertainty interval categories are used: ±40% intervals for the feasibility phase, ±30% intervals for the concept development phase and ±20% intervals for the engineering phase. The problem is that such a regime could easily lead to a conservative management regime encouraging the use of existing methods and tools, as new activities and novel solutions and arrangements necessarily mean increased uncertainties. In the paper we suggest an alternative approach based on uncertainty and risk descriptions, but having no predefined uncertainty reduction structures. The approach makes use of risk assessments and economic optimisation tools such as the expected net present value, but acknowledges the need for broad risk management processes which extend beyond the analyses. Different concerns need to be balanced, including economic aspects, uncertainties and risk, and practicability

  1. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. 2: Local area networks as a multiprocessor treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neblett, D.L.; Hogan, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    The creation of a local area network (LAN) of interconnected computers provides an environment of multi computer processors that adds a new dimension to treatment planning. A LAN system provides the opportunity to have two or more computers working on the plan in parallel. With high speed interprocessor transfer, events such as the time consuming task of correcting several individual beams for contours and inhomogeneities can be performed simultaneously; thus, effectively creating a parallel multiprocessor treatment planning system

  3. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs

  4. Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Gariani; Islam Shyha; Fawad Inam; Dehong Huo

    2017-01-01

    A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main cr...

  5. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  6. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  7. Phantom-based interactive simulation system for dental treatment training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Kee, Bundit; Riener, Robert; Frey, Martin; Pröll, Thomas; Burgkart, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new interactive simulation system for dental treatment training. The system comprises a virtual reality environment and a force-torque measuring device to enhance the capabilities of a passive phantom of tooth anatomy in dental treatment training processes. The measuring device is connected to the phantom, and provides essential input data for generating the graphic animations of physical behaviors such as drilling and bleeding. The animation methods of those physical behaviors are also presented. This system is not only able to enhance interactivity and accessibility of the training system compared to conventional methods but it also provides possibilities of recording, evaluating, and verifying the training results.

  8. A transportable system for radioactivity contaminated water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated water treatment system called SARRY for retrieval and recovery of water in operation at the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant since August 2011 has been modified by compacting the system size to develop a mobile system SARRY-Aqua that can process Cs-contaminated water (one ton/hour) to the level of 10 Bq/kg. Installing the system in a small container with dimensions conforming to the international standards facilitates transportation by truck and enables the contaminated water treatment occurring in a variety of locations. (S. Ohno)

  9. Drug Treatment within the U.S. Federal Prison System: Are Treatment Needs Being Met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine; Persson, Lance Edwards

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of inmates in the U.S. federal prison system have serious drug problems and are in need of treatment before they return to society. Accordingly, the Federal Bureau of Prisons has revamped substance abuse programming consistent with the latest research and expanded treatment services throughout its institutions. This article…

  10. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  11. Orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Brahmanta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correction of class I malocclusion with bimaxillary dental protrusion and unilateral free end right upper ridge in adult patient is one of difficult biomechanical case in orthodontics. Due to this case that needs proper anchorage for upper incisor retraction with missing teeth in the right posterior segment. Purpose: The aim of this study to find an effective therapy for correction of bimaxillary protrusion with unilateral free and ridge. Case: A female patient, 36 year old complaining for the difficulty of lip closure due to severe bimaxillary protrusion with incompetence lip. Case management: Firstly correction of the maxillary and mandibular incisor proclination were done by extraction of the mandibular first premolar, the maxillary second premolar on left side and finally placement of miniplates implant in the zygomatic process on right side as an absolut anchorage. Conclusion: Skeletal anchorage system (SAS can be considered as an effective therapy for corection of bimaxillary protrusion with unilateral free end ridge.Latar belakang: Koreksi dari maloklusi klas I dari penderita dewasa yang disertai protrusi bimaksiler dengan kehilangan gigi posterior pada regio kanan atas merupakan salah satu kasus sulit untuk dikerjakan terutama berhubungan dengan biomekanik pergerakan giginya dalam perawatan ortodonti. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk menemukan terapi yang efektif untuk perbaikan protrusi bimaksiler dan kehilangan gigi posterior pada satu sisi. Kasus: Seorang penderita wanita usia 35 tahun datang dengan keluhan utama kesulitan untuk menutup mulut oleh karena gigi rahang atas dan rahang bawahnya maju dan bibirnya tidak kompeten. Tatalaksana kasus: Koreksi pada gigi insisivus rahang atas dan insisivus rahang bawah yang protrusi dilakukan dengan melakukan pencabutan terlebih dahulu pada gigi premolar pertama dirahang bawah sisi kanan dan sisi kiri serta pencabutan pada gigi premolar kedua di rahang atas sisi

  12. Efficiency of a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treatment System in an Arid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Albalawneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and treatment efficiency of the Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland treatment system (HSF-CW in an arid climate. Seventeen sub-surface, horizontal-flow HSF-CW units have been operated for approximately three years to improve the quality of partially-treated municipal wastewater. The studied design parameters included two sizes of volcanic tuff media (i.e., fine or coarse, two different bed dimensions (i.e., long and short, and three plantation types (i.e., reed, kenaf, or no vegetation as a control. The effluent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, and phosphorus from all of the treatments were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 55%, 51%, 67%, and 55%, respectively. There were significant increases in Electrical Conductivity (EC, sulfate, and calcium in the effluent of most HSF-CWs due to evaporative concentration and mineral dissolution from the media. The study suggests that unplanted beds with either fine or coarse media are the most suitable combinations among all of the studied designs based on their treatment efficiency and less water loss in arid conditions.

  13. Impact of decontamination on LWR radioactive waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenes, G.R.; Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, J.R.; Faust, L.G.

    1979-01-01

    Only at N-Reactor is there a means to accommodate radwaste produced during decontamination. The Dresden system is expected to be ready to accommodate such solutions by the summer of 1979. Solidification of the processed decontamination waste may be a significant problem. There is doubt that the materials in current radwaste treatment systems can handle chemicals from a concentrated process. The total storage volume, for concentrated decontamination, is not sufficient in existing radwaste treatment systems. Greater attention should be placed on designing reactors and radwaste treatment systems for decontamination. A means of handling waste material resulting from leaks in the primary system during the decontamination must be developed. On-site storage of solidified decontamination wastes may be a viable option, but license amendments will be necessary

  14. Methods of Improving Water Treatment Systems for Individual Residential Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of hot topics for ecological management is sewage treatment today in places where there is no sewerage. The volume of country construction in territories, which are not connected to the public sewage system increasing nowadays. Therefore, problem of wastewater treatment take place. Currently, there are a lot of different designs of local waste treatment plants is offered to consumers. However, a large number of negative reviews indicate serious shortcomings in most of the local plants offered in the market. The purpose of this paper is the proposal of improvement of the most common local treatment plants in Russia.

  15. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  16. Effects of inoculum source and co-digestion strategies on anaerobic digestion of residues generated in the treatment of waste vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Dolores; Martín-Marroquín, Jesús M

    2014-09-01

    This work aims at selecting a suitable strategy to improve the performance of the anaerobic digestion of residues generated in the treatment of waste vegetable oils (WVO). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted at 35 °C to evaluate the effects of substrate mix ratio between a mixture of WVO residues (M) and pig manure (PM) co-digesting by using different inocula. Inoculum from an industrial digester fed with organic waste from hotels, restaurants and catering leftovers (HORECA) showed higher methanogenic activity (55.5 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1)) than municipal wastewater treatment plant (mWWTP) inoculum (42.6 mL CH4 gVS(-1) d(-1)). Furthermore, the results showed that the resistance to WVO residues toxicity was higher for the HORECA sludge than for the mWWTP sludge. HORECA inoculum produced more biogas in all the assays. Moreover, the resulting biogas was of better quality, containing an average of 71.1% (SD = 1.6) methane compared to an average of 69.5% (SD = 1.2) methane for test with mWWTP sludge. The maximum degradation rate occurred at the higher PM mix ratio (M/PM:1/3), reaching 26.7 ± 4.3 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1) for mWWTP inoculum, versus 42.0 ± 1,5 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1) achieved for HORECA inoculum. A high reduction of volatile solids (between 70% and 81%) was obtained with both inocula at all M/PM ratios assayed (1/0, 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 v/v) but, bearing in mind the operation of a full-scale anaerobic plant, the optimal scenario assayed corresponds to the ratio M/PM: 1/3 v/v where shorter lag periods will make it possible to operate at lower hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Systemic treatment of advanced, persistent or recurrent cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2015-01-01

    The cervical cancer is the third most common malignancy in women in the world. Despite advances in screening and treatment there are a relatively large number of patients who are diagnosed with advanced stage of disease, or who have inoperable recurrence. In this group of patients, the main aim of a treatment is palliative intent. The main cytotoxic agent is cisplatin, but the responses are also observed with other chemotherapy agents. Improved therapeutic results are observed with combined platinum-based chemotherapy regimens as compared to cisplatin monotherapy. Overall, however, the treatment results in advanced, persistent and recurrent cervical cancer are unfavorable and disease is considered to be relatively chemo resistant. The new treatment approaches are searched and a significant therapeutic benefit, as far as progression-free and overall survival, has been recently demonstrated when adding bevacizumab to systemic chemotherapy. The current article is a review of systemic treatment in advanced, persistent and recurrent metastatic carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  18. The marsh vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Callaghan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon suggests that this system is in transition from an estuary to a coastal lake. Two major types of vegetation were recognized, one which is subjected to soil and water conditions of marine origin and the other which is subjected to conditions of terrestrial origin. These vegetation types are discussed and compared to the vegetation of other estuarine systems. Artificial manipulations of the mouth seem to have resulted in sediment deposition and a freshening of the system. These unseasonable manipulations also threaten the continued existence of a number of species in the system.

  19. Monitoring Utilization of a Large Scale Addiction Treatment System: The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Information System (DATIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Khobzi Rotondi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Client-based information systems can yield data to address issues of system accountability and planning, and contribute information related to changing patterns of substance use in treatment and, indirectly, general populations. The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Information System (DATIS monitors the number/types of clients treated in approximately 170 publicly-funded addiction treatment agencies in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to estimate the caseload of addiction treatment agencies, and describe important characteristics of clients, their patterns of service utilization and trends over-time from 2005 to 2010. In 2009–2010, 47,065 individuals were admitted to treatment. Since 2005–2006, there has been an increase in adolescents/youth in treatment, and a decrease in the male-female gender ratio. Alcohol problems predominated, but an increasing proportion of clients used cannabis and prescription opioids. DATIS is an evolving system and an integral component of Ontario's performance measurement system. Linkages with healthcare information systems will allow for longitudinal tracking of client health-related outcomes.

  20. Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Epstein, Howard E; Box, Elgene O; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Goswami, Santonu; Iversen, Colleen M; Kattge, Jens; Norby, Richard J; van Bodegom, Peter M; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2014-07-01

    Earth system models describe the physical, chemical and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modellers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review, the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current and future distribution of vegetation. Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially below-ground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait-environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology and remote sensing will be

  1. Basic user guide for the radwaste treatment plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    1990-07-01

    This guide has been produced as an aid to using the Radwaste Treatment Plant computer system. It is designed to help new users to use the database menu system. Some of the forms can be used in ways different from those explained and more complex queries can be performed. (UK)

  2. Hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and evaluation of treatments for the elimination of indigenous E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 from the surface of leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ytana oliveira Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and irrigation water and assess the effectiveness of lemon juice and vinegar in reducing E. coli strains inoculated on lettuce. One hundred and forty samples of vegetables and 45 samples of irrigation water were investigated for thermotolerant coliforms and Salmonella spp. In order to verify the effectiveness of natural household sanitizers in reducing E. coli in inoculated lettuce, four treatment solutions were tested: fresh lemon juice, alcohol vinegar, lemon juice-vinegar mixture, and lemon juice-vinegar-water mixture. The microbiological analysis revealed high rates of contamination by thermotolerant coliforms and identified the presence of E. coli in 32% of the tested vegetable samples and 56% of the water samples. While no significant statistical difference (p < 0, 05 was identified in the tested solutions, the treatment with a combination of lemon juice and vinegar resulted in the highest Decimal Reductions (DR of E. coli O157: H7 while the treatment with vinegar alone was the most effective against the indigenous E. coli strain

  3. Pollution abatement with peat onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J L [University of Maine, Orano, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of onsite wastewater treatment is to provide economical removal of dissolved nutrients, pathogens and other contaminates from septic tank effluent to avoid the pollution of groundwater or creation of other health hazards. The effective use of conventional soil adsorption systems is limited by a number of factors including site characteristics, soil type and condition, and the proximity of the system to surface waters or a source of potable water. On adverse sites, where the use of conventional subsurface soil adsorption systems does not provide acceptable levels of treatment, Sphagnum peat may be used as an economical method of onsite wastewater treatment. The peat system, when properly designed and constructed, is relatively simple to install, requires minimal energy and maintenance, and provides a high quality effluent without additional disinfection. 19 refs.

  4. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  5. Classification system for acute and chronic radiation treatment sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    A classification system in German language is proposed for scoring of acute and chronic treatment sequelae after radiotherapy. It includes all important organs and organ systems. The proposed grading corresponds to the four-scale-system of the WHO and UICC. The system is also compatible to the RTOG and EORTC acute and late radiation morbidity scoring criteria. This facilitates the data transfer for retrospective and prospective analysis of monomodal and multimodal radiotherapy treatment regimes. We recommend to use this scoring system in all German speaking countries for multicentric prospective studies. It is possible, that organ-specific sophistications of the toxicity grading will be developed in the future. These additions should conform with (inter)national standards and apply the same four-scale grading of this classification system. (orig.) [de

  6. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Measured performance of four PWR liquid radioactive waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Mandler, J.W.; Stalker, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the liquid radwaste treatment and boron recovery systems of four operating PWR power plants. The performance of a given system was determined from measurements of radionuclide inventories in samples drawn from demineralizers, evaporators, filters, and gaseous cleanup systems. The plants at which measurements were made are Fort Calhoun, Zion 1 and 2, Turkey Point 3 and 4, and Rancho Seco

  8. Mental health treatment teams and leadership: a systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yank, G R; Barber, J W; Spradlin, W W

    1994-10-01

    Mental health treatment teams are living systems at the group level and comprise key productive subsystems of organizations providing mental health care. Effective treatment teams, like effective organizations, are anticipatory systems that contain subsystems that model and predict future system and environmental conditions and enable responses that increase system viability. A systems analysis of treatment teams highlights their potential instability due to their tendencies to regress toward dysfunctional partial systems and their active maintenance in nonequilibrium steady states with their organizational and external environments. Team subsystems are analyzed from the viewpoints of system processes and also with regard to individuals and their roles. Boundary processes are central to effective team functioning, assure constancy of team membership, and regulate the team's interfaces with its parent agency and with the external environment. Various causes and forms of disturbed information processing within hierarchical organizations are examined, and their effects at the treatment team level are discussed. The conclusion of the discussion focuses on team leadership and how leadership expands upon the concept of the decider subsystem to include role and personal factors to the team's leaders, and functions that are anticipatory and integrative in nature. Effective leaders must set appropriate thresholds for feedback regulation processes, and balance several pairs of seemingly opposing forces, including homeostasis and development, role differentiation and role overlap, and personal accountability and empowerment of others.

  9. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  10. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios

  11. Vegetation composition and structure significantly influence green roof performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, N.; Nagase, A.; Booth, R.; Grime, P. [Sheffield Univ., Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Landscape Architecture

    2005-07-01

    The majority of published literature on green roofs contains little specific information on the contribution of plants to the various functions and properties of green roofs. This paper reviewed previously published material in an attempt to shed light on the role of vegetation composition in green roof systems, with specific reference to hydrology and biodiversity support. Two ongoing experiments at the University of Sheffield were then considered: (1) a comparison of quality and quantity of runoff from different types of vegetation; and (2) a comparison of flowering seasons and biodiversity support of different vegetation. Results of the studies showed that there was no general pattern of variation in runoff that could be related to vegetation complexity or taxonomic composition of the communities. During the winter months, high precipitation quickly saturated the soil and percolate losses were similar for all treatments. In the summer, throughflow losses differed between treatments in relation to the structure of the plant canopy. Differing mechanisms resulted in variations in the volume of percolate that was collected. Lower volumes of percolate were observed in herb-only monocultures of Leontdon hispidus, a species with a high water content. Tap-rooted species were seen to more effectively absorb soil moisture. The biodiversity support study focused on the study of Sedum species and Labiatae species, which suggested that mixed vegetation containing these species had a far greater likelihood of attracting wild bees to support pollination. Results of the studies indicated that green roof vegetation with greater structural and species diversity may provide different benefits than sedum-dominated roots. Further studies are needed to investigate the trade-offs between vegetation types, and green roof functions and performance in order to justify calls for a wider diversity of green roof types. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. Municipal wastewater treatment in Mexico: current status and opportunities for employing ecological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Roy, Eric D; White, John R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment in Mexico, as well as to assess opportunities for using ecological treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands. In 2008, Mexico had 2101 MWW treatment plants that treated only 84 m3/s of wastewater (208 m3/s ofMWW were collected in sewer systems). Unfortunately, most treatment plants operate below capacity owing to a lack of maintenance and paucity of properly trained personnel. The main types of treatment systems applied in Mexico are activated sludge and waste stabilization ponds, which treat 44.3% and 18% of the MWW collected, respectively. As in many other developing nations around the world, there is a great need in Mexico for low-cost, low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. In 2005, 24.3 million Mexicans lived in villages of less than 2500 inhabitants and 14.1 million lived in towns with 2500-15,000 inhabitants. An opportunity exists to extend the use of ecological treatment systems to these low population density areas and considerably increase the percentage of MWW that is treated in Mexico. Small-scale and medium-size constructed wetlands have been built successfully in some states, primarily during the past five years. Several barriers need to be overcome to increase the adoption and utilization of ecological wastewater technology in Mexico, including: a lack of knowledge about this technology, scarce technical information in Spanish, and the government's concentration on constructing MWW treatment plants solely in urban areas.

  13. Implementation of three dimensional treatment planning system for external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Tibor; Kurup, P.G.G.; Stumpf, Janos

    1997-01-01

    A three dimensional (3D) treatment planning system was installed at Apollo Cancer Hospital, Chennai, India in 1995. This paper gives a short description of the system including hardware components, calculation algorithm, measured data requirements and specific three dimensional features. The concept and the structure of the system are shortly described. The first impressions along with critical opinions and the experiences are gained during the data acquisition are mentioned. Some improvements in the user interface are suggested. It is emphasized that although a 3D system offers more detailed and accurate dose distributions compared to a 2D system, it also introduces a greatly increased workload for the planning staff. (author)

  14. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel

  15. Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological implications. ... the leafy vegetables is attributed to plant differences in tolerance to heavy metals. ... Treatment of industrial effluents and phyto-extraction of excess metals from ...

  16. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rituximab treatment in primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Ross, Laura; Oon, Shereen; Nikpour, Mandana

    2018-06-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis affecting the brain and spinal cord. Treatment with biological agents has revolutionised the treatment of many rheumatic conditions but there is scant literature regarding the use of biological agents in PACNS. We present three cases of PACNS treated with rituximab, including two cases of relapsed disease, and a literature review suggesting a role for rituximab in this condition. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked

  19. The sewer collection system, the first treatment step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustia, B.M.; Dickerson, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The Civil Engineering Research Foundation's (CERF) Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC) conducted an evaluation of a microbial treatment additive that converts the entire sewer collection system into an efficient high-speed treatment step. The technology claims to reduce total suspended solids (TSS) by > 60% and carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD), simultaneously by > 30% before it reaches the treatment plant. The technology uses pump station wet wells as the network nodes to add the microbial treatment to the waste water collection system This process uses the natural retention time in the sewer coupled with the addition of an extremely concentrated mixture of select, symbiotic, facultative microbes, which degrade the waste en route to the treatment plant. These bacteria do not produce odorous compounds and they replace the sulfur-reducing-bacteria (SRB) in the biomass on the walls of the force mains and on the wet perimeter of the gravity sewer piping by 'competitive exclusion.' This microbial substitution is achieved by the high quantity of organisms injected into the collection system. This reduces the sulfides in the wastewater thereby reducing the odor, along with greatly reducing the corrosion elements, which attack the piping in a sewer collection system. The objective of EvTEC evaluation was to verify the performance and reliability of such a microbial additive to treat wastewater and reduce plant 'sludges,' or biosolids. Among other performance issues, the evaluation addressed the technology's ability to treat domestic wastewater flows over an extended time period (i.e., greater than 3 months, 6 months, 12 months..., etc.) and to see if the benefits are improved during particular times of year. The benefits to using the additive include reducing the biosolids produced at the treatment plant and increasing the treatment plant's efficiency and capacity. This in turn helped reduce operating costs without requiring a large

  20. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  1. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  2. Treatment systems for liquid wastes generated in chemical analysis laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linda Berrio; Oscar Beltran; Edison Agudelo; Santiago Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, handling of liquid wastes from chemical analysis laboratories is posing problems to different public and private organizations because of its requirements of an integrated management. This article reviews various treatment technologies and its removal efficiencies in order to establish criteria for selecting the system and the appropriate variables to achieve research objectives as well as environmental sustainability. Review begins with a description of the problem and continues with the study of treatments for laboratory wastes. These technologies are segregated into physicochemical and biological treatments that comprise a variety of processes, some of which are considered in this review.

  3. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376

  4. Implementation of a module for risk of ozone impacts assessment to vegetation in the Integrated Assessment Modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula. Evaluation for wheat and Holm oak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrés, Juan Manuel de; Borge, Rafael; Paz, David de la; Lumbreras, Julio; Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2012-01-01

    A module to estimate risks of ozone damage to vegetation has been implemented in the Integrated Assessment Modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula. It was applied to compute three different indexes for wheat and Holm oak; daylight AOT40 (cumulative ozone concentration over 40 ppb), cumulative ozone exposure index according to the Directive 2008/50/EC (AOT40-D) and POD Y (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose over a given threshold of Y nmol m −2 s −1 ). The use of these indexes led to remarkable differences in spatial patterns of relative ozone risks on vegetation. Ozone critical levels were exceeded in most of the modelling domain and soil moisture content was found to have a significant impact on the results. According to the outputs of the model, daylight AOT40 constitutes a more conservative index than the AOT40-D. Additionally, flux-based estimations indicate high risk areas in Portugal for both wheat and Holm oak that are not identified by AOT-based methods. - Highlights: ► A modelling system to estimate the risk of ozone in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. ► Ozone exposure- and flux-based approaches lead to rather different conclusions. ► Available ozone critical levels were exceeded in most locations where wheat is present. ► Soil moisture content has a significant impact on the flux-based results in some areas. - Flux-based indexes are needed to provide an effective protection of the vegetation in the Iberian Peninsula; currently, available critical levels for wheat are widely exceeded.

  5. Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Hargreaves, Megan; Frost, Ray; Dawes, Les

    2006-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public health and environmental impacts caused by poorly performing systems, in particular septic tank-soil adsorption systems. In order to achieve sustainable onsite wastewater treatment with minimal impacts on the environment and public health, more appropriate means of assessment are required. This paper highlights an integrated risk based approach for assessing the inherent hazards associated with OWTS in order to manage and mitigate the environmental and public health risks inherent with onsite wastewater treatment. In developing a sound and cohesive integrated risk framework for OWTS, several key issues must be recognised. These include the inclusion of relevant stakeholders throughout framework development, the integration of scientific knowledge, data and analysis with risk assessment and management ideals, and identification of the appropriate performance goals for successful management and mitigation of associated risks. These issues were addressed in the development of the risk framework to provide a generic approach to assessing risk from OWTS. The utilisation of the developed risk framework for achieving more appropriate assessment and management techniques for OWTS is presented in a case study for the Gold Coast region, Queensland State, Australia.

  6. Sustainable Optimization for Wastewater Treatment System Using PSF-HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability in a river with respect to water quality is critical because it is highly related with environmental pollution, economic expenditure, and public health. This study proposes a sustainability problem of wastewater treatment system for river ecosystem conservation which helps the healthy survival of the aquatic biota and human beings. This study optimizes the design of a wastewater treatment system using the parameter-setting-free harmony search algorithm, which does not require the existing tedious value-setting process for algorithm parameters. The real-scale system has three different options of wastewater treatment, such as filtration, nitrification, and diverted irrigation (fertilization, as well as two existing treatment processes (settling and biological oxidation. The objective of this system design is to minimize life cycle costs, including initial construction costs of those treatment options, while satisfying minimal dissolved oxygen requirements in the river, maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater, and a minimal nitrogen requirement for crop farming. Results show that the proposed technique could successfully find solutions without requiring a tedious setting process.

  7. A framework for the organization and delivery of systemic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, T; Coakley, N; Nayler, J; Degrasse, C; Green, E; Mackay, J A; McLennan, C; Smith, A; Wilcock, L; Trudeau, M E

    2009-01-01

    Increasing systemic treatment and shortages of oncology professionals in Canada require innovative approaches to the safe and effective delivery of intravenous (IV) cancer treatment. We conducted a systematic review of the clinical and scientific literature, and an environmental scan of models in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. We then developed a framework for the organization and delivery of IV systemic treatment. The systematic review covered the medline, embase, cinahl, and HealthStar databases. The environmental scan retrieved published and unpublished sources, coupled with a free key word search using the Google search engine. The Systemic Treatment Working Group reviewed the evidence and developed a draft framework using evidence-based analysis, existing recommendations from various jurisdictions, and expert opinion based on experience and consensus. The draft was assessed by Ontario stakeholders and reviewed and approved by Cancer Care Ontario. The poor quantity and quality of the evidence necessitated a consensus-derived model. That model comprises four levels of care determined by a regional systemic treatment program and three integrated structures (integrated cancer programs, affiliate institutions, and satellite institutions), each with a defined scope of practice and a specific organizational framework. New models of care are urgently required beyond large centres, particularly in geographically remote or rural areas. Despite limited applicable evidence, the development and successful implementation of this framework is intended to create sustainable, accessible, quality care and to measurably improve patient outcomes.

  8. Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control treatments in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Paul W. Footen; Robert B. Harrison; Thomas A. Terry; Constance A. Harrington; Scott M. Holub; Peter J. Gould

    2013-01-01

    We sampled trees grown with and without competing vegetation control in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation on a highly productive site in southwestern Washington to create diameter based allometric equations for estimating individual-tree bole, branch, foliar, and total...

  9. Order of 17 May 1985 on treatment by ionizing radiation of gum-arabic, dehydrated vegetables and cereal flakes and seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Order fixes the licensing conditions for the sale of gum-arabic, dehydrated vegetables and cereal flakes and seeds for use in dairy products, whose microbial decontamination was obtained through exposure to cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma-rays or electron beams with an energy below or equal to 10 MeV. (NEA) [fr

  10. Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Natarajan, Loki; Caan, Bette J; Parker, Barbara A; Greenberg, E Robert; Flatt, Shirley W; Rock, Cheryl L; Kealey, Sheila; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Bardwell, Wayne A; Carlson, Robert W; Emond, Jennifer A; Faerber, Susan; Gold, Ellen B; Hajek, Richard A; Hollenbach, Kathryn; Jones, Lovell A; Karanja, Njeri; Madlensky, Lisa; Marshall, James; Newman, Vicky A; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wasserman, Linda; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2007-07-18

    % confidence interval, 0.72-1.15; P = .43). No significant interactions were observed between diet group and baseline demographics, characteristics of the original tumor, baseline dietary pattern, or breast cancer treatment. Among survivors of early stage breast cancer, adoption of a diet that was very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat did not reduce additional breast cancer events or mortality during a 7.3-year follow-up period. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003787.

  11. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  12. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E. [Ashland Hercules Water Technologies, Krefeld (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  13. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Stochastic responses of tumor–immune system with periodic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dong-Xi; Li Ying

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the stochastic responses of a tumor–immune system competition model with environmental noise and periodic treatment. Firstly, a mathematical model describing the interaction between tumor cells and immune system under external fluctuations and periodic treatment is established based on the stochastic differential equation. Then, sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence of the tumor cells are derived by constructing Lyapunov functions and Ito’s formula. Finally, numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate and verify the results. The results of this work provide the theoretical basis for designing more effective and precise therapeutic strategies to eliminate cancer cells, especially for combining the immunotherapy and the traditional tools. (paper)

  15. Dinâmica vegetacional em pastagem natural submetida a diferentes sistemas de manejo Vegetation dynamics of natural grassland under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos da Silva Brum

    2007-06-01

    beginning of the grazing period (23/09/2004 and after its end (27/01/2005. Tested treatments were: natural grassland improvement with introduction of cool season species under rotative grazing (CNM; natural grassland under continuous grazing (CNC and natural grassland under rotative grazing (CNR, distributed in an entirely randomized design, with two replicates. Corriedale breed ewes, with their lambs, were tester grazing animals. Data were submitted to multivariate analysis based in ordination and randomization testing. In the first survey, the treatment CNM differed (P=0.0001 from CNC and CNR due to the high contribution of the introduced species, while CNC and CNR were similar (P=0.6742 in species' composition. Treatments CNM and CNC were different (P=0.0017 in the second evaluation. The effect of rotative grazing, introduction of species and fertilization seems to be decisive for changes in floristic composition. Vegetation under rotative grazing presented trajectories that converge to a situation of similarity in the species' composition.

  16. A novel approach for determination of free fatty acids in vegetable oils by a flow injection system with manual injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, H Filiz; Kara, Huseyin; Sherazi, S T H

    2011-12-01

    A non-aqueous flow injection method for determining free fatty acid (FFA) content in corn and sunflower oil samples was developed. A single-line manifold system was built by modification of an HPLC for flow injection analysis (FIA). Without pre-treatment, oil samples were injected into a n-propanol solution containing KOH and phenolphthalein (PHP). The main parameters, such as flow rate of carrier phase, length, geometry, inner diameters of the coils and reagent concentration were all optimized. The proposed FIA method was validated for precision, accuracy, linear region, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The intra- and inter-day measurements of the precision of the method were found to be within the limits of acceptance criteria (RSD analyst. The linear concentration range was calculated as 0.09-1.50 and 0.07-1.40 FFA% for corn and sunflower oils, correspondingly. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 7.53 × 10(-4)-2.28 × 10(-3) oleic acid % and 7.11 × 10(-4)-2.23 × 10(-3) oleic acid % for corn and sunflower oils, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained by the AOCS (Ca-5a-40) method using statistical t and F tests, and a significant difference was not observed between the methods at a 95% confidence level. The proposed method is suitable for quality control of routine applications due to its simplicity, high sample throughput, and economy of solvents and sample, offering considerable promise as a low cost analytical system that needs minimum human intervention over long periods of time.

  17. Consensus Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis in Korea (Part II): Systemic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lew, Bark-Lynn; Lee, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Phil; Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kui Young; Seo, Seong Jun; Bae, Jung Min; Choi, Eung Ho; Suhr, Ki Beom; Lee, Seung Chul; Ko, Hyun Chang; Park, Young Lip; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Jun; Lee, Yang Won; Cho, Sang Hyun; Park, Chun Wook; Roh, Joo Young

    2015-10-01

    Since the treatment guidelines for atopic dermatitis (AD) were issued by the Korean Atopic Dermatitis Association (KADA) work group in 2006, there have been further advances in the systemic treatment of AD. We aimed to establish updated evidence- and experience-based systemic treatment guidelines for Korean AD. We compiled a database of references from relevant systematic reviews and guidelines regarding the systemic management of AD, including antihistamines, antimicrobials, systemic immunomodulators, allergen-specific immunotherapy, phototherapy, adjunctive treatment, and complementary and alternative medicines. Evidence for each statement was graded and classified based on the strength of the recommendation. Thirty-nine council members of KADA participated in the three rounds of votes and expert consensus recommendations were established. The use of antihistamines is recommended to relieve pruritus and to prevent exacerbation due to scratching in AD patients. Infection should be controlled as needed and long-term medication should be avoided. For moderate to severe AD patients, concomitant active treatments with systemic immunomodulators are indicated. Cyclosporine is the first choice among systemic immunomodulators and others should be considered as second-line alternatives. Allergen-specific immunotherapy could be effective in AD patients with aeroallergen hypersensitivity. Phototherapy can be useful for moderate to severe AD patients and narrow-band ultraviolet B is the most effective option. Complementary and alternative medicines cannot be recommended for treating AD. We expect these recommendations to be a reference guide for physicians and AD patients in choosing the appropriate treatment to improve quality of life and decrease unnecessary social medical costs.

  18. STUDY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi Nasr, A. R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water resources shortage is one of the most important issues for environmental engineers and managers as well as its conservation due to population growth and ever-increasing water demands. Besides, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components. In this paper, physical and chemical specifications of produced wastewater in hospitals of Iran were investigated experiments. Results were compared with the effluent parameters of wastewater standards of Iranian Department of the Environment. 70 governmental hospitals from different provinces of Iran were selected by purposive (non-random sampling method. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL softwares were applied. The findings of the study showed that 52% of the surveyed hospitals were not equipped and 48% were equipped with wastewater treatment systems. The mean of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Suspended Solids of the effluent of wastewater treatment systems were reported as 113, 188 and 99 mg/L respectively. Comparison of the indicators between effluents of wastewater treatment systems and the standards of Departments of the Environment, showed the inefficiency in these systems and it was concluded that despite the recent improvements in hospital wastewater treatment systems, they should be upgraded based on the remarks in this paper.

  19. Systemic multimodal approach to speech therapy treatment in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Daniela; Marković, Slavica; Milankov, Vesela

    2013-01-01

    Conditions in which speech therapy treatment is applied in autistic children are often not in accordance with characteristics of opinions and learning of people with autism. A systemic multimodal approach means motivating autistic people to develop their language speech skill through the procedure which allows reliving of their personal experience according to the contents that are presented in the their natural social environment. This research was aimed at evaluating the efficiency of speech treatment based on the systemic multimodal approach to the work with autistic children. The study sample consisted of 34 children, aged from 8 to 16 years, diagnosed to have different autistic disorders, whose results showed a moderate and severe clinical picture of autism on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The applied instruments for the evaluation of ability were the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Ganzberg II test. The study subjects were divided into two groups according to the type of treatment: children who were covered by the continuing treatment and systemic multimodal approach in the treatment, and children who were covered by classical speech treatment. It is shown that the systemic multimodal approach in teaching autistic children affects the stimulation of communication, socialization, self-service and work as well as that the progress achieved in these areas of functioning was retainable after long time, too. By applying the systemic multimodal approach when dealing with autistic children and by comparing their achievements on tests applied before, during and after the application of this mode, it has been concluded that certain improvement has been achieved in the functionality within the diagnosed category. The results point to a possible direction in the creation of new methods, plans and programs in dealing with autistic children based on empirical and interactive learning.

  20. Control of enteric pathogens in ready-to-eat vegetable crops in organic and 'low input' production systems: a HACCP-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, C; Ball, K; Volakakis, N; Cooper, J M

    2008-10-01

    Risks from pathogens such as Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157 have been identified as a particular concern for organic and 'low input' food production systems that rely on livestock manure as a nutrient source. Current data do not allow any solid conclusions to be drawn about the level of this risk, relative to conventional production systems. This review describes six Risk Reduction Points (RRPs) where risks from enteric pathogens can be reduced in ready-to-eat vegetables. Changes can be made to animal husbandry practices (RRP1) to reduce inoculum levels in manure. Outdoor livestock management (RRP2) can be optimized to eliminate the risk of faecal material entering irrigation water. Manure storage and processing (RRP3), soil management practices (RRP4) and timing of manure application (RRP5), can be adjusted to reduce the survival of pathogens originating from manure. During irrigation (RRP6), pathogen risks can be reduced by choosing a clean water source and minimizing the chances of faecal material splashing on to the crop. Although preventive measures at these RRPs can minimize enteric pathogen risk, zero risk can never be obtained for raw ready-to-eat vegetables. Good food hygiene practices at home are essential to reduce the incidence of food-borne illnesses.

  1. Safety in wastewater treatment: the pure oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giagnoni, L.

    1998-01-01

    Though the active sludge process represent, nowadays, the main reference system referring to installations for wastewater treatments, nevertheless systems that exploit the pure oxygen properties constitute an alternative method to the traditional cycle. The following essay is divided into two parts: the first one deals with the fundamental concepts related to the active sludge process and to the alternative system proposed, mentioned before, and includes a short account of the functional characteristics and a brief comparison with traditional methods; the second part represents the head corpus of the work and deals with the problems related to the safety with particular reference to the risk of an explosion meanwhile the process. Moreover, it's drawn attention to the fundamental role of security systems that, nowadays, get frequently used in such kind of installations. On this subject, furthermore, it's pointed out the great importance of the whole preliminary treatments in the planning phase, with particular reference to the processes used for stripping [it

  2. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Junyi; Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  3. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Junyi, E-mail: junyi-xia@uiowa.edu; Mart, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Bayouth, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, K4/B55, Madison, Wisconsin 53792-0600 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  4. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-113-1) Updates 9/27/02 SA-113 - Big Eddy-Ostrander Transmission Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Kenneth [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-12-02

    To perform remedial vegetation management for keeping vegetation a safe distance away from electric power facilities and controlling noxious weeds within a section of BPA's Big Eddy-Ostrander Transmission Corridor. During a site review conducted in late fall of 2001, the inspector observed various species of hardwood trees resprouted from stumps. The new vegetative growth encroached on the required “Minimum Safe Distance” between the top of vegetation and the conductor cables. The management action is necessary to reduce the current and potential future hazards that tall-growing vegetation poses to transmission conductors. In addition, BPA will include weed control as part of their remedial vegetation management action. Noxious weeds occur within the corridor. Under a 1999 Executive Order, all federal agencies are required to detect and control noxious weeds. In addition, BPA is required under the 1990 amendment to the Noxious Weed Act (7 USC 2801-2814) to manage undesirable plants on federal land. Also, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has responsibility to manage noxious weeds under the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS).1 State statutes and regulations also mandate action by BPA and the USFS to control noxious weeds. The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) has requested that agencies aggressively control these weeds before additional spread occurs.

  5. Applicability of Vegetable Oils as a Wood Preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Dizman Tomak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional heavy duty wood preservatives have been banned or restricted for some applications due to their mammalian toxicity and their adverse effect on the environment. New, eco-friendly, but nevertheless still effective protection systems, is needed to protect wood in outdoors. Non-toxic vegetable oils can form of a protective layer on the surface of the wood cells which decrease water uptake of wood. For that reason, oils have a good potential as being a wood preservative. However, impregnation with vegetable oils is insufficient to impart adequate biological decay and termite resistance, and indeed the treatment may increase wood’s propensity to burn. In addition, a high level of oil absorption required for good protection make the process impractical and uneconomic to use. The efficiency of the treatment can be improved with using the biocides and oils together. Beside this, usage of modified oils can decrease the retention levels in wood. In this study, applicability of vegetable oils being one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents on wood treatments was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection, and possible solutions for the problems were discussed.In this study, applicability of vegetable oils as one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection and possible solutions for the problems were discussed

  6. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Mining industry produces 25 Mton mine tailings yearly that are deposited in impoundments in the nature. When this sand, containing sulphur rich minerals, reacts with oxygen and water it starts to weather and acidic metal rich water is formed. To prevent this, the sand can be covered with a sealing layer and a protective cover layer with vegetation. As sealing and cover materials fly ashes and sewage sludge can be used. The aim of this investigation was to find out: 1) how sealing layer of fly ashes with and without sewage sludge, and a cover with sewage sludge can be placed practically on mine tailings in a cold climate. 2) how such a cover should be constructed to minimize the risk of root penetration and leakage of nutrients and metals 3) which vegetation that is most suitable This was investigated in field- and greenhouse tests with a sealing layer of fly ash and/or sewage sludge with a cover layer of sewage sludge in which different plant species were established. The practical application was performed in 0.3-1 ha plots at a mine tailings impoundments at Boliden. The ability of plant roots to penetrate a sealing layer was investigated, as well as the effect of simulated root exudates on the penetration resistance in hardened ash. Leakage of nutrients and metals from cover layer of sewage sludge, in some cases with sealing layers beneath, was investigated in field and greenhouse lysimeters. Various plant species were compared on their ability to affect metal and nutrient leakage as well as root penetration and shattering of the hardened ashes. The project was a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field tests were performed at the impoundment Gillervattnet in Boliden and in Garpenberg. Cooperating were also Iggesund Paperboard, Skellefteaa Kraft, Stora Enso Fors, Umeaa Energi and Vattenfall, all producers of ashes that were used, as well as Stockholm Vatten AB, which produced the sewage sludge. The most important conclusions

  7. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  8. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Decision Fusion Framework for Treatment Recommendation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jing; Liu, Haifeng; Li, Xiang; Xie, Guotong; Yu, Yiqin

    2015-01-01

    Treatment recommendation is a nontrivial task--it requires not only domain knowledge from evidence-based medicine, but also data insights from descriptive, predictive and prescriptive analysis. A single treatment recommendation system is usually trained or modeled with a limited (size or quality) source. This paper proposes a decision fusion framework, combining both knowledge-driven and data-driven decision engines for treatment recommendation. End users (e.g. using the clinician workstation or mobile apps) could have a comprehensive view of various engines' opinions, as well as the final decision after fusion. For implementation, we leverage several well-known fusion algorithms, such as decision templates and meta classifiers (of logistic and SVM, etc.). Using an outcome-driven evaluation metric, we compare the fusion engine with base engines, and our experimental results show that decision fusion is a promising way towards a more valuable treatment recommendation.

  10. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  11. Validation Aspects of Water Treatment Systems for Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of conducting validation is to demonstrate that a process, when operated within established limits, produces a product of consistent and specified quality with a high degree of assurance. Validation of water treatment systems is necessary to obtain water with all desired quality attributes. This also provides a ...

  12. Immune system as a vital partner in cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš; Šírová, Milada; Šubr, Vladimír; Ulbrich, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 37 ISSN 1875-2292. [7th International Conference on Tumor Microenvironment. 11.10.2015-15.10.2015, Tel Aviv] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Immune system * cancer treatment * nanomedicines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology

  13. Treatment outcome in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrick, Ariane L; Pan, Xiaoyan; Peytrignet, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The rarity of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) makes randomised controlled trials very difficult. We aimed to use an observational approach to compare effectiveness of currently used treatment approaches. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational cohort study...

  14. Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    To centralize treatment, storage, and areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 1115 m2 hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes, radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks; bulking small organic waste volumes; processing scintillation vials; treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium; treating contaminated solids such as barium sand; treating plating wastes and other solutions with heavy metals and oxidizing organics: Separate treatment rooms will allow workers to avoid mixing waste types and prevent cross-contamination. The ventilation air from the treatment areas may contain hazardous or radioactive dust. Gas may also leak from process equipment. The gas treatment process includes separating solids and gases and neutralization or adsorption of the hazardous gases. The ventilation air from each room will first be filtered before being scrubbed in a common gas caustic scrubber on an outside pad. There are two levels of exhaust in each treatment room, one for heavy gases and another for light gases. Several features help mitigate or eliminate hazards due to spills and releases: each treatment room is sealed and under slight negative pressure; each room has its own HEPA filtration; to avoid mixing of incompatible wastes and reagents, portable individual spill-containment trays are used for skids, to limit the danger of spills, the waste is directly transferred from outside storage to the treatment room; to mitigate the consequences of a gas release in the room, mobile hoods are connected to the exhaust-air treatment system; the floor, walls, ceilings, fixtures, ducts, and piping are made of acid-resistant material or are coated

  15. A record and verify system for radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koens, M.L.; Vroome, H. de

    1984-01-01

    The Record and Verify system developed for the radiotherapy department of the Leiden University Hospital is described. The system has been in use since 1980 and will now be installed in at least four of the Dutch University Hospitals. The system provides the radiographer with a powerful tool for checking the set-up of the linear accelerator preceeding the irradiation of a field. After the irradiation of a field the machine settings are registered in the computer system together with the newly calculated cumulative dose. These registrations are used by the system to produce a daily report which provides the management of the department with insight into the established differences between treatment and treatment planning. Buying a record and verify system from the manufacturer of the linear accelerator is not an optimal solution especially for a department with more than one accelerator from different manufacturers. Integration in a Hospital Information System (HIS) has important advantages over the development of a dedicated departmental system. (author)

  16. Development of laundry drainage treatment system with ceramic ultra filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Masanori; Kurahasi, Takafumi

    1995-01-01

    A compact laundry drainage treatment system (UF system hereafter) with a ceramic ultra filter membrane (UF membrane hereafter) has been developed to reduce radioactivity in laundry drainage from nuclear power plants. The UF membrane is made of sintered fine ceramic. The UF membrane has 0.01 μm fine pores, resulting in a durable, heat-resistant, and corrosion-resistant porous ceramic filter medium. A cross-flow system, laundry drainage is filtrated while it flows across the UF membrane, is used as the filtration method. This method creates less caking when compared to other methods. The UF membrane is back washed at regular intervals with permeated water to minimize caking of the filter. The UF membrane and cross-flow system provides long stable filtration. The ceramic UF membrane is strong enough to concentrate suspended solids in laundry drainage up to a weight concentration of 10%. The final concentrated laundry drainage can be treated in an incinerator. The performance of the UF system was checked using radioactive laundry drainage. The decontamination factor of the UF system was 25 or more. The laundry drainage treatment capacity and concentration ratio of the UF system, as well as the service life of the UF membrane were also checked by examination using simulated non-radioactive laundry drainage. Even though laundry drainage was concentrated 1000 times, the UF system showed good permeated water quality and permeated water flux. (author)

  17. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality

  18. Emulsion of systems containing egg yolk, polysaccharides and vegetable oil Emulsão de sistemas contendo gema de ovo, polissacarídeos e óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitor Junior Fernandes de Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work characterizes the emulsifying properties of systems containing egg yolk (0.1; 1.0 and 2.5 % w/v and polysaccharides (xanthan gum, carrageen, pectin and carboxymethylcellulose and three different vegetable oils (sunflower, canola, and palm oils. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability were measured of each combination and it was found the effect of the oil on emulsion stability correlated to the amount of monounsaturated fatty acid. Additionally, increased egg yolk concentration increased emulsifying activity by reducing coalescence of oil droplets. Lastly, 2.5% egg yolk and 0.2% polysaccharide generated emulsions with high emulsifying activity, excellent stability, and droplet size of 4.32 µm.Neste trabalho, caracterizam-se as propriedades emulsificantes de sistemas contendo gema de ovo (0,1; 1,0 e 2,5% m/v, polissacarídeos (goma xantana, carragena, pectina e carboximetilcelulose e três diferentes óleos vegetais (óleos de palma, canola e girassol. Atividade emulsificante e estabilidade da emulsão foram medidas para cada combinação e verificou-se o efeito do óleo sobre a estabilidade da emulsão correlacionada com a quantidade de ácido graxo monoinsaturado. Além disso, a concentração de gema de ovo aumentou a atividade emulsificante, reduzindo a coalescência das gotículas de óleo. Por último, 2,5 % de gema de ovo e 0,2% de polissacarídeo formaram emulsões com alta atividade emulsificante, excelente estabilidade e tamanho de gota de 4,32 µm.

  19. Changes in the bacterial number (enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, coliforms and SPC) in salted vegetables during storage and by treatment with electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes severe illness in humans, especially young children and elder people. Some 2-3% salted vegetables (called Asazuke) contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 have caused food-poisoning and even death. The viability of E. coli O157:H7 in saline water and in salted vegetables was tested. During cold and frozen storage, the apparent decrease in the number of E. coli O157:H7 was not observed. However, electron-beam irradiation (0.534, 1.097 and 2.639 kGy) caused clear decrease in the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in frozen salted Mizuna. The number of standard plating count (SPC) and coliforms were also counted and compared with the changes in the number of E. coli O157:H7. (author)

  20. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  1. Effect of transesterification degree and post-treatment on the in-service performance of NCO-functionalized vegetable oil bituminous products

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen modification through polyurethane prepolymers presents significant benefits for the manufacture of bituminous products for the paving industry. In this sense, this work explores the use, as bitumen modifier, of a novel reactive prepolymer synthesized by reaction of 4,4´,diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and a vegetable oil-based polyol, castor oil (CO), previously transesterified with pentaerythritol. On the one hand, thermal analysis on transesterified CO revealed a highly stabl...

  2. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong

    2001-05-01

    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system.

  3. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  4. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong

    2001-05-01

    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system

  5. A vision fusion treatment system based on ATtiny26L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chunxi; Wang, Jiqiang

    2006-11-01

    Vision fusion treatment is an important and effective project to strabismus children. The vision fusion treatment system based on the principle for eyeballs to follow the moving visual survey pole is put forward first. In this system the original position of visual survey pole is about 35 centimeters far from patient's face before its moving to the middle position between the two eyeballs. The eyeballs of patient will follow the movement of the visual survey pole. When they can't follow, one or two eyeballs will turn to other position other than the visual survey pole. This displacement is recorded every time. A popular single chip microcomputer ATtiny26L is used in this system, which has a PWM output signal to control visual survey pole to move with continuously variable speed. The movement of visual survey pole accords to the modulating law of eyeballs to follow visual survey pole.

  6. In Situ Modular Waste Retrieval and Treatment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process from remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG 6) at ORNL, a public meeting was held for the Proposed Plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and the environment. The US DOE in conjunction with the US EPA and the TDEC agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated. This report presents the results of a conceptual design for an In Situ Modular Retrieval and Treatment System able to excavate, shred, and process buried waste on site, with minimum disturbance and distribution of dust and debris. the system would bring appropriate levels of treatment to the waste then encapsulate and leave it in place. The system would be applicable to areas in which waste was disposed in long trenches

  7. A research-oriented treatment planning program system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalet, I.J.; Jacky, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of a treatment planning program is to graphically simulate radiation dose distributions from proposed radiation therapy treatments. While many such programs are available which provide this much-needed service, none addresses the question of how to intercompare calculation and display techniques. This paper describes a program system designed for support of research efforts, particularly development and testing of new calculation algorithms. The system emphasizes a modular flexible structure, enabling programs to be developed somewhat as interchangeable parts. Thus multiple variants of a calculation algorithm can be compared without undue software overhead or additional data management. Unusual features of the system include extensive use of command procedures, logical names and a structured language (PASCAL). These features are described along with other implementation details. Obstacles, limitations and future applications are also discussed. (Auth.)

  8. INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

  9. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled open-quotes Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Resultsclose quotes (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was open-quotes to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.close quotes The study also open-quotes identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.close quotes This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete open-quotes cradle-to-graveclose quotes systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews

  10. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  11. Modelling of treatment couch top with prowess panther treatment planning system for external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu-Agyapong, Linus

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the attenuation effects of a treatment couch and to alternatively model the couch top material with a Prowess Panther treatment planning system which does not support couch top modelling. The Hounsfield Unit classification of the couch structure was determined using a PMMA phantom by comparing ion chamber measurements with the dose forecasted by the treatment planning system (TPS). The transmission factor (TF) of the couch top was determined and was used as a TF for a treatment accessory that represented the treatment couch in the TPS. A treatment plan was done for various angles with and without the interference of the couch top and a simulated treatment was done using the PMMA phantom. Ion chamber measurement were made and compared with dose predicted by the TPS to evaluate the accuracy of the couch top modelling in the treatment planning system TPS. These investigations were done for various field sizes. The ideal set of HU for the couch was established to be -674. The measured TF was 0.956042 and the TPS calculated Transmission factor was 0.951456. The percentage difference between the measured and calculated TFs was 0.48% and this agrees perfectly with the IAEA recommended tolerance of 2%. Relative attenuation measurements were as high as 54.16% and as low as 0.63% for the beams that exited the couch before interacting with the phantom. In comparing couch modelling by couch simulation and couch TF insert, it was observed that the normalized doses were the same for 5×5 square field but deviated approximately 1% for the other field sizes. The highest deviation was observed at 10×10 square field. This study demonstrates that the couch simulation method of couch modelling is the best method that can be used to account for the effect of the treatment couch top on intersecting posterior beam fields. Thus, the attenuation effects of the treatment couch was effectively evaluated and the couch top material accurately modelled in

  12. Modelling water fluxes in a pine wood soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Comparison of a water budget and water flow model using different parameter data sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.

    2010-01-01

    For modelling complex hydrological problems, realistic models and accurate hydraulic properties are needed. A mechanistic model (HYDRUS-1D) and a compartment model are evaluated for simulating the water balance in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere system using time series of measured water content at several depths in two lysimeters in a podzol soil with Scots Pine vegetation. 10 calibration scenarios are used to investigate the impact of the model type and the number of horizons in the profile on the calibration accuracy. Main results are: (i) with a large number of soil layers, both models describe accurately the water contents at all depths, (II) the number of soil layers is the major factor that controls the quality of the calibration. The compartment model is as an abstracted model and the mechanistic model is our reference model. Drainage values are the considered output. Drainage values simulated by the abstracted model were close to those of the reference model when averaged over a sufficiently long period (about 9 months). This result suggests that drainage values obtained with an abstracted model are reliably when averaged over sufficiently long periods; the abstracted model needs less computational time without an important loss of accuracy.

  13. Modelling water fluxes in a pine wood soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Comparison of a water budget and water flow model using different parameter data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.

    2010-02-15

    For modelling complex hydrological problems, realistic models and accurate hydraulic properties are needed. A mechanistic model (HYDRUS-1D) and a compartment model are evaluated for simulating the water balance in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere system using time series of measured water content at several depths in two lysimeters in a podzol soil with Scots Pine vegetation. 10 calibration scenarios are used to investigate the impact of the model type and the number of horizons in the profile on the calibration accuracy. Main results are: (i) with a large number of soil layers, both models describe accurately the water contents at all depths, (II) the number of soil layers is the major factor that controls the quality of the calibration. The compartment model is as an abstracted model and the mechanistic model is our reference model. Drainage values are the considered output. Drainage values simulated by the abstracted model were close to those of the reference model when averaged over a sufficiently long period (about 9 months). This result suggests that drainage values obtained with an abstracted model are reliably when averaged over sufficiently long periods; the abstracted model needs less computational time without an important loss of accuracy.

  14. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  15. Sequential effect of phages and cold nitrogen plasma against Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms on different vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiying; Bai, Mei; Yuan, Lu; Surendhiran, Duraiarasan; Lin, Lin

    2018-03-02

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is one of the most common pathogens in fresh vegetables and fruits, and most of the diseases produced by E. coli O157:H7 are associated with biofilms. Cold nitrogen plasma (CNP) is a cold sterilization technique which has no residue. However to completely eliminate the biofilm on the surface of vegetables the processing power and time of CNP have to be enhanced, which will impact on the quality of fruits and vegetables. Thus the sequential treatment of CNP and phage techniques was engineered in this study. Compared to treatment performed separately, sequential treatment not only had more mild treatment conditions as 400W CNP treatment for 2min and 5% phage treatment for 30min, but also exhibited more remarkable effect on eradicating E. coli O157:H7 biofilms in vitro and on vegetables. The population of E. coli O157:H7 was approximately reduced by 2logCFU/cm 2 after individual treatment of 5% phages for 30min or 500W CNP for 3min. While the sequential treatment of CNP (400W, 2min) and phages (5%, 30min) reduced the E. coli O157:H7 viable count in biofilm by 5.71logCFU/cm 2 . Therefore, the sequential treatment holds a great promise to improve the current treatment systems of bacterial contamination on different vegetable surfaces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New electrochemical and photochemical systems for water and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, Victor M; Parra, Sandra; Rincon, Angela G; Torres, Ricardo A; Pulgarin, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    With the increasing pressure on a more effective use of water resources, the development of appropriate water treatment technologies become more and more important. Photochemical and electrochemical oxidation processes have been proposed in recent years as an attractive alternative for the treatment of contaminated water containing anthropogenic substances hardly biodegradable as well as to purify and disinfect drinking waters. The aim of this paper is to present some of our last results demonstrating that electrochemical, photochemical, and the coupling of these processes with biological systems are very promising alternatives for the improvement of the water quality

  17. In Vivo Diode Dosimetry for Imrt Treatments Generated by Pinnacle Treatment Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaei, Parham; Higgins, Patrick D.; Gerbi, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Dose verification using diodes has been proposed and used for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments. We have previously evaluated diode response for IMRT deliveries planned with the Eclipse/Helios treatment planning system. The Pinnacle treatment planning system generates plans that are delivered in a different fashion than Eclipse. Whereas the Eclipse-generated segments are delivered in organized progression from one side of each field to the other, Pinnacle-generated segments are delivered in a much more randomized fashion to different areas within the field. This makes diode measurements at a point more challenging because the diode may be exposed fully or partially to multiple small segments during one single field's treatment as opposed to being exposed to very few segments scanning across the diode during an Eclipse-generated delivery. We have evaluated in vivo dosimetry for Pinnacle-generated IMRT plans and characterized the response of the diode to various size segments on phantom. We present results of patient measurements on approximately 300 fields, which show that 76% of measurements agree to within 10% of the treatment-plan generated calculated doses. Of the other 24%, about 11% are within 15% of the calculated dose. Comparison of these with phantom measurements indicates that many of the discrepancies are due to diode positioning on patients and increased diode response at short source-to-surface distances (SSDs), with the remainder attributable to other factors such as segment size and partial irradiation of the diode

  18. Development of Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. G.; Lee, B. D.; So, D. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To implement obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral agreements more effectively, we proposed a computerized system named the Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System (NCAMITS) as a part of the Nuclear Transparency Enhancement Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The database system is designed not only to undertake the facility-level accounting for and control of nuclear material at KAERI, but also to meet the requirements of the State (National) System of Accounting and Control (SSAC). Since the NCAMITS will provide services for the facility operators as well as the safeguard information managers at KAERI, the development of the system is supposed to accommodate the end-user's convenience and the manager's sophisticated specifications as well.

  19. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  20. ETV VERTIFICATION REPORT AND VERIFICATION STATEMENT: COOPER POWER SYSTEMS ENVIROTEMP® FR3™ VEGETABLE OIL-BASED INSULATING DIELECTRIC FLUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's ETV Program, through the NRMRL has partnered with the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) under an ETV Pilot Project to verify pollution prevention, recycling, and waste treatment technologies. This report and statement provides documentation of perfor...

  1. Decision making in treatment strategy of AVMs. Treatment board system at Tohoku University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokura, Hidefumi; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of some large, deep-seated arteriovenous malformations is still a challenge to neurosurgeons. The recent development of non-invasive imaging modalities has increased the chance of finding asymptomatic AVM's, for which evaluation for treatment is more complicated than in symptomatic cases. Currently there are 3 major treatment options for AVM: microsurgical removal, radiosurgery, and intravascular embolization. It is not easy to choose the best single modality or combination of modalities for individual patients, who have different types of onset, neurological deficits, size and location, and social background. After the installation of the Gamma Knife in November 1991, we established an 'AVM Treatment Board.' It comprises vascular neurosurgeons, endovascular neurosurgeons, and radio-neurosurgeons, and meetings are held twice a month. Every AVM case referred to us is presented to the board, and treatment strategy is selected after a discussion among experts who know the advantages and drawbacks of each treatment modality. We describe this board system in detail and emphasize the importance of gathering expertise in decision making. (author)

  2. The stochastic system approach for estimating dynamic treatments effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commenges, Daniel; Gégout-Petit, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The problem of assessing the effect of a treatment on a marker in observational studies raises the difficulty that attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. As an example, we focus on the analysis of the effect of a HAART on CD4 counts, where attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. This problem has been treated using marginal structural models relying on the counterfactual/potential response formalism. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models, and causal influence has been formalized in the framework of the Doob-Meyer decomposition of stochastic processes. Causal inference however needs assumptions that we detail in this paper and we call this approach to causality the "stochastic system" approach. First we treat this problem in discrete time, then in continuous time. This approach allows incorporating biological knowledge naturally. When working in continuous time, the mechanistic approach involves distinguishing the model for the system and the model for the observations. Indeed, biological systems live in continuous time, and mechanisms can be expressed in the form of a system of differential equations, while observations are taken at discrete times. Inference in mechanistic models is challenging, particularly from a numerical point of view, but these models can yield much richer and reliable results.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  4. Design of a new flotation system for industrial waters treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, J E; Diaz, J; Blandon V R

    1999-01-01

    The air flotation is a process of physical separation for the industrial wastewater treatment that removes oils and suspended solids. Although methods different from flotation have been used in petroleum industry, their application is subjected to numerous operational and economic limitations. In this work some comparisons of these flotation techniques are discussed and, a new system for the treatment of residual waters by flotation is the developed. This system is the result of several years of research both in laboratory and in pilot plants. The new design uses characteristics from other techniques, it is based on a modification of a system of induced air flotation as to operate like a system of dissolved air flotation, which improves its performance at lower costs and reduces operational problems associated with equipment maintenance. The developed system has several characteristics that improve its operation, including the use of nozzles for gas injection and dispersion in the liquid phase. As opposed to conventional systems, there is no need to use motorized bubble generating equipment for each flotation cell, diminishing therefore power requirements

  5. Treatment Planning Systems for BNCT Requirements and Peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G

    2003-01-01

    The main requirements and peculiarities expected from the BNCT-oriented treatment planning system (TPS) are summarized in this paper. The TPS is a software, which can be integrated or composed by several auxiliary programs. It plays important roles inside the whole treatment planning of the patient's organ in BNCT. However, the main goal is the simulation of the irradiation, in order to obtain the optimal configuration, in terms of neutron spectrum, patient positioning and dose distribution in the tumour and healthy tissues. The presence of neutrons increases the level of complexity, because much more nuclear reactions need to be monitored and properly calculated during the simulation of the patient's treatment. To this purposes several 3D geometry reconstruction techniques, generally based on the CT scanning data, are implemented and Monte Carlo codes are normally used. The TPSs are expected to show also the results (basically doses and fluences) in a proper format, such as isocurves (or isosurfaces) along t...

  6. Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors.

  7. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector.

  8. Safety evaluation of BWR off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.J.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the results of a safety evaluation performed on current generic types of BWR off-gas treatment systems including cooled and ambient temperature adsorber beds and cryogenics are presented. The evaluation covered the four generic types of off-gas systems and the systems of five major vendors. This study was part of original work performed under AEC contract for the Directorate of Regulatory Standards. The analysis techniques employed for the safety evaluation of these systems include: Fault Tree Analysis; FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis); general system comparisons, contaminant, system control, and design adequacy evaluations; and resultant Off-Site Dose Calculations. The salient areas presented are some of the potential problem areas, the approach that industry has taken to mitigate or design against potential upset conditions, and areas where possible deficiencies still exist. Potential problem areas discussed include hydrogen detonation, hydrogen release to equipment areas, operator/automatic control interface, and needed engineering evaluation to insure safe system operation. Of the systems reviewed, most were in the category of advanced or improved over that commonly in use today, and a conclusion from the study was that these systems offer excellent potential for noble gas control for BWR power plants where more stringent controls may be specified -- now or in the future. (U.S.)

  9. MINERVA - a multi-modal radiation treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemple, C.A. E-mail: cew@enel.gov; Wessol, D.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Cogliati, J.J.; Milvich, M.L.; Frederickson, C.; Perkins, M.; Harkin, G.J

    2004-11-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Montana State University have undertaken development of MINERVA, a patient-centric, multi-modal, radiation treatment planning system. This system can be used for planning and analyzing several radiotherapy modalities, either singly or combined, using common modality independent image and geometry construction and dose reporting and guiding. It employs an integrated, lightweight plugin architecture to accommodate multi-modal treatment planning using standard interface components. The MINERVA design also facilitates the future integration of improved planning technologies. The code is being developed with the Java Virtual Machine for interoperability. A full computation path has been established for molecular targeted radiotherapy treatment planning, with the associated transport plugin developed by researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Development of the neutron transport plugin module is proceeding rapidly, with completion expected later this year. Future development efforts will include development of deformable registration methods, improved segmentation methods for patient model definition, and three-dimensional visualization of the patient images, geometry, and dose data. Transport and source plugins will be created for additional treatment modalities, including brachytherapy, external beam proton radiotherapy, and the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc codes for external beam photon and electron radiotherapy.

  10. Strategies for the reduction of Legionella in biological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, R; Utecht, K-U; Exner, M; Verstraete, W; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The present study investigated the effect of physical-chemical disinfection methods on the reduction of the concentration of Legionella in the biological treatment and in the treated effluent entering the river Wäster. Additionally, to gain insight into the factors that promote the growth of Legionella in biological systems, growth experiments were made with different substrates and temperatures. The dosage rates of silver micro-particles, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone and pH stress to the activated sludge were not able to decrease the number of culturable Legionella spp. in the effluent. Nevertheless, the UV treatment of secondary treated effluent reduced Legionella spp. on average by 1.6-3.4 log units. Laboratory-scale experiments and full-scale measurements suggested that the aerobic treatment of warm wastewater (30-35 °C) rich in organic nitrogen (protein) is a possible source of Legionella infection.

  11. [Newly Designed Water Treatment Systems for Hospital Effluent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Takashi

    2018-01-01

     Pharmaceuticals are indispensable to contemporary life. Recently, the emerging problem of pharmaceutical-based pollution of river environments, including drinking water sources and lakes, has begun to receive significant attention worldwide. Because pharmaceuticals are designed to perform specific physiological functions in targeted regions of the human body, there is increasing concern regarding their toxic effects, even at low concentrations, on aquatic ecosystems and human health, via residues in drinking water. Pharmaceuticals are consistently employed in hospitals to treat disease; and Japan, one of the most advanced countries in medical treatment, ranks second worldwide in the quantity of pharmaceuticals employed. Therefore, the development of technologies that minimize or lessen the related environmental risks for clinical effluent is an important task as well as that for sewage treatment plants (STPs). However, there has been limited research on clinical effluent, and much remains to be elucidated. In light of this, we are investigating the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, and the development of water treatment systems for clinical effluent. This review discusses the current research on clinical effluent and the development of advanced water treatment systems targeted at hospital effluent, and explores strategies for future environmental risk assessment and risk management.

  12. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.