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Sample records for vegetal fat diets

  1. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  2. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  3. A comparison of effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable shortening on the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubant, R; Poon, A N; Sánchez-Hernández, D; Domenichiello, A F; Huot, P S P; Pannia, E; Cho, C E; Hunschede, S; Bazinet, R P; Anderson, G H

    2015-12-14

    Obesity is associated with increased consumption and preference for dietary fat. Experimental models of fat-induced obesity use either lard or vegetable shortening. Yet, there are no direct comparisons of these commonly used fat sources, or the influence of their fatty acid composition, on the development of diet-induced obesity. To compare the effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets, which differ in their fatty acid composition, on weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 14 weeks high-fat diets containing either (1) high vegetable fat (HVF, 60 kcal% from vegetable shortening) or (2) high lard fat (HLF, 60 kcal% from lard). Rats fed normal-fat (NF, 16 kcal% from vegetable shortening) diet served as control. Body weight, food intake, adipose tissue mass, serum 25[OH]D3, glucose, insulin and fatty acid composition of diets were measured. Rats fed either of the two high-fat diets had higher energy intake, weight gain and fat accretion than rats fed normal-fat diet. However, rats fed the HLF diet consumed more calories and gained more weight and body fat with greater increases of 32% in total (158.5±8.2 vs 120.2±6.6 g, P<0.05), 30% in visceral (104.4±5.2 vs 80.3±4.2 g, P<0.05) and 36% in subcutaneous fat mass (54.1±3.6 vs 39.9±3.1 g, P<0.05), compared with rats fed the HVF diet. Higher visceral adiposity was positively correlated with serum insulin (r=0.376, P<0.05) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (r=0.391, P<0.05). We conclude that lard-based high-fat diets accentuate the increase in weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance more than hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets. These results further point to the importance of standardizing fatty acid composition and type of fat used in determining outcomes of consuming high-fat diets.

  4. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

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    Sacks Frank M

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pressure with lower sodium intake for both diet groups. Although some critics would argue otherwise, these findings provide important new evidence for the value of the DASH diet and sodium reduction in controlling blood pressure.

  5. Vegetable fats and oils as functional ingredients in meat products

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    Alfonso Totosaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10% they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.

  6. Supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum K68 and Fruit-Vegetable Ferment along with High Fat-Fructose Diet Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome in Rats with Insulin Resistance

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    Hui-Yu Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum K68 (isolated from fu-tsai and fruit-vegetable ferment (FVF have been tested for antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in a rat model of insulin resistance, induced by chronic high fat-fructose diet. Fifty rats were equally assigned into control (CON, high fat-fructose diet (HFFD, HFFD plus K68, HFFD plus FVF, and HFFD plus both K68 and FVF (MIX groups. Respective groups were orally administered with K68 (1×109 CFU/0.5 mL or FVF (180 mg/kg or MIX for 8 weeks. We found that HFFD-induced increased bodyweights were prevented, and progressively increased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were reversed (P<0.01 by K68 and FVF treatments. Elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and HOMA-IR values were controlled in supplemented groups. Furthermore, dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs with HFFD, was significantly (P<0.01 attenuated with MIX. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, were controlled (P<0.01 by K68, FVF, and MIX treatments. Moreover, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were substantially (P<0.01 restored by all treatments. Experimental evidences demonstrate that K68 and FVF may be effective alternative medicine to prevent HFFD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, possibly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacies.

  7. Serum Hyperglycemia Might Be Not Related to Fat Composition of Diet and Vegetable Composition of Diet Might Improve Sugar Control in Taiwanese Diabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Ya-Lin; Kuo, Shi-Ching; Chiang, Chih-Fan; Chiang, Cheng-Yang; Lin, Yu-Fang; Weng, Pei-Chen; Hu, Fang-Ching; Wu, Jing-Hui; Lai, Chien-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This is an Asian study, which was designed to examine the correlations between biochemical data and food composition of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods: One hundred and seventy Taiwanese diabetic patients were enrolled. The correlations between biochemical data and diet composition (from 24-hour recall of intake food) of these patients were explored (Spearman correlation, p < 0.05). Diet components were also correlated with each other to show diet characteristics of diabetic p...

  8. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

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    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Natarajan, Loki; Caan, Bette J; Parker, Barbara A; Greenberg, E Robert; Flatt, Shirley W; Rock, Cheryl L; Kealey, Sheila; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Bardwell, Wayne A; Carlson, Robert W; Emond, Jennifer A; Faerber, Susan; Gold, Ellen B; Hajek, Richard A; Hollenbach, Kathryn; Jones, Lovell A; Karanja, Njeri; Madlensky, Lisa; Marshall, James; Newman, Vicky A; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wasserman, Linda; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2007-07-18

    % confidence interval, 0.72-1.15; P = .43). No significant interactions were observed between diet group and baseline demographics, characteristics of the original tumor, baseline dietary pattern, or breast cancer treatment. Among survivors of early stage breast cancer, adoption of a diet that was very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat did not reduce additional breast cancer events or mortality during a 7.3-year follow-up period. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003787.

  10. Cull Vegetables As Substitute For Conventional Forages In Goats Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSultan, S.I

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of certain responses of kids and nannies to a cull-vegetable diet as a substitute to the conventional diet (Barseem and Rhodes) was investigated. Kids after eight weeks of the experiment showed a significant increase in weight on all the three types of diet with more pronounced growth in the conventional diet containing Barseem and concentrate. On the other hand nannies exposed to the three types of diet following eight weeks of feeding displayed no significant increase in body weight as compared with the initial weight within each group or among the different groups. Similarly milk quality remained the same with no observable influence induced by the type of diet except that there was a slight increase in fat content of the cull -vegetable diet which require further investigation. (author)

  11. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...... of the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility of FA...

  12. Inulin levels on animal and vegetal diets for broiler chicken

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    Wagner Tiago Mozer da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inulin inclusion levels in diets with ingredients of vegetable and animal origin, on the performance and carcass yield of broilers chickens. Were used 1056 chicks, of one day old, housed in reused poultry litter, distributed in a completely randomized design, in a factorial 2 x 4 (animal and vegetable diets x inclusion levels of inulin, totaling eight treatments, six replicates and 22 birds per experimental unit. The inulin levels were: 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%. At seven, 21 and 40 days of age were evaluated: final weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and viability. At 40 days were evaluated: productive efficiency, economic variables and carcass yield. No effects of inulin and type of diet were observed on the performance from one to seven days old (P>0.05. From one to 21 days, a feed consumption decreased (P<0.05 with the inclusion of inulin. The diet with animal ingredients provided greater carcass yield, thigh and lower abdominal fat percentage (P<0.05 at 40 days of age. The abdominal fat reduced (P<0.05 with the inclusion of inulin incresase. It is concluded that inulin can be used, up to the level of 0.75% in diets of animal or vegetable origin without sacrificing the broilers performance.

  13. Interactive effects between dietary fat and a vegetables-fruit mixture on colorectal carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnkels, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Several dietary compounds are associated with colorectal cancer risk. These include the amount of dietary fat, which is positively associated with colorectal cancer, and a variety of vegetables and fruit, which are suggested to possess anticarcinogenic potential. Because diet is complex and

  14. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

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    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  15. A diet high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increases the genotoxic potential of 'faecal water'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieger, Martin A.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effects of different diets on the genotoxicity of human faecal water, a diet rich in fat, meat and sugar but poor in vegetables and free of wholemeal products (diet 1) was consumed by seven healthy volunteers over a period of 12 days. One week after the end of this period......, the volunteers started to consume a diet enriched with vegetables and wholemeal products but poor in fat and meat (diet 2) over a second period of 12 days. The genotoxic effect of faecal waters obtained after both diets was assessed with the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) using the human colon...... and purine bases revealed no differences after pretreatment with both types of faecal water. The results indicate that diets high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increase the genotoxicity of faecal water to colonic cells and may contribute to an enhanced risk of colorectal cancer....

  16. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

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    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  17. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  18. Effects of preoperative exposure to a high-fat versus a low-fat diet on ingestive behavior after gastric bypass surgery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Florian; Miras, Alexander D; Bueter, Marco; Prechtl, Christina G; Spector, Alan C; le Roux, Carel W

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of high fat and sugar diets is decreased after gastric bypass surgery (GB). The mechanisms remain unclear, with tests of motivated behavior toward fat and sugar producing conflicting results in a rat model. These discrepancies may be due to differences in presurgical maintenance diets. The authors used their GB rat model to determine whether the fat content of preoperative maintenance diets affects weight loss, calorie intake, and macronutrient selection after surgery. Male Wistar rats were either low-fat diet fed (LFDF) with normal chow or high-fat diet fed (HFDF) before randomization to GB or sham surgery. In food preference test 1, the animals were offered the choice of a vegetable drink (V8) or a high-calorie liquid (Ensure), and in food preference test 2, they could choose normal chow or a solid high-fat diet. The GB groups did not differ significantly in terms of body weight loss or caloric intake. In food preference test 1, both groups responded similarly by reducing their preference for Ensure and increasing their preference for V8. In food preference test 2, the HFDF-GB rats reduced their preference for a solid high-fat diet gradually compared with the immediate reduction observed in the LFDF-GB rats. The consumption of presurgical maintenance diets with different fat contents did not affect postoperative weight loss outcomes. Both the LFDF-GB and HFDF-GB rats exhibited behaviors consistent with the possible expression of a conditioned taste aversion to a high-fat stimulus. These results suggest that for some physiologic parameters, low-fat-induced obesity models can be used for the study of changes after GB and have relevance to many obese humans who consume high-calorie but low-fat diets.

  19. Effects of high-fat diet exposure on learning & memory.

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    Cordner, Zachary A; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2015-12-01

    The associations between consumption of a high-fat or 'Western' diet and metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have long been recognized and a great deal of evidence now suggests that diets high in fat can also have a profound impact on the brain, behavior, and cognition. Here, we will review the techniques most often used to assess learning and memory in rodent models and discuss findings from studies assessing the cognitive effects of high-fat diet consumption. The review will then consider potential underlying mechanisms in the brain and conclude by reviewing emerging literature suggesting that maternal consumption of a high-fat diet may have effects on the learning and memory of offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

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    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  1. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...

  2. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  3. Nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Emke, Stacey R; Weidner, Gerdi; Pettengill, Elaine B; Marlin, Ruth O; Chi, Christine; Ornish, Dean M

    2005-09-01

    This study assessed the nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. Thirty-nine men (mean age=65 years) with early stage prostate cancer who chose the "watchful waiting" approach to disease management, were instructed by a registered dietitian and a chef on following a very low-fat (10%) vegan diet with the addition of a fortified soy protein powdered beverage. Three-day food diaries, excluding vitamin and mineral supplements, were analyzed and nutrient values were compared against Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Mean dietary intake met the recommended DRIs. On the basis of the Adequate Intake standard, a less than adequate intake was observed for vitamin D. This demonstrates that a very low-fat vegan diet with comprehensive nutrition education emphasizing nutrient-fortified plant foods is nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation, especially for those with limited sun exposure, can help assure nutritional adequacy.

  4. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  5. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  6. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  7. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat... label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in § 163.130 or skim milk chocolate in § 163.140...

  8. Liver Fat Scores Moderately Reflect Interventional Changes in Liver Fat Content by a Low-Fat Diet but Not by a Low-Carb Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Stefan; Bäther, Sabrina; Dambeck, Ulrike; Kemper, Margrit; Gerbracht, Christiana; Honsek, Caroline; Sachno, Anna; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2018-01-31

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder all over the world, mainly being associated with a sedentary lifestyle, adiposity, and nutrient imbalance. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD accommodates similar developments for type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related comorbidities and complications. Therefore, early detection of NAFLD is an utmost necessity. Potentially helpful tools for the prediction of NAFLD are liver fat indices. The fatty liver index (FLI) and the NAFLD-liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS) have been recently introduced for this aim. However, both indices have been shown to correlate with liver fat status, but there is neither sufficient data on the longitudinal representation of liver fat change, nor proof of a diet-independent correlation between actual liver fat change and change of index values. While few data sets on low-fat diets have been published recently, low-carb diets have not been yet assessed in this context. We aim to provide such data from a highly effective short-term intervention to reduce liver fat, comparing a low-fat and a low-carb diet in subjects with prediabetes. Anthropometric measurements, magnetic resonance (MR)-based intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content, and several serum markers for liver damage have been collected in 140 subjects, completing the diet phase in this trial. Area-under-the-responder-operator-curves (AUROC) calculations as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal Spearman correlations were used. Both FLI and NAFLD-LFS predict liver fat with moderate accuracy at baseline (AUROC 0.775-0.786). These results are supported by correlation analyses. Changes in liver fat, achieved by the dietary intervention, correlate moderately with changes in FLI and NAFLD-LFS in the low-fat diet, but not in the low-carb diet. A correlation analysis between change of actual IHL content and change of single elements of the liver fat indices revealed diet-specific moderate to strong correlations between ΔIHL and

  9. Role of glycogen-lowering exercise in the change of fat oxidation in response to a high-fat diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. One of the candidate factors for determining the increase of fat oxidation after a switch from a reduced-fat diet to a high-fat diet is the size of the glycogen storage. Therefore, we studied the effect of low glycogen stores on

  10. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  11. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  12. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the liver response in young pigs to a high-fat diet (containing 25% animal fat) and diet restriction (equivalent to 60% of maintenance) using differential proteome analysis. The objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents...... to a high-fat diet and diet restriction-induced BW loss. The high-fat diet increased (P high-fat diet had normal glucose tolerance and liver lipid content despite a general increase (P ...-density lipoprotein decreased (P high-fat diet in young pigs is similar to that of humans in terms of increased fatty acid oxidation whereas the liver response to diet restriction is similar to humans...

  13. Fad diets and obesity--Part IV: Low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A

    2005-02-01

    The first three parts of this series of articles covered the basics of some of the more popular low-carbohydrate diets, and the theories behind them. In the fourth and final part of this series, some of the more popular low-fat and low-calorie diets, such as the Ornish diet and Weight Watchers, are covered briefly. Recently, several clinical trials of longer duration that compared low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets have been published. These studies demonstrate that some of the low-carbohydrate diets result in reduced weight in the short-term, but their ability to reduce weight long-term any better than low-fat or other diets has been questioned. Most popular or fad diets have some positive messages contained within them and some preliminary positive short-term results, but overall the compliance rates with any fad diet are very poor over the long-term. The decision to go on any diet should be made with a health professional who can monitor the patient closely.

  14. A PUFA-rich diet improves fat oxidation following saturated fat-rich meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Miller, Mary K; Skillman, Hannah E; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-08-01

    To determine substrate oxidation responses to saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich meals before and after a 7-day polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet versus control diet. Twenty-six, normal-weight, adults were randomly assigned to either PUFA or control diet. Following a 3-day lead-in diet, participants completed the pre-diet visit where anthropometrics and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured, and two SFA-rich HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation (Fox) and energy expenditure (EE) for 4 h after each meal. Participants then consumed a PUFA-rich diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 21 % of total energy was PUFA) or control diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 7 % of total energy was PUFA) for the next 7 days. Following the 7-day diet, participants completed the post-diet visit. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was no change in RMR (16.3 ± 0.8 vs. 16.4 ± 0.8 kcal/20 min) or in incremental area under the curve for EE (118.9 ± 20.6-126.9 ± 14.1 kcal/8h, ns). Fasting respiratory exchange ratio increased from pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet only (0.83 ± 0.1-0.86 ± 0.1, p diet (0.03 ± 0.1-0.23 ± 0.1 g/15 min for cumulative Fox; p diet initiates greater fat oxidation after eating occasional high SFA meals compared to a control diet, an effect achieved in 7 days.

  15. The Content of Fat and Polyenoic Acids in the Major Food Sources of the Arctic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, V. K. S.; Clausen, Jytte Lene; Egsgaard, Helge

    1980-01-01

    In relation to the apparently low incidence of coronary heart diseases in Arctic populations the fatty acid pattern of muscle and fat tissue of the Arctic seal, birds and mammals were compared with the fatty acid pattern of the corresponding tissues of domestic animals normally used as meat sources...... in western countries. The triglyceride content of muscle samples was also estimated. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system was used for localizing the position of double bonds in the unsaturated acids, by means of their pyrrolidides. The fat tissue from the seal was the main source of polyenoic acids......, tri- and pentaenoic acids in the diet of the Arctic hunter. Those acids were derived metabolically from linolenic acid. In contrast polyenoic acids, linoleic acid and its derivatives in the nonarctic diet, were mainly supplied from muscle of nonruminant animals and from sources of vegetable origin...

  16. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  17. [The effects of a low-fat versus a low carbohydrate diet in obese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Daniel A; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; González Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa

    2009-02-21

    The aim of our study was to compare the effect of a high fat and a high protein diet vs a fat restricted diet on weight loss in obese patients. A population of 74 obesity non diabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups: a) diet I (low fat diet: 1500kcal/day, 52% carbohydrates, 20% proteins, 27% fats) with a distribution of fats and b) diet II (high fat and high protein diet: 1507kcal/day, 38% carbohydrates, 26% proteins, 36% fats). After three months with diet, weight, blood pressure, glucose, C reactive protein, insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were evaluated. There were randomized 35 patients (4 males and 31 females) in the group I and 39 patients (6 males and 33 females) in diet group II. In group I, systolic pressure, BMI, weight, fat free mass, fat mass total body water, intracellular body water and waist circumference decreased significantly. In group II, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, systolic blood, BMI, weight, fat mass, total body water and waist circumference decreased significantly. Differences among averages of parameters before treatment with both diets were not detected. No differences were detected on weight loss between a fat-restricted diet and a high fat and high protein enhanced diet.

  18. Acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet compares favorably to a step II diet in a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet, as compared with a more typical fat-modified diet, among overweight and obese adults. Through newspaper advertisements, 64 overweight, postmenopausal women were recruited, 59 of whom completed the study. The participants were assigned randomly to a low-fat vegan diet or, for comparison, to a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II (NCEP) diet. At baseline and 14 weeks later, dietary intake, dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, as well as the acceptability and perceived benefits and adverse effects of each diet were assessed. Dietary restraint increased in the NCEP group (P vegan group. Disinhibition and hunger scores fell in each group (P vegan group participants rated their diet as less easy to prepare than their usual diets (P vegan diet is high and not demonstrably different from that of a more moderate low-fat diet among well-educated, postmenopausal women in a research environment.

  19. Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...

  20. Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-05-01

    Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements.

  1. Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in the Diet12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements. PMID:23674808

  2. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  3. The importance of the quality or type of fat in the diet: A food-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to review the latest total fat intake data for South Africa, as well as scientific evidence on the effect of the total amount and quality or type of fat in the diet. The total fat intake of South Africans is within the goal of . 30% of total energy, but the quality or type of fat in the diet requires attention. Fats are key ...

  4. Tangeretin and 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone decrease insulin resistance, fat accumulation and oxidative stress in mice fed high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangeretin and heptamethoxyflavone were investigated for their ability to repair metabolic damage caused by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. In the first four weeks, induction of obesity was performed and the mice received standard diet (11% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat). After ...

  5. Randomized comparison of reduced fat and reduced carbohydrate hypocaloric diets on intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Engeli, Stefan; Kast, Petra; Böhnke, Jana; Utz, Wolfgang; Haas, Verena; Hermsdorf, Mario; Mähler, Anja; Wiesner, Susanne; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Sell, Henrike; Otto, Christoph; Mehling, Heidrun; Luft, Friedrich C; Eckel, Juergen; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Obesity-related hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Fat reduced hypocaloric diets are able to relieve the liver from ectopically stored lipids. We hypothesized that the widely used low carbohydrate hypocaloric diets are similarly effective in this regard. A total of 170 overweight and obese, otherwise healthy subjects were randomized to either reduced carbohydrate (n = 84) or reduced fat (n = 86), total energy restricted diet (-30% of energy intake before diet) for 6 months. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedance analyses and abdominal fat distribution by magnetic resonance tomography. Subjects were also submitted to fat spectroscopy of liver and oral glucose tolerance testing. In all, 102 subjects completed the diet intervention with measurements of intrahepatic lipid content. Both hypocaloric diets decreased body weight, total body fat, visceral fat, and intrahepatic lipid content. Subjects with high baseline intrahepatic lipids (>5.56%) lost ≈7-fold more intrahepatic lipids compared with those with low baseline values (diet composition. In contrast, changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity were similar between subgroups, with low and high baseline intrahepatic lipids. A prolonged hypocaloric diet low in carbohydrates and high in fat has the same beneficial effects on intrahepatic lipid accumulation as the traditional low-fat hypocaloric diet. The decrease in intrahepatic lipids appears to be independent of visceral fat loss and is not tightly coupled with changes in whole body insulin sensitivity during 6 months of an energy restricted diet. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  8. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet....... The findings suggest that high-fat diets increase non-fasting FVII:C, and consequently may be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jun......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20...

  9. Clinical trial experience with fat-restricted vs. carbohydrate-restricted weight-loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    It is unlikely that one diet is optimal for all overweight or obese persons. Both low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to induce weight loss and reduce obesity-related comorbidities. Low-carbohydrate diets cause greater short-term (up to 6 months) weight loss than low-fat diets, but the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of these diets has not been studied.

  10. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkci, N.; Kesenkas, H.; Seckin, A. K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF) with a vegetable fat (VF) blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affected by the vegetable fat blend. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Mechanism of fat taste perception: Association with diet and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongli; Archer, Nicholas; Duesing, Konsta; Hannan, Garry; Keast, Russell

    2016-07-01

    Energy homeostasis plays a significant role in food consumption and body weight regulation with fat intake being an area of particular interest due to its palatability and high energy density. Increasing evidence from humans and animal studies indicate the existence of a taste modality responsive to fat via its breakdown product fatty acids. These studies implicate multiple candidate receptors and ion channels for fatty acid taste detection, indicating a complex peripheral physiology that is currently not well understood. Additionally, a limited number of studies suggest a reduced ability to detect fatty acids is associated with obesity and a diet high in fat reduces an individual's ability to detect fatty acids. To support this, genetic variants within candidate fatty acid receptors are also associated with obesity reduced ability to detect fatty acids. Understanding oral peripheral fatty acid transduction mechanisms and the association with fat consumption may provide the basis of novel approaches to control development of obesity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  13. Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However...

  14. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet

  15. Effect of high fat and high sugar diet on insulin binding and insulin action in isolated rat adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    岡﨑,悟

    1987-01-01

    To clarify on a cellular basis the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of the westernized diet, insulin binding, insulin stimulated 3-o-methylglucose uptake and glucose oxidation were studied in isolated adipocytes from rats fed experimental diets : low fat-no sugar diet (energy ratio of 10% fat, 70% starch, a model of the traditional Japanese diet), high fat-high sugar diet (40% fat, 20% starch, 20% sugar, a model of the westernized diet), low fat-high sugar diet (10% fat, 50% starch, 20% s...

  16. A low-fat diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, T; Viggers, L

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes.......To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes....

  17. Increased expression of PPARγ in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mitsutaka; Ohtake, Takaaki; Motomura, Wataru; Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Hosoki, Yayoi; Miyoshi, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yasuaki; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine a hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is implicated in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis. Mice were fed with control or high fat diet containing approximately 10% or 80% cholesterol, respectively. Macroscopic and microscopic findings demonstrated that lipid accumulation in the liver was observed as early as 2 weeks after high fat diet and that high fat diet for 12 weeks developed a fatty liver phenotype, establishing a novel model of diet-induced liver steatosis. Gene profiling with microarray and real-time PCR studies demonstrated that among genes involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis-related genes, PPARγ and its targeted gene, CD36 mRNA expression was specifically up-regulated in the liver by high fat diet for 2 weeks. Immunohistochemical study revealed that PPARγ protein expression is increased in the nuclei of hepatocytes by high fat diet. It was also shown that protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), an upstream molecule of PPARγ, in the liver was drastically suppressed by high fat diet. All these results suggest for the first time that the CREB-PPARγ signaling pathway may be involved in the high fat diet-induced liver steatosis

  18. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  19. Substitution or addition? How overweight and obese adults incorporate vegetables into their diet during a randomized controlled vegetable feeding trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: When attempting to eat healthier, individuals may add vegetables to their diet (addition) without changing other eating behaviors. Alternatively, individuals adding vegetables may decrease consumption of other foods (substitution). Distinguishing between the two means of incorporation of ...

  20. Effect of weight loss by a low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet on peptide YY levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essah, P A; Levy, J R; Sistrun, S N; Kelly, S M; Nestler, J E

    2010-08-01

    To compare the effects of weight loss by an energy-restricted low-fat diet vs low-carbohydrate diet on serum peptide YY (PYY) levels. 8-Week prospective study of 30 obese adults (mean age: 42.8+/-2.0 years, mean body mass index 35.5+/-0.6 kg m(-2)). After 8 weeks, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost substantially more weight than those on the low-fat diet (5.8 vs 0.99 kg, Plow-fat or low-carbohydrate diet likely represents a compensatory response to maintain energy homeostasis and contributes to difficulty in weight loss during energy-restricted diets.

  1. Effects of high fat diet on incidence of spontaneous tumors in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KRISTIANSEN, E.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    In a 2.5-year carcinogenicity study, two groups, both including male and female Wistar rats, were fed two different diets with 4% and 16% fat. In addition to 4% soybean oil, the high-fat diet contained 12% mono- and diglycerides, of which 85% was stearic acid and 13% palmitic acid...

  2. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A

    2002-01-01

    +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  3. Low salt and low calorie diet does not reduce more body fat than same calorie diet: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Jang, Eun Chul; Cho, Yong Kyun

    2018-02-02

    Recent several observational studies have reported that high salt intake is associated with obesity. But it is unclear whether salt intake itself induce obesity or low salt diet can reduce body fat mass. We investigated whether a low salt diet can reduce body weight and fat amount. The randomized, open-label pilot trial was conducted at a single institution. A total of 85 obese people were enrolled. All participants were served meals three times a day, and provided either a low salt diet or control diet with same calorie. Visceral fat was measured with abdominal computer tomography, while body fat mass and total body water was measured with bio-impedance. Reductions in body weight (-6.3% vs. -5.0%, p = 0.05) and BMI (-6.6% vs. -5.1%, p = 0.03) were greater in the low salt group than in the control group. Extracellular water and total body water were significantly reduced in the low salt group compared to the control group. However, changes in body fat mass, visceral fat area, and skeletal muscle mass did not differ between the two groups. Changes in lipid profile, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR did not differ between the two groups. A two-month low salt diet was accompanied by reduction of body mass index. However, the observed decrease of body weight was caused by reduction of total body water, not by reduction of body fat mass or visceral fat mass.

  4. High fat diet accelerates cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wu; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M; Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs; Kops, Nicole; Bos, Pieter K; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zuurmond, Anne-Marie; Dell'Accio, Francesco; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for osteoarthritis, but it is unknown what it does on cartilage repair. Here we investigated whether a high fat diet (HFD) influences cartilage repair in a mouse model of cartilage repair. We fed DBA/1 mice control or HFD (60% energy from fat). After 2 weeks, a full thickness cartilage defect was made in the trochlear groove. Mice were sacrificed, 1, 8, and 24 weeks after operation. Cartilage repair was evaluated on histology. Serum glucose, insulin and amyloid A were measured 24 h before operation and at endpoints. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on synovium and adipose tissue to evaluate macrophage infiltration and phenotype. One week after operation, mice on HFD had defect filling with fibroblast-like cells and more cartilage repair as indicated by a lower Pineda score. After 8 weeks, mice on a HFD still had a lower Pineda score. After 24 weeks, no mice had complete cartilage repair and we did not detect a significant difference in cartilage repair between diets. Bodyweight was increased by HFD, whereas serum glucose, amyloid A and insulin were not influenced. Macrophage infiltration and phenotype in adipose tissue and synovium were not influenced by HFD. In contrast to common wisdom, HFD accelerated intrinsic cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice on the short term. Resistance to HFD induced inflammatory and metabolic changes could be associated with accelerated cartilage repair. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1258-1264, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of High Fat Diet and Physical Exercise on Glucose Tolelance and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    福田,哲也

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the interrelationships between the westernized diet and physical exercise as they affect the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), adiposity, glucose tolerance and insulin response to an intraperitoneal glucose load (1.5g/kg bw) and insulin sensitivity to exogenous insulin (0.2U/kg bw) were studied in spontaneously exercised and sedentary rats fed either a high fat diet (40% fat, modern western type) or a low fat diet (10% fat, traditional Japanese typ...

  6. Effect of weight loss by a low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet on peptide YY levels

    OpenAIRE

    Essah, P. A.; Levy, J. R.; Sistrun, S. N.; Kelly, S. M.; Nestler, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of weight loss by an energy-restricted low-fat diet versus low-carbohydrate diet on serum peptide YY (PYY) levels. Design 8-week prospective study of 30 obese adults (mean age: 42.8 ± 2.0 years, mean BMI 35.5 ± 0.6 kg/m2). Results After 8 weeks, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost substantially more weight than those on the low-fat diet (5.8 kg vs. 0.99 kg, p

  7. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available There are two independent serotonin (5-HT systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  8. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nakano, Tatsuya; Saito, Ryo; Akasaka, Daisuke; Saito, Kazuki; Ogasawara, Hideki; Minashima, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Inoue, Nao; Ikeda, Ikuo; Chen, Xiangning; Miyake, Masato; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Kan; Tahara, Kohji; Nagasawa, Yuya; Rose, Michael T; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    There are two independent serotonin (5-HT) systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR) 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  9. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  11. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  12. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission el...

  13. Effect of a high monounsaturated vs high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, R; de Luis, D A; Izaola, O; de la Fuente, B; Bachiller, R

    2014-01-01

    Hyperaminotransferasemia is an important problem in obese patients. We decide to examine the changes in hyperaminotransferasemia after weight reduction in obese patients with and without NAFLD secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs. a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets. A population of 306 obese patients was randomly allocated to two groups: Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) and Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). Patients were classified as group I (obese subjects; n=262) when serum ALT activity was normal or group II (NAFLD patients; n=44) when serum ALT activity was (≥ 43 UI/L). In NAFLD group with diet M, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol), insulin and HOMA-R decreased. In NAFLD group with diet P, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol), insulin and HOMA-R decreased, too. In NAFLD group, alanine aminotransferase [(diet M) -20.3±19.2 UI/L vs. (diet P) -14.2±20.1 UI/L], aspartate aminotransferase [(diet M) -11.3±12.2 UI/L vs. (diet P) -11.1±10.1 UI/L], and gammaglutamyl transferase [(diet M) -18.1±12.2 UI/L vs. (diet P) -10.9±20.1 UI/L] improved with both diets. We showed that weight reduction secondary to two hypocaloric diets was associated with improvement in hypertransaminasemia and insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

  14. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Zemel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day, high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day, or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day. Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025; assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05 and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025. Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction.

  15. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bosse, John D.; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E. Dale; Pereira, Troy J.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Symons, J. David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-...

  16. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  17. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  18. Switching adolescent high-fat diet to adult control diet restores neurocognitive alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Boitard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al., 2014; Boitard et al., 2012; Boitard et al., 2015. Here, we assessed whether the effects of adolescent HF consumption on brain function are permanent or reversible. After adolescent exposure to HF, switching to a standard chow diet restored levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and normalized enhanced HPA axis reactivity, amygdala activity and avoidance memory. Therefore, while the adolescent period is highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity, adult exposure to a standard diet appears sufficient to reverse alterations of brain function.

  19. Vegetable oil and fat viscosity forecast models based on iodine number and saponification number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, G.; Riva, G.; Foppa Pedretti, E.; Duca, D.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable oil and fats can be considered as an important renewable source for the energy production. There are many applications where these biofuels are used directly in engines. However, the use of pure vegetable oils causes some problems as consequence of its chemical and physical characteristic. Viscosity is one of the most important parameters affecting several physical and mechanical processes of the operation of the engine. The determination of this parameter at different tis important to determine the behavior of the vegetable oil and fats. In this work we investigated the effects of two analytical chemical parameters (iodine number and saponification number) and forecasting models have been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Vegetable oil and fat viscosity is predicted by mathematical model based on saponification number and iodine number. ► Unsaturated vegetable oils with small size molecules of fatty acids have a lower viscosity values. ► The models proposed show an average error lower than 12%

  20. Gallic Acid Ameliorated Impaired Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis in High Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jung; Huo, Teh-Ia; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Qin, Xue-Mei; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Pao, Li-Heng; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA), a naturally abundant plant phenolic compound in vegetables and fruits, has been shown to have potent anti-oxidative and anti-obesity activity. However, the effects of GA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of GA administration on nutritional hepatosteatosis model by a more “holistic view” approach, namely 1H NMR-based metabolomics, in order to prove efficacy and to obtain information that might lead to a better understanding of the mode of action of GA. Male C57BL/6 mice were placed for 16 weeks on either a normal chow diet, a high fat diet (HFD, 60%), or a high fat diet supplemented with GA (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally). Liver histopathology and serum biochemical examinations indicated that the daily administration of GA protects against hepatic steatosis, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance among the HFD-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis scores plots demonstrated that the cluster of HFD fed mice is clearly separated from the normal group mice plots, indicating that the metabolic characteristics of these two groups are distinctively different. Specifically, the GA-treated mice are located closer to the normal group of mice, indicating that the HFD-induced disturbances to the metabolic profile were partially reversed by GA treatment. Our results show that the hepatoprotective effect of GA occurs in part through a reversing of the HFD caused disturbances to a range of metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis), amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism and gut-microbiota-associated metabolism. Taken together, this study suggested that a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach is a useful platform for natural product functional evaluation. The selected metabolites are potentially useful as preventive action biomarkers and could also be used to help

  1. Differential effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets on hepatic lipogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Damiano, Fabrizio; Siculella, Luisa; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic fatty acid synthesis is influenced by several nutritional and hormonal factors. In this study, we have investigated the effects of distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrate or in fat on hepatic lipogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrates (70% w/w) or in fat (20 and 35% w/w). Activity and expression of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase were analyzed through the study with assessments at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Liver lipids and plasma levels of lipids, glucose, and insulin were assayed in parallel. Whereas the high-carbohydrate diet moderately stimulated hepatic lipogenesis, a strong inhibition of this anabolic pathway was found in animals fed high-fat diets. This inhibition was time-dependent and concentration-dependent. Moreover, whereas the high-carbohydrate diet induced an increase in plasma triglycerides, the high-fat diets determined an accumulation of triglycerides in liver. An increase in the plasmatic levels of glucose and insulin was observed in all cases. The excess of sucrose in the diet is converted into fat that is distributed by bloodstream in the organism in the form of circulating triglycerides. On the other hand, a high amount of dietary fat caused a strong inhibition of lipogenesis and a concomitant increase in the level of hepatic lipids, thereby highlighting, in these conditions, the role of liver as a reservoir of exogenous fat.

  2. Effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fat and a full Mediterranean diet on PBMC whole genome gene expression and plasma proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, van, Susan; Feskens, Edith; Bos, M.B.; Groot, de, Lisette; Vries, de, Jeanne; Muller, Michael; Afman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of replacement of saturated fat (SFA) by monunsaturated fat (MUFA) in a western-type diet and the effects of a full Mediterranean (MED) diet on whole genome PBMC gene expression and plasma protein profiles. Abdominally overweight subjects were randomized to a 8 wk completely controlled SFA-rich diet, a SFA-by-MUFA-replaced diet (MUFA diet) or a MED diet. Concentrations of 124 plasma proteins and PBMCs whole genome transcriptional profiles were assessed...

  3. Impact of maternal high fat diet on hypothalamic transcriptome in neonatal Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Barrand

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during early development has been shown to impact the formation of hypothalamic neurocircuitry, thereby contributing to imbalances in appetite and energy homeostasis and increasing the risk of obesity in subsequent generations. Early in postnatal life, the neuronal projections responsible for energy homeostasis develop in response to appetite-related peptides such as leptin. To date, no study characterises the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur in response to exposure to high fat diet during this critical window. We explored the effects of maternal high fat diet consumption on hypothalamic gene expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring at postnatal day 10. RNA-sequencing enabled discovery of differentially expressed genes between offspring of dams fed a high fat diet and offspring of control diet fed dams. Female high fat diet offspring displayed altered expression of 86 genes (adjusted P-value<0.05, including genes coding for proteins of the extra cellular matrix, particularly Collagen 1a1 (Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, and the imprinted Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2 gene. Male high fat diet offspring showed significant changes in collagen genes (Col1a1 and Col3a1 and significant upregulation of two genes involved in regulation of dopamine availability in the brain, tyrosine hydroxylase (Th and dopamine reuptake transporter Slc6a3 (also known as Dat1. Transcriptional changes were accompanied by increased body weight, body fat and body length in the high fat diet offspring, as well as altered blood glucose and plasma leptin. Transcriptional changes identified in the hypothalamus of offspring of high fat diet mothers could alter neuronal projection formation during early development leading to abnormalities in the neuronal circuitry controlling appetite in later life, hence priming offspring to the development of obesity.

  4. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Sun Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  5. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. OBJECTIVE: We explored...... the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk...... duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed...

  6. Replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein in the diets of Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Rosa Sussel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing animal protein with vegetable protein sources on the productive performance of Astyanax altiparanae (lambari-do-rabo-amarelo. Five experimental diets were formulated with increasing replacement levels of animal protein by vegetable protein. A total of 9000 individuals (initial mean weight 1.18 ± 0.12 g, initial mean length 2.1 ± 0.3 cm were distributed in 20 net cages (1 m3 with a density of 450 ind. m-3. Cages were randomly placed in a pond (180 m2, 1.5 m deep, 10% water renewal per day. After 63 days of cultivation, total count and individual biometrics from 20% of each experimental unit were taken. Mean weight, total length, survival, feed conversion, biomass weight gain and proximate body composition were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replications. The reduction in the formulation cost achieved by increasing levels of vegetable protein compensated the slight decrease in biomass gain. Besides that, inclusion of vegetable protein resulted in greater fat deposition, suggesting future exploration of A. altiparanae as a functional food.

  7. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, Iris; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Henkin, Yaakov; Shahar, Danit R; Witkow, Shula; Greenberg, Ilana; Golan, Rachel; Fraser, Drora; Bolotin, Arkady; Vardi, Hilel; Tangi-Rozental, Osnat; Zuk-Ramot, Rachel; Sarusi, Benjamin; Brickner, Dov; Schwartz, Ziva; Sheiner, Einat; Marko, Rachel; Katorza, Esther; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Stampfer, Meir J

    2008-07-17

    Trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of weight-loss diets are frequently limited by short follow-up times and high dropout rates. In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 322 moderately obese subjects (mean age, 52 years; mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31; male sex, 86%) to one of three diets: low-fat, restricted-calorie; Mediterranean, restricted-calorie; or low-carbohydrate, non-restricted-calorie. The rate of adherence to a study diet was 95.4% at 1 year and 84.6% at 2 years. The Mediterranean-diet group consumed the largest amounts of dietary fiber and had the highest ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat (Pcarbohydrate group consumed the smallest amount of carbohydrates and the largest amounts of fat, protein, and cholesterol and had the highest percentage of participants with detectable urinary ketones (Ploss was 2.9 kg for the low-fat group, 4.4 kg for the Mediterranean-diet group, and 4.7 kg for the low-carbohydrate group (Plosses were 3.3 kg, 4.6 kg, and 5.5 kg, respectively. The relative reduction in the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 20% in the low-carbohydrate group and 12% in the low-fat group (P=0.01). Among the 36 subjects with diabetes, changes in fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were more favorable among those assigned to the Mediterranean diet than among those assigned to the low-fat diet (Pcarbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00160108.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  8. Effect of Different Vegetable Fats on Lipid Profile and Risk of Atherosclerosis in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainuson, Joana Koma

    2013-07-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVDs) are presently increasing rapidly in incidence and have become key contributors to the burden of disease in most developing countries like Ghana. The condition has been projected to more than double by 2025. The type and amount of dietary fat has been associated with several disorders including AVDs and it complications. Diet, as one of the most important modifiable risk factors of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) modulates the other known risk factors. Excessive intake of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol has been found to increase serum cholesterol, thus leading to a high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Saturated fats, both of animal and vegetable or plant origin, have been discredited. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of vegetable fats including olive oil (OO), red palm oil (RdPO) and refined palm oil or palm olein (RfPO) on lipid profile and risk of Atherosclerosis in rat model. Three months old male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats (n=56) were divided into four groups: control, olive, red palm and refined palm oil groups (n=14 per group) received water and feed ad libitum. The controls were fed the standard rat chow whilst the treatment (oil) groups received diet enriched with extra 6% by weight of the corresponding oil. During the 16 weeks of dietary intervention, 7 rats were randomly selected from each group and sacrificed at two months intervals, and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis. Plasma lipid profile comprising of Total Cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), and Apolipoprotein-B100 (Apo-B100) were determined at baseline and at the end of every two months by the enzymatic technique using the Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA). Pro-inflammatory markers including Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) were also determined by the ELISA method at baseline

  9. Gamma delta T cells promote inflammation and insulin resistance during high fat diet-induced obesity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma delta T cells are resident in adipose tissue and increase during diet-induced obesity. Their possible contribution to the inflammatory response that accompanies diet-induced obesity was investigated in mice after a 5-10 week high milk fat diet. The high milk fat diet resulted in significant in...

  10. A maternal high-protein diet predisposes female offspring to increased fat mass in adulthood whereas a prebiotic fibre diet decreases fat mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-11-14

    The negative effects of malnourishment in utero have been widely explored; the effects of increased maternal macronutrient intake are not known in relation to high fibre, and have been inconclusive with regard to high protein. In the present study, virgin Wistar dams were fed either a control (C), high-protein (40 %, w/w; HP) or high-prebiotic fibre (21·6 %, w/w; HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups consumed the C diet from 3 to 14·5 weeks of age, and then switched to a high-fat/sucrose diet for 8 weeks. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed and plasma satiety hormones measured. The final body weight and the percentage of body fat were significantly affected by the interaction between maternal diet and offspring sex: weight and fat mass were higher in the female offspring of the HP v. HF dams. No differences in body weight or fat mass were seen in the male offspring. There was a significant sex effect for fasting and total AUC for ghrelin and fasting GIP, with females having higher levels than males. Liver TAG content and plasma NEFA were lower in the offspring of high-prebiotic fibre dams (HF1) than in those of high-protein dams (HP1) and control dams (C1). Intestinal expression of GLUT2 was decreased in HF1 and HP1 v. C1. The maternal HP and HF diets had lasting effects on body fat and hepatic TAG accumulation in the offspring, particularly in females. Whereas the HP diet predisposes to an obese phenotype, the maternal HF diet appears to reduce the susceptibility to obesity following a high-energy diet challenge in adulthood.

  11. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  12. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  13. A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Frankenberg, Anize D; Marina, Anna; Song, Xiaoling; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2017-02-01

    We sought to determine the effects of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity and whether changes in insulin sensitivity were explained by changes in abdominal fat distribution or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acid composition. Overweight/obese adults with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (35 % fat/12 % saturated fat/47 % carbohydrate) for 10 days, followed by a 4-week low-fat diet (LFD, n = 10: 20 % fat/8 % saturated fat/62 % carbohydrate) or high-fat diet (HFD, n = 10: 55 % fat/25 % saturated fat/27 % carbohydrate). All foods and their eucaloric energy content were provided. Insulin sensitivity was measured by labeled hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, abdominal fat distribution by MRI, and fasting VLDL fatty acids by gas chromatography. The rate of glucose disposal (Rd) during low- and high-dose insulin decreased on the HFD but remained unchanged on the LFD (Rd-low: LFD: 0.12 ± 0.11 vs. HFD: -0.37 ± 0.15 mmol/min, mean ± SE, p vs. HFD: -0.71 ± 0.26 mmol/min, p = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not change. Changes in subcutaneous fat were positively associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on the LFD (r = 0.78, p fat. The LFD led to an increase in VLDL palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n7c) acids, while no changes were observed on the HFD. Changes in VLDL n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n6) were strongly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on both diets (LFD: r = -0.77; p fat and saturated fat adversely affects insulin sensitivity and thereby might contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00930371.

  14. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  15. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Sacks, Frank Martin; Bray, George A.; Carey, Vincent James; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Anton, Stephen D.; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M.; Bishop, Louise M.; Laranjo, Nancy M; Leboff, Meryl Susan; Rood, Jennifer Evelyn; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L.; Loria, Catherine M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. METHODS: We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guideli...

  16. Dietary influences on cognitive function with aging: from high-fat diets to healthful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Matthew D; Greenwood, Carol E

    2007-10-01

    Human epidemiologic studies provide convincing evidence that dietary patterns practiced during adulthood are important contributors to age-related cognitive decline and dementia risk. Diets high in fat, especially trans and saturated fats, adversely affect cognition, while those high in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and fish are associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of dementia. While the precise physiologic mechanisms underlying these dietary influences are not completely understood, modulation of brain insulin activity and neuroinflammation likely contribute. Not surprisingly, deficits in cognitive functions, especially those dependent on the medial temporal lobes, are apparent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Special care in food selection at meals should be exercised by those with T2DM since ingestion of rapidly absorbed, high-glycemic index carbohydrate foods further impairs medial temporal lobe function, with food-induced increases in oxidative stress and cytokine release likely explaining the association between food ingestion and reduction in cognitive function in those with T2DM.

  17. High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet-Induced Subendothelial Matrix Stiffening is Mitigated by Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julie C; Azar, Julian; Seta, Francesca; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of a high-fat, high-sugar diet and sedentary lifestyle are correlated with bulk arterial stiffening. While measurements of bulk arterial stiffening are used to assess cardiovascular health clinically, they cannot account for changes to the tissue occurring on the cellular scale. The compliance of the subendothelial matrix in the intima mediates vascular permeability, an initiating step in atherosclerosis. High-fat, high-sugar diet consumption and a sedentary lifestyle both cause micro-scale subendothelial matrix stiffening, but the impact of these factors in concert remains unknown. In this study, mice on a high-fat, high-sugar diet were treated with aerobic exercise or returned to a normal diet. We measured bulk arterial stiffness through pulse wave velocity and subendothelial matrix stiffness ex vivo through atomic force microscopy. Our data indicate that while diet reversal mitigates high-fat, high-sugar diet-induced macro- and micro-scale stiffening, exercise only significantly decreases micro-scale stiffness and not macro-scale stiffness, during the time-scale studied. These data underscore the need for both healthy diet and exercise to maintain vascular health. These data also indicate that exercise may serve as a key lifestyle modification to partially reverse the deleterious impacts of high-fat, high-sugar diet consumption, even while macro-scale stiffness indicators do not change.

  18. Day to day variability in fat oxidation and the effect after only 1 day of change in diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støa, Eva Maria; Nyhus, Lill-Katrin; Børresen, Sandra Claveau; Nygaard, Caroline; Hovet, Åse Marie; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Helgerud, Jan; Støren, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    Indirect calorimetry is a common and noninvasive method to estimate rate of fat oxidation (FatOx) during exercise, and test-retest reliability should be considered when interpreting results. Diet also has an impact on FatOx. The aim of the present study was to investigate day to day variations in FatOx during moderate exercise given the same diet and 2 different isoenergetic diets. Nine healthy, moderately-trained females participated in the study. They performed 1 maximal oxygen uptake test and 4 FatOx tests. Habitual diets were recorded and repeated to assess day to day variability in FatOx. FatOx was also measured after 1 day of fat-rich (26.8% carbohydrates (CHO), 23.2% protein, 47.1% fat) and 1 day of CHO-rich diet (62.6% CHO, 20.1% protein, 12.4% fat). The reliability test revealed no differences in FatOx, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, or blood glucose between the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx decreased after the CHO-rich diet compared with the habitual day 2 (from 0.42 ± 0.15 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p diet and the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx was 31% lower (from 0.42 ± 0.14 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p diet compared with the fat-rich diet. Using RER data to measure FatOx is a reliable method as long as the diet is strictly controlled. However, even a 1-day change in macronutrient composition will likely affect the FatOx results.

  19. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  20. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  1. Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John; Bruce, Bonnie; Spiller, Gene; Westerdahl, John; McDougall, Mary

    2002-02-01

    To demonstrate the effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Single-blind dietary intervention study. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: This study evaluated the influence of a 4-week, very low-fat (approximately 10%), vegan diet on 24 free-living subjects with RA, average age, 56 +/- 11 years old. Prestudy and poststudy assessment of RA symptomatology was performed by a rheumatologist blind to the study design. Biochemical measures and 4-day diet data were also collected. Subjects met weekly for diet instruction, compliance monitoring, and progress assessments. There were significant (p 0.05). Weight also decreased significantly (p 0.05), RA factor decreased 10% (ns, p > 0.05), while erythrocyte sedimentation rate was unchanged (p > 0.05). This study showed that patients with moderate-to-severe RA, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in RA symptoms.

  2. Modification of high saturated fat diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fat improves glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamping, KL; Nuno, DW; Coppey, LJ; Holmes, AJ; Hu, S; Oltman, CL; Norris, AW; Yorek, MA

    2013-01-01

    Aims The ability of dietary enrichment with monounsaturated (MUFA), n-3, or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to reverse glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction resulting from excessive dietary saturated fatty acids is not resolved. We hypothesized that partial replacement of dietary saturated fats with n-3 PUFA enriched menhaden oil (MO) would provide greater improvement in glucose tolerance and vascular function compared to n-6 enriched safflower oil (SO) or MUFA-enriched olive oil (OO). Material and Methods We fed mice a high saturated fat diet (60% kcal from lard) for 12 weeks before substituting half the lard with MO, SO or OO for an additional 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, we assessed glucose tolerance, insulin signaling and reactivity of isolated pressurized gracilis arteries. Results After 12 weeks of saturated fat diet, body weights were elevated and glucose tolerance abnormal compared to mice on control diet (13% kcal lard). Diet substituted with MO restored basal glucose levels, glucose tolerance, and indices of insulin signaling (phosphorylated Akt) to normal whereas restoration was limited for SO and OO substitutions. Although dilation to acetylcholine was reduced in arteries from mice on HF, OO and SO diets compared to normal diet, dilation to acetylcholine was fully restored and constriction to phenylephrine reduced in MO fed mice compared to normal. Conclusion We conclude that short term enrichment of an ongoing high fat diet with n-3 PUFA rich MO but not MUFA rich OO or n-6 PUFA rich SO reverses glucose tolerance, insulin signaling, and vascular dysfunction. PMID:22950668

  3. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  4. Tropical vegetable fats and butters: properties and new alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Salas Joaquín

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical fats and butters are characterized by their high contents of saturated fatty acids, which confer to them melting points and rheological properties adequate for the production of high valuable food commodities. We can distinguish 3 groups of tropical fats: those having medium chain fatty acids, like coconut or palm kernel oils, those rich in palmitic acid, like palm oil and its fractions, and those rich in stearic acid like cocoa butter. Modern biotechnology has provided with alternatives to these species in engineered common oil crops enriched in saturated fatty acids and processes aimed to enrich common oils in disaturated TAGs by enzymatic transesterification. The present and future of these new sources of saturated fats are discussed in this work.

  5. Dietary D-psicose reduced visceral fat mass in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young-Mee; Hyun Lee, Joo; Youl Kim, Deuk; Hwang, Se-Hee; Hong, Young-Ho; Kim, Seong-Bo; Jin Lee, Song; Hye Park, Chi

    2012-02-01

    D-Psicose, a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, has shown promise in reducing body fat accumulation in normal rats and plasma glucose level in genetic diabetic mice. Effects of D-psicose on diet-induced obesity are not clearly elucidated, and we investigated food intake, body weight, and fat accumulation in rats fed high-fat (HF) diet. Sprague-Dawley rats became obese by feeding HF diet for 4 wk, and were assigned either to normal or HF diet supplemented with or without D-psicose, sucrose, or erythritol for 8 wk. Changing HF to normal diet gained less body weight and adipose tissue due to different energy intake. D-psicose-fed rats exhibited lower weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and fat accumulation than erythritol- and sucrose-fed rats. This effect was more prominent in D-psicose-fed rats with normal diet than with HF diet, suggesting combination of psicose and calorie restriction further reduced obesity. There was no difference in serum cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C/HDL-C ratios between D-psicose group and other groups. Liver weight in 5% psicose group with normal diet was higher than in other groups, but histopathological examination did not reveal any psicose-related change. D-Psicose inhibited the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to adipose tissue in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that D-psicose produces a marked decrease, greater than erythritol, in weight gain and visceral fat in an established obesity model by inhibiting MSC differentiation to adipocyte. Thus, D-psicose can be useful in preventing and reducing obesity as a sugar substitute and food ingredient. We can develop D-psicose as a sugar substitute and food ingredient since it can prevent obesity in normal people, but also suppress adiposity as a sugar substitute or food ingredients with antiobesity effect in obese people. D-psicose can be unique functional sweetener because of its function of reducing visceral

  6. Effects of Enzymatically Synthesized Glycogen and Exercise on Abdominal Fat Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shohei; Honda, Kazuhisa; Morinaga, Ryoji; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The combination of diet and exercise is the first choice for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in obese rats. However, the effect of the combination of ESG and exercise on abdominal fat accumulation has not yet been investigated. Our goal in this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of dietary ESG and its combination with exercise on abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male ICR mice were assigned to four groups: HFD, HFD containing 20% ESG, HFD with exercise, HFD containing 20% ESG with exercise. Treadmill exercise was performed for 3 wk (25 m/min, 30 min/d, 3 d/wk) after 5-d adaption to running at that speed. Both ESG and exercise significantly reduced the weights of abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the combination of ESG and exercise significantly suppressed abdominal fat accumulation, suggesting that ESG and exercise showed an additive effect. Exercise significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes such as lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta; factor-delta (PPARδ), carnitin palmitoyltransferase b, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and uncoupling protein-3 in the gastrocnemius muscle. On the other hand, dietary ESG significantly decreased the mRNA levels of PPARδ and ATGL in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that the combined treatment of ESG and exercise effectively suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice by different mechanisms.

  7. Hunger and satiety responses to high-fat meals after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) elicit a greater response in satiety after a single-meal challenge compared with other types of fats. The long-term effects of PUFAs on satiety, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine subjective and physiological hunger and satiety responses to high-fat (HF) meals before and after a 7-d PUFA-rich diet. Twenty-six, healthy weight (body mass index 18-24.9 kg/m 2 ), sedentary adults were randomly assigned to either a 7-d PUFA-rich diet (n = 8 men and n = 8 women) or a 7-d control diet (n = 5 men and n = 5 women). After a 3-d lead-in diet, participants reported for the baseline visit where anthropometrics, fasting visual analog scale (VAS) measurements, and a fasting blood sample were collected. Then, two HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Postprandial blood draws and VAS measures were collected approximately every 30 min for 4 h after each meal, for a total of 8 h. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was a decrease in fasting ghrelin (P hunger and satiety; yet, did not alter subjective ratings of hunger or fullness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-fat diet determines the composition of the murine gut microbiome independently of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Marie A; Hoffmann, Christian; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Keilbaugh, Sue A; Hamady, Micah; Chen, Ying-Yu; Knight, Rob; Ahima, Rexford S; Bushman, Frederic; Wu, Gary D

    2009-11-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome is affected by host phenotype, genotype, immune function, and diet. Here, we used the phenotype of RELMbeta knockout (KO) mice to assess the influence of these factors. Both wild-type and RELMbeta KO mice were lean on a standard chow diet, but, upon switching to a high-fat diet, wild-type mice became obese, whereas RELMbeta KO mice remained comparatively lean. To investigate the influence of diet, genotype, and obesity on microbiome composition, we used deep sequencing to characterize 25,790 16S rDNA sequences from uncultured bacterial communities from both genotypes on both diets. We found large alterations associated with switching to the high-fat diet, including a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in both Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. This was seen for both genotypes (ie, in the presence and absence of obesity), indicating that the high-fat diet itself, and not the obese state, mainly accounted for the observed changes in the gut microbiota. The RELMbeta genotype also modestly influenced microbiome composition independently of diet. Metagenomic analysis of 537,604 sequence reads documented extensive changes in gene content because of a high-fat diet, including an increase in transporters and 2-component sensor responders as well as a general decrease in metabolic genes. Unexpectedly, we found a substantial amount of murine DNA in our samples that increased in proportion on a high-fat diet. These results demonstrate the importance of diet as a determinant of gut microbiome composition and suggest the need to control for dietary variation when evaluating the composition of the human gut microbiome.

  9. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation into diets with two different fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sevilay

    or without supplemental L-carnitine (0 or 50 mg/kg diet) on growth ... The cold carcass yield of quails fed the diet containing .... Temperature was kept at ...... crude fat content in breast muscle of male broilers increased significantly upon the ...

  10. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  11. A free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces changes in arcuate neuropeptide expression that support hyperphagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S. E.; van Rozen, A. J.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; Groeneweg, F.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms for how saturated fat and sugar-based beverages contribute to human obesity are poorly understood. This paper describes a series of experiments developed to examine the response of hypothalamic neuropeptides to diets rich in sugar and fat, using three different diets: a high-fat

  12. Maternal high-fat diet intensifies the metabolic response to stress in male rat offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Dargahi, Leila; Salimi, Mina; Rashidi, FatemehSadat

    2017-01-01

    Background The mother?s consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. Methods Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in a...

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects differential lipid composition in mammary glands on low fat, high animal fat versus high fructose diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianning He

    Full Text Available The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1 SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12 were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD, high animal fat diet (HAFD, and high fructose diet (HFruD. MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9.4 T scanner after 8 weeks on the diet. 1H spectra were acquired using point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS from two 1 mm3 boxes on each side of inguinal mammary gland with no cancers, lymph nodes, or lymph ducts. High spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS images were also acquired from nine 1-mm slices. A combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions was used to fit the spectra. The percentages of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, and saturated fatty acids (SFA were calculated from each fitted spectrum. Water and fat peak height images (maps were generated from HiSS data. The results showed that HAFD mice had significantly lower PUFA than both LFD (p < 0.001 and HFruD (p < 0.01 mice. The mammary lipid quantity calculated from 1H spectra was much larger in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.03 but similar to HFruD mice (p = 0.10. The average fat signal intensity over the mammary glands calculated from HiSS fat maps was ~60% higher in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.04 mice. The mean or median of calculated parameters for the HFruD mice were between those for LFD and HAFD mice. Therefore, PRESS spectroscopy and HiSS MRI demonstrated water and fat composition changes in mammary glands due to a Western diet, which was low in potassium, high in sodium, animal fat, and simple carbohydrates. Measurements of PUFA with MRI could be used to evaluate cancer risk, improve cancer detection and diagnosis, and guide preventative

  14. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K.; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75) versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73) on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of d...

  15. High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-12-01

    The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured. After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group ( P corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat synthesis as well as promotes expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fat oxidation, further inhibiting body fat accumulation and body weight elevation in experimental animals.

  16. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eCai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects.

  17. Iatrogenic lipodystrophy in HIV patients - the need for very-low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2003-01-01

    In HIV patients, chronic treatment with protease inhibitors often precipitates a peripheral lipodystrophy associated with insulin resistance syndrome and premature coronary disease. In vitro studies demonstrate that these drugs can compromise the ability of adipocytes to store triglycerides; in vivo, peripheral subcutaneous adipocytes appear to be most affected, such that body fat often redistributes to visceral or truncal adipose stores. Dysfunction of peripheral subcutaneous adipocytes - ordinarily quite efficient for storing fat - can be expected to give rise to an excessive flux of free fatty acids (FFAs) following fatty meals; chronic overexposure of tissues to FFAs is a likely explanation for the insulin resistance syndrome associated with lipodystrophy. These considerations suggest that a very-low-fat diet - less than 15% fat calories - may ameliorate the cardiovascular risk associated with lipodystrophy; such diets are known to have a favorable effect on the insulin sensitivity of healthy subjects. Very-low-fat whole-food vegan diets are particularly recommendable in this context, as they may help to shrink visceral fat depots while markedly reducing LDL cholesterol. Appropriate adjunctive measures may include aerobic exercise training - beneficial both for insulin sensitivity and weight control - as well as administration of statins or policosanol, and of fibrates or fish oil, to decrease LDL and triglycerides, respectively. Despite perceptions to the contrary, very-low-fat diets can meet with good compliance in well-motivated subjects given appropriate instruction.

  18. Does running with or without changes in diet reduce fat mass in novice runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus O.; Videbæk, Solvej; Hansen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore how average weekly running distance, combined with changes in diet habits and reasons to take up running, influence fat mass. METHODS: Fat mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and after 12 months in 538 novice runners included...... in a 1-year observational prospective follow-up study. During follow-up, running distance for each participant was continuously measured by GPS while reasons to take up running and diet changes were assessed trough web-based questionnaires. Loss of fat mass was compared between runners covering...... an average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. RESULTS: Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; P

  19. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Smith, Steven R; Ryan, Donna H; Anton, Stephen D; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M; Bishop, Louise M; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S; Rood, Jennifer C; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L; Loria, Catherine M; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A

    2009-02-26

    The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize

  20. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M.; Bray, George A.; Carey, Vincent J.; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Anton, Stephen D.; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M.; Bishop, Louise M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S.; Rood, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. METHODS We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. RESULTS At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of

  1. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal, and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group. Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  2. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, William S; Olsen, Maren K; Guyton, John R; Bakst, Ronna P; Westman, Eric C

    2004-05-18

    Low-carbohydrate diets remain popular despite a paucity of scientific evidence on their effectiveness. To compare the effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet program with those of a low-fat, low-cholesterol, reduced-calorie diet. Randomized, controlled trial. Outpatient research clinic. 120 overweight, hyperlipidemic volunteers from the community. Low-carbohydrate diet (initially, carbohydrate daily) plus nutritional supplementation, exercise recommendation, and group meetings, or low-fat diet (fat, low-carbohydrate diet group than the low-fat diet group completed the study (76% vs. 57%; P = 0.02). At 24 weeks, weight loss was greater in the low-carbohydrate diet group than in the low-fat diet group (mean change, -12.9% vs. -6.7%; P fat mass (change, -9.4 kg with the low-carbohydrate diet vs. -4.8 kg with the low-fat diet) than fat-free mass (change, -3.3 kg vs. -2.4 kg, respectively). Compared with recipients of the low-fat diet, recipients of the low-carbohydrate diet had greater decreases in serum triglyceride levels (change, -0.84 mmol/L vs. -0.31 mmol/L [-74.2 mg/dL vs. -27.9 mg/dL]; P = 0.004) and greater increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (0.14 mmol/L vs. -0.04 mmol/L [5.5 mg/dL vs. -1.6 mg/dL]; P low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level did not differ statistically (0.04 mmol/L [1.6 mg/dL] with the low-carbohydrate diet and -0.19 mmol/L [-7.4 mg/dL] with the low-fat diet; P = 0.2). Minor adverse effects were more frequent in the low-carbohydrate diet group. We could not definitively distinguish effects of the low-carbohydrate diet and those of the nutritional supplements provided only to that group. In addition, participants were healthy and were followed for only 24 weeks. These factors limit the generalizability of the study results. Compared with a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet program had better participant retention and greater weight loss. During active weight loss, serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high

  3. Effect of a high-fat Mediterranean diet on bodyweight and waist circumference: a prespecified secondary outcomes analysis of the PREDIMED randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Ramon; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Fiol, Miquel; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Sorlí, José V; Muñoz, Miguel A; Basora-Gallisá, Josep; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Ros, Emilio

    2016-08-01

    Because of the high density of fat, high-fat diets are perceived as likely to lead to increased bodyweight, hence health-care providers are reluctant to recommend them to overweight or obese individuals. We assessed the long-term effects of ad libitum, high-fat, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diets on bodyweight and waist circumference in older people at risk of cardiovascular disease, most of whom were overweight or obese. PREDIMED was a 5 year parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial done in primary care centres affiliated to 11 hospitals in Spain. 7447 asymptomatic men (aged 55-80 years) and women (aged 60-80 years) who had type 2 diabetes or three or more cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with a computer-generated number sequence to one of three interventions: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (n=2543); Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (n=2454); or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat; n=2450). Energy restriction was not advised, nor was physical activity promoted. In this analysis of the trial, we measured bodyweight and waist circumference at baseline and yearly for 5 years in the intention-to-treat population. The PREDIMED trial is registered with ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN35739639. After a median 4·8 years (IQR 2·8-5·8) of follow-up, participants in all three groups had marginally reduced bodyweight and increased waist circumference. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in bodyweight in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group was -0·43 kg (95% CI -0·86 to -0·01; p=0·044) and in the nut group was -0·08 kg (-0·50 to 0·35; p=0·730), compared with the control group. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in waist circumference was -0·55 cm (-1·16 to -0·06; p=0·048) in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group and -0·94 cm (-1·60 to -0·27; p=0·006) in the nut group, compared with the control group. A long-term intervention with an

  4. Ectopic Fat and Insulin Resistance: Pathophysiology and Effect of Diet and Lifestyle Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Snel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The storage of triglyceride (TG droplets in nonadipose tissues is called ectopic fat storage. Ectopic fat is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Not the triglycerides per se but the accumulation of intermediates of lipid metabolism in organs, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart seem to disrupt metabolic processes and impair organ function. We describe the mechanisms of ectopic fat depositions in the liver, skeletal muscle, and in and around the heart and the consequences for each organs function. In addition, we systematically reviewed the literature for the effects of diet-induced weight loss and exercise on ectopic fat depositions.

  5. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ching-Hsiu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2 and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY. Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  6. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Hung, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Yang, Ching-Hsiu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2008-01-01

    Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2) and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY). Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:18822121

  7. Maternal high-fat diet associated with altered gene expression, DNA methylation, and obesity risk in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Madeline Rose; Zaidi, Rabab; Shah, Shyam; Oakley, M Elsa; Pavlatos, Cassondra; El Idrissi, Samir; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Daofeng; Wang, Ting; Cheverud, James M

    2018-01-01

    We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts. Maternal diet particularly affected genes involved in RNA processing, immune response, and mitochondria. Between one-quarter and one-third of differentially expressed genes contained a differentially methylated region associated with maternal diet. An offspring high-fat diet reduced overall variation in DNA methylation, increased body weight and organ weights, increased long bone lengths and weights, decreased insulin sensitivity, and changed the expression of 3,908 genes in the liver. Although the offspring were more affected by their own diet, their maternal diet had epigenetic effects lasting through adulthood, and in the daughters these effects were accompanied by phenotypic changes relevant to obesity and diabetes.

  8. Maternal high-fat diet associated with altered gene expression, DNA methylation, and obesity risk in mouse offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Rabab; Shah, Shyam; Oakley, M. Elsa; Pavlatos, Cassondra; El Idrissi, Samir; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Daofeng; Wang, Ting; Cheverud, James M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts. Maternal diet particularly affected genes involved in RNA processing, immune response, and mitochondria. Between one-quarter and one-third of differentially expressed genes contained a differentially methylated region associated with maternal diet. An offspring high-fat diet reduced overall variation in DNA methylation, increased body weight and organ weights, increased long bone lengths and weights, decreased insulin sensitivity, and changed the expression of 3,908 genes in the liver. Although the offspring were more affected by their own diet, their maternal diet had epigenetic effects lasting through adulthood, and in the daughters these effects were accompanied by phenotypic changes relevant to obesity and diabetes. PMID:29447215

  9. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  10. Consumption of a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet (the ketogenic diet) exaggerates biotin deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Matsui, Tomoyoshi; Ando, Saori; Ishii, Yoshie; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a cofactor for several carboxylases. The ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, is used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and promote weight loss. In Japan, the infant version of the ketogenic diet is known as the "ketone formula." However, as the special infant formulas used in Japan, including the ketone formula, do not contain sufficient amounts of biotin, biotin deficiency can develop in infants who consume the ketone formula. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ketogenic diet on biotin status in mice. Male mice (N = 32) were divided into the following groups: control diet group, biotin-deficient (BD) diet group, ketogenic control diet group, and ketogenic biotin-deficient (KBD) diet group. Eight mice were used in each group. At 9 wk, the typical symptoms of biotin deficiency such as hair loss and dermatitis had only developed in the KBD diet group. The total protein expression level of biotin-dependent carboxylases and the total tissue biotin content were significantly decreased in the KBD and BD diet groups. However, these changes were more severe in the KBD diet group. These findings demonstrated that the ketogenic diet increases biotin bioavailability and consumption, and hence, promotes energy production by gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which results in exaggerated biotin deficiency in biotin-deficient mice. Therefore, biotin supplementation is important for mice that consume the ketogenic diet. It is suggested that individuals that consume the ketogenic diet have an increased biotin requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-11-01

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  12. Rodent malaria in rats exacerbated by milk protein, attenuated by low-protein vegetable diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorne, C.W. van; Eling, W.M.C.; Luyken, R.

    1998-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats were fed a purified, vegetable, low-protein diet containing 6% protein from maize gluten and 2% from soy protein isolate, or comparable diets in which maize gluten was replaced partly or completely by the equivalent amount of a milk protein concentrate. Diets with adequate

  13. Effect of High-Fat Diet upon Inflammatory Markers and Aortic Stiffening in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bento Chaves Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle such as increase in high-fat food consumption are an important cause for vascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of ACE and TGF-β in the aorta stiffness induced by high-fat diet. C57BL/6 male mice were divided in two groups according to their diet for 8 weeks: standard diet (ST and high-fat diet (HF. At the end of the protocol, body weight gain, adipose tissue content, serum lipids and glucose levels, and aorta morphometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Analysis of collagen fibers by picrosirius staining of aorta slices showed that HF diet promoted increase of thin (55% and thick (100% collagen fibers deposition and concomitant disorganization of these fibers orientations in the aorta vascular wall (50%. To unravel the mechanism involved, myeloperoxidase (MPO and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE were evaluated by protein expression and enzyme activity. HF diet increased MPO (90% and ACE (28% activities, as well as protein expression of ACE. TGF-β was also increased in aorta tissue of HF diet mice after 8 weeks. Altogether, we have observed that the HF diet-induced aortic stiffening may be associated with increased oxidative stress damage and activation of the RAS in vascular tissue.

  14. Intestinal absorption of dietary fat from a liquid diet perfused in rats at a submaximum level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simko, V.; Kelley, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The small intestine of rats was perfused in vivo for 2 h with a nutritionally complete liquid diet (68% calories from fat as corn oil). As the perfusion increased from 106 mg/2 h, the intestinal disappearance of the 14 C-triolein marker remained proportional to the load up to 2359 mg fat/2 h. Despite a decrease in absorption from 70 to 17%, this represents a very large fat intake. Fat absorption improved when medium-chain triglycerides or octanoic acid replaced corn oil (both p less than 0.01). Linoleic acid was absorbed from the diet less than corn oil (p less than 0.01). Dry ox bile reduced fat absorption (p less than 0.05); lipase and an antacid had no effect. Corn oil perfused alone was absorbed better than from the diet (p less than 0.01). Data with 14 C-triolein was confirmed by dry-weight disappearance of the diet and by net intestinal water balance. Usual feeding underutilizes a large reserve for fat absorption. This reserve should be considered in therapeutic nutrition

  15. Functional Deficits Precede Structural Lesions in Mice With High-Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Rithwick; Bligard, Gregory W; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Li; Lukasiewicz, Peter; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity predisposes to human type 2 diabetes, the most common cause of diabetic retinopathy. To determine if high-fat diet-induced diabetes in mice can model retinal disease, we weaned mice to chow or a high-fat diet and tested the hypothesis that diet-induced metabolic disease promotes retinopathy. Compared with controls, mice fed a diet providing 42% of energy as fat developed obesity-related glucose intolerance by 6 months. There was no evidence of microvascular disease until 12 months, when trypsin digests and dye leakage assays showed high fat-fed mice had greater atrophic capillaries, pericyte ghosts, and permeability than controls. However, electroretinographic dysfunction began at 6 months in high fat-fed mice, manifested by increased latencies and reduced amplitudes of oscillatory potentials compared with controls. These electroretinographic abnormalities were correlated with glucose intolerance. Unexpectedly, retinas from high fat-fed mice manifested striking induction of stress kinase and neural inflammasome activation at 3 months, before the development of systemic glucose intolerance, electroretinographic defects, or microvascular disease. These results suggest that retinal disease in the diabetic milieu may progress through inflammatory and neuroretinal stages long before the development of vascular lesions representing the classic hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, establishing a model for assessing novel interventions to treat eye disease. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Role of high-fat diet in stress response of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erilynn T Heinrichsen

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with many diseases, one of the most common being obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, which in turn leads to blood gas disturbances, including intermittent hypoxia (IH. Obesity, OSA and IH are associated with metabolic changes, and while much mammalian work has been done, mechanisms underlying the response to IH, the role of obesity and the interaction of obesity and hypoxia remain unknown. As a model organism, Drosophila offers tremendous power to study a specific phenotype and, at a subsequent stage, to uncover and study fundamental mechanisms, given the conservation of molecular pathways. Herein, we characterize the phenotype of Drosophila on a high-fat diet in normoxia, IH and constant hypoxia (CH using triglyceride and glucose levels, response to stress and lifespan. We found that female flies on a high-fat diet show increased triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a shortened lifespan in normoxia, IH and CH. Furthermore, flies on a high-fat diet in normoxia and CH show diminished tolerance to stress, with decreased survival after exposure to extreme cold or anoxia (p<0.001. Of interest, IH seems to rescue this decreased cold tolerance, as flies on a high-fat diet almost completely recovered from cold stress following IH. We conclude that the cross talk between hypoxia and a high-fat diet can be either deleterious or compensatory, depending on the nature of the hypoxic treatment.

  17. Preparation of polyol esters based on vegetable and animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, S; Piechocki, W; Gryglewicz, G

    2003-03-01

    The possibility of using some natural fats: rapeseed oil, olive oil and lard, as starting material for the preparation of neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylol propane (TMP) esters is reported. The syntheses of final products were performed by alcoholysis of fatty acid methyl esters, obtained from natural fats studied, with the appropriate polyhydric alcohol using calcium methoxide as a catalyst. The basic physicochemical properties of the NPG and TMP esters synthesized were the following: viscosity at 40 degrees C in the range of 13.5-37.6 cSt, pour point between -10.5 and -17.5 degrees C and very high viscosity indices, higher than 200. Generally, the esters of neopentyl alcohols were characterized by higher stability in thermo-oxidative conditions in comparison to native triglycerides. Due to the low content of polyunsaturated acids, the olive oil based esters showed the highest thermo-oxidative resistance. Also, methyl esters of fatty acids of lard would constitute a good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils, provided that their saturated acids content was lowered. This permits synthesis of NPG and TMP esters with a lower pour point (below -10 degrees C) than natural lard (+33 degrees C).

  18. Tissue Specific Expression Of Sprouty1 In Mice Protects Against High Fat Diet Induced Fat Accumulation, Bone Loss, And Metabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J.; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    We recently characterized Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signaling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss, and associated lipid abnormalities and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high caloric diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter (aP2)-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1 null mice, high fat diet increased body fat by 40%, impaired glucose regulation, and led to liver steatosis. However, over-expression of Spry1 led to 35% lower body fat, reduced bone loss, and normal metabolic function compared to single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70%) and leptin (54%) compared to controls on a high fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45%. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss. PMID:22142492

  19. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  20. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preparation of the product, cocoa or a mixture of cocoa and chocolate liquor is used in such quantity that the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products...

  1. Religiosity and Spirituality and the Intake of Fruit, Vegetable, and Fat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Min Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review articles investigating the relationship between religion and spirituality (R/S and fruit, vegetable, and fat intake. Methods. PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched for studies published in English prior to March 2013. The studies were divided into two categories: denominational studies and degree of R/S studies. The degree of R/S studies was further analyzed to (1 determine the categories of R/S measures and their relationship with fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, (2 evaluate the quality of the R/S measures and the research design, and (3 determine the categories of reported relationship. Results. Thirty-nine studies were identified. There were 14 denominational studies and 21 degree of R/S studies, and 4 studies were a combination of both. Only 20% of the studies reported validity and 52% reported reliability of the R/S measures used. All studies were cross-sectional, and only one attempted mediation analysis. Most studies showed a positive association with fruit and vegetable intake and a mixed association with fat intake. Conclusion. The positive association between R/S and fruit and vegetable intake may be one possible link between R/S and positive health outcome. However, the association with fat intake was mixed, and recommendations for future research are made.

  2. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Sam Kamalam

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L and the fat (F line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1% for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  3. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  4. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  5. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    Sixteen multiparous cows (12 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss, 132 +/- 20 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects of feeding corn germ on dairy cow performance. Diets were formulated with increasing concentrations of corn germ (Dakota Germ, Poet Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD) at 0, 7, 14, and 21% of the diet dry matter (DM). All diets had a 55:45 forage to concentrate ratio, where forage was 55% corn silage and 45% alfalfa hay. Dietary fat increased from 4.8% in the control diet to 8.2% at the greatest inclusion level of corn germ. The addition of corn germ resulted in a quadratic response in DM intake with numerically greater intake at 14% of diet DM. Feeding corn germ at 7 and 14% of diet DM increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk as well as fat percentage and yield. Milk protein yield tended to decrease as the concentration of corn germ increased in the diet. Dietary treatments had no effect on feed efficiency, which averaged 1.40 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI. Increasing the dietary concentration of corn germ resulted in a linear increase in milk fat concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Milk fat concentration and yield of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid were increased with increased dietary concentrations of corn germ. Although milk fat concentrations of both total trans-18:1 and cis-18:1 fatty acids increased linearly, a marked numeric increase in the concentration of trans-10 C18:1 was observed in milk from cows fed the 21% corn germ diet. A similar response was observed in plasma concentration of trans-10 C18:1. Feeding increasing concentrations of corn germ had no effect on plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, or beta-hydroxybutyrate; however, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids increased linearly, with plasma cholesterol concentration demonstrating a similar trend

  6. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M.; Crump, Erica M.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet con...

  7. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M; Crump, Erica M; Rowland, Neil E

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or "junk food" diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance.

  8. Effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fat and a full Mediterranean diet on PBMC whole genome gene expression and plasma proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Susan; Feskens, Edith; Bos, M.B.; Groot, de Lisette; Vries, de Jeanne; Muller, Michael; Afman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of replacement of saturated fat (SFA) by monunsaturated fat (MUFA) in a western-type diet and the effects of a full Mediterranean (MED) diet on whole genome PBMC gene expression and plasma protein profiles. Abdominally overweight subjects were randomized to a

  9. Use of enzymes in diets with different percentages of added fat for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.P. Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.

  10. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  11. Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with fat and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paiva Paula Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to determine the influence of diets with inclusion of protected fat and vitamin E on performance, yield and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs with different weights. Thirty-two non-castrated Santa Ines lambs were fed diets with a ratio of 40% forage and 60% concentrate ad libitum, with presence or absence of protected fat and/or vitamin E, in a total of four diets. Two weights of early containment were also considered: between 20 and 25 kg and between 30 and 35 kg. All animals were slaughtered at 84 days of confinement. Animals fed diets without addition of protected fat, regardless of the use of vitamin E, had the highest intakes of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash, and decreased intake of ether extract. The variables investigated did not affect daily weight gain and total gain. Feed conversion was better for the lighter confined animals not fed protected fat. The heavier feedlot lambs fed diets with vitamin E showed higher cold carcass. The warm carcass for the lighter animals confined fed with vitamin E, and the heavier ones, fed with protected fat and vitamin E, showed the best yields of cold carcass. Objective measures of the carcass cold had the highest mean for heavier feedlot lambs. The addition of fat in the diet reduces the intake of dry matter and increases the ether extract. Although the inclusion of vitamin has no effect on intake of nutrients, it protects the carcasses from losses during cooling, and weight differences at containment directly reflect the measures of the carcasses.

  12. Exercise and diet enhance fat oxidation and reduce insulin resistance in older obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Sistrun, Sakita N; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    oxygen consumption (Vo(2max))] with either normal caloric intake (eucaloric group, 1,901 +/- 277 kcal/day, n = 12) or a reduced-calorie diet (hypocaloric group, 1,307 +/- 70 kcal/day, n = 11), as dictated by nutritional counseling. Body composition (decreased fat mass; maintained fat-free mass), aerobic...... fitness (Vo(2max)), leptinemia, insulin sensitivity, and intramyocellular lipid accumulation (IMCL) in skeletal muscle improved in both groups (P hypocaloric group. Following the intervention...

  13. Fat- and Fiber-Related Diet Behavior among Type 2 Diabetes Patients from Distinct Regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hendrychová, T.; Vytřísalová, M.; Alwarafi, A.; Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Vaňkátová, H.; Leal, S.; Kuběna, A.A.; Šmahelová, A.; Vlček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, Article number A38 (2015), s. 319-325 ISSN 1177-889X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Grant - others:SVV UK(CZ) 260 066 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : type 2 diabetes mellitus * fat-related behavior * fiber-related behavior * Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire * geographical difference Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2015

  14. Correction of dyslipidemia resulting from high fat diets with purified anthocyanins from blueberry or strawberry but not in context of the complete berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male C57BL/6 mice received diets with either 10% of kcal from fat (LF), a high fat diet [45% (HF45) or 60% (HF60) kcal from fat]. In the first study the diets were prepared with or without freeze dried powders from whole blueberries (BB) and strawberries (SB). In the 2nd study, a LF or HF60 diet was...

  15. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Kyung Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  16. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  17. Impaired mTORC2 signaling in catecholaminergic neurons exaggerates high fat diet-induced hyperphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Dadalko

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data support a model in which mTORC2 signaling within catecholaminergic neurons constrains consumption of a high-fat diet, while disruption causes high-fat diet-specific exaggerated hyperphagia. In parallel, impaired mTORC2 signaling leads to aberrant striatal DA neurotransmission, which has been associated with obesity in human and animal models, as well as with escalating substance abuse. These data suggest that defects localized to the catecholaminergic pathways are capable of overriding homeostatic circuits, leading to obesity, metabolic impairment, and aberrant DA-dependent behaviors.

  18. Moderate high fat diet increases sucrose self-administration in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlewicz, Dianne P; Jay, Jennifer L; Acheson, Molly A; Magrisso, Irwin J; West, Constance H; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F

    2013-02-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  20. A low-fat Diet improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, AM; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Viggers, Lone

    2006-01-01

    diet (P = 0.039). The daily protein and carbohydrate intake increased (+4.4% of total energy intake, P = 0.0049 and +2.5%, P = 0.34, respectively), while alcohol intake decreased (-3.2% of total energy intake, P = 0.02). There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity on the isocaloric, low-fat......AIMS: To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirteen Type 1 patients were...... by the insulin clamp technique at baseline and after each of the diet intervention periods. RESULTS: On an isocaloric low-fat diet, Type 1 diabetic patients significantly reduced the proportion of fat in the total daily energy intake by 12.1% (or -3.6% of total energy) as compared with a conventional diabetes...

  1. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  2. A low-fat high-carbohydrate diet reduces plasma total adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet with no impact on biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a randomized controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Kestin, Mark; Schwarz, Yvonne; Yang, Pamela; Hu, Xiaojun; Lampe, Johanna W; Kratz, Mario

    2016-02-01

    We compared the effects of a eucaloric moderate-fat diet (18% protein, 36% fat, and 46% carbohydrate), a eucaloric low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (18% protein, 18% fat, and 64% carbohydrate), and a low-calorie (33% reduced) low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on biomarkers of systemic inflammation. We randomly assigned 102 participants (age 21-76 years and BMI 19.2-35.5 kg/m(2)) to the three different diets for 6 weeks in a parallel design intervention trial. All foods were provided. Ninety-three participants completed all study procedures; 92 were included in the analyses. Endpoints included plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (sTNFRI and II), and adiponectin. In the unadjusted primary analyses, none of the endpoints were differentially affected by the dietary interventions despite the significantly greater reductions in body weight and fat mass in participants consuming the low-calorie low-fat diet compared to the eucaloric diets (p loss (time × weight change interaction, p = 0.051). Adjusted for weight change, adiponectin was reduced in the groups consuming the low-fat diets relative to the moderate-fat diet (p = 0.008). No effect of the intervention diets or weight loss on CRP, IL-6, or sTNFRI and II was seen in these secondary analyses. In relatively healthy adults, moderate weight loss had minimal effects on systemic inflammation, and raised plasma adiponectin only modestly. A lower dietary fat and higher carbohydrate content had little impact on measures of systemic inflammation, but reduced adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet. The latter may be of concern given the consistent and strong inverse association of plasma adiponectin with many chronic diseases.

  3. Ellagic acid attenuates high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-03-01

    Fruits and nuts may prevent or reverse common human health conditions such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension; together, these conditions are referred to as metabolic syndrome, an increasing problem. This study has investigated the responses to ellagic acid, present in many fruits and nuts, in a diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome. Eight- to nine-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups for 16-week feeding with cornstarch diet (C), cornstarch diet supplemented with ellagic acid (CE), high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet supplemented with ellagic acid (HE). CE and HE rats were given 0.8 g/kg ellagic acid in food from week 8 to 16 only. At the end of 16 weeks, cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic parameters along with protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1 in the heart and the liver were characterised. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats developed cardiovascular remodelling, impaired ventricular function, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with increased protein levels of NF-κB and decreased protein levels of Nrf2 and CPT1 in the heart and the liver. Ellagic acid attenuated these diet-induced symptoms of metabolic syndrome with normalisation of protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1. Ellagic acid derived from nuts and fruits such as raspberries and pomegranates may provide a useful dietary supplement to decrease the characteristic changes in metabolism and in cardiac and hepatic structure and function induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.

  4. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Rauckhorst, Adam J.; Gray, Lawrence R.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D.; Feddersen, Charlotte R.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Cox, James E.; Burgess, Shawn C.; Taylor, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. T...

  5. [Experimental evidence on the role of different types unsaturated fats in the diet on ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrian; Pérez-López, Patricia; Varela-López, Alfonso; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has been largely related to the physiological ageing process. Several nutrients, such as certain types of dietary fat and various antioxidants have been shown to have positive effects on age-related diseases. The type of dietary fat affects mitochondrial structure and function, as well as its susceptibility to oxidative stress, all factors involved in ageing. The present review aims to summarise the studies conducted by our research group in the past 10 years, using virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as a source of unsaturated fat diet relative to a rat model of ageing. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Carol S; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Swan, Pamela D

    2004-03-01

    Although popular and effective for weight loss, low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat (Atkins) diets have been associated with adverse changes in blood and renal biomarkers. High-protein diets low in fat may represent an equally appealing diet plan but promote a more healthful weight loss. Healthy adults (n = 20) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 low-fat (vs. the high-carbohydrate diet (3.9 +/- 1.4 and 0.7 +/- 1.7 g N/d, respectively, P low-fat, energy-restricted diets of varying protein content (15 or 30% energy) promoted healthful weight loss, but diet satisfaction was greater in those consuming the high-protein diet.

  7. Adherence to a low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diet differs by insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, A D; Otten, J J; Hekler, E B; Gardner, C D

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows diminished weight loss success in insulin-resistant (IR) women assigned to a low-fat (LF) diet compared to those assigned to a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. These secondary analyses examined the relationship between insulin-resistance status and dietary adherence to either a LF-diet or LC-diet among 81 free-living, overweight/obese women [age = 41.9 ± 5.7 years; body mass index (BMI) = 32.6 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)]. This study found differential adherence by insulin-resistance status only to a LF-diet, not a LC-diet. IR participants were less likely to adhere and lose weight on a LF-diet compared to insulin-sensitive (IS) participants assigned to the same diet. There were no significant differences between IR and IS participants assigned to LC-diet in relative adherence or weight loss. These results suggest that insulin resistance status may affect dietary adherence to weight loss diets, resulting in higher recidivism and diminished weight loss success of IR participants advised to follow LF-diets for weight loss. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Kefir prevented excess fat accumulation in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye Won; Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2017-05-01

    Excessive body fat accumulation can result in obesity, which is a serious health concern. Kefir, a probiotic, has recently shown possible health benefits in fighting obesity. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of 0.1 and 0.2% kefir powder on fat accumulation in adipose and liver tissues of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Kefir reduced body weight and epididymal fat pad weight and decreased adipocyte diameters in HFD-induced obese mice. This was supported by decreased expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis as well as reduced proinflammatory marker levels in epididymal fat. Along with reduced hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations and serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities, genes related to lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in liver tissue. Kefir also decreased serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Overall, kefir has the potential to prevent obesity.

  9. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts daytime overeating induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Kek, Huiling Calvina; Lim, Joy; Gelling, Richard Wayne; Han, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) induces overeating and obesity. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces HFD-induced body weight and body fat gain mainly through increased lipid metabolism and fat oxidation. However, little is known about its effect on HFD-induced alterations in feeding behavior. Three diet groups of wildtype C57B/6j male mice at 5 months old were fed on normal chow diet, 1 week of HFD (60% of energy) and 3 months of HFD (diet-induced obesity (DIO)) prior to EGCG supplement in respective diet. EGCG had no effect on feeding behavior in normal chow diet group. Increased daytime feeding induced by HFD was selectively corrected by EGCG treatment in HFD groups, including reversed food intake, feeding frequency and meal size in HFD + EGCG group, and reduced food intake and feeding frequency in DIO + EGCG group. Moreover, EGCG treatment altered diurnally oscillating expression pattern of key appetite-regulating genes, including AGRP, POMC, and CART, and key circadian genes Clock and Bmal1 in hypothalamus of DIO mice, indicating its central effect on feeding regulation. Our study demonstrates that EGCG supplement specifically counteracts daytime overeating induced by HFD in mice, suggesting its central role in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Reproductive performance of Santa Inês ewes fed protected fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the reproductive performance of Santa Inês ewes fed a diet supplemented with protected fat. Intervals from lambing to first clinical estrus and to conception, conception rate, prolificacy, live weight and body condition were determined. After lambing, 60 ewes and their offsprings were weighted and randomly assigned to three treatments, based on age, body weight and number of born lambs. Treatments consisted of: control diet, or control diet plus 30 g of protected fat, from lambing to day 25 of post-lambing (Sup25, or to day 60 of post-lambing (Sup60. Out of 60 evaluated ewes, 93.3% returned to estrus, and 74.5% got pregnant, with 73.53% lambing rate and 196.5 days lambing interval. The average periods from lambing to first estrus were 32.4, 27.2 and 35.5 days for ewes fed the control diet, Sup25, and Sup60, respectively. The intervals from lambing to conception were 45.2, 46.5 and 45.2 days, and the supplemented diets did not show differences in comparison to the control diet. Supplementation with protected fat to well-nourished Santa Inês ewes does not improve their reproductive performance.

  11. A choline-deficient diet exacerbates fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, Peter J; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Walker, Brian R

    2006-07-01

    Liver fat accumulation is proposed to link obesity and insulin resistance. To dissect the role of liver fat in the insulin resistance of diet-induced obesity, we altered liver fat using a choline-deficient diet. C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low-fat (10% of calories) or high-fat (45% of calories) diet for 8 weeks; during the final 4 weeks, diets were either choline deficient or choline supplemented. In choline replete animals, high-fat feeding induced weight gain, elevated liver triglycerides (171%), hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Choline deficiency did not affect body or adipose depot weights but amplified liver fat accumulation with high-fat diet (281%, P insulin (from 983 +/- 175 to 433 +/- 36 pmol/l, P phosphatidylcholine synthesis and of enzymes involved in free fatty acid esterification, without affecting those of de novo lipogenesis or fatty acid oxidation. We conclude that liver fat accumulation per se does not cause insulin resistance during high-fat feeding and that choline deficiency may shunt potentially toxic free fatty acids toward innocuous storage triglyceride in the liver.

  12. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Céline

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH features. Rats fed coconut (86% of saturated fatty acid or butter (51% of saturated fatty acid had an increased caloric intake (+143% and +30%. At the end of the study period, total lipid ingestion in term of percentage of energy intake was higher in both coconut (45% and butter (42% groups than in the standard (7% diet group. No change in body mass was observed as compared with standard rats at the end of the experiment. However, high fat fed rats were fattier with enlarged white and brown adipose tissue (BAT depots, but they showed no liver steatosis and no difference in triglyceride content in hepatocytes, as compared with standard rats. Absence of hepatic lipid accumulation with high fat diets was not related to a higher lipid oxidation by isolated hepatocytes (unchanged ketogenesis and oxygen consumption or hepatic mitochondrial respiration but was rather associated with a rise in BAT uncoupling protein UCP1 (+25–28% vs standard. Conclusion Long term high saturated fat feeding led to increased "peripheral" fat storage and BAT thermogenesis but did not induce hepatic steatosis and NASH.

  13. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

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    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  15. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  16. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Mohd Nazri Abu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC, and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO. After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%, adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L, total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L, triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L, blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L, resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL, and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet.

  17. High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baufeld, Caroline; Osterloh, Anja; Prokop, Stefan; Miller, Kelly R; Heppner, Frank L

    2016-09-01

    Diets high in fat (HFD) are known to cause an immune response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system. In peripheral adipose tissue, this immune response is primarily mediated by macrophages that are recruited to the tissue. Similarly, reactivity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, has been shown to occur in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. To characterize the nature of the microglial response to diets high in fat in a temporal fashion, we studied the phenotypic spectrum of hypothalamic microglia of mice fed high-fat diet for 3 days and 8 weeks by assessing their tissue reaction and inflammatory signature. While we observed a significant increase in Iba1+ myeloid cells and a reaction of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hypothalamus after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, we found the hypothalamic myeloid cell reaction to be limited to endogenous microglia and not mediated by infiltrating myeloid cells. Moreover, obese humans were found to present with signs of hypothalamic gliosis and exacerbated microglia dystrophy, suggesting a targeted microglia response to diet in humans as well. Notably, the glial reaction occurring in the mouse hypothalamus was not accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, but rather by an anti-inflammatory reaction. Gene expression analyses of isolated microglia not only confirmed this observation, but also revealed a downregulation of microglia genes important for sensing signals in the microenvironment. Finally, we demonstrate that long-term exposure of microglia to HFD in vivo does not impair the cell's ability to respond to additional stimuli, like lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our findings support the notion that microglia react to diets high in fat in a region-specific manner in rodents as well as in humans; however, this response changes over time as it is not exclusively pro-inflammatory nor does exposure to HFD prime microglia in the hypothalamus.

  18. Maternal high-fat diet and offspring expression levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, S A; Cagampang, F R; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-12-01

    Studies suggest that bone growth and development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) including osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, periostin, and growth-arrest specific- protein 6, in both bone and vascular development. We have examined whether there are alterations in these VKDPs in bone and vascular tissue from offspring of mothers subjected to a nutritional challenge: a high-fat diet during pregnancy and postnatally, using 6-week-old mouse offspring. Bone site-specific and sex-specific differences across femoral and vertebral bone in male and female offspring were observed. Overall a high-fat maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex-specific differences and tissue-specific differences were observed in VKDP levels in aorta tissue from high-fat diet-fed female offspring from high-fat diet-fed mothers displaying increased levels of Gas6 and Ggcx compared with those of female controls. In contrast, differences were seen in VKDP levels in femoral bone of female offspring with lower expression levels of Mgp in offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet compared with those of controls. We observed a significant correlation in Mgp expression levels within the femur to measures of bone structure of the femur and vertebra, particularly in the male offspring cohort. In summary, the current study has highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure.

  19. Exercise as a mean to reverse the detrimental effect of high-fat diet on bone’s fracture characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Doulamis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate whether exercise can reverse some of the adverse effects of high-fat-diet-induced obesity on lipid metabolism and bone biomechanical properties. A total of 26 adult male C57bl/6J mice were randomly assigned into three groups: (A Control group (n=6, (B High-fat diet group (n=10, (C High-fat diet and exercise group (n=10. Body mass and relevant biochemical parameters were measured for the duration of the experimental protocol (37 weeks. Mechanical strength of both femurs of each animal was assessed in-vitro based on three point bending tests. It was re¬vealed that exposure to high-fat diet led to significant increase of body mass and cholesterol levels and also to substantial changes in bone mor-phology and strength. Ultimate stress for the animals exposed to high-fat diet and those exposed to high-fat-diet and exercise was 25% and 24% lower compared to control, respectively. Exercise increased bone thickness by 15% compared to animals that were not exposed to exer¬cise. It was concluded that high-fat-diet ap¬pears to have a detrimental effect on bone biomechanics and strength. Exer¬cise reversed the reduction in bone thickness that appears to be induced by high-fat diet. However no statistically significant increase in bone strength was observed.

  20. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  1. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  2. The Impact of a Low-Fat Diet and the Use of Fat Substitutes on Fat Preferences Among Overweight Women Seeking Weight Loss Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    psychological stress (Ruderman, 1985), and physical threats, such as 27 DIETARY ADHERENCE AND FAT PREFERENCE an anticipated electric shock...effects of stress and eating. Health Psychology, 11(2), 97-100. Guinard, J.X., Sechevich, P.J., Meaker, K., Jonnalagadda, S.S., & Kris-Etherton, P...ounces each) 1/4 cup chicken or vegetable stock 2 tablespoons lemon juice 1/2 teaspoon fennel seeds, crushed 1/4 teaspoon cumin 1/4 teaspoon

  3. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  5. Diet and body fat in adolescence and early adulthood: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Celestino Schneider

    Full Text Available Abstract Adipose tissue is a vital component of the human body, but in excess, it represents a risk to health. According to the World Health Organization, one of the main factors determining excessive body adiposity is the dietary habit. This systematic review investigated longitudinal studies that assessed the association between diet and body fat in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-one relevant papers published between 2001 and 2015 were selected. The most used method for estimating body fat was the body mass index (15 studies. Diet was most commonly assessed by estimating the consumption of food groups (cereals, milk and dairy products and specific foods (sugar-sweetened beverages, soft drinks, fast foods, milk, etc.. Ten studies found a direct association between diet and quantity of body fat. During adolescence, adhering to a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of energy-dense food, fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and soft drinks, as well as low fiber intake, appears to contribute to an increase in body fat in early adulthood. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequent consumption of unhealthy foods and food groups (higher energy density and lower nutrient content in adolescence is associated with higher quantity of body fat in early adulthood.

  6. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by

  7. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  8. Andrographis paniculata extract attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Yi-Lin; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chen, Yu-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-11-04

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) has a considerable medicinal reputation in most parts of Asia as a potent medicine in the treatment of Endocrine disorders, inflammation and hypertension. Water extract of A. paniculata and its active constituent andrographolide are known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Our aim is to identify whether A. paniculata extract could protect myocardial damage in high-fat diet induced obese mice. The test mice were divided into three groups fed either with normal chow or with high fat diet (obese) or with high fat diet treated with A. paniculata extract (2g/kg/day, through gavage, for a week). We found that the myocardial inflammation pathway related proteins were increased in the obese mouse which potentially contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial apoptosis. But feeding with A. paniculata extract showed significant inhibition on the effects of high fat diet. Our study strongly suggests that supplementation of A. paniculata extract can be used for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. RESULTS: In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  10. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A slight decrease in hepatic α-amylase gene expression was observed only in. E1. Conclusion: Besides its sweetening properties, inulin may also find use as a potential anti-obesity compound. Keywords: High-fat diet, Inulin, Obesity, Blood glucose, Biochemical profile. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is ...

  11. Impairment of mitochondrial function of rat hepatocytes by high fat diet and oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garnol, T.; Endlicher, R.; Kučera, O.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Červinková, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2014), s. 271-274 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) PRVOUK P37/02 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hepatocytes * high fat diet * mitochondrial activities * ROS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  12. Osteoarthritis and a high-fat diet: the full 'OA syndrome' in a small animal model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, P.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of the main risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) and due to the global rise in obesity this will increasingly contribute to OA development. The article of Griffin and co-workers in this issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy shows that a high-fat diet leads to obesity and OA in the

  13. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...

  14. Exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Al-Massadi, Omar; Donelan, Elizabeth; Lehti, Maarit; Weber, Jon; Ress, Chandler; Trivedi, Chitrang; Müller, Timo D.; Woods, Stephen C.; Hofmann, Susanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation is a potentially important process in the pathogenesis of high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders that has recently received significant attention. Microglia are macrophage-like cells of the central nervous system which are activated by pro-inflammatory signals causing

  15. Hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P.; Li, Dan L.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha

  16. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  17. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of guarana on mitochondrial biogenesis in a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6J mice were divided in two groups: high-fat diet HFD and high-fat diet + guarana (HFD-GUA. Both groups received HFD and water ad libitum and the HFD-GUA group also received a daily gavage of guarana (1 g/kg weight. Body weight and food intake was measured weekly. Glycemic, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels were determined. VO2 and energy expenditure (EE were determined by indirect calorimetry. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and protein content by western blotting. The HFD-GUA group presented lower body weight, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, visceral, and epididyimal adipose tissue depots, and glycemic and triglyceride levels, with no change in food intake and cholesterol levels. Furthermore, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in VO2 and basal energy expenditure (EE, as well as Pgc1α, Creb1, Ampka1, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Sirt1 expression in the muscle and brown adipose tissue. In addition, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in mtDNA (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid content in the muscle when compared to the HFD group. Thus, our data showed that guarana leads to an increase in energetic metabolism and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, contributing to control of weight gain, even when associated with high-fat diet.

  18. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G; Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients

  19. Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A; Wright Bates, G; Gower, Barbara A

    2014-10-01

    To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40% energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (pLoss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (ploss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Methods Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1–4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5–8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. Results The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Conclusions Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning

  1. One-year high fat diet affects muscle-but not brain mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Tenna; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that few weeks of high fat (HF) diet may induce metabolic disturbances and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletalmuscle. However, little is known about the effects of long-term HF exposure and effects on brain mitochondria are unknown. Wistarrats were fed either chow (13E% fat......) or HF diet (60E% fat) for 1 year. The HF animals developed obesity, dyslipidemia, insulinresistance, and dysfunction of isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria: state 3 and state 4 were 30% to 50% increased (P .... Adding also succinate in state 3 resulted in ahigher substrate control ratio (SCR) with PC, but a lower SCR with pyruvate (P mitochondria from the same animal showed no changes with the substrates relevant...

  2. High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mousumi; Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Arnab Kumar; Bose, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Rudra, Smita; Dey, Monalisa; Bandyopadhyay, Arkita; Pattari, Sanjib K; Mallick, Sanjaya; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenic toxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  4. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinkçi, N.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF with a vegetable fat (VF blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affecte d by the vegetable fat blend.

    La posibilidad de usar una mezcla de grasas vegetales comerciales en queso Kashar fue investigada. Los quesos Kashar fueron elaborados con una mezcla de grasas vegetales (VF en lugar de grasa de leche (MF. Quesos Kashar con leche entera fueron también elaborados para comparar las características sensoriales, de color, de fusión, microestructurales y de textura durante el periodo de maduración de 90 días. El uso de grasas vegetales decreció la dureza y las propiedades de fusión, de cohesión, de gomosidad y de masticación e incremento la adhesividad mientras que la elasticidad no fue afectada. Las diferencias se hicieron menos notables hacia el final de la maduración. La micrografía electrónica de barrido de quesos VF mostro una red compacta con pequeños y uniformes glóbulos de grasa embebidos en la matriz de proteínas. Los quesos MF exhibieron una matriz de proteínas abierta conteniendo glóbulos de grasa de leche de varios

  5. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA...... that a TTA-induced increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis drains fatty acids from blood and extrahepatic tissues and that this contributes significantly to the beneficial effects of TTA on fat mass accumulation and peripheral insulin sensitivity....

  6. Diets rich in vegetables and physical activity are associated with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The onset of Pre Eclampsia was higher within vendors and inactive women as well as among vegetarians (3.1%) than women with diet high in meat (9.7%). Pre Eclampsia occurred more (p<0.05) among pregnants with rare daily servings of vegetables (33.3%) than pregnants with 3 or more daily servings of vegetables ...

  7. Replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese treated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study the possibility of substituting milk fat by using blended vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese with low salt content, in addition, lo utilize gamma irradiation to prolong the shelf-life of the new manufactured product. Therefore, one hundred (lOOKg) from fresh buffaloes milk containing 5 % milk fal and 3 % salt were divided into tow parts , the first part was used for manufacturing control soft cheese sample (containing milk fat ), while the second part was skimmed, blended with blended vegetable oils and homogenized. The skim homogenized milk containing 5% mixed vegetable oils used for manufacturing soft cheese ( new product filled ). The obtained soft cheese was subjected to 1, 2 and 3 kGy y-irradiation, and stored at refrigerator temperature. During cold storage, the sensory, microbial and chemical properties of control soft cheese and treated one were evaluated. The obtained results indicated that the replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in the manufacturing soft cheese had no effect on chemical composition and sensory properties except white color and slight oily flavor which have been noticed in treated filled cheese. In addition, irradiation dose of 3 kGy prolonged the shelf-life of treated filled cheese to 42 days compared to 18 days for control sample and scqueiitly, the new product high percentage of iinsaluraled fatly acid and no cholesterol compared with cheese made from natural milk and can be recommended as a healthy food especially for those who need to low or free cholesterol foods

  8. Using vegetable oils and animal fats in Diesel Engines: chemical analyses and engine texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmino, I.; Verhelst, S.; Sierens, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, some vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, palm oil) and animal fat were tested in a Diesel engine at a range of engine spreads and torque settings, after preheating at 70 0 C. Engine performance, fuel consumption and NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and soot emissions have been recorded. The results have been compared to those obtained with diesel fuel in the same test conditions. The oils and fats were also analyzed for their physical and chemical properties (viscosity, composition, unsaturation, heating value). NOx emissions were found to be lower for the oils than for the diesel fuel. This, combined with higher HC emissions, can probably be explained through less effective atomization due to the higher viscosity of the oils and fat. On the other hand, soot emissions were found to decrease. [it

  9. Increased adipose tissue lipolysis after a 2-week high-fat diet in sedentary overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Harold R; Heidal, Kimberly; Choi, Myung Dong; Kraus, Ray M; Boyle, Kristen; Hickner, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a high-fat diet would result in a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue than a lower-fat diet in sedentary nonlean men. Six participants (healthy males; 18-40 years old; body mass index, 25-37 kg/m(2)) underwent 2 weeks on a high-fat or well-balanced diet of similar energy content (approximately 6695 kJ) in randomized order with a 10-day washout period between diets. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was determined over the course of a day using microdialysis after both 2-week diet sessions. Average interstitial glycerol concentrations (index of lipolysis) as determined using microdialysis were higher after the high-fat diet (210.8 ± 27.9 μmol/L) than after a well-balanced diet (175.6 ± 23.3 μmol/L; P = .026). There was no difference in adipose tissue microvascular blood flow as determined using the microdialysis ethanol technique. These results demonstrate that healthy nonlean men who diet on the high-fat plan have a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue than when they diet on a well-balanced diet plan. This higher rate of lipolysis may result in a higher rate of fat mass loss on the high-fat diet; however, it remains to be determined if this higher lipolytic rate in men on the high-fat diet results in a more rapid net loss of triglyceride from the abdominal adipose depots, or if the higher lipolytic rate is counteracted by an increased rate of lipid storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and treated with IGF-1 to measure proteoglycan (PG) synthesis. Cultured human chondrocytes were treated with 500 μM FFA palmitate or oleate, followed by stimulation with (100 ng/ml) IGF-1 overnight to measure CHOP (a protein marker for ER stress) and PG synthesis. Human chondrocytes were pre-treated with palmitate or 1 mM 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) or 1 μM C-Jun N terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and IGF-1 function (PG synthesis and signaling) was measured. Cartilage explants from mice on the high fat-diet showed reduced IGF-1 mediated PG synthesis compared to a low-fat group. Treatment of human chondrocytes with palmitate induced expression of CHOP, activated JNK and inhibited IGF-1 function. PBA, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress rescued IGF-1 function and a JNK inhibitor rescued IGF-1 signaling. Palmitate-induced ER stress inhibited IGF-1 function in chondrocytes/cartilage via activating the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase JNK. This is the first study to demonstrate that ER stress is metabolic factor that regulates IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R

    2007-09-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of a low-fat, vegan diet compared with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) diet on weight loss maintenance at 1 and 2 years. Sixty-four overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a vegan or NCEP diet for 14 weeks, and 62 women began the study. The study was done in two replications. Participants in the first replication (N = 28) received no follow-up support after the 14 weeks, and those in the second replication (N = 34) were offered group support meetings for 1 year. Weight and diet adherence were measured at 1 and 2 years for all participants. Weight loss is reported as median (interquartile range) and is the difference from baseline weight at years 1 and 2. Individuals in the vegan group lost more weight than those in the NCEP group at 1 year [-4.9 (-0.5, -8.0) kg vs. -1.8 (0.8, -4.3); p vegan diet was associated with significantly greater weight loss than the NCEP diet at 1 and 2 years. Both group support and meeting attendance were associated with significant weight loss at follow-up.

  12. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variety of fruit and vegetables is related to preschoolers' overall diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A; Shriver, Lenka H; Taylor, Christopher A

    2017-03-01

    Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children ( n  = 2595) in 2005-2010 NHANES were examined. Diet quality was evaluated using MyPlate equivalents and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Variety categories were determined based on children's fruit, fruit juice, and vegetable consumption on the recalled day. Differences in diet quality were examined using t -tests. Variety of fruits and vegetables was linked to higher overall diet quality. Children who consumed whole fruit had better diet quality scores for total fruit, whole fruit, whole grains, dairy, seafood, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories ( P  ≤ 0.018). Significantly higher HEI-2010 scores for total fruit, whole fruit, fatty acids, sodium, and empty calories, but a lower dairy HEI-2010 score, were identified in children who drank fruit juice ( P  ≤ 0.038). Vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher total vegetables, greens/beans, and empty calories, but a lower sodium score ( P  ≤ 0.027). Children who consumed whole fruit, fruit juice and non-starchy vegetables ( P  ≤ 0.017), but not white potatoes, had significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores. Reinforcing fruit and 100% fruit juice consumption may indirectly support healthier diets among children. However, underlying associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and overall diet quality should be examined further.

  14. Variety of fruit and vegetables is related to preschoolers' overall diet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Ramsay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children (n = 2595 in 2005–2010 NHANES were examined. Diet quality was evaluated using MyPlate equivalents and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Variety categories were determined based on children's fruit, fruit juice, and vegetable consumption on the recalled day. Differences in diet quality were examined using t-tests. Variety of fruits and vegetables was linked to higher overall diet quality. Children who consumed whole fruit had better diet quality scores for total fruit, whole fruit, whole grains, dairy, seafood, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories (P ≤ 0.018. Significantly higher HEI-2010 scores for total fruit, whole fruit, fatty acids, sodium, and empty calories, but a lower dairy HEI-2010 score, were identified in children who drank fruit juice (P ≤ 0.038. Vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher total vegetables, greens/beans, and empty calories, but a lower sodium score (P ≤ 0.027. Children who consumed whole fruit, fruit juice and non-starchy vegetables (P ≤ 0.017, but not white potatoes, had significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores. Reinforcing fruit and 100% fruit juice consumption may indirectly support healthier diets among children. However, underlying associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and overall diet quality should be examined further.

  15. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  16. Effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention on serum concentrations of reproductive steroid hormones in women with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L; Newman, Vicky A; Jones, Lovell A; Natarajan, Loki; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Pierce, John P; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-06-15

    Diet intervention trials are testing whether postdiagnosis dietary modification can influence breast cancer recurrence and survival. One possible mechanism is an effect on reproductive steroid hormones. Serum reproductive steroid hormones were measured at enrollment and 1 year in 291 women with a history of breast cancer who were enrolled onto a randomized, controlled diet intervention trial. Dietary goals for the intervention group were increased fiber, vegetable, and fruit intakes and reduced fat intake. Estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured. The intervention (but not the comparison) group reported a significantly lower intake of energy from fat (21% v 28%), and higher intake of fiber (29 g/d v 22 g/d), at 1-year follow-up (P <.001). Significant weight loss did not occur in either group. A significant difference in the change in bioavailable estradiol concentration from baseline to 1 year in the intervention (-13 pmol/L) versus the comparison (+3 pmol/L) group was observed (P <.05). Change in fiber (but not fat) intake was significantly and independently related to change in serum bioavailable estradiol (P <.01) and total estradiol (P <.05) concentrations. Results from this study indicate that a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention is associated with reduced serum bioavailable estradiol concentration in women diagnosed with breast cancer, the majority of whom did not exhibit weight loss. Increased fiber intake was independently related to the reduction in serum estradiol concentration.

  17. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  18. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2015-09-17

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (low-fat diet (fat, fat; n = 73) on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (-16.8 ng/mL (-32.0 to -1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  19. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75 versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73 on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL; p = 0.009 and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL; p = 0.031 than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  20. The early infant gut microbiome varies in association with a maternal high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derrick M; Antony, Kathleen M; Ma, Jun; Prince, Amanda L; Showalter, Lori; Moller, Michelle; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-08-09

    Emerging evidence suggests that the in utero environment is not sterile as once presumed. Work in the mouse demonstrated transmission of commensal bacteria from mother to fetus during gestation, though it is unclear what modulates this process. We have previously shown in the nonhuman primate that, independent of obesity, a maternal high-fat diet during gestation and lactation persistently shapes the juvenile gut microbiome. We therefore sought to interrogate in a population-based human longitudinal cohort whether a maternal high-fat diet similarly alters the neonatal and infant gut microbiome in early life. A representative cohort was prospectively enrolled either in the early third trimester or intrapartum (n = 163), with a subset consented to longitudinal sampling through the postpartum interval (n = 81). Multiple body site samples, including stool and meconium, were collected from neonates at delivery and by 6 weeks of age. A rapid dietary questionnaire was administered to estimate intake of fat, added sugars, and fiber over the past month (National Health and Examination Survey). DNA was extracted from each infant meconium/stool sample (MoBio) and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. On average, the maternal dietary intake of fat ranged from 14.0 to 55.2 %, with an average intake of 33.1 % (σ = 6.1 %). Mothers whose diets significantly differed from the mean (±1 standard deviation) were separated into two distinct groups, a control group (n = 13, μ = 24.4 %) and a high-fat group (n = 13, μ = 43.1 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the microbiome of the neonatal stool at birth (meconium) clustered differently by virtue of maternal gestational diet (PERMANOVA p = 0.001). LEfSe feature selection identified several taxa that discriminated the groups, with a notable relative depletion of Bacteroides in the neonates exposed to a maternal high-fat gestational diet (Student's t-test, p < 0

  1. Fat- and fiber-related diet behavior among type 2 diabetes patients from distinct regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrychova T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tereza Hendrychova,1 Magda Vytrisalova,1 Abdullah Alwarafi,2 Jurjen Duintjer Tebbens,3,4 Helena Vankatova,1 Sandra Leal,5 Ales Antonin Kubena,1 Alena Smahelova,6 Jiri Vlcek1 1Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 2Faculty of Dentistry, Ibb University, Ibb, Yemen; 3Department of Biophysics and Physical Chemics, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 4Institute of Computer Science, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, El Rio Community Health Center, Tucson, AZ, USA; 6Diabetes Center, Department of Gerontology and Metabolism, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Purpose: Diet and eating habits are of key importance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this comparative study was to analyze fat- and fiber-related behavior (FFB in patients with T2DM from distinct cultural areas. Patients and methods: Observational study was carried out in the Czech Republic (CR (n=200, the US (n=207, and Yemen (n=200. Patients completed the Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire (FFBQ. Results: Differences in all aspects of FFB among countries were found (P<0.05. The best fat-related behavior reported was from patients from the CR. Patients from the US showed the worst fat-related behavior in total. On the other hand, patients from the US reported the best fiber-related behavior. Patients from Yemen reached the worst scores in all fat-related domains. Patients from all studied countries reported the best results in the “modify meat” and “avoid fat as flavoring” and the worst in the “substitute high fiber” subscales. Conclusion: Professionals involved in the diet education of T2DM patients

  2. Dietary fat and gut microbiota interactions determine diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübeck, Raphaela; Bonet-Ripoll, Catalina; Hoffmann, Christina; Walker, Alesia; Müller, Veronika Maria; Schüppel, Valentina Luise; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Scholz, Birgit; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Daniel, Hannelore; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas; Klingenspor, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Gut microbiota may promote positive energy balance; however, germfree mice can be either resistant or susceptible to diet-induced obesity (DIO) depending on the type of dietary intervention. We here sought to identify the dietary constituents that determine the susceptibility to body fat accretion in germfree (GF) mice. GF and specific pathogen free (SPF) male C57BL/6N mice were fed high-fat diets either based on lard or palm oil for 4 wks. Mice were metabolically characterized at the end of the feeding trial. FT-ICR-MS and UPLC-TOF-MS were used for cecal as well as hepatic metabolite profiling and cecal bile acids quantification, respectively. Hepatic gene expression was examined by qRT-PCR and cecal gut microbiota of SPF mice was analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. GF mice, but not SPF mice, were completely DIO resistant when fed a cholesterol-rich lard-based high-fat diet, whereas on a cholesterol-free palm oil-based high-fat diet, DIO was independent of gut microbiota. In GF lard-fed mice, DIO resistance was conveyed by increased energy expenditure, preferential carbohydrate oxidation, and increased fecal fat and energy excretion. Cecal metabolite profiling revealed a shift in bile acid and steroid metabolites in these lean mice, with a significant rise in 17β-estradiol, which is known to stimulate energy expenditure and interfere with bile acid metabolism. Decreased cecal bile acid levels were associated with decreased hepatic expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis. These metabolic adaptations were largely attenuated in GF mice fed the palm-oil based high-fat diet. We propose that an interaction of gut microbiota and cholesterol metabolism is essential for fat accretion in normal SPF mice fed cholesterol-rich lard as the main dietary fat source. This is supported by a positive correlation between bile acid levels and specific bacteria of the order Clostridiales (phylum Firmicutes ) as a characteristic feature of normal SPF mice

  3. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Frederick F; Iqbal, Nayyar; Seshadri, Prakash; Chicano, Kathryn L; Daily, Denise A; McGrory, Joyce; Williams, Terrence; Williams, Monica; Gracely, Edward J; Stern, Linda

    2003-05-22

    The effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on weight loss and risk factors for atherosclerosis have been incompletely assessed. We randomly assigned 132 severely obese subjects (including 77 blacks and 23 women) with a mean body-mass index of 43 and a high prevalence of diabetes (39 percent) or the metabolic syndrome (43 percent) to a carbohydrate-restricted (low-carbohydrate) diet or a calorie- and fat-restricted (low-fat) diet. Seventy-nine subjects completed the six-month study. An analysis including all subjects, with the last observation carried forward for those who dropped out, showed that subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight than those on the low-fat diet (mean [+/-SD], -5.8+/-8.6 kg vs. -1.9+/-4.2 kg; P=0.002) and had greater decreases in triglyceride levels (mean, -20+/-43 percent vs. -4+/-31 percent; P=0.001), irrespective of the use or nonuse of hypoglycemic or lipid-lowering medications. Insulin sensitivity, measured only in subjects without diabetes, also improved more among subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet (6+/-9 percent vs. -3+/-8 percent, P=0.01). The amount of weight lost (Plow-carbohydrate diet (P=0.01) were independent predictors of improvement in triglyceride levels and insulin sensitivity. Severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome lost more weight during six months on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a calorie- and fat-restricted diet, with a relative improvement in insulin sensitivity and triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for the amount of weight lost. This finding should be interpreted with caution, given the small magnitude of overall and between-group differences in weight loss in these markedly obese subjects and the short duration of the study. Future studies evaluating long-term cardiovascular outcomes are needed before a carbohydrate-restricted diet can be endorsed. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

  4. Effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial cell function of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2011-01-01

    Diet is important for the prevention of CVD, and diets high in MUFA might be more cardioprotective than low-fat diets. We hypothesise that inflammation and endothelial cell function will be improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) assigned to a diet moderate in the amount of fat (35-45% of energy; >20% of fat as MUFA; MUFA diet, n 39), a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet, n 43) or a control diet (35 % of energy as fat, n 24) for 6 months after...

  5. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  6. High-fat diets and seizure control in myoclonic-astatic epilepsy: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard-Tremblay, Elisabeth; Berry, Patricia; Owens, Aaron; Cook, William Byron; Sittner, Haley R; Mazzanti, Marta; Huber, Jennifer; Warner, Molly; Shurtleff, Hillary; Saneto, Russell P

    2015-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and Ketogenic Diet (KD) in seizure control within a population of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) patients. This was a retrospective, single center study evaluating the seizure control by high fat diets. Seizure diaries kept by the parents performed seizure counts. All patients met the clinical criteria for MAE. Nine patients met the clinical criteria. We found that both the MAD and KD were efficacious in complete seizure control and allowed other medications to be stopped in seven patients. Two patients had greater than 90% seizure control without medications, one on the KD and the other on the MAD. Seizure freedom has ranged from 13 to 36 months, and during this time four patients have been fully weaned off of diet management. One patient was found to have a mutation in SLC2A1. Our results suggest that strictly defined MAE patients respond to the MAD with prolonged seizure control. Some patients may require the KD for seizure freedom, suggesting a common pathway of increased requirement for fats. Once controlled, those fully responsive to the Diet(s) could be weaned off traditional seizure medications and in many, subsequently off the MAD or KD. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise reverses metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sabeur; Meziri, Fayçal; Devaux, Sylvie; Berthelot, Alain; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet induces obesity. We investigated whether exercise would reverse the cardiometabolic disorders associated with obesity without it being necessary to change from a high- to normal-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 12 wk. HFD rats were then divided into four groups: sedentary HFD (HFD-S), exercise trained (motor treadmill for 12 wk) HFD (HFD-Ex), modified diet (HFD to CD; HF/CD-S), and exercise trained with modified diet (HF/CD-Ex). Cardiovascular risk parameters associated with metabolic syndrome were measured, and contents of aortic Akt, phospho-Akt at Ser (473), total endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and phospho-eNOS at Ser (1177) were determined by Western blotting. Chronic consumption of HFD induced a metabolic syndrome. Exercise and dietary modifications reduced adiposity, improved glucose and insulin levels and plasma lipid profile, and exerted an antihypertensive effect. Exercise was more effective than dietary modification in improving plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance and in correcting the endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and insulin. Furthermore, independent of the diet used, exercise increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. Metabolic syndrome induced by HFD is reversed by exercise and diet modification. It is demonstrated that exercise training induces these beneficial effects without the requirement for dietary modification, and these beneficial effects may be mediated by shear stress-induced Akt/eNOS pathway activation. Thus, exercise may be an effective strategy to reverse almost all the atherosclerotic risk factors linked to obesity, particularly in the vasculature.

  8. Consumption of a High-Fat Diet Induces Central Insulin Resistance Independent of Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Deborah J.; Gotoh, Koro; Kemp, Christopher; Wortman, Matthew D.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Brown, Lynda M.; D’Alessio, David; Tso, Patrick; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma insulin enters the CNS where it interacts with insulin receptors in areas that are related to energy homeostasis and elicits a decrease of food intake and body weight. Here, we demonstrate that consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet impairs the central actions of insulin. Male Long-Evans rats were given chronic (70-day) or acute (3-day) ad libitum access to HF, low-fat (LF), or chow diets. Insulin administered into the 3rd-cerebral ventricle (i3vt) decreased food intake and body weight of LF and chow rats but had no effect on HF rats in either the chronic or the acute experiment. Rats chronically pair-fed the HF diet to match the caloric intake of LF rats, and with body weights and adiposity levels comparable to those of LF rats, were also unresponsive to i3vt insulin when returned to ad lib food whereas rats pair-fed the LF diet had reduced food intake and body weight when administered i3vt insulin. Insulin’s inability to reduce food intake in the presence of the high-fat diet was associated with a reduced ability of insulin to activate its signaling cascade, as measured by pAKT. Finally, i3vt administration of insulin increased hypothalamic expression of POMC mRNA in the LF-but not the HF-fed rats. We conclude that consumption of a HF diet leads to central insulin resistance following short exposure to the diet, and as demonstrated by reductions in insulin signaling and insulin-induced hypothalamic expression of POMC mRNA. PMID:21241723

  9. Effects of a low-fat vegan diet and a Step II diet on macro- and micronutrient intakes in overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated the nutrient intake of overweight postmenopausal women assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a Step II diet. Fifty-nine overweight (body mass index, 26 to 44 kg/m2) postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a self-selected low-fat vegan or a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II diet in a 14-wk controlled trial on weight loss and metabolism. Nutrient intake, which was measured per 1000 kcal, was the main outcome measure. Statistical analyses included within-group and between-group t tests examining changes associated with each diet. Consumption of a low-fat vegan diet was associated with greater decreases in fat, saturated fat, protein, and cholesterol intakes and greater increases in carbohydrate, fiber, beta-carotene, and total vitamin A intakes than was a Step II diet. The low-fat vegan group also increased thiamin, vitamin B6, and magnesium intakes more than the Step II group, and both groups increased folic acid, vitamin C, and potassium intakes. If considering only food sources of micronutrients, the low-fat vegan group decreased vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium, selenium, phosphorous, and zinc intakes compared with baseline. However, with incidental supplements included, decreases were evident only in phosphorous and selenium intakes. No micronutrient decreases were found in the Step II group. Individuals on a low-fat vegan or Step II diet should take steps to meet the recommended intakes of vitamin D, vitamin K, folic acid, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Individuals on a low-fat vegan diet should also ensure adequate intakes of vitamin B12, phosphorous, and selenium.

  10. Tissue-specific expression of Sprouty1 in mice protects against high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation, bone loss and metabolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-09-28

    We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P < 0·05) lower body fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P < 0·005) compared with controls on a high-fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.

  11. The influence of animal fat replacement with vegetable oils on sensorial perception of meat emulsified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TUDOSE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the present study, in an emulsified meat product the pork backfat was replaced with a vegetable oil pre-emulsion and its effect on quality attributes were investigated. In order to do so, a classic and a new meat products were manufactured. Extra virgin olive oil and palm oil pre-emulsion were added instead of animal fat in the new product. Texture and physiochemical properties were analyzed by instrumental measurements. It was observed that during storage moisture and pH decreased. Using vegetable oils determined substantial increase of TBA values. Texture was influenced mainly by storage time for both products, while replacement of pork backfat with vegetable oil pre-emulsion had no influence on sample firmness. The sensory properties of meat products were evaluated by a group of trained panelists using an analitycal sensory evaluation technique. Overall the new product presented good acceptability which recommends it like a new healthier meat product.

  12. [Educational program had a positive effect on the intake of fat, fruits and vegetables and physical activity in students attending public elementary schools of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quizán-Plata, Trinidad; Villarreal Meneses, Liliana; Esparza Romero, Julián; Bolaños Villar, Adriana V; Díaz Zavala, R Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Poor diet and lack of physical activity are the most important risk factors of mortality and burden of disease in Mexico and many other countries around the world. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of an educational intervention on The consumption of fruits, vegetables, fat, physical activity and inactivity in students attending public primary school of Sonora Mexico. The intervention consisted of educational workshops on nutrition and physical activity aimed to the students and educational talks on nutrition and physical activity aimed to parents. Anthropometric, 24 hours recall, nutrition-knowledge, and physical-activity questionnaires pre- and post-intervention were applied in order to evaluate changes in both groups. 126 of the initial 129 students (97.7%) were evaluated at the end of the intervention. the consumption of fruits and vegetables was significantly higher after the intervention (p=0.0032) and the consumption of total fat decreased (p=0.02) in the intervention schools. Moreover, intervention increased physical activity (p=0.04) and decreased sedentary activities (p=0.006). Intervention students obtained higher knowledge in nutrition (p=0.05) at the end of intervention. The intervention had a positive effect on improve fruits, vegetables and fat consumption, physical activity and nutrition knowledge. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Ballard, Kevin D; Silvestre, Ricardo; Judelson, Daniel A; Quann, Erin E; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported that a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) ameliorated many of the traditional markers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk compared with a low-fat diet (LFD). There remains concern how CRD affects vascular function because acute meals high in fat have been shown to impair endothelial function. Here, we extend our work and address these concerns by measuring fasting and postprandial vascular function in 40 overweight men and women with moderate hypertriacylglycerolemia who were randomly assigned to consume hypocaloric diets (approximately 1500 kcal) restricted in carbohydrate (percentage of carbohydrate-fat-protein = 12:59:28) or LFD (56:24:20). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was assessed before and after ingestion of a high-fat meal (908 kcal, 84% fat) at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared with the LFD, the CRD resulted in a greater decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol (-47% vs -15%, P = .007), insulin (-51% vs -6%, P = .009), and lymphocyte (-12% vs -1%, P = .050) responses. Postprandial fatty acids were significantly increased by the CRD compared with the LFD (P = .033). Serum interleukin-6 increased significantly over the postprandial period; and the response was augmented in the CRD (46%) compared with the LFD (-13%) group (P = .038). After 12 weeks, peak flow-mediated dilation at 3 hours increased from 5.1% to 6.5% in the CRD group and decreased from 7.9% to 5.2% in the LFD group (P = .004). These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  14. Berberine improves insulin resistance induced by high fat diet in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Libin; Yang Ying; Shang Wenbin; Li Fengying; Tang Jinfeng; Wang Xiao; Liu Shangquan; Yuan Guoyue; Chen Mingdao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of berberine on insulin resistance induced by high fat diet in rats. Methods: Normal male SD rats (8 weeks old) were divided into two groups taking either normal chow (NC, n=9) or high fat diet (HF, n=20). After fourteen weeks, HF rats were divided into two groups. Ten rats continued to take high fat diet. Another ten rats took additional berberine gavage (HF+B, 150mg/kg weight once a day). Six weeks later, oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed for estimating insulin sensitivity. Results: The body weight, liver weight and epididyaml fat pads weight of HF group were significantly higher than those of HF+B group and NC group (all P<0.01). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and plasma glucose, insulin 2h after taking glucose in HF+B rats were significantly lower than those in HF rats (all P<0.01). Plasma glucose and insulin levels at all time points in HF rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. Homa-IR of HF group was markedly higher than that of HF+B group (P<0.01). The glucose-lowering effects after the administration of insuin (0.5u/kg intrapenitoneally) at all time points in HF+B rats were stronger than those in HF rats with 23% and 7% reduction at 15min respectively. Conclusion: Long term high fat diet resulted in insulin resistance. Berberine was able to reverse insulin resistance through promoting peripheral tissue up taking of glucose and decreasing insulin, which would be quite ideal for the intervention of IGT. (authors)

  15. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27%) and liver triglycerides (314.75%) compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD, high fat diet (HFD, and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg (V-HFD. After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27% and liver triglycerides (314.75% compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  17. Diet fat alters synaptosomal phosphatidylethanolaminemethyl-transferase activity and phosphatidylcholine synthesis in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, K.M.; Clandinin, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) can be synthesized via three routes, each having potentially different metabolic fates. One route for PC synthesis is methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). To examine if dietary fat affects membrane PE composition and phosphatidylethanolaminemethyltransferase (PEMT) activity, male weanling rats were fed semi-purified diets containing 20% (w/w) fat of differing fatty acid composition for 24 days. Microsomal and synaptic plasma membranes were isolated and phospholipid composition analyzed. PEMT activity was measured by incorporation of the methyl group from 3 H-S-adenosylmethionine into PE. Polyunsaturated diets high in omega 6 fatty acids produce a high ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids in synaptic plasma membranes. Dietary omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid levels are reflected in membrane phospholipid content of 22:6(3), 20:4(6), 22:4(6) and 22:5(6). Diet-induced increase in these longer chain homologues of omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids and a high ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids in PE are both associated with increased PEMT activity. These results suggest that diet-fat induced change in fatty acid composition of membrane PE results in transition in PEMT activity and synthesis of PC in brain, by providing preferred species of PE for methylation

  18. High fat diet prevents over-crowding induced decrease of sex ratio in mice.

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    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Adaptive theory predicts that mothers would be advantaged by adjusting the sex ratio of their offspring in relation to their offspring's future reproductive success. In the present study, we tested the effect of housing mice under crowded condition on the sex ratio and whether the fat content of the diet has any influence on the outcome of pregnancies. Three-week-old mice were placed on the control diet (NFD for 3 weeks. Thereafter the mice were allotted randomly to two groups of 7 cages each with 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 mice in every cage to create increasing crowding gradient and fed either NFD or high fat diet (HFD. After 4 weeks, dams were bred and outcomes of pregnancy were analyzed. The average dam body weight (DBW at conception, litter size (LS and SR were significantly higher in HFD fed dams. Further, male biased litters declined with increasing crowding in NFD group but not in HFD. The LS and SR in NFD declined significantly with increasing crowding, whereas only LS was reduced in HFD group. We conclude that female mice housed under overcrowding conditions shift offspring SR in favor of daughters in consistent with the TW hypothesis and high fat diet reduces this influence of overcrowding.

  19. Myostatin expression, lymphocyte population, and potential cytokine production correlate with predisposition to high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri-Anne Lyons

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong relationship exists between increased inflammatory cytokines and muscle insulin resistance in obesity. This study focused on identifying a relationship between metabolic propensity and myostatin expression in muscle and spleen cells in response to high-fat diet intake. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed the effects of high-fat diet intake on myostatin and follistatin expression, spleen cell composition, and potential cytokine expression in high-fat diet induced obesity (HFDIO resistant (SWR/J and susceptible (C57BL/6 mice models. Results demonstrated overall increased myostatin expression in muscle following high-fat diet intake in HFDIO-susceptible mice, while myostatin expression levels decreased initially in muscle from high-fat diet fed resistant mice. In HFDIO-resistant mice, myostatin expression decreased in spleen, while myostatin increased in spleen tissue from HFDIO-susceptible mice. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-17, IL-1β, and IFNγ potential increased in splenocytes from HFDIO-susceptible mice. In comparison, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher frequencies of CD4(+/CD44(hi and CD8(+/CD44(hi cells in the spleen compared to control fed mice. Together, these results suggest that susceptibility to high-fat diet induced obesity could be influenced by local myostatin activity in a tissue-specific manner and that splenocytes exhibit differential cytokine production in a strain-dependent manner. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the interactions between growth, inflammation, and metabolism.

  20. Changes in gene expression and sensitivity of cocaine reward produced by a continuous fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Aguilar, Maria A; Manzanares, Jorge; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical studies report that free access to a high-fat diet (HFD) alters the response to psychostimulants. The aim of the present study was to examine how HFD exposure during adolescence modifies cocaine effects. Gene expression of CB1 and mu-opioid receptors (MOr) in the nucleus accumbens (N Acc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were assessed. Mice were allowed continuous access to fat from PND 29, and the locomotor (10 mg/kg) and reinforcing effects of cocaine (1 and 6 mg/kg) on conditioned place preference (CPP) were evaluated on PND 69. Another group of mice was exposed to a standard diet until the day of post-conditioning, on which free access to the HFD began. HFD induced an increase of MOr gene expression in the N Acc, but decreased CB1 receptor in the N Acc and PFC. After fat withdrawal, the reduction of CB1 receptor in the N Acc was maintained. Gene expression of GHSR in the VTA decreased during the HFD and increased after withdrawal. Following fat discontinuation, mice exhibited increased anxiety, augmented locomotor response to cocaine, and developed CPP for 1 mg/kg cocaine. HFD reduced the number of sessions required to extinguish the preference and decreased sensitivity to drug priming-induced reinstatement. Our results suggest that consumption of a HFD during adolescence induces neurobiochemical changes that increased sensitivity to cocaine when fat is withdrawn, acting as an alternative reward.

  1. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H.; Beier, Juliane I.; Watson, Walter H.; Zhong, Hai; States, J. Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a ‘2-hit’ paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet (± arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: ► Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. ► Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. ► This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  2. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Methods: Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. Results: As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (−2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and “dynamic” β-cell response (96.1 · 109; P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (−4.8 cm2; P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (−1.2 cm2; P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (−0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Original to this report, after the lower-carbohydrate arm, the change in IAAT was positively associated with the

  3. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. High fat diet alters lactation outcomes: possible involvement of inflammatory and serotonergic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Hernandez

    Full Text Available Delay in the onset of lactogenesis has been shown to occur in women who are obese, however the mechanism altered within the mammary gland causing the delay remains unknown. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD has been previously determined to result decreased litters and litter numbers in rodent models due to a decrease in fertility. We examined the effects of feeding a HFD (60% kcal from fat diet versus a low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal from fat to female Wistar rats on lactation outcomes. Feeding of HFD diet resulted in increased pup weights compared to pups from LFD fed animals for 4 d post-partum. Lactation was delayed in mothers on HFD but they began to produce copious milk volumes beginning 2 d post-partum, and milk yield was similar to LFD by day 3. Mammary glands collected from lactating animals on HFD diet, displayed a disrupted morphologies, with very few and small alveoli. Consistently, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of milk protein genes, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and keratin 5 (K5, a luminobasal cell marker in the mammary glands of HFD lactating animals. Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin (5-HT biosynthesis, and the 5-HT(7 receptor (HTR7, which regulates mammary gland involution, were significantly increased in mammary glands of HFD animals. Additionally, we saw elevation of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α. These results indicate that consumption of HFD impairs mammary parenchymal tissue and impedes its ability to synthesize and secrete milk, possibly through an increase in 5-HT production within the mammary gland leading to an inflammatory process.

  5. Maternal high-fat diet intensifies the metabolic response to stress in male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Dargahi, Leila; Salimi, Mina; Rashidi, FatemehSadat

    2017-01-01

    The mother's consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in accordance with their given diets from pre-pregnancy to the end of lactation. The offspring were divided into control (NC and HFC) and stress (NS and HFS) groups based on their mothers' diet and exposure to stress in adulthood. After the two-week stress induction period was over, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed and plasma glucose and insulin levels were assessed. The pancreas was then removed for measuring insulin secretion from the isolated islets as well as glucose transporter 2 mRNA expression and protein levels. According to the results obtained, plasma corticosterone concentrations increased significantly on days 1 and 14 of the stress induction period and were lower on the last day compared to on the first day. In both the NS and HFS groups, stress reduced plasma insulin concentration in the IPGTT without changing the plasma glucose concentration, suggesting an increased insulin sensitivity in the NS and HFS groups, although more markedly in the latter. Stress reduced insulin secretion (at high glucose concentrations) and increased glucose transporter 2 mRNA and protein expression, especially in the HFS group. Mothers' high-fat diet appears to intensify the stress response by changing the programming of the neuroendocrine system in the offspring.

  6. Lipid droplet-associated proteins in high-fat fed mice with the effects of voluntary running and diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Hulmi, Juha J; Torvinen, Sira; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Kivelä, Riikka; Reunanen, Hilkka; Kujala, Urho M; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2014-08-01

    The relation between lipid accumulation and influence of exercise on insulin sensitivity is not straightforward. A proper balance between lipid droplet synthesis, lipolysis, and oxidative metabolism would ensure low local intramyocellular fatty acid levels, thereby possibly protecting against lipotoxicity-associated insulin resistance. This study investigated whether the accumulation of triglycerides and lipid droplets in response to high availability of fatty acids after high-fat feeding would parallel the abundance of intramyocellular perilipin proteins, especially PLIN5. The effects on these variables after diet change or voluntary running exercise intervention in skeletal muscle were also investigated. During a 19-week experiment, C57BL/6J mice were studied in six different groups: low-fat diet sedentary, low-fat diet active, high-fat diet sedentary, high-fat diet active and two groups which were high-fat sedentary for nine weeks, after which divided into low-fat sedentary or low-fat active groups. Myocellular triglyceride concentration and perilipin protein expression levels were assessed. We show that, concurrently with impaired insulin sensitivity, the expression level of PLIN5 and muscular triglyceride concentration increased dramatically after high-fat diet. These adaptations were reversible after the diet change intervention with no additional effect of exercise. After high-fat diet, lipid droplets become larger providing more surface area for PLIN5. We suggest that PLIN5 is an important regulator of lipid droplet turnover in altered conditions of fatty acid supply and consumption. Imbalances in lipid droplet metabolism and turnover might lead to lipotoxicity-related insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1α, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. Copyright

  8. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  9. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance: focus on dietary fat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba ePutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondria play a key role in high fat diet induced insulin resistance. Two opposite views are debated on mechanisms by which mitochondrial function could be involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In one theory, mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to cause intramyocellular lipid accumulation leading to insulin resistance. In the second theory, excess fuel within mitochondria in the absence of increased energy demand stimulates mitochondrial oxidant production and emission, ultimately leading to the development of insulin resistance. Noteworthy, mitochondrial bioenergetics is strictly associated with the maintenance of normal mitochondrial morphology by maintaining the balance between the fusion and fission processes. A shift towards mitochondrial fission with reduction of fusion protein, mainly mitofusin 2, has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation in obesity and insulin resistance development. However, dietary fat source during chronic overfeeding differently affects mitochondrial morphology. Saturated fatty acids induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation associated with fission phenotype, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and inflammation, associated with a shift toward mitochondrial fusion phenotype. The present minireview focuses on mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in skeletal muscle insulin resistance, with particular attention to the effect of different dietary fat sources on skeletal muscle mitochondria morphology and fusion/fission balance.

  10. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    :Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high......-fat group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced...

  11. Effects of high fat diet, ovariectomy, and physical activity on leptin receptor expression in rat brain and white fat tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažetić, Senka; Labak, Irena; Viljetić, Barbara; Balog, Marta; Vari, Sandor G; Krivošíková, Zora; Gajdoš, Martin; Kramárová, Patrícia; Kebis, Anton; Vuković, Rosemary; Puljak, Livia; Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Heffer, Marija

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate in a rat animal model whether ovariectomy, high fat diet (HFD), and physical activity in the form of running affect leptin receptor (Ob-R) distribution in the brain and white fat tissue compared to sham (Sh) surgery, standard diet (StD), and sedentary conditions. The study included 48 female laboratory Wistar rats (4 weeks old). Following eight weeks of feeding with standard or HFD, rats were subjected to either OVX or Sh surgery. After surgery, all animals continued StD or HFD for the next 10 weeks. During these 10 weeks, ovariectomy and Sh groups were subjected to physical activity or sedentary conditions. Free-floating immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods were carried out to detect Ob-R in the brain and adipose tissue. StD-ovariectomy-sedentary group had a greater number of Ob-R positive neurons in lateral hypothalamic nuclei than StD-Sh-sedentary group. There was no difference in Ob-R positive neurons in arcuatus nuclei between all groups. Ob-R distribution in the barrel cortex was higher in HFD group than in StD group. Ob-R presence in perirenal and subcutaneous fat was decreased in StD-ovariectomy group. HFD and ovariectomy increased Ob-R distribution in lateral hypothalamic nuclei, but there was no effect on arcuatus nuclei. Our results are first to suggest that HFD, ovariectomy, and physical activity affect Ob-R distribution in the barrel cortex, which might be correlated with the role of Ob-R in election of food in rats.

  12. TRPV1 Channels and Gastric Vagal Afferent Signalling in Lean and High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Kentish

    Full Text Available Within the gastrointestinal tract vagal afferents play a role in control of food intake and satiety signalling. Activation of mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents induces satiety. However, gastric vagal afferent responses to mechanical stretch are reduced in high fat diet mice. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1 are expressed in vagal afferents and knockout of TRPV1 reduces gastro-oesophageal vagal afferent responses to stretch. We aimed to determine the role of TRPV1 on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity and food intake in lean and HFD-induced obese mice.TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet or high fat diet for 20wks. Gastric emptying of a solid meal and gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity was determined.Gastric emptying was delayed in high fat diet mice but there was no difference between TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice on either diet. TRPV1 mRNA expression in whole nodose ganglia of TRPV1+/+ mice was similar in both dietary groups. The TRPV1 agonist N-oleoyldopamine potentiated the response of tension receptors in standard laboratory diet but not high fat diet mice. Food intake was greater in the standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- compared to TRPV1+/+ mice. This was associated with reduced response of tension receptors to stretch in standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- mice. Tension receptor responses to stretch were decreased in high fat diet compared to standard laboratory diet TRPV1+/+ mice; an effect not observed in TRPV1-/- mice. Disruption of TRPV1 had no effect on the response of mucosal receptors to mucosal stroking in mice on either diet.TRPV1 channels selectively modulate gastric vagal afferent tension receptor mechanosensitivity and may mediate the reduction in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in high fat diet-induced obesity.

  13. Treatment of chronic portal--systemic encephalopathy with vegetable and animal protein diets. A controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, M; Márquez, M A; Garcia Ramos, G; Ramos-Uribe, M H; Vargas, F; Villalobos, A; Ramos, C

    1982-12-01

    A controlled crossover clinical comparison of 40-g/day and 80-g/day vegetable protein diets vs a 40-g/day meat protein diet plus neomycin-milk of magnesia (as control therapy) was performed on 10 cirrhotic patients with mild chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy. The 40-g vegetable protein diet had a high fiber volume and contained low methionine and low aromatic amino acids. The 80-g vegetable protein diet was rich in branched-chain amino acids and fiber, with a similar content of sulfur-containing amino acids as compared to the 40-g meat protein diet. Serial semiquantitative assessments were done, including mental state, asterixis, number connection tests, electroencephalograms and blood ammonia levels. No patient developed deep coma while ingesting either vegetable protein diet or neomycin-milk of magnesia plus 40-g meat protein diet. A significant improvement in the number connection test times was observed during the 40-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) and during the 80-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) as compared to their previous 40-g meat protein--neomycin periods. In addition, during the period of 80-g vegetable protein diet, the patients showed a significant improvement in their electroencephalograms (P less than 0.05). The frequency of bowel movements significantly increased (P less than 0.05) during the 80-g vegetable protein diet period. During the 40-g vegetable protein diet, two cirrhotic--diabetic patients experienced hypoglycemia. Three patients complained of the voluminous 80-g vegetable protein diet. Patients with mild portal--systemic encephalopathy may be adequately controlled with vegetable protein diets as a single therapy.

  14. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (Phypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  15. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty ac...

  16. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  17. Effects of a plant-based high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet versus high-monounsaturated fat/low-carbohydrate diet on postprandial lipids in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Natale, Claudia; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Mazzarella, Raffaella; Costabile, Giuseppina; Ciano, Ornella; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A

    2009-12-01

    To search for a better dietary approach to treat postprandial lipid abnormalities and improve glucose control in type 2 diabetic patients. According to a randomized crossover design, 18 type 2 diabetic patients (aged 59 +/- 5 years; BMI 27 +/- 3 kg/m(2)) (means +/- SD) in satisfactory blood glucose control on diet or diet plus metformin followed a diet relatively rich in carbohydrates (52% total energy), rich in fiber (28 g/1,000 kcal), and with a low glycemic index (58%) (high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet) or a diet relatively low in carbohydrate (45%) and rich in monounsaturated fat (23%) (low-carbohydrate/high-monounsaturated fat diet) for 4 weeks. Thereafter, they shifted to the other diet for 4 more weeks. At the end of each period, plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, and lipoprotein fractions (separated by discontinuous density gradient ultracentrifugation) were determined on blood samples taken at fasting and over 6 h after a test meal having a similar composition as the corresponding diet. In addition to a significant decrease in postprandial plasma glucose, insulin responses, and glycemic variability, the high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet also significantly improved the primary end point, since it reduced the postprandial incremental areas under the curve (IAUCs) of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in particular, chylomicrons (cholesterol IAUC: 0.05 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.02 mmol/l per 6 h; triglycerides IAUC: 0.71 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.03 +/- 0.58 mmol/l per 6 h, P carbohydrate and fiber, essentially based on legumes, vegetables, fruits, and whole cereals, may be particularly useful for treating diabetic patients because of its multiple effects on different cardiovascular risk factors, including postprandial lipids abnormalities.

  18. Maternal obesity and high-fat diet program offspring metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mina; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Beall, Marie; Lane, Robert H; Ross, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    We determined the potential programming effects of maternal obesity and high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and/or lactation on offspring metabolic syndrome. A rat model of maternal obesity was created using an HF diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, thereby generating 4 paradigms of maternal diets during pregnancy/lactation: (1) control (Con) diet during pregnancy and lactation (Con/Con), (2) HF during pregnancy and lactation (HF/HF), (3) HF during pregnancy alone (HF/Con), and (4) HF during lactation alone (Con/HF). Maternal phenotype during pregnancy and the end of lactation evidenced markedly elevated body fat and plasma corticosterone levels in HF dams. In the offspring, the maternal HF diet during pregnancy alone programmed increased offspring adiposity, although with normal body weight, whereas the maternal HF diet during lactation increased both body weight and adiposity. Metabolic disturbances, particularly that of hyperglycemia, were apparent in all groups exposed to the maternal HF diet (during pregnancy and/or lactation), although differences were apparent in the manifestation of insulin resistant vs insulin-deficient phenotypes. Elevated systolic blood pressure was manifest in all groups, implying that exposure to an obese/HF environment is disadvantageous for offspring health, regardless of pregnancy or lactation periods. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism may differ because offspring that experienced in utero HF exposure had increased corticosterone levels. Maternal obesity/HF diet has a marked impact on offspring body composition and the risk of metabolic syndrome was dependent on the period of exposure during pregnancy and/or lactation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet increases C-reactive protein during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Janet W; Turpyn, Abigail D

    2007-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with elevated risk of heart disease and may be linked to oxidative stress in obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of weight loss diet composition (low carbohydrate, high fat, LC or high carbohydrate, low fat, HC) on inflammation and to determine whether this was related to oxidative stress. Twenty nine overweight women, BMI 32.1 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2), were randomly assigned to a self-selected LC or HC diet for 4 wks. Weekly group sessions and diet record collections helped enhance compliance. Body weight, markers of inflammation (serum interleukin-6, IL-6; C-reactive protein, CRP) oxidative stress (urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha, 8-epi) and fasting blood glucose and free fatty acids were measured weekly. The diets were similar in caloric intake (1357 kcal/d LC vs. 1361 HC, p=0.94), but differed in macronutrients (58, 12, 30 and 24, 59, 18 for percent of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein for LC and HC, respectively). Although LC lost more weight (3.8 +/- 1.2 kg LC vs. 2.6 +/- 1.7 HC, p=0.04), CRP increased 25%; this factor was reduced 43% in HC (p=0.02). For both groups, glucose decreased with weight loss (85.4 vs. 82.1 mg/dl for baseline and wk 4, p<0.01), while IL-6 increased (1.39 to 1.62 pg/mL, p=0.04). Urinary 8-epi varied differently over time between groups (p<0.05) with no consistent pattern. Diet composition of the weight loss diet influenced a key marker of inflammation in that LC increased while HC reduced serum CRP but evidence did not support that this was related to oxidative stress.

  20. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45 % of energy; >20 % of fat as MUFA) (MUFA diet; n 39), to a low-fat (LF; 20-30 % of energy) diet (n 43), or to a control diet (35 % of energy as fat; n 24...

  1. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer. I. Body weight and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    a very-high-fat or a matched-control-fat diet and measured growth, body composition, age at mammary tumor onset, tumor number and severity, and formation of pulmonary metastases. SNP genotyping across the genome facilitated analyses of QTL and QTL x diet interaction effects. Here we describe development...... of the F(2) population (n = 615) which resulted from a cross between the polygenic obesity model M16i and FVB/NJ-TgN (MMTV-PyMT)(634Mul), effects of diet on growth and body composition, and QTL and QTL x diet and/or gender interaction effects for growth and obesity-related phenotypes. We identified 38 QTL...... for body composition traits that were significant at the genome-wide 0.05 level, likely representing nine distinct loci after accounting for pleiotropic effects. QTL x diet and/or gender interactions were present at 15 of these QTL, indicating that such interactions play a significant role in defining...

  2. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation.To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks.Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks.Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  3. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D.; Al Houayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. Methods We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16?weeks) a group of ...

  4. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, William S; Westman, Eric C; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Grambow, Steven C; Jeffreys, Amy S; Bolton, Jamiyla; Chalecki, Allison; Oddone, Eugene Z

    2010-01-25

    Two potent weight loss therapies, a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) and orlistat therapy combined with a low-fat diet (O + LFD), are available to the public but, to our knowledge, have never been compared. Overweight or obese outpatients (n = 146) from the Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinics in Durham, North Carolina, were randomized to either LCKD instruction (initially, carbohydrate daily) or orlistat therapy, 120 mg orally 3 times daily, plus low-fat diet instruction (fat, 500-1000 kcal/d deficit) delivered at group meetings over 48 weeks. Main outcome measures were body weight, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid, and glycemic parameters. The mean age was 52 years and mean body mass index was 39.3 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); 72% were men, 55% were black, and 32% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of the study participants, 57 of the LCKD group (79%) and 65 of the O + LFD group (88%) completed measurements at 48 weeks. Weight loss was similar for the LCKD (expected mean change, -9.5%) and the O + LFD (-8.5%) (P = .60 for comparison) groups. The LCKD had a more beneficial impact than O + LFD on systolic (-5.9 vs 1.5 mm Hg) and diastolic (-4.5 vs 0.4 mm Hg) blood pressures (P Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels improved within the O + LFD group only, whereas glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A(1c) levels improved within the LCKD group only; comparisons between groups, however, were not statistically significant. In a sample of medical outpatients, an LCKD led to similar improvements as O + LFD for weight, serum lipid, and glycemic parameters and was more effective for lowering blood pressure. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00108524.

  5. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantellops, Dennis

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  6. Hyperleptinemia Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Mediated Atrial Fibrosis and Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Akira; Ikebe-Ebata, Yuki; Kondo, Hidekazu; Saito, Shotaro; Aoki, Kohei; Fukunaga, Naoya; Shinohara, Tetsuji; Masaki, Takayuki; Teshima, Yasushi; Takahashi, Naohiko

    2017-06-01

    Obesity including metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although hyperleptinemia is usually a characteristic of obese subjects, the relationship with atrial fibrosis and AF is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperleptinemia exacerbates atrial fibrosis and AF. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 (WT) and leptin-deficient ob/ob (Ob) mice were treated with a normal-fat diet (NFD) or 60% HFD. After 8 weeks, transesophageal burst pacing and electrophysiological study using isolated perfused hearts were performed and left atrial (LA) tissues were collected for histological analysis, hydroxyproline assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. HFD treatment increased body weight in both WT and Ob mice compared with NFD (both P atrial fibrosis and AF. Inhibition of leptin signaling may become a novel therapeutic target to prevent obesity-related AF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P

  8. Equisetum sylvaticum base reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-He Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We identify an Equisetum sylvaticum alkaloid (ESA derived from E. hyemale, which has robust antihyperlipidemic effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. ESA was isolated from E. hyemale and identified by IR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR. Rats were induced to hyperlipidemia and subjected to ESA treatment. In hyperlipidemic model, fed with a high-fat diet, the blood levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were increased. The administration of ESA (20 or 40 mg/kg to those rats significantly improved the HDL-C level and reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C. The atherosclerosis index and atherosclerosis risk of these rats were significantly reduced by ESA. In addition, the administration of ESA in rats increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA. These results reveal the antihyperlipidemic and anti-oxidative effects of ESA in vivo.

  9. Coenzyme Q Metabolism Is Disturbed in High Fat Diet-Induced Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Botham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the effects of high fat diet-induced NAFLD on Coenzyme Q (CoQ metabolism and plasma oxidative stress markers in rats were investigated. Rats were fed a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolizable energy as fat for 18 weeks. The concentrations of total (reduced + oxidized CoQ9 were increased by > 2 fold in the plasma of animals fed the high fat diet, while those of total CoQ10 were unchanged. Reduced CoQ levels were raised, but oxidized CoQ levels were not, thus the proportion in the reduced form was increased by about 75%. A higher percentage of plasma CoQ9 as compared to CoQ10 was in the reduced form in both control and high fat fed rats. Plasma protein thiol (SH levels were decreased in the high fat-fed rats as compared to the control group, but concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and low density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated dienes were unchanged. These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with altered CoQ metabolism and increased protein, but not lipid, oxidative stress.

  10. A diet low in animal fat and rich in N-hexacosanol and fisetin is effective in reducing symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoudet, Virginia V; Costa-Mallen, Paola; Hopkins, Elwood

    2012-08-01

    This study describes how foods rich in fisetin and hexacosanol added to a strict diet reversed most symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in one patient. This is a case report involving outpatient care. The subject was a dietitian diagnosed with idiopathic PD in 2000 at the age of 53 years old, with a history of exposure to neurotoxins and no family history of PD. A basic diet started in 2000 consisted of predominantly fruits, vegetables, 100% whole grains, extra virgin olive oil, nuts, seeds, nonfat milk products, tea, coffee, spices, small amounts of dark chocolate, and less than 25 g of animal fat daily. The basic diet alone failed to prevent decline due to PD. In 2009, the basic diet was enhanced with a good dietary source of both fisetin and hexacosanol. Six months after the patient started the enhanced diet rich in fisetin and hexacosanol, a clinically significant improvement in symptoms was noted; the patient's attending neurologist reported that the clinical presentation of cogwheel rigidity, micrographia, bradykinesia, dystonia, constricted arm swing with gait, hypomimia, and retropulsion appeared to be resolved. The only worsening of symptoms occurred when the diet was not followed precisely. Little improvement in tremor or seborrhea was observed. The clinical improvement has persisted to date. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case where adjunctive diet therapy resulted in a significant reduction of symptoms of PD without changing the type or increasing the amount of medications.

  11. Effects of overfeeding and high-fat diet on cardiosomatic parameters and cardiac structures in young and adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael; Vásquez, Isabel Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a complex global health problem because it is a risk factor for multiple chronic pathologies such as cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases. It is considered a multicausal disease, and one of the determining factors is nutritional imbalances, which include high-fat diets. In this paper, we use the zebrafish model to assess the impact of overfeeding and a high-fat diet in somatic and cardiac parameters in young and adult zebrafish. The results show that fish receiving a high-fat diet showed greater weight gain compared to fish receiving a standard fat diet. Additionally, changes in the heart, including increases in size, a change in the triangular shape of the ventricle to a globular shape, and an increase in the thickness of the trabeculae of the spongy myocardium were observed. These changes could be indicators of cardiovascular overload. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the intake of a high-fat diet and obesity, which in turn can induce cardiac changes, supporting the hypothesis of the relationship between high-fat diets and cardiovascular risk factors. Given the genetic similarity between zebrafish and humans, these results could be extrapolated to human beings, and the findings similarly highlight the importance of incorporating a balanced diet from the early life stages to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Hypolipidemic activity of Piper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Piper betel (P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat. Methods: The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of 250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally. Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results: In group II animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low densi...

  13. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: ...

  14. Acetone as biomarker for ketosis buildup capability--a study in healthy individuals under combined high fat and starvation diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Amlendu; Quach, Ashley; Zhang, Haojiong; Terrera, Mirna; Jackemeyer, David; Xian, Xiaojun; Tsow, Francis; Tao, Nongjian; Forzani, Erica S

    2015-04-22

    Ketogenic diets are high fat and low carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diets, which render high production of ketones upon consumption known as nutritional ketosis (NK). Ketosis is also produced during fasting periods, which is known as fasting ketosis (FK). Recently, the combinations of NK and FK, as well as NK alone, have been used as resources for weight loss management and treatment of epilepsy. A crossover study design was applied to 11 healthy individuals, who maintained moderately sedentary lifestyle, and consumed three types of diet randomly assigned over a three-week period. All participants completed the diets in a randomized and counterbalanced fashion. Each weekly diet protocol included three phases: Phase 1 - A mixed diet with ratio of fat: (carbohydrate + protein) by mass of 0.18 or the equivalence of 29% energy from fat from Day 1 to Day 5. Phase 2- A mixed or a high-fat diet with ratio of fat: (carbohydrate + protein) by mass of approximately 0.18, 1.63, or 3.80 on Day 6 or the equivalence of 29%, 79%, or 90% energy from fat, respectively. Phase 3 - A fasting diet with no calorie intake on Day 7. Caloric intake from diets on Day 1 to Day 6 was equal to each individual's energy expenditure. On Day 7, ketone buildup from FK was measured. A statistically significant effect of Phase 2 (Day 6) diet was found on FK of Day 7, as indicated by repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA), F(2,20) = 6.73, p fat content and 90% fat content vs. 29% fat content (with p = 0.00159**, and 0.04435**, respectively), with no significant difference between diets with 79% fat content and 90% fat content. In addition, independent of the diet, a significantly higher ketone buildup capability of subjects with higher resting energy expenditure (R(2) = 0.92), and lower body mass index (R(2) = 0.71) was observed during FK.

  15. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p model, only FPQ diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her

  16. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Matthias J; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7). Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience) and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint), explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by increased adaptive thermogenesis in BAT.

  17. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  18. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  19. Effects of discontinuing a high-fat diet on mitochondrial proteins and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depletion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Delin; Shuler, Jeffrey M; Raider, Kayla D; Rogers, Robert S; Wheatley, Joshua L; Geiger, Paige C; Stanford, John A

    2015-07-10

    Diet-induced obesity can increase the risk for developing age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial and proteasomal mechanisms are involved in both insulin resistance and PD. The goal of this study was to determine whether diet intervention could influence mitochondrial or proteasomal protein expression and vulnerability to 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion in rats' nigrostriatal system. After a 3 month high-fat diet regimen, we switched one group of rats to a low-fat diet for 3 months (HF-LF group), while the other half continued with the high-fat diet (HF group). A chow group was included as a control. Three weeks after unilateral 6-OHDA lesions, HF rats had higher fasting insulin levels and higher Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), indicating insulin resistance. HOMA-IR was significantly lower in HF-LF rats than HF rats, indicating that insulin resistance was reversed by switching to a low-fat diet. Compared to the Chow group, the HF group exhibited significantly greater DA depletion in the substantia nigra but not in the striatum. DA depletion did not differ between the HF-LF and HF group. Proteins related to mitochondrial function (such as AMPK, PGC-1α), and to proteasomal function (such as TCF11/Nrf1) were influenced by diet intervention, or by 6-OHDA lesion. Our findings suggest that switching to a low-fat diet reverses the effects of a high-fat diet on systemic insulin resistance, and mitochondrial and proteasomal function in the striatum. Conversely, they suggest that the effects of the high-fat diet on nigrostriatal vulnerability to 6-OHDA-induced DA depletion persist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of High Fat and High Sugar Diet on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Response to Glucose Load and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    岡﨑, 悟

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the precipitating effects of the westernized diet on diabetes mellitus, glucose tolerance and insulin response to oral glucose load (1.5g/kg body weight) and insulin sensitivity to exogenous insulin (0.2U/kg) were studied in rats fed an experimental diet for 8 weeks. Four experimental diets were used : low fat-no sugar diet (energy ratio of 10% fat, 70% starch, a model of the traditional Japanese diet), high fat-high sugar diet (40% fat, 20% starch, 20% sugar, a model of the we...

  1. Voluntary exercise improves murine dermal connective tissue status in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Kende; Haluszka, Dóra; Kiss, Norbert; Gyöngyösi, Nóra; Bánvölgyi, András; Szipőcs, Róbert; Wikonkál, Norbert M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Its influence on the skin is less obvious, yet certain negative effects of adipose tissue inflammation on the dermis have been suggested. Excess weight is closely associated with sedentary behavior, so any increase in physical activity is considered beneficial against obesity. To investigate the effects of obesity and physical exercise on the skin, we established a mouse model in which mice were kept either on a high-fat diet or received standard chow. After the two groups achieved a significant weight difference, physical exercise was introduced to both. Animals were given the opportunity to perform voluntary exercise for 40 min daily in a hamster wheel for a period of 8 weeks. We evaluated the status of the dermis at the beginning and at the end of the exercise period by in vivo nonlinear microscopy. Obese mice kept on high-fat diet lost weight steadily after they started to exercise. In the high-fat diet group, we could detect significantly larger adipocytes and a thicker layer of subcutaneous tissue; both changes started to normalize after exercise. Nonlinear microscopy revealed an impaired collagen structure in obese mice that improved considerably after physical activity was introduced. With the ability to detect damage on collagen structure, we set out to address the question whether this process is reversible. With the use of a novel imaging method, we were able to show the reversibility of connective tissue deterioration as a benefit of physical exercise.

  2. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  3. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  4. Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit Juice on High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Ahsan; Alwar, M C; Shenoy, Preethi J; Gokul, P

    2016-04-01

    The medicinal value of Morinda citrifolia L. (commonly known as Noni) has been explored in ancient folk remedies with a wide range of therapeutic utility, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumour, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and immune enhancing effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Noni fruit juice on serum lipid profile in high fat diet induced murine model of dyslipidemia. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding a cholesterol rich high fat diet for 45 days in wistar albino rats of either sex (n=8). Noni fruit juice administered at 50mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day, per oral, was compared with the standard drug Atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day, oral) fed for the latter 30 days. The blood samples were then sent for complete blood lipid profile, after 30 days of treatment. The data presented as mean ± SEM was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The p juice treated group showed a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein - Cholesterol at both the doses when compared to the disease control (pjuice at the 50mg/kg dose employed, failed to show a statistical significance when compared to atorvastatin. The present study provides evidence for the hypolipidemic activity of Noni fruit juice in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

  5. Lessons from Mouse Models of High-Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Terauchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD encompasses a clinicopathologic spectrum of diseases ranging from isolated hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, the more aggressive form of fatty liver disease that may progress to cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD, including NASH, is also increasing in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes. However, the causal relationships between obesity and/or diabetes and NASH or liver tumorigenesis have not yet been clearly elucidated. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH provide crucial information, not only for elucidating the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH, but also for examining therapeutic effects of various agents. A high-fat diet is widely used to produce hepatic steatosis and NASH in experimental animals. Several studies, including our own, have shown that long-term high-fat diet loading, which can induce obesity and insulin resistance, can also induce NASH and liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/6J mice. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for NAFLD and subsequent NAFLD-related complications such as NASH and liver tumorigenesis, mainly based on lessons learned from mouse models of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD/NASH.

  6. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of 14 C-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( 14 C-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from 14 C-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of 14 C-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of 14 C-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides

  7. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sihui; Huang, Qingyi; Yada, Koichi; Liu, Chunhong; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2018-05-25

    Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  8. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  9. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihui Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  10. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  11. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  12. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of goat and cow milk ice cream made with vegetable fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the amount of goat and cow milk over the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ice cream flavored with vegetable fat. In Costa Rica in 2010, three inclusion percentages of milk (100% goat, 100% cow, and a mixture of both 50%: 50% were evaluated, as well as the inclusion of different flavors (strawberry, strawberry with topping, and vanilla on the overrun, texture, melting, color, and acceptance of ice cream with vegetable fat. No parameters depended on the type of milk (p>0.05, while overrun varied between batches (p<0.05. There was a flavor*milk interaction for melting rate, texture, and pH attributable to the addition of topping. There was a significant effect on the colorimetric measurement based on the variables of the CIE system L*, a* and C*, on flavor (p<0.05, and an interaction type of milk*flavor for parameters b* and °h (tint or hue was attributed to topping and colorants. Both vegetable fat and topping increased the content of total solids in the mixture; it was associated to a lower rate of aeration, a low melting time, and a more consistency. A cluster analysis for sensory liking, distinguished between three groups: group 1 (15.25%, which liked all products, group 2 (62.71% that moderately liked them all, and group 3 (22.03% who neither show like nor dislike. Groups 2 and 3 showed greater liking for products with topping. The results of the sensory panel as well as the physicochemical and instrumental characterizations show that the type of milk used to make ice cream is not a determining factor, so it is feasible to produce goat milk ice cream and obtain a quality product with good acceptance.

  13. Differentiation of frog fats from vegetable and marine oils by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Nina Naquiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The agro-based production and consumption of frogs coupled with world-wide trading have been increased in the recent years giving rise to the risk of frog fat adulteration in expensive vegetable and marine oils. For the first time, we profiled here frog fats using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy coupled with multivariate principal component analysis (PCA. The comparison of the FTIR spectral absorbance intensities demonstrated linkage of frog fats to other edible fats and oils. Three commercially available marine oils and three vegetables oils were studied with frog fats and clear pattern of clusters with distinctive identifiable features were obtained through PCA modeling. PCA analysis identified 2922.21 cm-1, 2852.88 cm-1, 1745.45 cm-1, 1158.29 cm-1 and 721.51 cm-1 FTIR-frequencies as the most discriminating variables influencing the group separation into different clusters. This fundamental study has clear implications in the identification of frog fat from its marine and vegetable counterparts for the potential detection of frog fat adulteration in various fat and oils.

  14. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High fat diet and exercise lead to a disrupted and pathogenic DNA methylome in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Hlady, Ryan A; Schafer, Marissa J; White, Thomas A; Liu, Chen; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Miller, Jordan D; Roberts, Lewis R; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Robertson, Keith D

    2017-01-02

    High-fat diet consumption and sedentary lifestyle elevates risk for obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. Exercise training conveys health benefits in populations with or without these chronic conditions. Diet and exercise regulate gene expression by mediating epigenetic mechanisms in many tissues; however, such effects are poorly documented in the liver, a central metabolic organ. To dissect the consequences of diet and exercise on the liver epigenome, we measured DNA methylation, using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, and transcription, using RNA-seq, in mice maintained on a fast food diet with sedentary lifestyle or exercise, compared with control diet with and without exercise. Our analyses reveal that genome-wide differential DNA methylation and expression of gene clusters are induced by diet and/or exercise. A combination of fast food and exercise triggers extensive gene alterations, with enrichment of carbohydrate/lipid metabolic pathways and muscle developmental processes. Through evaluation of putative protective effects of exercise on diet-induced DNA methylation, we show that hypermethylation is effectively prevented, especially at promoters and enhancers, whereas hypomethylation is only partially attenuated. We assessed diet-induced DNA methylation changes associated with liver cancer-related epigenetic modifications and identified significant increases at liver-specific enhancers in fast food groups, suggesting partial loss of liver cell identity. Hypermethylation at a subset of gene promoters was associated with inhibition of tissue development and promotion of carcinogenic processes. Our study demonstrates extensive reprogramming of the epigenome by diet and exercise, emphasizing the functional relevance of epigenetic mechanisms as an interface between lifestyle modifications and phenotypic alterations.

  16. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  17. Protein carbonylation associated to high-fat, high-sucrose diet and its metabolic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lucía; Pazos, Manuel; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Gallardo, José M; Rosa Nogués, M; Torres, Josep L; Medina, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The present research draws a map of the characteristic carbonylation of proteins in rats fed high-caloric diets with the aim of providing a new insight of the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases derived from the high consumption of fat and refined carbohydrates. Protein carbonylation was analyzed in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet by a proteomics approach based on carbonyl-specific fluorescence-labeling, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Oxidized proteins along with specific sites of oxidative damage were identified and discussed to illustrate the consequences of protein oxidation. The results indicated that long-term HFHS consumption increased protein oxidation in plasma and liver; meanwhile, protein carbonyls from skeletal muscle did not change. The increment of carbonylation by HFHS diet was singularly selective on specific target proteins: albumin from plasma and liver, and hepatic proteins such as mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia), mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, argininosuccinate synthetase, regucalcin, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit beta, actin cytoplasmic 1 and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase 1. The possible consequences that these specific protein carbonylations have on the excessive weight gain, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease resulting from HFHS diet consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective effect of lycopene on high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Jin; Wang, Jian; Li, Yuxia; Xiao, Li; Duan, Dan; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-08-03

    A Western diet, high in saturated fats, has been linked to the development of cognitive impairment. Lycopene has recently received considerable attention for its potent protective properties demonstrated in several models of nervous system dysfunction. However, it remains unclear whether lycopene exerts protective effects on cognition. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lycopene on learning and memory impairment and the potential underlying mechanism in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). One-month-old male rats were fed different diets for 16 weeks (n=12 per group), including a standard chow diet (CD), a HFD, or a HFD plus lycopene (4mg/kg, oral gavage in the last three weeks). Behavioral testing, including the Morris water maze (MWM), object recognition task (ORT), and anxiety-like behavior in an open field (OF), were assessed at week 16. The dendritic spine density and neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 subfield were subsequently measured. The results indicate that HFD consumption for 16 weeks significantly impaired spatial memory (Plycopene significantly attenuated learning and memory impairments and prevented the reduction in dendritic spine density (Plycopene helps to protect HFD induced cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Insulin sensitivity, fat distribution, and adipocytokine response to different diets in lean and obese cats before and after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Thomaseth, K; Waldron, M; Ferguson, D C

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in cats and a risk factor for diabetes. It has been postulated that cats are always gluconeogenic and that the rise in obesity might be related to high dietary carbohydrates. We examined the effect of a high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HC) and a high-protein/low-carbohydrate (HP) diet on glucose and fat metabolism during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, adipocytokines, and fat distribution in 12 lean and 16 obese cats before and after weight loss. Feeding diet HP led to greater heat production in lean but not in obese cats. Regardless of diet, obese cats had markedly decreased glucose effectiveness and insulin resistance, but greater suppression of nonesterified fatty acids during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was seen in obese cats on diet HC compared with lean cats on either diet or obese cats on diet HP. In contrast to humans, obese cats had abdominal fat equally distributed subcutaneously and intra-abdominally. Weight loss normalized insulin sensitivity; however, increased nonesterified fatty acid suppression was maintained and fat loss was less in cats on diet HC. Adiponectin was negatively and leptin positively correlated with fat mass. Lean cats and cats during weight loss, but not obese cats, adapted to the varying dietary carbohydrate/protein content with changes in substrate oxidation. We conclude that diet HP is beneficial through maintenance of normal insulin sensitivity of fat metabolism in obese cats, facilitating the loss of fat during weight loss, and increasing heat production in lean cats. These data also show that insulin sensitivity of glucose and fat metabolism can be differentially regulated in cats.

  20. A high fat diet alters metabolic and bioenergetic function in the brain: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Raider, Kayla; Ma, Delin; Harris, Janna L.; Fuentes, Isabella; Rogers, Robert S.; Wheatley, Joshua L.; Geiger, Paige C.; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Choi, In-Young; Brooks, William M.; Stanford, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic effects can lead to neurological dysfunction and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite these risks, the effects of a high-fat diet on the central nervous system are not well understood. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of high fat consumption on brain regions affected by AD and PD, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure neurochemicals in ...

  1. Antioxidant catalase rescues against high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Shou, Xi-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Ren, Gu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Bang; Wang, Xi-Hui; Ai, Wen-Ting; Maris, Jackie R; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ma, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a variety of biological processes including obesity. However, the precise mechanism of action behind obesity-induced changes in autophagy still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the antioxidant catalase in high fat diet-induced changes in cardiac geometry and function as well as the underlying mechanism of action involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of catalase were fed low or high fat diet for 20 weeks prior to assessment of myocardial geometry and function. High fat diet intake triggered obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, the effects of which were unaffected by catalase transgene. Myocardial geometry and function were compromised with fat diet intake as manifested by cardiac hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity and intracellular Ca²⁺ mishandling, the effects of which were ameliorated by catalase. High fat diet intake promoted reactive oxygen species production and suppressed autophagy in the heart, the effects of which were attenuated by catalase. High fat diet intake dampened phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase β(IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) while promoting phosphorylation of mTOR, the effects of which were ablated by catalase. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid compromised cardiomyocyte autophagy and contractile function in a manner reminiscent of fat diet intake, the effect of which was significantly alleviated by inhibition of IKKβ, activation of AMPK and induction of autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that the antioxidant catalase counteracts against high fat diet-induced cardiac geometric and functional anomalies possibly via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent restoration of myocardial

  2. Effects of a low-fat versus a low-carbohydrate diet on adipocytokines in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Gonzalez Sagrado, M; Bellioo, D; Conde, R

    2007-01-01

    There are few studies addressing the effect of weight loss on circulating levels of adipocytokines. The aim of our study was to determine whether different diets would have different weight loss effects and to examine the changes in adipocytokine levels. A population of 90 obesity non-diabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: (a) diet I (low-fat diet), and (b) diet II (low-carbohydrate diet). At baseline and after 3 months on the diet, adipocytokines were evaluated. 43 patients were randomized to group I and 47 patients to diet group II. No differences were detected between weight loss in either group (3.3 +/- 0.51 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.6 kg; n.s.). In group I, a significant decrease in leptin levels was found. In group II, leptin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels also decreased. The decrease in leptin levels was lower with diet I than II (16.4 vs. 22.8%; p low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets, without changes in other adipocytokines. The decrease in leptin and CRP levels were higher with a low-carbohydrate diet than a low-fat diet. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Health benefit of vegetable/fruit juice-based diet: Role of microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Susanne M.; Yang, Jieping; Shao, Paul; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Ly, Austin; Hsu, Mark; Lu, Qing-Yi; Thames, Gail; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vege...

  4. Dietary whey proteins shield murine cecal microbiota from extensive disarray caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Naice E S; Roquetto, Aline R; de Pace, Fernanda; Moura, Carolina S; Santos, Andrey Dos; Yamada, Aureo T; Saad, Mário José A; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    High-fat diets are used to induce adverse alterations in the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, generalized inflammation and metabolic stress, which ultimately may lead to obesity. The influence of dietary whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce stress. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to test if dietary milk-whey proteins, both in the intact form and hydrolyzed, could have an effect on the compositional changes of the cecal microbiota that can be induced in mice when receiving a high-fat diet in combination with the standard casein. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control casein diet (AIN 93-G); high-fat-casein (HFCAS); high-fat-whey protein concentrate (HFWPC) and high-fat whey-protein hydrolysate (HFWPH) for 9weeks. The intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S-rRNA of the invariant (V1-V3) gene, potentially endotoxemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was determined colorimetrically, and liver fat infiltration assessed by light microscopy. The high-fat diet proved to induce dysbiosis in the animals by inverting the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes, promoted the increase of LPS and resulted in liver fat infiltration. The whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, resisted the installation of dysbiosis, prevented the surge of circulating LPS and prevented fat infiltration in the liver. It is concluded that dietary whey proteins exert metabolic actions that tend to preserve the normal microbiota profile, while mitigating liver fat deposition in mice consuming a high-fat diet for nine weeks. Such beneficial effects were not seen when casein was the dietary protein. The hydrolyzed whey protein still differed from the normal whey protein by selectively protecting the Bacteroidetes phylum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. Objective: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. Design: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). Results: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Conclusion: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:22258266

  6. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-03-01

    Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ~40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  7. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pobese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet,) 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet), 35.......3+/-3.3 g (control, high-fat diet) and 28.8+/-2.6 g (EPO, high-fat diet). Correspondingly, DXA scanning revealed that this was due to a 28% reduction in adipose tissue mass.The decrease in adipose tissue mass was accompanied by a complete normalisation of fasting insulin levels and glucose tolerance......-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles....

  9. Equations of prediction for abdominal fat in brown egg-laying hens fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, C; Jaimes, J J B; Gewehr, C E

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each. Sixteen hens per treatment of 92 wk age were utilized to evaluate body weight, bird length, tarsus and sternum, greater and lesser diameter of the tarsus, and abdominal fat weight, after slaughter. The equations were obtained by using measures evaluated with regressors through simple and multiple linear regression with the stepwise method of indirect elimination (backward), with P abdominal fat as predicted by the equations and observed values for each bird were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis. The equations generated by energy levels showed coefficients of determination of 0.50 and 0.74 for 2,800 and 2,550 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.84, with a highly significant correlation between the calculated and observed values of abdominal fat. For protein levels of 150, 160, and 170 g/kg in the diet, it was possible to obtain coefficients of determination of 0.75, 0.57, and 0.61, with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. Regarding the general equation for predicting abdominal fat weight, the coefficient of determination was 0.62; the correlation coefficient was 0.79. The equations for predicting abdominal fat weight in laying hens, based on external measurements of the birds, showed positive coefficients of determination and correlation coefficients, thus allowing researchers to determine abdominal fat weight in vivo.

  10. Increased Hypothalamic Inflammation Associated with the Susceptibility to Obesity in Rats Exposed to High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been implicated in the hypothalamic leptin and insulin resistance resulting defective food intake during high fat diet period. To investigate hypothalamic inflammation in dietary induced obesity (DIO and obesity resistant (DIO-R rats, we established rat models of DIO and DIO-R by feeding high fat diet for 10 weeks. Then we switched half of DIO and DIO-R rats to chow food and the other half to high fat diet for the following 8 weeks to explore hypothalamic inflammation response to the low fat diet intervention. Body weight, caloric intake, HOMA-IR, as well as the mRNA expression of hypothalamic TLR4, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in DIO/HF rats were significantly increased compared to DIO-R/HF and CF rats, whereas IL-10 mRNA expression was lower in both DIO/HF and DIO-R/HF rats compared with CF rats. Switching to chow food from high fat diet reduced the body weight and improved insulin sensitivity but not affecting the expressions of studied inflammatory genes in DIO rats. Take together, upregulated hypothalamic inflammation may contribute to the overeating and development of obesity susceptibility induced by high fat diet. Switching to chow food had limited role in correcting hypothalamic inflammation in DIO rats during the intervention period.

  11. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets Versus Low-Fat Diets on Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Mills, Katherine T.; Yao, Lu; Demanelis, Kathryn; Eloustaz, Mohamed; Yancy, William S.; Kelly, Tanika N.; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low-carbohydrate diets (≤45% of energy from carbohydrates) versus low-fat diets (≤30% of energy from fat) on metabolic risk factors were compared in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Twenty-three trials from multiple countries with a total of 2,788 participants met the predetermined eligibility criteria (from January 1, 1966 to June 20, 2011) and were included in the analyses. Data abstraction was conducted in duplicate by independent investigators. Both low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets lowered weight and improved metabolic risk factors. Compared with participants on low-fat diets, persons on low-carbohydrate diets experienced a slightly but statistically significantly lower reduction in total cholesterol (2.7 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 4.6), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.7 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 6.4), but a greater increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.3 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 1.9, 4.7) and a greater decrease in triglycerides (−14.0 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: −19.4, −8.7). Reductions in body weight, waist circumference and other metabolic risk factors were not significantly different between the 2 diets. These findings suggest that low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective as low-fat diets at reducing weight and improving metabolic risk factors. Low-carbohydrate diets could be recommended to obese persons with abnormal metabolic risk factors for the purpose of weight loss. Studies demonstrating long-term effects of low-carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular events were warranted. PMID:23035144

  12. Weight loss with a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austel, A; Ranke, C; Wagner, N; Görge, J; Ellrott, T

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that Mediterranean diets with a high proportion of olive oil and nuts can be effective for weight management and prevention of cardiovascular disease. It might be difficult for populations with other eating habits to follow such diets. Therefore, a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification through neutral and butter-flavored canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil with two portion-controlled sweet daily snacks was tested in Germany. Randomized waiting-list control study with overweight/grade 1 obese subjects: 12-week self-help modified Mediterranean-type diet, 6 weeks of diet plans and 6 weeks of weight loss maintenance training. Trial duration was 12 months. Intervention group (IG) included 100 participants (average age of 52.4 years, weight 85.1 kg and body mass index (BMI) 30.1 kg/m(2)), waiting-list control group (CG) included 112 participants (52.6 years, 84.1 kg and 30.1 kg/m(2)). Per-protocol weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.2 kg in IG vs 0.4 kg in CG (P ⩽ 0.0001), BMI -1.8 vs -0.1 kg/m(2) (P ⩽ 0.0001), waist circumference -4.7 vs -0.9 cm (P ⩽ 0.0001). Triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol improved significantly in IG but not in CG. One-year dropouts: 44% in IG and 53% in CG. Weight loss after 12 months: 4.2 kg (pooled data). A five-meal modified Mediterranean-type diet with two daily portion-controlled sweet snacks was effective for weight management in a self-help setting for overweight and grade 1 obese subjects. Fat modification through canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil improved blood lipids even at 12 months.

  13. Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Ma, G.S.; Yang, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low

  14. Utilization of nitrogen and energy from diets containing protein and fat derived from either goat milk or cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Laura Sanz; Morales, Eva Ramos; Martínez, Luis Pérez; Extremera, Francisca Gil; Sampelayo, M Remedios Sanz

    2009-11-01

    Consumption of whole milk and related dairy products has decreased considerably as a result of negative aspects associated with the consumption of saturated fats. The main difference between the composition of goat milk and cow milk concerns the composition of the fat, that of goat milk containing a larger proportion of medium-chain triglycerides. The metabolic utilization of these compounds is fundamentally oriented towards their use as sources of energy, and they may even contribute to the synthesis of proteins. This study was carried out, using 40 rats at weaning, in order to determine whether, on the basis of their fat and protein composition, there is any difference between the nutritional utilization of the N and the energy from goat and cow milk. Eight animals were killed on arrival at the laboratory, and the rest were divided into four groups of eight animals and killed at the end of the experiment. Each group was given a different diet: diet 1 contained fat and protein from goat milk; diet 2 had fat from cow milk and protein from goat milk; diet 3 had fat from goat milk and protein from cow milk; diet 4 had fat and protein from cow milk. The animals were allowed to feed ad libitum for 30 d and a balance assay was performed during the final 7 d to determine N and energy utilization. At the same time and by the comparative slaughter method, the protein and fat deposition for each group was established. It was concluded that goat milk protein is more digestible than that of cow milk. Moreover, the metabolic utilization of digestible N was found to be dependent on the sources of both the protein and the fat in the diet; a higher degree of utilization was recorded for the digestible N obtained using diets with protein or fat from goat milk. Consumption of diets with goat milk fat led to a lower level of thermogenesis associated with protein oxidation and a higher one for that associated with fat oxidation, which in turn implied a protein-sparing effect of the

  15. Maternal deprivation exacerbates the response to a high fat diet in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Mela

    Full Text Available Maternal deprivation (MD during neonatal life has diverse long-term effects, including affectation of metabolism. Indeed, MD for 24 hours during the neonatal period reduces body weight throughout life when the animals are maintained on a normal diet. However, little information is available regarding how this early stress affects the response to increased metabolic challenges during postnatal life. We hypothesized that MD modifies the response to a high fat diet (HFD and that this response differs between males and females. To address this question, both male and female Wistar rats were maternally deprived for 24 hours starting on the morning of postnatal day (PND 9. Upon weaning on PND22 half of each group received a control diet (CD and the other half HFD. MD rats of both sexes had significantly reduced accumulated food intake and weight gain compared to controls when raised on the CD. In contrast, when maintained on a HFD energy intake and weight gain did not differ between control and MD rats of either sex. However, high fat intake induced hyperleptinemia in MD rats as early as PND35, but not until PND85 in control males and control females did not become hyperleptinemic on the HFD even at PND102. High fat intake stimulated hypothalamic inflammatory markers in both male and female rats that had been exposed to MD, but not in controls. Reduced insulin sensitivity was observed only in MD males on the HFD. These results indicate that MD modifies the metabolic response to HFD intake, with this response being different between males and females. Thus, the development of obesity and secondary complications in response to high fat intake depends on numerous factors.

  16. Phloretin Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Improves Metabolic Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, Sary; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated as a by-product in metabolism play a central role in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. The objective of the current study is to explore the possibility to block obesity and improve metabolic homeostasis via phloretin, a natural antioxidant product from apple tree leaves and Manchurian apricot. Both preventive and therapeutic activities of phloretin were assessed using a high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. Phloretin was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly into regular and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The effects of phloretin treatment on body weight and composition, fat content in the liver, glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance were monitored and compared to the control animals. Phloretin treatment significantly blocks high-fat diet-induced weight gain but did not induce weight loss in obese animals. Phloretin improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation. RT-PCR analysis showed that phloretin treatment suppresses expression of macrophage markers (F4/80 and Cd68) and pro-inflammatory genes (Mcp-1 and Ccr2) and enhances adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue. In addition, phloretin treatment elevated the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a and 1b (Cpt1a and Cpt1b) and reduced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1), de novo lipogenesis transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (Pparγ2), and its target monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (Mgat-1) genes. These results provide direct evidence to support a possible use of phloretin for mitigation of obesity and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.

  17. Effect of high fat diet on pulmonary expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein and its downstream targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Learta Oruqaj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP is involved in lung development and surfactant production. The latter one requires a paracrine interaction between type II alveolar cells and lipofibroblasts in which leptin triggers PTHrP-induced effects. Whether increased plasma leptin levels, as they occur in high fat diet, modify the expression of PTHrP remains unclear. Furthermore, the effect of high fat diet under conditions of forced pulmonary remodelling such as response to post myocardial infarction remains to be defined. Materials and methods: C57 bl/6 mice were randomized to either normal diet or high fat diet at an age of 6 weeks. Seven months later, the mice were euthanized and the lung was removed and frozen in fluid nitrogen until use. Samples were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. Leptin deficient mice were used to investigate the effect of leptin on pulmonary expression of PTHrP more directly. A subgroup of mice with and without high fat diet underwent in vivo ischemia (45 min and reperfusion (4 weeks. Finally, experiments were repeated with prolonged high-fat diet. Key findings: High fat diet increased plasma leptin levels by 30.4% and the pulmonary mRNA expression of PTHrP (1,447-fold, PTH-1 receptor (4.21-fold, and PTHrP-downstream targets ADRP (7.54-fold and PPARγ (5.27-fold. Pulmonary PTHrP expression was reduced in leptin deficient mice by 88% indicating leptin dependent regulation. High fat diet further improved changes in pulmonary adaptation caused by ischemia/reperfusion (1.48-fold increased PTH-1 receptor protein expression. These effects were lost during prolonged high fat diet. Significance: This study established that physiological regulation of leptin plasma levels by high fat diet affects the pulmonary PTHrP expression and of PTHrP downstream targets. Modification of pulmonary expression of PTH-1 receptors by high fat diet after myocardial infarction suggests that the identified interaction may

  18. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  19. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Santi, Lorena Gimenez; Antunes, Marina Masetto; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Carbonera, Fabiana; Masi, Laureane Nunes; Curi, Rui; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2016-10-29

    Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets), and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ∆-6 desaturase (D6D), elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ( n -6/ n -3) ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA) composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  20. Ad libitum Mediterranean and Low Fat Diets both Significantly Reduce Hepatic Steatosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Sherriff, Jill L; Ching, Helena L; Jeffrey, Garry P; Buckley, Rachel F; Tibballs, Jonathan; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Garas, George; Adams, Leon A

    2018-05-05

    Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF). Hepatic steatosis was determined via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). From a total of 56 subjects enrolled, 49 subjects completed the intervention and 48 were included for analysis. During the intervention, subjects on the MD had significantly higher total and monounsaturated fat but lower carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared to LF subjects (pfat reduction between the groups (p=0.32), with mean (SD) relative reductions of 25.0% (±25.3%) in LF and 32.4% (±25.5%) in MD. Liver enzymes also improved significantly in both groups. Weight loss was minimal and not different between groups [-1.6 (±2.1)kg in LF vs -2.1 (±2.5)kg in MD, (p=0.52)]. Within-group improvements in the Framingham risk score, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and HbA1c were observed in the MD (all pvs. 64%, p=0.048). Ad libitum low fat and Mediterranean diets both improve hepatic steatosis to a similar degree. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Post-weaning high-fat diet results in growth cartilage lesions in young male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S Haysom

    Full Text Available To determine if a high-fat diet (HF from weaning would result in a pro-inflammatory state and affect joint cartilage, we fed male rats either HF or Chow diet post-weaning, and voluntary wheel exercise (EX or cage only activity (SED after 9 weeks of age. At 17 weeks body composition, plasma biomarkers and histomorphology scores of femoro-tibial cartilages of HF-SED, HF-EX, Chow-SED and Chow-EX groups were compared. Food intake and activity were not significantly different between groups. HF diet resulted in significantly higher weight gain, %fat, fat:lean ratio, and plasma leptin, insulin and TNFα concentrations, with significant interactions between diet and exercise. No abnormal features were detected in the hyaline articular cartilage or in the metaphyseal growth plate in all four groups. However, collagen type X- positive regions of retained epiphyseal growth cartilage (EGC was present in all HF-fed animals and significantly greater than that observed in Chow-fed sedentary rats. Most lesions were located in the lateral posterior aspect of the tibia and/or femur. The severity of lesions was greater in HF-fed animals. Although exercise had a significantly greater effect in reducing adiposity and associated systemic inflammation in HF-fed rats, it had no effect on lesion incidence or severity. Lesion incidence was also significantly associated with indices of obesity and plasma markers of chronic inflammation. Clinically, EGC lesions induced by HF feeding in rats from very early in life, and possibly by insufficient activity, is typical of osteochondrosis in animals. Such lesions may be the precursor of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans requiring surgery in children/adolescents, conservative management of which could benefit from improved understanding of early changes in cellular and gene expression.

  2. The role of wild fruits and vegetables in delivering a balanced and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bvenura, Callistus; Sivakumar, Dharini

    2017-09-01

    Without a doubt, fruits and vegetables are important components of a balanced and healthy diet. However, their consumption is very low in the world, with the lowest figures being reported in sub-Saharan Africa. The low consumption of fruits and vegetables means unbalanced and unhealthy diets, which has been linked to various diseases and conditions associated with increased mortality rates in worst cases. Poverty is the major contributor to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables in the majority of cases. However, the world, including sub-Saharan Africa, is endowed with numerous wild fruit and vegetable species which can be exploited and incorporated into the diets and help solve some nutrition related concerns. Therefore, in this review, we explore literature on wild fruits and vegetables with a special emphasis on some of the poorest regions of the world and where the lowest consumption figures are reported; their nutritional compositions; the status of their consumption and their role in the diet with a view to uncover their possible role in delivering a healthy and balanced diet as well as helping lower food and nutrition insecurity. A total of 396 articles were downloaded and analysed but only 213 were considered for this review. The results of the search indicate that wild fruits and vegetables are nutritionally rich and high in phytochemicals, especially antioxidants and therefore can possibly play a significant and positive role in delivering a healthy and balanced diet. However, the major challenge is the acceptability, accessibility as well as a lack of interest in wild fruits and vegetables and sheer neglect. People need to be educated using various forms of media on the nutritional and health benefits of these wild food plants with a view to bring them from the forest to the plate. Researchers need to channel more efforts towards domesticating them for ease of access, among other reasons. Governments need to incentivise the subsistence or

  3. Effect of two different protein/fat ratios of the diet on meagre (Argyrosomus regius traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Moniello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two diets with different protein/fat ratios (P/F (diet A: P/F 2.26; diet B: P/F 3.36 on the chemical composition, fatty acid profile and some somatic indexes of meagre (Argyrosomus regius. The trial was carried out on two groups of meagre raised in two different sea cages during 15 months. At the end of the production cycle biometric measures as well as chemical-nutritional analysis of the fillets were conducted on 25 fishes per group. Diet A, with a lower P/F, furnished animals with higher percentages of mesenteric fat (0.48 vs 0.41%; P<0.01 and of fillet yield (51.21 vs 48.12; P<0.01. Moreover, the fillets obtained with the diet A showed higher percentage of fat (3.60 vs 2.41%; P< 0.01, lower moisture (74.10 vs 75.42%; P<0.01, lower losses of water under pressure (16.73 vs 20.20%; P<0.01 and after 48 h of refrigeration (3.08 vs 4.23%; P<0.01. The fatty acids profile of fillets was affected by the diet. Diet A resulted in a higher level of saturated fatty acids (26.44 vs 23.17% of total lipid; P<0.01 and a lower percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (31.56 vs 36.08%; P<0.01 in the fillet, mainly due to the lower content of linoleic acid (13.63 vs 19.77%; P<0.01. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes, which resulted very low in the fish of Group B (AI=0.48 vs 0.60, P<0.01; TI=0.33 vs 0.37, P<0.01, together with the low lipid content of meat in both groups, confirmed the very high nutritional quality of meagre fillets.

  4. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Bonnie J; Seeley, Randy J; Daniels, Stephen R; D'Alessio, David A

    2003-04-01

    Untested alternative weight loss diets, such as very low carbohydrate diets, have unsubstantiated efficacy and the potential to adversely affect cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we designed a randomized, controlled trial to determine the effects of a very low carbohydrate diet on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects were randomized to 6 months of either an ad libitum very low carbohydrate diet or a calorie-restricted diet with 30% of the calories as fat. Anthropometric and metabolic measures were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Fifty-three healthy, obese female volunteers (mean body mass index, 33.6 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomized; 42 (79%) completed the trial. Women on both diets reduced calorie consumption by comparable amounts at 3 and 6 months. The very low carbohydrate diet group lost more weight (8.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.0 kg; P fat (4.8 +/- 0.67 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.75 kg; P low fat diet group. Mean levels of blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin were within normal ranges in both groups at baseline. Although all of these parameters improved over the course of the study, there were no differences observed between the two diet groups at 3 or 6 months. beta- Hydroxybutyrate increased significantly in the very low carbohydrate group at 3 months (P = 0.001). Based on these data, a very low carbohydrate diet is more effective than a low fat diet for short-term weight loss and, over 6 months, is not associated with deleterious effects on important cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.

  5. Isocaloric intake of a high-fat diet modifies adiposity and lipid handling in a sex dependent manner in rats

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    Lladó Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet feeding usually leads to hyperphagia and body weight gain, but macronutrient proportions in the diet can modulate energy intake and fat deposition. The mechanisms of fat accumulation and mobilization may differ significantly between depots, and gender can also influence these differences. Aim To investigate, in rats of both sexes, the effect of an isocaloric intake of a diet with an unbalanced proportion of macronutrients on fatty acid composition of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and how this is influenced by both dietary fatty acids and levels of proteins involved in tissue lipid handling. Methods Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (3% w/w fat or high-fat diet (30% w/w fat for 14 weeks. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography and levels of LPL, HSL, α2-AR, β3-AR, PKA and CPT1 were determined by Western blot. Results The HF diet did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain, but promoted an increase of adiposity index only in male rats. HF diet produced an increase of the proportion of MUFA and a decrease in that of PUFA in both adipose depots and in both sexes. The levels of proteins involved in the adrenergic control of the lipolytic pathway increased in the gonadal fat of HF females, whereas LPL levels increased in the inguinal fat of HF males and decreased in that of females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in adiposity index reflects a differential sex response to dietary fatty acid content and could be related to the levels of the proteins involved in tissue lipid management.

  6. IGF-1 Alleviates High Fat Diet-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Insulin Signaling and Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingmei; Yuan, Ming; Bradley, Katherine M.; Dong, Feng; Anversa, Piero; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with reduced plasma IGF-1 levels, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cardiac dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of IGF-1 on high fat diet-induced oxidative, myocardial, geometric and mitochondrial responses. FVB and cardiomyocyte-specific IGF-1 overexpression transgenic mice were fed a low (10%) or high fat (45%) diet to induce obesity. High fat diet feeding led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma levels of leptin, interleukin-6, insulin and triglyceride as well as reduced circulating IGF-1 levels. Echocardiography revealed reduced fractional shortening, increased end systolic and diastolic diameter, increased wall thickness, and cardiac hypertrophy in high fat-fed FVB mice. High fat diet promoted ROS generation, apoptosis, protein and mitochondrial damage, reduced ATP content, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, contractile and intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation, including depressed peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, and dampened intracellular Ca2+ rise and clearance. Western blot analysis revealed disrupted phosphorylation of insulin receptor, post-receptor signaling molecules IRS-1 (tyrosine/serine phosphorylation), Akt, GSK3β, Foxo3a, mTOR, as well as downregulated expression of mitochondrial proteins PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and UCP-2. Intriguingly, IGF-1 mitigated high fat diet feeding-induced alterations in ROS, protein and mitochondrial damage, ATP content, apoptosis, myocardial contraction, intracellular Ca2+ handling and insulin signaling, but not whole body glucose intolerance and cardiac hypertrophy. Exogenous IGF-1 treatment also alleviated high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction. Our data revealed that IGF-1 alleviates high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction despite persistent cardiac remodeling, possibly due to preserved cell survival, mitochondrial function and insulin signaling. PMID:22275536

  7. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  8. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

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    Yulia B. Monakhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA, imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R2 0.75–0.95 and 17 compounds in ice cream (R2 0.83–0.99 (e.g., fatty acids and esters were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  9. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R 2 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R 2 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. PMID:26904597

  10. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... with astrocyte-targeted IL-6 expression (GFAP-IL6 mice) with a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) versus a control diet (10%). The results demonstrate that the GFAP-IL6 mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat, apparently without altering food intake and with no evidences...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high...

  11. SOCS2 deletion protects against hepatic steatosis but worsens insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Santana-Farre, Ruyman; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. SOCS2-knockout (SOCS2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were fed for 4 mo with control or high-fat diet, followed by assessment of insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid content, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. SOCS2(-/-) mice...

  12. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  13. Application of an in vivo hepatic triacylglycerol production method in the setting of a high fat diet in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    High fat (HF) diets typically promote diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic dysfunction (i.e., insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis). Changes in TAG metabolism contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis including changes in production rate from de novo lipogenes...

  14. High Phenolics Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce Improves Glucose Metabolism in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M.; Roopchand, Diana E.; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Armas, Isabel; Johnson, William D.; Oren, Andrew; Ribnicky, David; Zelzion, Ehud; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Scope The ability of high phenolic Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) to attenuate metabolic syndrome and gut dysbiosis was studied in very high fat diet (VHFD)-fed mice. Phenolic absorption was assessed in vivo and in a gastrointestinal tract model. Methods and results Mice were fed VHFD, VHFD supplemented with RSL (RSL-VHFD) or store-purchased green lettuce (GL-VHFD), or low-fat diet (LFD) for 13 weeks. Compared to VHFD or GL-VHFD-fed groups, RSL-VHFD group showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (p<0.05). Comparison of VHFD, RSL-VHFD, and GL-VHFD groups revealed no significant differences with respect to insulin tolerance, hepatic lipids, body weight gain, fat mass, plasma glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acid, and lipopolysaccharide levels, as well as relative abundances of major bacterial phyla from 16S rDNA amplicon data sequences (from fecal and cecal samples). However, RSL and GL-supplementation increased abundance of several taxa involved in plant polysaccharide degradation/fermentation. RSL phenolics chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside were bioaccessible in the TIM-1 digestion model, but had relatively low recovery. Conclusions RSL phenolics contributed to attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia. Changes in gut microbiota were likely due to microbiota accessible carbohydrates in RSL and GL rather than RSL phenolics, which may be metabolized, absorbed, or degraded before reaching the colon. PMID:27529448

  15. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, D.

    2009-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolism-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 14C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the 5G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the -1131T>C in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken. (Author) 31 refs.

  16. Oral insulin improves metabolic parameters in high fat diet fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO C. LIPINSKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction/Aim: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats. Methods: Twelve weeks old Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (CTRL standard chow group; high fat diet low carbohydrates group (HFD and HFD plus daily oral 20U insulin gavage (HFD+INS. Weight and food consumption were weekly obtained. After eight weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for laboratorial analysis. After euthanasia gut samples were isolated. Results: Rat oral insulin treatment decreased body weight gain (p<0,001, fasting glucose and triglycerides serum levels (p<0,05 an increased intestinal weight of distal ileum (P<0,05. Animal submitted to high fat diet presented higher levels of HOMA-IR although significant difference to CT was not achieved. HOMA-beta were significantly higher (p<0.05 in HFD+INS. Visceral fat was 10% lower in HFD+INS but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In non-diabetic obese rats, oral insulin improves metabolic malfunction associated to rescue of beta-cell activity.

  17. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:28830128

  18. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2018-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  19. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Chanjula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW] were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat on a dry matter (DM basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05 among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  20. Chronic blood pressure and appetite responses to central leptin infusion in rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinion, John H; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2011-04-01

    Obesity has been suggested to induce selective leptin resistance whereby leptin's anorexic effects are attenuated, whereas the effects to increase sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure remain intact. Most studies, however, have tested only the acute responses to leptin administration. This study tested whether feeding a high-fat diet causes resistance to the appetite and cardiovascular responses to chronic central leptin infusion. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (40% kcal from fat, n=5) or normal-fat diet (13% kcal from fat, n=5) for a year. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). A 21G steel cannula was implanted in the lateral cerebral ventricle [intracerebroventricular (ICV)]. After recovery, leptin was infused ICV at 0.02 μg/kg per min for 10 days. High-fat rats were heavier than normal-fat rats (582±12 vs. 511±19 g) and exhibited significantly higher MAP (114±3 vs. 96±7 mmHg). Although the acute (24 h) effects of leptin were attenuated in high-fat rats, chronic ICV leptin infusion decreased caloric intake in both groups similarly (50±8 vs. 40±10%) by day 5. Despite decreased food intake and weight loss, leptin infusion significantly increased MAP and HR in both high-fat and normal-fat rats (7±2 and 5±1 mmHg; 18±11 and 21±10 b.p.m., respectively). These results suggest that obesity induced by feeding a high-fat diet blunts the acute anorexic effects of leptin but does not cause significant resistance to the chronic central nervous system effects of leptin on appetite, MAP, or HR.

  1. Proinflammatory Cytokines in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression Promoted by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to examine whether proinflammatory cytokines participated in prostate cancer (PCa development and progression promoted by high-fat diet (HFD. Methods. TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal diet group and HFD group. Mortality rate and tumor formation rate were examined. TRAMP mice were sacrificed and sampled on the 20th, 24th, and 28th week, respectively. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were tested by FlowCytomix. Prostate tissue of TRAMP mice was used for histology study. Results. A total of 13 deaths of TRAMP mice were observed, among which 3 (8.33% were from the normal diet group and 10 (27.78% from the HFD group. The mortality rate of TRAMP mice from HFD group was significantly higher than that of normal diet group (P=0.032. Tumor formation rate at 20th week of age of HFD group was significantly higher than that of normal diet group (P=0.045. Proinflammatory cytokines levels, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were significantly higher in HFD TRAMP mice. Conclusions. HFD could promote TRAMP mouse PCa development and progression with elevated proinflammatory cytokines levels. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to PCa development and progression promoted by HFD.

  2. Beneficial effects of a red wine polyphenol extract on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, Stéphanie; Maillard, Elisa; Bietiger, William; Peronet, Claude; Pinget, Michel; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS) show several metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and oxidative stress (OS). Diet is one of the factors influencing the development of MS, and current nutritional advice emphasises the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption. Here, we assessed the effects of naturally occurring antioxidants, red wine polyphenols (RWPs), on MS and OS. Wistar rats (n = 20) weighing 200-220 g received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 months before they were divided into two groups that received either HFD only or HFD plus 50 mg/kg RWPs in their drinking water for an additional 2 months. A control group (n = 10) received a normal diet (ND) for 4 months. Rats receiving HFD increased body weight over 20 % throughout the duration of the study. They also showed increased blood levels of C-peptide, glucose, lipid peroxides, and oxidised proteins. In addition, the HFD increased OS in hepatic, pancreatic, and vascular tissues, as well as induced pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia and hepatic steatosis. Addition of RWPs to the HFD attenuated these effects on plasma and tissue OS and on islet cell hyperplasia. However, RWPs had no effect on blood glucose levels or hepatic steatosis. RWPs showed an antioxidant mechanism of action against MS. This result will inform future animal studies exploring the metabolic effects of RWPs in more detail. In addition, these findings support the use of antioxidants as adjunctive nutritional treatments for patients with diabetes.

  3. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging

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    Zhuoran Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD or low-fat diet (LFD during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32 in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  4. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhuoran; Raj, Divya D; Schaafsma, Wandert; van der Heijden, Roel A; Kooistra, Susanne M; Reijne, Aaffien C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Moser, Jill; Brouwer, Nieske; Heeringa, Peter; Yi, Chun-Xia; van Dijk, Gertjan; Laman, Jon D; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Eggen, Bart J L

    2018-01-01

    Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake) on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32) in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  5. Review of Antidiabetic Fruits, Vegetables, Beverages, Oils and Spices commonly consumed in the Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-01-01

    for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aim is to present a review...

  6. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K.; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (low-fat diet (low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons. PMID:26393645

  7. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  8. Maternal High-Fat Diet Programming of the Neuroendocrine System and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Elinor L.; Riper, Kellie M.; Lockard, Rachel; Valleau, Jeanette C.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity, metabolic state, and diet during gestation have profound effects on offspring development. The prevalence of neurodevelopmental and mental health disorders has risen rapidly in the last several decades in parallel with the rise in obesity rates. Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of offspring developing behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and schizophrenia. Animal models show that a maternal diet high in fat similarly disrupts behavioral programming of offspring, with animals showing social impairments, increased anxiety and depressive behaviors, reduced cognitive development, and hyperactivity. Maternal obesity, metabolic conditions, and high fat diet consumption increase maternal leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and inflammatory cytokines. This leads to increased risk of placental dysfunction, and altered fetal neuroendocrine development. Changes in brain development that likely contribute to the increased risk of behavioral and mental health disorders include increased inflammation in the brain, as well as alterations in the serotonergic system, dopaminergic system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. PMID:25913366

  9. Exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Al-Massadi, Omar; Donelan, Elizabeth; Lehti, Maarit; Weber, Jon; Ress, Chandler; Trivedi, Chitrang; Müller, Timo D; Woods, Stephen C; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2012-06-25

    Hypothalamic inflammation is a potentially important process in the pathogenesis of high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders that has recently received significant attention. Microglia are macrophage-like cells of the central nervous system which are activated by pro-inflammatory signals causing local production of specific interleukins and cytokines, and these in turn may further promote systemic metabolic disease. Whether or how this microglial activation can be averted or reversed is unknown. Since running exercise improves systemic metabolic health and has been found to promote neuronal survival as well as the recovery of brain functions after injury, we hypothesized that regular treadmill running may blunt the effect of western diet on hypothalamic inflammation. Using low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (l dlr-/-) mice to better reflect human lipid metabolism, we first confirmed that microglial activation in the hypothalamus is severely increased upon exposure to a high-fat, or "western", diet. Moderate, but regular, treadmill running exercise markedly decreased hypothalamic inflammation in these mice. Furthermore, the observed decline in microglial activation was associated with an improvement of glucose tolerance. Our findings support the hypothesis that hypothalamic inflammation can be reversed by exercise and suggest that interventions to avert or reverse neuronal damage may offer relevant potential in obesity treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition.

  11. Does running with or without diet changes reduce fat mass in novice runners? A 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus O; Videbaek, Solvej; Hansen, Mette; Parner, Erik T; Rasmussen, Sten; Langberg, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how average weekly running distance, combined with changes in diet habits and reasons to take up running, influence fat mass. Fat mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and after 12 months in 538 novice runners included in a 1-year observational prospective follow-up study. During follow-up, running distance for each participant was continuously measured by GPS while reasons to take up running and diet changes were assessed trough web-based questionnaires. Loss of fat mass was compared between runners covering an average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; Pdiet changes, the mean difference in fat mass between groups was 3.81 kg (95% CI: -5.96; -1.66; Pdiet. An average running distance of more than 5 km per week in runners who took up running to lose weight combined with a targeted diet change seems effective in reducing fat mass over a one-year period among novice runners. Still, randomized controlled trials are needed to better document the effects of self-selected diet changes.

  12. Effect of Saffron on Metabolic Profile and Retina in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouchtsis, Evangelos K; Tzani, Aspasia; Doulamis, Ilias P; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Laskarina-Maria, Korou; Agrogiannis, Georgios; Agapitos, Emmanouil; Moschos, Marilita M; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Perrea, Despina N

    2017-09-22

    Saffron is a spice that has been traditionally used as a regimen for a variety of diseases due to its potent antioxidant attributes. It is well documented that impaired systemic oxidative status is firmly associated with diverse adverse effects including retinal damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of saffron administration against the retinal damage in apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet, since they constitute a designated experimental model susceptible to oxidative stress. Twenty-one mice were allocated into three groups: Group A (control, n = 7 c57bl/6 mice) received standard chow diet; Group B (high-fat, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet; and Group C (high-fat and saffron, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet and saffron (25 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water. The duration of the study was 20 weeks. Lipidemic profile, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total oxidative capacity (PerOX) were measured in blood serum. Histological analysis of retina was also conducted. Administration of saffron resulted in enhanced glycemic control and preservation of retinal thickness when compared with apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet. The outcomes of the study suggest the potential protective role of saffron against retinal damage induced by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, verification of these results in humans is required before any definite conclusions can be drawn.

  13. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hemphill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation.

  14. High-Fat Diet Induces Oxidative Stress and MPK2 and HSP83 Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade de Paula, Mariane; Poetini Silva, M?rcia R?sula; Machado Araujo, St?fani; Cardoso Bortolotto, Vandreza; Barreto Meichtry, Luana; Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Wallau, Gabriel L.; Jesse, Cristiano Ricardo; Franco, Jeferson Lu?s; Posser, Tha?s; Prigol, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes alteration in normal metabolism affecting lifespan of flies; however molecular mechanism associated with this damage in flies is not well known. This study evaluates the effects of ingestion of a diet supplemented with 10% and 20% of coconut oil, which is rich in saturated fatty acids, on oxidative stress and cells stress signaling pathways. After exposure to the diet for seven days, cellular and mitochondrial viability, lipid peroxidation and a...

  15. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  16. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla on Glucose Homeostasis in Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi S. Kanthe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emblica officinalis contains many biological active components which are found to have some medicinal properties against diseases. Aim and Objectives: To assess hypolipidemic and glucose regulatory actions of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO on High Fat Diet (HFD fed experimental rats. Material and Methods: Twenty four rats were divided into four groups, having six rats in each group as following; Group I- Control (20% fat; Group II (EEO 100 mg/kg/b w; Group III (30% fat and Group IV (30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg/b w. The treatment was continued for 21 days. Gravimetric parameters and lipid profiles of all the groups were measured. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT, fasting and postprandial glucose and fasting insulin levels were estimated. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. Statistical analysis was done. Results: Significant alteration in serum lipid profile, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels and fasting insulin level were observed in rats of Group III fed with high fat diet. Supplementation of EEO improved both of glycemic and lipid profiles in rats of Group IV fed with high fat diet. Conclusion: Results from the study indicate the beneficial role of EEO on dyslipidemia and glucose homeostasis in rats treated with high fat diet.

  17. Nutritive utilization of protein and digestive utilization of fat in two commercial diets designed for clinical enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alférez, M J; Campos, M S; Barrionuevo, M; López-Aliaga, I

    1990-01-01

    The digestive and metabolic utilization of protein (50% lactoalbumin + 50% casein) and fat (43.0% butter, 29.5% olive oil, 14.7% soy oil, 9.8% MCT and 3.0% lecithin) provided by two commercial diets used in clinical enteral nutrition (normoproteic, 16.1% protein and 20.8% fat, and hyperproteic, 23.1% protein and 14.9% fat), was studied in adult rats (mean body weight 180 g). The diet containing the greater amount of protein improved the digestive utilization of nitrogen, and although nitrogen retention was optimal, it failed to rise further when the dietary protein supply was increased. The digestive utilization of fat in both diets was excellent.

  18. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.O.; Salazar, G.; Uauy, R.

    1999-01-01

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  19. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, E O; Salazar, G; Uauy, R [Energy and Metabolism and Stable Isotopes Laboratory, Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologia de los Alimentos (INTA), Santiago (Chile)

    1999-07-01

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  20. Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christian John; Buckley, Jonathan David; Weinstein, Philip; Boland, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth. PMID:24926526

  1. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  2. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  3. Liver fat is reduced by an isoenergetic MUFA diet in a controlled randomized study in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Prinster, Anna; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Lucia; Mangione, Anna; Vitelli, Alessandra; Mazzarella, Raffaella; Longobardo, Margaret; Mancini, Marcello; Vigorito, Carlo; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of qualitative dietary changes and the interaction with aerobic exercise training on liver fat content independent of weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. With use of a factorial 2 × 2 randomized parallel-group design, 37 men and 8 women, aged 35-70 years, with type 2 diabetes in satisfactory blood glucose control on diet or diet plus metformin treatment were assigned to one of the following groups for an 8-week period: 1) high-carbohydrate/high-fiber/low-glycemic index diet (CHO/fiber group), 2) high-MUFA diet (MUFA group), 3) high-carbohydrate/high-fiber/low-glycemic index diet plus physical activity program (CHO/fiber+Ex group), and 4) high-MUFA diet plus physical activity program (MUFA+Ex group). Before and after intervention, hepatic fat content was measured by (1)H NMR. Dietary compliance was optimal and body weight remained stable in all groups. Liver fat content decreased more in MUFA (-29%) and MUFA+Ex (-25%) groups than in CHO/fiber (-4%) and CHO/fiber+Ex groups (-6%). Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, including baseline values as covariate, showed a significant effect on liver fat content for diet (P = 0.006), with no effects for exercise training (P = 0.789) or diet-exercise interaction (P = 0.712). An isocaloric diet enriched in MUFA compared with a diet higher in carbohydrate and fiber was associated with a clinically relevant reduction of hepatic fat content in type 2 diabetic patients independent of an aerobic training program and should be considered for the nutritional management of hepatic steatosis in people with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Effect of One Month Duration Ketogenic and non-Ketogenic High Fat Diets on Mouse Brain Bioenergetic Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfridge, J. Eva; Wilkins, Heather M.; Lezi, E; Carl, Steven M.; Koppel, Scott; Funk, Eric; Fields, Timothy; Lu, Jianghua; Tang, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Wang, WenFang; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Using C57Bl/6J mice, we tested the effect of ketosis-inducing and non-inducing high fat diets on genes relevant to brain bioenergetic infrastructures, and on proteins that constitute and regulate that infrastructure. At the end of a one-month study period the two high fat diets appeared to differentially affect peripheral insulin signaling, but brain insulin signaling was not obviously altered. Some bioenergetic infrastructure parameters were similarly impacted by both high fat diets, while other parameters were only impacted by the ketogenic diet. For both diets, mRNA levels for CREB, PGC1α, and NRF2 increased while NRF1, TFAM, and COX4I1 mRNA levels decreased. PGC1β mRNA increased and TNFα mRNA decreased only with the ketogenic diet. Brain mtDNA levels fell in both the ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diet groups, although TOMM20 and COX4I1 protein levels were maintained, and mRNA and protein levels of the mtDNA-encoded COX2 subunit were also preserved. Overall, the pattern of changes observed in mice fed ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets over a one month time period suggests these interventions enhance some aspects of the brain’s aerobic infrastructure, and may enhance mtDNA transcription efficiency. Further studies to determine which diet effects are due to changes in brain ketone body levels, fatty acid levels, glucose levels, altered brain insulin signaling, or other factors such as adipose tissue-associated hormones are indicated. PMID:25104046

  5. Diminished metabolic responses to centrally-administered apelin-13 in diet-induced obese rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K J; Whitaker, K W; Reyes, T M

    2009-02-01

    The central administration of apelin, a recently identified adipokine, has been shown to affect food and water intake. The present study investigated whether body weight could affect an animal's response to apelin. The effects of centrally-administered apelin-13 on food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were investigated in adult male diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed either a high fat (32%) or control diet. Rats were administered i.c.v. apelin-13, 15-30 min prior to lights out, and food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were assessed. Intracerebroventricular administration of apelin-13 decreased food and water intake and respiratory exchange ratio in DIO rats on the control diet, but had no effect in DIO rats on the high-fat diet. In an effort to identify potential central mechanisms explaining the observed physiological responses, the mRNA level of the apelin receptor, APJ, was examined in the hypothalamus. A high-fat diet induced an up-regulation of the expression of the receptor. Apelin induced a down-regulation of the receptor, but only in the DIO animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a diminished central nervous system response to apelin that is coincident with obesity.

  6. Effects of Ad libitum Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Seltmann, Christie L; Hollingsworth, Angela; O'Neal, Eric K

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a 3-wk ad libitum, low-carbohydrate (fat (~70% of calories) (LCHF) diet on markers of endurance performance in middle-age, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) after their normal high-carbohydrate (HC) diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed five 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological variables, metabolic variables, and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20 min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial on a road course. Subjects then consumed an LCHF diet for 3 wk and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and seven-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (P vs 37.3°C ± 0.2°C) in the HC diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF diet. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF diet. RER and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly, whereas fat oxidation increased after LCHF diet for every pace (P fat oxidation from LCHF diet potentially negate expected performance decrement from reduced carbohydrate use late in exercise for nonelite runners. An acute decrease in training capacity is expected; however, if performance improvement is not exhibited after 3 wk, diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  7. Resistance Training Combined With Diet Decreases Body Fat While Preserving Lean Mass Independent of Resting Metabolic Rate: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd; Mull, Stephanie; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT; n = 10), dietary intervention only (DIET; n = 10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET; n = 10), and control (CON; n = 10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 3.1 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body. Results showed a significant month-by-group interaction for change in fat mass with no significant linear trend for control. The three treatment groups all showed significant linear decreases in fat mass, but the slope of the decrease became progressively steeper from the RT, to DIET, to RT+DIET. A significant linear increase for lean mass was seen for resistance training only. There was a nonsignificant increase in RMR in all groups from Month 0 to Month 4 but no significant month by group interaction. In conclusion, significant reductions in fat mass were achieved by all experimental groups, but results were maximized by RT+DIET. Only the RT group showed significant increases in lean mass.

  8. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Keogh, Jennifer B; Foster, Paul; Clifton, Peter M

    2005-04-01

    When substituted for carbohydrate in an energy-reduced diet, dietary protein enhances fat loss in women. It is unknown whether the effect is due to increased protein or reduced carbohydrate. We compared the effects of 2 isocaloric diets that differed in protein and fat content on weight loss, lipids, appetite regulation, and energy expenditure after test meals. This was a parallel, randomized study in which subjects received either a low-fat, high-protein (LF-HP) diet (29 +/- 1% fat, 34 +/- 0.8% protein) or a high-fat, standard-protein (HF-SP) diet (45 +/- 0.6% fat, 18 +/- 0.3% protein) during 12 wk of energy restriction (6 +/- 0.1 MJ/d) and 4 wk of energy balance (7.4 +/- 0.3 MJ/d). Fifty-seven overweight and obese [mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 33.8 +/- 0.9] volunteers with insulin concentrations >12 mU/L completed the study. Weight loss (LF-HP group, 9.7 +/- 1.1 kg; HF-SP group, 10.2 +/- 1.4 kg; P = 0.78) and fat loss were not significantly different between diet groups even though the subjects desired less to eat after the LF-HP meal (P = 0.02). The decrease in resting energy expenditure was not significantly different between diet groups (LF-HP, -342 +/- 185 kJ/d; HF-SP, -349 +/- 220 kJ/d). The decrease in the thermic effect of feeding with weight loss was smaller in the LF-HP group than in the HF-SP group (-0.3 +/- 1.0% compared with -3.6 +/- 0.7%; P = 0.014). Glucose and insulin responses to test meals improved after weight loss (P loss and the improvements in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factors did not differ significantly between the 2 diets, and neither diet had any detrimental effects on bone turnover or renal function.

  9. Soy protein is beneficial but high-fat diet and voluntary running are detrimental to bone structure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Graef, George L; Nielsen, Forrest H; Johnson, LuAnn K; Cao, Jay

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity and soy protein isolate (SPI) augmentation have been reported to be beneficial for bone health. We hypothesized that combining voluntary running and SPI intake would alleviate detrimental changes in bone induced by a high-fat diet. A 2 × 2 × 2 experiment was designed with diets containing 16% or 45% of energy as corn oil and 20% SPI or casein fed to sedentary or running male C57BL/6 mice for 14 weeks. Distal femurs were assessed for microstructural changes. The high-fat diet significantly decreased trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Soy protein instead of casein, regardless of fat content, in the diet significantly increased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and decreased Tb.Sp. Voluntary running, regardless of fat content, significantly decreased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and increased Tb.Sp. The high-fat diet significantly decreased osteocalcin and increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) concentrations in plasma. Plasma concentrations of osteocalcin were increased by both SPI and running. Running alleviated the increase in TRAP 5b induced by the high-fat diet. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet is deleterious, and SPI is beneficial to trabecular bone properties. The deleterious effect of voluntary running on trabecular structural characteristics indicates that there may be a maximal threshold of running beyond which beneficial effects cease and detrimental effects occur. Increases in plasma osteocalcin and decreases in plasma TRAP 5b in running mice suggest that a compensatory response occurs to counteract the detrimental effects of excessive running. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The organ specificity in pathological damage of chronic intermittent hypoxia: an experimental study on rat with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Tian, Jian-li; Feng, Shu-zhi; Sun, Ning; Chen, Bao-yuan; Zhang, Yun

    2013-09-01

    It is known today that sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and its characteristic chronic intermittent hypoxia can cause damages to multiple organs, including the cardiovascular system, urinary system, and liver. It is still unclear, however, whether the damage caused by sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and the severity of the damage are organ-specific. This research observed the pathological effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on rat's thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney, under the condition of lipid metabolism disturbance, through establishing the rat model of chronic intermittent hypoxia with high-fat diet by imitating the features of human sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. In this model, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group fed by regular diet, a high-fat group fed by high-fat diet, and a high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group fed by high-fat diet and treated with intermittent hypoxia 7 h a day. At the end of the ninth week, the pathological changes of rat's organs, including the thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney are observed (under both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy). As the result of the experiment shows, while there was no abnormal effect observed on any organs of the control group, slight pathological changes were found in the organs of the high-fat group. For the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, however, remarkably severer damages were found on all the organs. It also showed that the severity of the damage varies by organ in the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, with the thoracic aorta being the worst, followed by the liver and myocardium, and the kidney being the slightest. Chronic intermittent hypoxia can lead to multiple-organ damage to rat with high-fat diet. Different organs appear to have different sensitivity to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

  11. Centrally administered urocortin 2 decreases gorging on high-fat diet in in both diet induced obesity-prone and -resistant rats

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    Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina; Nagy, Tim R.; Coscina, Donald V.; Levin, Barry E.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a costly, deadly public health problem for which new treatments are needed. Individual differences in meal pattern have been proposed to play a role in obesity risk. The present study tested the hypothesis that i) the microstructure of chronic high-fat diet intake differs between genetically selected Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) and Diet Resistant (DR) rats, and ii) central administration of urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) agonist, decreases high-fat diet intake not only in lean DR rats, but also in obese DIO rats. Design Male, selectively bred DIO and DR rats (n=10/genotype) were chronically fed a high-fat diet. Food and water intake as well as ingestion microstructure were then compared under baseline conditions and following third intracerebroventricular injection of Ucn 2 (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 µg). Results Irrespective of genotype, Ucn 2 reduced nocturnal food intake with a minimum effective dose of 0.3 µg, suppressing high-fat diet intake by ~40% at the 3 µg dose. Ucn 2 also made rats of both genotypes eat smaller and briefer meals, including at doses that did not reduce drinking. Obese DIO rats ate fewer but larger meals than DR rats, which they ate more quickly and consumed with 2/3rd less water. Conclusions Unlike leptin and insulin, Ucn 2 retains its full central anorectic efficacy to reduce high-fat diet intake even in obese, genetically-prone DIO rats, which otherwise show a “gorging” meal pattern. These results open new opportunities of investigation towards treating some forms of diet-induced obesity. PMID:23478425

  12. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Leidig, Michael M; Feldman, Henry A; Lovesky, Margaret M; Ludwig, David S

    2007-05-16

    The results of clinical trials involving diet in the treatment of obesity have been inconsistent, possibly due to inherent physiological differences among study participants. To determine whether insulin secretion affects weight loss with 2 popular diets. Randomized trial of obese young adults (aged 18-35 years; n = 73) conducted from September 2004 to December 2006 in Boston, Mass, and consisting of a 6-month intensive intervention period and a 12-month follow-up period. Serum insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a 75-g dose of oral glucose was determined at baseline as a measure of insulin secretion. Outcomes were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Missing data were imputed conservatively. A low-glycemic load (40% carbohydrate and 35% fat) vs low-fat (55% carbohydrate and 20% fat) diet. Body weight, body fat percentage determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Change in body weight and body fat percentage did not differ between the diet groups overall. However, insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was an effect modifier (group x time x insulin concentration at 30 minutes: P = .02 for body weight and P = .01 for body fat percentage). For those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes above the median (57.5 microIU/mL; n = 28), the low-glycemic load diet produced a greater decrease in weight (-5.8 vs -1.2 kg; P = .004) and body fat percentage (-2.6% vs -0.9%; P = .03) than the low-fat diet at 18 months. There were no significant differences in these end points between diet groups for those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes below the median level (n = 28). Insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was not a significant effect modifier for cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the full cohort, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations improved more on the low-glycemic load diet, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  13. High fat diet accelerates pathogenesis of murine Crohn's disease-like ileitis independently of obesity.

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    Lisa Gruber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with a more severe disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and epidemiological data identified dietary fats but not obesity as risk factors for the development of IBD. Crohn's disease is one of the two major IBD phenotypes and mostly affects the terminal ileum. Despite recent observations that high fat diets (HFD impair intestinal barrier functions and drive pathobiont selection relevant for chronic inflammation in the colon, mechanisms of high fat diets in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease are not known. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of HFD on the development of chronic ileal inflammation in a murine model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. METHODS: TNF(ΔARE/WT mice and wildtype C57BL/6 littermates were fed a HFD compared to control diet for different durations. Intestinal pathology and metabolic parameters (glucose tolerance, mesenteric tissue characteristics were assessed. Intestinal barrier integrity was characterized at different levels including polyethylene glycol (PEG translocation, endotoxin in portal vein plasma and cellular markers of barrier function. Inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well as immune cell infiltration into ileal tissue were determined and related to luminal factors. RESULTS: HFD aggravated ileal inflammation but did not induce significant overweight or typical metabolic disorders in TNF(ΔARE/WT. Expression of the tight junction protein Occludin was markedly reduced in the ileal epithelium of HFD mice independently of inflammation, and translocation of endotoxin was increased. Epithelial cells showed enhanced expression of inflammation-related activation markers, along with enhanced luminal factors-driven recruitment of dendritic cells and Th17-biased lymphocyte infiltration into the lamina propria. CONCLUSIONS: HFD feeding, independently of obesity, accelerated disease onset of small intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease

  14. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

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    Heather L. Vellers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels.Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD or high fat/high sugar (HFHS diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males and 17β-estradiol (females to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity.Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀ were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001 and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001. The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28% and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%. In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat.Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones.

  15. Whey Protein Reduces Early Life Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (Pwhey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pwhey group (Pwhey compared to casein (Pwhey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754

  16. Voluntary exercise improves high-fat diet-induced leptin resistance independent of adiposity.

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    Krawczewski Carhuatanta, Kimberly A; Demuro, Giovanna; Tschöp, Matthias H; Pfluger, Paul T; Benoit, Stephen C; Obici, Silvana

    2011-07-01

    The efficacy of exercise as primary prevention of obesity is the subject of intense investigation. Here, we show that voluntary exercise in a mouse strain susceptible to diet-induced obesity (C57B6J) decreases fat mass and increases energy expenditure. In addition, exercise attenuates obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Using FosB immunoreactivity as a marker of chronic neuronal activation, we found that exercise activates leptin receptor-positive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, involved in homeostatic control of energy balance. FosB immunoreactivity in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus is decreased in sedentary mice exposed to HFD but is increased in exercised mice independent of adiposity. To determine whether the antiobesity effects of voluntary exercise improve central nervous system (CNS) leptin action, we measured the anorectic and weight reducing effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin in sedentary and exercised mice exposed to HFD (EH), as well as in sedentary mice that have been calorie restricted (SR) to match the fat mass of EH mice. ICV leptin was ineffective in lowering food intake and body weight (BW) in sedentary mice exposed to HFD mice. The anorectic potency of leptin was partially restored in EH and SR groups. However, ICV leptin significantly lowered BW in EH but not SR mice. Thus, exercise leads to the maintenance of a lower BW and leaner composition, as well as to improved CNS leptin action, independent of fat mass. These results support the notion that physical exercise directly influences the responsiveness of the CNS circuits involved in energy homeostasis by allowing the defense of a lowered BW.

  17. Effects of Diets Differing in Composition of 18-C Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Gene Expression in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets

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    Sunhye Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4.4% kcal fat from soybean oil (CON or high-fat diets (HFD containing 25% kcal from lard and 20% kcal fat from shea butter (stearic acid-rich fat; SHB, olive oil (oleic acid-rich oil; OO, safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich oil; SFO, or soybean oil (mixed oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids; SBO ad libitum for 12 weeks, with or without a terminal 4-h norepinephrine (NE treatment. When compared to SHB, feeding OO, SFO, and SBO resulted in lower body weight gain. The OO fed group had the highest thermogenesis level, which resulted in lower body fat accumulation and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. Feeding SFO downregulated expression of lipid oxidation-related genes and upregulated expression of lipogenic genes, perhaps due to its high n-6:n-3 ratio. In general, HFD-feeding downregulated Ucp1 expression in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue, and suppressed NE-induced Pgc1a expression in brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the position of double bonds in dietary fatty acids, as well as the quantity of dietary fat, may have a significant effect on the regulation of oxidative and thermogenic conditions in vivo.

  18. Compensatory hyperinsulinemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice is associated with enhanced insulin translation in islets

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    Kanno, Ayumi, E-mail: akanno@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Asahara, Shun-ichiro, E-mail: asahara@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Masuda, Katsuhisa, E-mail: katsuhisa.m.0707@gmail.com [Division of Medical Chemistry, Department of Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Matsuda, Tomokazu, E-mail: tomokazu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kimura-Koyanagi, Maki, E-mail: koyanagi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Seino, Susumu, E-mail: seino@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular and Metabolic Medicine, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Ogawa, Wataru, E-mail: ogawa@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kido, Yoshiaki, E-mail: kido@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Medical Chemistry, Department of Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan)

    2015-03-13

    A high-fat diet (HF) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. Animal studies have shown compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells after high fat load, such as increased pancreatic β-cell mass, enhanced insulin secretion, and exocytosis. However, the effects of high fat intake on insulin synthesis are obscure. Here, we investigated whether insulin synthesis was altered in correlation with an HF diet, for the purpose of obtaining further understanding of the compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells. Mice fed an HF diet are obese, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic, and glucose intolerant. In islets of mice fed an HF diet, more storage of insulin was identified. We analyzed insulin translation in mouse islets, as well as in INS-1 cells, using non-radioisotope chemicals. We found that insulin translational levels were significantly increased in islets of mice fed an HF diet to meet systemic demand, without altering its transcriptional levels. Our data showed that not only increased pancreatic β-cell mass and insulin secretion but also elevated insulin translation is the major compensatory mechanism of pancreatic β-cells. - Highlights: • More stored insulin was recognized in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was not enhanced by fatty acids, but by insulin demand. • Insulin transcription was not altered in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was markedly enhanced in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Non-radioisotope chemicals were used to measure insulin translation in mouse islets.

  19. Cardiac Hypertrophy and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in an Ovariectomized Rat Model Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Gleisy Kelly; de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique Caldeira; de Oliveira Belo, Najara

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart failure in women increases around the time of menopause when high-fat diets may result in obesity. The heart produces brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide. This aims of this study were to assess cardiac hypertrophy and BNP levels in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet. Material/Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated rats fed a control diet (SC) (n=12); ovariectomized rats fed a control diet (OC) (n=12); sham-operated rats fed a high-fat diet (SF) (n=12); and ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet (OF) (n=12). Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly for 24 weeks. Rats were then euthanized, and plasma samples and heart tissue were studied for gene expression, hydroxyproline levels, and histological examination. Results A high-fat diet and ovariectomy (group OF) increased the weight body and the systolic blood pressure after three months and five months, respectively. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with increased expression of ventricular BNP, decreased natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A and increased levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The plasma levels of BNP and estradiol were inversely correlated; expression of estrogen receptor (ER)β and ERα were reduced. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that, in the ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet, the BNP-NPR-A receptor complex was involved in cardiac remodeling. BNP may be a marker of cardiac hypertrophy in this animal model. PMID:29249795

  20. Compensatory hyperinsulinemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice is associated with enhanced insulin translation in islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ayumi; Asahara, Shun-ichiro; Masuda, Katsuhisa; Matsuda, Tomokazu; Kimura-Koyanagi, Maki; Seino, Susumu; Ogawa, Wataru; Kido, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A high-fat diet (HF) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. Animal studies have shown compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells after high fat load, such as increased pancreatic β-cell mass, enhanced insulin secretion, and exocytosis. However, the effects of high fat intake on insulin synthesis are obscure. Here, we investigated whether insulin synthesis was altered in correlation with an HF diet, for the purpose of obtaining further understanding of the compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells. Mice fed an HF diet are obese, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic, and glucose intolerant. In islets of mice fed an HF diet, more storage of insulin was identified. We analyzed insulin translation in mouse islets, as well as in INS-1 cells, using non-radioisotope chemicals. We found that insulin translational levels were significantly increased in islets of mice fed an HF diet to meet systemic demand, without altering its transcriptional levels. Our data showed that not only increased pancreatic β-cell mass and insulin secretion but also elevated insulin translation is the major compensatory mechanism of pancreatic β-cells. - Highlights: • More stored insulin was recognized in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was not enhanced by fatty acids, but by insulin demand. • Insulin transcription was not altered in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was markedly enhanced in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Non-radioisotope chemicals were used to measure insulin translation in mouse islets

  1. Effect of bacterial or porcine lipase with low- or high-fat diets on nutrient absorption in pancreatic-insufficient dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Mizumoto, A; Rerknimitr, R; Sarr, M G; DiMango, E P

    1999-02-01

    Treatment of human exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is suboptimal. This study assessed the effects of bacterial lipase, porcine lipase, and diets on carbohydrate, fat, and protein absorption in pancreatic-insufficient dogs. Dogs were given bacterial or porcine lipase and 3 diets: a 48% carbohydrate, 27% fat, and 25% protein standard diet; a high-carbohydrate, low-fat, and low-protein diet; or a low-carbohydrate, high-fat, and high-protein diet (66%/18%/16% and 21%/43%/36% calories). With the standard diet, coefficient of fat absorption increased dose-dependently with both lipases (P vs. low-fat and -protein diet). There were no interactions among carbohydrate, fat, and protein absorption. Correcting steatorrhea requires 75 times more porcine than bacterial lipase (18 vs. 240 mg). High-fat and high-protein diets optimize fat absorption with both enzymes. High-fat diets with bacterial or porcine lipase should be evaluated in humans with pancreatic steatorrhea.

  2. A high-fat diet decreases GABA concentration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats

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    Cuauhtemoc Sandoval-Salazar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight by controlling the excitability, plasticity and the synchronization of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex (FC. It has been also proposed that the high-fat diet (HFD could disturb the metabolism of glutamate and consequently the GABA levels, but the mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a HFD on the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rats RESULTS: The HFD significantly increased weight gain and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus compared with standard diet-fed rats CONCLUSIONS: HFD decreases GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rat, which likely disrupts the GABAergic inhibitory processes, underlying feeding behavior.

  3. A high-fat diet decreases GABA concentration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Salazar, Cuauhtemoc; Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel; Trejo-Bahena, Aurora; Oviedo-Solís, Cecilia I; Solís-Ortiz, Martha Silvia

    2016-02-29

    It has been proposed that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight by controlling the excitability, plasticity and the synchronization of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex (FC). It has been also proposed that the high-fat diet (HFD) could disturb the metabolism of glutamate and consequently the GABA levels, but the mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a HFD on the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rats. The HFD significantly increased weight gain and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus compared with standard diet-fed rats. HFD decreases GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rat, which likely disrupts the GABAergic inhibitory processes, underlying feeding behavior.

  4. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2008-10-01

    Although vegan diets improve diabetes management, little is known about the nutrient profiles or diet quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes who adopt a vegan diet. To assess the changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants following a low-fat vegan diet or the 2003 American Diabetes Association dietary recommendations. A 22-week randomized, controlled clinical trial examining changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. Participants with type 2 diabetes (n=99) in a free-living setting. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a 2003 American Diabetes Association recommended diet. Nutrient intake and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores were collected at baseline and 22 weeks. Between-group t tests were calculated for changes between groups and paired comparison t tests were calculated for changes within-group. Pearson's correlation assessed relationship of AHEI score to hemoglobin A1c and body weight changes. Both groups reported significant decreases in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin D, selenium, and sodium intakes. The vegan group also significantly reduced reported intakes of vitamin B-12 and calcium, and significantly increased carbohydrate, fiber, total vitamin A activity, beta carotene, vitamins K and C, folate, magnesium, and potassium. The American Diabetes Association recommended diet group also reported significant decreases in carbohydrate and iron, but reported no significant increases. The vegan group significantly improved its AHEI score (PVegan diets increase intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, and several micronutrients, in contrast with the American Diabetes Association recommended diet. The vegan group improved its AHEI score whereas the American Diabetes Association recommended diet group's AHEI score remained unchanged.

  5. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J; Mendiola, J A; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2012-10-26

    The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(9), E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100 min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154 mg/g fresh weight and 14.4 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1 mg/100 g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diet-induced impulsivity: Effects of a high-fat and a high-sugar diet on impulsive choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catherine C; Pirkle, Jesseca R A; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Impulsive choice is a common charactertistic among individuals with gambling problems, obesity, and substance abuse issues. Impulsive choice has been classified as a trans-disease process, and understanding the etiology of trait impulsivity could help to understand how diseases and disorders related to impulsive choice are manifested. The Western diet is a possible catalyst of impulsive choice as individuals who are obese and who eat diets high in fat and sugar are typically more impulsive. However, such correlational evidence is unable to discern the direction and causal nature of the relationship. The present study sought to determine how diet may directly contribute to impulsive choice. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure (high-fat, high-sugar, chow), the rats were tested on an impulsive choice task, which presented choices between a smaller-sooner reward (SS) and a larger-later reward (LL). Then, the rats were transferred to a chow diet and retested on the impulsive choice task. The high-sugar and high-fat groups made significantly more impulsive choices than the chow group. Both groups became more self-controlled when they were off the diet, but there were some residual effects of the diet on choice behavior. These results suggest that diet, specifically one high in processed fat or sugar, induces impulsive choice. This diet-induced impulsivity could be a precursor to other disorders that are characterized by impulsivity, such as diet-induced obesity, and could offer potential understanding of the trans-disease nature of impulsive choice.

  7. Hydrogenated fat diet intake during pregnancy and lactation modifies the PAI-1 gene expression in white adipose tissue of offspring in adult life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Eliane B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We examine whether feeding pregnant and lactating rats hydrogenated fats rich in trans fatty acids modifies the plasma lipid profiles and the expression of adipokines involved with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in their 90-day-old offspring. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were fed with either a control diet (C group or one enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T group. Upon weaning, the male pups were sorted into four groups: CC, mothers were receiving C and pups were kept on C; CT, mothers were receiving C and pups were fed with T; TT, mothers were receiving T and pups were kept on T; TC, mothers were receiving T and pups were fed with C. Pups' food intake and body weight were quantified weekly and the pups were killed at day 90 of life by decapitation. Blood and carcass as well as retroperitoneal, epididymal, and subcutaneous white adipose tissues were collected. Food intake and body weight were lower in TC and TT, and metabolic efficiency was reduced in TT. Offspring of TT and TC rats had increased white adipose tissue PAI-1 gene expression. Insulin receptor was higher in TT than other groups. Ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat by the mother during gestation and lactation could promote deleterious consequences, even after the withdrawal of the causal factor.

  8. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  9. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  10. Modulation of cAMP levels by high fat diet and curcumin and regulatory effects on CD36/FAT scavenger receptor/fatty acids transporter gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric (Curcuma longa), reduces inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity in several animal studies. In Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), curcumin reduces plasma lipid levels, therefore contributing to a lower accumulation of lipids and to reduced expression of f...

  11. High fat diet and GLP-1 drugs induce pancreatic injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, Rodney, E-mail: rodney.rouse@fda.hhs.gov; Xu, Lin; Stewart, Sharron; Zhang, Jun

    2014-04-15

    Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) drugs are currently used to treat type-2 diabetes. Safety concerns for increased risk of pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal metaplasia have accompanied these drugs. High fat diet (HFD) is a type-2 diabetes risk factor that may affect the response to GLP-1 drug treatment. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diet and GLP-1 based drugs on the exocrine pancreas in mice. Experiments were designed in a mouse model of insulin resistance created by feeding a HFD or standard diet (STD) for 6 weeks. The GLP-1 drugs, sitagliptin (SIT) and exenatide (EXE) were administered once daily for additional 6 weeks in both mice fed HFD or STD. The results showed that body weight, blood glucose levels, and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and KC) were significantly greater in HFD mice than in STD mice regardless of GLP-1 drug treatment. The semi-quantitative grading showed that pancreatic changes were significantly greater in EXE and SIT-treated mice compared to control and that HFD exacerbated spontaneous exocrine pancreatic changes seen in saline-treated mice on a standard diet. Exocrine pancreatic changes identified in this study included acinar cell injury (hypertrophy, autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy), vascular injury, interstitial edema and inflammation, fat necrosis, and duct changes. These findings support HFD as a risk factor to increased susceptibility/severity for acute pancreatitis and indicate that GLP-1 drugs cause pancreatic injury that can be exacerbated in a HFD environment.

  12. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding

  13. High fat diet and GLP-1 drugs induce pancreatic injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, Rodney; Xu, Lin; Stewart, Sharron; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) drugs are currently used to treat type-2 diabetes. Safety concerns for increased risk of pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal metaplasia have accompanied these drugs. High fat diet (HFD) is a type-2 diabetes risk factor that may affect the response to GLP-1 drug treatment. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diet and GLP-1 based drugs on the exocrine pancreas in mice. Experiments were designed in a mouse model of insulin resistance created by feeding a HFD or standard diet (STD) for 6 weeks. The GLP-1 drugs, sitagliptin (SIT) and exenatide (EXE) were administered once daily for additional 6 weeks in both mice fed HFD or STD. The results showed that body weight, blood glucose levels, and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and KC) were significantly greater in HFD mice than in STD mice regardless of GLP-1 drug treatment. The semi-quantitative grading showed that pancreatic changes were significantly greater in EXE and SIT-treated mice compared to control and that HFD exacerbated spontaneous exocrine pancreatic changes seen in saline-treated mice on a standard diet. Exocrine pancreatic changes identified in this study included acinar cell injury (hypertrophy, autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy), vascular injury, interstitial edema and inflammation, fat necrosis, and duct changes. These findings support HFD as a risk factor to increased susceptibility/severity for acute pancreatitis and indicate that GLP-1 drugs cause pancreatic injury that can be exacerbated in a HFD environment

  14. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  15. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  16. Swimming training induces liver adaptations to oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in rats submitted to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Aline Cruz; Barbosa, Maria Andrea; Guerra-Sá, Renata; De Castro, Uberdan Guilherme Mendes; Bezerra, Frank Silva; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Cardoso, Leonardo M; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José; Alzamora, Andréia Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress, physical inactivity and high-fat (FAT) diets are associated with hepatic disorders such as metabolic syndrome (MS). The therapeutic effects of physical training (PT) were evaluated in rats with MS induced by FAT diet for 13 weeks, on oxidative stress and insulin signaling in the liver, during the last 6 weeks. FAT-sedentary (SED) rats increased body mass, retroperitoneal fat, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), and total cholesterol, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose and insulin. Livers of FAT-SED rats increased superoxide dismutase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl and oxidized glutathione (GSSG); and decreased catalase activity, reduced glutathione/GSSG ratio, and the mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and serine/threonine kinase 2. FAT-PT rats improved in fitness and reduced their body mass, retroperitoneal fat, and glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, MAP and HR; and their livers increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, the reduced glutathione/GSSG ratio and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor compared to FAT-SED rats. These findings indicated adaptive responses to PT by restoring the oxidative balance and insulin signaling in the liver and certain biometric and biochemical parameters as well as MAP in MS rats.

  17. Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway.

  18. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Annemarie; Schwarz, Jessica; Blokker, Britt A; Siebelink, Els; Kok, Frans J; Afman, Lydia A; Tomé, Daniel; Mensink, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a parallel control group was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were assigned to either the control diet [n = 10; 27.8 energy percent (en%) fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates] for 4 wk or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet (n = 17; >2 MJ/d) crossover trial with 2 periods of 2 wk, with either high-protein (HP) (37.7 en% fat, 25.7 en% protein, 36.6 en% carbohydrates) or normal-protein (NP) (39.4 en% fat, 15.4 en% protein, 45.2 en% carbohydrates) content. Measurements were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2). A trend toward lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations during the HP condition compared with the NP condition was observed (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04% vs. 0.51 ± 0.08%, P = 0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.07, for HP and NP, respectively). Fat mass was significantly lower (10.6 ± 1.72 vs. 10.9 ± 1.73 kg; P = 0.02) with the HP diet than with the NP diet, whereas fat-free mass was higher (55.7 ± 2.79 vs. 55.2 ± 2.80 kg; P = 0.003). This study indicated that an HP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet affects lipid metabolism. It tends to lower the IHL and circulating TG concentrations and significantly lowers fat mass and increases fat-free mass compared with an NP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet. This trail was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01354626. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Development of hepatocellular cancer induced by long term low fat-high carbohydrate diet in a NAFLD/NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Mastroiaco, Valentina; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Pompili, Simona; Cicciarelli, Germana; Barnabei, Remo; Capece, Daria; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Capalbo, Carlo; Alesse, Edoardo

    2017-08-08

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong incidence in western countries of obesity and metabolic syndrome, whose NAFLD is the hepatic expression, is thought to be correlated to consumption of diets characterized by processed food and sweet beverages. Previous studies described high-fat diet-induced liver tumors. Conversely, the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in the progression of liver disease or cancer initiation has not been described yet. Here we show for the first time hepatic cancer formation in low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet fed NAFLD/NASH mouse model. Animals were long term high-fat, low-fat/high-carbohydrate or standard diet fed. We observed progressive liver damage in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat animals after 12 and, more, 18 months. Tumors were detected in 20% and 50% of high-fat diet fed mice after 12 and 18 months and, interestingly, in 30% of low-fat/high-carbohydrate fed animals after 18 months. No tumors were detected in standard diet fed mice. Global increase of hepatic interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and hepatocyte growth factor was detected in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat with respect to standard diet fed mice as well as in tumor with respect to non-tumor bearing mice. A panel of 15 microRNAs was analyzed: some of them revealed differential expression in low-fat/high-carbohydrate with respect to high-fat diet fed groups and in tumors. Data here shown provide the first evidence of the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in hepatic damage leading to tumorigenesis.

  20. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Doubling diet fat on sugar ratio in children with mitochondrial OXPHOS disorders: Effects of a randomized trial on resting energy expenditure, diet induced thermogenesis and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béghin, Laurent; Coopman, Stéphanie; Schiff, Manuel; Vamecq, Joseph; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Hankard, Régis; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Ogier, Hélène; Gottrand, Frédéric; Dobbelaere, Dries

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial OXPHOS disorders (MODs) affect one or several complexes of respiratory chain oxidative phosphorylation. An increased fat/low-carbohydrate ratio of the diet was recommended for treating MODs without, however, evaluating its potential benefits through changes in the respective contributions of cell pathways (glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation) initiating energy production. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to compare Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) under basal diet (BD) and challenging diet (CD) in which fat on sugar content ratio was doubled. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and body compositions were also compared. Energetic vs regulatory aspects of increasing fat contribution to total nutritional energy input were essentially addressed through measures primarily aiming at modifying total fat amounts and not the types of fats in designed diets. In this randomized cross-over study, BD contained 10% proteins/30% lipids/60% carbohydrates (fat on sugar ratio = 0.5) and was the imposed diet at baseline. CD contained 10% proteins/45% lipids/45% carbohydrates (fat on sugar ratio = 1). Main and second evaluation criteria measured by indirect calorimetry (QUARK RMR ® , Cosmed, Pavona; Italy) were REE and DIT, respectively. Thirty four MOD patients were included; 22 (mean age 13.2 ± 4.7 years, 50% female; BMI 16.9 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated for REE, and 12 (mean age 13.8 ± 4.8 years, 60% female; BMI 17.4 ± 4.6 kg/m 2 ) also for DIT. OXPHOS complex deficiency repartition in 22 analysed patients was 55% for complex I, 9% for complex III, 27% for complex IV and 9% for other proteins. Neither carry-over nor period effects were detected (p = 0.878; ANOVA for repeated measures). REE was similar between BD vs CD (1148.8 ± 301.7 vs 1156.1 ± 278.8 kcal/day; p = 0.942) as well as DIT (peak DIT 260 vs 265 kcal/day; p = 0.842) and body composition (21.9 ± 13.0 vs 21.6 ± 13.3% of fat mass; p = 0.810). Doubling diet

  2. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allick, Gideon; Bisschop, Peter H; Ackermans, Mariette T; Endert, Erik; Meijer, Alfred J; Kuipers, Folkert; Sauerwein, Hans P; Romijn, Johannes A

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients with type 2 diabetes using stable isotopes and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps. At basal insulin levels glucose concentrations were 148 +/- 11 and 123 +/- 11 mg/dl (8.2 +/- 0.6 and 6.8 +/- 0.6 mmol/liter) on the high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet, respectively (P carbohydrate diet (1.88 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.55 +/- 0.05 mg/kg.min (10.44 +/- 0.33 vs. 8.61 +/- 0.28 micromol/kg.min) (P carbohydrate and high-fat diet, respectively. We conclude that short-term variations in dietary carbohydrate to fat ratios affect basal glucose metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes merely through modulation of the rate of glycogenolysis, without affecting insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  3. Imidacloprid Promotes High Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity and Insulin Resistance in Male C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Quancai; Xiao, Xiao; Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Yoon, Kyoon Sup; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-12-14

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide widely used in agriculture worldwide, has been reported to promote adipogenesis and cause insulin resistance in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of imidacloprid and its interaction with dietary fat in the development of adiposity and insulin resistance using male C57BL/6J mice. Imidacloprid (0.06, 0.6, or 6 mg/kg bw/day) was mixed in a low-fat (4% w/w) or high-fat (20% w/w) diet and given to mice ad libitum for 12 weeks. Imidacloprid significantly promoted high fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. In addition, imidacloprid treatment with the high fat diet resulted in impaired glucose metabolism. Consistently, there were significant effects of imidacloprid on genes regulating lipid and glucose metabolisms, including the AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα) pathway in white adipose tissue and liver. These results suggest that imidacloprid may potentiate high fat diet-induced adiposity and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice.

  4. Cafeteria diet is a robust model of human metabolic syndrome with liver and adipose inflammation: comparison to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampey, Brante P; Vanhoose, Amanda M; Winfield, Helena M; Freemerman, Alex J; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Fueger, Patrick T; Newgard, Christopher B; Makowski, Liza

    2011-06-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and reports estimate that American children consume up to 25% of calories from snacks. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare high-fat diets (HFD) traditionally used in rodent models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) to diets consisting of food regularly consumed by humans, including high-salt, high-fat, low-fiber, energy dense foods such as cookies, chips, and processed meats. To investigate the obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of a cafeteria diet (CAF) compared to a lard-based 45% HFD in rodent models, male Wistar rats were fed HFD, CAF or chow control diets for 15 weeks. Body weight increased dramatically and remained significantly elevated in CAF-fed rats compared to all other diets. Glucose- and insulin-tolerance tests revealed that hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance were exaggerated in the CAF-fed rats compared to controls and HFD-fed rats. It is well-established that macrophages infiltrate metabolic tissues at the onset of weight gain and directly contribute to inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity. Although both high fat diets resulted in increased adiposity and hepatosteatosis, CAF-fed rats displayed remarkable inflammation in white fat, brown fat and liver compared to HFD and controls. In sum, the CAF provided a robust model of human metabolic syndrome compared to traditional lard-based HFD, creating a phenotype of exaggerated obesity with glucose intolerance and inflammation. This model provides a unique platform to study the biochemical, genomic and physiological mechanisms of obesity and obesity-related disease states that are pandemic in western civilization today.

  5. Late gestation undernutrition can predispose for visceral adiposity by altering fat distribution patterns and increasing the preference for a high-fat diet in early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Thygesen, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a sheep model to facilitate studies of the fetal programming effects of mismatched perinatal and postnatal nutrition. During the last trimester of gestation, twenty-one twin-bearing ewes were fed a normal diet fulfilling norms for energy and protein (NORM) or 50% of a normal diet...... (LOW). From day 3 postpartum to 6 months (around puberty) of age, one twin lamb was fed a conventional (CONV) diet and the other a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) diet, resulting in four groups of offspring: NORM-CONV; NORMHCHF; LOW-CONV; LOW-HCHF. At 6 months of age, half of the lambs (all males...... and three females) were slaughtered for further examination and the other half (females only) were transferred to a moderate sheep diet until slaughtered at 24 months of age (adulthood). Maternal undernutrition during late gestation reduced the birth weight of LOW offspring (P...

  6. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E Dale; Pereira, Troy J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-HF had lower (P vs. 159 ± 3 mmHg) but a similar degree of cardiac hypertrophy (33.4 ± 0.4 vs. 33.1 ± 0.4 heart weight/tibia length, mg/mm). Mesenteric arteries and the entire aorta were used to assess vascular function and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling, respectively. Endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) relaxation of mesenteric arteries was improved (P vs. SHR-C, whereas contraction (potassium chloride, phenylephrine) was reduced (P vs. SHR-C. Plasma glucose, insulin, and homoeostatic model of insulin assessment were lower (P vs. SHR-C, whereas peripheral insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test) was similar. After a 10-h fast, insulin stimulation (2 U/kg ip) increased (P vs. SHR-HF. In conclusion, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduced blood pressure and improved arterial function in SHR without producing signs of insulin resistance or altering insulin-mediated signaling in the heart, skeletal muscle, or vasculature.

  7. Myristoylation of Src kinase mediates Src-induced and high-fat diet-accelerated prostate tumor progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjin; Yang, Xiangkun; Li, Qianjin; Wu, Meng; Costyn, Leah; Beharry, Zanna; Bartlett, Michael G; Cai, Houjian

    2017-11-10

    Exogenous fatty acids provide substrates for energy production and biogenesis of the cytoplasmic membrane, but they also enhance cellular signaling during cancer cell proliferation. However, it remains controversial whether dietary fatty acids are correlated with tumor progression. In this study, we demonstrate that increased Src kinase activity is associated with high-fat diet-accelerated progression of prostate tumors and that Src kinases mediate this pathological process. Moreover, in the in vivo prostate regeneration assay, host SCID mice carrying Src(Y529F)-transduced regeneration tissues were fed a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet and treated with vehicle or dasatinib. The high-fat diet not only accelerated Src-induced prostate tumorigenesis in mice but also compromised the inhibitory effect of the anticancer drug dasatinib on Src kinase oncogenic potential in vivo We further show that myristoylation of Src kinase is essential to facilitate Src-induced and high-fat diet-accelerated tumor progression. Mechanistically, metabolism of exogenous myristic acid increased the biosynthesis of myristoyl CoA and myristoylated Src and promoted Src kinase-mediated oncogenic signaling in human cells. Of the fatty acids tested, only exogenous myristic acid contributed to increased intracellular myristoyl CoA levels. Our results suggest that targeting Src kinase myristoylation, which is required for Src kinase association at the cellular membrane, blocks dietary fat-accelerated tumorigenesis in vivo Our findings uncover the molecular basis of how the metabolism of myristic acid stimulates high-fat diet-mediated prostate tumor progression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  9. Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Chiu

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that increases in LDL-cholesterol resulting from substitution of dietary saturated fat for carbohydrate or unsaturated fat are due primarily to increases in large cholesterol-enriched LDL, with minimal changes in small, dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B. However, individuals can differ by their LDL particle distribution, and it is possible that this may influence LDL subclass response.The objective of this study was to test whether the reported effects of saturated fat apply to individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia as characterized by a preponderance of small LDL particles (LDL phenotype B.Fifty-three phenotype B men and postmenopausal women consumed a baseline diet (55%E carbohydrate, 15%E protein, 30%E fat, 8%E saturated fat for 3 weeks, after which they were randomized to either a moderate carbohydrate, very high saturated fat diet (HSF; 39%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 36%E fat, 18%E saturated fat or low saturated fat diet (LSF; 37%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 37%E fat, 9%E saturated fat for 3 weeks.Compared to the LSF diet, consumption of the HSF diet resulted in significantly greater increases from baseline (% change; 95% CI in plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B (HSF vs. LSF: 9.5; 3.6 to 15.7 vs. -6.8; -11.7 to -1.76; p = 0.0003 and medium (8.8; -1.3 to 20.0 vs. -7.3; -15.7 to 2.0; p = 0.03, small (6.1; -10.3 to 25.6 vs. -20.8; -32.8 to -6.7; p = 0.02, and total LDL (3.6; -3.2 to 11.0 vs. -7.9; -13.9 to -1.5; p = 0.03 particles, with no differences in change of large and very small LDL concentrations. As expected, total-cholesterol (11.0; 6.5 to 15.7 vs. -5.7; -9.4 to -1.8; p<0.0001 and LDL-cholesterol (16.7; 7.9 to 26.2 vs. -8.7; -15.4 to -1.4; p = 0.0001 also increased with increased saturated fat intake.Because medium and small LDL particles are more highly associated with cardiovascular disease than are larger LDL, the present results suggest that very high saturated fat intake may

  10. Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sally; Williams, Paul T; Krauss, Ronald M

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that increases in LDL-cholesterol resulting from substitution of dietary saturated fat for carbohydrate or unsaturated fat are due primarily to increases in large cholesterol-enriched LDL, with minimal changes in small, dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B. However, individuals can differ by their LDL particle distribution, and it is possible that this may influence LDL subclass response. The objective of this study was to test whether the reported effects of saturated fat apply to individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia as characterized by a preponderance of small LDL particles (LDL phenotype B). Fifty-three phenotype B men and postmenopausal women consumed a baseline diet (55%E carbohydrate, 15%E protein, 30%E fat, 8%E saturated fat) for 3 weeks, after which they were randomized to either a moderate carbohydrate, very high saturated fat diet (HSF; 39%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 36%E fat, 18%E saturated fat) or low saturated fat diet (LSF; 37%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 37%E fat, 9%E saturated fat) for 3 weeks. Compared to the LSF diet, consumption of the HSF diet resulted in significantly greater increases from baseline (% change; 95% CI) in plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B (HSF vs. LSF: 9.5; 3.6 to 15.7 vs. -6.8; -11.7 to -1.76; p = 0.0003) and medium (8.8; -1.3 to 20.0 vs. -7.3; -15.7 to 2.0; p = 0.03), small (6.1; -10.3 to 25.6 vs. -20.8; -32.8 to -6.7; p = 0.02), and total LDL (3.6; -3.2 to 11.0 vs. -7.9; -13.9 to -1.5; p = 0.03) particles, with no differences in change of large and very small LDL concentrations. As expected, total-cholesterol (11.0; 6.5 to 15.7 vs. -5.7; -9.4 to -1.8; pvs. -8.7; -15.4 to -1.4; p = 0.0001) also increased with increased saturated fat intake. Because medium and small LDL particles are more highly associated with cardiovascular disease than are larger LDL, the present results suggest that very high saturated fat intake may increase cardiovascular disease risk in phenotype B

  11. Activation of hindbrain neurons in response to gastrointestinal lipid is attenuated by high fat, high energy diets in mice prone to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2009-01-12

    Food intake is controlled by peripheral signals from the gastrointestinal tract and adipocytes, which are integrated within the central nervous system. There is evidence that signals from the GI tract are modulated by long term changes in diet, possibly leading to hyperphagia and increased body weight. We tested the hypothesis that diet-induced obese-prone (DIO-P) and obese-resistant (DIO-R) mice strains differ in the long term adaptive response of the gut-brain pathway to a high fat diet. Immunochemical detection of Fos protein was used as a measure of neuronal activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in response to intragastric administration of lipid in DIO-P (C57Bl6) and DIO-R (129sv) mouse strains maintained on chow or high fat, high energy diets (45% or 60% kcal from fat). Intragastric lipid administration activated neurons in the NTS in both DIO-P and DIO-R mice; the number of activated neurons was significantly greater in DIO-P than in DIO-R mice (Pdiet, for 4 or 8 weeks, compared to chow fed controls (Pdiet (45% or 60%) had no effect on lipid-induced activation of NTS neurons. These results demonstrate that DIO-P and DIO-R mice strains differ in the adaptation of the pathway to long term ingestion of high fat diets, which may contribute to decrease satiation and increased food intake.

  12. Effect of high fat diets on the NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase activities in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizer, Rosilene Rodrigues; Spanevello, Rosélia Maria; Costa, Eduarda; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2018-02-01

    High fat diets are associated with the promotion of neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). This study aim investigate the high fat diets role to promotion of AD using as biochemistry parameter of status of central nervous system through the NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in brain of young rats. The intake of high fat diets promotes an inhibition of purinergic and cholinergic functions, mainly in the long-term exposure to saturated and saturated/unsaturated diets. The AChE activity was decreased to supernatant and synaptosomes tissues preparations obtained from cerebral cortex in average of 20%, to both groups exposed to saturated and saturated/unsaturated diets, when compared to the control group. Very similar results were found in hippocampus and cerebellum brain areas. At same time, the adenine nucleotides hydrolysis in synaptosomes of cerebral cortex were decreased to ATP, ADP and AMP after the long-term exposure to high fat diets, as saturated and saturated/unsaturated. The inhibition of ATP hydrolysis was of 26% and 39% to saturated and saturated/unsaturated diets, respectively. ADP hydrolysis was decreased in 20% to saturated diet, and AMP hydrolysis was decreased in 25% and 33% to saturated and saturated/unsaturated diets, respectively, all in comparison to the control. Thus, we can suggest that the effects of high diets on the purinergic and cholinergic nervous system may contribute to accelerate the progressive memory loss, to decline in language and other cognitive disruptions, such as AD patients presents. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  14. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  15. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  16. Modulatory effects of dietary supplementation by Vernonia amygdalina on high-fat-diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Ijeh, Ifeoma I; Okafor, Polycarp N

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a growing public health problem arising from energy imbalance. The effect of 10% dietary incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves into high-fat diets on some biological markers of adiposity and dyslipidaemia was investigated. Experimental diets consisted of the following – CD (control diet); HFD (high-fat diet); and HFD- VA (HFD containing 10% Vernonia amygdalina leaves) supplementation. Fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of five animals each. After twelve weeks of feeding, serum lipid profile, blood glucose concentrations, body weight, adiposity index, feed intake, fecal loss and relative organ weight were investigated. Vernonia amygdalina (VA) inhibited HFD-induced weight gain and adiposity in rats. HFD-induced obese rats showed a significant increase in the levels of serum TG and TC compared to rats on a normal diet. However, the levels of serum TG, TC, LDL-C in HFDVA rats reduced significantly relative to the levels in HFD rats. Our results indicate that HFDVA reversed fatty infiltration leading to decreased body weight and fat tissue mass in the rats. These results suggested that incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina into high-fat diets may have therapeutic potentials for obesity and related metabolic disorders. Further studies to explore its possibility as an alternative pharmacologic agent to treat obesity are warranted.

  17. Biliary motor function evaluated with MRI after administration of a fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Ryuji; Abe, Kimihiko; Saito, Kazuhiro; Kotake, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Subjects were given a fat diet and dynamic magnetic resonance cholangiography (dynamic MRC) studies were performed. Gallbladder contractile ratio and bile excretion capacity were evaluated as indices of bile stasis, by correlation with the biochemical examination data. The effectiveness of dynamic MRC examination was discussed. The subjects included 10 healthy volunteers and 40 gallstone patients. Before and after loading with the fat diet, gallbladder volume was measured by US and MRI. Further, the number of bile excretion episodes was measured by dynamic MRC. We evaluated whether a significant difference was seen in gallbladder contraction ratios and change in number of bile excretion episodes between examinations in the presence or absence of gallstones. We also investigated whether there was a correlation among the gallbladder contraction ratios and change in number of bile excretion episodes between examination vs. T-Bil value, γ-GTP value and ALP value respectively. The gallbladder contraction ratios and change in number of bile excretion episodes between examinations were significantly reduced in gallstone patients in comparison to healthy subjects. There was no correlation among the gallbladder contraction ratios and change in number of bile excretion episodes between examinations vs. T-Bil, γ-GTP and ALP. Dynamic MRC enabled noninvasive calculation of the gallbladder contraction ratios under conditions similar to physiological conditions and also evaluation of the bile flow in a dynamic manner. The gallbladder contraction ratios and bile excretion capacity measured by MRI can evaluate biliary motor function which indicated another aspect of the biochemical examination. (author)

  18. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  19. Heterozygous deficiency of endoglin decreases insulin and hepatic triglyceride levels during high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Beiroa

    Full Text Available Endoglin is a transmembrane auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta that is predominantly expressed on proliferating endothelial cells. It plays a wide range of physiological roles but its importance on energy balance or insulin sensitivity has been unexplored. Endoglin deficient mice die during midgestation due to cardiovascular defects. Here we report for first time that heterozygous endoglin deficiency in mice decreases high fat diet-induced hepatic triglyceride content and insulin levels. Importantly, these effects are independent of changes in body weight or adiposity. At molecular level, we failed to detect relevant changes in the insulin signalling pathway at basal levels in liver, muscle or adipose tissues that could explain the insulin-dependent effect. However, we found decreased triglyceride content in the liver of endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet in comparison to their wild type littermates. Overall, our findings indicate that endoglin is a potentially important physiological mediator of insulin levels and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  20. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13 C-lactate/ 13 C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. High-fat diet feeding causes rapid, non-apoptotic cleavage of caspase-3 in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Nguyen, Hong T; Hwang, Bang H; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G; Thaler, Joshua P

    2013-05-28

    Astrocytes respond to multiple forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury by entering a reactive state characterized by morphological changes and a specific pattern of altered protein expression. Termed astrogliosis, this response has been shown to strongly influence the injury response and functional recovery of CNS tissues. This pattern of CNS inflammation and injury associated with astrogliosis has recently been found to occur in the energy homeostasis centers of the hypothalamus during diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodent models, but the characterization of the astrocyte response remains incomplete. Here, we report that astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus respond robustly and rapidly to purified high-fat diet (HFD) feeding by cleaving caspase-3, a protease whose cleavage is often associated with apoptosis. Although obesity develops in HFD-fed rats by day 14, caspase-3 cleavage occurs by day 3, prior to the development of obesity, suggesting the possibility that it could play a causal role in the hypothalamic neuropathology and fat gain observed in DIO. Caspase-3 cleavage is not associated with an increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL staining, suggesting it plays a non-apoptotic role analogous to the response to excitotoxic neuron injury. Our results indicate that astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus respond rapidly and robustly to HFD feeding, activating caspase-3 in the absence of apoptosis, a process that has the potential to influence the course of DIO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone-4) supplementation improves bone formation in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misung; Na, Woori; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2013-09-01

    Several reports suggest that obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin K plays an important role in improving bone metabolism. This study examined the effects of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 supplementation on the biochemical markers of bone turnover and morphological microstructure of the bones by using an obese mouse model. Four-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were fed a 10% fat normal diet group or a 45% kcal high-fat diet group, with or without 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K1 (Normal diet + K1, high-fat diet + K1) and 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K2 (Normal diet + K2, high-fat diet + K2) for 12 weeks. Serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in the high-fat diet + K2 group than in the high-fat diet group. Serum OPG level of the high-fat diet group, high-fat diet + K1 group, and high-fat diet + K2 group was 2.31 ± 0.31 ng/ml, 2.35 ± 0.12 ng/ml, and 2.90 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively. Serum level of RANKL in the high-fat diet group was significantly higher than that in the high-fat diet + K1 group and high-fat diet + K2 group (p<0.05). Vitamin K supplementation seems to tend to prevent bone loss in high-fat diet induced obese state. These findings suggest that vitamin K supplementation reversed the high fat diet induced bone deterioration by modulating osteoblast and osteoclast activities and prevent bone loss in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

  3. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  4. Effects of Kudingcha Nanoparticles in Hyperlipidaemic Rats Induced by a High Fat Diet

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    Hongliang Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The herbal medicine Kudingcha has a bitter taste and low bioavailability for lipid reduction. To improve the bioavailability and ameliorate the compliance, we prepared Kudingcha nanoparticles and investigated their effect in hyperlipidaemic rats. In addition, the safety and lipid-lowering mechanism of the Kudingcha nanoparticles were examined. Methods: Kudingcha nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation and spray-drying. Seventy rats were randomly assigned into eight groups: a normal fat diet group (NF, a high-fat group (HF, a spontaneous recovery group (SR, a Kudingcha group (KDC, a blank nanoparticle group (B-N, and a Kudingcha nanoparticle groups (low, medium and high doses. All groups (except for the normal fat diet group were fed a high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidaemia. Different interventions were administered to the treatment groups for four weeks. Serum lipids were measured using commercially available kits according to the recommended protocols. Liver morphology and histopathology were examined by a light microscope. The mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 and NF-κB were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, acute toxicity was evaluated by the LD50 test. Results: The Kudingcha nanoparticles were spherical and had a smooth surface. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was 100-600 nm. Acute toxicity results revealed that the Kudingcha nanoparticles were a non-toxic substance. Compared with regular Kudingcha, TG and TC decreased distinctly in the Kudingcha nanoparticles, especially for the moderate and high dose groups (p<0.05. Moreover, the Kudingcha nanoparticles were superior in lowering body, liver and adipose tissue weights compared to Kudingcha (p<0.05. With respect to antioxidant properties, the nanoparticles also revealed an outstanding impact on serum SOD and MDA. In addition, liver morphology and histology in the moderate and high dose nanoparticle groups were

  5. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum) on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet.

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    Fatoorechi, Vahideh; Rismanchi, Marjan; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet), high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet), Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek) for 14 weeks. High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG), plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets.

  6. Enriched dairy fat matrix diet prevents early life lipopolysaccharide-induced spatial memory impairment at adulthood.

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    Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Baudry, C; Fressange-Mazda, C; Le Ruyet, P; Nadjar, A; Pallet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S

    2016-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events. In this work, we evaluated the protective effect of partial replacement of VL by DL, supplemented or not with DHA and ARA, on post-natal inflammation and its consequence on memory. Mice were fed with diets poor in vegetal n-3 PUFA (Def VL), balanced in vegetal n-3/n-6 PUFA (Bal VL), balanced in dairy lipids (Bal DL) or enriched in DHA and ARA (Supp VL; Supp DL) from the first day of gestation until adulthood. At post-natal day 14 (PND14), pups received a single administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and brain cytokine expression, microglia phenotype and neurogenesis were measured. In a second set of experiments, memory and neurogenesis were measured at adulthood. Overall, our data showed that lipid quality of the diet modulates early life LPS effect on microglia phenotype, brain cytokine expression and neurogenesis at PND14 and memory at adulthood. In particular, Bal DL diet protects from the adverse effect of early life LPS exposure on PND14 neurogenesis and adult spatial memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

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    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  8. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

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    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  9. Variety of fruit and vegetables is related to preschoolers' overall diet quality

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    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Shriver, Lenka H.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children (n = 2595) in 2005–2010 NHANES were examined. ...

  10. The effect of using vegetable fat blend on some attributes of kashar cheese

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    Gönç, Siddik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Kashar cheese was produced from whole milk (MF or skim milk homogenized with a commercial vegetable fat blend (VF by the traditional procedure. The resulting cheese was stored for 3 months at 5°C, and analyzed initially for its gross composition and cholesterol content. In addition, the proteolysis and lipolysis, organic acid content and fatty acid composition were studied during the ripening of the cheese.The replacement of milk fat with a vegetable fat blend mainly affected pH, total solids and cholesterol content in the initial composition of the cheese (P El queso kashar fue producido con leche entera (MF o con leche desnatada homogenizada con una mezcla de grasas vegetales comercial (VF por el método tradicional. Los quesos resultantes fueron almacenados durante 3 meses a 5°C, y analizados para determinar su composición y su contenido en colesterol. Se estudió, además de la proteólisis y la lipolisis, el contenido de ácidos orgánicos y la composición en ácidos grasos durante la maduración de los quesos. La sustitución de la grasa de la leche por mezclas de grasas vegetales afectó principalmente al pH, sólidos totales y contenido de colesterol en la composición inicial de los quesos (p < 0.05. El grado de acidez y el contenido de tirosina en ambos quesos creció durante el proceso de maduración y diferencias significativas fueron encontradas entre ambos queso solo después de 30 días de maduración (p < 0.05. Las concentraciones de ácidos orgánicos de ambos quesos cambiaron durante la maduración (p < 0.05 excepto para los ácidos cítrico y oxálico. Los quesos MF mostraron un mayor contenido de ácidos cítrico, succínico y oxálico especialmente al final del proceso de maduración. El ácido palmítico fue el ácido graso mayoritario en quesos MF, mientras que los ácidos grasos predominantes en los quesos VF fueron el ácido palmítico y el ácido oleico. Además, el mayor contenido en ácidos grasos

  11. High fat diet and inflammation - modulation of Haptoglobin level in rat brain

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    Maria Stefania eSpagnuolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dietary fats are well known risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of specific markers, whose brain level can be affected by diet, might contribute to unveil the intersection between inflammation/obesity and neurodegeneration. Haptoglobin (Hpt is an acute phase protein, which acts as antioxidant by binding free Haemoglobin (Hb, thus neutralizing its pro-oxidative action. We previously demonstrated that Hpt plays critical functions in brain, modulating cholesterol trafficking in neuroblastoma cell lines, beta-amyloid (Aβ uptake by astrocyte, and limiting Aβ toxicity on these cells. A major aim of this study was to evaluate whether a long term (12 or 24 weeks high-fat diet (HFD influences Hpt and Hb expression in rat hippocampus. We also assessed the development of obesity-induced inflammation by measuring hippocampal level of TNF-alpha, and the extent of protein oxidation by titrating nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr. Hpt concentration was lower (p<0.001 in hippocampus of HFD rats than in control animals, both in the 12 and in the 24 weeks fed groups. HFD was also associated in hippocampus with the increase of Hb level (p<0.01, inflammation and protein oxidative modification, as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of TNF-alpha and nitro-tyrosine. In fact, TNF-alpha concentration was higher in rats receiving HFD for 12 (p<0.01 or 24 weeks (p<0.001 compared to those receiving the control diet. N-Tyr concentration was more elevated in hippocampus of HFD than in control rats in both 12 weeks (p=0.04 and 24 weeks groups (p=0.01, and a positive correlation between Hb and N-Tyr concentration was found in each group. Finally, we found that the treatment of the human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line U-87 MG with cholesterol and fatty acids, such as palmitic and linoleic acid, significantly impairs (p<0.001 Hpt secretion in the extracellular compartment.We hypothesize that the HFD-dependent decrease of

  12. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

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    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  13. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  14. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial1234

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    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David JA; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health. Objective: We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids. Design: Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74. Results: Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (−4.4 kg in the vegan group and −3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A1c changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A1c changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were −0.34 and −0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A1c changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were −0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  15. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.

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    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-05-01

    Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, in