WorldWideScience

Sample records for vegetable production system

  1. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  2. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable...... samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg(-1), respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had...

  3. Technology versus Agro-Ecology in Designing Vegetable Production Systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Stilma, E.S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Current open field vegetable production systems in the Netherlands do not meet market and societal demands. These demands could not be fulfilled by adapting current production systems. Other kinds of production systems are needed and therefore two types of systems are designed by 1) a technological

  4. PermVeg: A model to design crop sequences for permanent vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Thu Huong, Huong; Everaarts, A.P.; Berg, van den W.; Neeteson, J.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The constraints in current vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, in which vegetables are rotated with flooded rice, called for the design of alternative systems of permanent vegetable production. The practical model, PermVeg, was developed to generate vegetable crop sequences

  5. Profitability and sustainability of peri-urban vegetable productions systems in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.G.P.; Midmore, D.J.; Binh, P.T.; Valasayya, S.; Tru, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Results are reported of a study of the income and cropping systems of peri-urban vegetable farmers around Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, as well as the constraints and opportunities for vegetable production and marketing. Urban population growth is fuelling the demand for timely supplies of fresh

  6. Development of JPSS VIIRS Global Gridded Vegetation Index products for NOAA NCEP Environmental Modeling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Marco; Miura, Tomoaki; Csiszar, Ivan; Zheng, Weizhong; Wu, Yihua; Ek, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) mission, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, was successfully launched in October, 2011, and it will be followed by JPSS-1, slated for launch in 2017. JPSS provides operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). Vegetation products derived from satellite measurements are used for weather forecasting, land modeling, climate research, and monitoring the environment including drought, the health of ecosystems, crop monitoring and forest fires. The operationally produced S-NPP VIIRS Vegetation Index (VI) Environmental Data Record (EDR) includes two vegetation indices: the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the Top of the Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). For JPSS-1, the S-NPP Vegetation Index EDR algorithm has been updated to include the TOC NDV. The current JPSS operational VI products are generated in granule style at 375 meter resolution at nadir, but these products in granule format cannot be ingested into NOAA operational monitoring and decision making systems. For that reason, the NOAA JPSS Land Team is developing a new global gridded Vegetation Index (VI) product suite for operational use by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The new global gridded VIs will be used in the Multi-Physics (MP) version of the Noah land surface model (Noah-MP) in NCEP NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) for plant growth and data assimilation and to describe vegetation coverage and density in order to model the correct surface energy partition. The new VI 4km resolution global gridded products (TOA NDVI, TOC NDVI and TOC EVI) are being designed to meet the needs of directly ingesting vegetation index variables without the need to develop local gridding and compositing procedures. These VI products will be consistent with the already

  7. A novel sequential vegetable production facility for life support system in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Erokhin, A. N.; Wang, Minjuan

    2012-07-01

    Vegetable cultivation plays a crucial role for dietary supplements and psychosocial benefits of the crew during manned space flight. The idea of onboard vegetables cultivation was generally proposed as the first step of food regeneration in life support system of space. Here a novel sequential vegetable production facility was developed, which was able to simulate microgravity conditions and carry out modularized-cultivation of leaf-vegetables. Its growth chamber (GC) had conic form and volume of 0.12 m ^{3}. Its planting surface of 0.154 m ^{2} was comprised of six ring-shaped root modules with a fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate. Root modules were fastened to a central porous tube supplying water, and moved on along with plant growth. The total illuminated crop area of 0.567 m ^{2} was provided by a combination of both red and white light emitting diodes distributed on the GC cone internal surface. In tests with a 24-hr photoperiod, the productivity of the facility at 0.3 kW for lettuce achieved 254.3 g eatable biomass per week. Compared to lettuce from market, the quality of lettuce of the facility did not change significantly during long-term cultivation. Our results demonstrate that the facility is high efficiency in vegetable production, and basically meets the application requirements of space microgravity environment. Keywords:, vegetable; modularized-cultivation; sequential production; life support system

  8. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  9. Drought Dynamics and Vegetation Productivity in Different Land Management Systems of Eastern Cape, South Africa—A Remote Sensing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Graw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Cape Province in South Africa has experienced extreme drought events during the last decade. In South Africa, different land management systems exist belonging to two different land tenure classes: commercial large scale farming and communal small-scale subsistence farming. Communal lands are often reported to be affected by land degradation and drought events among others considered as trigger for this process. Against this background, we analyzed vegetation response to drought in different land management and land tenure systems through assessing vegetation productivity trends and monitoring the intensity, frequency and distribution of the drought hazard in grasslands and communal and commercial croplands during drought and non-drought conditions. For the observation period 2000–2016, we used time series of 250 m Vegetation Condition Index (VCI based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Climate Hazard Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS precipitation data with 5 km resolution. For the assessment of vegetation dynamics, we: (1 analyzed vegetation productivity in Eastern Cape over the last 16 years with EVI; (2 analyzed the impact of drought events on vegetation productivity in grasslands as well as commercial and communal croplands; and (3 compared precipitation-vegetation dynamics between the drought season 2015/2016 and the non-drought season 2011/2012. Change in total annual vegetation productivity could detect drought years while drought dynamics during the season could be rather monitored by the VCI. Correlation of vegetation condition and precipitation indicated areas experiencing significant vegetation productivity trends showing low and even negative correlation coefficients indicating other drivers for productivity change and drought impact besides rainfall.

  10. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  12. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant Growth Optimization by Vegetable Production System in HI-SEAS Analog Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Gill, Tracy R.; Quincy, Charles D.; Roberson, Luke B.; Binsted, Kim; Morrow, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) is a scientific payload designed to support plant growth for food production under microgravity conditions. The configuration of Veggie consists of an LED lighting system with modular rooting pillows designed to contain substrate media and time-release fertilizer. The pillows were designed to be watered passively using capillary principles but have typically been watered manually by the astronauts in low-Earth orbit (LEO). The design of Veggie allows cabin air to be drawn through the plant enclosure for thermal and humidity control and for supplying CO2 to the plants. Since its delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014, Veggie has undergone several experimental trials by various crews. Ground unit testing of Veggie was conducted during an 8-month Mars analog study in a semi-contained environment of a simulated habitat located at approximately 8,200 feet (2,500 m) elevation on the Mauna Loa volcano on the Island of Hawaii. The Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) offered conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) intended to simulate a planetary exploration mission. This paper provides data and analyses to show the prospect for optimized use of the current Veggie design for human habitats. Lessons learned during the study may provide opportunities for updating the system design and operational parameters for current Veggie experiments being conducted onboard the ISS and for payloads on future deep space missions.

  14. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg-1, respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitrification inhibitors can increase post-harvest nitrous oxide emissions in an intensive vegetable production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; Rowlings, David; Firrell, Mary; Deuter, Peter; Morris, Stephen; Riches, David; Porter, Ian; Grace, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effect of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 3-methylpyrazole 1,2,4-triazole (3MP + TZ), on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable rotation in sub-tropical Australia we monitored soil N2O fluxes continuously over an entire year using an automated greenhouse gas measurement system. The temporal variation of N2O fluxes showed only low emissions over the vegetable cropping phases, but significantly higher emissions were observed post-harvest accounting for 50-70% of the annual emissions. NIs reduced N2O emissions by 20-60% over the vegetable cropping phases; however, this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the NIs treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Annual N2O emissions from the conventional fertiliser, the DMPP treatment, and the 3MP + TZ treatment were 1.3, 1.1 and 1.6 (sem = 0.2) kg-N ha-1 year-1, respectively. This study highlights that the use of NIs in vegetable systems can lead to elevated N2O emissions by storing N in the soil profile that is available to soil microbes during the decomposition of the vegetable residues. Hence the use of NIs in vegetable systems has to be treated carefully and fertiliser rates need to be adjusted to avoid an oversupply of N during the post-harvest phase.

  16. Nitrification inhibitors can increase post-harvest nitrous oxide emissions in an intensive vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; Rowlings, David; Firrell, Mary; Deuter, Peter; Morris, Stephen; Riches, David; Porter, Ian; Grace, Peter

    2017-03-07

    To investigate the effect of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 3-methylpyrazole 1,2,4-triazole (3MP + TZ), on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable rotation in sub-tropical Australia we monitored soil N2O fluxes continuously over an entire year using an automated greenhouse gas measurement system. The temporal variation of N2O fluxes showed only low emissions over the vegetable cropping phases, but significantly higher emissions were observed post-harvest accounting for 50-70% of the annual emissions. NIs reduced N2O emissions by 20-60% over the vegetable cropping phases; however, this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the NIs treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Annual N2O emissions from the conventional fertiliser, the DMPP treatment, and the 3MP + TZ treatment were 1.3, 1.1 and 1.6 (sem = 0.2) kg-N ha-1 year-1, respectively. This study highlights that the use of NIs in vegetable systems can lead to elevated N2O emissions by storing N in the soil profile that is available to soil microbes during the decomposition of the vegetable residues. Hence the use of NIs in vegetable systems has to be treated carefully and fertiliser rates need to be adjusted to avoid an oversupply of N during the post-harvest phase.

  17. The new Caribbean Nitrogen Index to assess nitrogen dynamics in vegetable production systems in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient loss from agricultural fields is one of the main factors influencing surface- and ground-water quality. Typical fertilizer nitrogen (N) consumption rates in vegetable production systems and horticultural crops in Puerto Rico, fluctuate between 112 to 253 kg N/ha. Nitrogen use efficiency of ...

  18. Identifying N fertilizer regime and vegetable production system in tropical Brazil using (15) N natural abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio T; Urquiaga, Segundo; Chalk, Phillip M; Mata, Maria Gabriela F; Souza, Paulo O

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted in areas of vegetable production in tropical Brazil, with the objectives of (i) measuring the variation in δ(15)  N in soils, organic N fertilizer sources and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from different farming systems, (ii) measuring whether plant δ(15)  N can differentiate organic versus conventional lettuce and (iii) identifying the factors affecting lettuce δ(15)  N. Samples of soil, lettuce and organic inputs were taken from two organic, one conventional and one hydroponic farm. The two organic farms had different N-sources with δ(15)  N values ranging from 0.0 to +14.9‰ (e.g. leguminous green manure and animal manure compost, respectively), and differed significantly (P manure inputs. The N from leguminous green manure made a small contribution to the N nutrition of lettuce in the multi-N-source organic farm. To differentiate organic versus conventional farms using δ(15)  N the several subsets of mode of fertilization should be considered. Comparisons of δ(15)  N of soil, organic inputs and lettuce allowed a qualitative analysis of the relative importance of different N inputs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Integrated rotation systems for soilborne disease, weed and fertility management in strawberry/vegetable production

    OpenAIRE

    Zavatta, M; Shennan, C; Muramoto, J; Baird, G; Bolda, MP; Koike, ST; Klonsky, K

    2014-01-01

    Organic strawberry/vegetable producers in coastal California face soilborne disease, nutrient, and weed management challenges. In conventional systems, stringent regulations and air quality concerns make the sustainability of fumigantdependent systems uncertain. To evaluate efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), mustard cake (MC) application and broccoli residue incorporation, we initiated trials at an organic farm (Org) and a conventional farm (Conv) with crop rotation (broccoli (B...

  20. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice-wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  1. Effective mitigation of nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in intensive vegetable production systems using a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Min; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Changsheng [Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Di, Hong J. [Lincoln Univ., Christchurch (New Zealand). Center for Soil and Environment Research

    2011-07-15

    Vegetable production is one of the most intensive agricultural systems with high rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and irrigation, conditions conducive for nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) leaching, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), in decreasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions in vegetable production systems. Twenty-four undisturbed soil monolith lysimeters (610 mm in diameter; 700 mm in depth; surface area, 0.29 m{sup 2}) with two different soils, Huangzongrang (alfisol) and Chaotu (fluvisols), were collected and installed in a field lysimeter facility in Central China under irrigated vegetable production conditions. Urea fertilizer was applied at 650 kg N ha{sup -1}, and DCD was applied at 10 kg ha{sup -1} to the lysimeters planted with three kinds of vegetables (capsicum, Capsicum annuum L.; amaranth, Amaranthus mangostanus L.; radish, Raphanus sativus L.). The results showed that DCD reduced NO3- leaching by 58.5% and 36.2% and N{sub 2}O emissions factor by 83.8% and 72.7% in the two soils. The average NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N concentration in the drainage water was decreased from 4.9 mg NL{sup -1} to 2.3 mg NL{sup -1} and from 4.4 mg NL{sup -1} to 3.3 mg NL{sup -1}, in the Huangzongrang and Chaotu soils, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits, the use of DCD also increased the yields of capsicum and radish in alfisol soil significantly (P < 0.01); only the amaranth yield in fluvisol soil was declined (P < 0.01), and the other vegetables yields were not affected. Total N concentrations of the three vegetables were increased significantly (P < 0.01) with the application of DCD with urea compared with urea alone. These results showed that the nitrification inhibitor DCD has the potential to significantly reduce NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions and to make vegetable farming more environmentally

  2. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  3. The new Caribbean Nitrogen Index to assess nitrogen dynamics in vegetable production systems in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Oliveras-Berrocales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient loss from agricultural fields is one of the main factors influencing surface- and ground-water quality. Typical fertilizer nitrogen (N consumption rates in vegetable production systems and horticultural crops in Puerto Rico fluctuate between 112 and 253 kg N/ha. The nitrogen use efficiency of vegetable crops is low, increasing the potential for nitrogen losses and high residual soil nitrate content. Quantification of residual soil N and N losses to the environment can be a difficult task. Simulation models such as the USDA-ARS N Index can be used to identify the relative magnitude of varying N-loss pathways and to identify best management practices. Field studies were conducted to quantify residual soil N and crop N removal, and to validate the Nitrogen Index in onion, tropical pumpkin and tomato production systems in the Lajas Valley in southwestern Puerto Rico. Relationships between observed and simulated values were determined to examine the capability of the model for evaluating N losses. There was good correlation between observed and predicted values for residual soil N (r =0.88 and crop N removal (r =0.99 (p<0.05. In the production systems evaluated, the N volatilization losses ranged from 1 to 4 kg N/ha, the denitrification losses ranged from 18 to 46 kg N/ha, the leaching losses ranged from 155 to 779 kg N/ha, and the residual soil nitrate ranged from 64 to 401 kg N/ha. The N use efficiency ranged from 15% to 39%. The results obtained showed that the Nitrogen Index tool can be a useful tool for evaluating N transformations in vegetable production systems of Puerto Rico's semi-arid zone.

  4. Production characteristics of the complex "SLS-vegetables" as the element of bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    Previously we had shown possibility of long-term cultivation of wheat and radish uneven-aged conveyer on the soil-like substrate (SLS) with periodic introduction in the SLS of edible (in the form of a mineral solution after physicochemical burning) and inedible biomass of the plants grown on it. The given work was aimed at the study of production characteristics of the plants cultivated on the SLS with a periodic introduction of plant biomass, which consisted of harvested inedible biomass and wheat straw. The wheat straw was introduced in the SLS to compensate carrying out of mineral elements from the SLS with the edible biomass of the harvested plants. Also possibility of joint cultivation of the chosen vegetable plants under the given way of plant inedible biomass introduction in the SLS was estimated. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were taken as the objects of research. Plants were grown in the regime of the three-species uneven-aged conveyer. Before each next planting of plants we introduced in the SLS all inedible biomass of earlier harvested plants and wheat straw. The amount of introduced wheat straw depended on nitrogen content in edible biomass of the harvested plants. Plants irrigation was performed by means of common nutrient solution containing mineral elements extracted from the SLS. 2 concentration in a vegetation chamber was maintained in limits from 0.1The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS grant 05-1000008-8010

  5. Global relation between microwave satellite vegetation products and vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Irene E.; Forkel, Matthias; Jung, Martin; Miralles, Diego G.; Dorigo, Wouter A.

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of unfavourable environmental conditions like droughts commonly reduces the photosynthetic activity of ecosystems and, hence, their potential to take up carbon from the atmosphere. Ecosystem photosynthetic activity is commonly determined using remote sensing observations in the optical domain, which however have limitations particularly in regions of frequent cloud cover, e.g. the tropics. In this study, we explore the potential of vegetation optical depth (VOD) from microwave satellite observations as an alternative source for assessing vegetation productivity. VOD serves as an estimate for vegetation density and water content, which has an impact on plant physiological processes and hence should potentially provide a link to gross primary production (GPP). However, to date, it is unclear how microwave-retrieved VOD data and GPP data are related. We compare seasonal dynamics and anomalies of VOD retrievals from different satellite sensors and microwave frequencies with site level and global GPP estimates. We use VOD observations from active (ASCAT) and passive microwave sensors (AMSR-E, SMOS). We include eddy covariance measurements from the FLUXNET2015 dataset to assess the VOD products at site level. For a global scale analysis, we use the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) observations from GOME-2 as a proxy for GPP and the FLUXCOM GPP product, which presents an upscaling of site measurements based on remote sensing data. Our results demonstrate that in general a good agreement between VOD and GPP or SIF exists. However, the strength of these relations depends on the microwave frequency, land cover type, and the time within the growing season. Correlations between anomalies of VOD and GPP or SIF support the assumption that microwave-derived VOD can be used to monitor vegetation productivity dynamics. The study is performed as part of the EOWAVE project funded by the Vienna University of Technology (http://eowave.geo.tuwien.ac.at/) and

  6. Wastewater Reuse: An Economic Perspective to Identify Suitable Areas for Poplar Vegetation Filter Systems for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest towards climate change, water and energy saving, and soil protection has led the research community to consider non-conventional water as a sustainable source for irrigation of energy crops. Vegetation filter systems are considered a reliable technique for sustainable biomass cultivation, enabling the use of reclaimed wastewater as water and nutrients sources during irrigation periods. In this study, a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial model was developed to identify areas potentially suitable for creating vegetation filter systems with poplars to size the plants of energy production. An economic assessment allowed us to identify the cost-effectiveness areas for biomass production that can be fertigated by reclaimed wastewater. Considering the Basilicata region as the test region, a surface area of 258,512 ha was investigated, identifying 73,331 ha of SRF soils sited downstream of 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, considering only areas that have positive net present value and are economically attractive, results indicate 1606 ha of SRF falling within the areas of influence of 39 WWTPs. The results show that the sector of dedicated crops, adjacent and linked with WWTPs, expresses a total capacity of 50.56 MW for thermal, 8.25 MW for electricity, and 31 MW for cogeneration (25.07 MWt and 5.94 MWe plants.

  7. Vegetable production facility as a part of a closed life support system in a Russian Martian space flight scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Smolyanina, S. O.; Krivobok, N. M.; Erokhin, A. N.; Agureev, A. N.; Shanturin, N. A.

    2009-07-01

    A Manned Mars Mission scenario had been developed in frame of the Project 1172 supported International Science & Technology Center in Moscow. The Mars transit vehicle (MTV) supposed to have a crew of 4-6 with Pilot Laboratory compartment volume of 185 m 3 and with inner diameter of 4.1 m. A vegetable production facility with power consumption up to 10 kW is being considered as a component of the life support system to supply crew members by fresh vegetables during the mission. Proposed design of conveyor-type plant growth facility (PGF) comprised of 4-modules. Each module has a cylindrical planting surface and spiral cylindrical LED assembly to provide a high specific productivity relative to utilized onboard resources. Each module has a growth chamber that will be from 0.7 m to 1.5 m in length, and a crop illuminated area from 1.7 m 2 to 4.0 m 2. Leafy crops (cabbage, lettuce, spinach, chard, etc.) have been selected for module 1, primarily because of the highest specific productivity per consumed resources. Dietitians have recommended also carrot crop for module 2, pepper for module 3 and tomato for module 4. The maximal total PGF light energy estimated as 1.16 kW and total power consumption as about 7 kW. The module 1 characteristics have been calculated using own experimental data, information from the best on ground plant growth experiments with artificial light were used to predict crop productivity and biomass composition in the another modules. 4-module PGF could produce nearly 0.32 kg per crew member per day of fresh edible biomass, which would be about 50% of recommended daily vegetable supplement. An average crop harvest index is estimated as 0.75. The MTV food system could be entirely closed in terms of vitamins C and A with help of the PGF. In addition the system could provide 10-25% of essential minerals and vitamins of group B, and about 20% of food fibers. The present state of plant growth technology allows formulating of requirements specification

  8. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  9. The environmental impact of nitrogen in field vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeteson, J.J.; Carton, O.T.

    2001-01-01

    Many intensive systems of field vegetable production are not sustainable because they lose excessive amounts of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Processes in the N cycle of agricultural systems include assimilation, mineralization/immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia

  10. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vegetable Production in an Integrated Aquaponic System with Stellate Sturgeon and Spinach – Matador variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihai Petrea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the performances parameters, both in terms of quantity and quality, for spinach (Spinacia oleracea - Matador variety, growth in an aquaponic integrated system, along with stellate sturgeons (A. stellatus under three crops densities (V1 - 59 crops/m2, V2 – 48 crops/m2 and V3 – 39 crops/m2, by using hydroton as growing substrate, under a continuous flow hydraulic regime. The experiment was run in triplicate for each one of the three variants. The water quality was monitored and a series of growth parameters were determined, as follows: leaf area index (LAI, relative growth rate (RGR, average net assimilation rate (NAR, mean leaf area ratio (LAR and crop growth rate (CGR. Also the concentration of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, ash and dry matter for spinach leaf, from each of the three experimental variants was determined and compared with the one of marketable spinach, growth conventional, in soil. It can be concluded that statistical significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded in terms of growth performance and crops quality, between the experimental variants. Also the quality of spinach grown in aquaponic conditions, by using effluent derived from stellate sturgeon intensive aquaculture is similar to that of the marketable spinach, growth conventional.

  12. PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES IN THE AMUR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokoz Svetlana Vladimirovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Amur region of vegetables in special farms, peasant farmers, and personal subsidiary farms. In the course of agrarian reform in the country, there was a change in the role of each sector, the main production of vegetables in the field moved into the private sector of the population that now produce 87% of vegetable production. The value of gross output in the agricultural enterprises decreased compared to the 1988 – 1991 years. 30 times and now stands at 3% of the total harvest. Peasant farmers produce up to 10% vegetables. Vegetable production in the field for the whole period was lower than recommended intakes of man (139 kg per year in half. Residents are deficient in vegetables, which are a major source of vitamins, fiber, enzymes, minerals and other valuable substances. Products grown on farms, in a trading network of the city was almost no, but basically once implemented special consumers: Ministry of Defence, educational and medical institutions, etc., as well as exported to Khabarovsk, Primorsky Krai, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. Export of vegetables outside the region due to the lack of storage facilities and processing plants. Lack of vegetables in the Amur region filled the importation of products from China. According to statistics from the import of this product is 40%, which puts us in the economic dependence.

  13. Reducing N2O and NO emissions while sustaining crop productivity in a Chinese vegetable-cereal double cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Yan, Guangxuan; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Liu, Chunyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    High nitrogen (N) inputs in Chinese vegetable and cereal productions played key roles in increasing crop yields. However, emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and atmospheric pollutant nitric oxide (NO) increased too. For lowering the environmental costs of crop production, it is essential to optimize N strategies to maintain high crop productivity, while reducing the associated N losses. We performed a 2 year-round field study regarding the effect of different combinations of poultry manure and chemical N fertilizers on crop yields, N use efficiency (NUE) and N2O and NO fluxes from a Welsh onion-winter wheat system in the North China Plain. Annual N2O and NO emissions averaged 1.14-3.82 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (or 5.54-13.06 g N kg-1 N uptake) and 0.57-1.87 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (or 2.78-6.38 g N kg-1 N uptake) over all treatments, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions increased linearly with increasing total N inputs, and the mean annual direct emission factors (EFd) were 0.39% for N2O and 0.19% for NO. Interestingly, the EFd for chemical N fertilizers (N2O: 0.42-0.48%; NO: 0.07-0.11%) was significantly lower than for manure N (N2O: 1.35%; NO: 0.76%). Besides, a negative power relationship between yield-scaled N2O, NO or N2O + NO emissions and NUE was observed, suggesting that improving NUE in crop production is crucial for increasing crop yields while decreasing nitrogenous gas release. Compared to the current farmers' fertilization rate, alternative practices with reduced chemical N fertilizers increased NUE and decreased annual N2O + NO emissions substantially, while crop yields remained unaffected. As a result, annual yield-scaled N2O + NO emissions were reduced by > 20%. Our study shows that a reduction of current application rates of chemical N fertilizers by 30-50% does not affect crop productivity, while at the same time N2O and NO emissions would be reduced significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. non-traditional vegetable production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on farm features included farm size, input and out- put-ctotals, yield and quantity of agro-chemicals used. Other impor- tant areas covered include urban agriculture development related microeconomic policies of Ghana, national vegetable specific poli- cies- and projects, input and output prices and availability and ac-.

  15. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  16. Effect of nitrification inhibitors (DMPP and 3MP+TZ) on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a sub-tropical vegetable production system in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; Deuter, Peter; Firrell, Mary; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrification inhibitors, in combination with ammonium based fertilisers, has been promoted recently as an effective method to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilised agricultural fields, whilst increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Vegetable cropping systems are often characterised by high inputs of nitrogen fertiliser and consequently elevated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) can be expected. However, to date only limited data is available on the use of nitrification inhibitors in sub-tropical vegetable systems. A field experiment investigated the effect of the nitrification inhibitors (DMPP & 3MP+TZ) on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable production system in sub-tropical Australia. Soil N2O fluxes were monitored continuously over an entire year with a fully automated system. Measurements were taken from three subplots for each treatment within a randomized complete blocks design. There was a significant inhibition effect of DMPP and 3MP+TZ on N2O emissions and soil mineral N content directly following the application of the fertiliser over the vegetable cropping phase. However this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the inhibitor treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Cumulative annual N2O emissions amounted to 1.22 kg-N/ha, 1.16 kg-N/ha, 1.50 kg-N/ha and 0.86 kg-N/ha in the conventional fertiliser (CONV), the DMPP treatment, the 3MP+TZ treatment and the zero fertiliser (0N) respectively. Corresponding fertiliser induced emission factors (EFs) were low with only 0.09 - 0.20% of the total applied fertiliser lost as N2O. There was no significant effect of the nitrification inhibitors on yield compared to the CONV treatment for the three vegetable crops (green beans, broccoli, lettuce) grown over the experimental period. This study highlights that N2O emissions from such vegetable cropping system are primarily controlled by post-harvest emissions following the incorporation of vegetable crop

  17. Scientific Verification Test of Orbitec Deployable Vegetable Production System for Salad Crop Growth on ISS- Gas Exchange System design and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldemire, Ashleigh

    2007-01-01

    The ability to produce and maintain salad crops during long term missions would be a great benefit to NASA; the renewable food supply would save cargo space, weight and money. The ambient conditions of previous ground controlled crop plant experiments do not reflect the microgravity and high CO2 concentrations present during orbit. It has been established that microgravity does not considerably alter plant growth. (Monje, Stutte, Chapman, 2005). To support plants in a space-craft environment efficient and effective lighting and containment units are necessary. Three lighting systems were previously evaluated for radish growth in ambient air; fluorescent lamps in an Orbitec Biomass Production System Educational (BPSE), a combination of red, blue, and green LED's in a Deployable Vegetable Production System (Veggie), and a combination of red and blue LED's in a Veggie. When mass measurements compared the entire possible growing area vs. power consumed by the respective units, the Veggies clearly exceeded the BPSE indicating that the LED units were a more resource efficient means of growing radishes under ambient conditions in comparison with fluorescent lighting. To evaluate the most productive light treatment system for a long term space mission a more closely simulated ISS environment is necessary. To induce a CO2 dense atmosphere inside the Veggie's and BPSE a gas exchange system has been developed to maintain a range of 1000-1200 ppm CO2 during a 21-day light treatment experiment. This report details the design and function of the gas exchange system. The rehabilitation, trouble shooting, maintenance and testing of the gas exchange system have been my major assignments. I have also contributed to the planting, daily measurements and harvesting of the radish crops 21-day light treatment verification test.

  18. Developing an automatic classification system of vegetation anomalies for early warning with the ASAP (Anomaly hot Spots of Agricultural Production) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Lemoine, G.

    2016-12-01

    Anomaly maps and time profiles of remote sensing derived indicators relevant to monitor crop and vegetation stress can be accessed online thanks to a rapidly growing number of web based portals. However, timely and systematic global analysis and coherent interpretation of such information, as it is needed for example for SDG 2 related monitoring, remains challenging. With the ASAP system (Anomaly hot Spots of Agricultural Production) we propose a two-step analysis to provide monthly warning of production deficits in water-limited agriculture worldwide. The first step is fully automated and aims at classifying each administrative unit (1st sub-national level) into a number of possible warning levels, ranging from "none" to "watch" and up to "extended alarm". The second step involves the verification of the automatic warnings and integration into a short national level analysis by agricultural analysts. In this paper we describe the methodological development of the automatic vegetation anomaly classification system. Warnings are triggered only during the crop growing season, defined by a remote sensing based phenology. The classification takes into consideration the fraction of the agricultural and rangelands area for each administrative unit that is affected by a severe anomaly of two rainfall-based indicators (the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), computed at 1 and 3-month scale) and one biophysical indicator (the cumulative NDVI from the start of the growing season). The severity of the warning thus depends on the timing, the nature and the number of indicators for which an anomaly is detected. The prototype system is using global NDVI images of the METOP sensor, while a second version is being developed based on 1km Modis NDVI with temporal smoothing and near real time filtering. Also a specific water balance model is under development to include agriculture water stress information in addition to the SPI. The monthly warning classification and crop

  19. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  20. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  1. Vegetation Composition, Biomass Production, Carrying Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to characterize vegetation composition and grassland types as well as to estimate biomass production and carrying capacity of the rangeland in Ordolla areas of Shinile zone, eastern Ethiopia in October 2004. The Ordolla grasslands covered 22,621ha on alluvial plain composed of sand and silt ...

  2. Vegetable soybean: seed composition and production research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable soybean (edamame [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is a low input, high nutritional value, short crop cycle and soil-enriching profitable crop. It offers quick economic return and provides health benefits to the consumers. The market demand for edamame has begun to flourish and expand dramatically in recent decades due to increased awareness of nutritional properties, and the change in life styles towards healthier food. This article highlighted the importance of edamame as a nutraceutical and functional food-grade produce, summarised the research advances in seed composition and their roles, cultivar selection and crop establishment, planting date and fertilisation, weed management and harvesting. Current production problem of extensive labor at harvest and future research challenges in improving crop establishment, developing cultivars competitive to weed and resistant to pest insects/diseases, assessing biological activities of edamame elemental and phytochemical properties on cancer cell inhibition, and developing organic production system were also proposed with aims of enhancing farm profitability and expanding opportunities for extensive use of edamame.

  3. NEW GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGIES FOR VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First decade of XXI century is characterized by significant augmentation in vegetable world’s production. Average annual vegetable production has been 346 million tons, and it has exceeded the average annual potato production (318 million tons. It has occurred due to the use of up-to-date technologies for vegetable production and, particularly, in greenhouses. In Russian Federation, the total production of vegetables was 5 275.6 thousand tons in 2015 that was 13.3% more than in 2014. But the total vegetable production in greenhouses was only 722.8 thousand tons, that was 0.7% less than in 2014 (728.1 thousand tons. It can be explained that the old technologies have been used for many greenhouses around Russia. Up-to-date technologies for greenhouses are described in the article. Small-volume hydroponics. Plants are grown in mineral wadding, packed up in the special chutes. Mineral nutrition and water are supplied through special pipe with many branch pipes toward each plant. Advantage: pH and nutrition are maintained, consumption of water and mineral nutrition are optimized, and that improves plants grow control. Expenditures of labor decreased, quality of fruit became better and the yield increased significantly by 45-50 kg/m2 comparing with growing on the soil (25-30 kg/m2. Hydroponics with flowing water (salad production lines. Conveyor for salad and vegetable growing on horizontal moving chutes with flowing water and nutrition was developed. Advantage: high level of automation and mechanization of all processes of growing increased the effectiveness of the use of greenhouse areas (we can place 30% plants more at the same area. Seedling production lines. Production lines for seedlings enable to grow vegetables and leafy vegetables on stationary benches, being furnished with periodical nutrition and water supply at times. Advantage: 700 seedlings additionally on each m2 a year. Future technologies are

  4. Energy use pattern analyses of greenhouse vegetable production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M.; Akinci, I. [Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, 07070 Antalya (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    Greenhouse farming is a growing industry in many states. It is a very expensive way to produce greenhouse crops and there are many variables to consider before the farmer decides to take this route. A good location is essential for crop planning and growing. However, current studies related to energy use patterns and resources present in vegetable production are very limited. This research attempts to investigate the energy use patterns in greenhouse vegetable production, to determine the energy output-input ratio and their relationships. Antalya province, which has greenhouse area of about 13,337ha (30.2%), is the center of greenhouse farming in Turkey. A questionnaire was distributed to 101 greenhouse farms from 11 villages in order to obtain the available data for vegetable production. Power requirement of the machines used in greenhouse operations were measured by using a computer based data acquisition system. Energy and economical variables (i.e. output-input ratio, specific energy, production cost, net return, etc.) were calculated by using the standard equations. As a result, the operational energy and energy source requirements of the greenhouse vegetable production were found between the ranges of 23,883.5-28,034.7 and 45,763.3-49,978.8MJ/1000m{sup 2}, respectively. The energy ratio of four major greenhouse vegetables-tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant-was 0.32, 0.19, 0.31, 0.23, respectively. The crop yields increased as a function of the total energy inputs with the best form being second-degree polynomial. The net return of the vegetable production was found in the 595.6-2775.3$/1000m{sup 2} ranges. Among the greenhouse vegetables, tomato cultivation resulted in being the most profitable. (author)

  5. Use of biodegradable mulching in vegetable production

    OpenAIRE

    Minuto, Giovanni; Guerrini, Sara; Versari, Marco; Pisi, Luisa; Tinivella, Federico; Bruzzone, Cinzia; Pini, Stefano; Capurro, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Trials were carried out in Liguria during three years (2004-2006) to evaluate the use of innovative starch based bioplastics for soil mulching. All trials carried out in open field as well as in greenhouse on different vegetable crops demonstrated the effectiveness of biodegradable films in controlling weeds and in increasing yield. The use of biodegradable mulching films found application in integrated production regulations set up by the regional authority and it is potentially adoptable i...

  6. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  7. Marketing system analysis of vegetables and fruits in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to analyze the different aspects of marketing system of vegetable and fruit in Raya Kobo and Harbu woredas, Amhara regional state using different indicators. Probit estimation for determinant of participation probability in vegetable and fruit production and OLS estimation technique were also applied for ...

  8. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  9. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A.K.; Rai, S.P.; Datta, A.K.; Das, C.R.; Ghosh, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  10. Evaluation of Production and Carbon Benefit of Different Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed environmental and economic benefits of 8 types of vegetables in 4 different farms over 3 years. The specific results were as follows:(1The input-output ratio and carbon footprint of organic production mode was 18.5% and 87.4% of that of pollution-free mode, respectively; (2Fertilizer and power consumption was the main source of carbon emissions, accounting for 58.76% and 16.67% of total carbon emissions, respectively; (3There were positive correlations between N fertilizer and both carbon emissions and carbon footprint. In other words, higher use of N fertilizer resulted in higher carbon emissions and carbon footprint; (4 When organic fertilizers use reached 122 352 kg·hm-2, the crop production could reach the maximum under organic mode. Under the mode of pollution-free production, when agricultural chemicals input reached 20 103 yuan·hm-2, leafy vegetable production could reach the maximum. Therefore, to increase production and reduce carbon emissions in the process of vegetable production, the main approach was to use organic mode, increase the quantity of organic fertilizer, instead of the use of inorganic N fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals and establish water-saving irrigation system for electricity efficiency.

  11. Production Guides for Meat and Vegetable Entrees and Desserts Developed for Use in the Frozen Foil Pack Feeding System, F.E. Warren Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    instead of the existing recipe cards intended for Dining Hall Kitchen operations. This report contains production guides for meat and vegetable entrees...over cake in each pan while still hot. Do not attempt to spread the icing with a spatula for the cake will crumble. 83 FRENCH QUICK COFFEE CAKE

  12. The Rangeland Vegetation Simulator: A user-driven system for quantifying production, succession, disturbance and fuels in non-forest environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Reeves; Leonardo Frid

    2016-01-01

    Rangeland landscapes occupy roughly 662 million acres in the coterminous U.S. (Reeves and Mitchell 2011) and their vegetation responds quickly to climate and management, with high relative growth rates and inter-annual variability. Current national decision support systems in the U.S. such as the Interagency Fuels Treatment Decision Support System (IFT-DSS) require...

  13. Vegetative rescue and ex vitro system production of Tibouchina sellowiana clonal plants by cutting and mini-cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the rooting potential of Tibouchina sellowiana through the experiments: I - Cuttings from current-year shoots and epicormic shoots were submitted to IBA concentrations: 0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000mg L-1, in a factorial arrangement 2 x 5 (two types of cuttings x five IBA concentrations, with four replicates and 20 cuttings each; II - mini-stumps of Tibouchina sellowiana were submitted to successive shoots collecting during the four seasons, in a split-plot design, with five replications of ten mini-stumps per experimental unit. From the shoots of mini-stumps, mini-cuttings were produced, which were initially kept in greenhouse and later transferred to full sun, in a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement (four seasons x five collections per season, with four replicates of 12 mini-cuttings. Superiority of epicormic shoots cuttings was reported when compared to the current-year shoots, which showed the highest rooting and leaves maintenance (42.50% and 55.00%, respectively, eliminating the use of IBA. High survival of mini-stumps (over 80% and the mini-cuttings production (170mini-cuttings m-2 month-1 in clonal mini-garden and the mini-cuttings survival (above 80% in the greenhouse demonstrated the technical feasibility, with summer as the most appropriate time to collect mini-cuttings.

  14. Production and marketing challenges of vegetable farming: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the production and marketing challenges of urban vegetable production in the Kumasi Metropolis of the Ashanti Region, Ghana. A simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 300 urban vegetable farmers from the study area. A structured interview schedule was used to collect ...

  15. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioagents and Commercial Algae Products as Integrated Biocide Treatments for Controlling Root Rot Diseases of Some Vegetables under Protected Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar M. Abdel-Kader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated commercial blue-green algae extracts and bioagents treatments against vegetables root rot incidence when used as soil drench under greenhouse and plastic house conditions were evaluated. All applied treatments reduced significantly root rot incidence at both pre- and postemergence growth stages of cucumber, cantaloupe, tomato, and pepper plants compared with untreated check control. In pot experiment, the obtained results showed that treatments of Trichoderma harzianum or Bacillus subtilis either alone or combined with commercial algae extracts were significantly superior for reducing root rot disease for two tested vegetable plants compared with the other tested treatments as well as control. It is also observed that rising concentrations of either algae products, Oligo-X or Weed-Max, were reflected in more disease reduction. Promising treatments for controlling root rot disease incidence were applied under plastic houses conditions. As for field trails carried out under plastic houses conditions at different locations, the obtained results revealed that the applied combined treatments significantly reduced root rot incidence compared with fungicide and check control treatments. At all locations it was observed that Weed-Max (2 g/L + Bacillus subtilis significantly reduced disease incidence of grown vegetables compared with Oligo-X (2 mL/L + Trichoderma harzianum treatments. An obvious yield increase in all treatments was significantly higher than in the control. Also, the harvested yield in applied combined treatments at all locations was significantly higher than that in the fungicide and control treatments.

  17. Process for the production of elementary vegetable bast fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Jong, de E.

    1999-01-01

    A process for the production of elementary vegetable bast fibres is provided, which process comprises the steps of a) cutting raw vegetable bast fibres to a fibre length of 8 to 400 mm, b) chemically treating the cut fibres to remove lignin and pectin compounds, c) drying the fibres obtained in step

  18. Vegetable fats and oils as functional ingredients in meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2011-01-01

    Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10%) they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.

  19. Farmers' adoption of improved vegetable production practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... The study was undertaken to evaluate the Fadama phase one vegetable production project in Anambra. State. Data for the study were colleted from 160 vegetable growers (80 project farmers and 80 non- project farmers), through the use of a set of structured interview schedule. Percentages, mean scores.

  20. Review article: Vegetative growth, reproduction, browse production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review deals with issues including the determinants of vegetative growth of woody plants (soil water availability, water stress, soil nutrient availability, carbohydrate reserves, plant hormones, atmospheric CO2 concentration, tree age, competition, defoliation and shoot pruning, fire pathogens, soil and climatic conditions) ...

  1. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were subjected to analysis using descriptive statistics, stochastic frontier model, gross margin and net farm income. The study revealed that farm size, labour and fertilizer positively affect the technical efficiency of the farmers. The mean technical efficiency was 68.5 and vegetable farmers were not operating at ...

  2. Sustainable Production of Underutilized Vegetables to Enhance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of IDRC and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) - aims to increase the food security and economic empowerment of resource-poor rural women farmers in Nigeria through the cultivation, processing, consumption and marketing of underutilized vegetables.

  3. studies on biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste 115

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    , 2008. Accepted: February, 2009. STUDIES ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM FRUITS AND VEGETABLE. WASTE. 1*Sagagi, B. S., B. Garba and N. S. Usman. Department of Chemistry, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil.

  4. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of ...

  5. The Vegetable industry in China; Developments in policies, production, marketing and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure

  6. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Susana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides present in animal fat or vegetable oils, by displacing glycerine with a low molar mass alcohol. This resulting ester mixture has physico-chemical properties similar to those of petroleum diesel. This paper reviews the synthetic paths that lead to biodiesel by means of the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils. Although methyl esters are at present the only ones produced at industrial scale, the use of ethanol, which can also be obtained from renewable resources, has been considered, since it would generate a cleaner and more biocompatible fuel.El biodiésel se produce mediante la transesterificación de triglicéridos, presentes en grasas animales o aceites vegetales, en un proceso en el que un alcohol de bajo peso molecular desplaza a la glicerina. La mezcla de esteres así resultante posee unas propiedades físico-químicas similares a las del diésel procedente de petróleo. En este artículo se revisan las vías de síntesis de biodiésel mediante la transesterificación catalítica de aceites vegetales. Aunque actualmente a escala industrial solo se producen ésteres metílicos, también se ha considerado el uso de etanol, ya que éste se obtiene también de fuentes renovables, generando así un combustible más limpio y biocompatible.

  7. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  8. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Golubeva; O. I. Dolmatova; E. I. Bocharova; G. S. Dolmatova

    2012-01-01

    Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  9. Production and marketing challenges of vegetable farming: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability of large markets in urban communities has given cities enormous potential for food production especially vegetables. This potential partly accounts for mass exodus of people into cities. Poverty is however accompanying urbanisation but food production potential of cities could reduce urban poverty.

  10. Rural Women\\'s Involvement In Dry Season Vegetable Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... problems hampering production activities. It was recommended that policies and programmes aimed at alleviating poverty should be pursued and should be women and youth friendly. Keywords: rural women's involvement, dry season vegetable, production and marketing. Global Approaches to Extension Practice Vol.

  11. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  12. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  13. Vegetable chains in Kenya: Production and consumption of vegetables in the Nairobi metropolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, van der C.J.M.; Snoek, H.M.; Boer, de F.A.; Elings, A.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable consumption in African countries such as Kenya is low, which has a negative impact on the nutritional condition of the population, and on the production by smallholders. The goals of the project were to determine the potentials for consumption and cultivation in the Nairobi metropolitan

  14. Pesticide and toxicity reduction using an integrated vegetated treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Largay, Bryan; Shihadeh, Rami; Tjeerdema, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    The California, USA, central coast is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world, and numerous stakeholders are working there to implement conservation practices to reduce contaminated runoff. Practices include vegetated treatment systems (VTS) designed to promote contaminant reduction and breakdown. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a vegetated drainage ditch incorporating a sedimentation basin, a vegetated section, and a Landguard organophosphate-A (OP-A) enzyme dosing system. The VTS was constructed on a working farm and was designed to remove organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, the primary pesticides causing toxicity in Salinas Valley watersheds. The present study was conducted during five separate irrigation events on tailwater runoff containing mixtures of pesticides and suspended sediments. Water samples were collected at four stations within the system, and these were subjected to chemical analyses and tested for toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia. All inflow samples were highly toxic to C. dubia, and this was largely because of diazinon. Treatment of diazinon-contaminated runoff was only partially effective using aquatic vegetation. All diazinon remaining after vegetated treatment was effectively removed after treatment with the Landguard OP-A enzyme. Chemical analysis of the VTS water samples showed that pyrethroid and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in water were greatly reduced in the sedimentation section of the ditch, and these pesticides were further reduced in the vegetated section of the ditch. The overall conclusion from these analyses is that the VTS was effective at reducing the more hydrophobic organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides from water. The water-soluble pesticide diazinon was not sufficiently removed during the VTS residence times observed in this study; however, residual diazinon was effectively removed using Landguard OP-A. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  15. Working up a lactofermented vegetable product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy-Gasztonyi, M.; Biekman, E.S.A.; Krebbers, B.

    2002-01-01

    The combination of lactofermentation and enzyme-treatment (Rohament-PL as endo-polygalacturonase and the mixture of Rohament-PL and Rohalase 7069 as cellulase) of sliced carrot and orange juice resulted in a homogeneous product, with pleasant organoleptic features, after 18 h fermentation period.

  16. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...... the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used...

  17. Effects of vegetation management in constructed wetland treatment cells on water quality and mosquito production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, J.S.; Sartoris, J.J.; Walton, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of three vegetation management strategies on wetland treatment function and mosquito production was assessed in eight free water surface wetland test cells in southern California during 1998-1999. The effectiveness of the strategies to limit bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus culm density within the cells was also investigated. Removing accumulated emergent biomass and physically limiting the area in which vegetation could reestablish, significantly improved the ammonia - nitrogen removal efficiency of the wetland cells, which received an ammonia-dominated municipal wastewater effluent (average loading rate = 9.88 kg/ha per day NH4-N). We determined that interspersing open water with emergent vegetation is critical for maintaining the wetland's treatment capability, particularly for systems high in NH4-N. Burning aboveground plant parts and thinning rhizomes only temporarily curtailed vegetation proliferation in shallow zones, whereas creating hummocks surrounded by deeper water successfully restricted the emergent vegetation to the shallower hummock areas. Since the hummock configuration kept open water areas interspersed throughout the stands of emergent vegetation, the strategy was also effective in reducing mosquito production. Decreasing vegetation biomass reduced mosquito refuge areas while increasing mosquito predator habitat. Therefore, the combined goals of water quality improvement and mosquito management were achieved by managing the spatial pattern of emergent vegetation to mimic an early successional growth stage, i.e. actively growing plants interspersed with open water. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Constraints to Vegetable Production among Women in Enugu North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints to Vegetable Production among Women in Enugu North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. ... The major agronomic practices were direct sowing of seed (57.7%), mixed cropping (56.3%), organic manure (67.6%), staking (8.5%), broadcasting method of manuring (66%) and cutting with knife (method of ...

  19. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  20. COSTS AND PROFITABILITIES IN THE ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION VEGETABLES IN ESPÍRITO SANTO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacimar Luis de Souza

    2013-07-01

    various components of their costs of production. We used a database of 20 years, from 1990 to 2009, of the Reference Area in Agroecology in the INCAPER, located in the Domingos Martins City, Espírito Santo State. The organic system confirmed large economic viability, with average production cost per hectare 8% lower than the average conventional vegetables. Spending on hand labor was slightly lower in the organic system and proved to be the component of greater participation in the costs of both production systems. The organic squash, strawberries, cabbage and tomato showed lower costs than conventional systems. Conventional systems produce garlic, potatoes and okra showed lower costs than organic systems. Crops of carrots, peppers and yam have similar costs in organic and conventional systems. All vegetable crops in organic farming showed higher net revenues to the conventional, with ratios ranging from 1.1 for strawberry until 28.4 for cabbage.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  2. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  3. Exploring the control of land-atmospheric oscillations over terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Mathieu; Green, Julia; Gentine, Pierre; Liu, Yi; van Eck, Christel; Regnier, Pierre; Dorigo, Wouter; Verhoest, Niko; Miralles, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics play an important role in the climate system due to their control on the carbon, energy and water cycles. The spatiotemporal variability of vegetation is regulated by internal climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing mechanisms, including fires, land use, volcano eruptions or greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean-atmospheric oscillations, affect the fluxes of heat and water over continents, leading to anomalies in radiation, precipitation or temperature at widely separated locations (i.e. teleconnections); an effect of ocean-atmospheric oscillations on terrestrial primary productivity can therefore be expected. While different studies have shown the general importance of internal climate variability for global vegetation dynamics, the control by particular teleconnections over the regional growth and decay of vegetation is still poorly understood. At continental to global scales, satellite remote sensing offers a feasible approach to enhance our understanding of the main drivers of vegetation variability. Traditional studies of the multi-decadal variability of global vegetation have been usually based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which extends back to the early '80s. There are, however, some limitations to NDVI observations; arguably the most important of these limitations is that from the plant physiology perspective the index does not have a well-defined meaning, appearing poorly correlated to vegetation productivity. On the other hand, recently developed records from other remotely-sensed properties of vegetation, like fluorescence or microwave vegetation optical depth, have proven a significantly better correspondence to above-ground biomass. To enhance our understanding of the controls of ocean-atmosphere oscillations over vegetation, we propose to explore the link between climate oscillation extremes and net primary productivity

  4. Plant-based fertilizers for organic vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    to handle during transport, crop application, and soil incorporation. It is concluded that it is possible to produce green manures with high concentrations of S, P, K, and B, and low C : N ratios and that these properties have a great impact on the value of the green manure for vegetable production.......To ensure high yield and quality in organic vegetable production, crops often require additional fertilizer applied during the season. Due to the risk of contamination of edible plant products from slurry, plant-based fertilizers may be used as an alternative. The purpose of our work was to develop...... mobile green manures with specific high nutrient concentrations (e.g., nitrogen [N], sulfur [S], and phosphorus [P]) that are released quickly after soil incorporation and that are easy to handle during storage and application. To distinguish from traditional green manures that are grown to improve soil...

  5. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Qual...

  6. Water consumption and wastewaters in fresh-cut vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Lehto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled water use is an important component of sustainable fresh-cut vegetable production because of limited water resources, and also for controlling the quality of wastewater re-used in vegetable processing or for irrigating on fields. In our study the water consumption in vegetable processing plants varied from 1.5 to 5.0 m3 t-1 of finished product. In one plant, monitored over three years, almost 90% of water was used for washing and rinsing of vegetables, but more than 90% of the organic load of the wastewater was generated from the processing stage. The results including organic load and the microbial quality of the wastewaters showed that the wastewater should be treated beforere-use.Separate treating of wastewaters from processing stage is recommended.  Pre-treatment of wastewater using precipitation chemicals and sedimentation in basins decreased the organic load and total solids in the water, allowing further treatment of the waters.

  7. Technology of production of fish-vegetable minced products

    OpenAIRE

    Brazhnaya I.E.; Gribova O.M.; Korchunov V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The technology of production of fish minced products with amaranth flour has been presented; losses during heat treatment have been determined; biological value of culinary production and cost of raw materials have been calculated. Normative documents (technical conditions and technological instruction) have been developed

  8. Technology of production of fish-vegetable minced products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazhnaya I.E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of production of fish minced products with amaranth flour has been presented; losses during heat treatment have been determined; biological value of culinary production and cost of raw materials have been calculated. Normative documents (technical conditions and technological instruction have been developed

  9. Forest Vegetation Simulator translocation techniques with the Bureau of Land Management's Forest Vegetation Information system database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Bottomley

    2008-01-01

    The BLM uses a database, called the Forest Vegetation Information System (FORVIS), to store, retrieve, and analyze forest resource information on a majority of their forested lands. FORVIS also has the capability of easily transferring appropriate data electronically into Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) for simulation runs. Only minor additional data inputs or...

  10. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation of statistical parameters within chosen polygons. Results are presented in graphs showing the variation of NDVI for each study area and explaining the changes in trend lines for each field. It is shown that the majority of graphs are similar in shape which is caused by similar weather conditions. To confirm these results, we have conducted data analysis including temperature conditions and information about the accidents for each area. Abnormal changes in NDVI values revealed an emergency situation on the Priobskoe oil field caused by the flood in 2015. To sum up, the research results show that vegetation of studied areas is in a sufficiently stable state.

  11. Principles of drip irrigation management in vegetable production

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhi BAŞTUĞ

    2014-01-01

    Because drip irrigation normally supplies water to a specific part of the soil volume occupied by plant, limited areas to be wetted in soil volume near each emitter or along each lateral line. This is an important context for irrigation system design, operation and management and cultural practices management. Therefore, this characteristic must be taken into consideration for appropriate management of vegetable drip irrigation systems with knowledge requires including of soil hydraulic chara...

  12. Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... or the diverticulitis. I once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of ...

  13. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  14. Marketing System Analysis of Vegetables and Fruits in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Mengesha Yayo: Marketing System Analysis of Vegetables and Fruits in Amhara Regional State:... 2 current price, income level ... Hence, it is relevant to conduct a study on vegetable and fruit' marketing system using holistic ...... market place, source of energy for water supply and generating underground water for irrigation ...

  15. Vegetable production, consumption and its contribution to diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed low consumption of vegetables (especially the dark green vegetables) mostly in the rural area and limited diversity of vegetables, especially vitamin A rich vegetables and tubers, with only three vegetables (carrots, red pepper and sweet potato) consumed. There was evidence of more inclination toward ...

  16. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  17. [Ecological and food safety considerations about products of vegetable origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Díaz, R V

    1994-12-01

    Media have paid much attention in recent years to emerging microbiological problems in foods of plant origin. The potential for contamination of fruits and vegetables is high because of the wide variety of conditions to which produce is exposed during growth, harvest, processing and distribution. These considerations acquire great significance in the current scenario of the new processing techniques that offer attributes of convenience and fresh-likeness in response to changes in consumption patterns and increased demand of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Thus, reliance on low temperature storage and on improved packaging materials/techniques have increased. Even if produce had not been considered a major vector for foodborne diseases, technologies that extend shelf-life by decreasing the rate of product deterioration might increase the risks associated with pathogenic microorganisms, especially of psychotropic nature, by allowing sufficient time for their growth when retarding the development of competitive spoilage organisms. Processing steps that modify the food microenvironment open new possibilities to support pathogens that, for ecological reason, would have never been naturally present in produce. Ecological and safety aspects related to fruits and vegetables as well as foodborne disease outbreaks traceable to produce and reportedly due to Salmonella and Shigella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni are reviewed.

  18. Evaluation of Production and Carbon Benefit of Different Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    HU Liang; WEN Li-zhang; PENG Yun-peng; YI Qian; XU Lian

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed environmental and economic benefits of 8 types of vegetables in 4 different farms over 3 years. The specific results were as follows:(1)The input-output ratio and carbon footprint of organic production mode was 18.5% and 87.4% of that of pollution-free mode, respectively; (2)Fertilizer and power consumption was the main source of carbon emissions, accounting for 58.76% and 16.67% of total carbon emissions, respectively; (3)There were positive correlations between N fertili...

  19. Improving technology universal vegetable semi-finished products for the enterprises of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Kutkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy nutrition is one of the main factors that becomes stronger the human immune system, especially in the big cities, forms intellectual abilities of people, increases the qualitative characteristics of living standards etc. The most important components of a healthy nutrition are vegetables and products from them. Rather high moisture content of many vegetables, e.g., fruit, partially fills the needs of the human organism in water, lowers the energy value of the diet, enhances the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. In this regard, the improvement of technology universal product from regional vegetables available has got importance, prolonged pronounced social effect and contributes to health improvement. Among vegetables the zucchini include diet properties, but the use of them is accompanied by certain difficulties associated with seasonal logistics and the limited range of products from them. In this work, there were studied the varietal characteristics of the zucchini, zoned in the North-West region, in terms of their technological properties, morphological characteristics and biochemical composition of fruit during ripening. Were investigated the optimal ways of canning zucchini by drying with freeze-drying and infrared heating that allows you to provide catering universal semi-finished product during the whole year, not only in areas of cultivation, but also in areas outside of growing vegetables. There was discovered the effect of anomalous dehydration of fruit vegetables in the result of the study , which helped to explain the increased, in comparison with other types of vegetables, losses during heat treatment and to justify their methods and technological parameters of drying. It was found that one of the reasons for the reduction of mechanical strength parenchymal tissue of fruit vegetables, is the destruction of cell walls by increasing the pressure inside the air inclusions, in contrast to some other types of fruit

  20. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products; Foerbraenning av flytande animaliska/vegetabiliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  1. Agroforestry and sustainable vegetable production case study: Nghia Trung Village, Bu Dang District, Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Du, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes soil conservation studies to be conducted in Vietnam, LTR-5 site. It discusses a baseline study that covered issues on no-tillage vegetable systems and soil and water conservation. It gives a profile of the study area in Vietnam, and outlines the structure of cashew production including farmer perception, intercropping and the potential for future research. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-14 - Movement of processed fruits, vegetables, and other products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of processed fruits, vegetables, and other...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES... fruits, vegetables, and other products. (a) Fruits, vegetables, and other products that are processed...

  3. Vegetation on the Soil Infiltration System Treating Livestock Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Hamasaki, Tastuhide; Sugahara, Masataka

    In the overland flow wastewater treatments and the constructed wetlands, the purification by soil infiltration units is enhanced using vegetation. However, wetland plants (i.e. cattail (Typha latifolia)) and trees, rather than agronomic crops, have been used in conventional systems. We carried out laboratory-scale soil infiltration experiments using two forage crops, tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea) and white clover (Trifolium repens) while using livestock wastewater for irrigation. The purpose of the study was to clarify the amount of accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable cations in the soil and its effect on the plant growth. The application of livestock wastewater increased available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium and sodium in the upper soil. The soil sodification, examined based on exchangeable sodium ratio and plant growth, was not very significant after 10 months of livestock wastewater application. Growing forage crops on the soil infiltration system may be a promising technology to improve crop production and treatment efficacy.

  4. Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce.

  5. Linking vegetable preferences, health and local food systems through community-supported agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jennifer L; Farrell, Tracy J; Rangarajan, Anusuya

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the influence of participation in community-supported agriculture (CSA) on vegetable exposure, vegetable intake during and after the CSA season, and preference related to locally produced vegetables acquired directly from CSA growers. Quantitative surveys were administered at three time points in two harvest seasons to four groups of CSA participants: new full-paying, returning full-paying, new subsidized and returning subsidized members. Questionnaires included a vegetable frequency measure and measures of new and changed vegetable preference. Comparisons were made between new and returning CSA members and between those receiving subsidies and full-paying members. The research was conducted in a rural county in New York, USA. CSA members who agreed to participate in the study. Analysis was based on 151 usable questionnaires. CSA participants reported higher intake of eleven different vegetables during the CSA season, with a sustained increase in some winter vegetables. Over half of the respondents reported trying at least one, and up to eleven, new vegetables. Sustained preferences for CSA items were reported. While those who choose to join a CSA may be more likely to acquire new and expanded vegetable preferences than those who do not, the CSA experience has the potential to enhance vegetable exposure, augment vegetable preference and increase overall vegetable consumption. Dietary patterns encouraged through CSA participation can promote preferences and consumer demand that support local production and seasonal availability. Emphasis on fresh and fresh stored locally produced vegetables is consistent with sustainable community-based food systems.

  6. The impact of the quality of coal mine stockpile soils on sustainable vegetation growth and productivity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushia, NM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available , chemical, and biological properties, limiting their capability for sustainable vegetation growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of stockpile soils of differing depth and quality on vegetation growth and productivity. Soils were collected...

  7. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Vegetation Health and Drought Products (VHDP) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The VIIRS Vegetation Health and Drought Products (VHDP) from NDE algorithm provides weekly estimates of the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition...

  8. Investigation the possibility of Aggregation fruits and nuts, vegetables, Beans and vegetable products: Using Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabanzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruit and nuts, all kinds of vegetables, legumes and vegetable products, including commodity baskets with high proportion of nutritive value, are of great importance for policymakers of the agricultural sector. Therefore, the study of the conditions and factors affecting the demand for these goods can be predisposing advice to control the market and other factors affecting their use. But when it comes to the country at macro level of household demand, the aggregate commodity group beomes important. In cases where it is necessary to apply the fruits or vegetables as a function of household aggregation of a group of goods to be estimated, it is necessary a group of products with the scientific method to get aggregate and form a group variable as fruits or vegetables are included in the econometric model. Therefore, due to problems such as lack of access to information on each product separately, the high cost of collecting the data, missing observations, multicollinearity problem and limited degrees of freedom, we have to use grouping and composite commodities. But it is important that the correct grouping and consistent is made because of incorrect Aggregation, as specified in the error term appears on demand system estimated and Lead to biased estimation of the values of parameters and elasticity's, Which results in an incorrect picture of consumer behavior. Study of composite conditions of Agricultural commodities, as an important topic in economics, had been considered. Because mostly, access to disaggregate of the goods is not possible, and other problems such as multicollinearity occurs by examining the separation in the econometrics model. Study of composite conditions of Agricultural commodities, as an important topic in economics, had been considered. Due to its importance in the study, condition of Aggregation fruit and nuts, all kinds of vegetables and Bean (legumes are using Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT

  9. Floodplain Vegetation Productivity and Carbon Cycle Dynamics of the Middle Fork Flathead River of Northwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakins, A. J.; Kimball, J. S.; Relyea, S.; Stanford, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    River floodplains are vital natural features that store floodwaters, improve water quality, provide habitat, and create recreational opportunities. Recent studies have shown that strong interactions among flooding, channel and sediment movement, vegetation, and groundwater create a dynamic shifting habitat mosaic that promotes biodiversity and complex food webs. Multiple physical and environmental processes interact within these systems to influence forest productivity, including water availability, nutrient supply, soil texture, and disturbance history. This study is designed to quantify the role of groundwater depth and meteorology in determining spatial and temporal patterns of net primary productivity (NPP) within the Nyack floodplain of the Middle Fork Flathead River, Northwestern Montana. We examine three intensive field sites composed of mature, mixed deciduous and evergreen conifer forest with varying hydrologic and vegetative characteristics. We use a modified Biome-BGC ecosystem process model with field-collected data (LAI, increment growth cores, groundwater depth, vegetation sap-flow, and local meteorology) to describe the effects of floodplain groundwater dynamics on vegetation community structure, and carbon/nitrogen cycling. Initial results indicate that conifers are more sensitive than deeper-rooted deciduous species to variability in groundwater depth and meteorological conditions. Forest productivity also shows a non-linear response to groundwater depth. Sites with intermediate groundwater depths (0.2-0.5m) allow vegetation to maintain connectivity to groundwater over longer periods during the growing season, are effectively uncoupled from atmospheric constraints on photosynthesis, and generally have greater productivity. Shallow groundwater sites (<0.2m) are less productive due to the indirect effects of reduced soil aerobic decomposition and reduced plant available nitrogen.

  10. Vegetable production after flooded rice improves soil properties in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Neeteson, J.J.; Pham Thi Thu, H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable production in South East Asia often is in rotation with °ooded rice. The puddling of the soil with flooded rice production may result in unfavourable soil conditions for the subsequent production of dry land crops. To establish whether permanent vegetable production results in favourable

  11. Principles of drip irrigation management in vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhi BAŞTUĞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because drip irrigation normally supplies water to a specific part of the soil volume occupied by plant, limited areas to be wetted in soil volume near each emitter or along each lateral line. This is an important context for irrigation system design, operation and management and cultural practices management. Therefore, this characteristic must be taken into consideration for appropriate management of vegetable drip irrigation systems with knowledge requires including of soil hydraulic characteristics, plant growth and water use characteristics and evaporative demand. The irrigation schedule must integrate these features and conform to existing irrigation system and cultural constraits. Additionally, irrigation management program must be coupled with the fertilizer management program to avoid excessive water applications that leach plant nutrients in soil.

  12. Whole-Plant Dynamic System of Nitrogen Use for Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) as Revealed through the Production of 350 Grains from a Germinated Seed Over 150 Days: A Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Tanno, Fumio; Tatsumi, Jiro; Mae, Tadahiko

    2016-01-01

    A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L) seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7-10 leaves on four productive tillers (forming five panicles in total), using nitrogen (N) taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and (15)N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1) During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2) A large fraction (as much as 80%) of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco). (3) Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids (AA), including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with AA transporters playing a role in transferring these AAs across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, AAs such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50 days during the

  13. Whole-plant dynamic system of nitrogen use for vegetative growth and grain filling in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. as revealed through the production of 350 grains from a germinated seed over 150 days: a review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakatsu Yoneyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7 ‒ 10 leaves on 4 productive tillers (forming 5 panicles in total, using nitrogen (N taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and 15N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1 During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2 A large fraction (as much as 80% of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco. (3 Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids, including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with amino acid transporters playing a role in transferring these amino acids across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, amino acids such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50

  14. Tocopherol measurement in edible products of vegetable origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coronado, Diego J M; Ibañez, Elena; Rupérez, F Javier; Barbas, Coral

    2004-10-29

    Since natural antioxidants present increasing interest for food industry due to their beneficial effect on health, new potential sources have been screened among edible aromatic plants and a microalgae, Spirulina platensis. The determination was performed after optimising a previously validated method, because important differences have been found among values described in literature for tocopherol content in products of vegetable origin. Values obtained ranged from 3.42 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g of dill to 132.2 mg/100 g of fresh bay and from 0.14 mg gamma-tocopherol/100 g of spearmint to 3.45 mg/100 g of parsley. In all cases results were calculated from fresh leaves. Preliminary experiments were developed with bay (Laurus nobilis) plant to devise the supercritical fluid extraction of tocopherols, generating environmentally friendly processes to selectively extract fractions enriched with antioxidant compounds while removing fractions corresponding to essential oils, that is, those that correspond to the characteristic aroma of the plants. Another striking result has been the tocopherol content in the microalgae, 1.3 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g of dried commercial spirulina, which do not justify the supposed source of antioxidant vitamins. Results suggest the need of more reliable determinations of tocopherols in vegetable sources to be included in databases.

  15. Modeling Feedbacks Between Water and Vegetation in the Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Not only is water essential for life on earth, but life itself affects the global hydrologic cycle and consequently the climate of the planet. Whether the global feedbacks between life and the hydrologic cycle tend to stabilize the climate system about some equilibrium level is difficult to assess. We use a global climate model to examine how the presence of vegetation can affect the hydrologic cycle in a particular region. A control for the present climate is compared with a model experiment in which the Sahara Desert is replaced by vegetation in the form of trees and shrubs common to the Sahel region. A second model experiment is designed to identify the separate roles of two different effects of vegetation, namely the modified albedo and the presence of roots that can extract moisture from deeper soil layers. The results show that the presence of vegetation leads to increases in precipitation and soil moisture in western Sahara. In eastern Sahara, the changes are less clear. The increase in soil moisture is greater when the desert albedo is replaced by the vegetation albedo than when both the vegetation albedo and roots are added. The effect of roots is to withdraw water from deeper layers during the dry season. One implication of this study is that the insertion of vegetation into the Sahara modifies the hydrologic cycle so that the vegetation is more likely to persist than initially.

  16. A Global Corrected SRTM DEM Product Over Vegetated Areas Using LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Guo, Q.; Su, Y.; Hu, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) is one of the most complete and frequently used global-scale DEM products in various applications. However, previous studies have shown that the SRTM DEM is systematically higher than the actual land surface in vegetated mountain areas. The objective of this study is to propose a procedure to calibrate the SRTM DEM over global vegetated mountain areas. To address this, we firstly collected airborne LiDAR data over 200,000 km2 globally used as ground truth data to analyze the uncertainty of the SRTM DEM. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)/ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) data were used as complementary data in areas lack of airborne LiDAR data. Secondly, we modelled the SRTM DEM error for each vegetation type using regression methods. Tree height, canopy cover, and terrain slope were used as dependent variables to model the SRTM DEM error. Finally, these regression models were used to estimate the SRTM DEM error in vegetated mountain areas without LiDAR data coverage, and therefore correct the SRTM DEM. Our results show that the new corrected SRTM DEM can significantly reduce the systematic bias of the SRTM DEM in vegetated mountain areas.

  17. Process for the production of protein enriched fractions from vegetable materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkink, B.H.; Willemsen, J.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for the production of a protein enriched fraction and a fibre enriched fraction from a vegetable material, wherein the vegetable material comprises a total fat content of 0.1 to 22.0 % by dry weight of the total vegetable material and a total starch content of 0.05 to 20 % by dry weight of the total vegetable material, said method comprising the steps of subjecting the vegetable material to (a) a milling process to obtain a vegetable flour and (b) subje...

  18. Process for the production of protein enriched fractions from vegetable materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkink, B.H.; Willemsen, J.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for the production of a protein enriched fraction and a fibre enriched fraction from a vegetable material, wherein the vegetable material comprises a total fat content of 0.1 to 22.0 % by dry weight of the total vegetable material and a total starch content of

  19. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  20. The Design of Embedded Video Supervision System of Vegetable Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Liang, Mingxing; Chen, Weijun; Zhang, Bin

    In order to reinforce the measure of vegetable shed's safety, the S3C44B0X is taken as the main processor chip. The embedded hardware platform is built with a few outer-ring chips, and the network server is structured under the Linux embedded environment, and MPEG4 compression and real time transmission are carried on. The experiment indicates that the video monitoring system can guarantee good effect, which can be applied to the safety of vegetable sheds.

  1. Variation in vegetable production among urban farmers in Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf, O.R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture in Nigerian cities has contributed immensely to provision of fresh vegetables and the overall food security in the urban space. Though this vegetable production takes place throughout the year, resource utilization that contributes to productivity among the various groups of urban cultivators is improperly understood. This paper addresses this issue in Ilorin, focusing on seventy farmers drawn from the two major groups of cultivators; Fadama and Okiti. Data were gathered through the use of focus group discussion (FGD, non participant observation, and questionnaire survey. Tabulation, percentages and trend description were employed in data analysis. Multiple Regression Analysis isolated utilization of pump machine, harvest from vegetable plots, utilization of modern input and type of labour used as the determinants of efficiency with a total percentage contribution of 89.6 to land-use, the major resource. Among the major findings is that the operational scale of Fadama cultivators is larger with a corresponding increase in profit compared to Okiti cultivators. It is also discovered that although the two systems are faced with similar constraints of environmental and inaccessibility to input problems, there exist some fundamental differences based on scale and production efficiency. Some solutions proffered to the identified problem include the recognition and integration of urban farmers into urban land use structure so that they can form cooperatives through which they can access productive inputs.

  2. Influence of atmospheric rivers on vegetation productivity and fire patterns in the southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Christine M.; Dettinger, Michael; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    In the southwestern U.S., the meteorological phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers (ARs) has gained increasing attention due to its strong connections to floods, snowpacks, and water supplies in the West Coast states. Relatively less is known about the ecological implications of ARs, particularly in the interior Southwest, where AR storms are less common. To address this gap, we compared a chronology of AR landfalls on the west coast between 1989 and 2011 and between 25°N and 42.5°N to annual metrics of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an indicator of vegetation productivity) and daily resolution precipitation data to assess influences of AR-fed winter precipitation on vegetation productivity across the southwestern U.S. We mapped correlations between winter AR precipitation during landfalling ARs and (1) annual maximum NDVI and (2) area burned by large wildfires summarized by ecoregion during the same year as the landfalls and during the following year. Interannual variations of AR precipitation strongly influenced both NDVI and area burned by wildfire in some dryland ecoregions. The influence of ARs on dryland vegetation varied significantly depending on the latitude of landfall, with those ARs making landfall below 35°N latitude more strongly influencing these systems, and with effects observed as far as 1300 km from the landfall location. As climatologists' understanding of the synoptic patterns associated with the occurrence of ARs continues to evolve, an increased understanding of how AR landfalls, in aggregate, influence vegetation productivity and associated wildfire activity in dryland ecosystems may provide opportunities to better predict ecological responses to climate and climate change.

  3. Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inglese Paolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms, as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1 strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2 improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing

  4. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J.; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S.

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were p...

  5. Parameterization of High Resolution Vegetation Characteristics using Remote Sensing Products for the Nakdong River Watershed, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Il Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale regional climate models (RCMs, the primary tool for climate predictions, have recently increased in sophistication and are being run at increasingly higher resolutions to be also used in climate impact studies on ecosystems, particularly in agricultural crops. As satellite remote sensing observations of the earth terrestrial surface become available for assimilation in RCMs, it is possible to incorporate complex land surface processes, such as dynamics of state variables for hydrologic, agricultural and ecologic systems at the smaller scales. This study focuses on parameterization of vegetation characteristics specifically designed for high resolution RCM applications using various remote sensing products, such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre-VEGETATION (SPOT-VGT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The primary vegetative parameters, such as land surface characteristics (LCC, fractional vegetation cover (FVC, leaf area index (LAI and surface albedo localization factors (SALF, are currently presented over the Nakdong River Watershed domain, Korea, based on 1-km remote sensing satellite data by using the Geographic Information System (GIS software application tools. For future high resolution RCM modeling efforts on climate-crop interactions, this study has constructed the deriving parameters, such as FVC and SALF, following the existing methods and proposed the new interpolation methods to fill missing data with combining the regression equation and the time series trend function for time-variant parameters, such as LAI and NDVI data at 1-km scale.

  6. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil: Process design, evaluation and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianimanesh Hamid Reza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of reactor performance/configuration of biodiesel production on process parameters (mass & energy consumption, required facilities etc., two diverse production processes (from vegetable oil were implemented/designed using Aspen HYSYS V7.2. Two series reactors were taken into account where overall conversion was set to be 97.7% and 70% in first and second processes respectively. Comparative analysis showed that an increase in conversion yield caused to consumption reduction of oil, methanol, cold energy and hot energy up to 9.1%, 22%, 67.16% and 60.28% respectively; further, a number of facilities (e.g. boiler, heat exchanger, distillation tower were reduced. To reduce mass & energy consumption, mass/heat integration method was employed. Applying integration method showed that in the first design, methanol, cold and hot energy were decreased by 49.81%, 17.46% and 36.17% respectively; while in the second design, oil, methanol, cold and hot energy were decreased by 9%, 60.57% 19.62% and 36.58% respectively.

  7. Transformation of soil and vegetable conditions at oil production territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatina, Evgeniia

    2017-04-01

    On the territory of modern oil production soil, vegetation, ecosystem conditions of the environment are significantly transformed. Researches have been conducted on the oil production territories located in a boreal coniferous forest natural zone from 2005 to 2015. Standard geobotanical and soil methods are used. Mechanical destruction of a plant cover, change of the water conditions, intake of oil products and salty waters in ecosystems, pollution of the atmosphere are considered as the major technology-related factors defining transformation of land ecosystems at operation of the oil field. Under the mechanical destruction of a plant cover the pioneer plant communities are formed. These communities are characterized by most reduced specific wealth with prevalence of types of meadow groups of plants and presence of types of wetland groups of plants. The biodiversity of biocenosis which are affected linear infrastructure facilities of oil production territories and change of the water conditions, decreases. It is observed decrease in species wealth, simplification of structure of communities. Under the salting of soils in ecosystems there is a decrease species diversity of communities to prevalence nitrophilous and meadow plant species. At the increased content of organic substances in the soils that is a consequence of intake of oil products, is characteristic increase in specific richness of communities, introduction of types of wetland and oligotrophic groups of plants in forest communities. Influence depends on distance to an influence source. In process of removal from a source of atmospheric pollution in forest communities there is a decrease in species diversity and complication of structure of community. It is caused by introduction of types of meadow groups of plants in ecotone sites of the forest communities located near a source of influence and restoration of structural features of forest communities in process of removal from an influence source

  8. The commodity systems of four indigenous leafy vegetables in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam). To increase production of traditional leafy vegetables, access to good quality seeds is necessary. Two plantcollecting missions were undertaken throughout Senegal by a multidisciplinary research team. Experimentation on Hibiscus regeneration and characterisation was conducted at ...

  9. Transgenes sustain epigeal insect biodiversity in diversified vegetable farm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T W; Hoheisel, G A; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Fleischer, S J

    2007-02-01

    Many ecological studies have focused on the effects of transgenes in field crops, but few have considered multiple transgenes in diversified vegetable systems. We compared the epigeal, or soil surface-dwelling, communities of Coleoptera and Formicidae between transgenic and isoline vegetable systems consisting of sweet corn, potato, and acorn squash, with transgenic cultivars expressing Cry1(A)b, Cry3, or viral coat proteins. Vegetables were grown in replicated split plots over 2 yr with integrated pest management (IPM) standards defining insecticide use patterns. More than 77.6% of 11,925 insects from 1,512 pitfall traps were identified to species, and activity density was used to compare dominance distribution, species richness, and community composition. Measures of epigeal biodiversity were always equal in transgenic vegetables, which required fewer insecticide applications than their near isolines. There were no differences in species richness between transgenic and isoline treatments at the farm system and individual crop level. Dominance distributions were also similar between transgenic and isoline farming systems. Crop type, and not genotype, had a significant influence on Carabidae and Staphylinidae community composition in the first year, but there were no treatment effects in the second year, possibly because of homogenizing effects of crop rotations. Communities were more influenced by crop type, and possibly crop rotation, than by genotype. The heterogeneity of crops and rotations in diversified vegetable farms seems to aid in preserving epigeal biodiversity, which may be supplemented by reductions in insecticide use associated with transgenic cultivars.

  10. Economics of Dry Season Vegetable Production by Women Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to analyze the economics of dry season vegetable farming among women farmers in Owerri West local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 50 randomly selected dry season women vegetable farmers. Data were analyzed ...

  11. Qualidade do solo em sistemas de produção de hortaliças orgânico e convencional Soil quality in organic and conventional vegetables production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Valarini

    2011-12-01

    . The research was carried out in Ibiúna and Socorro, São Paulo state, Brazil, in organic and conventional production, on small and family farms. Physical, chemical and biochemical parameters were evaluated during 2006 and 2007 in soils under vegetable cultivation, native forest or fallow, taken as reference of natural soil. Agricultural practices data were collected in each production system. The obtained data were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA. There was no pronounced grouping trend according to the production system, organic or conventional, but there was a grouping according to the soil use (forest/fallow land or cultivation. The PCA identified greater degree of similarity between Socorro's cultivation soil and its respective controls compared to Ibiuna's soil, clearly separated according to its use (forest or cropping, indicating better soil management in Socorro. In general, the results allow to conclude that agricultural practices in most of both organic and conventional production systems, caused soil degradation, due to, mainly, intensive soil tillage and no soil mulching, as indicated by the reduction of soil organic matter, microbial biomass, plant emergence and aggregate stability in cultivated areas relative to control ones.

  12. Remotely Sensed Northern Vegetation Response to Changing Climate: Growing Season and Productivity Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Park, Taejin; Choi, Sungho; Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of seasonal total gross primary productivity of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts on growing season and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we first investigate how vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthesis state are evolved and how such components contribute on inter-annual variation of seasonal total gross primary productivity. Furthermore, seasonally different response of northern vegetation to changing temperature and water availability is also investigated. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed data to extract larger scale growing season metrics (growing season start, end and duration) and productivity (i.e., growing season summed vegetation index, GSSVI) for answering these questions. We find that regionally diverged growing season shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity inter-annual variability and trend. Also seasonally different response of vegetation gives different view of spatially varying interaction between vegetation and climate. These results highlight spatially and temporally varying vegetation dynamics and are reflective of biome-specific responses of northern vegetation to changing climate.

  13. Pesticide governance in export supply chains: the case of vegetable and fruit production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of international agrofood supply chains in greening vegetable and fruit products and production in Vietnam. Mainly through contract-based procurement, the export- oriented vegetable and fruit supply chain is better structured and organized than the domestic supply chain.

  14. Yield estimation using SPOT-VEGETATION products: A case study of wheat in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalik, W.; Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Meroni, M.; Raczka, T.U.; Wit, de A.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    In the period 1999-2009 ten-day SPOT-VEGETATION products of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) at 1 km spatial resolution were used in order to estimate and forecast the wheat yield over Europe. The products were

  15. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  16. Improvement of the Raman detection system for pesticide residues on/in fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Peng, Yankun; Zhai, Chen; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    Pesticide residue is one of the major challenges to fruits safety, while the traditional detection methods of pesticide residue on fruits and vegetables can't afford the demand of rapid detection in actual production because of timeconsuming. Thus rapid identification and detection methods for pesticide residue are urgently needed at present. While most Raman detection systems in the market are spot detection systems, which limits the range of application. In the study, our lab develops a Raman detection system to achieve area-scan thorough the self-developed spot detection Raman system with a control software and two devices. In the system, the scanning area is composed of many scanning spots, which means every spot needs to be detected and more time will be taken than area-scan Raman system. But lower detection limit will be achieved in this method. And some detection device is needed towards fruits and vegetables in different shape. Two detection devices are developed to detect spherical fruits and leaf vegetables. During the detection, the device will make spherical fruit rotate along its axis of symmetry, and leaf vegetables will be pressed in the test surface smoothly. The detection probe will be set to keep a proper distance to the surface of fruits and vegetables. It should make sure the laser shins on the surface of spherical fruit vertically. And two software are used to detect spherical fruits and leaf vegetables will be integrated to one, which make the operator easier to switch. Accordingly two detection devices for spherical fruits and leaf vegetables will also be portable devices to make it easier to change. In the study, a new way is developed to achieve area-scan result by spot-scan Raman detection system.

  17. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  18. Valuation of vegetable crops produced in the UVI Commercial Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Bailey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The UVI Commercial Aquaponic System is designed to produce fish and vegetables in a recirculating aquaculture system. The integration of these systems intensifies production in a small land area, conserves water, reduces waste discharged into the environment, and recovers nutrients from fish production into valuable vegetable crops. A standard protocol has been developed for the production of tilapia yielding 5 MT per annum. The production of many vegetable crops has also been studied but, because of specific growth patterns and differences of marketable product, no single protocol can be promoted. Each crop yields different value per unit area and this must be considered when selecting varieties to produce to provide the highest returns to the farmer. Variables influencing the value of a crop are density (plants/m2, yield (unit or kg, production period (weeks and unit value ($. Combining these variables to one unit, $/m2/week, provides a common point for comparison among crops. Farmers can focus production efforts on the most valuable crops or continue to produce a variety of crops meeting market demand with the knowledge that each does not contribute equally to profitability.

  19. Petroleum production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, M.J.; Hill, A.D.; Ehlig-Economides, C.

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum production engineering attempts to maximize production in two connected systems, the reservoir and the artificial structures related to a well field. Determining whether it is economically feasible to drill a discovered source requires a familiarity with a variety of topics and theories. This book devotes the first six chapters to these concepts, including production from undersaturated oil reserves, production from two-phase reservoirs, production from natural gas reservoirs, skin effects, and gravel pack completions. The second part of the production engineer`s mission is maximization of output in the artificial structures, which include the well, bottomhole, and wellhead assemblies, and the surface gathering, separation, and storage facilities. This general system is discussed throughout the remainder of the book. Chapter topics include wellbore flow performance, forecast of well production, well test design and data acquisition, matrix acidizing, hydraulic fracturing for well simulation, gas lift, and systems analysis.

  20. Reanalysis of global terrestrial vegetation trends from MODIS products: Browning or greening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulong Zhang; Conghe Song; Lawrence E. Band; Ge Sun; Junxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Accurately monitoring global vegetation dynamics with modern remote sensing is critical for understanding the functions and processes of the biosphere and its interactions with the planetary climate. The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) product has been a primary data source for this purpose. To date, theMODIS teamhad released...

  1. Evaluating Soil Compaction for an Annual Winter Grazing/Vegetable Production Rotation in North-Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraded soils of Alabama have demonstrated the ability to respond well to conservation tillage in a large variety of crops. Winter annual grazing/sod-based rotations with summer vegetable production can offer reduced economic risks for producers but may change tillage requirements for vegetable pro...

  2. Innovativeness in production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    Alignment of market demand and manufacturing capabilities are directly linked to the potential competitive advantage. Pressure for manufacturing companies to customize increase the need for productions systems to handle innovations, especially in SMEs. The paper claims that innovativeness has...... a positive influence of the ability of the manufacturing system to provide specific capabilities that enables the entire production system to positively influence the competitiveness. A comparative case study of three SMEs shows that competitive advantages are obtained through innovative technologies...

  3. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  4. Perspective: Animal-vegetation relations which optimise production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad objective is to improve the standard of living of farmers/herders through identification of complementary vegetation-use under mixed animal species grazing. This paper aims to (1) review mixed-grazing research and development carried out in Ireland and in the semi-arid Senegalese Sahel; (2) evaluate results in ...

  5. Vegetable production in Togo and potential impact of pesticide use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In West Africa, market gardening is considered one of the sectors in agriculture that consumes lots of pesticides. In order to study (i) the principal protection practices of vegetables and (ii) the inherent environmental risks to pesticide use practices, a survey was carried in Togo from 2010 to 2011. A random selection of 161 ...

  6. Fruit and Vegetable Co-Products as Functional Feed Ingredients in Farm Animal Nutrition for Improved Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kasapidou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant environmental, economic and social factors favoring the reutilization of fruit and vegetable processing co-products in farm animal nutrition. Current evidence shows that fruit and vegetable processing co-products can be effectively used in farm animal nutrition as functional feed ingredients for the production of food products of improved quality. These ingredients comply with consumer requests for the production of “clean,” “natural” and “eco/green” label food products. The main parameters affecting extensive application of fruit and vegetable processing by-/co-products as functional feed ingredients in livestock nutrition are related to animal factors, logistics, and commercial value. Further research is needed to enable the commercial application of these products to livestock nutrition.

  7. Can conservation tillage reduce N2O emissions on cropland transitioning to organic vegetable production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guihua; Kolb, Lauren; Cavigelli, Michel A; Weil, Ray R; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2017-10-27

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and a catalyst of stratospheric ozone decay. Agricultural soils are the source of 75% of anthropogenic N2O emissions globally. Recently, significant attention has been directed at examining effects of conservation tillage on carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. However, limited knowledge is available regarding how these practices impact N2O emissions, especially for organic vegetable production systems. In this context, a three-year study was conducted in a well-drained sandy loam field transitioning to organic vegetable production in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of USA to investigate impacts of conservation tillage [strip till (ST) and no-till (NT)] and conventional tillage (CT) [with black plastic mulch (CT-BP) and bare-ground (CT-BG)] on N2O emissions. Each year, a winter cover crop mixture (forage radish: Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus, crimson clover: Trifolium incarnatum L., and rye: Secale cereale L.) was grown and flail-mowed in the spring. Nearly 80% of annual N2O-nitrogen (N) emissions occurred during the vegetable growing season for all treatments. Annual N2O-N emissions were greater in CT-BP than in ST and NT, and greater in CT-BG than in NT, but not different between CT-BG and CT-BP, ST and NT, or CT-BG and ST. Conventional tillage promoted N mineralization and plastic mulch increased soil temperature, which contributed to greater N2O-N fluxes. Though water filled porosity in NT was higher and correlated well with N2O-N fluxes, annual N2O-N emissions were lowest in NT suggesting a lack of substrates for nitrification and denitrification processes. Crop yield was lowest in NT in Year 1 and CT-BP in Year 3 but yield-scaled N2O-N emissions were consistently greatest in CT-BP and lowest in NT each year. Our results suggest that for coarse-textured soils in the coastal plain with winter cover crops, conservation tillage practices may reduce N2O emissions in organic vegetable production

  8. Light use efficiency for vegetables production in protected and indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocetta, Giacomo; Casciani, Daria; Bulgari, Roberta; Musante, Fulvio; Kołton, Anna; Rossi, Maurizio; Ferrante, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there is a growing interest for vegetables production in indoor or disadvantaged climatic zones by using greenhouses. The main problem of crop growing indoor or in environment with limited light availability is the correct choice of light source and the quality of lighting spectrum. In greenhouse and indoor cultivations, plant density is higher than in the open field and plants have to compete for light and nutrients. Nowadays, advanced systems for indoor horticulture use light emitting diodes (LED) for improving crop growth, enhancing the plant productivity and favouring the best nutritional quality formation. In closed environments, as indoor growing modules, the lighting system represents the only source of light and its features are fundamental for obtaining the best lighting performances for plant and the most efficient solution. LED lighting engines are more efficient compared to the lighting sources used traditionally in horticulture and allow light spectrum and intensity modulations to enhance the light use efficiency for plants. The lighting distribution and the digital controls are fundamental for tailoring the spectral distribution on each plant in specific moments of its growth and play an important role for optimizing growth and produce high-quality vegetables. LED lights can increase plant growth and yield, but also nutraceutical quality, since some light intensities increase pigments biosynthesis and enhance the antioxidants content of leaves or fruits: in this regards the selection of LED primary light sources in relation to the peaks of the absorbance curve of the plants is important.

  9. Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA has identified solvent extraction for vegetable oil production processes as major sources of a single hazardous air pollutant (HAP), n-hexane. Learn more about the rule requirements and regulations, as well as find compliance help

  10. THE SUMMARY REPORT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATIONS ON BREEDING AND SEED PRODUCTION IN THE ALLJRUSSIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF VEGETABLE BREEDING AND SEED PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. F. Pivovarov; O. N. Pishnaya; L. K. Gurkina

    2013-01-01

    The main directions and new achievements of the research investigations on vegetable breeding and seed production carried on the All'Russian Research Institute of vegetable breedingand seed production are shown.

  11. Technical aspects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Janahiraman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has gained significant attention due to the finite nature of fossil energy sources and does not produce sulfur oxides and minimize the soot particulate in comparison with the existing one from petroleum diesel. The utilization of liquid fuels such as biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification process represents one of the most promising options for the use of conventional fossil fuels. In the first step of this experimental research, edible rice bran oil used as test material and converted into methyl ester and non-edible jatropha vegetable oil is converted into jatropha oil methyl ester, which are known as biodiesel and they are prepared in the presence of homogeneous acid catalyst and optimized their operating parameters like reaction temperature, quantity of alcohol and the catalyst requirement, stirring rate and time of esterification. In the second step, the physical properties such as density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, and pour point were found out for the above vegetable oils and their methyl esters. The same characteristics study was also carried out for the diesel fuel for obtaining the baseline data for analysis. The values obtained from the rice bran oil methyl ester and jatropha oil methyl ester are closely matched with the values of conventional diesel and it can be used in the existing diesel engine without any hardware modification. In the third step the storage characteristics of biodiesel are also studied. .

  12. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  13. Assessment of farmers’ knowledge on fertilizer usage for peri-urban vegetable production in the Sunyani Municipality, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Dadzie, Frederick Asankom; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2015-01-01

    farmers’ knowledge on fertilizer usage for intensive vegetable production in peri-urban areas in Ghana where production and marketing of vegetables cause significant export of nutrients from farms. Data were collected from 180 peri-urban vegetable growers in Abesim and Yawhima in the Sunyani Municipality...... services, the media, and at the point of sales are recommended to improve sustainable use of fertilizers for peri-urban vegetable production....

  14. Defining product service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2002-01-01

    , for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the product as an artefact with the service that the product provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical...... artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the product. This enables a series of potential improvements to the product´s performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of product service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer......, company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...

  15. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  16. Investigation of vegetation with multifrequency and multipolarization SAR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Rudolf; Roth, Achim; Bayer, Thomas

    1990-05-01

    Investigations of vegetation is conducted by synergism of different types of digital image data and models. As a standard application, satellite images are digitally coregistered with existant topographical data and stored in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The usefulness of multiparametric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data for vegetation mapping is discussed. The multifrequency aspects requires precise geocoding. Different application fields with recent results are discussed: forest investigations with SIR (Spaceborne Imaging Radar)-B data in the southern Rhine valley ; extraction of landuse categories in landscape units using two geocoded Seasat-SAR scenes in the area of Bonn; relief effects on image gray values in geocoded Seasat-SAR images; the concept of a remote sensing data base for ecological applications.

  17. Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Macharia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of pesticide-related cost of illness (COI and acute symptoms, using a balanced panel of 363 farmers interviewed from seven major vegetable producing districts of Kenya. Finding shows that the incidences of pesticide-related health impairments have increased. Variation in number of symptoms and symptom severity significantly explained COI. The personal protective equipment (PPE, education level, record keeping, and geographical location considerably determined health impairments. Encouraging the proper use of PPE and record keeping of pesticide use could greatly reduce poisoning cases and COI.

  18. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  19. Uncertainty analysis of the SPOT 4 VEGETATION and MODIS surface reflectance products, and its impact on vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Myers, J.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) are used to monitor the spatial and temporal variations of global vegetation. They provide essential measurements for climate, phenology, and land cover change detection. VIs are typically determined from surface reflectance data that are collected using spaceborne platforms. In order to understand the uncertainty of long-term data records, it is important to understand the uncertainty of the inputs that are used to determine the VIs. The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona uses the reflectance-based approach to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of airborne and satellite sensors in the solar-reflective regime. During a typical field campaign, measurements of the atmosphere and surface are made during a sensor overpass. The surface reflectance is measured using a portable spectroradiometer that operates from 400-2500 nm. This work uses in situ data that were obtained at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, and Railroad Valley, Nevada. The surface reflectance data are compared to those reported by SPOT 4 VEGETATION and both MODIS sensors to acquire an understanding of the uncertainty in the VI data product.

  20. Production of vegetal oil for energetic purposes; Producao de oleo vegetal com fins energeticos a partir de oleoginosas perenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Pinto, R. de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PQ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    The technology to obtain vegetable oil from trans esterification is already dominated. However, the oil grain`s cultures of annual cycle (soy-beans, peanuts, sunflowers) demand fertile and plain lands, which actually ought to be destined for food production, The utilization of slope wise areas, which are often destroyed by means of burning, for the reforestation with perennial oily trees which will be subject for further experimental researches, is studied. Particularly, the studies involves the cultivation of avocado`s varieties, which present pulps with a high oil concentration, in regions of temperate climates. It also involves an analysis of the high productivity and various difficulties to be surpassed, since the development of a simple procedure for thr oils and by-products extraction (in rural properties), until genetic developments of new avocado`s kinds, in order to achieve a better adaptation to the regions climate and to contain a higher oil concentration. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  1. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  2. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  3. The transgenosis main directions in vegetable and melon production: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with priority directions of vegetable and melon plants selection. The wide varieties of alien genetic information transferring methods during the transgenic plants creation of vegetable and melon species are grounded. The essence of the new hybrids identification method as genetic engineering products: kind of cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, zucchini, lettuce seed, pea Pisum sativum, common bean, eggplant and capsicum is revealed. The transgenosis main directions of botanical taxa varieties of vegetable and melon plants on condition of the international and national practice holding are proved. The international practice of the state approbation and registration of genetically engineered structures in biological objects (plant varieties and in their processed products are studied. A monitoring about food and pharmaceutical substances based on genetically modified varieties and hybrids structures of vegetable and melon plants have been held.

  4. Effect of management systems and cover crops on organic matter dynamics of soil under vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production in conservation tillage has increased in Brazil, with positive effects on the soil quality. Since management systems alter the quantity and quality of organic matter, this study evaluated the influence of different management systems and cover crops on the organic matter dynamics of a dystrophic Red Latosol under vegetables. The treatments consisted of the combination of three soil tillage systems: no-tillage (NT, reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT and of two cover crops: maize monoculture and maize-mucuna intercrop. Vegetables were grown in the winter and the cover crops in the summer for straw production. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected between the crop rows in three layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m twice: in October, before planting cover crops for straw, and in July, during vegetable cultivation. The total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, oxidizable fractions, and the carbon fractions fulvic acid (C FA, humic acid (C HA and humin (C HUM were determined. The main changes in these properties occurred in the upper layers (0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m where, in general, TOC levels were highest in NT with maize straw. The MBC levels were lowest in CT systems, indicating sensitivity to soil disturbance. Under mucuna, the levels of C HA were lower in RT than NT systems, while the C FA levels were lower in RT than CT. For vegetable production, the C HUM values were lowest in the 0.05-0.10 m layer under CT. With regard to the oxidizable fractions, the tillage systems differed only in the most labile C fractions, with higher levels in NT than CT in the 0.0-0.05 m layer in both summer and winter, with no differences between these systems in the other layers. The cabbage yield was not influenced by the soil management system, but benefited from the mulch production of the preceding maize-mucuna intercrop as cover

  5. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S

    2017-09-23

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were parameterized to identify agricultural land areas meeting crop-specific growing requirements for monthly precipitation and temperature; soil depth and type; cropland availability; and proximity to existing production centers. The results of these analyses demonstrate that crop production can be expanded by nearly 144,000 ha within existing national production centers, generating an additional 0.05 cup-equivalents of fruits and vegetables per capita per day, representing a 1.7% increase above current total F&V availability. Expanding the size of national crop production centers can further increase the availability of all F&V by 2.5%-5.4%, which is still less than the recommended amount. Challenges to increasing F&V production in the US include lack of labor availability, barriers to adoption among producers, and threats to crop yields from environmental concerns.

  6. Comparison between remote sensing and a dynamic vegetation model for estimating terrestrial primary production of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    Africa is an important part of the global carbon cycle. It is also a continent facing potential problems due to increasing resource demand in combination with climate change-induced changes in resource supply. Quantifying the pools and fluxes constituting the terrestrial African carbon cycle is a challenge, because of uncertainties in meteorological driver data, lack of validation data, and potentially uncertain representation of important processes in major ecosystems. In this paper, terrestrial primary production estimates derived from remote sensing and a dynamic vegetation model are compared and quantified for major African land cover types. Continental gross primary production estimates derived from remote sensing were higher than corresponding estimates derived from a dynamic vegetation model. However, estimates of continental net primary production from remote sensing were lower than corresponding estimates from the dynamic vegetation model. Variation was found among land cover classes, and the largest differences in gross primary production were found in the evergreen broadleaf forest. Average carbon use efficiency (NPP/GPP) was 0.58 for the vegetation model and 0.46 for the remote sensing method. Validation versus in situ data of aboveground net primary production revealed significant positive relationships for both methods. A combination of the remote sensing method with the dynamic vegetation model did not strongly affect this relationship. Observed significant differences in estimated vegetation productivity may have several causes, including model design and temperature sensitivity. Differences in carbon use efficiency reflect underlying model assumptions. Integrating the realistic process representation of dynamic vegetation models with the high resolution observational strength of remote sensing may support realistic estimation of components of the carbon cycle and enhance resource monitoring, providing suitable validation data is available.

  7. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  8. Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHofmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing numbers of outbreaks caused by the consumption of vegetables contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria were reported. The application of organic fertilizers during vegetable production is one of the possible reasons for contamination with those pathogens. In this study laboratory experiments in axenic and soil systems following common practices in organic farming were conducted to identify the minimal dose needed for bacterial colonization of plants and to identify possible factors like bacterial species or serovariation, plant species or organic fertilizer types used, influencing the success of plant colonization by human pathogenic bacteria. Spinach and corn salad were chosen as model plants and were inoculated with different concentrations of Salmonella enterica sv. Weltevreden, Listeria monocytogenes sv. 4b and EGD-E sv. 1/2a either directly (axenic system or via agricultural soil amended with spiked organic fertilizers (soil system. In addition to PCR- and culture-based detection methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was applied in order to localize bacteria on or in plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that shoots were colonized by the pathogenic bacteria at inoculation doses as low as 4x10CFU/ml in the axenic system or 4x105CFU/g in the soil system. In addition, plant species dependent effects were observed. Spinach was colonized more often and at lower inoculation doses compared to corn salad. Differential colonization sites on roots, depending on the plant species could be detected using FISH-CLSM analysis. Furthermore, the transfer of pathogenic bacteria to plants via organic fertilizers was observed more often and at lower initial inoculation doses when fertilization was performed with inoculated slurry compared to inoculated manure. Finally, it could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in

  9. Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Fischer, Doreen; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of outbreaks caused by the consumption of vegetables contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria were reported. The application of organic fertilizers during vegetable production is one of the possible reasons for contamination with those pathogens. In this study laboratory experiments in axenic and soil systems following common practices in organic farming were conducted to identify the minimal dose needed for bacterial colonization of plants and to identify possible factors like bacterial species or serovariation, plant species or organic fertilizer types used, influencing the success of plant colonization by human pathogenic bacteria. Spinach and corn salad were chosen as model plants and were inoculated with different concentrations of Salmonella enterica sv. Weltevreden, Listeria monocytogenes sv. 4b and EGD-E sv. 1/2a either directly (axenic system) or via agricultural soil amended with spiked organic fertilizers (soil system). In addition to PCR- and culture-based detection methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied in order to localize bacteria on or in plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that shoots were colonized by the pathogenic bacteria at inoculation doses as low as 4 × 10 CFU/ml in the axenic system or 4 × 105 CFU/g in the soil system. In addition, plant species dependent effects were observed. Spinach was colonized more often and at lower inoculation doses compared to corn salad. Differential colonization sites on roots, depending on the plant species could be detected using FISH-CLSM analysis. Furthermore, the transfer of pathogenic bacteria to plants via organic fertilizers was observed more often and at lower initial inoculation doses when fertilization was performed with inoculated slurry compared to inoculated manure. Finally, it could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in some cases

  10. Microscale vegetation-soil feedback boosts hysteresis in a regional vegetation-climate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.H.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a positive feedback between vegetation cover and monsoon circulation may lead to the existence of two alternative stable states in the Sahara region: a vegetated state with moderate precipitation and a desert state with low precipitation. This could explain the sudden

  11. Studies on biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that the highest weekly individual production rate is recorded for the cow dung (control) slurry with average production of 1554 cm3, followed by pineapple waste which had 965 cm3 of biogas, then by orange waste which had 612cm3 of biogas, lastly, pumpkin and spinach wastes had 373 cm3 and ...

  12. The fire-vegetation-climate system: how ecology can contribute to earth system science

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of Darwin, Wallace and Schimper, botanists and ecologists have been interested in understanding the global distribution of vegetation. Such questions are becoming more pressing as Earth System modellers attempt to predict the current...

  13. GigaUnit Transplant System: A New Mechanical Tool for Transplanting Submerged Aquatic Vegetation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J

    2008-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) performs many important ecosystem functions, including wave attenuation and sediment stabilization, water quality improvement, primary production, food web support for secondary consumers...

  14. Towards sustainable vegetable production around agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Segnon, Alcade C.; Saïdou, Aliou; Mensah, Guy A.; Aarts, Noelle; Zijpp, van der Akke J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitation and optimized utilization of agro-pastoral dams (APDs), especially for vegetable production, has been recently promoted to boost agricultural production and ensure food security in Benin. However, little information was available on APDs' agricultural potentials and

  15. Impacts Of Loss Of Vegetation Influenced By Crop Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of Students T-test analysis at 95% confidence interval showed that there were significant differences in availability of forest products in the past compared ... The study also revealed that arable farmers from the study area are not sufficiently aware that removal of tree species from their farm lands could result in land ...

  16. LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Griesbaum, Luisa; Kiefer, Andreas; Hämmerle, Martin; Eitel, Jan; Koma, Zsófia

    2015-04-01

    lacks behind. We propose a novel concept, the LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA), which shall enhance sharing of i) reference datasets of single vegetation objects with rich reference data (e.g., plant species, basic plant morphometric information) and ii) approaches for information extraction (e.g., single tree detection, tree species classification based on waveform LiDAR features). We will build an extensive LiDAR data repository for supporting the development and benchmarking of LiDAR-based object information extraction. The LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA) uses international web service standards (Open Geospatial Consortium, OGC) for geospatial data access and also analysis (e.g., OGC Web Processing Services). This will allow the research community identifying plant object specific vegetation features from LiDAR data, while accounting for differences in LiDAR systems (e.g., beam divergence), settings (e.g., point spacing), and calibration techniques. It is the goal of LVISA to develop generic 3D information extraction approaches, which can be seamlessly transferred to other datasets, timestamps and also extraction tasks. The current prototype of LVISA can be visited and tested online via http://uni-heidelberg.de/lvisa. Video tutorials provide a quick overview and entry into the functionality of LVISA. We will present the current advances of LVISA and we will highlight future research and extension of LVISA, such as integrating low-cost LiDAR data and datasets acquired by highly temporal scanning of vegetation (e.g., continuous measurements). Everybody is invited to join the LVISA development and share datasets and analysis approaches in an interoperable way via the web-based LVISA geoportal.

  17. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  18. Design of electric control system for automatic vegetable bundling machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan

    2017-06-01

    A design can meet the requirements of automatic bale food structure and has the advantages of simple circuit, and the volume is easy to enhance the electric control system of machine carrying bunch of dishes and low cost. The bundle of vegetable machine should meet the sensor to detect and control, in order to meet the control requirements; binding force can be adjusted by the button to achieve; strapping speed also can be adjusted, by the keys to set; sensors and mechanical line connection, convenient operation; can be directly connected with the plug, the 220V power supply can be connected to a power source; if, can work, by the transmission signal sensor, MCU to control the motor, drive and control procedures for small motor. The working principle of LED control circuit and temperature control circuit is described. The design of electric control system of automatic dish machine.

  19. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 1; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Schull, Mitchell A.; Samanta, Arindam; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multi-decade long Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from remote sensing measurements of multiple sensors is key to monitoring long-term changes in vegetation due to natural and anthropogenic influences. Challenges in developing such ESDRs include problems in remote sensing science (modeling of variability in global vegetation, scaling, atmospheric correction) and sensor hardware (differences in spatial resolution, spectral bands, calibration, and information content). In this paper, we develop a physically based approach for deriving LAI and FPAR products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data that are of comparable quality to the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products, thus realizing the objective of producing a long (multi-decadal) time series of these products. The approach is based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants which facilitates parameterization of the canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The methodology permits decoupling of the structural and radiometric components and obeys the energy conservation law. The approach is applicable to any optical sensor, however, it requires selection of sensor-specific values of configurable parameters, namely, the single scattering albedo and data uncertainty. According to the theory of spectral invariants, the single scattering albedo is a function of the spatial scale, and thus, accounts for the variation in BRF with sensor spatial resolution. Likewise, the single scattering albedo accounts for the variation in spectral BRF with sensor bandwidths. The second adjustable parameter is data uncertainty, which accounts for varying information content of the remote sensing measurements, i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, low information content), vs. spectral BRF (higher

  20. Interactions between herbivory and warming in aboveground biomass production of arctic vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Christian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies investigating the ecosystem effects of global climate change have focused on arctic ecosystems because the Arctic is expected to undergo the earliest and most pronounced changes in response to increasing global temperatures, and arctic ecosystems are considerably limited by low temperatures and permafrost. In these nutrient limited systems, a warmer climate is expected to increase plant biomass production, primarily through increases in shrubs over graminoids and forbs. But, the influence of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores has been largely absent in studies investigating the effects of vegetation responses to climate change, despite the fact that herbivory can have a major influence on plant community composition, biomass and nutrient cycling. Here, we present results from a multi-annual field experiment investigating the effects of vertebrate herbivory on plant biomass response to simulated climate warming in arctic Greenland. Results The results after four years of treatments did not give any clear evidence of increased biomass of shrubs in response climate warming. Nor did our study indicate that vertebrate grazing mediated any increased domination of shrubs over other functional plant groups in response to warming. However, our results indicate an important role of insect outbreaks on aboveground biomass. Intense caterpillar foraging from a two-year outbreak of the moth Eurois occulta during two growing seasons may have concealed any treatment effects. However, there was some evidence suggesting that vertebrate herbivores constrain the biomass production of shrubs over graminoids and forbs. Conclusion Although inconclusive, our results were likely constrained by the overwhelming influence of an unexpected caterpillar outbreak on aboveground biomass. It is likely that the role of large vertebrate herbivores in vegetation response to warming will become more evident as this experiment proceeds and the

  1. An RFID-Based Tracing and Tracking System for the Fresh Vegetables Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mainetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative gapless traceability system able to improve the main business processes of the fresh vegetables supply chain. The performed analysis highlighted some critical aspects in the management of the whole supply chain, from the land to the table of the end consumer, and allowed us to reengineer the most important processes. In particular, the first steps of the supply chain, which include cultivation in greenhouses and manufacturing of packaged vegetables, were analyzed. The re-engineered model was designed by exploiting the potentialities derived from the combined use of innovative Radio Frequency technologies, such as RFID and NFC, and important international standards, such as EPCglobal. The proposed tracing and tracking system allows the end consumer to know the complete history of the purchased product. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the potential benefits of the reengineered processes in a real supply chain, a pilot project was implemented in an Italian food company, which produces ready-to-eat vegetables, known as IV gamma products. Finally, some important metrics have been chosen to carry out the analysis of the potential benefits derived from the use of the re-engineered model.

  2. Multiple States in the Vegetation-Atmosphere System during the Early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, U.; Claussen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Model simulations suggest that different initial conditions can lead to multiple stable vegetation-atmosphere states in the present-day Sahara. Here, we explore the stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system in the warm, nearly ice-free early Eocene climate. Using the MPI-ESM, we simulate the early Eocene vegetation starting from two different states: Continents are either completely covered by forest or completely barren, devoid of any vegetation. The soil albedo is similar to vegetation albedo. Hence, the albedo effect of vegetation is negligible. Without the albedo effect, the Charney effect which is suggested to cause multiple stable vegetation states in the present-day Sahara is absent. In our simulations, the hydrological effect of vegetation plays the major role. We perform the same simulations with preindustrial conditions to compare the stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system in both climate states. A desert evolves in Central Asia in both early Eocene simulations. This Asian desert is larger when the simulation starts from bare soil instead forest. Bare soil causes a dry climate in Central Asia in the beginning of the simulation. In the dry climate, vegetation does not establish. Forest enhances evaporation relative to bare soil leading to a stronger Asian monsoon and higher precipitation rates. The increased precipitation sustains plant growth and a smaller Asian desert evolves than in the simulation started from bare soil. Moreover, the stronger Asian monsoon affects global climate. Therefore, the two vegetation states in Central Asia accompany two globally different vegetation-atmosphere states. In the preindustrial climate, the Sahara is larger when the initial vegetation is bare soil instead of forest. The same hydrological effect causes the multiple vegetation states the Sahara as in the early Eocene Asian desert. However, the multiple stable vegetation states in the Sahara do not affect the global climate. This result emphasises that the

  3. Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST-thermal desorption (TD method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS and flame ionization detector (FID, consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99. This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris, tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37% for carrot, while it was myrcene (31% for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  4. Socio-Economic Determinants of Irrigated Vegetable Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The multinomial logit result indicated that while sources of fund were positively and highly significantly related to the probability of the farmer practicing traditional (bucket) and small pump irrigation system, farmer's income was negatively signed and highly significantly related to the probability of practicing traditional ...

  5. Metop ASCAT soil moisture product: Calibration of the vegetation correction parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sebastian; Melzer, Thomas; Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In this study we investigated the calibration of the vegetation correction parameters in the TU Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm. Unlike conventional soil moisture retrieval techniques used for space-borne microwave instruments, the TU Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm represents a change detection method. The algorithm accounts for heterogeneous land cover and for the effects of vegetation based on empirically derived model parameters. The optimal choice of these parameters can be supported by calibrating the model using external reference data sets. In the past, external data sets have not been used unless they are indispensable to correct or improve the model output (e.g. wet correction in desert environment). Three different study areas (South-East U.S., Central Europe and South-East Australia) were tested to see whether the vegetation correction parameters can be calibrated using in-situ soil moisture information or soil moisture from land surface models. The experiments show that an enhanced vegetation correction leads to a better quality of the Metop ASCAT soil moisture time series signal. Our study demonstrates the need to calibrate the vegetation parametrization in order to remove remaining vegetation effects in the Metop ASCAT soil moisture product.

  6. Leaf vegetables for use in integrated hydroponics and aquaculture systems: Effects of root flooding on growth, mineral composition and nutrient uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Schierup, Hans-Henrik; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture and hydroponics systems, the waste products from fish production are used to produce vegetables or other crops of economic value, and the water is recirculated to the fish tanks. We studied growth, productivity and nutrient uptake of four leaf vegetable species (Lactuca sativa, Ipomoea aquatica, Brassica rapa var. chinensis and Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) in a controlled growth experiment with three root flooding treatments (drained, half-flooded and flooded...

  7. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  8. Institutional economic analysis of vegetable production and marketing in northern Philippines: social capital, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milagrosa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines vegetable production and marketing among indigenous communities in northernPhilippinesusing an institutional economics approach. It develops a framework that analyses the four levels of

  9. Supplying Vegetables to Asian Cities: Is there a Case for Peri-Urban Production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midmore, D.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the dynamic interplay between peri-urban vegetable producers and their changing production and marketing environments in Asia, using examples from urban conglomerates in South, Southeast and East Asia. We discuss income generation, labour use, management of land and water

  10. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) Vegetation Volume Index: An assessment tool for marsh habitat focused on the three-dimensional structure at CRMS vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Hundy, Laura C.; McGinnis, Tommy E.

    2015-12-04

    A Vegetation Volume (VV) variable and Vegetation Volume Index (VVI) have been developed for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The VV is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional vegetative structure present at each CRMS site and is based on vegetation data collected annually. The VV uses 10 stations per CRMS site to quantify four vegetation layers: carpet, herbaceous, shrub, and tree. For each layer an overall live vegetation percent cover and height are collected to create a layer volume; the individual layer volumes are then summed to generate a site vegetation volume profile. The VV uses the two-dimensional area of live vegetative cover (in square meters) multiplied by the height (in meters) of each layer to produce a volume (in cubic meters) for each layer present in a 2-meter by 2-meter station. These layers are additive, yielding a total volume for each of the 10 herbaceous vegetation stations and an overall CRMS marsh site average.

  11. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  12. Influence of spontaneous vegetation in stormwater infiltration system clogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Barraud, Sylvie; Bedell, Jean-Philippe

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents the role of spontaneous vegetation on the hydraulic performance of an infiltration basin. The objective of the research was more particularly to study this role of different types of spontaneous vegetation found in situ in an infiltration basin near Lyon. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of three areas covered by Phalaris arundinacea, Polygonum mite, Rumex crispus and similar non-vegetated zones was compared. Eight field campaigns were carried out from July 2010 to May 2011 in order to compare the performance of each type of vegetation and its evolution over time. The results suggest a positive impact of vegetation on hydraulic performance in particular in summer during the growth of the plants. The hydraulic conductivity in this period was twice to four times higher than in bare areas or in vegetated zones during the plant rest periods. Some species were also found more appropriate to limit clogging (Phalaris arundinacea) likely due to its specific structure and growth process.

  13. Exploring options for sustainable farming systems development for vegetable family farmers in Uruguay using a modeling toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Aguerre, V.; Abbas, A.; Albin, A.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and environmental sustainability of family-based vegetable production systems in south Uruguay are seriously compromised after two decades of net decreasing prices and strategies based on specialization and intensification. This paper presents a model-based exploration of alternative

  14. The need for integration in the supply chain of vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Jelsøe, Erling; Boelt, Birte

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges in food production is to ensure sufficient food and feed globally. In order to overcome food shortages there is a current need for a better integration in the supply chain of food production and inclusion of an overlooked issue in many supply chains - the availability...... of quality seed. Quality seed also creates the base for quality products which is of increasing interest for the conscious consumers. In all, varying reasons for looking further into how supply chains function. The supply chain within vegetables is represented by seed producers, seed companies, salad....../vegetable producers, retailers/supermarkets and consumers. The various actors of the chain, as well as external actors like media, regulators and politicians, influence product quality from different points of view. Economic factors play a significant role for quality management. Furthermore, the concept of quality...

  15. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, X.; Ju, W.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs) for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP) estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI) is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE) in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m-2 yr-1 to 4.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m-2 yr-1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI) and elevation have small and additive effects on improving the spatial scaling

  16. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m−2 yr−1 to 4.8 g C m−2 yr−1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m−2 yr−1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI and elevation have small and additive effects on improving

  17. Typology of Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Edwards, Kasper; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Many organisations are moving from mass production to mass customization. Product configuration systems (PCS) are increasingly seen as an interesting option for firms who wish to pursue a strategy with a high degree of product variance while retaining a low cost of specifying the product. To become...... more specific in relation to how product configuration systems can support mass customization, it is necessary to understand how different product configuration systems can be classified, and how these differ. This paper presents a typology of product configuration systems based on the five kinds...

  18. Estimating the Fractional Vegetation Cover from GLASS Leaf Area Index Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fractional vegetation cover (FCover is an essential biophysical variable and plays a critical role in the carbon cycle studies. Existing FCover products from satellite observations are spatially incomplete and temporally discontinuous, and also inaccurate for some vegetation types to meet the requirements of various applications. In this study, an operational method is proposed to calculate high-quality, accurate FCover from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS leaf area index (LAI product to ensure physical consistency between LAI and FCover retrievals. As a result, a global FCover product (denoted by TRAGL were generated from the GLASS LAI product from 2000 to present. With no missing values, the TRAGL FCover product is spatially complete. A comparison of the TRAGL FCover product with the Geoland2/BioPar version 1 (GEOV1 FCover product indicates that these FCover products exhibit similar spatial distribution pattern. However, there were relatively large discrepancies between these FCover products over equatorial rainforests, broadleaf crops in East-central United States, and needleleaf forests in Europe and Siberia. Temporal consistency analysis indicates that TRAGL FCover product has continuous trajectories. Direct validation with ground-based FCover estimates demonstrated that TRAGL FCover values were more accurate (RMSE = 0.0865, and R2 = 0.8848 than GEOV1 (RMSE = 0.1541, and R2 = 0.7621.

  19. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by Apiaceae root vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Petersen, Thomas H; Fretté, Xavier C

    2014-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported.......Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported....

  20. Greenhouse production systems for people

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van, P.A.; Mears, D

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental impacts from system. Engineering greenhouse production systems to meet these requirements must include: a cost-effective and structurally sound facility; various sub-systems controlled to interact har...

  1. 21 CFR 101.76 - Health claims: fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.76 Health claims: fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer. 101.76 Section 101.76 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

  2. Control of disinfection by-products in canned vegetables caused by water used in their processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Canned vegetables come into contact with sanitizers and/or treated water in industry during several steps (namely washing, sanitising, blanching and filling with sauces or brine solutions) and therefore they can contain disinfection by-products - DBPs). This study focused on the occurrence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in a wide variety of canned vegetables (75 samples). For each vegetable, the edible solid and liquid phases of the package were separated and analysed individually. DBPs can be present in both solid (up to eight species) and liquid (up to 11 species) phases, their levels being higher in liquid ones. Volatile THMs predominate in the edible solid phase (up to four species), while HAAs do so in the liquid phase (up to five species) according to their ionic and non-volatile nature. The lowest concentrations of DBPs were found in tomatoes because they were often preserved in their own juice, without water.

  3. Sensitivity of vegetation indices and gross primary production of tallgrass prairie to severe drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Xiao, Xiangming; Torn, Margaret S.; Cook, David R.; Matamala, Roser; Fischer, Marc L.; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2014-09-01

    Drought affects vegetation photosynthesis and growth.Many studies have used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is calculated as the normalized ratio between near infrared and red spectral bands in satellite images, to evaluate the response of vegetation to drought. In this study, we examined the impacts of drought on three vegetation indices (NDVI, enhanced vegetation index, EVI, and land surface water index, LSWI) and CO2 flux from three tallgrass prairie eddy flux tower sites in the U.S. Gross primary production (GPP) was also modeled using a satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), and the modeled GPP (GPPVPM) was compared with the GPP (GPPEC) derived from eddy covariance measurements. Precipitation at two sites in Oklahoma was 30% below the historical mean in both years of the study period (2005–2006), while the site in Illinois did not experience drought in the 2005–2007 study period. The EVI explained the seasonal dynamics of GPP better than did NDVI. The LSWI dropped below zero during severe droughts in the growing season, showing its potential to track drought. The result shows that GPP was more sensitive to drought than were vegetation indices, and EVI and LSWI were more sensitive than NDVI. We developed a modified function (Wscalar), calculated as a function of LSWI, to account for the effect of severe droughts on GPP in VPM. The GPPVPM from the modified VPM accounted for the rapid reduction in GPP during severe droughts and the seasonal dynamics of GPPVPM agreed reasonably well with GPPEC. Our analysis shows that 8-day averaged values (temperature, vapor-pressure deficit) do not reflect the short-term extreme climate events well, suggesting that satellite based models may need to be run at daily or hourly scales, especially under unfavorable climatic conditions.

  4. Ozone-vegetation interaction in the Earth system: implications for air quality, ecosystems and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Lombardozzi, D.; Val Martin, M.; Heald, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ozone is one of the most significant air pollutants due to its damaging effects not only on human health, but also on vegetation and crop productivity. Chronic ozone exposure has been shown to reduce photosynthesis and interfere with gas exchange in plants, which in turn affect the surface energy balance, carbon sink and other biogeochemical fluxes. Ozone damage on vegetation can thus have major ramifications on climate and atmospheric composition, including possible feedbacks onto ozone itself (see figure) that are not well understood. The damage of ozone on crops has been well documented, but a mechanistic understanding is not well established. Here we present several results pertaining to ozone-vegetation interaction. Using the Community Earth System Model, we find that inclusion of ozone damage on plants reduces the global land carbon sink by up to 5%, while simulated ozone is modified by -20 to +4 ppbv depending on the relative importance of competing mechanisms in different regions. We also perform a statistical analysis of multidecadal global datasets of crop yields, agroclimatic variables and ozone exposures to characterize the spatial variability of crop sensitivity to ozone and temperature extremes, specifically accounting for the confounding effect of ozone-temperature covariation. We find that several crops exhibit stronger sensitivity to ozone than found by previous field studies, with a strong anticorrelation between the sensitivity and average ozone levels that reflects biological adaptive ozone resistance. Our results show that a more complete understanding of ozone-vegetation interaction is necessary to derive more realistic future projections of climate, air quality and agricultural production, and thereby to formulate optimal strategies to safeguard public health and food security.

  5. Temporal Changes in Coupled Vegetation Phenology and Productivity are Biome-Specific in the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhui Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has greatly stimulated vegetation growth through both extending the growing season and promoting photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere (NH. Analyzing the combined dynamics of such trends can potentially improve our current understanding on changes in vegetation functioning and the complex relationship between anthropogenic and climatic drivers. This study aims to analyze the relationships (long-term trends and correlations of length of vegetation growing season (LOS and vegetation productivity assessed by the growing season NDVI integral (GSI in the NH (>30°N to study any dependency of major biomes that are characterized by different imprint from anthropogenic influence. Spatial patterns of converging/diverging trends in LOS and GSI and temporal changes in the coupling between LOS and GSI are analyzed for major biomes at hemispheric and continental scales from the third generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset for a 32-year period (1982–2013. A quarter area of the NH is covered by converging trends (consistent significant trends in LOS and GSI, whereas diverging trends (opposing significant trends in LOS and GSI cover about 6% of the region. Diverging trends are observed mainly in high latitudes and arid/semi-arid areas of non-forest biomes (shrublands, savannas, and grasslands, whereas forest biomes and croplands are primarily characterized by converging trends. The study shows spatially-distinct and biome-specific patterns between the continental land masses of Eurasia (EA and North America (NA. Finally, areas of high positive correlation between LOS and GSI showed to increase during the period of analysis, with areas of significant positive trends in correlation being more widespread in NA as compared to EA. The temporal changes in the coupled vegetation phenology and productivity suggest complex relationships and interactions that are induced

  6. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 2. Vegetative propagation of Eucalypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of large-scale plantation establishment by various methods was examined, and the following conclusions were reached: seedling plantations are limited in potential yield due to genetic variation among the planting stock and often inadequate supplies of appropriate seed; vegetative propagation by rooted cuttings can provide good genetic uniformity of select hybrid planting stock; however, large-scale production requires establishment and maintenance of extensive cutting orchards. The collection of shoots and preparation of cuttings, although successfully implemented in the Congo and Brazil, would not be economically feasible in Florida for large-scale plantations; tissue culture propagation of select hybrid eucalypts offers the only opportunity to produce the very large number of trees required to establish the energy plantation. The cost of tissue culture propagation, although higher than seedling production, is more than off-set by the increased productivity of vegetative plantations established from select hybrid Eucalyptus.

  7. Pilot batch production of cocoa butter-like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Hu, X.; Balchen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    Chinese vegetable tallow (CVT) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil fatty acids (FHSOFA) as substrates. CVT is a naturally-rich-in-POP vegetable fat containing 80% Sn-POP which is obtained from the outer covering of the seed of the Chinese tallow tree. The FHSOFA contained about 86% stearic acid....../w) 1.3-1.7/1, hexane/substrates(v/w): 1.0:1-1.2:1. Based on the pilot batch plant, the total process is following: substrates, drying, reaction, filtration, fractionation, neutralisation, de-solventization and drying, and product. The fractionation process reduced the free fatty acid content to 5......-8%. And about 90% of the present PPP and PPSt triglycerides were separated from the product. Under above parameters, the final pilot products had similar compositions to those of cocoa butter. In this research, IPPL showed initial interesterification activity at the similar level as Lipozyme IM from Novo...

  8. A spatio-temporal analysis of climatic drivers for observed changes in Sahelian vegetation productivity 1982-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per; Fensholt, Rasmus; Huber Gharib, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Linear trend analysis and seasonal trend analysis are performed on gridded data of vegetation, rainfall, solar radiation flux, and air temperature, in order to examine the influence of the past three decades of climate variability and change on the Sahelian vegetation dynamics. Per......-pixel correlation analyses are conducted on annual and monthly data, and analyses of change in the potential climatic constraints to the natural vegetation development from 1982–2007 are performed. The results reveal two distinct periods: (a) 1982–1994 marked by large increases in vegetation productivity...... and rainfall and little change in average air temperatures and solar radiation and (b) 1995–2007 characterized by no distinct trends in vegetation productivity and rainfall and increase in average air temperatures and decrease in solar radiation flux. Correlations between vegetation productivity and climatic...

  9. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0# diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the Sustainability of a Small-Scale Low-Input Organic Vegetable Supply System in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads V. Markussen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resource use and environmental impacts of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable supply system in the United Kingdom were assessed by emergy accounting and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. The system consisted of a farm with high crop diversity and a related box-scheme distribution system. We compared empirical data from this case system with two modeled organic food supply systems representing high- and low-yielding practices for organic vegetable production. Further, these systems were embedded in a supermarket distribution system and they provided the same amount of comparable vegetables at the consumers’ door as the case system. The on-farm resource use measured in solar equivalent Joules (seJ was similar for the case system and the high-yielding model system and higher for the low-yielding model system. The distribution phase of the case system was at least three times as resource efficient as the models and had substantially less environmental impacts when assessed using LCA. The three systems ranked differently for emissions with the high-yielding model system being the worst for terrestrial ecotoxicity and the case system the worst for global warming potential. As a consequence of being embedded in an industrial economy, about 90% of resources (seJ were used for supporting labor and service.

  11. Changeability of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenraad, M. S.; Wortmann, J. C.; Olhager, J; Persson, F

    2007-01-01

    Modem production management systems consist of transaction processing systems and decision enhancement systems. A clear example of two such components are an ERP systems and APS systems. These systems are often standard software systems, and therefore suitable for many different situations. This

  12. Vegetation productivity responses to drought on tribal lands in the four corners region of the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Vilaly, Mohamed Abd Salam; Didan, Kamel; Marsh, Stuart E.; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Munoz, Armando Barreto

    2017-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Four Corners Region has faced extensive and persistent drought conditions that have impacted vegetation communities and local water resources while exacerbating soil erosion. These persistent droughts threaten ecosystem services, agriculture, and livestock activities, and expose the hypersensitivity of this region to inter-annual climate variability and change. Much of the intermountainWestern United States has sparse climate and vegetation monitoring stations, making fine-scale drought assessments difficult. Remote sensing data offers the opportunity to assess the impacts of the recent droughts on vegetation productivity across these areas. Here, we propose a drought assessment approach that integrates climate and topographical data with remote sensing vegetation index time series. Multisensor Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data from 1989 to 2010 at 5.6 km were analyzed to characterize the vegetation productivity changes and responses to the ongoing drought. A multi-linear regression was applied to metrics of vegetation productivity derived from the NDVI time series to detect vegetation productivity, an ecosystem service proxy, and changes. The results show that around 60.13% of the study area is observing a general decline of greenness (pdrought, shed further light on the future directions and challenges to the region's already stressed ecosystems. Whereas the results provide additional insights into this isolated and vulnerable region, the drought assessment approach used in this study may be adapted for application in other regions where surfacebased climate and vegetation monitoring record is spatially and temporally limited.

  13. Assessing global climate-terrestrial vegetation feedbacks on carbon and nitrogen cycling in the earth system model EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wårlind, David; Miller, Paul; Nieradzik, Lars; Söderberg, Fredrik; Anthoni, Peter; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Ben

    2017-04-01

    There has been great progress in developing an improved European Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) in preparation for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and the next Assessment Report of the IPCC. The new model version has been complemented with ocean biogeochemistry, atmospheric composition (aerosols and chemistry) and dynamic land vegetation components, and has been configured to use the recommended CMIP6 forcing data sets. These new components will give us fresh insights into climate change. This study focuses on the terrestrial biosphere component Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) that simulates vegetation dynamics and compound exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere in EC-Earth. LPJ-GUESS allows for vegetation to dynamically evolve, depending on climate input, and in return provides the climate system and land surface scheme with vegetation-dependent fields such as vegetation types and leaf area index. We present the results of a study to examine the feedbacks between the dynamic terrestrial vegetation and the climate and their impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles. Our results are based on a set of global, atmosphere-only historical simulations (1870 to 2014) with and without feedback between climate and vegetation and including or ignoring the effect of nitrogen limitation on plant productivity. These simulations show to what extent the addition degree of freedom in EC-Earth, introduced with the coupling of interactive dynamic vegetation to the atmosphere, has on terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling, and represent contributions to CMIP6 (C4MIP and LUMIP) and the EU Horizon 2020 project CRESCENDO.

  14. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality...... to be seven days. Using the monitoring system for the PRECI‐IN case, similar corrective action would have been achieved almost immediately....

  15. Drought footprint on European ecosystems between 1999 and 2010 assessed by remotely sensed vegetation phenology and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivits, Eva; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Drought affects more people than any other natural disaster but there is little understanding of how ecosystems react to droughts. This study jointly analyzed spatio-temporal changes of drought patterns with vegetation phenology and productivity changes between 1999 and 2010 in major European...... bioclimatic zones. The Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was used as drought indicator whereas changes in growing season length and vegetation productivity were assessed using remote sensing time-series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Drought spatio...... on ecosystem and land cover. Northern and Mediterranean ecosystems proved to be more resilient to droughts in terms of vegetation phenology and productivity developments. Western Atlantic regions and Eastern Europe showed strong agglomerations of decreased productivity and shorter vegetation growing season...

  16. Innovative solutions in traceability to improve the competitiveness of a local fruit and vegetable retailing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Pakurár

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to investigate the network of local fruit and vegetable products from “farm to fork”, to uncover the hidden processes in traceability and to advise innovations in the retailing system to improve the competitiveness of the sector. Traceability is an ability to track any food that will be consumed throughout the processes of production, processing and distribution. The research investigates what the customer knows about the origin and treatments of purchased products and what further information would satisfy the consumer. The study explores the flow of information amongst the chain members: producers, wholesalers, small-scale retailers, and customers. Based on interviews and questionnaires, regression analysis and ordinal regression procedure were performed. Innovative solutions to make the retailing competitive should be aligned with the precise knowledge of the consumer. The results of the research show that deficiencies in data collection, data erosion, low level of cooperation of supply chain partners, not paying more attention for more detailed information, and inadequate control are the main problems of the traceability in fruit and vegetable chains.

  17. Modeling Novo Nordisk Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'.......This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'....

  18. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MORA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93% confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003, vegetative growth (2000-2003 and alternate bearing differed signifi cantly among cultivars. Olive selection in intensively managed planting at the southern part of the Atacama Desert depends on matching specifi c cultivars to sites on which they perform the best.

  19. Controls of vegetation structure and net primary production in restored grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    1. Vegetation structure and net primary production (NPP) are fundamental properties of ecosystems. Understanding how restoration practices following disturbance interact with environmental factors to control these properties can provide insight on how ecosystems recover and guide management efforts. 2. We assessed the relative contribution of environmental and restoration factors in controlling vegetation structure, above- and below-ground investment in production across a chronosequence of semiarid Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields recovering from dryland wheat cropping relative to undisturbed grassland. Importantly, we determined the role of plant diversity and how seeding either native or introduced perennial grasses influenced the recovery of vegetation properties. 3. Plant basal cover increased with field age and was highest in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses. In contrast, fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses had tall-growing plants with relatively low basal cover. These vegetation structural characteristics interacted with precipitation, but not soil characteristics, to influence above-ground NPP (ANPP). Fields enrolled in the CRP program for >7 years supported twice as much ANPP as undisturbed shortgrass steppe in the first wet year of the study, but all CRP fields converged on a common low amount of ANPP in the following dry year and invested less than half as much as the shortgrass steppe in below-ground biomass. 4. ANPP in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses for more than 7 years was positively related to species richness, whereas ANPP in CRP fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses were controlled more by dominant species. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seeding with introduced, instead of native, perennial grasses had a strong direct influence on vegetation structure, including species richness, which indirectly affected NPP through time. However, the effects of restoring either native or introduced

  20. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ying

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, producing the safe, high quality and nutritious vegetable products has become the common goal of the food producers and consumers. In doing so, Chinese government vigorously promotes clean production technology of vegetables for the source control and production process control. Unfortunately, lots of vegetables residues are still thrown away after the harvest, which has caused severe environmental pollution in producing areas. Vegetable waste composting technology, an important technology of vegetable cleaner production, has low requirements for technology conditions and is suitable for the promotion of rural households. But it needs additional investment costs including retting pond construction costs during application process and its personal income is less than the social benefits brought by the technology itself, which makes it difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers to adapt cleaner technology and the technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingent valuation method(CVM to understand the farmers' willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay(WTP by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with

  1. Perceptions of using low-quality irrigation water in vegetable production in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayilla, Winfrida; Keraita, Bernard; Ngowi, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine perceptions of the farmers and key informants on the use of low-quality irrigation water for vegetable production in urban and peri-urban areas in Morogoro, Tanzania. The methods used to collect data were farmer surveys (n = 60), focus group discussions (n = 4)...... in formulating policies and creating health promotion awareness for safe use of low-quality water for benefit maximization and health risk reduction.......This study was conducted to examine perceptions of the farmers and key informants on the use of low-quality irrigation water for vegetable production in urban and peri-urban areas in Morogoro, Tanzania. The methods used to collect data were farmer surveys (n = 60), focus group discussions (n = 4......) and key informants interviews (n = 15). The results showed that the respondents had a positive perception on using low-quality irrigation water for vegetable production. The reported benefits include availability of water throughout the year, highest soil and crop nutrients in irrigation water, less costs...

  2. Daily MODIS 500 m Reflectance Anisotropy Direct Broadcast (DB) Products for Monitoring Vegetation Phenology Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Schaaf, Crystal; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Strahler, Alan; Roy, David; Morisette, Jeffrey; Wang, Zhuosen; Nightingale, Joanne; Nickeson, Jaime; Richardson, Andrew D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Land surface vegetation phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring ecosystem variation in response to changes in climatic factors. The primary objective of the current article is to examine the utility of the daily MODIS 500 m reflectance anisotropy direct broadcast (DB) product for monitoring the evolution of vegetation phenological trends over selected crop, orchard, and forest regions. Although numerous model-fitted satellite data have been widely used to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of land surface phenological patterns to understand phenological process and phenomena, current efforts to investigate the details of phenological trends, especially for natural phenological variations that occur on short time scales, are less well served by remote sensing challenges and lack of anisotropy correction in satellite data sources. The daily MODIS 500 m reflectance anisotropy product is employed to retrieve daily vegetation indices (VI) of a 1 year period for an almond orchard in California and for a winter wheat field in northeast China, as well as a 2 year period for a deciduous forest region in New Hampshire, USA. Compared with the ground records from these regions, the VI trajectories derived from the cloud-free and atmospherically corrected MODIS Nadir BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) adjusted reflectance (NBAR) capture not only the detailed footprint and principal attributes of the phenological events (such as flowering and blooming) but also the substantial inter-annual variability. This study demonstrates the utility of the daily 500 m MODIS reflectance anisotropy DB product to provide daily VI for monitoring and detecting changes of the natural vegetation phenology as exemplified by study regions comprising winter wheat, almond trees, and deciduous forest.

  3. Productive and economic efficiency of carrot intercropped with cowpea-vegetable resulting from green manure and different spatial arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sarmento Favacho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the agro-economic efficiency of intercropping carrot with cowpea-vegetable in relation to the amounts of biomass of Calotropis procera (Ait. R.Br. (known locally as flor-de-seda incorporated into the soil, and to different spatial arrangements. The study was carried out under field conditions from August to November of 2014, at the Experimental Farm 'Rafael Fernandes' of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-Arid (RFUSA, in Mossoró, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomised complete blocks in a 4 x 3 factorial, consisting of a combination of four different amounts of flor-de-seda biomass incorporated into the soil (20, 35, 50 and 65 t ha-1 of dry matter and three spatial arrangements for the crop rows (2 x 2, 3 x 3 and 4 x 4. The carrot and cowpea cultivars used were ꞌBrasíliaꞌ and ꞌBRS Itaimꞌ. The characteristics under evaluation in the carrot were total, commercial and classified root production (scrap, short, medium and long. For the cowpea-vegetable, the following were evaluated: number, productivity and dry matter weight of green pods, number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and yield of green grains. The agro-economic efficiency indices evaluated in the intercropping were: land equivalent ratio for the system and partial land equivalent ratios for the crops, monetary advantage and modified monetary advantage. The greatest agro-economic efficiency with the intercrop system was recorded in the biomass amount of 30 t ha-1 flor-de-seda. The 2 x 2 spatial arrangement resulted in greater system efficiency. The use of flor-de-seda as green manure is economically viable for the farmer when intercrop carrot with cowpea-vegetable.

  4. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  5. Products in fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....

  6. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative biofuel that can replace diesel oil without requiring modifications to the engine and advantageously produces cleaner emissions. Biodiesel can be produced through transesterification process between oil or fat and alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The transesterification can be carried out with or without a catalyst. The catalyzed production of biodiesel can be performed by using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme. Meanwhile, non-catalytic transesterification with supercritical alcohol provides a new way of producing biodiesel. Microwave and ultrasound assisted transesterification significantly can reduce reaction time as well as improve product yields. Another process, a plasma technology is promising for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils due to very short reaction time, no soap formation and no glycerol as a by-product. This paper reviews briefly the technologies on transesterification reaction for biodiesel production using homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme catalysts, as well as advanced methods (supercritical, microwave, ultrasonic, and plasma technology. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were described comprehensively. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 17th May 2016; Revised: 20th September 2016; Accepted: 20th September 2016 How to Cite: Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P. (2016. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 406-430 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430

  7. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  8. Industrial vegetable oil by-products increase the ductility of polylactide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruellan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of industrial by-products of the vegetable oil industry as ductility increasing additives of polylactide (PLA was investigated. Vegetable oil deodorization condensates were melt-blended by twin-screw extrusion up to a maximum inclusion quantity of 20 wt% without preliminary purification. Sample films were obtained by single screw cast extrusion. Compounded PLA films featured largely improved ductility in tensile testing with an elongation at break up to 180%. The glass transition temperature remained higher than room temperature. The native mixture of molecules, which composed the deodorization condensates, had superior performance compared to a synthetic mixture of main compounds. The investigation of the correlation between composition of the additives and the ductility of the PLA blends by Principal Component Analysis showed synergy in property improvement between fatty acids having a melting point below and beyond the room temperature. Furthermore, a compatibilizing effect of molecules present in the native mixture was evidenced. Oil deodorization condensates, which are a price competitive by-product of the vegetable oil industry, are therefore a very promising biobased and biodegradable additive for improving the ductility of PLA.

  9. Catchment vegetation and temperature mediating trophic interactions and production in plankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, Anders G; Nilsen, Erlend B; Hendrichsen, Ditte K; Schmidt, Niels Martin

    2017-01-01

    Climatic factors influence the interactions among trophic levels in an ecosystem in multiple ways. However, whereas most studies focus on single factors in isolation, mainly due to interrelation and correlation among drivers complicating interpretation and analyses, there are still only few studies on how multiple ecosystems respond to climate related factors at the same time. Here, we use a hierarchical Bayesian model with a bioenergetic predator-prey framework to study how different climatic factors affect trophic interactions and production in small Arctic lakes. Natural variation in temperature and catchment land-cover was used as a natural experiment to exemplify how interactions between and production of primary producers (phytoplankton) and grazers (zooplankton) are driven by direct (temperature) and indirect (catchment vegetation) factors, as well as the presence or absence of apex predators (fish). The results show that increased vegetation cover increased phytoplankton growth rate by mediating lake nutrient concentration. At the same time, increased temperature also increased grazing rates by zooplankton. Presence of fish increased zooplankton mortality rates, thus reducing grazing. The Arctic is currently experiencing an increase in both temperature and shrub vegetation cover due to climate change, a trend, which is likely to continue. Our results point towards a possible future general weakening of zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton and greening of arctic lakes with increasing temperatures. At the same time, the impact of the presence of an apex predator indicate considerable local variation in the response. This makes direction and strength of global change impacts difficult to forecast.

  10. SMOS-IC: An Alternative SMOS Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fernandez-Moran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission over land surfaces is the production of global maps of soil moisture (SM and vegetation optical depth (τ based on multi-angular brightness temperature (TB measurements at L-band. The operational SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 soil moisture algorithms account for different surface effects, such as vegetation opacity and soil roughness at 4 km resolution, in order to produce global retrievals of SM and τ. In this study, we present an alternative SMOS product that was developed by INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique and CESBIO (Centre d’Etudes Spatiales de la BIOsphère. One of the main goals of this SMOS-INRA-CESBIO (SMOS-IC product is to be as independent as possible from auxiliary data. The SMOS-IC product provides daily SM and τ at the global scale and differs from the operational SMOS Level 3 (SMOSL3 product in the treatment of retrievals over heterogeneous pixels. Specifically, SMOS-IC is much simpler and does not account for corrections associated with the antenna pattern and the complex SMOS viewing angle geometry. It considers pixels as homogeneous to avoid uncertainties and errors linked to inconsistent auxiliary datasets which are used to characterize the pixel heterogeneity in the SMOS L3 algorithm. SMOS-IC also differs from the current SMOSL3 product (Version 300, V300 in the values of the effective vegetation scattering albedo (ω and soil roughness parameters. An inter-comparison is presented in this study based on the use of ECMWF (European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting SM outputs and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. A six-year (2010–2015 inter-comparison of the SMOS products SMOS-IC and SMOSL3 SM (V300 with ECMWF SM yielded higher correlations and lower ubRMSD (unbiased root mean square difference for SMOS-IC over most of the pixels. In terms of τ, SMOS-IC τ was

  11. When cholesterol is not cholesterol: a note on the enzymatic determination of its concentration in model systems containing vegetable extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamplona Reinald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evidences demonstrate that vegetable derived extracts inhibit cholesterol absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. To further explore the mechanisms behind, we modeled duodenal contents with several vegetable extracts. Results By employing a widely used cholesterol quantification method based on a cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase coupled reaction we analyzed the effects on cholesterol partition. Evidenced interferences were analyzed by studying specific and unspecific inhibitors of cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase coupled reaction. Cholesterol was also quantified by LC/MS. We found a significant interference of diverse (cocoa and tea-derived extracts over this method. The interference was strongly dependent on model matrix: while as in phosphate buffered saline, the development of unspecific fluorescence was inhibitable by catalase (but not by heat denaturation, suggesting vegetable extract derived H2O2 production, in bile-containing model systems, this interference also comprised cholesterol-oxidase inhibition. Several strategies, such as cholesterol standard addition and use of suitable blanks containing vegetable extracts were tested. When those failed, the use of a mass-spectrometry based chromatographic assay allowed quantification of cholesterol in models of duodenal contents in the presence of vegetable extracts. Conclusions We propose that the use of cholesterol-oxidase and/or peroxidase based systems for cholesterol analyses in foodstuffs should be accurately monitored, as important interferences in all the components of the enzymatic chain were evident. The use of adequate controls, standard addition and finally, chromatographic analyses solve these issues.

  12. Vegetable Cultivation Hydroponics System In Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak Subdistrict X Koto Singkarak Districts Solok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Budaraga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Current conditions especially in urban agricultural land is getting narrower due to the rapid development. If left untreated it can lead to food security and environmental problems. One solution to allow the fulfillment of foodstuffs such as vegetables can be fulfilled for the people to exploit the potential of the narrow yard with continuous production of hydroponic systems. Interest dedication to the community to find ways to introduce a hydroponic vegetable crops that can supplement the family income of farmers. Benefits of the service is expected to increase peoples income and the public generally in Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak in particular and can provide lucrative benefits for the environment. Devotion execution method implemented by a lecture and demonstration. The materials used such as husks seeds of vegetables kale collards caisin hydroponic media such as slug biogas rope bamboo to place the plants grow. The results of this activity the community has been able to make a hydroponic vegetable cultivation system and has been applied to plant vegetables such as kale collards and caisin.

  13. Energetic Efficiency of the Vegetable Waste Used as Substrate for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janczak Damian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different vegetable waste materials (beetroot leaves, turnip leaves, yellow beans, onion waste, commonly found in Central Poland were tested for estimation of energy efficiency while methane fermentation process. The results showed that the biggest green mass of vegetable waste harvested from field was related to the highest water content. In contrary, the higher methane production from 1 Mg of tested biowaste was obtained in case of the materials with the highest dry mass content (yellow beans and onion waste, 28.03 and 44.33 m3 Mg-1. Although the onion waste was the lowest fermented substrate, however the energy yield for this material is visibly the highest (4435 kWh ha-1 among all tested ones.

  14. Fruit and vegetable by-products as novel ingredients to improve the nutritional quality of baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Manuel; Martinez, Mario M

    2017-03-31

    The industrial manufacturing of fruits and vegetables generates approximately 50% by-product waste, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. Nevertheless, fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) are rich nutrients and extranutritional compounds that contribute to bowel health, weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels and improved control of glycemic and insulin responses. Due to the positive influence of FVB fibers and bioactive compounds during the digestion of glycemic carbohydrates, such as starch, baked goods are ideal food systems to accommodate FVB, since most of them have a high glycemic index. Therefore, this is an area of recent interest with critical environmental, economic and health implications worldwide. However, the utilization of FVB in baked goods leads to the loss of acceptability, in many cases caused by a lack of understanding of the physical structure and composition of FVB and their effects on food quality. The objective of this review is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the impact of the physical structure and composition of FVB on common baked goods and their influence on the nutritional and physical quality of the resulting product. This review will support the use of FVB as ideal ingredients while improving the added value of waste streams.

  15. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  16. The Sectoral Innovation System of the Dutch Vegetable Breeding Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Z.; Jongsma, M.A.; Huang, Caicheng; Dons, J.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    In a number of studies, the Dutch vegetable breeding industry has been described as a highly innovative sector, but the root causes for its innovativeness have not yet been analysed systematically. In order to understand the factors that affect innovation and business performance, the Sectoral

  17. Vegetation pattern formation in semi-arid grazing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HillerisLambers, R.; Rietkerk, M.G.; Bosch, F. van den; Prins, H.H.T.; Kroon, H. de

    2001-01-01

    Hypotheses about the origin of vegetation pattern formation in semi-arid areas around the world almost all include a common feature of semi-arid areas: the presence of a positive feedback between plant density and water infiltration. We investigate whether this positive feedback and the spatial

  18. Mapping coastal vegetation using an expert system and hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, K.S.; Skidmore, A.K.; Kloosterman, E.H.; Oosten, van H.; Kumar, L.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Mapping and monitoring salt marshes in the Netherlands are important activities of the Ministry of Public Works (Rijkswaterstaat). The Survey Department (Meetkundige Dienst) produces vegetation maps using aerial photographs. However, it is a time-consuming and expensive activity. The accuracy of the

  19. The Impact of the Quality of Coal Mine Stockpile Soils on Sustainable Vegetation Growth and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky M Mushia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stockpiled soils are excavated from the ground during mining activities, and piled on the surface of the soil for rehabilitation purposes. These soils are often characterized by low organic matter (SOM content, low fertility, and poor physical, chemical, and biological properties, limiting their capability for sustainable vegetation growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of stockpile soils of differing depth and quality on vegetation growth and productivity. Soils were collected at three different depths (surface, mid, and deep as well as mixed (equal proportion of surface, mid and deep from two stockpiles (named Stockpile 1: aged 10 and Stockpile 2: 20 years at the coal mine near Witbank in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Soils were amended with different organic and inorganic fertilizer. A 2 × 4 × 5 factorial experiment in a completely randomized blocked design with four replications was established under greenhouse conditions. A grass species (Digiteria eriantha was planted in the pots with unamended and amended soils under greenhouse conditions at 26–28 °C during the day and 16.5–18.5 °C at night. Mean values of plant height, plant cover, total fresh biomass (roots, stems and leaves, and total dry biomass were found to be higher in Stockpile 1 than in Stockpile 2 soils. Plants grown on soils with no amendments had lower mean values for major plant parameters studied. Soil amended with poultry manure and lime was found to have higher growth rate compared with soils with other soil amendments. Mixed soils had better vegetation growth than soil from other depths. Stockpiled soils in the study area cannot support vegetation growth without being amended, as evidenced by low grass growth and productivity in this study.

  20. Spatial variability of vegetation index and soil properties in an integrated crop-livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto C. de C. Bernardi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The knowledge of soil property spatial variability is useful for determining the rational use of inputs, such as the site-specific application of lime and fertilizer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetation index and spatial variability of physical and chemical soil properties in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS. Soil samples were taken from a 6.9 ha area in a regular hexagon grid at 0-0.20 m depths. Soil P, K, Ca, Mg, and cation exchange capacity - CEC; base saturation; clay and sand were analyzed. Soil electrical conductivity (ECa was measured with a contact sensor. The site was evaluated at the end of the corn season (April and during forage production (October using Landsat 5 images, remote sensing techniques and a geographic information system (GIS. Results showed that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was associated with ECa and soil parameters, indicating crop and pasture variations in the ICLS. Geostatistics and GIS were effective tools for collecting data regarding the spatial variability of soil and crop indicators, identifying variation trends in the data, and assisting data interpretation to determine adequate management strategies.

  1. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  2. Genes encoding novel lipid transporters and their use to increase oil production in vegetative tissues of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changcheng; Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Shanklin, John

    2017-12-26

    The present invention discloses a novel gene encoding a transporter protein trigalactosyldiacylglycerol-5 (TGD5), mutations thereof and their use to enhance TAG production and retention in plant vegetative tissue.

  3. Product and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare Riise

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses whether the principle of "extended design" is a new phenomenon, and presents and discusses the systems design project "Det Grønne Møbel".......The article discusses whether the principle of "extended design" is a new phenomenon, and presents and discusses the systems design project "Det Grønne Møbel"....

  4. Inter-relações entre a anatomia vegetal e a produção vegetal Interrelations between plant anatomy and plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenir Maristela Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available É realizada uma revisão de literatura que procura aproximar a anatomia vegetal do contexto da produção vegetal. O principal objetivo é o de contribuir para que o professor de Botânica possa proporcionar aos alunos dos cursos de Agronomia compreensão da diversidade da organização estrutural do vegetal.A literature revision is accomplished to approach the plant anatomy within the context of the plant production. The main objective is to contribute so that the Botany teacher will be able to make it provide for the students of the Agronomy courses to understand the diversity of behaviors in the structural organization of the plant.

  5. Utilisation of vegetable oils in the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pattana Sripalakit

    2011-01-01

    The effect of vegetable oils as a supplementary carbon source during the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged culture was investigated. The six vegetable oils tested were sesame oil, sunflower oil, soya bean oil, corn oil, palm oil and olive oil. Lovastatin concentration and biomass were measured. Lovastatin production was higher in several oil-containing media compared to control medium. In particular, palm oil and soya bean oil significantly improved lovas...

  6. GLOBAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The most significant transformations that globalization produces occur in production. Since the '60s, a new division of labor has made its presence felt in the world, arising from the "de-industrialization" of the developed and transfer production capacity of resource-intensive industries and pollutants from these countries to the developing world. "Dislocation" industry had the interim foreign direct investment made in the new industrialized countries, the latter becoming, in turn, sources of direct foreign investment, taking its capital in other countries in developing handsets. Currently, FDI destination is no longer a priority in developing countries, yet they are increasingly leaning towards the developed countries, due to the attractiveness offered by their economies.

  7. Evolution of the vegetation system in the Heihe River basin in the last 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shoubo; Zhao, Yan; Wei, Yongping; Zheng, Hang

    2017-08-01

    The response of vegetation systems to the long-term changes in climate, hydrology, and social-economic conditions in river basins is critical for sustainable river basin management. This study aims to investigate the evolution of natural and crop vegetation systems in the Heihe River basin (HRB) over the past 2000 years. Archived Landsat images, historical land use maps and hydrological records were introduced to derive the long-term spatial distribution of natural and crop vegetation and the corresponding biomass levels. The major findings are that (1) both natural and crop vegetation experienced three development stages: a pre-development stage (before the Republic of China), a rapid development stage (Republic of China - 2000), and a post-development stage (after 2000). Climate and hydrological conditions did not show significant impacts over crop vegetation, while streamflow presented synchronous changes with natural vegetation in the first stage. For the second stage, warmer temperature and increasing streamflow were found to be important factors for the increase in both natural and crop vegetation in the middle reaches of the HRB. For the third stage, positive climate and hydrological conditions, together with policy interventions, supported the overall vegetation increase in both the middle and lower HRB; (2) there was a significantly faster increase in crop biomass than that of native vegetation since 1949, which could be explained by the technological development; and (3) the ratio of natural vegetation to crop vegetation decreased from 16 during the Yuan Dynasty to about 2.2 since 2005. This ratio reflects the reaction of land and water development to a changing climate and altering social-economic conditions at the river basin level; therefore, it could be used as an indicator of water and land management at river basins.

  8. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J, E-mail: pbeck@whrc.org [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  9. Accounting for co-products in energy use, greenhouse gas emission savings and land use of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bos, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for co-products of vegetable oil production is essential in reviewing the sustainability of biodiesel production, especially since oil crops produce valuable protein-rich co-products in different quantities and qualities. Two accounting methods, allocation on the basis of energy

  10. Chemical and physicochemical characterisation of co-products from the vegetable food and agro industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    was responsible for the relatively low EDOM. There was a variation from year to year in the concentration of ash (Pprotein (P=0.04) and EDOM (P=0.003) in pea hull. In conclusion, co-products from the vegetable food and agro industries are characterised by a high......Six co-products from the vegetable food and agro industres in Denmark - brewer's spent grain, pea hull, seed residue (rye grass), potato pulp, sugar beet pulp and pectin residue - were collected eight times during two seasons (four samples from each season) (n = 8; N = 48). The samples were...... analysed for dry matter (DM), ash, sand, protein, amino acids, ether extract (EE), carbohydrate constituents, enzyme digestible organic matter (EDOM) and physicochemical properties-water binding capacity (WBC) and swelling. The co-products in general had a low DM (142-216 g/kg as is), EE (6-54 g/kg DM...

  11. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  12. Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, David L; Evans, Kervin O; Appell, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Feruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and ultraviolet-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency. The formation of by-products by residual water in the enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated vegetable oil was investigated using chemical theory and experimental studies by monitoring the reaction over a 22-day period. The hydrolysis of vegetable oil is thermodynamically favored over the hydrolysis of the ethyl ferulate starting material. These results suggest that hydrolyzed vegetable oil products will be experimentally observed in greater concentrations compared to hydrolyzed ethyl ferulate products. Quantum chemical studies identified several reaction mechanisms that explain the formation of side products by water, suggesting that residual water influences product quality. Efforts to reduce residual water can improve product consistency and reduce purification costs. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL SYSTEM OF FORECAST VEGETATION FIRES IN NATURAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kogan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for spatial prediction for fire danger as function of weather and pyrological vegetation characteristics was constructed. The method of calculating the time conducted vegetable combustible materials in fire condition of each month of the season was suggested. Calculate the probability of fires and danger periods of plant formations in a monsoon climate. The geographic information system was developed, it was tested in the Middle Amur region in the Russian Far East.

  14. Adoption of integrated vegetable agroforestry system among smallholder upland farmers in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Penaso, A.M.; Intong, J.D.; M.E.S. Damag; Marsh, R; Manuel R. Reyes

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary results of a survey conducted among 50 smallholder upland farmers in the Philippines during the second crop period in 2007 showed early awareness (since 1960-1970) of the integrated vegetable agroforestry system technologies, particularly irrigation drainage, soil conservation and soil fertility management, and the vegetable agroforestry system, which 59-75% of them adopted in their farms. They however, just were aware of the existence of the drip irrigation technology in 2000 and...

  15. Vegetable, livestock and agroindustrial products and byproducts: An alternative tilapia feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Salas, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the culture of tilapia limited supply and high cost of fish meal have forced nutritionists to consider alternative sources of protein. Due to the importance of the products and by-products in fish feed, this paper aims to show the alternatives that have been used to partially or totally replace fish meal and soybean meal in tilapia growing. This paper showsthe maximum or optimal use of vegetable by-products for tilapia as cottonseed meal, sunflower, canola, soybean and Leucaena. It also deals with the inclusion with agro-industrial by-product such as corn, sorghum, coffee pulp, cocoa, wheat and citrus. The present study also deals with the use of aquatic plants such as Lemna and Azolla, single-celled plant protein source as antibiotics and probiotics. Finally, this paper also refers to animal by-products as silage, manure and earthworm usage. There is a high potential for using plant, livestock and agro-industrial by-products in fresh and processed food for the tilapia, but depending on the product, pretreatment to improve its balance of nutrients or eliminate anti-nutritional factors may be required.

  16. Commodity Systems Assessment Methodology of Postharvest Losses in Vegetable Amaranths: The Case of Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred Osei-Kwarteng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A semistructured questionnaire based on the commodity system assessment methodology (CSAM was used to determine postharvest losses in vegetable amaranths (VA. Fifty producers and retailers were randomly selected from five and four major VA producing areas and markets, respectively, and interviewed. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses. The survey revealed that absence of laws, regulation, incentives, and inadequate technical information affected the production of VA. The utmost preproduction challenge was poor quality seeds with poor seed yield (35%, low viability (19%, and nontrueness (46%. It was noted that some cultural practices including planting pattern and density, irrigation, and fertiliser use had effects on postharvest losses. Some postharvest practices used were cleaning with water, trimming, sorting, and grading. Usually the produce was transported to marketing centers by cars and motor cycle trailers. Generally poor temperature management after harvest was a big challenge for the postharvest handling of VA. The potential of vegetable amaranths as a commodity in the study area can be enhanced by providing the necessary institutional support, incentives, and use of good management practices along the value chain. An interdisciplinary approach and quantification of losses along the chain are recommended for any future study.

  17. Identifying and understanding vegetation productivity swings in response to ENSO dynamics to improve land surface modeling capability in quantifying extreme events across Australia and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, Mark; Huete, Alfredo; Yu, Qiang; Davies, Kevin; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia

    2013-04-01

    In this study we quantified linkages between climate and vegetation productivity response across large areas in Australia and East Asia, and carried out more detailed analysis for areas and intervals with extreme productivity swings. We first quantified teleconnections between large scale atmospheric oscillations over the western Pacific and vegetation productivity across Australia, Southeast and East Asia. For this purpose we analyzed remotely sensed vegetation productivity (estimated from MODIS vegetation index time series) in response to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). This resulted in a spatially explicit representation of extreme vegetation productivity response to regional climatic variability. For areas and intervals with strong vegetation productivity swings we then investigated the spatial-temporal relationship of remotely sensed vegetation productivity with temperature and rainfall grids as well as with productivity responses predicted by the Australian CSIRO Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model. By conducting this study across various spatial-temporal scales and variable aggregations, we identified geographic areas and intervals with strong vegetation productivity swings related to SOI atmospheric oscillations and attributed these swings to changes in regional temperature and precipitation grids. The final step of quantifying the space-time correlation between extreme swings in remotely sensed vegetation productivity and land surface model predictions provided insight into model capacity and sensitivity. We identified large ENSO drought-related crop productivity declines for Eastern Australia, continental and insular Southeast Asia and, temporally offset, in northeastern China. The largest divergence between extreme remotely sensed vegetation productivity drops and CABLE-predicted productivity occurred over ground water dependent ecosystems.

  18. Constructing vegetation productivity equations by employing undisturbed soils data: An Oliver County, North Dakota case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, J.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Polakowski, K.J.; Fowler, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Surface mine reclamation specialists have been searching for predictive methods to assess the capability of disturbed soils to support vegetation growth. We conducted a study to develop a vegetation productivity equation for reclaiming surface mines in Oliver County, North Dakota, thereby allowing investigators to quantitatively determine the plant growth potential of a reclaimed soil. The study examined the predictive modeling potential for both agronomic crops and woody plants, including: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), grass and legume mixtures, Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Black Hills spruce (Picea glauca var. densata Bailey), Colorado spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scope Engelm.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam), American plum (Prunus americans Marsh.), and chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.). An equation was developed which is highly significant (p<0.0001), explaining 81.08% of the variance (coefficient of multiple determination=0.8108), with all regressors significant (p{le}0.048, Type II Sums of Squares). The measurement of seven soil parameters are required to predict soil vegetation productivity: percent slope, available water holding capacity, percent rock fragments, topographic position, electrical conductivity, pH, and percent organic matter. While the equation was developed from data on undisturbed soils, the equation`s predictions were positively correlated (0.71424, p{le}0.0203) with a small data set (n=10) from reclaimed soils.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  20. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a combined multi-phase supplier selection model. The process repeatedly revisits the criteria and sourcing decision as the development process continues. This enables a structured adoption of product and production system innovation from strategic suppliers, where...... strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...... of strategic suppliers which seeks to identify the optimum technological and process decisions as well as the traditional supplier sourcing choice. These areas have not been combined before and generate a valuable approach for firms to adopt as well as for researchers to extend our understanding of a highly...

  1. Stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system in the early Eocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, U.; Claussen, M.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the stability of the atmosphere-vegetation system in the warm, almost ice-free early Eocene climate and in the interglacial, pre-industrial climate by analysing the dependence of the system on the initial vegetation cover. The Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology is initialised with either dense forests or bare deserts on all continents. Starting with desert continents, an extended desert remains in Central Asia in early Eocene climate. Starting with dense forest coverage, this desert is much smaller because the initially dense vegetation cover enhances water recycling in Central Asia relative to the simulation with initial deserts. With a smaller Asian desert, the Asian monsoon is stronger than in the case with a larger desert. The stronger Asian monsoon shifts the global tropical circulation leading to coastal subtropical deserts in North and South America which are significantly larger than with a large Asian desert. This result indicates a global teleconnection of the vegetation cover in several regions. In present-day climate, a bi-stability of the atmosphere-vegetation system is found for Northern Africa only. A global teleconnection of bi-stabilities in several regions is absent highlighting that the stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system depends on climatic and tectonic boundary conditions.

  2. Uncertainties in Classification System Conversion and an Analysis of Inconsistencies in Global Land Cover Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miao Zhang; Mingguo Ma; Philippe De Maeyer; Alishir Kurban

    2017-01-01

    ... (vegetation, wetlands and others only), we studied spatial and areal inconsistencies in the three most recent multi-resource land cover products in a complex mountain-oasis-desert system and quantitatively discussed the uncertainties...

  3. Vegetable Charcoal and Pyroligneous Acid: Technological, Economical and Legal Aspects of its Production and Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Daroit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of vegetable charcoal generates atmospheric emissions, which can be controlled by the instalation of collectors for the condensation of such emissions, forming the pyroligneous acid. The development of collectors for the condensations and characterization of the acid for commerce can contribute with the local sustainable development. This study intends to investigate the technological, economical and legal aspects of the production and commerce of the pyroligneous acid. The chosen method was case study in Presidente Lucena/RS, Brazil, with use of surveys, interviews with producers and responsible government sectors’ representatives. The results indicate that the pyroligneous acid extraction technique is little-known and little used by the producers, that the current market does not absorb the pyroligneous acid offering and the ruling is not relevant.

  4. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50 days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11 gVS/(L d) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24 day) and 5.0 (25-50 day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20 g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5 g COD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruel Bárbara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

  6. Significant inconsistency of vegetation carbon density in CMIP5 Earth system models against observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xia; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Yin, Yunhe; Kumar, Jitendra; Ma, Chun; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) have been widely used for projecting global vegetation carbon dynamics, yet how well ESMs performed for simulating vegetation carbon density remains untested. We compiled observational data of vegetation carbon density from literature and existing data sets to evaluate nine ESMs at site, biome, latitude, and global scales. Three variables—root (including fine and coarse roots), total vegetation carbon density, and the root:total vegetation carbon ratios (R/T ratios), were chosen for ESM evaluation. ESM models performed well in simulating the spatial distribution of carbon densities in root (r = 0.71) and total vegetation (r = 0.62). However, ESM models had significant biases in simulating absolute carbon densities in root and total vegetation biomass across the majority of land ecosystems, especially in tropical and arctic ecosystems. Particularly, ESMs significantly overestimated carbon density in root (183%) and total vegetation biomass (167%) in climate zones of 10°S-10°N. Substantial discrepancies between modeled and observed R/T ratios were found: the R/T ratios from ESMs were relatively constant, approximately 0.2 across all ecosystems, along latitudinal gradients, and in tropic, temperate, and arctic climatic zones, which was significantly different from the observed large variations in the R/T ratios (0.1-0.8). There were substantial inconsistencies between ESM-derived carbon density in root and total vegetation biomass and the R/T ratio at multiple scales, indicating urgent needs for model improvements on carbon allocation algorithms and more intensive field campaigns targeting carbon density in all key vegetation components.

  7. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP). 2; Do Scaled (MODIS) Vegetation Indices Improve Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Shuai, Yanmin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing estimates of Gross Primary Production (GPP) have routinely been made using spectral Vegetation Indices (VIs) over the past two decades. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), the green band Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVIgreen), and the green band Chlorophyll Index (CIgreen) have been employed to estimate GPP under the assumption that GPP is proportional to the product of VI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (where VI is one of four VIs: NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen, or CIgreen). However, the empirical regressions between VI*PAR and GPP measured locally at flux towers do not pass through the origin (i.e., the zero X-Y value for regressions). Therefore they are somewhat difficult to interpret and apply. This study investigates (1) what are the scaling factors and offsets (i.e., regression slopes and intercepts) between the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll of a canopy (fAPARchl) and the VIs, and (2) whether the scaled VIs developed in (1) can eliminate the deficiency and improve the accuracy of GPP estimates. Three AmeriFlux maize and soybean fields were selected for this study, two of which are irrigated and one is rainfed. The four VIs and fAPARchl of the fields were computed with the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images. The GPP estimation performance for the scaled VIs was compared to results obtained with the original VIs and evaluated with standard statistics: the coefficient of determination (R2), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the coefficient of variation (CV). Overall, the scaled EVI obtained the best performance. The performance of the scaled NDVI, EVI and WDRVIgreen was improved across sites, crop types and soil/background wetness conditions. The scaled CIgreen did not improve results, compared to the original CIgreen. The scaled green band indices (WDRVIgreen, CIgreen) did not exhibit superior performance to either the

  8. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  9. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R2 = 0.62, p ... vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... functions for each plant community. GPP at light saturation modeled from eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements were found to correlate significantly with vegetation greenness for all plant communities in the studied year (i.e., 2010), and the highest correlation was found between modeled fen greenness...

  10. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... in northern Sweden. Both climate and vegetation type were strong interactive controls on ecosystem CO2 production rates during winter. Of all variables tested, soil temperature explained by far the largest amount of variation in respiration rates (41-75%). Our results indicate that vegetation type only....... At the end of winter, within several days of snowmelt, gross ecosystem photosynthesis rates were of a similar magnitude to ecosystem respiration, resulting in significant net carbon gain in some instances. Finally, climate and vegetation type were also strong interactive controls on total wintertime...

  11. NUTRIENTS DYNIMIC IN AN AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR STURGEON AND LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA SFETCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics are modern production systems, which integrate the aquaculture technology with hydroponic systems (vegetable production without soil with a goal of fructification of residual nutrients resulted from metabolic activity of fish biomass as high quality vegetable biomass sealable as ecological products. In the present study, as a first step in aquaponic recirculating systems evaluation, the authors aim to compare two types of recirculating systems: classical (hereby noted with RAS and integrated/aquaponic (RAS_A regarding water quality parameters generally, and TAN (total ammonia nitrogen production and transformation, particularly.

  12. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tri Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31

  13. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  14. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling European ruminant production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipling, Richard P.; Bannink, André; Bellocchi, Gianni; Dalgaard, Tommy; Fox, Naomi J.; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Kjeldsen, Chris; Lacetera, Nicola; Sinabell, Franz; Topp, Cairistiona F.E.; Oijen, van Marcel; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Scollan, Nigel D.

    2016-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are important producers of food, support rural communities and culture, and help to maintain a range of ecosystem services including the sequestering of carbon in grassland soils. However, these systems also contribute significantly to climate change through greenhouse

  16. Development of Vegetation-Pervious Concrete in Grid Beam System for Soil Slope Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaohua; Liao, Wenyu; Dong, Zhijun; Wang, Shanyong; Tang, Waiching

    2017-01-24

    One of the most efficient and environmentally friendly methods for preventing a landslide on a slope is to vegetate it. Vegetation-pervious concretes have a promising potential for soil protection. In this study, the vegetation-pervious concrete with low alkalinity was developed and studied. Combined with a grid beam structure system, the stability and strength between the vegetation-pervious concrete and base soil are believed to be enhanced effectively. For improving plant adaptability, the alkalinity of concrete can be decreased innovatively by adding a self-designed admixture into the cement paste. The effects of the admixture content on alkalinity and compressive strength of the hardened pervious concrete were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and compression test, respectively. Meanwhile, the permeability of the vegetation-pervious concrete was studied as well. Through comparing with ordinary pervious concrete, the effect of low alkaline pervious concrete on vegetation growth was investigated in a small-scale field for ten weeks. The test results indicated that the alkalinity of the cement samples decreased with the increase of admixture content, and the vegetation grew successfully on previous concrete. By increasing the admixture content to approximately 3.6%, the compressive strength of pervious concrete was more than 25 MPa.

  17. Drought footprint on European ecosystems between 1999 and 2010 assessed by remotely sensed vegetation phenology and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivits, Eva; Horion, Stephanie; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cherlet, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Drought affects more people than any other natural disaster but there is little understanding of how ecosystems react to droughts. This study jointly analyzed spatio-temporal changes of drought patterns with vegetation phenology and productivity changes between 1999 and 2010 in major European bioclimatic zones. The Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was used as drought indicator whereas changes in growing season length and vegetation productivity were assessed using remote sensing time-series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Drought spatio-temporal variability was analyzed using a Principal Component Analysis, leading to the identification of four major drought events between 1999 and 2010 in Europe. Correspondence Analysis showed that at the continental scale the productivity and phenology reacted differently to the identified drought events depending on ecosystem and land cover. Northern and Mediterranean ecosystems proved to be more resilient to droughts in terms of vegetation phenology and productivity developments. Western Atlantic regions and Eastern Europe showed strong agglomerations of decreased productivity and shorter vegetation growing season length, indicating that these ecosystems did not buffer the effects of drought well. In a climate change perspective, increase in drought frequency or intensity may result in larger impacts over these ecosystems, thus management and adaptation strategies should be strengthened in these areas of concerns.

  18. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of soil moisture depletion on vegetable crop uptake of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sergio; Roll, Deborah M; Ray, Chittaranjan; Williams, Clinton; Moravcik, Philip; Knopf, Allan

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural crops have a long history of being irrigated with recycled wastewater (RW). However, its use on vegetable crops has been of concern due to the potential prevalence of microcontaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the latter, which represents a possible health hazard to consumers. We investigated the uptake of three PPCPs (atenolol, diclofenac, and ofloxacin), at three different concentrations in irrigation water (0.5, 5, and 25 μg L -1 ) in relation to three varying volumetric soil moisture depletion levels of 14 % (-4.26 kPa), 10 % (-8.66 kPa), and 7 % (-18.37 kPa) by various vegetable crop species. Experiments were conducted in a split-split block completely randomized design. PPCPs were extracted using a developed method of accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction and analyzed via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). Results indicate that all treated crops were capable of PPCP uptake at nanogram per gram concentrations independent of the applied soil moisture depletion levels and PPCP concentrations. Ofloxacin was the chemical with the highest uptake amounts, followed by atenolol and then diclofenac. Although the results were not statistically significant, higher concentrations of PPCPs were detected in plants maintained under higher soil moisture levels of 14 % (-4.26 kPa).

  20. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Ana V. Lara; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka Univ., Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-02-28

    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content, and by a single addition of methanol. R. oryzae lipase was not inactivated by methanol in concentrations lower than 4 milli-equivalents and 75% water content. Optimum conditions for methanolysis of extracted oils were 75% water content (by weight of substrate), an oil/methanol molar ratio of I:4, and 67 IU/g of substrate with agitation at 175 rpm for 96 h at 35 deg C. The highest conversion yield reached 55% (w/w) with palm oil after 96 h of reaction. Adverse viscosity conditions might have influenced methanolysis of extracted soybean and rapeseed oil in spite of high water or methanol concentrations. (Author)

  1. [Relationship between vegetable nutrition and nitrate content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihe; Wang, Zhengyin; Li, Baozhen

    2004-09-01

    Nitrate accumulation in vegetables, which related well to vegetable nutrition, becomes one of the limiting factors of non-pollution vegetables production. Preference to nitrate is the nutritional characteristic of vegetables. Nitrate is absorbed by vegetables through high-affinity transport system (HATS) and low-affinity transport system (LATS), and is reduced and transformed under the effect of such essential elements as molybdenum, manganese, iron, copper, sulphur and phosphorus. In this paper, the effects of essential elements on nitrate absorption and reductive transform were reviewed, and the relationships of nitrate accumulation in vegetables with vegetable nutrition of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and mid-and microelements as well as with balanced fertilization were discussed. The research keys in the field were prospected for controlling nitrate accumulation, improving vegetables' quality and producing non-pollution vegetables.

  2. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  3. Application of Vegetation Indices to Estimate Acorn Production at Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Juan A.; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Recuero, Laura; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Palacios, Alicia; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian pig valued natural resources of the pasture when fattened in mountain. The variability of acorn production is not contained in any line of Spanish agricultural insurance. However, the production of arable pasture is covered by line insurance number 133 for loss of pasture compensation. This scenario is only contemplated for breeding cows and brave bulls, sheep, goats and horses, although pigs are not included. This insurance is established by monitoring ten-day composites Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measured by satellite over treeless pastures, using MODIS TERRA satellite. The aim of this work is to check if we can use a satellite vegetation index to estimate the production of acorns. In order to do so, two Spanish grassland locations have been analyzed: regions of Olivenza (Jerez-Oliva) and Merida (Badajoz). The acorns production was evaluated through 2002-2005 gauging conducted by the Grupo Habitat de la Orden (Badajoz). Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same time period to estimate the ten-day composites NDVI at these locations. Finally, meteorological data was obtained from SIAR and MAGRAMA network stations, calculating the ten-day averaged temperature and ten day accumulated precipitation. Considering two accumulated factors, NDVI and temperature, three phenological stages were well defined being the second one which pointed differences among campaigns. Then, accumulated precipitation versus accumulated NDVI was plot for this second phenological stage obtaining maximum differences at 300 mm of cumulative rainfall. Analyzing acorn production with accumulated NDVI in that moment a production function was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. These results will be discussed in detail. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y

  4. Balancing Aggradation and Progradation on a Vegetated Delta: The Importance of Fluctuating Discharge in Depositional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Anastasia; Kim, Wonsuck; Carlson, Brandee

    2017-10-01

    Vegetation is an important component of constructional landscapes, as plants enhance deposition and provide organic sediment that can increase aggradation rates to combat land loss. We conducted two sets of laboratory experiments using alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to determine the effects of plants on channel organization and large-scale delta dynamics. In the first set, we found that rapid vegetation colonization enhanced deposition but inhibited channelization via increased form drag that reduced the shear stress available for sediment entrainment and transport. A second set of experiments used discharge fluctuations between flood and base flow (or interflood). Interfloods were critical for reworking the topset via channel incision and lateral migration to create channel relief and prevent rapid plant colonization. These low-flow periods also greatly reduced the topset slope in the absence of vegetation by removing topset sediment and delivering it to the shoreline. Floods decreased relief by filling channels with sediment, resulting in periods of rapid progradation and enhanced aggradation over the topset surface, which was amplified by vegetation. The combination of discharge fluctuations and vegetation thus provided a balance of vertical aggradation and lateral progradation. We conclude that plants can inhibit channelization in depositional systems and that discharge fluctuations encourage channel network organization to naturally balance against aggradation. Thus, variations in discharge are an important aspect of understanding the ecomorphodynamics of aggrading surfaces and modeling vegetated deltaic systems, and the combined influences of plants and discharge variations can act to balance vertical and lateral delta growth.

  5. The selective cytotoxicity of the alkenyl glucosinolate hydrolysis products and their presence in Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Nurul H A; David, Rhiannon; Rossiter, John T; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2015-08-06

    Cruciferous vegetable consumption correlates with reduced risk of cancer. This chemopreventative activity may involve glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates have been studied for their toxicity and chemopreventative properties, but other hydrolysis products (epithionitriles and nitriles) have not been thoroughly examined. We report that these hydrolysis products differ in their cytotoxicity to human cells, with toxicity most strongly associated with isothiocyanates rather than epithionitriles and nitriles. We explored mechanisms of this differential cytotoxicity by examining the role of oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability, reduced glutathione levels, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 2-Propenylisothiocyanate and 3-butenylisothiocyanate both inhibited cytochome P450 1A (CYP1A) enzyme activity in CYP expressing MCL-5 cells at high cytotoxic doses. Incubation of MCL-5 cells with non-cytotoxic doses of 2-propenylisothiocyanate for 24h resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, yet failed to affect CYP1A1 mRNA expression indicating interference with enzyme activity rather than inhibition of transcription. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was observed only for 2-propenylisothiocyanate treatment. 2-Propenylisothiocyanate treatment lowered reduced glutathione levels whereas no changes were noted with 3,4-epithiobutylnitrile. Cell cycle analysis showed that 2-propenylisothiocyanate induced a G2/M block whereas other hydrolysis products showed only marginal effects. We found that 2-propenylisothiocyanate and 3-butenylisothiocyanate induced cell death predominantly via necrosis whereas, 3,4-epithiobutylnitrile promoted both necrosis and apoptosis. Thus the activity of glucosinolate hydrolysis products includes cytotoxicity that is compound-class specific and may contribute to their putative chemoprotection properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  6. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A vegetation sensitivity approximation for gross primary production in water limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Jonas; Nycander, Jonas

    2013-04-01

    The most severe impact of climate change on vegetation growth and agriculture is likely to occur under water-limited conditions. Under such conditions the plants optimize the inward flux of CO2 and the outward flux of water vapor (the transpiration) by regulating the size of the stomata openings. Higher temperature increases water loss through transpiration, forcing the plants to diminish the stomata openings, which decreases photosynthesis. This is counteracted by higher CO2 concentration, which allows plants to maintain the inward flux of CO2 through the smaller openings. These two counteracting effects, combined with the change in precipitation, determine the net change of biological productivity in a changed climate. Here, a vegetation sensitivity approximation (VSA) is introduced, in order to understand and estimate the combined effect of changed temperature, CO2-concentration and precipitation on gross primary production (GPP) to first order. According to the VSA, we have: ( ) ?CO2atm ν GP P = ?0 P Here ?CO2atm is the atmospheric CO2 concentration, ?0 is the baseline for atmospheric CO2 concentration, P is precipitation and ν is defined by: -s- ν = 1 - 11°C where s is the climate sensitivity i.e. the increase in temperature when atmospheric CO2 is doubled. The VSA is based on the physical laws of gas flux through the stomata openings, and is only valid under water-limited conditions. It assumes that the temperature depends logarithmically on the CO2 concentration with a given climate sensitivity. Transpiration is assumed to be a constant fraction of precipitation, which is reasonable under water-limited conditions. The VSA is compared to simulations with the dynamic vegetation model LPJ. The agreement is reasonable, and the deviations can be understood by comparison with Köppen's definition of arid climate: in an arid climate growth increases more according to LPJ than according to the VSA, and in non-arid conditions the reverse is true. Both the VSA and

  8. Soil Phosphorus status in Chinese greenhouse vegetable production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kianpoor Kalkhajeh, Yusef

    taken place in major Chinese GVP soils impairing the quality of the adjacent freshwaters by eutrophication through surface/subsurface P mobilization. Although studies have reported massive P accumulation in Chinese GVP soils, potential risk of soil P mobilization as a function of soil labile P content...

  9. Analysis of teleconnections between AVHRR-based sea surface temperature and vegetation productivity in the semi-arid Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation productivity across the Sahel is known to be affected by a variety of global sea surface temperature (SST) patterns. Often climate indices are used to relate Sahelian vegetation variability to large-scale ocean–atmosphere phenomena. However, previous research findings reporting...... on the Sahelian vegetation response to climate indices have been inconsistent and contradictory, which could partly be caused by the variations in spatial extent/definitions of climate indices and size of the region studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the linkage between climate indices, pixel......-wise spatio-temporal patterns of global sea surface temperature and the Sahelian vegetation dynamics for 1982–2007. We stratified the Sahel into five subregions to account for the longitudinal variability in rainfall. We found significant correlations between climate indices and the Normalized Difference...

  10. Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Running, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by global population and standard of living increases, humanity co-opts a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. In this study, we explored the impact of agriculture on a resource fundamental to life on Earth: terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). We demonstrate that agricultural conversion has reduced terrestrial NPP by ~7.0%. Increases in NPP due to agricultural conversion were observed only in areas receiving external inputs (i.e., irrigation and/or fertilization). NPP reductions were found for ~88% of agricultural lands, with the largest reductions observed in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (~71% and ~66% reductions, respectively). Without policies that explicitly consider the impact of agricultural conversion on primary production, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output will likely continue to drive net declines in global terrestrial productivity, with potential detrimental consequences for net ecosystem carbon storage and subsequent climate warming.

  11. Abundance and fate of antibiotics and hormones in a vegetative treatment system receiving cattle feedlot runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTS) have been developed and built as an alternative to conventional holding pond systems for managing run-off from animal feeding operations. Initially developed to manage runoff nutrients via uptake by grasses, their effectiveness at removing other runoff contaminant...

  12. PRODUCT NEEM AZAL T/S - BROAD-SPECTRUM PHYPOPESTICIDE FOR CONTROL OF PESTS ON VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinelina Yankova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments for determination of the effectiveness of product Neem Azal T/S (a. i. azadirachtin were conducted at a concentration of 0,3% against some major pests in vegetable crops grown in greenhouses at the Maritsa Vegetable Crops research Institute, Plovdiv during the period 2010-2016. It was established very good insecticidal and acaricidal action of phytopesticide against: cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glov.; green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulz.; western flower trips (Frankliniella occidentalis Perg.; cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubn.; tomato borer (Tuta absoluta Meyrick and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranichus urticae Koch.. This product is a successful alternative to using chemical insecticides and acaricides.

  13. Study on the idity fuzzy neural network controller based on improved genetic algorithm of intelligent temperature control system in vegetable greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Yuan, Hongbo; Zhou, Yuhong; Wang, Nan

    2009-07-01

    In order to create the environment that the suitable crop grows, direct against the characteristic of the system of the greenhouse. The aim of the research was to study the intelligent temperature control system in vegetable greenhouse. Based on computer automatic control ,a kind of intelligent temperature control system in vegetable greenhouse was designed. The design thought of systematic hardwares such as temperature collection system, temperature display, control system, heater control circuit in the heater were expounded in detail The control algorithm of the system was improved and system simulation was made by using MATLAB finally. The control algorithm of the system was improved by a new fuzzy neural network controller. The stimulation curve showed that the system had better controlling and tracking performances ,higher accuracy of controlling the temperature. And this system and host epigyny computer could constitute the secondary computer control system which was favorable for realizing the centralized management of the production.

  14. The ATLAS Production System Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS Production System called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager that runs daily hundreds of thousands of jobs, from dozens of different ATLAS-specific workflows, across more than a hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based upon many criteria, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption, with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kinds of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteer computers. The system dynamically assigns a group of jobs (task) to a group of geographically distributed computing resources. Dynamic assignment and resource utilization is one of the major features of the system. The Production System has a sophisticated job fault recovery mechanism, which efficiently allows running multi-terabyte tasks without human intervention. We have implemented new features which allow automatic task submission and chaining of differe...

  15. Agricultural conversion reduces biospheric vegetation productivity in the absence of external inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Cleveland, C. C.; Reed, S.; Running, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing global population, energy demand, and standard of living has driven humanity to co-opt a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. Here, we explored the impact of global-scale agricultural production on a basic resource fundamental to life on Earth: global terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). First, we compared current rates of agricultural NPP - derived from crop-specific agricultural statistics - with rates of natural NPP - derived from satellite measurements. Next, we disaggregated our results by climate zone, conversion type, crop type, management intensity, and region to identify where agricultural conversion has driven significant degradation of biospheric NPP. At the global-scale, our data indicate that agricultural conversion has resulted in a ~7% reduction in biospheric NPP (ΔNPP), although the impact varied widely at the pixel level. Positive ΔNPP values, signifying an increase in NPP due to agricultural conversion, occurred only in areas receiving significant external water and nutrient inputs (i.e., intensively managed areas). Conversely, negative ΔNPP values, signifying a reduction in NPP due to agricultural conversion, occurred over ~90% of agricultural lands globally, with the largest reductions in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (71% and 66% reductions in NPP, respectively). Without new global-scale policies that explicitly consider changes in NPP due to land cover conversion, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output - likely dependent on some level of expansion into natural ecosystems - could continue to drive net declines in biospheric NPP, with potential detrimental consequences for global carbon storage. A spatially explicit estimate of the effect of agricultural land cover conversion on natural primary production for 20 staple crops. ΔNPP was estimated independently for a) irrigated, b) high input, c) low

  16. Changes of the CO2 and CH4 production potential of rewetted fens in the perspective of temporal vegetation shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, D.; Reuter, H.; Augustin, J.; Shatwell, T.; Barth, M.; Gelbrecht, J.; McInnes, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Rewetting of long-term drained fens often results in the formation of eutrophic shallow lakes with an average water depth of less than 1 m. This is accompanied by a fast vegetation shift from cultivated grasses via submerged hydrophytes to helophytes. As a result of rapid plant dying and decomposition, these systems are highly dynamic wetlands characterised by a high mobilisation of nutrients and elevated emissions of CO2 and CH4. However, the impact of specific plant species on these phenomena is not clear. Therefore we investigated the CO2 and CH4 production due to the subaqueous decomposition of shoot biomass of five selected plant species which represent different rewetting stages (Phalaris arundinacea, Ceratophyllum demersum, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis and Carex riparia) during a 154 day mesocosm study. Beside continuous gas flux measurements, we performed bulk chemical analysis of plant tissue, including carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and plant polymer dynamics. Plant-specific mass losses after 154 days ranged from 25% (P. australis) to 64% (C. demersum). Substantial differences were found for the CH4 production with highest values from decomposing C. demersum (0.4 g CH4 kg-1 dry mass day) that were about 70 times higher than CH4 production from C. riparia. Thus, we found a strong divergence between mass loss of the litter and methane production during decomposition. If C. demersum as a hydrophyte is included in the statistical analysis solely nutrient contents (nitrogen and phosphorus) explain varying greenhouse gas production of the different plant species while lignin and polyphenols demonstrate no significant impact at all. Taking data of annual biomass production as important carbon source for methanogens into account, high CH4 emissions can be expected to last several decades as long as inundated and nutrient-rich conditions prevail. Different restoration measures like water level control, biomass extraction and top soil removal are discussed

  17. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  18. Recent developments in microbial oils production: a possible alternative to vegetable oils for biodiesel without competition with human food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries vegetable oils are consumed as human food but it also finds applications in biodiesel production which is attracting more attention. But due to being in competition with food it could not be sustainable and leads the need to search for alternative. Nowdays microbes-derived oils (single cell oils seem to be alternatives for biodiesel production due to their similar composition to that of vegetable oils. However, the cold flow properties of the biodiesel produced from microbial oils are unacceptable and have to be modified by an efficient transesterification. Glycerol which is by product of transesterification can be valorised into some more useful products so that it can also be utilised along with biodiesel to simplify the downstream processing. The review paper discusses about various potent microorganisms for biodiesel production, enzymes involved in the lipid accumulation, lipid quantification methods, catalysts used in transesterification (including enzymatic catalyst and valorisation of glycerol.

  19. Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Debouk

    Full Text Available Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to environmental changes such as global warming, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of warming only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental warming, and (ii whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a warm continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland. The impacts of simulated warming on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term warming. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after warming were more dependent on trait composition (CWM than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before warming changed less in composition after warming. Results suggest that (i the short-term warming can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short

  20. Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to environmental changes such as global warming, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of warming only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental warming, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a warm continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated warming on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term warming. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after warming were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before warming changed less in composition after warming. Results suggest that (i) the short-term warming can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term warming

  1. Consistency Between Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Gross Primary Production of Vegetation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Sha; Wagle, Pradeep; Joiner, Joanna; Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang , Geli; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is vital for a better understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of the global carbon cycle. In this study,we estimate GPP in North America (NA) using the satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) images at 8-day temporal and 500 meter spatial resolutions, and NCEP-NARR (National Center for Environmental Prediction-North America Regional Reanalysis) climate data. The simulated GPP (GPP (sub VPM)) agrees well with the flux tower derived GPP (GPPEC) at 39 AmeriFlux sites (155 site-years). The GPP (sub VPM) in 2010 is spatially aggregated to 0.5 by 0.5-degree grid cells and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data from Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2), which is directly related to vegetation photosynthesis. Spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of GPP (sub VPM) and GOME-2 SIF show good consistency. At the biome scale, GPP (sub VPM) and SIF shows strong linear relationships (R (sup 2) is greater than 0.95) and small variations in regression slopes ((4.60-5.55 grams Carbon per square meter per day) divided by (milliwatts per square meter per nanometer per square radian)). The total annual GPP (sub VPM) in NA in 2010 is approximately 13.53 petagrams Carbon per year, which accounts for approximately 11.0 percent of the global terrestrial GPP and is within the range of annual GPP estimates from six other process-based and data-driven models (11.35-22.23 petagrams Carbon per year). Among the seven models, some models did not capture the spatial pattern of GOME-2 SIF data at annual scale, especially in Midwest cropland region. The results from this study demonstrate the reliable performance of VPM at the continental scale, and the potential of SIF data being used as a benchmark to compare with GPP models.

  2. Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO₂ gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Justin A; Shaw, Joseph A; Lawrence, Rick L; Larimer, Randal M

    2012-02-01

    As a component of a multisensor approach to monitoring carbon sequestration sites for possible leaks of the CO₂ gas from underground reservoirs, a low-cost multispectral imaging system has been developed for indirect detection of gas leaks through observations of the resulting stress in overlying vegetation. The imager employs front-end optics designed to provide a full 50° field of view with a small, low-cost CMOS detector, while still maintaining quasi-collimated light through the angle-dependent interference filters used to define the spectral bands. Red and near-infrared vegetation reflectances are used to compute the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and spatial and temporal patterns are analyzed statistically to identify regions of anomalous stress, which are then flagged for closer inspection with in-situ CO₂ sensors. The system is entirely self-contained with an onboard compact computer and is housed in a weather-proof housing to enable extended outdoor deployment.

  3. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, F; Watanabe, Y; Kishita, A; Enomoto, H [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kishida, H [Environmental Systems Headquarters, Environmental Research and Development Center Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Kyoto 625-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: fmjin@mail.tongji.edu.cn

    2008-07-15

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300 deg. C, 1 min for the first step, and 300 deg. C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  4. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F.; Watanabe, Y.; Kishita, A.; Enomoto, H.; Kishida, H.

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300°C, 1 min for the first step, and 300°C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  5. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes; a food irradiation study on radiation induced stress in vegetable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.

    In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in

  6. An Automated Comparative Observation System for Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Vegetation Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijia Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Detecting sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF offers a new approach for remote sensing photosynthesis. However, to analyse the response characteristics of SIF under different stress states, a long-term time-series comparative observation of vegetation under different stress states must be carried out at the canopy scale, such that the similarities and differences in SIF change law can be summarized under different time scales. A continuous comparative observation system for vegetation canopy SIF is designed in this study. The system, which is based on a high-resolution spectrometer and an optical multiplexer, can achieve comparative observation of multiple targets. To simultaneously measure the commonly used vegetation index and SIF in the O2-A and O2-B atmospheric absorption bands, the following parameters are used: a spectral range of 475.9 to 862.2 nm, a spectral resolution of approximately 0.9 nm, a spectral sampling interval of approximately 0.4 nm, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR can be as high as 1000:1. To obtain data for both the upward radiance of the vegetation canopy and downward irradiance data with a high SNR in relatively short time intervals, the single-step integration time optimization algorithm is proposed. To optimize the extraction accuracy of SIF, the FluorMOD model is used to simulate sets of data according to the spectral resolution, spectral sampling interval and SNR of the spectrometer in this continuous observation system. These data sets are used to determine the best parameters of Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD, Three FLD (3FLD and the spectral fitting method (SFM, and 3FLD and SFM are confirmed to be suitable for extracting SIF from the spectral measurements. This system has been used to observe the SIF values in O2-A and O2-B absorption bands and some commonly used vegetation index from sweet potato and bare land, the result of which shows: (1 the daily variation trend of SIF value of sweet potato leaves is

  7. Rebuilding Long Time Series Global Soil Moisture Products Using the Neural Network Adopting the Microwave Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a back propagation neural network (BPNN method to rebuild a global and long-term soil moisture (SM series, adopting the microwave vegetation index (MVI. The data used in our study include Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Level 3 soil moisture (SMOSL3sm data, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E, and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 Level 3 brightness temperature (TB data and L3 SM products. The BPNNs on each grid were trained over July 2010–June 2011, and the entire year of 2013, with SMOSL3sm as a training target, and taking the reflectivities (Rs of the C/X/Ku/Ka/Q bands, and the MVI from AMSR-E/AMSR2 TB data, as input, in which the MVI is used to correct for vegetation effects. The training accuracy of networks was evaluated by comparing soil moisture products produced using BPNNs (NNsm hereafter with SMOSL3sm during the BPNN training period, in terms of correlation coefficient (CC, bias (Bias, and the root mean square error (RMSE. Good global results were obtained with CC = 0.67, RMSE = 0.055 m3/m3 and Bias = −0.0005 m3/m3, particularly over Australia, Central USA, and Central Asia. With these trained networks over each pixel, a global and long-term soil moisture time series, i.e., 2003–2015, was built using AMSR-E TB from 2003 to 2011 and AMSR2 TB from 2012 to 2015. Then, NNsm products were evaluated against in situ SM observations from all SCAN (Soil Climate Analysis Network sites (SCANsm. The results show that NNsm has a good agreement with in situ data, and can capture the temporal dynamics of in situ SM, with CC = 0.52, RMSE = 0.84 m3/m3 and Bias = −0.002 m3/m3. We also evaluate the accuracy of NNsm by comparing with AMSR-E/AMSR2 SM products, with results of a regression method. As a conclusion, this study provides a promising BPNN method adopting MVI to rebuild a long-term SM time series, and this could provide useful insights for the future Water

  8. Chlorophyll induced fluorescence retrieved from GOME2 for improving gross primary productivity estimates of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Thomas C.; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Sanders, Abram F. J.

    2014-05-01

    Mapping terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is a crucial activity to obtain information on the functional status of vegetation and to improve estimates of light-use efficiency (LUE) and global primary productivity (GPP). GPP quantifies carbon fixation by plant ecosystems and is therefore an important parameter for budgeting terrestrial carbon cycles. Satellite remote sensing offers an excellent tool for investigating GPP in a spatially explicit fashion across different scales of observation. The GPP estimates, however, still remain largely uncertain due to biotic and abiotic factors that influence plant production. Sun-induced fluorescence has the ability to enhance our knowledge on how environmentally induced changes affect the LUE. This can be linked to optical derived remote sensing parameters thereby reducing the uncertainty in GPP estimates. Satellite measurements provide a relatively new perspective on global sun-induced fluorescence, enabling us to quantify spatial distributions and changes over time. Techniques have recently been developed to retrieve fluorescence emissions from hyperspectral satellite measurements. We use data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME2) to infer terrestrial fluorescence. The spectral signatures of three basic components atmospheric: absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance are separated using reference measurements of non-fluorescent surfaces (desserts, deep oceans and ice) to solve for the atmospheric absorption. An empirically based principal component analysis (PCA) approach is applied similar to that of Joiner et al. (2013, ACP). Here we show our first global maps of the GOME2 retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence. First results indicate fluorescence distributions that are similar with that obtained by GOSAT and GOME2 as reported by Joiner et al. (2013, ACP), although we find slightly higher values. In view of optimizing the fluorescence retrieval, we will show the effect of the references

  9. Productivity raising approaches in the logistic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Rakyta

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the productivity of the logistic production system. The aim is to define the intermediate state of the production machines and equipment (OOE, identification of the material flows, idle time and breakdown forecasting, with the following purchase of the required spare parts. The goal of the system is the satisfaction of the customer´s needs and the minimalisation of not fulfilling the required terms for delivery with simultaneous increasing of the logistic production system productivity.

  10. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part I. Wheat cereal products, vegetable products, confectionery and products for infants and children (2004 year)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Plewa, Monika; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    The testing of products of wheat cereal (310 samples), vegetable (418 samples), confectionery (439 samples) and 952 samples of products for infants and children has initiated the 5-years cycle of monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health planned to perform in 2004-2008. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection collecting samples on all over the territory of Poland, both from retail market (of domestic origin as well as imported) and directly from producers; the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene responsible for elaboration of official food control and monitoring plans to be approved by Chief Sanitary Inspectorate and for the substantive supervising of tests performance. The reported metals contents were not of health concern and generally below the levels set forth in food legislation. The health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for cadmium, which has reached 9.4% PTWI for cereal based products and 4.7% PTWI for vegetables. The cadmium content in chocolate and derived products due to contamination of cocoa beans and the levels of this element in products for infants and children originated from contamination of cereal and soybeans row materials should not be ignored. The decrease of lead contamination comparing to those reported in 1990 studies was observed.

  11. Sustainability of greenhouse fruit vegetables; Spain versus The Netherlands; Development of a monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der N.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability is becoming more and more important in the competitive battle between the greenhouse-grown fruiting vegetables produced in Spain and the Netherlands. A monitoring system has been developed. Sustainability is a broad concept regarding primary producers and other links in the chain.

  12. Structure, root systems and periodicity of savanna plants and vegetations in Northern Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar-ten Bokkel Huinink, van W.A.E.

    1966-01-01

    From July 1958 to May 1959 an investigation was carried out of the relation between physiognomic characteristics of the vegetation and the habitat on some savannas in the vicinity of Zanderij, Surinam. Root systems, structure, periodicity and characteristics of the leaves were considered, both of

  13. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  14. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  15. Assessing the impact of time of spring vegetation renewal on growth, development and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of study focusing on impact of environmental factor – time of spring vegetation renewal (TSVR of soft winter wheat on growth and development of plants, crop productivity and modern varieties response are presented. It is found that in the central part of the Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine this factor is important and it should be considered in planning of spring and summer care techniques, fertilizer system, especially at spring fertilizing, use of pesticides and growth regulators, in taking a decision on reseeding or underseeding of space plants. At the same time, it was determined that the environmental effect of TSVR was not occurred every year, thus it is not always possible to forecast the type of plant development. But in such years it is possible to influence the processes of plants growth, development and survival in spring and summer periods and the formation of their productivity by introducing such intensive technologies as differential crop tending, mineral nutrition optimization, the use of plant growth regulators, trace nutrients, weed, pest and disease control agents.

  16. Ready-to-eat vegetables production with low-level water chlorination: an evaluation of water quality and of its impact on end products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D'Acunzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the microbiological impact of low-level chlorination (1 ppm free chlorine on the production of ready-to-eat (RTE vegetables by monitoring the microbiological quality of irrigation and processing water in two production plants over a 4-season period, as well as the microbiological quality of unprocessed vegetables and RTE product. Water samples were also characterized in terms of some chemical and physico-chemical parameters of relevance in chlorination management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both producers use water with maximum 1 ppm free chlorine for vegetables rinsing, while the two processes differ by the number of washing cycles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp were detected once in two different irrigation water samples out of nine from one producer. No pathogens were found in the vegetable samples. As expected, the procedure encompassing more washing cycles performed slightly better in terms of total mesophilic count (TCM when comparing unprocessed and RTE vegetables of the same batch. However, data suggest that low-level chlorination may be insufficient in preventing microbial build-up in the washing equipment and/or batch-to batch cross-contamination.

  17. Development of a quantitative basis for selection of spectral features in a vegetation monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, D. E.; Smith, J. H.; Trichel, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an objective methodology for evaluation of alternative Landsat data preprocessing options, spectral transform features for monitoring vegetation, and feature summarization algorithms is presented. Based on estimates of spectral separability between a target class and its confusion classes, analysis of variance techniques are used to evaluate potential design options for large scale vegetation monitoring systems. Case studies are presented for early season and through the season spring small grains separation and for barley/other spring small grains separation. It is concluded that a basis for efficient, objective selection among alternative feature extraction approaches has been established for the large scale vegetation mapping/inventory problem. Although the approach has been demonstrated for the unitemporal class separability case, extensions to the multitemporal case are under development.

  18. THE DESIGN OF AN INFORMATIC MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL VEGETAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela VLAD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present exists a concern over the inability of the small and medium farms managers to accurately estimate and evaluate production systems efficiency in Romanian agriculture. This general concern has become even more pressing as market prices associated with agricultural activities continue to increase. As a result, considerable research attention is now orientated to the development of economical models integrated in software interfaces that can improve the technical and financial management. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an estimation and evaluation model designed to increase the farmer’s ability to measure production activities costs by utilizing informatic systems.

  19. Collective action on improving environmental and economic performance of vegetable production: Exploring pesticides safety in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravindakshan, S.; Sherief, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    From the chemical input-intensive yield-enhancement practices of the Green Revolution era, agricultural research and development focus is gradually shifting towards establishing Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) in fruits and vegetable sector. The dominant problems affecting fruits and vegetables in

  20. Heavy Metals Levels in Soil and Vegetables in Different Growing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hura C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current project deals with an issue of actuality and scientific/technical necessity and aims to assess the factors contributing to the vulnerability of ecological systems and therefore endangering/compromising food safety. The goals of this ongoing study are to address the main risk factors on ecological system with particular regards to fresh growing vegetables and to establish technical monitoring system(s with a view to increase food safety. Herein, the authors present the research results obtained in 2011 in SIECOLEG Project regarding the assessment of some heavy metals (mainly lead, cadmium, cooper, and manganese of 80 samples soils and 25 samples vegetables from some ecological system. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured by Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS Schimadzu 6300 - with graphite furnace atomizer and autosampler. In soil: lead and cadmium concentrations ranged from 4.51 to 6.58 mg/kg and from 0.14 to 0.4 mg/kg, respectively. Cooper and manganese concentrations ranged from 20.73 to 6.58 mg/kg and from 218.1 to 298.3 mg/kg, respectively. In vegetables (tomatoes, cucumber, peppers, eggplant, cabbage: lead concentrations ranged from 0.0 (tomatoes to 4.35 mg/kg (cabbage; cooper concentrations ranged from 0.2 mg/kg (cucumber to 0.80 mg/kg (eggplant; manganese concentrations ranged from 0.0 mg/kg (tomatoes to 0.60 mg/kg (eggplant. Cadmium was not detected in any of analysed vegetable samples. Under these circumstances, the project intends to demonstrate the extent of this vulnerability and to elaborate measures for controlling and diminishing the effects of the involved factors in order to increase food safety and security for ecological fresh vegetables

  1. Increasing Methane Production by Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Slaughterhouse with Fruit and Vegetable Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Samadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite fossil fuels, the energy supply from biogas process is of renewable energy resources; this kind of energy can be generated in all parts of the world. Thus, the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for production of methane from wastes of an industrial slaughterhouse and fruit and vegetable center in the Hamadan city, west of Iran, was investigated. The digester was operated under the mesophilic (35 - 37°C condition for a period of 40 days with 3 different C/N ratios (20/1, 30/1 and 40/1. Before operation of digester, the amounts of C and N in the wastes were measured and during the experiments pH and composition of the biogas were determined. The cumulative amounts of the generated total biogas and methane at the 3 examined C/N ratios 20/1, 30/1 and 40/1 were, respectively 181, 201.7 and 162.5 L and 129.8, 149.2 and 114 L. The results indicated that the highest contents of biogas and methane (201.68 and 149.29 L, respectively were obtained at C/N of 30 within 31 days.

  2. Chemical production processes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  3. Chemical production processes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  4. Production systems for recombinant antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmann, Thomas; Al-Halabi, Laila; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Recombinant antibodies are the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Furthermore, antibodies are key detection reagents in research and diagnostics. The increasing demand for antibodies with regards to amount and quality resulted in the development of a variety of recombinant production systems employing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines as well as mammalian cell lines. More recently, antibodies were also successfully produced in transgenic plants and animals. Currently, the production of recombinant antibodies for therapy is performed in mammalian cell lines to reduce the risk of immunogenicity caused by non-human post-translational modifications, in particular glycosylation. However, novel strategies already allow human-like glycosylation patterns in yeast, insect cell lines and transgenic plants. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies not requiring glycosylation of the Fc portion have been conceived, most prominently using bispecific antibodies or scFv fusion proteins, which can be produced in bacteria. Here, we review all current antibody production systems considering their advantages and limitations with respect to intended applications.

  5. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  6. A description of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota associated with the production of traditional fermented vegetables in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Doan Thi Lam; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Cnockaert, Margo; De Brandt, Evie; Aerts, Maarten; Binh Thanh, Le; Vandamme, Peter

    2013-04-15

    An important part of the daily nourishment in Vietnam constitutes of fermented vegetables. Bacteria and especially lactic acid bacteria play a central role in the production of many fermented vegetables. The current study was conducted to investigate the diversity of native lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in 'dua muoi' (mustard and beet fermentation) and 'ca muoi' (eggplant fermentation), three types of popular traditional fermented vegetables of Vietnamese origin. To this end a polyphasic approach combining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and pheS gene sequence analysis was used. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed as a culture-independent method to complement the observed culturable diversity data. A total of 881 LAB isolates were recovered from 21 different samples. Predominant LAB associated with 'dua muoi' and 'ca muoi' were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (56.6%), Lactobacillus pentosus (24.4%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (17.1%). Less abundant species were Pediococcus pentosaceus (1.0%) and Lactobacillus brevis (0.5%). Species present less than 0.1% included Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus pantheris and Pediococcus acidilactici. In contrast to fermented mustard and beet with the highest prevalence of L. fermentum, the species most recovered from fermented eggplant samples was L. pentosus. In addition, an important degree of genetic variability within the different predominant species was observed and strain dependency correlating with the type of fermented vegetable or location of production could be demonstrated using multivariate statistics. This research gives an extensive and detailed inventory of the LAB diversity associated with the production of diverse Vietnamese fermented vegetables and demonstrates the influence of type of raw material and/or production location and conditions on this diversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Photosynthetically supplemental lighting for vegetable crop production with super-bright laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongguang; Li, Pingping; Shi, Jintong

    2007-02-01

    Although many artificial light sources like high-pressure sodium lamp, metal halide lamp, fluorescent lamp and so on are commonly used in horticulture, they are not widely applied because of the disadvantages of unreasonable spectra, high cost and complex control. Recently new light sources of light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) are becoming more and more popular in the field of display and illumination with the improvement of material and manufacturing, long life-span and increasingly low cost. A new type of super-bright red LD (BL650, central wavelength is 650 nm) was selected to make up of the supplemental lighting panel, on which LDs were distributed with regular hexagon array. Drive circuit was designed to power it and adjust light intensity. System performance including temperature rise and light intensity distribution under different vertical/horizontal distances were tested. Photosynthesis of sweet pepper and eggplant leaf under LD was measured with LI-6400 to show the supplemental lighting effects. The results show that LD system can supply the maximum light intensity of 180 μmol/m2 •s at the distance of 50 mm below the panel and the temperature rise is little within 1 °C. Net photosynthetic rate became faster when LD system increased light intensity. Compared with sunlight and LED supplemental lighting system, LD's promotion on photosynthesis is in the middle. Thus it is feasible for LD light source to supplement light for vegetable crops. Further study would focus on the integration of LD and other artificial light sources.

  8. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    notably, there was a lack of both knowledge and data concerning possible faults, and it therefore turned out to be infeasible to learn/construct a standard classification model for doing fault detection. As an alternative we propose a method for doing on-line fault detection using only a model of normal......We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...... system operation, i.e., it does not rely on information about the possible faults. We illustrate the proposed method using real-world data from a coal driven power plant as well as simulated data from an oil production facility....

  9. Marketing System of Fresh Friut and Vegetable: The Role of Modern and Wholesale Market in Jakarta and the Vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togar A. Napitupulu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing system of fresh fruits and vegetable in the context of the rapidly growing dynamic markets in Jakarta and the vicinity was studied. Unstructured interviews and observations of key persons, and panels were conducted, primarily in three main wholesale markets in Jakarta and the vicinity and some supermarkets. It was found that the availability of management services and associated facilities are not yet fully compatible with modern markets. Their role, therefore, in catering to the supermarkets is limited, in particular for vegetables due to requirements on quality and delivery schedules. In general, supermarkets procure their supply directly from production centers through special/dedicated suppliers, which currently amounts to about 1% to 5% of total production from production centers. If policy and conducive economic incentive are available, wholesale markets are not only domain of public investment anymore, but also private investments alike. The newly established wholesale markets show that they now have a higher rate of utilization than in the years before. It is therefore for the local government and the central government to furthers devise conducive policy and regulatory measures, and for the private to take this opportunity in terms of investment in developing the economy of the region. 

  10. Study of the co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil for hydrocarbon oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigang; Wang, Chao; Lu, Weipeng; Yang, Zhengyu

    2010-06-01

    Hydrocarbon oil was obtained by co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil in the work. Results showed the weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil exerted a great effect on the quality of obtained hydrocarbon oil. The optimum weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil was 4.4:1, when alkanes with the content of 50.43% were detected in obtained hydrocarbon oil, with lower oxygen content of 2.52%, which resulted in higher calorific value-up to 43.36 MJ kg(-1). At the same time, removal rate of carbonyl group of vegetable oil in the mixture reached at least 75.11%. The overall efficiency of the deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and the decarboxylation of vegetable oil were both enhanced by adding vegetable oil into biomass. Compared with the oils obtained from vegetable oil and biomass, respectively, distribution of hydrocarbon oil obtained from the mixture was much more similar to that of diesel oil. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal stability of plant sterols and formation of their oxidation products in vegetable oils and margarines upon controlled heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Valk, Iris; van Andel, Vincent; Friedrichs, Silvia; Lütjohann, Dieter; Hrncirik, Karel; Trautwein, Elke A

    2017-10-01

    Fat-based products like vegetable oils and margarines are commonly used for cooking, which may enhance oxidation of plant sterols (PS) present therein, leading to the formation of PS oxidation products (POP). The present study aims to assess the kinetics of POP formation in six different fat-based products. Vegetable oils and margarines without and with added PS (7.5-7.6% w/w) in esterified form were heated in a Petri-dish at temperatures of 150, 180 and 210°C for 8, 12 and 16min. PS and POP were analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS-SIM, respectively. Increasing PS content, temperature and heating time led to higher POP formation in all tested fat-based products. PS (either naturally occurring or added) in margarines were less susceptible to oxidation as compared to PS in vegetable oils. The susceptibility of sitosterol to oxidation was about 20% lower than that of campesterol under all the applied experimental conditions. During heating, the relative abundance of 7-keto-PS (expressed as% of total POP) decreased in all the fat-based products regardless of their PS contents, which was accompanied by an increase in the relative abundance of 7-OH-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS, while PS-triols were fairly unchanged. In conclusion, heating time, temperature, initial PS content and the matrix of the fat-based products (vegetable oil vs. margarine) showed distinct effects on POP formation and composition of individual POP formed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  13. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2004-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2003 through September, 2004. At the end of the last technical progress report, the subsea processing aspects of the work program had been dropped due to the lack of commercial opportunity within ConocoPhillips, and the program had been redirected towards two other promising deepwater technologies: the development and demonstration of a composite production riser, and the development and testing of a close-tolerance liner drilling system. This report focuses on these two technologies.

  14. Transitions in high-Arctic vegetation growth patterns and ecosystem productivity tracked with automated cameras from 2000 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Pedersen, Stine Højlund

    2017-01-01

    Climate-induced changes in vegetation phenology at northern latitudes are still poorly understood. Continued monitoring and research are therefore needed to improve the understanding of abiotic drivers. Here we used 14 years of time lapse imagery and climate data from high-Arctic Northeast Greenl...... days, resulting in an unchanged growing season length. Vegetation greenness, derived from the imagery, was correlated to primary productivity, showing that the imagery holds valuable information on vegetation productivity.......Climate-induced changes in vegetation phenology at northern latitudes are still poorly understood. Continued monitoring and research are therefore needed to improve the understanding of abiotic drivers. Here we used 14 years of time lapse imagery and climate data from high-Arctic Northeast...... Greenland to assess the seasonal response of a dwarf shrub heath, grassland, and fen, to inter-annual variation in snow-cover, soil moisture, and air and soil temperatures. A late snow melt and start of growing season is counterbalanced by a fast greenup and a tendency to higher peak greenness values. Snow...

  15. Growing Degree Vegetation Production Index (GDVPI): A Novel and Data-Driven Approach to Delimit Season Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. D.; Spruce, J.; Ross, K. W.; Gasser, J.; Grulke, N.

    2014-12-01

    Growing Degree Vegetation Production Index (GDVPI) is a parametric approach to delimiting vegetation seasonal growth and decline cycles using incremental growing degree days (GDD), and NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) 8-day composite cumulative integral data. We obtain a specific location's daily minimum and maximum temperatures from the nearest National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather stations posted on the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) Climate Data Online (CDO) archive and compute GDD. The date range for this study is January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2012. We employ a novel process, a repeating logistic product (RLP), to compensate for short-term weather variability and data drops from the recording stations and fit a curve to the median daily GDD values, adjusting for asymmetry, amplitude, and phase shift that minimize the sum of squared errors when comparing the observed and predicted GDD. The resulting curve, here referred to as the surrogate GDD, is the time-temperature phasing parameter used to convert Cartesian NDVI values into polar coordinate pairs, multiplying the NDVI values as the radial by the cosine and sine of the surrogate GDD as the angular. Depending on the vegetation type and the original NDVI curve, the polar NDVI curve may be nearly circular, kidney-shaped, or pear-shaped in the case of conifers, deciduous, or agriculture, respectively. We examine the points of tangency about the polar coordinate NDVI curve, identifying values of 1, 0, -1, or infinity, as each of these represent natural inflection points. Lines connecting the origin to each tangent point illustrate and quantify the parametrically segmentation of the growing season based on the GDD and NDVI ostensible dependency. Furthermore, the area contained by each segment represents the apparent vegetation production. A particular benefit is that the inflection points are determined

  16. Leaf vegetables for use in integrated hydroponics and aquaculture systems: Effects of root flooding on growth, mineral composition and nutrient uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Schierup, Hans-Henrik; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture and hydroponics systems, the waste products from fish production are used to produce vegetables or other crops of economic value, and the water is recirculated to the fish tanks. We studied growth, productivity and nutrient uptake of four leaf vegetable species (Lactuca...... sativa, Ipomoea aquatica, Brassica rapa var. chinensis and Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) in a controlled growth experiment with three root flooding treatments (drained, half-flooded and flooded) to assess their preferred hydroponic growth requirements, biomass production and nutrient removal...... capacities. Growth of the two Brassica varieties was clearly best at drained root conditions, while L. sativa and I. aquatica grew best with half-flooded and flooded roots. I. aquatica took up 3 times more N, P and K per plant than L. sativa, and 4 to 6 times more than the two Brassica varieties. At a plant...

  17. SMOS-IC: An Alternative SMOS Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Product

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto Fernandez-Moran; Amen Al-Yaari; Arnaud Mialon; Ali Mahmoodi; Ahmad Al Bitar; Gabrielle De Lannoy; Nemesio Rodriguez-Fernandez; Ernesto Lopez-Baeza; Yann Kerr; Jean-Pierre Wigneron

    2017-01-01

    .... The operational SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 soil moisture algorithms account for different surface effects, such as vegetation opacity and soil roughness at 4 km resolution, in order to produce global...

  18. L-Glutamic acid production by Bacillus spp. isolated from vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Ogiri” (fermented vegetable proteins) in Nigeria. The isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (6), (27.3%), Bacillus pumilus (5), (22.7%), Bacillus licheniformis (5), (27.3%) and Bacillus polymyxa (6), (22.7%). Four species.

  19. Agroforestry and sustainable vegetable production in Southeast Asian Watersheds: TMPEGS Vietnam team

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Dang Thanh

    2008-01-01

    Major activities conducted by the Vietnam team during the reporting period include the implementation of the experiments and on-farm trials with drip irrigation on vegetables, termite control in young cacao planting, experiment with shade-tolerant indigenous root crop under cashew and vegetables grown under different light regimes, drip irrigation on perennial crop, review of policy related to VAF and stakeholder discussion, conducting field survey on integrated crop and pest management and p...

  20. Percolation transport theory and relevance to soil formation, vegetation growth, and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A. G.; Ghanbarian, B.

    2016-12-01

    Scaling laws of percolation theory have been applied to generate the time dependence of vegetation growth rates (both intensively managed and natural) and soil formation rates. The soil depth is thus equal to the solute vertical transport distance, the soil production function, chemical weathering rates, and C and N storage rates are all given by the time derivative of the soil depth. Approximate numerical coefficients based on the maximum flow rates in soils have been proposed, leading to a broad understanding of such processes. What is now required is an accurate understanding of the variability of the coefficients in the scaling relationships. The present abstract focuses on the scaling relationship for solute transport and soil formation. A soil formation rate relates length, x, and time, t, scales, meaning that the missing coefficient must include information about fundamental space and time scales, x0 and t0. x0 is proposed to be a fundamental mineral heterogeneity scale, i.e. a median particle diameter. to is then found from the ratio of x0 and a fundamental flow rate, v0, which is identified with the net infiltration rate. The net infiltration rate is equal to precipitation P less evapotranspiration, ET, plus run-on less run-off. Using this hypothesis, it is possible to predict soil depths and formation rates as functions of time and P - ET, and the formation rate as a function of depth, soil calcic and gypsic horizon depths as functions of P-ET. It is also possible to determine when soils are in equilibrium, and predict relationships of erosion rates and soil formation rates.

  1. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated Modeling of Solutions in the System of Distributing Logistics of a Fruit and Vegetable Cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Velychko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of preparing rationalistic solutions in the system of distributing logistics of a fruit and vegetable cooperative has been studied considering possible alternatives and existing limitations. Belonging of separate operations of the fruit and vegetable cooperative to technological, logistical or marketing business processes has been identified. Expediency of the integrated use of logistical concept DRP, decision tree method and linear programming in management of the cooperative has been grounded. The model for preparing decisions on organizing sales of vegetables and fruit which is focused on minimization of costs of cooperative services and maximization of profits for members of the cooperation has been developed. The necessity to consider integrated model of differentiation on levels of post gathering processing and logistical service has been revealed. Methodology of representation in the economical-mathematical model of probabilities in the tree of decisions concerning the expected amount of sales and margin for members of the cooperative using different channels has been processed. A formula which enables scientists to describe limitations in linear programming concerning critical duration of providing harvest of vegetables and fruit after gathering towards a customer has been suggested.

  3. Spatial analysis of human-induced vegetation productivity decline over eastern Africa using a decade (2001-2011) of medium resolution MODIS time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Tobias; Dubovyk, Olena

    2014-12-01

    Climate variation and land transformations related to exploitative land uses are among the main drivers of vegetation productivity decline and ongoing land degradation in East Africa. We combined analysis of vegetation trends and cumulative rain use efficiency differences (CRD), calculated from 250-m MODIS NDVI time-series data, to map vegetation productivity loss over eastern Africa between 2001 and 2011. The CRD index values were furthermore used to discern areas of particular severe vegetation productivity loss over the observation period. Monthly 25-km Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data metrics were used to mask areas of rainfall declines not related to human-induced land productivity loss. To provide insights on the productivity decline, we linked the MODIS-based vegetation productivity map to land transformation processes using very high resolution (VHR) imagery in Google Earth (GE) and a Landsat-based land-cover change map. In total, 3.8 million ha experienced significant vegetation loss over the monitoring period. An overall agreement of 68% was found between the rainfall-corrected MODIS productivity decline map and all reference pixels discernable from GE and the Landsat map. The CRD index showed a good potential to discern areas with ‘severe' vegetation productivity losses under high land-use intensities.

  4. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. as cash-cover crop in an organic vegetable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna LENZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In organic vegetable systems green manure crops play an important role as a nitrogen source, but they cover the soil for several months without producing a direct income. Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. provides both heads to be harvested and particularly abundant plant residues to be possibly incorporated into the soil, so it may play a double role of cash and cover crop. This paper describes an on-farm study in which seed-propagated artichoke, cultivated as an annual crop, preceded zucchini squash and lettuce cultivated in sequence within a vegetable organic system. Artichoke produced about 7 t ha-1 of saleable heads and left, after harvest, 50.3 t ha-1 of fresh biomass usable as green manure. Zucchini squash and lettuce following artichoke showed a significant increase in yield when artichoke residues were incorporated into the soil. Furthermore, a residual positive effect of green manure on soil fertility was detected after lettuce harvest. 

  5. Vegetation-controlled modern anastomosing system of the upper Narew River (NE Poland) and its sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradziński, Ryszard; Baryła, Janusz; Doktor, Marek; Gmur, Dariusz; Gradziński, Michał; Kędzior, Artur; Paszkowski, Mariusz; Soja, Roman; Zieliński, Tomasz; Żurek, Sławomir

    2003-04-01

    The anastomosing system of the upper Narew River consists of a network of interconnected channels. The channels are relatively deep (width/depth ratio 2-10), straight to sinuous, and they lack natural levees. They are characterised by a low water slope and very low stream power. The river is distinctly bedload-dominated and the transport of suspended clastic fines is minimal. Channel deposits consist almost exclusively of medium- to coarse-grained sand. Laterally extensive interchannel areas are flat and covered with peat-forming vegetation. These stable wetlands are flooded for many weeks during high water stages. Except for the channels, the valley fill consists of peat layer reaching 4 m in thickness. The rate of vertical aggradation of the peat deposit is estimated at 1-1.5 mm/year. The radiocarbon dating indicates that the peat layer is predominantly late Holocene in age. The impact of vegetation on the system is overwhelming. Vegetation produces an erosion-resistant peat layer, stabilizes channel banks and slows down the water flow. Vegetation also stimulates aggradation of bedload material on the channel bottom, and contributes to avulsion by blocking the channels. The channel network owes its origin to repeated though infrequent avulsion. Avulsion in the studied system is a small-scale, gradational and slow process. New channels evolve very slowly because of unfavourable hydrologic conditions and the presence of a resistant peat substratum. A new channel eventually intercepts only a part of the flow, while the old channel is still active, though to a limited extent. Although newly formed channels might subsequently be abandoned, long-lasting ones predominate within the system.

  6. Estimating Vegetation Primary Production in the Heihe River Basin of China with Multi-Source and Multi-Scale Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Cui

    Full Text Available Estimating gross primary production (GPP and net primary production (NPP are significant important in studying carbon cycles. Using models driven by multi-source and multi-scale data is a promising approach to estimate GPP and NPP at regional and global scales. With a focus on data that are openly accessible, this paper presents a GPP and NPP model driven by remotely sensed data and meteorological data with spatial resolutions varying from 30 m to 0.25 degree and temporal resolutions ranging from 3 hours to 1 month, by integrating remote sensing techniques and eco-physiological process theories. Our model is also designed as part of the Multi-source data Synergized Quantitative (MuSyQ Remote Sensing Production System. In the presented MuSyQ-NPP algorithm, daily GPP for a 10-day period was calculated as a product of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and its fraction absorbed by vegetation (FPAR using a light use efficiency (LUE model. The autotrophic respiration (Ra was determined using eco-physiological process theories and the daily NPP was obtained as the balance between GPP and Ra. To test its feasibility at regional scales, our model was performed in an arid and semi-arid region of Heihe River Basin, China to generate daily GPP and NPP during the growing season of 2012. The results indicated that both GPP and NPP exhibit clear spatial and temporal patterns in their distribution over Heihe River Basin during the growing season due to the temperature, water and solar influx conditions. After validated against ground-based measurements, MODIS GPP product (MOD17A2H and results reported in recent literature, we found the MuSyQ-NPP algorithm could yield an RMSE of 2.973 gC m(-2 d(-1 and an R of 0.842 when compared with ground-based GPP while an RMSE of 8.010 gC m(-2 d(-1 and an R of 0.682 can be achieved for MODIS GPP, the estimated NPP values were also well within the range of previous literature, which proved the reliability of

  7. Estimating Vegetation Primary Production in the Heihe River Basin of China with Multi-Source and Multi-Scale Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tianxiang; Wang, Yujie; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Chen; Fan, Wenjie; Jiang, Guoqing; Hao, Lvyuan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Estimating gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) are significant important in studying carbon cycles. Using models driven by multi-source and multi-scale data is a promising approach to estimate GPP and NPP at regional and global scales. With a focus on data that are openly accessible, this paper presents a GPP and NPP model driven by remotely sensed data and meteorological data with spatial resolutions varying from 30 m to 0.25 degree and temporal resolutions ranging from 3 hours to 1 month, by integrating remote sensing techniques and eco-physiological process theories. Our model is also designed as part of the Multi-source data Synergized Quantitative (MuSyQ) Remote Sensing Production System. In the presented MuSyQ-NPP algorithm, daily GPP for a 10-day period was calculated as a product of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its fraction absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) using a light use efficiency (LUE) model. The autotrophic respiration (Ra) was determined using eco-physiological process theories and the daily NPP was obtained as the balance between GPP and Ra. To test its feasibility at regional scales, our model was performed in an arid and semi-arid region of Heihe River Basin, China to generate daily GPP and NPP during the growing season of 2012. The results indicated that both GPP and NPP exhibit clear spatial and temporal patterns in their distribution over Heihe River Basin during the growing season due to the temperature, water and solar influx conditions. After validated against ground-based measurements, MODIS GPP product (MOD17A2H) and results reported in recent literature, we found the MuSyQ-NPP algorithm could yield an RMSE of 2.973 gC m(-2) d(-1) and an R of 0.842 when compared with ground-based GPP while an RMSE of 8.010 gC m(-2) d(-1) and an R of 0.682 can be achieved for MODIS GPP, the estimated NPP values were also well within the range of previous literature, which proved the reliability of our

  8. Relating vegetation condition to grazing management systems in the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, Vincent; Ndou, Naledzani

    2017-04-01

    An investigation of the temporal changes in vegetation condition across the communal villages of the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, in relation to local grazing management systems was conducted. Landsat TM images of 1984 and 1999, in conjunction with SPOT imagery of 2011 were used to assess the spatial trends in vegetation. Information regarding the functionality of local grazing management structures was obtained through structured interviews. Vegetation condition was related to grazing management systems using the logistic regression in Idrisi Selva remote sensing software. Analysis of vegetation condition trends revealed a consistent deterioration of vegetation condition in villages with weak grazing management systems. A statistically significant correlation between vegetation condition and grazing management systems was identified. High levels of vegetation degradation were associated with villages that did not adhere to sound grazing management practices. The introduction of another layer governance in the form of elected municipal committees weakened traditional village management structures. Strengthening traditional management committees should be the point of departure for vegetation restoration.

  9. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Figiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  10. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figiel, Adam; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-30

    The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  11. New developments of a knowledge based system (VEG) for inferring vegetation characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Harrison, P. A.; Harrison, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    An extraction technique for inferring physical and biological surface properties of vegetation using nadir and/or directional reflectance data as input has been developed. A knowledge-based system (VEG) accepts spectral data of an unknown target as input, determines the best strategy for inferring the desired vegetation characteristic, applies the strategy to the target data, and provides a rigorous estimate of the accuracy of the inference. Progress in developing the system is presented. VEG combines methods from remote sensing and artificial intelligence, and integrates input spectral measurements with diverse knowledge bases. VEG has been developed to (1) infer spectral hemispherical reflectance from any combination of nadir and/or off-nadir view angles; (2) test and develop new extraction techniques on an internal spectral database; (3) browse, plot, or analyze directional reflectance data in the system's spectral database; (4) discriminate between user-defined vegetation classes using spectral and directional reflectance relationships; and (5) infer unknown view angles from known view angles (known as view angle extension).

  12. Variations in Vegetation Net Primary Production in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, China, from 1982 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, S.; Fang, J.; He, J. [Department of Ecology, College of Environmental Science, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2006-01-15

    Vegetation net primary production (NPP) derived from a carbon model (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach, CASA) and its interannual change in the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau were investigated in this study using 1982-1999 time series data sets of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and paired ground-based information on vegetation, climate, soil, and solar radiation. The 18-year averaged annual NPP over the plateau was 125 g C m-2 yr-1, decreasing from the southeast to the northwest, consistent with precipitation and temperature patterns. Total annual NPP was estimated between 0.183 and 0.244 Pg C over the 18 years, with an average of 0.212 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g). Two distinct periods (1982-1990 and 1991-1999) of NPP variation were observed, separated by a sharp reduction during 1990-1991. From 1982 to 1990, annual NPP did not show a significant trend, while from 1991 to 1999 a marked increase of 0.007 Pg C yr-2 was observed. NPP trends for most vegetation types resembled that of the whole plateau. The largest annual NPP increase during 1991-1999 appeared in alpine meadows, accounting for 32.3% of the increment of the whole region. Changes in solar radiation and temperature significantly influenced NPP variation, suggesting that solar radiation may be one of the major factors associated with changes in NPP.

  13. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  14. An input-output energy analysis in greenhouse vegetable production: a case study for Antalya region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Akcaoz, Handan [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Antalya (Turkey); Kurklu, Ahmet [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Antalya (Turkey)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy equivalents of inputs and output in greenhouse vegetable production in the Antalya province of Turkey. For this purpose, the data for the production of four greenhouse crops (tomato, cucumber, eggplant and pepper) were collected in eighty-eight greenhouse farms by questionnaire. The results revealed that cucumber production was the most energy intensive of among the four crops investigated. Cucumber production consumed a total of 134.77 GJha{sup -1} followed by tomato with 127.32 GJha{sup -1}. The consumption of energy by eggplants and pepper were 98.68 and 80.25 GJha{sup -1}, respectively. The output-input energy ratio for greenhouse tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant were estimated to be 1.26, 0.99, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in greenhouse vegetable production not accompanied by increase in the final product. This can lead to problems associated with these inputs such as global warming, nutrient loading and pesticide pollution. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy efficient practices to increase the yield without diminishing natural resources. (Author)

  15. A Land Product Characterization System for Comparative Analysis of Satellite Data and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gallo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Land Product Characterization System (LPCS has been developed to provide land data and products to the community of individuals interested in validating space-based land products by comparing them with similar products available from other sensors or surface-based observations. The LPCS facilitates the application of global multi-satellite and in situ data for characterization and validation of higher-level, satellite-derived, land surface products (e.g., surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, and land surface temperature. The LPCS includes data search, inventory, access, and analysis functions that will permit data to be easily identified, retrieved, co-registered, and compared statistically through a single interface. The system currently includes data and products available from Landsat 4 through 8, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra and Aqua, Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, and simulated data for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI. In addition to the future inclusion of in situ data, higher-level land products from the European Space Agency (ESA Sentinel-2 and -3 series of satellites, and other high and medium resolution spatial sensors, will be included as available. When fully implemented, any of the sensor data or products included in the LPCS would be available for comparative analysis.

  16. Water as contamination source of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in vegetable production in Mexico: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Mendoza, D.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has an extensive infrastructure that has positioned it as a power vegetable producer exporter. However, the use of wastewater represents a potential risk to agriculture, economy and human health, since they are used without due precautions as applied in crop irrigation. In this sense, potential methods for diagnosis have been developed, such as microbiological and molecular methods, which are used for the rapid detection of Samonella and E. coli in minimally processed vegetables. Further studies are needed to determine a threshold dose of pathogens in the water and to correlate the risk that tends to cause pollution of a crop and the specified edible parts of the vegetables marketed in the interior and outside of Mexico.

  17. Investigating the Relationship between the Inter-Annual Variability of Satellite-Derived Vegetation Phenology and a Proxy of Biomass Production in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Meroni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Sahel region, moderate to coarse spatial resolution remote sensing time series are used in early warning monitoring systems with the aim of detecting unfavorable crop and pasture conditions and informing stakeholders about impending food security risks. Despite growing evidence that vegetation productivity is directly related to phenology, most approaches to estimate such risks do not explicitly take into account the actual timing of vegetation growth and development. The date of the start of the season (SOS or of the peak canopy density can be assessed by remote sensing techniques in a timely manner during the growing season. However, there is limited knowledge about the relationship between vegetation biomass production and these variables at the regional scale. This study describes the first attempt to increase our understanding of such a relationship through the analysis of phenological variables retrieved from SPOT-VEGETATION time series of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR. Two key phenological variables (growing season length (GSL; timing of SOS and the maximum value of FAPAR attained during the growing season (Peak are analyzed as potentially related to a proxy of biomass production (CFAPAR, the cumulative value of FAPAR during the growing season. GSL, SOS and Peak all show different spatial patterns of correlation with CFAPAR. In particular, GSL shows a high and positive correlation with CFAPAR over the whole Sahel (mean r = 0.78. The negative correlation between delays in SOS and CFAPAR is stronger (mean r = −0.71 in the southern agricultural band of the Sahel, while the positive correlation between Peak FAPAR and CFAPAR is higher in the northern and more arid grassland region (mean r = 0.75. The consistency of the results and the actual link between remote sensing-derived phenological parameters and biomass production were evaluated using field measurements of aboveground herbaceous biomass

  18. Drought impacts on vegetation activity, growth and primary production in humid and arid ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Serrano, Sergio Martín; Gouveia, Célia; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Begueria, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Azorín Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán Tejeda, Enrique; Sánchez Lorenzo, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Ponencia presentada en: VIII Congreso de la Asociación Española de Climatología celebrado en Salamanca entre el 25 y el 28 de septiembre de 2012. [EN]We have evaluated the response of the Earth biomes to drought using a new global dataset that captures drought effects on vegetation at various time scales. We show that arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and that the time scale on which droughts most intensively affects vegetation plays a key role in determining the...

  19. Application and Evaluation of MODIS LAI, FPAR, and Albedo Products in the WRF/CMAQ System

    Science.gov (United States)

    MODIS vegetation and albedo products provide a more realistic representation of surface conditions for input to the WRF/CMAQ modeling system. However, the initial evaluation of ingesting MODIS data into the system showed mixed results, with increased bias and error for 2-m temper...

  20. Means-end chains for low involvement products: A study of Danish consumers' cognitions regarding different applications of vegetable oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Grunert, Klaus G.

    value maps', which are normally used for analysing laddering data, have been criticised for being questionable representations of raw data. 3. This paper reports on a study in which laddering was used to measure means-end chains for a low involvement product (vegetable oil), explicitly controlling...... for the situation. Also, a possible way of linking means-ends data to overall product perceptions and alternat the 'hierarchical value map' analysis are presented. 4. The study presented is part of the Danish research project Rape seed oil for human consumption. Although modern Danish rape seed oil has nutritional...

  1. Characterization of biomass burning: Fourier transform infrared analysis of wood and vegetation combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Diomaris

    The Fourier transform infrared examination of the combustion products of a selection of forest materials has been undertaken in order to guide future detection of biomass burning using satellite remote sensing. Combustion of conifer Pinus strobus (white pine) and deciduous Prunus serotina (cherry), Acer rubrum (red maple), Friglans nigra (walnut), Fraxinus americana (ash), Betula papyrifera (birch), Querus alba (white oak) and Querus rubra (red oak) lumber, in a Meeker burner flame at temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produces a broad and relatively flat signal with a few distinct peaks throughout the wavelength spectra (400 to 4000 cm-1). The distinct bands located near wavelengths of 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 vary in intensity with an average difference between the highest and lowest absorbing species of 47 percent. Spectral band differences of 10 percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, and support the argument that band differences can be used to discriminate between various types of vegetation. A similar examination of soot and smoke derived from the leaves and branches of the conifer Pinus strobus and deciduous Querus alba (white oak), Querus rubra (red oak), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Acer rubrum (maple) and Tilea americana (American basswood) at combustion temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produce a similar broad spectrum with a shift in peak location occurring in peaks below the 1700 cm-1 wavelength. The new peaks occur near wavelengths of 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. This noted shift in wavelength location may be indicative of a fingerprint region for green woods distinguishable from lumber through characteristic biomass suites. Temperature variations during burning show that the spectra of low temperature smoldered aerosols, occurring near 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, may be distinguished from higher temperature soot aerosols that occur above 600 degrees Fahrenheit. A

  2. Description, Modelling and Design of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Rudolph, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Design of production systems are rarely an activity in which decision makers in most production companies have much experience. In future, this activity is to be more recurrent due to more and more frequent changes in the production task. Consequently, the decision makers are in need of better...... management tools and methods for description and modelling of production systems supporting the decisions. In this article a structural framework to describe and model production systems will be introduced, and it is shown how the production system of a minor Danish manufacturer of electromechanical...

  3. Evaporative cooling system for storage of fruits and vegetables - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal Basediya, Amrat; Samuel, D V K; Beera, Vimala

    2013-06-01

    Horticultural produce are stored at lower temperature because of their highly perishable nature. There are many methods to cool the environment. Hence, preserving these types of foods in their fresh form demands that the chemical, bio-chemical and physiological changes are restricted to a minimum by close control of space temperature and humidity. The high cost involved in developing cold storage or controlled atmosphere storage is a pressing problem in several developing countries. Evaporative cooling is a well-known system to be an efficient and economical means for reducing the temperature and increasing the relative humidity in an enclosure and this effect has been extensively tried for increasing the shelf life of horticultural produce in some tropical and subtropical countries. In this review paper, basic concept and principle, methods of evaporative cooling and their application for the preservation of fruits and vegetables and economy are also reported. Thus, the evaporative cooler has prospect for use for short term preservation of vegetables and fruits soon after harvest. Zero energy cooling system could be used effectively for short-duration storage of fruits and vegetables even in hilly region. It not only reduces the storage temperature but also increases the relative humidity of the storage which is essential for maintaining the freshness of the commodities.

  4. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200, Cidade Universitaria Recife, PE, CEP 50740-540 (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Loureiro, F.A. [Estacao Experimental de Nova Friburgo, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pesagro (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for {sup 226}Ra, 0.55 for {sup 228}Ra and 0.24 for {sup 238}U (Bq kg{sup -1} dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} for {sup 238}U and from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra.

  5. Historical and current forest landscapes in eastern Oregon and Washington Part II: Linking vegetation characteristics to potential fire behavior and related smoke production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Huff; Roger D. Ottmar; Ernesto Alvarado; Robert E. Vihnanek; John F. Lehmkuhl; Paul F. Hessburg; Richard L. Everett

    1995-01-01

    We compared the potential fire behavior and smoke production of historical and current time periods based on vegetative conditions in forty-nine 5100- to 13 5OO-hectare watersheds in six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation composition, structure, and patterns were attributed and mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959 (historical)...

  6. Inward Processing Regime Promotion System in Vegetable Oil Industry: A Case Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Duru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine applicability of the Inward Processing Regime (IPR in enterprises which are vegetable oil producers and exporters. The data was obtained from 26 vegetable oil producer and exporter enterprises by using survey method. Frequency tables, indices, and percentage calculating were used to analyse Data. Also, SWOT analysis was used to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the sector, and relationship among some variables were examined with correlation coefficient. According to research findings, 25 of the enterprises (96% utilised the IPR. Since the enterprises started to use that system; availability of cheap raw material, rate of capacity utilisation, market share, and export value all have increased. In addition, raw material was found as an important expense item, and the most important problems were qualified as raw material inadequacy and high input prices.

  7. Product service system product design task planning with supplier participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Product service system is a new-type production system with high-degree integration and overall optimization of product and service. The participation of suppliers in product service system development will greatly shorten the development cycle and enhance the production efficiency. The task planning of product design is one of the key phases of product service system development process, which mainly contains the design task decomposition and the design task allocation. Aiming at product service system product design, this article conducts the decomposition of design tasks, performs the recognition of coupling design task set, and realizes the structured modeling of design tasks. Outsourcing decision-making analysis is conducted on the design tasks obtained through decomposition process so as to confirm the design tasks that need the participation of suppliers. The allocation model of design tasks is constructed, and the suppliers that take part in product service system development are confirmed based on genetic algorithm. Taking the numerical control machine tool as an example, this article conducts the instance analysis and verifies the feasibility of the forenamed methods.

  8. Product Configuration Systems - Implications for Product Innovation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    configurations. However, costs are but one parameter on which firms compete and firms must continually innovate new and develop existing products. This paper presents original empirical insights on implementation and use of product configuration systems in a number of Danish industrial firms. The paper discusses...... the organisational changes associated with PCS and how this affects product innovation and development. The paper begins by introducing product configuration systems, which are then placed in context to the firm as a process technology which coordinate different processes: product development, order acquisition......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) is a step in the direction of mass customization in the sense that PCS allows a firm to significantly lower the unit cost of configuration. Thus PCS is a valuable technology for lowering operating costs while retaining a high number of possible product...

  9. Evolution of the vegetation system in the Heihe River basin in the last 2000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of vegetation systems to the long-term changes in climate, hydrology, and social–economic conditions in river basins is critical for sustainable river basin management. This study aims to investigate the evolution of natural and crop vegetation systems in the Heihe River basin (HRB over the past 2000 years. Archived Landsat images, historical land use maps and hydrological records were introduced to derive the long-term spatial distribution of natural and crop vegetation and the corresponding biomass levels. The major findings are that (1 both natural and crop vegetation experienced three development stages: a pre-development stage (before the Republic of China, a rapid development stage (Republic of China – 2000, and a post-development stage (after 2000. Climate and hydrological conditions did not show significant impacts over crop vegetation, while streamflow presented synchronous changes with natural vegetation in the first stage. For the second stage, warmer temperature and increasing streamflow were found to be important factors for the increase in both natural and crop vegetation in the middle reaches of the HRB. For the third stage, positive climate and hydrological conditions, together with policy interventions, supported the overall vegetation increase in both the middle and lower HRB; (2 there was a significantly faster increase in crop biomass than that of native vegetation since 1949, which could be explained by the technological development; and (3 the ratio of natural vegetation to crop vegetation decreased from 16 during the Yuan Dynasty to about 2.2 since 2005. This ratio reflects the reaction of land and water development to a changing climate and altering social–economic conditions at the river basin level; therefore, it could be used as an indicator of water and land management at river basins.

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; de Cássia de Souza Schneider, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

  11. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and multivariate analysis for identification of different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; Schneider, Rosana de Cássia de Souza

    2013-03-28

    The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources--canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans--were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.

  12. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cássia de Souza Schneider

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR. For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, interval principal component analysis (iPCA and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.

  13. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  14. Multiple criteria analysis of remotely piloted aircraft systems for monitoring the crops vegetation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, L.; Luculescu, M. C.; Zamfira, S. C.; Boer, A. L.; Pop, S.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) used for monitoring the crops vegetation status. The study focuses on two types of RPAS, namely the flying wing and the multi-copter. The following criteria were taken into account: technical characteristics, power consumption, flight autonomy, flight conditions, costs, data acquisition systems used for monitoring, crops area and so on. Based on this analysis, advantages and disadvantages are emphasized offering a useful tool for choosing the proper solution according to the specific application conditions.

  15. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  16. Effect of cement production on vegetation in a part of southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of cement dust emissions from the factory of West African Portland Cement at Ewekoro in Southwestern Nigeria on the surrounding vegetation was investigated. Sample plots of 20 m x 20 m were established at 1 km intervals from the factory site up to a distance of 10 km intervals from the factory site up to a ...

  17. Hydroponic production of Chinese water chestnut corms for potential use as a functional vegetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut is used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many or healthy corms when grown in plastic pots containing flooded sand in Griffin, GA. This study was conducted to use a drip irriga...

  18. Estimating farmers’ productive and marketing inefficiency: an application to vegetable producers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the technical and marketing inefficiency of a sample of urban vegetable producers in Benin. Marketing inefficiency is defined as the failure of farmers to achieve better marketing output and is reflected in lower output price indices. The study proposes a Russell-type measure of

  19. Vegetable and animal products as determinants of colon cancer risk in Dutch men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.; Verhoeven, D.; Sloots, L.; Veer, P. van 't

    1995-01-01

    To examine the relationship between colon cancer and food groups from vegetable or animal sources and their possible interactions with gender, we analyzed data from a Dutch case-control study. Dietary patterns were assessed for 232 colon cancer cases and 259 population controls. In multivariate

  20. Produção segura e rastreabilidade de hortaliças Safe production and traceability of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M Mattos

    2009-12-01

    haja perda de seu valor nutritivo e com qualidade sensorial ótima.Consumers all over the world are aware about the strict relation among health and the necessity of a balanced diet, based on safe products. Nevertheless, interest in food functional properties and, especially, in its antioxidant activity has been increasing. However, the consumption of in natura food may present some risks, which are mainly related to chemical and microbiological contamination during the crop growing season. Considering the high competitiveness of the different productive chains, growers are working to offer products with superior value and quality, with emphasis in food safety and traceability. The hazards in food chain can be managed by monitoring the whole process, from production to distribution, so, in order to minimize the possibility of contamination, ,the implementation of traceability systems and procedures of quality assurance, such as HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points is necessary,. The application of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP to the fruit and vegetable production is a prerequisite for the success of HACCP and, in this context, the Integrated Production Program main objective is to increase quality and competitiveness of Brazilian agribusiness in order to reach the levels required by international market. Its main focus are the preservation of vegetable functional properties and the utilization of techniques that ensure food safety and traceability, ensuring the previously guaranteed quality levels. The present work focuses on technologies that allow consumers to have a safe and traceable product, to prevent nutritional content wastes and to ensure maximum food sensory quality.

  1. BIOFERTILISERS - EFFICIENCY ON THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TOMATOES CULTIVATED UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of biofertilisers on the vegetative growth, yield and productivity of tomatoes cultivated under the conditions of organic farming. The research was carried out in the polyethylene greenhouse and experimental field of the Agroecological centre at the Agricultural University- Plovdiv (Bulgaria, in the period from 2013 until 2014 with on determinant tomatoes (solanum lycopersicum l., of the variety of “Trapezitsa”. The standard yield had its highest value upon the application of biofertiliser Emosan on the basic fertilization Boneprot- 3140 kg/da (2013 and 3116 kg/da (2014, thus determining the positive impact of the tested combination of biofertilisers. The combined application of biofertilisers in the form of basic fertilisation and additional vegetation feeding had a positive impact on the formation of the standard yield, the number and the mass of fruits.

  2. Towards Optimization of Cyclic Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvet, Fabrice; Herrmann, Jeffrey W.; Proth, Jean-Marie

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the expression "production systems" refers to flow-shops, job-shops, assembly systems, Kanban systems and, in general, to any Discrete Event System (DES) which transforms raw material and/or components into products and/or components. Such a system is said to be cyclic if it provides indefinitely the same sequence of products. A schedule of a cyclic production system is defined as soon as the starting time of each operation on the related resource is known. It has been showed t...

  3. Advantages of using satellite soil moisture estimates over precipitation products to assess regional vegetation water availability and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiexi

    2017-04-01

    To improve the understanding of water-vegetation relationships, direct comparative studies assessing the utility of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture, gridded precipitation products, and land surface model output are needed. A case study was investigated for a water-limited, lateral inflow receiving area in northeastern Australia during December 2008 to May 2009. In January 2009, monthly precipitation showed strong positive anomalies, which led to strong positive soil moisture anomalies. The precipitation anomalies disappeared within a month. In contrast, the soil moisture anomalies persisted for months. Positive anomalies of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) appeared in February, in response to water supply, and then persisted for several months. In addition to these temporal characteristics, the spatial patterns of NDVI anomalies were more similar to soil moisture patterns than to those of precipitation and land surface model output. The long memory of soil moisture mainly relates to the presence of clay-rich soils. Modeled soil moisture from four of five global land surface models failed to capture the memory length of soil moisture and all five models failed to present the influence of lateral inflow. This case study indicates that satellite-based soil moisture is a better predictor of vegetation water availability than precipitation in environments having a memory of several months and thus is able to persistently affect vegetation dynamics. These results illustrate the usefulness of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture in ecohydrology studies. This case study has the potential to be used as a benchmark for global land surface model evaluations. The advantages of using satellite remotely sensed soil moisture over gridded precipitation products are mainly expected in lateral-inflow and/or clay-rich regions worldwide.

  4. Vegetable peptones increase production of type I collagen in human fibroblasts by inducing the RSK-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β phosphorylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunsun; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Deokhoon; Kim, Min Hee; Park, Beomseok; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Jongsung

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging appears to be principally attributed to a decrease in type I collagen level and the regeneration ability of dermal fibroblasts. We hypothesized that vegetable peptones promote cell proliferation and production of type I collagen in human dermal fibroblasts. Therefore, we investigated the effects of vegetable peptones on cell proliferation and type I collagen production and their possible mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Vegetable peptones significantly promoted cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the human luciferase type I collagen α2 promoter and type I procollagen synthesis assays showed that the vegetable peptones induced type I procollagen production by activating the type I collagen α2 promoter. Moreover, the vegetable peptones activated p90 ribosomal s6 kinase, which was mediated by activating the Raf-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, the vegetable peptone-induced increase in cell proliferation and type I collagen production decreased upon treatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and enhanced production of type I collagen by vegetable peptones occur primarily by inducing the p90 ribosomal s6 kinase-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β phosphorylation pathway, which is mediated by activating Raf-ERK signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal and Fluid Dynamic Analysis within a Batch Micro-Reactor for Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels represent an alternative solution to petroleum-based fuels. In particular, biodiesel is very interesting, especially if it is produced from waste vegetable oil. Biodiesel can be used in diesel engines. The aim of this work is to implement a 2D numerical analysis in Comsol Multiphysics in order to verify an uniform temperature field within a non-isothermal batch mixed micro-reactor. An immersion heater system has been studied as a suitable solution to increase the temperature of WVO (Waste Vegetable Oil before the start of the transesterification reaction. Thus, the efficiency of the immersion heating system has been investigated. The results show that the temperature field is not uniform within the fluid domain, because of the convective flux with the external environment. These conditions could lead to a low overall conversion rate.

  6. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-Mei; Wang, Xin-Jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  7. PRODUCTIVITY AND SURVIVAL OF Eucalyptus benthamii MINISTUMPS IN HYDROPONICS SYSTEM AND IN PLASTIC TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the productivity and survival of Eucalyptus benthamii ministumps from seminal origin, handled in hydroponics systems and in plastic tubes. The survival differences was not verified among the handling systems studied, while for the productivity of the ministumps the hydroponic systems presented best results, with average of 8,1 minicuttings per ministumps per collection in comparison with 4,1 for the plastic tubes system. These results allowed to conclude that the handling of the ministumps in tubes and in hydroponic systems is technically viable, being the latter a more promising alternative for production of vegetative propagules of the species.

  8. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  9. Highly effective ionic liquids for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Yassin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As conventional energy sources deplete, the need for developing alternative energy resources which are environment friendly becomes more imperative. Vegetable oils are attracting increased interest in this purpose. The methanolysis of vegetable oil to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e., biodiesel fuel was catalyzed by commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The imidazolium chloride ionic liquid was frequently chosen for the synthesis of biodiesel. The dual-functionalized’ ionic liquid is prepared by a direct combination reaction between imidazolium cation and various metal chlorides such as CoCl2, CuCl2, NiCl2, FeCl3 and AlCl3. Imidazolium tetrachloroferrate was proved to be a selective catalyst for the methanolysis reaction at a yield of 97% when used at 1:10, catalyst: oil ratio for 8 h at 55 °C. Operational simplicity, reusability of the used catalyst for 8 times at least, high yields and no saponification are the key features of this methodology. The dynamic viscosity and density of the upgraded vegetable oil decreased from 32.1 cP and 0.9227 g/cm3 to 10.2 cP and 0.9044 g/cm3 respectively, compared to those of the base vegetable oil. The objective of this study was the synthesis and characterization of biodiesel using commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The ionic liquid catalysts were characterized using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TG and UV.

  10. Utilization of vegetable dumplings waste from industrial production by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarska, Agnieszka A.; Pilarski, Krzysztof; Ryniecki, Antoni; Tomaszyk, Kamila; Dach, Jacek; Wolna-Maruwka, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides the analysis of results of biogas and methane yield for vegetable dumplings waste: dough with fat, vegetable waste, and sludge from the clarifier. Anaerobic digestion of food waste used in the experiments was stable after combining the substrates with a digested pulp composed of maize silage and liquid manure (as inoculum), at suitable ratios. The study was carried out in a laboratory scale using anaerobic batch reactors, at controlled (mesophilic) temperature and pH conditions. The authors present the chemical reactions accompanying biodegradation of the substrates and indicate the chemical compounds which may lead to acidification during the anaerobic digestion. An anaerobic digestion process carried out with the use of a dough-and-fat mixture provided the highest biogas and methane yields. The following yields were obtained in terms of fresh matter: 242.89 m3 Mg-1 for methane and 384.38 m3 Mg-1 for biogas, and in terms of volatile solids: 450.73 m3 Mg-1 for methane and 742.40 m3 Mg-1 for biogas. Vegetables and sludge from the clarifier (as fresh matter) provided much lower yields.

  11. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  12. Production System Design for Multiple Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Christensen, Irene

    Production systems enabling both cost efficiency and flexibility in terms of high product variation are explored. The study follows an explorative longitudinal field study approach. The database consists of three large global corporations, each consisting of several companies producing household ...

  13. Effect of the partial replacement of fish meal and oil by vegetable products on performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A four-month growth trial was carried out in order to evaluate performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum fedwith two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having different amounts of vegetable products (Vegetable diet vs. Controldiet. Compared to the Control diet, the Vegetable diet was formulated by increasing the replacement of fish meal (14%with soybean and cereal products, and fish oil (12% with a mixture of vegetable oil. On June, 4 groups of 225 fish (2replicates per dietary treatment were sorted according to live weight and reared in fibreglass tanks over a four- monthlong experimental period. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiety. Offered feed, growth parameters and feed efficiencywere recorded as productive performance. At the end of the trial (October biometric, chemical and reological traits wereexamined to assess fish quality. The dietary treatments showed similar productive performance. The relatively high inclusionof vegetable sources led to a significant modification of body shape, mesenteric fat and viscera weight. Among qualitytraits, Vegetable diet-fed fish demonstrated a significantly lower whole body and fillet crude protein content.Yellowness value of the cooked fillet was significantly lower in the Control diet-fed fish, whereas fillet texture was similar.The results of this research showed that shi drum is a suitable candidate for Mediterranean marine aquaculture andits dietary formulation might include at least the amount of vegetable sources used in this trial.

  14. Vegetative growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) in response to the systemic insecticide phorate

    OpenAIRE

    Raul N. C. Guedes; Guedes,Nelsa M. P.; Picanço,Marcelo

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the systemic insecticide phorate on vegetative growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) was studied in the greenhouse. Three dosages of phorate (1.5, 7.5, and 13.5 mg a.i./ 1.5 L pot) were applied along with a control (without insecticide application). The plants were harvested at 17, 32, 51, 69, and 90 days after tilling. Regression analysis did not show any significant effect of insecticide dosages in plant and root length. However, an overall negative effect...

  15. INFLUENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF VEGETABLES PRODUCTS AND THEIR PRESERVATION LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilevici Constantin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research paper aims to highlight the scientific correlation between the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV onsensory and microbiological characteristics of plant products in the category of leaves (lettuce and other types ofvegetables or fruit (bananas and their preservation’s duration, through their UV irradiation under certain conditions.The literature indicates a germicidal action of UV (medium UV on micro-organisms, optimal for λ = 254 nm. Theeffectiveness of radiation is influenced by duration of irradiation, the distance between the radiation source and thesample product and radiant power source.The action of microbial cell inactivation or destruction can be explained by changes in cellular structure andpermeability with changes at the level of mitochondria and the genetic material as a result of photochemical effects ofUV products. Research highlights the preservative effect of UV radiation (with λ = 254 nm and also their influence onsensory properties and positive to negative for leafy vegetables and fruits (bananas in our case.

  16. Transitivity of the climate-vegetation system in a warm climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, U.; Claussen, M.

    2015-11-01

    To date, the transitivity of the global system has been analysed for late Quaternary (glacial, interglacial, and present-day) climate. Here, we extend this analysis to a warm, almost ice-free climate with a different configuration of continents. We use the Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology to analyse the stability of the climate system under early Eocene and pre-industrial conditions. We initialize the simulations by prescribing either dense forests or bare deserts on all continents. Starting with desert continents, an extended desert remains in central Asia in the early Eocene climate. Starting with dense forest coverage, the Asian desert is much smaller, while coastal deserts develop in the Americas which appear to be larger than in the simulations with initially bare continents. These differences can be attributed to differences in the large-scale tropical circulation. With initially forested continents, a stronger dipole in the 200 hPa velocity potential develops than in the simulation with initially bare continents. This difference prevails when vegetation is allowed to adjust to and interact with climate. Further simulations with initial surface conditions that differ in the region of the Asian desert only indicate that local feedback processes are less important in the development of multiple states. In the interglacial, pre-industrial climate, multiple states develop only in the Sahel region. There, local climate-vegetation interaction seems to dominate.

  17. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-142- KeelerOregon City #2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barndt, Shawn L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-04-04

    Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-142- KeelerOregon #2). Bonneville Power Administration proposes to remove vegetation alongside Transmission Right-of-Ways

  18. Energy development and recovery in South Central Wyoming: Soils, vegetation, and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avirmed, Otgonsuren

    Energy development is expanding rapidly in sagebrush ecosystems of Western North America. This ecosystem is a critical habitat for many obligate wildlife species, and contains substantial soil carbon. Although we have some knowledge about how wildlife species are affected by energy development, there is much that remains to be understood about how energy development affects sagebrush ecosystem structure and function. In my research, I explored 1) how fast sagebrush plant communities recover from oil and gas development; 2) how soil organic matter was impacted by historical oil and gas development; and 3) how oil and gas development and wind development affect ecosystem production. My results showed that some components of the sagebrush plant communities recover in ~ 90 years after oil and gas development, but other components to do not recover at all. Sagebrush density recovered in ~65 years, and both grass and shrub cover recovered to pre-disturbance levels in 30 years. However, there was no indication of any recovery of forbs, nor any trend toward recovery. Since forbs represent a critical component of the biological diversity of sagebrush systems, these results indicate that reclamation activities should target forbs to promote plant diversity in sagebrush ecosystems. Ninety years of oil and gas development had no effect on labile, recalcitrant, or total soil organic matter pools. Site specific conditions such as soils texture and shrub-induced heterogeneity explained substantial variance in soil organic matter pools, but the disturbance from oil and gas development showed no significant impact. While the disturbance had no effect on soil organic matter, it did eliminate the heterogeneity associated with individual shrubs. I found that shrub-induced heterogeneity recovered in about 45 years in loamy sand soils, but in sandy soils, heterogeneity did not recover. On the other hand, the insignificant effect of disturbance on soil organic matter leads us re

  19. Productivity in different cattle production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Wieland, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Cattle are kept as an important source of livelihood in many Kenyan farming households whilst also having cultural and social value. A review was undertaken to estimate productivity in the three main Kenyan cattle production systems: small-scale dairy and meat; small-scale dairy; and large-scale dairy and meat. Data on production parameters were collected through a systematic literature search of electronic databases for peer reviewed and grey literature. The parameters included were reproductive rates, mortality rates and yields. Prices for livestock and livestock products were estimated from markets. The data were used to estimate net output from cattle using the Livestock Productivity Efficiency Calculator (LPEC), a deterministic steady state model which measures productivity as net output per megajoule (MJ) of metabolisable energy (ME). The estimated net outputs per livestock unit year(-1) were USD 146.6, USD 215.1 and USD 84.8 in the large-scale dairy and meat, small-scale dairy and meat and small-scale dairy systems, respectively. Milk production contributed significantly to net output in all systems and was 91.8 % of total output in small-scale dairy. Cattle sales had the highest contribution to net output in large-scale dairy and meat system (45.1 %). Sensitivity analysis indicated that output was most affected by milk yield, age and weight at maturity and parturition rate. The productivity differences between the production systems call for more detailed research on the constraints to the production systems such as diseases, and to describe the benefits that farmers and society would obtain from disease control and improved management.

  20. Dynamic stereotype and vegetative regulation corection in childrens with effects of organic lesion of nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Юріївна Гришуніна

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. An assessment of the CNS state, neuropsychological indicators and influence of the modern methods of physical rehabilitation on the dynamics of vegetative adaptive and compensatory brain systems in patients with effects of an early organic lesion of nervous system.Materials and methods of research. There were examined and treated 20 children 7-11 years old. An assessment of vegetative homeostasis was carried out using cardiointervalography (CIG, neuropsychic functions and deficiency of statomotor development – the method of Luriya neuropsychological testing. The children of the first group (10 persons underwent massage and therapeutic physical training with special attention to the dynamic stereotype in complex with generally developmental, breathing, special passive and active, static and dynamic exercises, postisometric relaxation, massotherapy. The patients of the second group (10 persons underwent traditional therapeutic physical training and massage.Results of research. It was observed an inhibition of the humoral control of heart rate in examined children and at the same time an activation of sympathetic system. As a result it was detected an increase of the stress index of compensatory reactions of organism (stress index SI — 124 un. at the norm 65,0 ud.. Neuropsychological features of these patients indicated the presence of the left hemispheric and less right hemispheric deficiency, dysfunction of subcortical and stem structures.The use of the complex methodology of rehabilitation with special attention to the dynamic stereotype and manual therapy according to the aspects of genesis of myofascial dysfunction favored an optimization of the stress of compensatory mechanisms of organism (SI — 51,0 un.. In the second group it was observed a stable activity of sympathetic regulation of the heart rate compared with indicators before treatment and an insignificant decrease of the stress index of vegetative balance (SI

  1. Monitoring land surface albedo and vegetation dynamics using high spatial and temporal resolution synthetic data from Landsat and MODIS BRDF/albedo product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate warming over the past half century has led to observable changes in vegetation phenology and growing season length; which can be measured globally using remote sensing derived vegetation indices. Previous studies in mid- and high northern latitude systems show temperature driven earlier spri...

  2. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  3. Banana Production Systems: Identification of Alternative Systems for More Sustainable Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelina Sanderson Bellamy

    2013-01-01

    .... This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals...

  4. Methanol production method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  5. Product/Service-System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Gall, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    in the design and development aspects of PSS. The objective of this paper is to explore how a global manufacturing company is developing an offering to their customers that is focused on the utility of their products throughout their life time. The paper describes the process of how a company is shifting from...... of their products. This process of re-defining the value of what the company is actually offering to its customers is seen as a key element in PSS development. PSS development is expected to expand conventional product development in new directions, such as new activities, roles and responsibilities, knowledge...... and competencies, and value network relationships. The implications of this are discussed in relation to the company’s development approach....

  6. Quality determination of vegetable oils used as an addition to fermented meat products with different starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šulcerová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were developed samples of fermented meat products of „Mettwurst" with an addition of a starter culture pentosacceus AS-3/100 or probiotic culture Lactobacillus casei Lc-01 and its combinations for this thesis. A part of animal fat was replaced with vegetable oils - sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. For comparison, there was also used a sample without an addition of vegetable oil. There were determined the characteristics of fats in samples: saponification value, acidity value, esteric, iodine and peroxide value. The samples were determined on the day of production and always once a week in a period of three following weeks. Every single sample was hereby determined 3 times. According to the results, it is more advantageous to use the samples with sunflower oil with an addition of specific cultures Lactobacillus casei Lc-01 and Pediococcus pentosaceus AS-3/100. The saponification value when adding sunflower oil detects that the quality of fat remains stable till the 14th day of storage (p <0.05. The comparison of acid value detects that a sample with sunflower oil and culture Pediococcus pentosaceus AS-3/100 is more advantageous due to fast acidification in the first half of storage period. Good results of iodine and peroxide value had the variation of a sample with sunflower oil and a combination of both cultures. The variation of peroxide value maintained the lowest values. By using the samples with sunflower oil and unispecific cultures L. casei Lc-01 and P. pentosaceus AS-3/100, the culture P. pentosaceus AS-3/100, which remained stable till the 14th day of production, reached the best values of peroxide value. The sunflower oil is in spite of high content of PUFA more stable to which also contributes the increased content of vitamin E that works as an antioxidant here. The disadvantage of rapeseed oil is its higher susceptibility to oxidation. For reasons of faster decomposition of vegetable oils would be essential to cut down on the

  7. Mars Integrated Propellant Production System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System (IMISPPS) is an end-to-end system that will produce rocket propellant on Mars from CO2 in the Martian...

  8. Product Configuration Systems and Consequences for Productivity and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are systems to produce quotations to potential buyers of the products an enterprise produces. Typically the products are complex and will first be produced according to specific needs from the customers. From twelve case studies in Danish industry...... with informations about expected and realised costs and benefits in implemented PCS's we have the following results: the three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, and 3)using less resources.The results achieved are in accordance...

  9. System of Natural Health Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Paoletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The safety of vitamin K antagonists (VKA use can be compromised by many popular herbal supplements taken by individuals. The literature reports that 30% of warfarin-treated patients self-medicates with herbs. Possible interactions represent an health risk. We aimed to identify all herbs-oral anticoagulants interactions collected in the Italian database of suspected adverse reactions to “natural health” products. Methods. The Italian database of spontaneous reports of suspected adverse reactions to natural products was analyzed to address herb-VKAs interactions. Results. From 2002 to 2009, we identified 12 reports with 7 cases of INR reduction in patients treated with warfarin (n=3 and acenocoumarol (n=4, and 5 cases of INR increase (all warfarin associated. It was reported 8 different herbal products as possibly interacting. Discussion. Our study confirms the risk of interactions, highlighting the difficulty to characterize them and their mechanisms and, finally, prevent their onset. The reported data underline the urgent need of healthcare providers being aware of the possible interaction between natural products and VKA, also because of the critical clinical conditions affecting patients. This is the first step to have the best approach to understand possible INR alterations linked to herb-VKA interaction and to rightly educate patients in treatment with VKA.

  10. Assessing product service systems (PSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; McAloone, Tim C.; Neugebauer, Line

    We apply a management tool to classify different integrated PSS within the context of Danish maritime industry. We investigate how a firm should organize its operations to manage the transition from being a manufacturing to a servitizing company, and to provide a guideline for strategic positioni...... and planning of the balance between product sales and service activities....

  11. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    models of aquacultural production systems with the aim of adopting a suitable one for predicting the environment, .... cultured organisms. Thus, production is easily modeled as the sum of the weights of each surviving fish or the product of the average weight of the fish and the ..... for the effects by consumption of released.

  12. The beauty in product-service systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.A.G.; Da Silva Cardozo, O.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aesthetic appreciation affects the success of products in a number of areas, such as user satisfaction and usability. Hence, designers apply aesthetic principles to create more successful products. However, it is still unclear how such principles apply to the services and systems that products are

  13. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  14. Implications of climate variability for the detection of multiple equilibria and for rapid transitions in the atmosphere-vegetation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathiany, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Claussen, M. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany); Fraedrich, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Paleoclimatic records indicate a decline of vegetation cover in the Western Sahara at the end of the African Humid Period (about 5,500 years before present). Modelling studies have shown that this phenomenon may be interpreted as a critical transition that results from a bifurcation in the atmosphere-vegetation system. However, the stability properties of this system are closely linked to climate variability and depend on the climate model and the methods of analysis. By coupling the Planet Simulator (PlaSim), an atmosphere model of intermediate complexity, with the simple dynamic vegetation model VECODE, we assess previous methods for the detection of multiple equilibria, and demonstrate their limitations. In particular, a stability diagram can yield misleading results because of spatial interactions, and the system's steady state and its dependency on initial conditions are affected by atmospheric variability and nonlinearities. In addition, we analyse the implications of climate variability for the abruptness of a vegetation decline. We find that a vegetation collapse can happen at different locations at different times. These collapses are possible despite large and uncorrelated climate variability. Because of the nonlinear relation between vegetation dynamics and precipitation the green state is initially stabilised by the high variability. When precipitation falls below a critical threshold, the desert state is stabilised as variability is then also decreased. (orig.)

  15. Forested floristic quality index: An assessment tool for forested wetland habitats using the quality and quantity of woody vegetation at Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Cretini, Kari F.

    2017-02-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana and the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, developed the Forested Floristic Quality Index (FFQI) for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The FFQI will help evaluate forested wetland sites on a continuum from severely degraded to healthy and will assist in defining areas where forested wetland restoration can be successful by projecting the trajectories of change. At each CRMS forested wetland site there are stations for quantifying the overstory, understory, and herbaceous vegetation layers. Rapidly responding overstory canopy cover and herbaceous layer composition are measured annually, while gradually changing overstory basal area and species composition are collected on a 3-year cycle.A CRMS analytical team has tailored these data into an index much like the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) currently used for herbaceous marsh and for the herbaceous layer of the swamp vegetation. The core of the FFQI uses basal area by species to assess the quality and quantity of the overstory at each of three stations within each CRMS forested wetland site. Trees that are considered by experts to be higher quality swamp species like Taxodium distichum (bald cypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) are scored higher than tree species like Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) and Salix nigra (black willow) that are indicators of recent disturbance. This base FFQI is further enhanced by the percent canopy cover in the overstory and the presence of indicator species at the forest floor. This systemic approach attempts to differentiate between locations with similar basal areas that are on different ecosystem trajectories. Because of these varying states of habitat degradation, paired use of the FQI and the FFQI is useful to interpret the vegetative data in transitional locations. There is often an inverse relation between the health of the

  16. Evaluation of used vegetable oil for biogas production in Spain; Evaluacion del potencial de aceite vegetal usado para la obtencion de biogasoleo en la Comunidad de Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, G.; Tinaut, F. V.; Saez, A. R.; Vegas, L.; Briceno, Y. [Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This work studies the potential of the residual vegetal oil that is generated in the Community of Castilla and Leon, evaluating the one that could be destined for the production of biogas. Also, it sets out a management model that will allow to establish a suitable collection and processing of this oil. (Author) 10 refs.

  17. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  18. Development and validation of extensive growth and growth boundary models for psychrotolerant pseudomonads in seafood, meat and vegetable products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    literature data. Performance of the new expanded model was equally good for seafood and meat products, and importance of including the effect of acetic, benzoic, citric acids and CO2 in order to accurately predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads was clearly demonstrated e.g. for brined shrimps......., Int. J. Food Microbiol.216. 110-120, 2016). MIC-values for acetic-, benzoic- and citric acids were determined in broth and terms modelling their antimicrobial effect were added to the model. Cardinal parameter values for CO2 and aw were obtained from literature.The new model included 9 environmental......Extensive growth and growth boundary models were developed and validated for psychrotolerant pseudomonads growing in seafood, meat and vegetable products. The new models were developed by expanding anexisting cardinal parameter-type model for growth of pseudomonads in milk (Martinez-Rios et al...

  19. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  20. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...

  1. Productivity and phenological responses of natural vegetation to present and future inter-annual climate variability across semi-arid river basins in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Francisco E; Miranda, Marcelo D; Meza, Francisco J; van Leeuwen, Willem J D

    2016-12-01

    Time series of vegetation indices and remotely sensed phenological data offer insights about the patterns in vegetation dynamics. Both are useful sources of information for analyzing and monitoring ecosystem responses to environmental variations caused by natural and anthropogenic drivers. In the semi-arid region of Chile, climate variability and recent severe droughts in addition to land-use changes pose threats to the stability of local ecosystems. Normalized difference vegetation index time series (2000-2013) data from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was processed to monitor the trends and patterns of vegetation productivity and phenology observed over the last decade. An analysis of the relationship between (i) vegetation productivity and (ii) precipitation and temperature data for representative natural land-use cover classes was made. Using these data and ground measurements, productivity estimates were projected for two climate change scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5) at two altitudinal levels. Results showed negative trends of vegetation productivity below 2000 m a.s.l. and positive trends for higher elevations. Phenology analysis suggested that mountainous ecosystems were starting their growing period earlier in the season, coinciding with a decreased productivity peak during the growing season. The coastal shrubland/grassland land cover class had a significant positive relation with rainfall and a significant negative relation with temperature, suggesting that these ecosystems are vulnerable to climate change. Future productivity projections indicate that under an RCP8.5 climate change scenario, productivity could decline by 12% in the period of 2060-2100, leading to a severe vegetation degradation at lower altitudes and in drier areas.

  2. NDSI products system based on Hadoop platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2015-12-01

    Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing products is in a serial mode, and this kind of production system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and production systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic production are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the production efficiency of NDSI products, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI products production system based on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI production module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI product images (the system performing the production task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, product date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI products), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into base/product image metadata database. (2)NDSI production module: includes

  3. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G.; Zhou, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In many countries consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers’ attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies on Western con...... of rural and environmental development, quality aspects, and food safety measures are challenges that must be met by the stakeholders of pig production systems in China....

  4. Study of the oxidative stability of oils vegetables for production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio R Melo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is technological and estrategical Brazilian oportunity once this country has abundant vegetable species which oils are extracted to produce this biofuel. Oleaginous viability depends on its technical, economical and social-environmental competitiviness. Fatty acid variety determines its thermal and oxidative stability, mainly polyunsaturated ones. In this point of view, this papers aims evaluate oxidative stability and resistence to thermal decomposition of pequi, buriti and macauba oils. These fatty acids profiles are in agreement with literature data. Comparing thermal and oxidative stability of these oils, it can be seen pequi oil is more easily to oxidate than buriti and macauba oils when PetroOXY and Rancimat methods are employed.

  5. Comparative Climates of the Trappist-1 Planetary System: Results from a Simple Climate-vegetation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The recent discovery of the planetary system hosted by the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 could open new paths for investigations of the planetary climates of Earth-sized exoplanets, their atmospheres, and their possible habitability. In this paper, we use a simple climate-vegetation energy-balance model to study the climate of the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets and the climate dependence on various factors: the global albedo, the fraction of vegetation that could cover their surfaces, and the different greenhouse conditions. The model allows us to investigate whether liquid water could be maintained on the planetary surfaces (I.e., by defining a “surface water zone (SWZ)”) in different planetary conditions, with or without the presence of a greenhouse effect. It is shown that planet TRAPPIST-1d seems to be the most stable from an Earth-like perspective, since it resides in the SWZ for a wide range of reasonable values of the model parameters. Moreover, according to the model, outer planets (f, g, and h) cannot host liquid water on their surfaces, even with Earth-like conditions, entering a snowball state. Although very simple, the model allows us to extract the main features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary climates.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FUNCTIONAL CHEESE PRODUCT USING NON-TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Ostrikov; L. I. Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    Summary. As a result of application of the developed technology for the production of cheeses with cheddaring received a high quality product, balanced food and biological value, high organoleptic indices. With biomedical positions obtained proteins are a unique drug: amino acid composition of the protein complex component, the content of essential amino acids almost corresponds to ideal protein, easily digested in the body. Cheese production this group does not require expensive facilities a...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FUNCTIONAL CHEESE PRODUCT USING NON-TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. As a result of application of the developed technology for the production of cheeses with cheddaring received a high quality product, balanced food and biological value, high organoleptic indices. With biomedical positions obtained proteins are a unique drug: amino acid composition of the protein complex component, the content of essential amino acids almost corresponds to ideal protein, easily digested in the body. Cheese production this group does not require expensive facilities and reduces the flow of milk. The product is characterized by high protein content, stable functional and technological properties, versatility, affordability. The choice of complex enzyme preparation in the production of cheese products was due to the presence in the mixture of prescription extract lentils. When working with this drug mixture normalized hydrolyzed twice as fast, it does not lead to the formation of bitterness. The obtained experimental data testify that cheese products enriched products processed products lentil have a high nutritional and biological value and can be recommended for functional food of the population of all age groups. Based on the described concept, the obvious need for further research and development works on priority directions of complex issues of healthy nutrition of the population and reduces the flow of milk.

  8. Managing Understory Vegetation for Maintaining Productivity in Black Spruce Forests: A Synthesis within a Multi-Scale Research Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Joanisse

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of boreal ecosystems involves the establishment of vigorous tree regeneration after harvest. However, two groups of understory plants influence regeneration success in eastern boreal Canada. Ericaceous shrubs are recognized to rapidly dominate susceptible boreal sites after harvest. Such dominance reduces recruitment and causes stagnant conifer growth, lasting decades on some sites. Additionally, peat accumulation due to Sphagnum growth after harvest forces the roots of regenerating conifers out of the relatively nutrient rich and warm mineral soil into the relatively nutrient poor and cool organic layer, with drastic effects on growth. Shifts from once productive black spruce forests to ericaceous heaths or paludified forests affect forest productivity and biodiversity. Under natural disturbance dynamics, fires severe enough to substantially reduce the organic layer thickness and affect ground cover species are required to establish a productive regeneration layer on such sites. We succinctly review how understory vegetation influences black spruce ecosystem dynamics in eastern boreal Canada, and present a multi-scale research model to understand, limit the loss and restore productive and diverse ecosystems in this region. Our model integrates knowledge of plant-level mechanisms in the development of silvicultural tools to sustain productivity. Fundamental knowledge is integrated at stand, landscape, regional and provincial levels to understand the distribution and dynamics of ericaceous shrubs and paludification processes and to support tactical and strategic forest management. The model can be adapted and applied to other natural resource management problems, in other biomes.

  9. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2003-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2002 through September, 2003. At the end of the second technical progress report, the ConocoPhillips opportunities to apply subsea processing in the Gulf of Mexico had been exhausted, and an alternative site was identified in Norway. This was a non-ConocoPhillips operated field, and the subsea processing was proposed as a phased development approach with 2-phase separation at the field, and then gas and liquids exported via pipeline to remote platform locations for processing. Although the unrisked economics were quite favorable, the risked economic evaluation compelled the operator to develop the field with the more conventional and proven Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) option. Work on the subsea processing was suspended at this time. Discussions with DOE regarding two other step-change deepwater technologies ensued. One was an effort to develop a light-weight, high pressure composite production riser. A field demonstration of the design would then be performed by deploying a limited number of composite joints in a Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The other was to begin the process of taking drilling with casing technology to the deepwater. This is called, ''close-tolerance liner drilling''. It was agreed that both technologies should be pursued, and the work began. During this reporting period, the initial production riser design had been completed and preliminary test sample components were being fabricated. Regarding the liner drilling, the sub-contractors were selected, the design basis was agreed and designs progressed towards meeting a projected first quarter, 2004 onshore test program.

  10. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  11. A monitoring system for vegetable greenhouses based on a wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-hong; Cheng, Xiao; Yan, Ke; Gong, Peng

    2010-01-01

    A wireless sensor network-based automatic monitoring system is designed for monitoring the life conditions of greenhouse vegetables. The complete system architecture includes a group of sensor nodes, a base station, and an internet data center. For the design of wireless sensor node, the JN5139 micro-processor is adopted as the core component and the Zigbee protocol is used for wireless communication between nodes. With an ARM7 microprocessor and embedded ZKOS operating system, a proprietary gateway node is developed to achieve data influx, screen display, system configuration and GPRS based remote data forwarding. Through a Client/Server mode the management software for remote data center achieves real-time data distribution and time-series analysis. Besides, a GSM-short-message-based interface is developed for sending real-time environmental measurements, and for alarming when a measurement is beyond some pre-defined threshold. The whole system has been tested for over one year and satisfactory results have been observed, which indicate that this system is very useful for greenhouse environment monitoring.

  12. Grafting and Paladin Pic-21 for Nematode and Weed Management in Vegetable Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Hong, Jason C; Bausher, Michael G; McCollum, Greg; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2016-12-01

    or watermelon rootstocks, and yield was lower in both grafted rootstocks compared with the nongrafted control. All soil treatments increased average fruit weight of watermelon compared with the herbicide control, and provided effective weed control, keeping the most predominant weed, purple nutsedge ( Cyperus rotundus L.), density at or below 1/m row. Grafting commercial scions onto M. incognita -resistant rootstocks has potential for nematode management combined with soil treatments or as a stand-alone component in crop production systems.

  13. C-11 cyanide production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-01-13

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2 is provided, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sup.4 , the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900 .degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60%H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  14. C-11 cyanide production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ferrieri, Richard A.

    2017-11-21

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sub.4, the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900.degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60% H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  15. Development of a Dynamic Web Mapping Service for Vegetation Productivity Using Earth Observation and in situ Sensors in a Sensor Web Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Bergsma, Aldo; Chuma, Beatus; de Bruin, Sytze

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS). A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the Netherlands with a spatial resolution of 250 m. Daily available MODIS surface reflectance products and meteorological parameters obtained through a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) were used as input for a vegetation productivity model. This paper presents the vegetation productivity model, the sensor data sources and the implementation of the automated processing facility. Finally, an evaluation is made of the opportunities and limitations of sensor web based approaches for the development of web services which combine both satellite and in situ sensor sources.

  16. Environmental systems analysis of pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Strid Eriksson, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop the SALSA models (Systems AnaLysis for Sustainable Agriculture), and to apply them to studies for the benefit of more sustainable pig production. Within the framework of environmental systems analysis, the SALSA models were constructed as substance and energy flow models using life cycle assessment methodology for impact assessment and scope definition. The pig production system studied included rearing of growing-finishing pigs (SALSA-pig model) and prod...

  17. Vegetative biomass predicts inflorescence production along a CO2 concentration gradient in mesic grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely exceed 500 uL L-1 by 2050, often increasing plant community productivity in part by increasing abundance of species favored by increased CA. Whether increased abundance translates to increased inflorescence production is poorly understood, and is important ...

  18. Improvement of Artistic Cast Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technology and organization of the artistic cast production. On the basis of the actual cast production system, the manufacturing process was shown, in particular sand–piece moulding, which is a very important process and a time-consuming part of the entire manufacture of the casts. The current state of the production process as well as the organization of the work and production technology were analysed with the use of methods and techniques of production improvement, the Lean Manufacturing concept and computer systems. The results of the analysis and studies were shown with use of schemes and graphs of the layout of the production resources, a flow chart of the production process, value stream mapping, and a costs table for the production and modernization of the moulding stage. The work has shown that there are possibilities to improve the artistic cast production system. This improvement leads to increased productivity, lower production costs of artistic casts and increased competitiveness of the foundry.

  19. The system around the product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    context. This paper describes a curricular activity focused on the definition of methodologies for designing in a systemic context. using examples from students’ projects. For a semester students had to focus on a project of a PSS, borrowing and re-adapting methods from other disciplines with the purpose...

  20. The system Around the Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    context. This paper describes a curricular activity focused on the definition of methodologies for designing in a systemic context. using examples from students? projects. For a semester students had to focus on a project of a PSS, borrowing and re-adapting methods from other disciplines with the purpose...

  1. Effect of vegetation type on treatment performance and bioelectric production of constructed wetland modules combined with microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC) treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz, Çağdaş; Türe, Cengiz; Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl

    2018-01-11

    An operation of microcosm-constructed wetland modules combined with microbial fuel cell device (CW-MFC) was assessed for wastewater treatment and bioelectric generation. One of the crucial aims of the present experiment is also to determine effect of vegetation on wastewater treatment process and bioelectric production in wetland matrix with microbial fuel cell. Accordingly, CW-MFC modules with vegetation had higher treatment efficiency compared to unplanted wetland module, and average COD, NH4+, and TP removal efficiency in vegetated wetland modules were ranged from 85 to 88%, 95 to 97%, and 95 to 97%, respectively. However, the highest NO3- removal (63%) was achieved by unplanted control module during the experiment period. The maximum average output voltage, power density, and Coulombic efficiency were obtained in wetland module vegetated with Typha angustifolia for 1.01 ± 0.14 V, 7.47 ± 13.7 mWatt/m2, and 8.28 ± 10.4%, respectively. The results suggest that the presence of Typha angustifolia vegetation in the CW-MFC matrix provides the benefits for treatment efficiency and bioelectric production; thus, it increases microbial activities which are responsible for biodegradation of organic compounds and catalyzed to electron flow from anode to cathode. Consequently, we suggest that engineers can use vegetated wetland matrix with Typha angustifolia in CW-MFC module in order to maximize treatment efficiency and bioelectric production.

  2. Association between nutrition and the evolution of multimorbidity: the importance of fruits and vegetables and whole grain products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Guillaume; Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Zuo, Hui; Kröger, Edeltraut; Sirois, Caroline; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Taylor, Anne W

    2014-06-01

    Multimorbidity is a common health status. The impact of nutrition on the development of multimorbidity remains to be determined. The aim of this study is to determine the association between foods, macronutrients and micronutrients and the evolution of multimorbidity. Data from 1020 Chinese who participated in the Jiangsu longitudinal Nutrition Study (JIN) were collected in 2002 (baseline) and 2007 (follow-up). Three-day weighted food records and status for 11 chronic diseases was determined using biomedical measures (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and anemia) or self-reports (coronary heart disease, asthma, stroke, cancer, fracture, arthritis and hepatitis). Participants were divided in six categories of stage of evolution of multimorbidity. Association of foods, macronutrients and micronutrients at baseline with stages in the evolution of multimorbidity were determined. Data were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, marital status, sedentary lifestyle, smoking status, annual income, education and energy intake. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 14% to 34%. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables (p < 0.05) and grain products other than rice and wheat (p < 0.001) were associated with healthier stages in the evolution of multimorbidity. The consumption of grain products other than rice and wheat was highly correlated with dietary fibers (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001), iron (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001), magnesium (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001) and phosphorus (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) intake which were also associated with healthier stages. This study provides the first evidence of an association between nutrition and evolution towards multimorbidity. More precisely, greater consumption of fruits and vegetable and whole grain products consumption appear to lower the risk of multimorbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Toyota production system beyond large-scale production

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Taiichi

    1998-01-01

    In this classic text, Taiichi Ohno--inventor of the Toyota Production System and Lean manufacturing--shares the genius that sets him apart as one of the most disciplined and creative thinkers of our time. Combining his candid insights with a rigorous analysis of Toyota's attempts at Lean production, Ohno's book explains how Lean principles can improve any production endeavor. A historical and philosophical description of just-in-time and Lean manufacturing, this work is a must read for all students of human progress. On a more practical level, it continues to provide inspiration and instruction for those seeking to improve efficiency through the elimination of waste.

  4. Conceptual frames for changing production system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In order to integrate ergonomic aspects into the design of products and production systems many tools and procedures are available. For the ergonomists, however, it is a question of recognizing the organizational context and the role to play for making integration possible. Based on an understand......In order to integrate ergonomic aspects into the design of products and production systems many tools and procedures are available. For the ergonomists, however, it is a question of recognizing the organizational context and the role to play for making integration possible. Based...

  5. Vegetation Responses to Future Climates: Global Variability in Water Use Efficiency and Primary Productivity in a CMIP5 Multimodel Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Zhang, Q.; Middleton, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate projections for the 21st century predict substantial changes in temperature and in the quantity and spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation for large regions on the planet. Reductions in water availability resulting from decreased precipitation and increased water demand by the atmosphere can negatively affect plant metabolism, reduce carbon uptake, and limit services of entire ecosystems. Future increases in temperature and in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations may help offset some of these impacts on vegetation. In particular, plants may adjust their water use efficiency (WUE, plant production per water loss by evapotranspiration) in response to changing environmental conditions. We assessed an ensemble of thirteen models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and analyzed future changes in climate variables, carbon mass in vegetation, vegetation primary productivity and WUE. The analysis considered two representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the period 2006-2099 and compared projections to historical values (1850-2005). Results include differences between historical and projected conditions for global, regional and latitudinal distributions of model outputs, for both RCPs. We observed significant intermodel variability when representing changes in WUE over the century, including high model sensitivity to different greenhouse concentration scenarios. Model agreement varied with RCP (higher agreement for RCP4.5), as well as regionally (higher agreement in Southeast Asia, lower agreement in arid areas, including the Sahara and Western Australia). The majority of models point to an increase in GPP and WUE for most of the planet under both concentration pathways, with changes ranging from zero to 100% of their historical values. These increases were observed to be consistently higher for RCP8.5. In addition, higher increases in GPP and WUE are predicted to occur over higher latitudes in the northern

  6. Global validation of a process-based model on vegetation gross primary production using eddy covariance observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Cai, Wenwen; Xia, Jiangzhou; Dong, Wenjie; Zhou, Guangsheng; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Haicheng; Yuan, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Gross Primary Production (GPP) is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. However, large uncertainties in current global estimations persist. In this study, we examined the performance of a process-based model (Integrated BIosphere Simulator, IBIS) at 62 eddy covariance sites around the world. Our results indicated that the IBIS model explained 60% of the observed variation in daily GPP at all validation sites. Comparison with a satellite-based vegetation model (Eddy Covariance-Light Use Efficiency, EC-LUE) revealed that the IBIS simulations yielded comparable GPP results as the EC-LUE model. Global mean GPP estimated by the IBIS model was 107.50±1.37 Pg C year(-1) (mean value ± standard deviation) across the vegetated area for the period 2000-2006, consistent with the results of the EC-LUE model (109.39±1.48 Pg C year(-1)). To evaluate the uncertainty introduced by the parameter Vcmax, which represents the maximum photosynthetic capacity, we inversed Vcmax using Markov Chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedures. Using the inversed Vcmax values, the simulated global GPP increased by 16.5 Pg C year(-1), indicating that IBIS model is sensitive to Vcmax, and large uncertainty exists in model parameterization.

  7. Global validation of a process-based model on vegetation gross primary production using eddy covariance observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    Full Text Available Gross Primary Production (GPP is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. However, large uncertainties in current global estimations persist. In this study, we examined the performance of a process-based model (Integrated BIosphere Simulator, IBIS at 62 eddy covariance sites around the world. Our results indicated that the IBIS model explained 60% of the observed variation in daily GPP at all validation sites. Comparison with a satellite-based vegetation model (Eddy Covariance-Light Use Efficiency, EC-LUE revealed that the IBIS simulations yielded comparable GPP results as the EC-LUE model. Global mean GPP estimated by the IBIS model was 107.50±1.37 Pg C year(-1 (mean value ± standard deviation across the vegetated area for the period 2000-2006, consistent with the results of the EC-LUE model (109.39±1.48 Pg C year(-1. To evaluate the uncertainty introduced by the parameter Vcmax, which represents the maximum photosynthetic capacity, we inversed Vcmax using Markov Chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC procedures. Using the inversed Vcmax values, the simulated global GPP increased by 16.5 Pg C year(-1, indicating that IBIS model is sensitive to Vcmax, and large uncertainty exists in model parameterization.

  8. Soil Moisture and Vegetation Controls on Surface Energy Balance Using the Maximum Entropy Production Model of Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Parolari, A.; Huang, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to formulate and test plant water stress parameterizations for the recently proposed maximum entropy production (MEP) model of evapotranspiration (ET) over vegetated surfaces. . The MEP model of ET is a parsimonious alternative to existing land surface parameterizations of surface energy fluxes from net radiation, temperature, humidity, and a small number of parameters. The MEP model was previously tested for vegetated surfaces under well-watered and dry, dormant conditions, when the surface energy balance is relatively insensitive to plant physiological activity. Under water stressed conditions, however, the plant water stress response strongly affects the surface energy balance. This effect occurs through plant physiological adjustments that reduce ET to maintain leaf turgor pressure as soil moisture is depleted during drought. To improve MEP model of ET predictions under water stress conditions, the model was modified to incorporate this plant-mediated feedback between soil moisture and ET. We compare MEP model predictions to observations under a range of field conditions, including bare soil, grassland, and forest. The results indicate a water stress function that combines the soil water potential in the surface soil layer with the atmospheric humidity successfully reproduces observed ET decreases during drought. In addition to its utility as a modeling tool, the calibrated water stress functions also provide a means to infer ecosystem influence on the land surface state. Challenges associated with sampling model input data (i.e., net radiation, surface temperature, and surface humidity) are also discussed.

  9. Smart plants, smart models? On adaptive responses in vegetation-soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Teuling, Ryan; van Dam, Nicole; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evapotranspiration regimes need a solid base describing the essence of the processes involved [1]. The essence of emerging patterns at large scales often originates from micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. A complicating factor in capturing this behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. To assess root water uptake by plants in a changing soil environment, a direct indication of the amount of energy required by plants to take up water can be obtained by measuring the soil water potential in the vicinity of roots with polymer tensiometers [2]. In a lysimeter experiment with various levels of imposed water stress the polymer tensiometer data suggest maize roots regulate their root water uptake on the derivative of the soil water retention curve, rather than the amount of moisture alone. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, or these changes may instead trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [3-7]. To investigate a possible relation between plant genotype, the plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the soil water potential, a proof of principle experiment was set up with Solanum Dulcamare plants. The results showed a significant difference in ABA response between genotypes from a dry and a wet environment, and this response was also reflected in the root water uptake. Adaptive responses may have consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant

  10. Microbiological quality of pre-cut fruit, sprouted seeds, and unpasteurised fruit and vegetable juices from retail and production premises in the UK, and the application of HAACP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2004-09-01

    A study of ready-to-eat pre-cut fruit, sprouted seeds, and unpasteurised fruit and vegetable juices from retail and production premises was undertaken in the UK to determine the microbiological quality of these products, and to verify the application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) procedures by food operators. Almost all (99%; 2,075/2,096) samples were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality. Two (0.1%) samples (melon, beansprouts) were of unacceptable quality due to the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at 102 cfu/g or more while a further 19 (0.9%) were unsatisfactory due to Escherichia coli levels in the range of 102 to 106 cfu/g. Neither Salmonella spp. nor E. coli O157 were detected in samples examined. A hazard analysis system was in place in most (85%) premises visited, and in 80% it was documented. Most managers (83%) had received some form of food hygiene training. Minimally processed produce is exposed to a range of conditions during production and distribution, and this may increase the potential for microbial contamination, highlighting the need of applying good hygiene practices from farm to fork to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth. Such products should be stored and displayed at or below 8 degrees C.

  11. Succinic acid production from fruit and vegetable wastes hydrolyzed by on-site enzyme mixtures through solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Wubliker; Zhang, Wenming; Xin, Fengxue; Dong, Weiliang; Zhang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a novel biorefinery concept of succinic acid (SA) production from fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) hydrolyzed by crude enzyme mixtures through solid state fermentation was designed. Enzyme complex solid mashes from various types of FVWs were on-site produced through solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. This solid was then added to FVW suspensions and undergo hydrolysis reaction to generate fermentable sugars and other essential nutrients for bacterial growth and product formation. The subsequent fungal hydrolysis produced 12.00g/L glucose and 13.83g/L fructose using 10% mass ratio (w/v) of FVW. Actinobacillus succinogenes used this FVW hydrolysate as the sole feedstock and produced 27.03g/L of succinic acid with high yield and productivity of 1.18gSA/g sugar and 1.28gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated that FVWs can be biotransformed to value added products which have considerable potential economics and environmental meaning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    of the rela-tionship between variables associated with configuration of modular product families and the interacting assembly system. One core result is the development of a system model based on the longitudinal case study incorporating both structural and performance elements. Based on the system model...... a number of theoretical and managerial implications are identified. From a management point of view, the most im-portant finding is that modularization needs to be configured for the two competitive situations, i.e. 1) the volume flexible configuration focusing on generational product variety and 2...... one important contribution to the understanding and utilization of product modularization....

  13. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah; Ria Yuli Angliawati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk...

  14. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  15. VEGETATIVE RAW MATERIAL FOR RECEPTION OF THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND ENERGY SECURITY OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duca G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increase of energy security of Republic Moldova is examined due to use of own power resources. Application of a biodiesel engine, bioethanol in mixes with traditional kinds of fuel (diesel fuel and gasoline is possible without updating a design of existing engines of internal combustion and can be economic for agriculture and on transport. Results of experiments on definition износоустойчивости lubricants received of vegetative raw material of local manufacture are resulted. Use of bioethanol as the additive to gasoline will lower his{its} cost, will reduce consumption of gasoline to 15-20 % and will allow to reduce considerably harmful emissions in an atmosphere, ecological safety that will favorably be reflected on health of the population will be raised. Manufacture of lubricants with use рапсового oils also will allow to receive serious economic benefit.

  16. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…

  17. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP): I. Impact of MODIS Observation Footprint and Impact of Vegetation BRDF Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Tan, Bin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gross primary production (GPP) is essential for carbon cycle and climate change studies. Three AmeriFlux crop sites of maize and soybean were selected for this study. Two of the sites were irrigated and the other one was rainfed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the green band chlorophyll index (CIgreen), and the green band wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVIgreen) were computed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. We examined the impacts of the MODIS observation footprint and the vegetation bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) on crop daily GPP estimation with the four spectral vegetation indices (VIs - NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen and CIgreen) where GPP was predicted with two linear models, with and without offset: GPP = a × VI × PAR and GPP = a × VI × PAR + b. Model performance was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of variation (CV). The MODIS data were filtered into four categories and four experiments were conducted to assess the impacts. The first experiment included all observations. The second experiment only included observations with view zenith angle (VZA) = 35? to constrain growth of the footprint size,which achieved a better grid cell match with the agricultural fields. The third experiment included only forward scatter observations with VZA = 35?. The fourth experiment included only backscatter observations with VZA = 35?. Overall, the EVI yielded the most consistently strong relationships to daily GPP under all examined conditions. The model GPP = a × VI × PAR + b had better performance than the model GPP = a × VI × PAR, and the offset was significant for most cases. Better performance was obtained for the irrigated field than its counterpart rainfed field. Comparison of experiment 2 vs. experiment 1 was used to examine the observation

  18. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-05-31

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued.

  19. Vegetation and land carbon feedbacks in the high-resolution transient Holocene simulations using the MPI Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, Victor; Lorenz, Stephan; Raddatz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Plants influence climate through changes in the land surface biophysics (albedo, transpiration) and concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases. One of the interesting periods to investigate a climatic role of terrestrial biosphere is the Holocene, when, despite of the relatively steady global climate, the atmospheric CO2 grew by about 20 ppm from 7 kyr BP to pre-industrial. We use a new setup of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM1 consisting of the latest version of the atmospheric model ECHAM6, including the land surface model JSBACH3 with carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, coupled to the ocean circulation model MPI-OM, which includes the HAMOCC model of ocean biogeochemistry. The model has been run for several simulations over the Holocene period of the last 8000 years under the forcing data sets of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosols, solar irradiance and stratospheric ozone, as well as land-use changes. In response to this forcing, the land carbon storage increased by about 60 PgC between 8 and 4 kyr BP, stayed relatively constant until 2 kyr BP, and decreased by about 90 PgC by 1850 AD due to land use changes. Vegetation and soil carbon changes significantly affected atmospheric CO2 during the periods of strong volcanic eruptions. In response to the eruption-caused cooling, the land initially stores more carbon as respiration decreases, but then it releases even more carbon due to productivity decrease. This decadal- scale variability helps to quantify the vegetation and land carbon feedbacks during the past periods when the temporal resolution of the ice-core CO2 record is not sufficient to capture fast CO2 variations. From a set of Holocene simulations with prescribed or interactive atmospheric CO2, we get estimates of climate-carbon feedback useful for future climate studies. Members of the Hamburg Holocene Team: Jürgen Bader1, Sebastian Bathiany2, Victor Brovkin1, Martin Claussen1,3, Traute Cr

  20. Production systems--an example from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, José Bento Sterman; Felício, Pedro Eduardo de

    2010-02-01

    Important information about the Brazilian agribusiness, population and economy are presented in this paper, as well as details of beef production, market, industry and production system, to inform people involved in meat industry about details on demography, production, economy and production systems of a country that is the largest player in beef exports in the world and that uses, mostly, Bos indicus based bovine population, reared under pasture conditions, for meat production purposes. Herd size, genetic evaluation programs, quantity of beef produced and market is informed, with figures about the global and major players' production. Some discussion related to environmental concerns, methane emission and carbon fixation is also presented, as well as meat quality. Meat quality of fed animals is also compared with beef from animals that are raised in pasture conditions.

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Passive Evaporative Cooling System for Fruits and Vegetables Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Sunmonu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A multipurpose passive evaporative cooler was designed, constructed and its performance evaluated by determining the adiabatic efficiency. The multi-purpose passive evaporative cooling system consists of three compartments whose outer and inner cooling chambers were made of galvanize steel. The interspace was filled with sandy loam. The cold storage system for fruits and vegetables was based on the water cooling system to cool the storage chamber. Water is supplied from the storage tank to a pipe with a gate valve attached to this pipe. As the valve is opened, water flows through the distribution pipe networks placed over the soil allow in a constant flow of water through into soil. The water leaves the system through the outlets created underneath the housing. This process is continuous; as the water moves out, it carries along the heat present inside the cooling chamber hence lowering the temperature and at the same time increasing the relative humidity in the storage chamber. During the test period with fresh bananas, the average temperatures of 24.5°C and 28.8°C were obtained; for the multi-purpose evaporative cooler and the ambient respectively. Also average relative humidity of 8-8.87% and 69.41% were obtained for the multi-purpose evaporative cooler and the ambient respectively. The cooling efficiency of the evaporative cooler was 55%.

  2. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diglycerides from co-products of vegetable oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkam, Kamol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-products of vegetable oil refining such as a mixed deodorizer distillate resulting from the refining of various vegetable oils, a crude distillate resulting from the physical refining of coconut oil and commercial mixtures of distilled sunflower and coconut fatty acids were used as starting materials for the enzymatic preparation of diglycerides. Reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio for the formation of diglycerides by lipase-catalyzed esterification/transesterification were studied using the mixed deodorizer distillate and glycerol as starting materials. The best results were obtained with the immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 in vacuo at 60 °C leading to moderate proportions (~52% of diglycerides. The proportion of diglycerides increased when residual acylglycerides of the co-products of vegetable oil refining were hydrolyzed prior to esterification. Thus, the esterification of hydrolyzed co-products of vegetable oil refining with glycerol led to high formation (62-72% of diglycerides. Short-path vacuum distillation of the esterification products yielded distillation residues containing from 70% to 94% diglycerides. The proportions of fatty acids and monoglycerides in the distilled residues were quite low (Subproductos del refinado de los aceites vegetales tales como el destilado obtenido en el desodorizador al refinar distintos aceites vegetales, el destilado crudo resultante de la refinación física del aceite de coco, y mezclas comerciales de los ácidos grasos obtenidos en la destilación de aceites de girasol y coco fueron utilizados como materiales de partida para la preparación enzimática de diglicéridos. Se estudiaron las condiciones de reacción (temperatura, presión, relación molar para la formación de diglicéridos mediante esterificación/ transesterificación catalizada por lipasas usando la mezcla obtenida del desodorizador y glicerol como materiales de partida. Los mejores

  4. Entropy production in continuous phase space systems

    OpenAIRE

    Luposchainsky, David; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2013-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to compute the entropy production of a classical underdamped nonequilibrium system in a continuous phase space. This approach has the advantage that it is not necessary to distinguish between even and odd-parity variables. We show that the method leads to the same local entropy production as in previous studies while the differential entropy production along a stochastic trajectory turns out to be different. This demonstrates that the differential entropy prod...

  5. Biohydrogen production from hyperthermophilic anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes in seawater: Simplification of the culture medium of Thermotoga maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Rafika; Liebgott, Pierre Pol; Gannoun, Hana; Ben Gaida, Lamia; Miladi, Baligh; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib; Auria, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Biohydrogen production by the hyperthermophilic and halophilic bacterium T. maritima, using fruit and vegetable wastes as the carbon and energy sources was studied. Batch fermentation cultures showed that the use of a culture medium containing natural seawater and fruit and vegetable wastes can replace certain components (CaCl2, MgCl2, Balch's oligo-elements, yeast extract, KH2PO4 and K2HPO4) present in basal medium. However, a source of nitrogen and sulfur remained necessary for biohydrogen production. When fruit and vegetable waste collected from a wholesale market landfill was used, no decreases in total H2 production (139 mmol L-1) or H2 yield (3.46 mol mol-1) was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GATING SYSTEMS FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDRODISTRIBUTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Volkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gating systems of the first group of special ways of casting into shell molds, casting in lined chill mold as more effective for production of hydrodistributors were developed and studied.

  7. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  8. Pig Production System, Marketing Chain and Cysticercosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publications on pig production and cysticercosis in The Gambia and Senegal are very scant. Hence, this survey was implemented to characterise the pig production systems and marketing chain, and to assess people's awareness of cysticercosis. The survey sites were Western region and Kanifing Municipality of The ...

  9. Nitrogen performance indicators for dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, De Cecile A.M.; Monaghan, Ross M.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Gourley, Cameron J.P.; Oenema, Oene; Mark Powell, J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is invaluable for maintaining agricultural production, but its use, and particularly inefficient use, can lead to environmental losses. This paper reviews N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus indicators for dairy production systems to assess their utility for optimising N use outcomes

  10. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggblom Per

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6% and rape seed meal (10.0%. Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of third countries usually with an unknown salmonella status.

  11. Climate and vegetation productivity and their impacts on livestock mortality in Mongolia: "zhud" disaster mechanisms revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Jang, K.; Lkhamsuren, B.

    2014-12-01

    Zhud is a term referring either to conditions when melting snow refreezes to form an icy layer covering the grass, or to unusually heavy snow falls in Eurasian arid and semi-arid regions. Under zhud condition, animals cannot obtain food under snow or ice layer, which sometimes results in zhud disaster, i.e. massive livestock kills. It has been recognized that the zhud disaster is directly induced by the harsh winter conditions but often influenced by drought in the previous summer. In this study, data-intensive reanalysis on regional determinants of zhud disaster was conducted for more than 300 soums (an administrative unit equivalent with county in US) in Mongolia. Various climatic, hydrological, and vegetation variables were developed from satellite remote sensing (RS) data, which includes daily mean air temperature, dew temperature, and evapotranspiration, monthly precipitation, and 16-day NDVI from 2003 to 2010. Annual livestock census data were collected for every soums in Mongolia. Each variable was standardized to z-score and utilized for stepwise multiple regression analysis to identify factors statistically significant for explaining soum-level livestock mortality. The regression models were successfully constructed for two-third of total soums. Considerable spatial variability in the determinants of livestock mortality was found across soums in Mongolia. As the primary determinants, summer NDVI and dryness equally explained 22% of the soum mortality, while 33% and 16% of the mortality were explained with winter temperature and precipitation, respectively. In spatial patterns, winter precipitation and temperature were primary determinants in mountain regions and northern cool and semi-arid regions, while summer NDVI and dryness were important in southern hot and arid regions. Our results indicate combined efforts of monitoring RS-based summer NDVI and dryness and forecasting winter temperature and precipitation can provide useful tools for zhud disaster

  12. Assimilation of Remotely-Sensed Leaf Area Index into a Dynamic Vegetation Model for Gross Primary Productivity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative estimation of the magnitude and variability of gross primary productivity (GPP is required to study the carbon cycle of the terrestrial ecosystem. Using ecosystem models and remotely-sensed data is a practical method for accurately estimating GPP. This study presents a method for assimilating high-quality leaf area index (LAI products retrieved from satellite data into a process-oriented Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-DGVM to acquire accurate GPP. The assimilation methods, including the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF and a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD-based ensemble four-dimensional (4D variational assimilation method (PODEn4DVar, incorporate information provided by observations into the model to achieve a better agreement between the model-estimated and observed GPP. The LPJ-POD scheme performs better with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.923 and RMSD of 32.676 gC/m2/month compared with the LPJ-EnKF scheme (r = 0.887, RMSD = 38.531 gC/m2/month and with no data assimilation (r = 0.840, RMSD = 45.410 gC/m2/month. Applying the PODEn4DVar method into LPJ-DGVM for simulating GPP in China shows that the annual amount of GPP in China varied between 5.92 PgC and 6.67 PgC during 2003–2012 with an annual mean of 6.35 PgC/yr. This study demonstrates that integrating remotely-sensed data with dynamic global vegetation models through data assimilation methods has potential in optimizing the simulation and that the LPJ-POD scheme shows better performance in improving GPP estimates, which can provide a favorable way for accurately estimating dynamics of ecosystems.

  13. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) is a product of the Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project, USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping...

  15. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G.; Levetin, E.; Van de water, P.; Myers, O.; Budge, A. M.; Krapfl, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Yin 2007) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Yin 2007). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that health effects of pollen can better be tracked for linkage with health outcome data including asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost work days. DREAM is based on the SKIRON/Eta modeling system and the Eta/NCEP regional atmospheric model. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterizations of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particle size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The dust production mechanism is based on the viscous/turbulent mixing, shear-free convection diffusion, and soil moisture. In addition to these sophisticated mechanisms, very high resolution databases, including elevation, soil properties, and vegetation cover are utilized. The DREAM model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust (PREAM). Pollen release will be estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) will provide information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, peak

  16. A systems perspective on nursing productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Nicola; Hughes, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Recent New Zealand reports have identified the nursing workforce for its potential to make a significant contribution to increased productivity in health services. The purpose of this paper is to review critically the recent and current labour approaches to improve nursing productivity in New Zealand, in a context of international research and experience. An examination of government documents regarding productivity, and a review of New Zealand and international literature and research on nursing productivity and its measurement form the basis of the paper. It is found that productivity improvement strategies are influenced by theories of labour economics and scientific management that conceptualise a nurse as a labour unit and a cost to the organisation. Nursing productivity rose significantly with the health reforms of the 1990s that reduced nursing input costs but impacts on patient safety and nurses were negative. Current approaches to increasing nursing productivity, including the "productive ward" and reconfiguration of nursing teams, also draw on manufacturing innovations. Emerging thinking considers productivity in the context of the work environment and changing professional roles, and proposes reconceptualising the nurse as an intellectual asset to knowledge-intensive health organisations. Strategies that take a systems approach to nursing productivity, that view nursing as a capital asset, that focus on the interface between nurse and working environment and measure patient and nurse outcomes are advocated. The paper shows that reframing nursing productivity brings into focus management strategies to raise productivity while protecting nursing and patient outcomes.

  17. Relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal system, Maspalomas, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Espino, Emma Pérez-Chacón

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal dune system, specifically the dune field of Maspalomas (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). The aim is to understand the strategies of colonization and survival that plant communities have developed in slacks that face dune advance. The relationship between plant colonization and dune migration was performed by following Tamarix canariensis and Traganum moquinii plants for several years. Morphological data about each individual as well as the distance of each plant to the dune were measured. A study of the colonization patterns developed by T. moquinii, T. canariensis, Cyperus laevigatus and Launaea arborescens communities was performed by analyzing the evolution of consolidated plant patches and adult plants in relation to the dune advance. This was achieved using digital orthophotos and spatial analysis from geographic information systems. Initiation of plant colonization over transgressive dunes occurs on both wet and dry slacks. The results show that both plant colonization and development of adult plants are largely related to dune mobility. Thus, survival of T. moquinii and T. canariensis plants under dune migration conditions is related to both distance to the dune front and plant height at the moment of burial. Distance from the dune front and plant height increases chance of survival. The dynamics of adult plants is also related to dune displacement rates. Thus, each community has different thresholds of resistance to mobility rates. The T. canariensis community withstands average rates higher than 3 m/year. Its arboreal structure allows this species to grow high enough to resist the advance of the dunes and burial. For the T. moquinii community, the population decreases gradually to eventually disappear when dune mobility rates exceed 4 m/year. The C. laevigatus community develops at dune mobility rates lower than 3 m/year, decreasing its surface

  18. Accumulation of heavy metals in dietary vegetables and cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in relation to atmospheric deposition in a seasonally dry tropical region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, J; Pandey, Usha

    2009-01-01

    Increasing consciousness about future sustainable agriculture and hazard free food production has lead organic farming to be a globally emerging alternative farm practice. We investigated the accumulation of air-borne heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables and in cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in a low rain fall tropical region of India. The factorial design of whole experiment consisted of six vegetable crops (tomato, egg plant, spinach, amaranthus, carrot and radish) x two treatments (organic farming in open field and organic farming in glasshouse (OFG)) x seven independent harvest of each crop. The results indicated that except for Pb, atmospheric deposition of heavy metals increased consistently on time scale. Concentrations of heavy metals in cultivated soil horizon and in edible parts of open field grown vegetables increased over time and were significantly higher than those recorded in OFG plots. Increased contents of heavy metals in open field altered soil porosity, bulk density, water holding capacity, microbial biomass carbon, substrate-induced respiration, alkaline phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activities. Vegetable concentrations of heavy metal appeared in the order Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd and were maximum in leaves (spinach and amaranths) followed by fruits (tomato and egg plant) and minimum in roots (carrot and radish). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the major contribution of most heavy metals to vegetable leaves was from atmosphere. For roots however, soil appeared to be equally important. The study suggests that if the present trend of atmospheric deposition is continued, it will lead to a destabilizing effect on this sustainable agricultural practice and will increase the dietary intake of toxic metals.

  19. Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended.

  20. An integrated vegetated ditch system reduces chlorpyrifos loading in agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Cahn, Michael; Rego, Jessa L; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Siegler, Katie; Zhang, Xuyang; Budd, Robert; Goh, Kean; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2017-03-01

    Agricultural runoff containing toxic concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has led to impaired water body listings and total maximum daily load restrictions in California's central coast watersheds. Chlorpyrifos use is now tightly regulated by the Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board. This study evaluated treatments designed to reduce chlorpyrifos in agricultural runoff. Initial trials evaluated the efficacy of 3 different drainage ditch installations individually: compost filters, granulated activated carbon (GAC) filters, and native grasses in a vegetated ditch. Treatments were compared to bare ditch controls, and experiments were conducted with simulated runoff spiked with chlorpyrifos at a 1.9 L/s flow rate. Chlorpyrifos concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia were measured at the input and output of the system. Input concentrations of chlorpyrifos ranged from 858 ng/L to 2840 ng/L. Carbon filters and vegetation provided the greatest load reduction of chlorpyrifos (99% and 90%, respectively). Toxicity was completely removed in only one of the carbon filter trials. A second set of trials evaluated an integrated approach combining all 3 treatments. Three trials were conducted each at 3.2 L/s and 6.3 L/s flow rates at input concentrations ranging from 282 ng/L to 973 ng/L. Chlorpyrifos loadings were reduced by an average of 98% at the low flow rate and 94% at the high flow rate. Final chlorpyrifos concentrations ranged from nondetect (Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:423-430. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Analysis of humidity effects on growth and production of glasshouse fruit vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Air humidity is a climate factor that can modify final yield and quality of crops through its impact on processes with a short as well as with a long response time. This thesis primarily deals with the long term responses of growth and production of glasshouse cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper

  2. Increasing children's affective responses toward vegetables by character-product congruence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Droog, S.; Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether unfamiliar characters are as effective as familiar characters in stimulating children’s affective responses toward healthy foods. Specifically, we investigated whether an unfamiliar character which is congruent with a product can be as effective as a familiar

  3. Towards industrial production of tree varieties through somatic embryogenesis and other vegetative propagation technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens Iver

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of the research on somatic embryogenesis in nordmanns fir has until recently been on improving the basic protocols in each step of the process. However, with recent developments, one single set of methods has shown to be effective for production of plants from more than 500 differe...

  4. Natural antimicrobial/antioxidant agents in meat and poultry products as well as fruits and vegetables: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Marya; Karboune, Salwa

    2018-02-11

    Synthetic preservatives are widely used by the food industry to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and to inhibit the process of lipid oxidation extending the shelf-life, quality and safety of food products. However, consumer's preference for natural food additives and concern regarding the safety of synthetic preservatives prompted the food industry to look for natural alternatives. Natural antimicrobials, including plant extracts and their essential oils, enzymes, peptides, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, and fermented ingredients have all been shown to have the potential for use as alternatives to chemical antimicrobials. Some spices, herbs and other plant extracts were also reported to be strong antioxidants. The antimicrobial/antioxidant activities of some plant extracts and/or their essential oils are mainly due to the presence of some major bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, terpenes, aldehydes, and flavonoids. The proposed mechanisms of action of these natural preservatives are reported. An overview of the research done on the direct incorporation of natural preservatives agents into meat and poultry products as well as fruit and vegetables to extend their shelf-life is presented. The development of edible packaging materials containing natural preservatives is growing and their applications in selected food products are also presented in this review.

  5. A nitromethane-based HPLC system alternative to acetonitrile for carotenoid analysis of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Acetonitrile-based HPLC systems are the most commonly used for carotenoid analysis from different plant tissues. Because of the acetonitrile shortage, an HPLC system for the separation of carotenoids on C(18) reversed-phase columns was developed in which an acetonitrile-alcohol-based mobile phase was replaced by nitromethane. This solvent comes closest to acetonitrile with respect to its elutrophic property. Our criterion was to obtain similar separation and retention times for a range of differently structured carotenoids. This was achieved by further increase in the lipophilicity with ethylacetate. For all the carotenoids which we tested, we found co-elution only of β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. By addition of 1% of water, separation of this pair of carotenoids was also achieved. The final recommended mobile phase consisted of nitromethane : 2-propanol : ethyl acetate : water (79 : 10 : 10 : 1, by volume). On Nucleosil C(18) columns and related ones like Hypersil C(18), we obtained separation of carotenes, hydroxyl, epoxy and keto derivatives, which resembles the excellent separation properties of acetonitrile-based mobile phases on C(18) reversed phase columns. We successfully applied the newly developed HPLC system to the separation of carotenoids from different vegetables and fruit. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Design, product structuring and modelling of mechatronic products and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    -tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed in this paper. It built on results from a Danish mechatronic research program on intelligent motion control as well as from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components...... and systems. A mechatronic test facility for a hydraulic robot and a CNC XY-machine table was implemented. The controller use digital signal processors (DSPs). The DSP controller utilizes the dSPACE System suitable for real-time experimentation, evaluation and validation....

  7. Opportunities for Local for Local Food Production: A Case in the Dutch Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Visser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the opportunities for farmers to produce for local consumers, based on a case study in the Dutch horticulture sector. Main requirements for the set-up of a local chain of supply chain actors are investigated. Producer requirements are added value, availability of time, infrastructure and training. Retailer requirements are quality of food, purchasing volumes, food safety, communication to consumers and traceability of products. For consumers taste/freshness, sustainability, health benefits and authenticity are important attributes of local foods. Based on literature review and interviews with stakeholders four possible strategies for local food chains are defined. The ‘keep it local’ strategy means that the local food supply chains will not make use of the current infrastructure of the marketing coop that acts as chain coordinator. Deliveries are directly between farmer and retail outlet. The local products - conventional supply chain strategy implies that current (non-local supply chains are used to distribute local products. The supply chain planning will be more complex since products need to be separated per grower and distributed to several local supermarkets. In the ‘enabling producers’ strategy the marketing coop/chain coordinator is going to enable its member producers to sell their products locally. The marketing coop can support producers in for instance, billing and payments, marketing, logistics. The fourth strategy aims at strengthening current consumer communication strategies. It is argued that connecting producers and consumers, regardless of where they live is advantageous.Conclusion is that strategy 3; ‘Enabling producers’, in combination with strategy 4; ‘Strengthening current consumer communication strategies’ are the most promising options in setting up local food supply chains. Strategies 1 and 2, where the marketing coop/chain coordinator itself takes on the challenge of setting up

  8. PHYTO-BIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SOME FLAVONOID COMPOUNDS OF VEGETAL ORIGIN Note 3. PHYTO-BIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SOME FLAVONOID COMPOUNDS-BASED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Cretu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available . Some flavonoid compounds- based products were tested in order to evaluate the possible phytotoxic and cytogenetic effects. The tests were done on Triticum aestivum L. (Dropia cultivar. We have analized the following parameters: the germination percent, root and stem growth, fresh and dry weight of root and stem and fresh/dried mass ratio respectively, ana- telophasis frequency from root meristem with chromosomal aberrations. These products includ vegetal extracts of Medicago herba, Glycine semen and Trifolii rubri flos and other vegetal powders.

  9. Innovation in vegetable seed production and the role of consumers in the organic and conventional babyleaf chains: The case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina

    2011-01-01

    , aspects of preference for local vegetable products were investigated. The methodological approach has been in the form of two questionnaires presented to consumers in two different chain structures, an industrialized chain (linking actors from ‘farm to fork’) and an alternative chain where organic produce...... step in the babyleaf chain. Dialog among the actors in the chain is essential to meet the consumer demands from both a conventional and an organic perspective. The role of organic seed in organic vegetable productions is discussed....

  10. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A) that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E) feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars) was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6%) and rape seed meal (10.0%). Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P salmonella contamination. Also the level of feed mill contamination of salmonella was higher for feed mills belonging to Company A in comparison to the other companies before and also after heat treatment. Four (10.5%) of the 38 serovars isolated from feed ingredients (28) and feed mills (10) were on the EU 2007 top ten list of human cases of salmonellosis and all but eight (78.9%) on a 12 year list (1997-2008) of cases of human salmonellosis in Sweden. Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient

  11. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of Salmonella contamination in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierup, Martin; Häggblom, Per

    2010-02-17

    The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP--based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A) that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E) feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Salmonella (28 serovars) was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6%) and rape seed meal (10.0%). Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P salmonella contamination. Also the level of feed mill contamination of salmonella was higher for feed mills belonging to Company A in comparison to the other companies before and also after heat treatment. Four (10.5%) of the 38 serovars isolated from feed ingredients (28) and feed mills (10) were on the EU 2007 top ten list of human cases of salmonellosis and all but eight (78.9%) on a 12 year list (1997-2008) of cases of human salmonellosis in Sweden. Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of

  12. Corrosion product behavior in VVER secondary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurmanov, V.A.; Velikopolsky, S.V.; Yurmanov, E.V. [N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering (NIKIET), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Accumulation of corrosion products lead to some problems during long-term operation of VVER plants, such as secondary system component degradation including crud-induced local corrosion and corrosion cracking. Corrosion sludge and deposit removal from steam generators and other equipment is costly and time-consuming and leads to additional waste production. This problem is vital in the case of plant life extension. Appropriate solutions of the problem could be developed based on both Russian and international experience of the VVER fleet. Recommendations on how to mitigate corrosion product accumulation in VVER secondary systems were developed based on comparative analysis of available long-term data on corrosion product behavior in all the operating VVER plants, such as the following: Sludge and deposit accumulation in inner surfaces of secondary piping and components; Corrosion rate measurements using in-situ specimen testing at operated VVER plants; Efficiency of corrosion product removal from secondary system water by means of condensate polishers and steam generator blowdown cleanup systems; Sludge and deposit removal from steam generators during chemical cleaning; Secondary piping and components conservation efficiency during long outages. Comparative data analysis of corrosion product behavior has shown different corrosion product accumulation rates in Novovoronezh, Kola, Kalinin, Balakovo and Rostov NPPs. The said difference is due to different design and operation peculiarities. (author)

  13. Production, Purification, Stability and Efficacy of Bacteriocin from Isolates of Natural Lactic Acid Fermentation of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Joshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of partially purified bacteriocin produced during natural lactic acid fermentation of carrot, radish and cucumber was assessed and characterized. Out of ten strains, the isolated strain CA 44 of Lactobacillus genus from carrot fermentation produced bacteriocin with maximum antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, though it was more effective against E. coli than others. Bacteriocin was stable at up to 100 °C but its activity declined compared to that at 68 °C and was completely lost at 121 °C. The maximum antimicrobial activity was retained within the pH range of 4–5, but it was adversely affected by the addition of papain. Bacteriocin was also effective against B. cereus in different fruit products (pulp, juice and wine indicating its potential application as a biopreservative in fruit products.

  14. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    In margarine formulation, oils of different melting points are blended to make a product that is spreadable at room temperature. Usually, the blend would be subjected to modification process, either by interesterification (chemical or enzymatic) or partial hydrogenation in order to achieve...... the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose...... they are consumed as a quick source of energy. The remaining 2-monoacyl- glycerol becomes a source of essential fatty acid, after being absorbed through the intestinal wall. This would enhance the nutritional value of the enzymatically interesterified product. However, the incorporation of FO into the blend would...

  15. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman Buchori; Istadi Istadi; Purwanto Purwanto

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative biofuel that can replace diesel oil without requiring modifications to the engine and advantageously produces cleaner emissions. Biodiesel can be produced through transesterification process between oil or fat and alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The transesterification can be carried out with or without a catalyst. The catalyzed production of biodiesel can be performed by using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme. Meanwhile, non-catalytic transesterification...

  16. PLM system support for modular product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational......A modular design strategy both enables, but also demands, parallelism in design activities and collaboration between a diversity of disciplines in companies, which often involves supporting computer-based tools for enhancing interaction, design management, and communication. Product data management...... properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper...

  17. Mudular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

      The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the phenomenon of product modularization as an apparently both powerful and complex means. The focal research objective is to obtain an improved insight and understanding of the relationship between variables associated with configuration...... of modular product families and the interacting assembly system.   The thesis reviews extant theory and provides various classifications and discussions guided by the overall theme of product modularity and assembly systems. The empirical system analysis, based upon a longitudinal single case study...... of theoretical and managerial implications are identified. From a management point of view, the most important finding is that modularization needs to be configured for two competitive situations, i.e. the volume flexible configuration focusing on generational product variety and the mix flexible configuration...

  18. Application of a method of analysis of remote sensing data obtained by targeting the estimated productivity in cane for quantifying panela NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rueda Calier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity estimation sugar cane is very important for Colombian economy. The Net Primary Production (NPP model is applied on present investigation from Kumar & Monteith to regional scale. Analyzing spatiotemporal with geomantic techniques and edaphoclimatic environment characterization. Field surveys were conducted too, to acquire physiological information of plants evaluated and soil conditions of the plantation under study. The data acquired was input in ArcGIS10.1 software, to make processing these. A series thematic map was resulted from data processing from spatiotemporal distribution of plantation soil characteristics and biophysical characteristics. The variables fPAR, PAR, EUR was calculate from Kumar & Monteith efficiency model. Remote sensing and mathematic models related and fraction absorbed photosynthetically active radiation derivates from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and incident photosynthetically active radiation in land sensors recorded was calculated. Chemical and physical properties in laboratory tests were realized to soil, for relation knowledge between edaphoclimatic conditions and biophysical variables related with the sugar cane biomass gainer for Panela production. The information integrated from Geographic Information System (GIS and edaphic data and climatic data in country recorded, shows the behavior of the plantation as it develops.

  19. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Michael A. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-08-15

    Vegetation Management along the Libby-Conkelly, 1/2 to 26/4 Transmission Line ROW. The line is a 230kV Double Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 125 feet to 250 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.