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Sample records for vegetable feed ingredients

  1. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  2. Oxidative changes during ice storage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed different ratios of marine and vegetable feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline P.

    2013-01-01

    Recently fish meal and oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate...... the influence of feeding regime on composition of rainbow trout fillets, as well as on lipid and protein oxidation during storage on ice. Rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in their levels of marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Fish fillets were characterised...... significantly influenced fatty acid composition. Replacement of fish oil with vegetable oil reduced formation of primary oxidation products, but the effect on secondary oxidation products differed between different types of volatiles. The differences in protein and amino acid composition were not significant...

  3. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  5. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  6. Digestibility of animal and vegetable protein ingredients by pirarucu juveniles, Arapaima gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe dos Santos Cipriano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of energy, protein, and amino acids in protein ingredients by pirarucu juveniles. A test was conducted with six protein ingredients: meat and bone meal, fish meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal. Three repetitions were used for each tested ingredient. A reference feed was used with 430 g kg−1 crude protein and 19.63 kJ g−1 gross energy. The test feeds consisted of the replacement of 30% of the reference feeds with the test ingredients. Chromium oxide was added to the feeds at 1 g kg−1 as an external marker. Eighteen juveniles with an average weight of 235±36 g were used. The best apparent digestibility coefficients of protein were found for fish meal, followed by the poultry by-product meal and meat and bone meal. However, except for gluten, all the tested ingredients presented protein digestibilities above 0.70. The crude energy apparent digestibility coefficient was higher for animal ingredients, above 0.75, than for vegetable ingredients, which presented values below 0.60. Pirarucu efficiently uses the protein from the tested ingredients, regardless of origin. However, it has a preferential ability to use the energy from animal ingredients.

  7. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossel, D. A.A. [Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research TNO, Zeist (Netherlands); San Marcos University, Lima (Peru)

    1967-11-15

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80 Degree-Sign C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with {sup 60}Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  8. Nutritive Value and Availability of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly utilized feed ingredients for culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda were collected over a period of six months (January - June 2010) and evaluated for their nutritive composition through proximate analysis. Most of the fish feed ...

  9. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet...

  10. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  11. Vegetable fats and oils as functional ingredients in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10% they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.

  12. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in poultry feeds and feed ingredients from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, S T H; Shar, Z H; Sumbal, G A; Tan, Eddie T; Bhanger, M I; Kara, Huseyin; Nizamani, S M

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in complete poultry feeds (n=80) and poultry feed ingredients (n=286) from Pakistan. All samples were first analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), samples with OTA concentrations above the European Union maximum regulatory limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg) were further confirmed by HPLC-FLD. Contamination frequency and mean OTA levels were 31% and 51 μg/kg in feed ingredients, and the corresponding values for complete feeds were 38% and 75 μg/kg. Ten samples of complete poultry feed and 19 samples of feed ingredients contained OTA at levels higher than the MRL. The results of the present study indicate that there is a strong need for a more intense monitoring programs for OTA in poultry feed.

  13. A Limited Survey of Aflatoxins in Poultry Feed and Feed Ingredients in Guyana

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    Donna M. Morrison

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the presence of aflatoxins in finished poultry feed from manufacturing companies, feed ingredients, and poultry feed at the point of sale. Two collections were made. In the first collection, samples of the finished feed and feed ingredients were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For the second collection, all samples were analyzed by ELISA while a subset was analyzed by HPLC. Of the 27 samples of finished feed, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA and European Union Commission (EUC maximum tolerable limit of 20 µg/kg, while for the feed ingredients, three of the 30 samples of feed ingredients exceeded the limit. Of the 93 samples of finished feed purchased from retailers, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the maximum tolerable limit. This survey indicates that most of the samples were below the maximum regulatory limit and maintained quality up to the point of sale for 2015 and 2016. However, given that some samples were above the limit, there is a need to monitor the production and marketing chain to ensure that the quality of the finished feed is not compromised.

  14. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing...

  15. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Soheil Ghaemmaghami; Mehrdad Modirsaneii; Alireza Khosravi; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

    2016-01-01

     Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi.Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e....

  16. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

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    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  17. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7-10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus species may be considered as a human public health hazard.

  18. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from different Province in China

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    Li Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for monitory of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and deoxynivalenol (DON contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds were collected from different Province in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 443 feed ingredients, including 220 corn, 24 wheat, 24 domestic distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS, 55 bran, 20 wheat shorts and red dog, 37 imported DDGS, 34 corn germ meal and 29 soybean meal as well as 127 complete feeds including 25 pig complete feed (powder, 90 pig complete feed (pellet, six duck complete feed and six cattle complete feed were randomly collected from different Province in China, respectively, by high-performance chromatography in combined with UV or fluorescence analysis. Results The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 80.8, 92.3 and 93.9 %, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for DON ranged from 66.7 to 100 %. Domestic DDGS and imported DDGS presented the most serious contamination AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 61.5 to 100 %, indicated that serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. Conclusion The current data provide clear evidence that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds in different Province in China is serious and differs over past 3-year. The use of corn, domestic DDGS, imported DDGS and corn germ meal, which may be contaminated with these three mycotoxins, as animal feed may triggered a health risk for animal. Feeds are most contaminated with DON followed by ZEN and AFB1. Mycotoxins contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds should be monitored routinely in China.

  19. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

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    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06. Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48 and feed ingredients (49 samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits.

  20. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  1. Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Meng; Su, Yong-Teng; Xie, Wen-Mei; Zhang, Ni-Ya; Dai, Jie-Fan; Wang, Yun; Rajput, Shahid Ali; Qi, De-Sheng; Karrow, Niel Alexander; Sun, Lv-Hui

    2018-03-07

    The objective of this study was to investigate the individual and combined contamination of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in feedstuffs from different Provinces of China between 2016 and 2017. A total of 1569 samples, including 742 feed ingredients and 827 complete pig feed samples, were collected from various regions of China for mycotoxins analysis. The results showed that individual occurrence rates of AFB₁, ZEN, and DON were more than 83.3%, 88%, and 74.5%, respectively, in all the tested samples. DON was the most prevalent contaminant, followed by ZEN and AFB₁, with the average concentrations ranging from 450.0-4381.5 μg/kg, 2.3-729.2 μg/kg, and 1.3-10.0 μg/kg, respectively. Notable, 38.2%, 10.8%, and 0.6% of complete pig feeds were contaminated with DON, ZEN, and AFB₁ over China's regulatory limits, respectively. Moreover, over 75.0% analyzed samples were co-contaminated with two or three mycotoxins. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the feedstuffs in China were severely contaminated with DON, followed by ZEN and AFB₁ during the past two years. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring mycotoxins in livestock feed and implementing feed management and bioremediation strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure.

  2. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlow, G.; Oel, van P.R.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive

  3. Organic vegetable proteins and oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jokumsen, Alfred

    The demand for organic trout is increasing, stressing the need for organic, vegetable feed ingredients as replacement for fish meal, as the principles of organic aquaculture encourage the development of feed that do not deplete global fish stocks. In addition, the organic code of practice does...... not allow addition of artificial amino acids to the feed, and optimization of the amino acid profile of organically based diets must therefore derive from the protein sources alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility and growth performance of organic vegetable dietary ingredients...... as replacement for fish meal and fish oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Six iso-energetic and iso- nitrogenous diets were prepared, comprising a fish meal and fish oil based control diet and three diets in which the inclusion of fish meal was gradually reduced from 59 to 35...

  4. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  5. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  6. Mycoflora and mycotoxins in finished fish feed and feed ingredients from smallholder farms in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Marijani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 52 samples of finished fish feeds and ingredients were collected from smallholder farmers in Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Uganda, and analyzed. Culture and molecular techniques were used to identify fungal isolates from the feedstock, and mycotoxin profiles were determined using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The most prevalent fungal species recovered in the samples was Asperigillus flavus (54.5%. Other fungal species recovered from the samples were Aspergillus tamarii (9.1%, Mucor velutinosus (9%, Phoma sp. (6.1%, Aspergillus niger (6%, Eurotium rubrum (3% and Penicillium chrysogenum (3%. Fourteen mycotoxins were identified: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, fumonisin B1 and B3, deoxynivalenol (DON and acetyldeoxynivalenol (sum of 3-ADONand 15-ADON, ochratoxin A, roquefortine C, alternariol, T-2 toxin, and nivalenol. DON (92.9%, aflatoxins (64.3% and fumonisins (57.1% were the most prevalent within locally manufactured feeds, while no contamination was found in imported feed. Samples from Kenya were the most contaminated with aflatoxin (maximum 806.9 μg·kg−1. The high levels of aflatoxin and trichothecene type A and B contamination found in this study point to potential risks to fish performance and to the health of consumers of the fish and derived products.

  7. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass,

  8. Isolation of Mycoflora in Poultry Feed Ingredients Found in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mycoflora count (19.3 x 103) was obtained from Add-more feeds depot, followed by Al-Mahmud Feeds depot (10.0 x 103), while the least counts of (5.7 x 103) were from Feed xtra depot. Rhizopus sp was more predominant of all the species. The difference in the mould counts from the different depots was found ...

  9. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    van Krimpen, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; van Harn, J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  10. Metabolizable energy and amino acids relationships with the soluble fractions of protein and fiber of vegetable feed ingredients Energia metabolizável e relações de aminoácidos com as frações solúveis de proteína e fibra de ingredientes vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bellaver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate nutrient and energy digestion with animal from in vitro variables it is necessary to control factors that may interfere on digestion such as: source and concentration of digestor substance, as well as the origin and processing of test ingredients. In this study there were performed five laboratory assays, two with poultry and finally regression equations were established based on variables generated with twelve vegetable ingredients. The results showed that there is greater solubility of proteins with NaOH than with KOH. On average, both alkali produced better discrimination of soluble protein with concentration of 0.02% (range of 68.61% in relation to a concentration of 0.2% (range of 37.97%. Considering interaction between alkali and concentration, the best discrimination on protein solubility was reached with NaOH at 0.02%. The methods of protein or fiber solubilization together with the chemical analysis showed significant results variation among ingredients and when they were used to estimate in vivo variables they produced good estimates. It was concluded that reliable digestion estimates for energy or amino acids from vegetable feed ingredients could be obtained from in vitro variables, when considering solubilities of protein and fiber with chemical analysis.Para estimar a digestão de nutrientes e de energia dos animais a partir de variáveis in vitro, é necessário controlar os fatores que interferem na digestão - origem e concentração da substância digestora - e ter conhecimento da fonte e do processo que envolve o ingrediente em teste. Neste trabalho, foram conduzidos cinco ensaios laboratoriais, dois com animais e, por fim, estabelecidas equações de regressão a partir das variáveis geradas com a utilização de 12 ingredientes vegetais. Os resultados mostraram que há maior solubilidade das proteínas com o NaOH que com o KOH e que, na média de ambos os álcalis, a concentração de 0,02% permite maior

  11. Canine Food Preference Assessment of Animal and Vegetable Ingredient-Based Diets Using Single-Pan Tests and Behavioral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan C. Callon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet’s nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1 determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2 examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet. Eight adult Beagles (average age = 24 months, weighing 8–12 kg were individually fed each of four novel diets in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, with 10-d treatment periods and four dietary treatments. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and significance was declared when p < 0.05. The diets were: animal and vegetable ingredient-based diets, and animal- and vegetable-based ingredients diluted with anhydrous α-d-glucose. The diluted diets were used for a larger study to determine true mineral digestibility. Dogs were fed twice per day (0800 and 1300 h. Behavioral observations were made by video on the first, and last 2 days of each 10-day treatment period of both a.m. and p.m. feedings. Time to consume feed, distraction, hesitation, level of anticipation pre-consumption, and interest post-consumption were recorded. Dogs experienced initial disruptive (neophobic effects of a novel diet. Neophobia was demonstrated by a decreased (slower rate of consumption, increased distraction during consumption of the diet, and increased hesitation on the first day of each new diet (p < 0.05. The level of interest post-consumption was highest when dogs consumed the animal

  12. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  13. Characterization of dietary energy in Swine feed and feed ingredients: a review of recent research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, D E; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  14. Genetically Modified Feed Crops and Feed Ingredients in Indonesia: Opportunities and Constraints of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang R Prawiradiputra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity of the presence of genetically modified organism (GMO forage crops in Indonesia is quite large. Although until now there is no single forage crop awarded safely crop in Indonesia, but several crop byproducts have been used as feed ingredient. The controversy over the presence of GMO plant cannot be avoided. There are a part of communities who could not accept the presence of GMO crops for some reasons. On the other hand, the producers claimed the advantages of the GMO crops such as reducing pesticide application, reducing cost of weeding, more tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses, and increasing production, farmer’s income and welfare. For the opponent, the main concerns are environmental issues and the possibility of emerging diseases in animal as well as human being. The Biosafety Comission through Biosafety Technical Team has the authority to recommend whether GMO food or feed (and plants is safe or not safe to be consumed and grown in Indonesia after the assessment.

  15. Vegetable Protein Sources Used as Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effect of using some vegetal raw flours (Glycine hispida, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba, treated by autoclaving, introduced in the feeding white rats, was followed by the presented experiments. Feeding growing rats with diets containing raw grain legumes, as the main source of protein, reduce the rate of growth. This effect attenuates with the aging of rats. Inhibition of growth is the most evident in the consumption of raw beans (by 33% over the control group. Autoclaving reduces the level of anti-nutritive factors (with 0.2% - 36.73% and decreases the growth inhibition (with 10.7% - 27.51%.

  16. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  17. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in poultry feed ingredients: Isolation, identification and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Udhayavel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has been undertaken to study the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in the poultry feed ingredients and find out its in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern to various antimicrobial drugs. Two hundred and ninety-eight poultry feed ingredient samples received at Poultry Disease Diagnosis and Surveillance Laboratory, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu in South India were screened for the presence of C. perfringens. The organisms were isolated in Perfringens agar under anaerobic condition and subjected to standard biochemical tests for confirmation. In vitro antibiogram assay has been carried out to determine the sensitivity pattern of the isolates to various antimicrobial drugs. One hundred and one isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from a total of 298 poultry feed ingredient samples. Overall positivity of 33.89% could be made from the poultry feed ingredients. Highest level of C. perfringens contamination was detected in fish meal followed by bone meal, meat and bone meal and dry fish. Antibiogram assay indicated that the organisms are highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%, chlortetracycline (96.67%, gatifloxacin (93.33%, ciprofloxacin (86.67%, ofloxacin (86.67% and lincomycin (86.67%. All the isolates were resistant to penicillin-G. Feed ingredients rich in animal proteins are the major source of C. perfringens contamination.

  18. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Varela, Alejandro; Guillamon, Eva; Cabellos, Blanca; Burbano, Carmen; Gomez-Fernandez, Jose; de Mercado, Eduardo; Gomez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Cuadrado, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive compo...

  19. Influence of feed ingredients on water quality parameters in RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Although feed by far is providing the major input to RAS, relatively little is published about the correlation between feed composition and the resulting water quality in such systems. In a set-up with 6 identical RAS, each consisting of a fish tank (0.5 m3), a swirl separator, a submerged...... had impact on water quality in the systems as well as on matter removed by the swirl separators. In the RAS water, phosphorous (Ptot and Pdiss) concentrations were reduced by guar gum. Organic matter content (CODdiss) in the water was also reduced. Corresponding to this, more dry matter, more COD...... to the systems for 49 consecutive days. Each week, 24h-water samples (1 sample/hour) were collected from each system. The sludge collected in the swirl separator that day was also collected. Water and sludge were subsequently analysed for nitrogen, phosphorous and organic matter content. Inclusion of guar gum...

  20. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Farahiyah, I. J.; Zainal, A.A.R.; Ahmad, A.; Mardhati, M..; Thayalini, K.; Yong, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenil...

  1. Development of harvesting and up concentration technologies for microalgae as an ingredient in fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Per

    2014-01-01

    andfish oil. In applications of algae in fish feed, it is essential to produce a product comparable to fish proteinand fish oil both in terms of quality and costs.Downstream processing of microalgae includes harvest, dewatering, cell rupture, fractionation and drying.The dewatering and drying which...... ingredients forfish feed. Further we evaluate the chemical composition of six different microalgae species including;Nanochloropsis limnethica, Chlorella sorokiniana, Phaeodactylum tinctorium, Dunaliella salina,Nannochloropsis salina and Nannochloropsis occulata ....

  2. Chemical and physicochemical characterisation of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Karaman, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    enzymatic-chemical methods and lignin by gravimetry. The results for total dietary fibre (DF) were compared with conventional crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) methods. The physicochemical properties were quantified based on swelling and water binding capacity (WBC). Between 755 g......NDFom and CF methods. The greatest difference between the DF and aNDFom methods was found in root crops and apple pulp in which the soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP) fraction made up 350–581 g/kg of total NSP. The physicochemical properties were compared to fibre content and were associated to WBC...... may be underestimated depending on the analytical method. Quantifying the soluble NCP fraction is beneficial as it has been shown to have health beneficial properties and contributes to the total energy supply. These results suggest that the DF method should be used when evaluating feeds for horses....

  3. Validation of growth as measurand for bacterial adhesion to food and feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Galletti, S.; Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: A miniaturized adhesion test was designed to study the binding capacity of food and feed ingredients for bacterial cells. Methods and Results: Bacteria were allowed to adhere to different fibrous materials supplied as well coatings in microtitration plates. The amount of bacteria retained on

  4. Sensory and physicochemical characteristics of salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Lilge Kawski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory and physicochemical quality of colonial salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients as potential enhancers of quality products. Salamis were produced according to three treatments: (A Control: 0.1% curing salt; (B rosemary: 0.05% curing salt + 0.5% rosemary extract (RE; and (C RE+celery: 0.14% Veg 503 + 0.27% Veg 504 (sea salt plus celery, nitrate and nitrite supplies, respectively + 0.5% of RE. No significant differences were observed (P>0.05 among the three treatments for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, ether extract (EE and gross energy (GE. Sensory analysis was performed by applying the preference test and multiple comparison between the three treatments. Salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients were sensory equivalent to conventional level of curing salts. Vegetable extracts allowed the development of the sensory features of salami and did not interfere in the fermentation process. Results suggested that the extracts can serve as effective natural curing ingredients for the ripening process and cured meat color as well as adequate shelf-life replacing the commercial curing salts in meat and meat products. After 30 days of ripening, salami from the control treatment (conventional levels of nitrite and nitrate and the treatments with added vegetable-based curing ingredients and low nitrite and nitrate content (RE and RE + celery were equivalent in sensory quality.

  5. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hanif Mohamad Jamil; Sepiah Muid

    1998-01-01

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  6. Study of microbiological background of herbal ingredients and dairy-vegetable compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kharitonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rates of microbiological safety of powdery vegetables, vegetable-milk compositions, compound desserts have been studied. No pathogenic germs (incl. salmonella, Escherichia coli, yeast, nonspore-forming bacteria B cereus have been detected in powdery vegetable samples. The number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms as well as amount of molds does not exceed safety index normalized by the legislation. Proteolytic microorganisms compose the basic microflora of powdery vegetables. Microbiological background of vegetable and milk basis is characterized by the presence of microorganisms differed by different resistance to the medium conditions – рН value, presence of oxygen and high temperatures impact. Enrichment of milk base by vegetable components necessitates to adjust the thermal effect regimes prescribed for milk treatment without additional ingredients. Introduction of vegetable ingredients into milk base is accompanied by polysemantic effect of high temperatures on microorganisms of polycomponent milk – vegetable base. On the one hand introduction of vegetable raw material into milk enhances inhibitory temperature effect on microbial cells due to transition of the medium рН into sour side; on the other hand presence of vegetable raw material particles protects microorganisms against sensitive effect of high temperature. Microflora of vegetable-milk compositions after heat treatment as well as ready-made desserts on their base was presented by spore-forming bacillus the number of which is correlated by their number in the initial raw material. In order to choose the optimal regime of heat treatment all processes running during heat treatment and particularly microbiological and physical-chemical degradation of polysaccharides of vegetables cell structures.

  7. Replacement of moist ingredients in the feed training of carnivorous fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Salaro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the replacement of bovine heart by gelatin in the feed training of carnivorous fish, using giant trahira (Hoplias lacerdae as an experimental model. A completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions was employed. The treatments were composed of wet ingredients beef heart (control, gelatin diluted in water, gelatin diluted in beef heart broth, and gelatin diluted in water mixed with fish meal. The fish (3.22±0.03 cm and 0.57±0.01 g were conditioned to accept industrialized diets by the technique of gradual feed ingredients transition in the diet. Gains in weight and length, efficiency of feed training, specific growth rate, cannibalism, mortality and survival rates were evaluated. There was significant difference in weight and length gains and specific growth rate, whereby the use of bovine heart gave the best results. Greater efficiency of feed training was observed for fish fed diets containing beef heart and gelatin diluted in water mixed with fish meal. The high survival rates and the absence of significant differences among treatments for rates of cannibalism, mortality and survival indicate the feasibility of using gelatin as a moist ingredient in the feed training of carnivorous fish.

  8. Dietary preference in dairy calves for feed ingredients high in energy and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2014-03-01

    In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of

  9. Comparison of amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients in broilers, laying hens and caecectomised roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Utterback, P; Parsons, C M; Adeola, O; Lilburn, M S; Applegate, T J

    2009-05-01

    1. This study determined the effect of bird type (broilers, laying hens, or caecectomised roosters) on amino acid digestibility of feedstuffs from 5 plant sources and one animal source. 2. The standardised amino acid digestibility (SAAD) were obtained by correcting apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) values for basal ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow obtained by feeding a N-free diet (NFD) to broilers and laying hens or from fasted EAA flow from caecectomised roosters. 3. The apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibilities did not differ between broilers and roosters for three of the 6 feed ingredients. 4. Broilers had higher apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibility than laying hens and roosters when fed on the maize diet (canola meal, maize, and soybean meal). 5. The apparent TAA digestibilities were similar across bird types for the dark distillers' dried grain with solubles, but the apparent lysine digestibility was much lower in the caecectomised roosters (15%) than the broilers (49%) and laying hens (43%). 6. The standardised TAA digestibility values in roosters were higher than in broilers for three of the 6 feed ingredients (canola meal, soybean meal, or meat and bone meal). 7. There were no differences between broilers and roosters, however, in the standardised TAA digestibility values for maize, dark and light DDGS. 8. The standardised TAA digestibility values for laying hens were lower for maize, higher for meat and bone meal, but no different for the remaining ingredients when compared with broilers. 9. The results from this study showed that both the apparent and standardised amino acid digestibility values in caecectomised roosters, laying hens, and broilers ingredients are similar for some, but not all, feed ingredients. 10. Nutritionists should, therefore, be cautious about using digestibility coefficients obtained by different methodologies as values may differ.

  10. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Survival of viral pathogens in animal feed ingredients under transboundary shipping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, Fernando V.; Niederwerder, Megan C.; Singrey, Aaron; Clement, Travis; de Lima, Marcelo; Long, Craig; Patterson, Gilbert; Sheahan, Maureen A.; Stoian, Ana M. M.; Petrovan, Vlad; Jones, Cassandra K.; De Jong, Jon; Ji, Ju; Spronk, Gordon D.; Minion, Luke; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Zimmerman, Jeff J.; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Nelson, Eric; Sundberg, Paul; Diel, Diego G.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV). Surrogate viruses with similar genetic and physical properties were used for 6 viruses. Surrogates belonged to the same virus families as target pathogens, and included Senecavirus A (SVA) for FMDV, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) for CSFV, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1) for PRV, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) for NiV, Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) for SVDV and Feline Calicivirus (FCV) for VESV. For the remaining target viruses, actual pathogens were used. Virus survival was evaluated using Trans-Pacific or Trans-Atlantic transboundary models involving representative feed ingredients, transport times and environmental conditions, with samples tested by PCR, VI and/or swine bioassay. SVA (representing FMDV), FCV (representing VESV), BHV-1 (representing PRV), PRRSV, PSV (representing SVDV), ASFV and PCV2 maintained infectivity during transport, while BVDV (representing CSFV), VSV, CDV (representing NiV) and IAV-S did not. Notably, more viruses survived in conventional soybean meal, lysine hydrochloride, choline chloride, vitamin D and pork sausage casings. These results support published data on transboundary risk of PEDV in feed, demonstrate survival of certain viruses in specific feed ingredients (“high-risk combinations”) under conditions simulating transport between

  12. Effects of tailoring ingredients in auditory persuasive health messages on fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Sarah P; Dijkstra, Arie; Rozema, Andrea D

    2017-07-01

    Health messages can be tailored by applying different tailoring ingredients, among which personalisation, feedback and adaptation. This experiment investigated the separate effects of these tailoring ingredients on behaviour in auditory health persuasion. Furthermore, the moderating effect of self-efficacy was assessed. The between-participants design consisted of four conditions. A generic health message served as a control condition; personalisation was applied using the recipient's first name, feedback was given on the personal state, or the message was adapted to the recipient's value. The study consisted of a pre-test questionnaire (measuring fruit and vegetable intake and perceived difficulty of performing these behaviours, indicating self-efficacy), exposure to the auditory message and a follow-up questionnaire measuring fruit and vegetable intake two weeks after message exposure (n = 112). ANCOVAs showed no main effect of condition on either fruit or vegetable intake, but a moderation was found on vegetable intake: When self-efficacy was low, vegetable intake was higher after listening to the personalisation message. No significant differences between the conditions were found when self-efficacy was high. Individuals with low self-efficacy seemed to benefit from incorporating personalisation, but only regarding vegetable consumption. This finding warrants further investigation in tailoring research.

  13. Techniques for evaluating digestibility of energy, amino acids, phosphorus, and calcium in feed ingredients for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrui; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2017-12-01

    Sound feed formulation is dependent upon precise evaluation of energy and nutrients values in feed ingredients. Hence the methodology to determine the digestibility of energy and nutrients in feedstuffs should be chosen carefully before conducting experiments. The direct and difference procedures are widely used to determine the digestibility of energy and nutrients in feedstuffs. The direct procedure is normally considered when the test feedstuff can be formulated as the sole source of the component of interest in the test diet. However, in some cases where test ingredients can only be formulated to replace a portion of the basal diet to provide the component of interest, the difference procedure can be applied to get equally robust values. Based on components of interest, ileal digesta or feces can be collected, and different sample collection processes can be used. For example, for amino acids (AA), to avoid the interference of fermentation in the hind gut, ileal digesta samples are collected to determine the ileal digestibility and simple T-cannula and index method are commonly used techniques for AA digestibility analysis. For energy, phosphorus, and calcium, normally fecal samples will be collected to determine the total tract digestibility, and therefore the total collection method is recommended to obtain more accurate estimates. Concerns with the use of apparent digestibility values include different estimated values from different inclusion level and non-additivity in mixtures of feed ingredients. These concerns can be overcome by using standardized digestibility, or true digestibility, by correcting endogenous losses of components from apparent digestibility values. In this review, methodologies used to determine energy and nutrients digestibility in pigs are discussed. It is suggested that the methodology should be carefully selected based on the component of interest, feed ingredients, and available experimental facilities.

  14. Applicability of in silico genotoxicity models on food and feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anna; Bellion, Phillip; Beilstein, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of food and feed ingredients is required in the development of new substances and for their registration. In addition to in vitro and in vivo assays, in silico tools such as expert alert-based and statistical models can be used for data generation. These in silico models are commonly used among the pharmaceutical industry, whereas the food industry has not widely adopted them. In this study, the applicability of in silico tools for predicting genotoxicity was evaluated, with a focus on bacterial mutagenicity, in vitro and in vivo chromosome damage assays. For this purpose, a test set of 27 food and feed ingredients including vitamins, carotenoids, and nutraceuticals with experimental genotoxicity data was constructed from proprietary data. This dataset was run through multiple models and the model applicability was analyzed. The compounds were generally within the applicability domain of the models and the models predicted the compounds correctly in most of the cases. Although the regulatory acceptance of in silico tools as single data source is still limited, the models are applicable and can be used in the safety evaluation of food and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Ullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB, rice polishings (RP, wheat bran (WB, sunflower meal (SFM, cottonseed meal (CSM, guar meal (GM, soybean meal (SBM from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM. The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA (90.1% was similar (p>0.05 to RB (89.0%. Isoleucine (97.8% and lysine (96.9% were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9% was same (p>0.05 as RP (71.9%. Arginine from WB (82.5% and RP (83.2% was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7% and leucine in RP (69.6% were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1% and Indian-SBM (83.4% had higher (p0.05. The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05 SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05 SIAAD among protein meals.

  16. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (pdigestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein meals. PMID:26954227

  17. Performance, health and physiological responses of newly weaned feedlot cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, K A; Cooke, R F; Schubach, K M; Brandão, A P; Schumaher, T F; Prado, I N; Marques, R S; Bohnert, D W

    2018-03-26

    With increased regulations regarding the use of feed-grade antimicrobials in livestock systems, alternative strategies to enhance growth and immunity of feedlot cattle are warranted. Hence, this experiment compared performance, health and physiological responses of cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients during the initial 60 days in the feedlot. Angus×Hereford calves (63 steers+42 heifers) originating from two cow-calf ranches were weaned on day -3, obtained from an auction yard on day -2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the feedlot. Upon arrival on day -1, shrunk BW was recorded. On day 0, calves were ranked by sex, source and shrunk BW, and allocated to one of 21 pens. Pens were assigned to receive (7 pens/treatment) a free-choice total mixed ration containing: (1) lasalocid (360 mg/calf daily of Bovatec; Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ, USA)+chlortetracycline (350 mg/calf of Aureomycin at cycles of 5-day inclusion and 2-day removal from diet; Zoetis) from days 0 to 32, and monensin only (360 mg/calf daily of Rumensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA) from days 33 to 60 (PC), (2) sodium saccharin-based sweetener (Sucram at 0.04 g/kg of diet dry matter; Pancosma SA; Geneva, Switzerland)+plant extracts containing eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum (800 mg/calf daily of XTRACT Ruminants 7065; Pancosma SA) from days 0 to 32 and XTRACT only (800 mg/calf daily) from days 33 to 60 (EG) or (3) no supplemental ingredients (CON; days 0 to 60). Calves were assessed for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) signs and dry matter intake was recorded from each pen daily. Calves were vaccinated against BRD pathogens on days 0 and 22. Shrunk BW was recorded on day 61, and blood samples collected on days 0, 6, 11, 22, 33, 43 and 60. Calf ADG was greater (P=0.04) in PC v. EG and tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON. Feed efficiency also tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON, although main treatment effect for this response

  18. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahiyah, I. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, to determine their effect on the growth performance of the fish. Two formulations were tested: Diet A - Formula 1 MARDI and Diet B - Formula 2 MARDI, which were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous with 32 % digestible protein and energy value of 14 MJ/kg. A commercial diet (Diet C was included as a control. At 15 wk of culture, fish fed diet C showed the highest growth performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR and specific growth rate (SGR. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 found among diets for weight gain and feed intake. However, FCR and SGR of Diet C were significantly better (P<0.05 compared to the experimental diets. The best FCR was recorded in Diet C at 1.17, followed by Diet A (1.42 and Diet B (1.46. Diet C also had the highest SGR with 1.99%/day followed by Diet B (1.70 and Diet A (1.67. Cost of both diets, A and B, was RM 2.50/kg compared to RM 3.50/kg for Diet C. Although the FCR of the commercial feed was lower than the experimental diets, the production cost of fish was RM4.11/kg for the commercial feed compared to RM 3.54-3.65/kg for the experimental diets. It is concluded that local feed ingredients can be used in formulating diets for catfish and they have no detrimental effect on the growth of African catfish.

  19. Use of Awamori-pressed Lees and Tofu Lees as Feed Ingredients for Growing Male Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuki Nagamine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. Research was conducted to test if dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising male goats. Eighteen male kids were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG, Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG, Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG. The CFG used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight and alfalfa hay cubes (2.0 kg/d twice a day (10:00, 16:00. Klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. Hay intake was measured at 10:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal and the carcass characteristics, the physical and chemical characteristics of loin were analyzed. DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight and size over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. Blood parameter values were similar to those in normal goats. Dressing carcass weight and percentages, and total weight of meat in the AMFG were similar to that in the CFG, but smaller in the TMFG. The compressed meat juice ratio was higher in both the TMFG and AMFG than the CFG. While the fat in corn, Awamori-pressed lees, and Tofu lees contains more than 50% linoleic acid, the loin fat in both the AMFG and TMFG was very low in linoleic acid due to the increase in the content of oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid. This indicates that feeding on AMF and TMF does not inhibit hydrogenation by ruminal

  20. Sensory and physicochemical characteristics of salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Kawski, Vicky Lilge; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Santos, Maria José Honorato dos; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Coldebella, Arlei; Agnes, Ingrid Beatriz Lermen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory and physicochemical quality of colonial salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients as potential enhancers of quality products. Salamis were produced according to three treatments: (A) Control: 0.1% curing salt; (B) rosemary: 0.05% curing salt + 0.5% rosemary extract (RE); and (C) RE+celery: 0.14% Veg 503 + 0.27% Veg 504 (sea salt plus celery, nitrate and nitrite supplies, respectively) + 0.5% of RE. No significant differe...

  1. Use of Awamori-pressed Lees and Tofu Lees as Feed Ingredients for Growing Female Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuki Nagamine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Okinawan Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice with black mold, yeast, and water. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. This research consisted of two experiments conducted to elucidate whether or not dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising female goats. In experiment 1, digestion trials were conducted to ascertain the nutritive values of dried Awamori-pressed lees and dried Tofu lees for goats. The digestible crude protein (DCP and total digestible nutrients (TDN contents of dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees were 22.5%, 22.5% (DCP, and 87.2%, 94.4% (TDN respectively. In experiment 2, 18 female goats (Japanese Saanen×Nubian, three months old, body weight 15.4±0.53 kg were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG, Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG, Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG. The CFG control used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG treatments used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight twice a day (10:00, 16:00. The klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. The hay intake was measured at 08:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal. The DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight, withers height, chest depth, chest girth, and hip width over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. By contrast, cumulative growth in body length and hip height in the AMFG and TMFG tended to be larger than the CFG. Cumulative growth in chest width in the AMFG was

  2. Evaluating by-products of the Atlantic shellfish industry as alternative feed ingredients for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, M A; Anderson, D M; MacIsaac, J L

    2012-09-01

    A full-cycle laying hen study was conducted to evaluate crab meal (CM) and lobster meal (LM) as feed ingredients for laying hens by assigning four hundred thirty-two 35-wk-old White Leghorns to 1 of 6 diets [control, 2.5% CM, 2.5% LM, 5% CM, 5% LM, and 2.5% CM + 2.5% LM (blend)]. Productive performance and egg parameters were evaluated every 28-d period. Eggs were collected at 67 wk of age from the 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend treatments for analysis of yolk fatty acid composition. At 55 and 67 wk of age, ulnas were collected to determine breaking strength, percent ash, and calcium. Body weights, feed consumption, hen-day production, feed efficiency, and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. The L* scores of eggs from 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend were lower (P 0.05) any of the bone parameters measured at 55 and 67 wk of age. CM and LM supported similar egg production, feed efficiency, egg yolk color, adequate bone strength, and the incorporation of DHA into egg yolks.

  3. Development of Ingredients of the Feed-stuff for Improving Immune system using Centipede grass Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Hyoungwoo; Chung, Byungyeoup; Lee, Seungsik; Lee, Sungbeom

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the this project provides new application areas using naturally occurring flavonoids, cenetpedegrass extracts, for improving immune system and used as ingredients for feed-stuff. In order to provide the immune improving effects of centipedegrass, cell and animal experiments were carried out. Research scope includes determine the effect of centipedegrass extracts on immune functions using LPS-induced RAW cells and found that cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10, which were induced by LPS, were reduced by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT-3, determine the effects of immune stimulating activity of centipedegrass in animals, cenetipedegrass extracts were administrated once a day for 2 weeks. After treated with LPS, immune suppressor, cytokines were down regulated, however, the cytokines in the group pretreated with centipedegrass extracts, were not down regulated as much as non treated group. The overall mechanism of immune stimulating effect of centipedegrass extracts, was that STAT-3 phosphorylation was inhibited by contipedegrass extracts.

  4. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink......Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed...... Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors...

  5. Volume 10 No. 1 January 2010 2001 VEGETABLE-BASED FEED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... hygienically produced feeds to highly productive lines of birds. Feed formulation involves ... obtained from birds fed with the experimental vegetable formulated feeds. Key words: Poultry ..... Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman and ...

  6. Effects of tailoring ingredients in auditory persuasive health messages on fruit and vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Rozema, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Health messages can be tailored by applying different tailoring ingredients, among which personalisation, feedback and adaptation. This experiment investigated the separate effects of these tailoring ingredients on behaviour in auditory health persuasion. Furthermore, the moderating

  7. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry wastes manure as a feed ingredient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Jalil, M.H. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco). Biology Dept.; Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Faid, M. [Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Elyachioui, M. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2001-07-01

    Poultry wastes manure was diluted by adding the same amount of water 50-50 (w/v). They were then mixed with 10% molasses. The mixture was inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidolactici, and incubated at 30{sup o}C for 10 days. Changes in nutritional quality and biochemical properties (pH, total nitrogen, total volatile nitrogen, non protein nitrogen, carbohydrates and ash) were determined for the raw and the transformed product. In parallel, microbiological analyses, including standard plant count, enterobacteria and enterococci, were performed. Results indicated that the product obtained from the wastes fermentation showed low counts of enterobacteria and enterococci. Chemical determinations showed a net decrease of the pH to around 4.0 and the growth curve of the lactic acid bacteria showed the success of the acidification process. The total nitrogen was conserved in the product and the total volatile nitrogen was totally eliminated. The product was used for substituting some protein sources in a conventional formula used in laying feeding of three lots. Two formulae containing, respectively, 20% and 40% of the product was compared to the control (0%). The food consumption and laying performances were monitored for 30 days. The nutritional test indicted that the incorporation of the poultry manure silage of up to 40% gave laying performances similar to those obtained with the conventional formula. These results show that it is possible to transform poultry manure by controlled fermentation and that the product has an added value as a feed ingredient. (Author)

  8. Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Pillai, Viju V.; Goddard, Joshua M.; Park, Hui G.; Kothapalli, Kumar S.; Ross, Deborah A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Milstein, Mark B.; Marquis, Helene; Johnson, Patricia A.; Nyrop, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy cattle manure using housefly larvae, and the nutritional value of the resulting larva meal as a feed ingredient. Our results demonstrated that dairy cattle manure presents a balanced substrate for larval growth, and the spent manure showed reductions in concentration of total nitrogen (24.9%) and phosphorus (6.2%) with an overall reduction in mass. Larva yield at an optimum density was approximately 2% of manure weight. Nutritional analysis of M. domestica larva meal showed values comparable to most high protein feed ingredients. Larva meal was 60% protein with a well-balanced amino acid profile, and 20% fat with 57% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 39% saturated fatty acids. Larva meal lacked any significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Evaluation of micronutrients in larva meal suggested that it is a good source of calcium and phosphorus (0.5% and 1.1% respectively). The nutritional value of larva meal closely matches that of fishmeal, making it a potentially attractive alternative for use as a protein-rich feed ingredient for livestock and aquaculture operations. PMID:28170420

  9. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... these changes affects obesity development and insulin sensitivity in mice eating the salmon. In addition, we wanted to investigate how the background diet affects the antiobesity effect of FO. Results: Western diets (WDs) were produced containing salmon fed either FO (WD-FO), or with partly replacement (80......%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  10. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6(th) week. Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3(rd) week where it reduced significantly (pbroilers reared under deep litter system of management in Mizoram.

  11. Predicting children's fussiness with vegetables:the role of feeding practices

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Clare E.; Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables are commonly rejected by children, making it is important to consider factors that are associated with children's fussiness with vegetables. The current study aimed to investigate whether fussiness with vegetables is associated with a number of factors including caregiver and child vegetable consumption; caregivers' general feeding practices; and caregivers' vegetable-specific feeding practices. Caregivers (N = 297) of preschool children completed questionnaire measures of their ch...

  12. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  13. Effects of tailoring ingredients in auditory persuasive health messages on fruit and vegetable intake

    OpenAIRE

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Rozema, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Health messages can be tailored by applying different tailoring ingredients, among which personalisation, feedback and adaptation. This experiment investigated the separate effects of these tailoring ingredients on behaviour in auditory health persuasion. Furthermore, the moderating effect of self-efficacy was assessed.Design: The between-participants design consisted of four conditions. A generic health message served as a control condition; personalisation was applied using the r...

  14. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city.

  15. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial.

  16. The probabilistic model of the process mixing of animal feed ingredients into a continuous mixer-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the polydisperse medium mixing process reflects its stochastic features in the form of uneven distribution of phase elements on the time of their presence in apparatus, particle size, ripple retention of the apparatus, random distribution of the material and thermal phase flows of the working volume, heterogeneity of the medium physical- and chemical properties, complicated by chemical reaction. For the mathematical description of the mixing process of animal feed ingredients in the presence of chemical reaction the system of differential equations of Academician V.V. Kafarov was used. Proposed by him hypothesis based on the theory of Markov’s processes stating that "any multicomponent mixture can be considered as the result of an iterative process of mixing the two components to achieve the desired uniformity of all the ingredients in the mixture" allows us to consider a process of mixing binary composition in a paddle mixer in the form of differential equations of two ingredients concentration numerous changes until it becomes a homogenous mixture. It was found out that the mixing process of the two-component mixture is determined in a paddle mixer with a constant mixing speed and a limit (equilibrium dispersion of the ingredients in the mixture i.e. with its uniformity. Adjustment of the model parameters was carried out according to the results of experimental studies on mixing the crushed wheat with metallomagnetic impurity, which was a key (indicator component. According to the best values of the constant of the continuous mixing speed and the equilibrium disperse values of the ingredients contents, the mathematical model parameters identification was carried out. The results obtained are used to develop a new generation mixer design.

  17. [Survey on fungi contamination and natural occurrence of mycotoxins in 94 corn feed ingredients collected from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X M; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Xu, W J; Liu, D; Jiang, T; Xu, J; Li, F Q

    2016-10-06

    Objective: To investigate fungi contamination and the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn feed ingredients collected from China. Methods: A total of 94 corn feed ingredient samples were collected from 8 Chinese provinces(i.e., Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, and Shandong)in February 2014. A tandem ultra-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry method was used for simultaneous detection of twelve kinds of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin(AF), type A and type B tricothecenes, and zearalenone(ZEN). Contaminated fungi were also identified and counted. Results: AF was detected in 36.2%(34/94)of samples; the concentration of AFB 1 was the highest in the four AFs with the range: 0.3~181.3 μg/kg; and then followed by AFB 2 (range: 1.0-74.3 μg/kg). There were 7 samples(7.5%)with AFB 1 concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 50 μg/kg. The concentration of type A tricothecenes in all samples was lower(0.1-10.5 μg/kg). DON had the most serious contamination than other kind of type B tricothecenes(range: 0.7-606.6 μg/kg; median: 66.3 μg/kg). The DON concentration in all samples was below the tolerance limit of 1 000 μg/kg. ZEN was detected in 76.6%(72/ 94)of samples(median: 36.9 μg/kg), with 3 samples having ZEN concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 500 μg/kg. The survey on fungi contamination showed that all samples were contaminated by fungi(range: 5.0-1.4×10 5 CFU/g). There were 18 and 3 samples with quantities of fungi higher than the tolerance and forbidden limits, respectively. The Aspergillus , Penicillium , Fusarium , Trichoderma and Mucor genuses were the predominant fungi in corn feed ingredients, with detection rates of 71.3%(67), 60.6%(57), 71.3%(67), 27.7%(26), and 24.5%(23), respectively. The detection rate of Fusarium moniliforme , 73.4%(69/94)was higher than that of Aspergillus flavus , 41.5%(39/94). Conclusion: In this survey, the corn feed ingredients were not seriously

  18. A simple in vitro test tube method for estimating the bioavailability of phosphorus in feed ingredients for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, David W; Tsunoda, Atsushi; Ledoux, David R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Veum, Trygve L

    2004-04-07

    A simplified in vitro test tube (TT) method was developed to estimate the percentage of available P in feed ingredients for swine. The entire digestion procedure with the TT method consists of three consecutive enzymatic digestions carried out in a 50-mL conical test tube: (1) Pre-digestion with endo-xylanase and beta-glucanase for 1 h, (2) peptic digestion for 2 h, and (3) pancreatic digestion for 2 or 4 h. The TT method is simpler and much easier to perform compared to the dialysis tubing (DT) method, because dialysis tubing is not used. Reducing sample size from 1.0 to 0.25 g for the TT method improved results. In conclusion, the accuracy and validity of the TT method is equal to that of our more complicated DT method (r = 0.97, P < 0.001), designed to mimic the digestive system of swine, for estimating the availability of P in plant-origin feed ingredients.

  19. Fermentation of seaweed flour with various fermenters to improve the quality of fish feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aslamyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  The purpose of this study was to evaluate various types of fermentor for dry matter digestibility (DMD, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and the chemical composition of fermented seaweed. Five types of seaweed were used as substrates included green strain of Kappaphycus alvarezii, brown strain of K. alvarezii, Gracilaria gigas, Sargassum sp., and Caulerpa sp. The treatments were four fermentors, namely Bacillus sp. 2 mL/100 g of seaweed flour; 1.5% of tape yeast as a source of Rhizopus sp.; 1.5% of baker’s yeast as a source of Saccharomyces sp.; a mix of Bacillus sp., tape yeast of Rhizopus sp. and baker’s yeast of Saccharomyces sp. with compositions of 1 mL+1 g+1 g/100 g of seaweed flour; and control treatment. The results showed an increase in the percentage of DMD (21.94–27.76% and OMD (8.35–11.66% of all seaweed fermented using fermentor compared to control (DMD of 17.65–20.36% and OMD of 4.36–5.98%. Moreover, the highest result was obtained by the fermentor mix (DMD of 24.86–27.76% and OMD of 10.02–11.66%. Similar result was also found in the chemical composition of fermented seaweed, there was increase in protein content of 9.23–15.93% and nitrogen free extract (NFE of 56.05–70.26% in each seaweed treated with fermentation using fermentors, compared to controls (protein of 8.82–11.54% and NFE of 52.26–65.72%. Furthermore, the highest value was shown by seaweed fermented with mixed fermentors (protein of 9.92–15.93% and NFE of 58.47–70.26%. Yet, the opposite result was present in the ash, crude fiber, and fat content of seaweed fermented using fermentors of which the lowest value was found in treatment of mixed fermentor. Keywords: fermentation, fermentor, seaweed, quality, feed ingredients  ABSTRAK  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi berbagai jenis fermentor terhadap kecernaan bahan kering (KBK, kecernaan bahan organik (KBO, dan komposisi kimia rumput laut terfermentasi. Lima jenis rumput

  20. Verteerbaarheid van biologisch geteelde veevoedergrondstoffen bij leghennen = Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Harn, van J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table.

  1. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, Alexander; Caro, D.

    2016-01-01

    ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle...... in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO2 eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication...

  2. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Vegetable and Cereal Proteins as Potential Sources of Novel Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintya Soria-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins from vegetable and cereal sources are an excellent alternative to substitute animal-based counterparts because of their reduced cost, abundant supply and good nutritional value. The objective of this investigation is to study a set of vegetable and cereal proteins in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Twenty protein sources were studied: five soya bean flour samples, one pea flour and fourteen newly developed blends of soya bean and maize germ (fi ve concentrates and nine hydrolysates. The physicochemical characterization included pH (5.63 to 7.57, electrical conductivity (1.32 to 4.32 mS/cm, protein content (20.78 to 94.24 % on dry mass basis, free amino nitrogen (0.54 to 2.87 mg/g and urease activity (0.08 to 2.20. The functional properties showed interesting differences among proteins: water absorption index ranged from 0.41 to 18.52, the highest being of soya and maize concentrates. Nitrogen and water solubility ranged from 10.14 to 74.89 % and from 20.42 to 95.65 %, respectively. Fat absorption and emulsification activity indices ranged from 2.59 to 4.72 and from 3936.6 to 52 399.2 m2/g respectively, the highest being of pea flour. Foam activity (66.7 to 475.0 % of the soya and maize hydrolysates was the best. Correlation analyses showed that hydrolysis affected solubility-related parameters whereas fat-associated indices were inversely correlated with water-linked parameters. Foam properties were better of proteins treated with low heat, which also had high urease activity. Physicochemical and functional characterization of the soya and maize protein concentrates and hydrolysates allowed the identification of differences regarding other vegetable and cereal protein sources such as pea or soya bean.

  3. Fruit and vegetable by-products as novel ingredients to improve the nutritional quality of baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Manuel; Martinez, Mario M

    2017-03-31

    The industrial manufacturing of fruits and vegetables generates approximately 50% by-product waste, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. Nevertheless, fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) are rich nutrients and extranutritional compounds that contribute to bowel health, weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels and improved control of glycemic and insulin responses. Due to the positive influence of FVB fibers and bioactive compounds during the digestion of glycemic carbohydrates, such as starch, baked goods are ideal food systems to accommodate FVB, since most of them have a high glycemic index. Therefore, this is an area of recent interest with critical environmental, economic and health implications worldwide. However, the utilization of FVB in baked goods leads to the loss of acceptability, in many cases caused by a lack of understanding of the physical structure and composition of FVB and their effects on food quality. The objective of this review is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the impact of the physical structure and composition of FVB on common baked goods and their influence on the nutritional and physical quality of the resulting product. This review will support the use of FVB as ideal ingredients while improving the added value of waste streams.

  4. Protein structural changes during processing of vegetable feed ingredients used in swine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, S.; Hendriks, W.H.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Gruppen, H.; Poel, Van Der A.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    Protein structure influences the accessibility of enzymes for digestion. The proportion of intramolecular β-sheets in the secondary structure of native proteins has been related to a decrease in protein digestibility. Changes to proteins that can be considered positive (for example, denaturation

  5. Analysis for low-molecular-weight carbohydrates is needed to account for all energy-contributing nutrients in some feed ingredients, but physical characteristics do not predict in vitro digestibility of dry matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, D.M.D.L.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Jong, de L.; Stein, H.H.

    2018-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to quantify nutrient and fiber fractions of feed ingredients and to determine in vitro apparent ileal digestibility (IVAID) and in vitro apparent total tract digestibility (IVATTD) of DM and OM in each ingredient. Ten ingredients that vary in fiber concentration and

  6. Fermentation of Azolla sp. leaves and the utilization as a feed ingredient of tilapia Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to study the effect of incubation period on the nutritional content of Azolla sp. meal fermented by Trichoderma harzianum, and its optimum supplementation level in the feed of tilapia Oreochromis sp. In incubation period treatments, fermentation of Azolla meal was performed in two, six, eight, and ten days (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10 using Trichoderma harzianum as the fermentor. The fish used in this study was tilapia Oreochromis sp. with an average weight of 10.59±1.29 g. The design of the feeding treatments was repeletting commercial feed with Azolla leaves by with different supplementation levels, i.e. 0% (A/control, 30% (B, 60% (C, and 90% (D. Faecal collection for digestibility measurement was conducted for 15 days and fish growth rate was observed for 40 days. Azolla meal fermented for two days (AF2 showed the best results among the other treatments with a crude fiber decrease of 37.19% and protein increase of 38.65%. The results of this study indicate that fermentation can increase the nutritional quality of Azolla meal and its most optimal supplementation level in the diet of tilapia is 30%.Keywords: crude fiber, Azolla sp., tilapiaABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama waktu fermentasi daun mata lele Azolla sp. menggunakan kapang Trichoderma harzianum serta dosis optimal dalam pakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. Proses fermentasi tepung daun mata lele dilakukan selama dua, enam, delapan, dan sepuluh hari (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10. Ikan uji pada penelitian ini menggunakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. dengan bobot rata-rata 10,59±1,29 g yang ditebar sebanyak 6 ekor/akuarium berukuran 50×45×30 cm3. Sebagai pakan perlakuan yakni repeletting daun mata lele dengan pakan komersil pada tingkat suplementasi 0% (A/kontrol, 30% (B, 60% (C, dan 90% (D. Pemeliharaan ikan uji dan pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan feses ikan untuk uji ketercernaan selama 15 hari dan mengamati pertumbuhan

  7. Assessment of feeding value of vegetable-carried pineapple fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Asaolu

    2015-08-03

    Aug 3, 2015 ... pineapple fruit wastes to Red Sokoto goats in. Ogbomoso, Oyo State of ..... with vegetable carrier as the main treatment effect and mixing ratios as the block. ...... In: The roles of protozoa and fungi in ruminants' digestion.

  8. Measurement of true ileal digestibility of phosphorus in some feed ingredients for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2014-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate the true ileal digestibility of P in wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each ingredient (wheat and sorghum: 236.5, 473, 709.5, and 946 g/kg; soybean meal and corn DDGS: 135, 270, 405, and 540 g/kg) to contain graded concentrations of nonphytate P. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 weight blocks of 16 cages each (5 birds per cage). A total of 320 21-d-old broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to the 16 test diets with 4 replicates per diet. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of P were determined by the indicator method and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficients. The results showed that the apparent ileal P digestibility coefficients of wheat-based diets were not influenced (P>0.05) by increasing dietary P concentrations, whereas those of diets based on sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS differed (Pdigestibility in broilers fed diets with soybean meal and corn DDGS linearly (Pdigestibility coefficients of wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were determined to be 0.464, 0.331, 0.798, and 0.727, respectively. Ileal endogenous P losses in birds fed diets with wheat, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were estimated to be 0.080, 0.609, and 0.418 g/kg DMI, respectively. In birds fed sorghum-based diets, endogenous P losses were estimated to be negative (-0.087 g/kg DMI). True digestible P contents of wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were determined to be 1.49, 0.78, 5.16, and 5.94 g/kg, respectively. The corresponding nonphytate P contents in wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were 1.11, 0.55, 2.15, and 4.36 g/kg, respectively. These differences between digestible P and nonphytate P contents may be suggestive, at least in part, of overestimation of P digestibility under the calcium-deficient conditions

  9. VEGETABLE PEELS: A PROMISING FEED RESOURCE FOR LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN; Syeda Ayesha SULTANA; Mohammad Hasanul KARIM; Md. Imran AHMED

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different vegetable peels available in Rangunia, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Total 10 different vegetable peels i.e., Banana blossom (Musa sapientum), Bottle gourd peel (Lagenaria siceraria), Brinjal peel (Solanum melongena), Gram husk (Cicer arietinum), Green banana peel (Musa sapieutum), Green coconut peel (Cocos nucifera), Pea husk (Pisum sativum), Potato peel (Solanum tuberosum), Pumpkin peel (Cucurbita maxima), Ripe banana peel...

  10. Vegetable and cereal protein exploitation for fish feed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available cultivated fish (Naylor et al., 2000). Therefore, considerable amounts of resources are currently being used worldwide to evaluate the nutritional quality and possible health implications of alternative plant-based feed- stuffs with the potential... and storage. All of this needs to be implemented without excessive costs, as the feed costs usually make up around 40–75% of the total running cost of rearing fish (Young and Muir, 2000). As the challenges for utilising legume and cereal protein sources...

  11. Feed based on vegetable materials changes the muscle proteome of the carnivore rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune; Bach Mikkelsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Feed production for aquaculture of carnivore fish species relies heavily on protein and lipid from the limited resources of wild fish and other sea living organisms. Thus the development of alternative feeds replacing fish meal and oil with components of vegetable origin is important for a sustai......Feed production for aquaculture of carnivore fish species relies heavily on protein and lipid from the limited resources of wild fish and other sea living organisms. Thus the development of alternative feeds replacing fish meal and oil with components of vegetable origin is important...... trout fed two different diets identical in protein and oil content, but with diet C based on fish meal and oil and diet V based on rapeseed oil and vegetable proteins. In addition to the proteomic investigation the textural properties of the fish were analysed by sensory profiling. Protein expression...

  12. Astaxanthin from Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii as a Pigmentary Ingredient in the Feed of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido-Fernández, J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg yolks generally owe their color to yellow carotenoids. The addition of synthetic red pigments allows changes in color, from the original yellow to red hues which may be more appealing to consumers in certain markets.Our aim has been to test whether ground crayfish shells, which are a rich and natural source of astaxanthin, produce detectable changes in the coloration of egg yolks through the accumulation of this carotenoid. Laying hens were fed with a commercial feed mixed with crayfish powder and the carotenoid profiles of the yolks in the eggs laid during the trial were monitored by HPLC. The analyses showed a progressive increase in the astaxanthin concentration in the egg yolks, reaching similar levels to those obtained for the rest of present carotenoid pigments.La yema de huevo de gallina debe su coloración a la presencia de carotenoides de tonalidad amarilla. La adición de colorantes sintéticos de tonalidades rojas permite modificar e incrementar la coloración de la yema desde el amarillo original a tonos rojos que pueden ser demandados en ciertos mercados según las preferencias del consumidor. El objetivo del trabajo fue probar si un triturado obtenido a partir de caparazones de cangrejo, que es una fuente natural y rica en astaxanteno, produce cambios detectables en la coloración de la yema de huevo por la acumulación de dicho carotenoide. Las gallinas ponedoras se alimentaron con un pienso comercial al que se adicionó triturado de caparazón de cangrejo. Se realizó un seguimiento de los cambios en la composición carotenoide (mediante HPLC de la yema de los huevos puestos durante el periodo de alimentación suplementada. Los análisis mostraron una progresiva incorporación de astaxanteno que alcanzó niveles similares al resto de carotenoides presentes inicialmente en la yema.

  13. Relationships between parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices and fruit and vegetable consumption in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jackie

    2011-12-01

    Despite substantial evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of cancer, only 21% of children in the UK consume the recommended 5 portions of fruit or vegetables a day. This review examines the role of parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices in FV consumption in early childhood. Whilst inconsistencies in concepts and terminology cloud this literature, overall the evidence suggests that the context of an authoritative parenting and feeding style is associated with better FV consumption in the childhood years. This context is typified by emotional warmth but high expectations for children's dietary adequacy and behaviour, accompanied by specific feeding practices such as modeling consumption of FV, making FV available within the home, covertly restricting unhealthy alternative snack foods, and encouraging children to try FV. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to determine the efficacy of modification of parenting style and feeding practice on children's FV intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Methodologies on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and determining the net energy contents of feed ingredients in swine: a review of recent work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongchao; Liu, Hu; Li, Yakui; Lv, Zhiqian; Liu, Ling; Lai, Changhua; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Zhang, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    In the past two decades, a considerable amount of research has focused on the determination of the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of feed ingredients fed to swine. Compared with the DE and ME systems, the net energy (NE) system is assumed to be the most accurate estimate of the energy actually available to the animal. However, published data pertaining to the measured NE content of ingredients fed to growing pigs are limited. Therefore, the Feed Data Group at the Ministry of Agricultural Feed Industry Centre (MAFIC) located at China Agricultural University has evaluated the NE content of many ingredients using indirect calorimetry. The present review summarizes the NE research works conducted at MAFIC and compares these results with those from other research groups on methodological aspect. These research projects mainly focus on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and its impact on the determination, prediction, and validation of the NE content of several ingredients fed to swine. The estimation of maintenance energy is affected by methodology, growth stage, and previous feeding level. The fasting heat production method and the curvilinear regression method were used in MAFIC to estimate the NE requirement for maintenance. The NE contents of different feedstuffs were determined using indirect calorimetry through standard experimental procedure in MAFIC. Previously generated NE equations can also be used to predict NE in situations where calorimeters are not available. Although popular, the caloric efficiency is not a generally accepted method to validate the energy content of individual feedstuffs. In the future, more accurate and dynamic NE prediction equations aiming at specific ingredients should be established, and more practical validation approaches need to be developed.

  15. Assessment of feeding value of vegetable-carried pineapple fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the sun-drying characteristics of five blends each (w/w; 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5, 1:3) of wheat offal-carried pineapple waste (WO:PW) and brewers' dried grains-carried pineapple waste (BDG:PW), assessed the blends for their nutrient contents and the feeding value of the optimum blends with Red Sokoto ...

  16. [Feeds of vegetable versus those of animal origin (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooijmans, A W

    1981-03-01

    Dogs can be adequately fed on a vegetable diet. However, specific micronutrients have to be added. The metabolic space within which the cat can adequately operate is restricted because of heavy evolutionary pressure. This has led amongst others to increased dietary protein requirements (unaccompanied, however, by an increase in essential amino acid requirements) and a dietary requirement for certain substances which occur almost only in conjunction with animal proteins and diminished enzyme induction. Regulation of the food intake and the water economy of the body appears to have been also affected.

  17. How does feed with different levels of vegetable origin affect the sensory quality of ice storage Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Holm, Jørgen

    carnivores, is facing major challenges as a consequence of the limited access in future sustainable resources of wild fish or other sea living organisms from a lower trophic level for feed production. Consequently, alternative feeding regimes are now considered e.g. use of components of vegetable origin...... and methods Feed trials Rainbow trout were farmed in tanks at Biomar A/S, Hirtshals and fed on six different diets covering only marine, only vegetables and mixture of marine and vegetable feeds. Trout for the quality study were slaughtered, vacuum-packed and stored at -80°C until analysis. Sensory Quality...

  18. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  19. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  20. A comparison of the test tube and the dialysis tubing in vitro methods for estimating the bioavailability of phosphorus in feed ingredients for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, David W; Tsunoda, Atsushi; Ledoux, David R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Veum, Trygve L

    2005-05-04

    The validity of a simplified in vitro test tube (TT) method was compared with a more complicated dialysis tubing (DT) method to estimate the percentage of available phosphorus (P) in 41 plant origin and five animal origin feed ingredients for swine. The TT method using 1.0 or 0.25 g samples was compared with the DT method using 1.0 g samples at two pancreatic incubation times (2 vs 4 h) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each DT and TT method treatment was replicated three and six times, respectively. Both methods utilize three enzymatic digestions: (i) predigestion with endoxylanase and beta-glucanase for 1 h, (ii) pepsin digestion for 2 h, and (iii) pancreatin digestion for 2 or 4 h. For the TT method, the entire procedure was conducted in a 50 mL conical centrifuge tube and replicated six times. For the DT method, the first two digestions were conducted in a 10 mL plastic syringe before the contents were quantitatively transferred into a segment of DT for the pancreatic digestion. The percentages of hydrolyzed P for plant origin ingredients measured by the DT method using 1.0 g samples and the TT method using 0.25 g samples were highly correlated (r = 0.94-0.97, P or = 0.4) with published in vivo available P values. In conclusion, the accuracy and validity of the TT method using 0.25 g samples with a 2 h pancreatic digestion time was equal to or superior to the DT method using 1.0 g samples with a 4 h pancreatic digestion time for estimating P availability in plant origin feed ingredients.

  1. Antistaphylococcal effect of enterocin AS-48 in bakery ingredients of vegetable origin, alone and in combination with selected antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of enterocin AS-48 against Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in various types of bakery ingredients. Antibacterial activity greatly depended on the food substrate, ranging from complete inactivation of S. aureus in liquid caramel (in which the bacterium survived poorly) to no significant inhibition (as in vanilla or chocolate creams). Significant reductions of viable counts in the range of 1.8 to 2.7 log units (P enterocin AS-48 was tested in combination with other antimicrobials. Bactericidal activity increased markedly for the combinations of AS-48 and 0.1% eugenol (v/v), 0.5% 2-nitropropanol (v/v), or 3% Nisaplin (w/v). Enterocin AS-48 could be applied in combination with other antimicrobials for preservation of bakery ingredients against S. aureus.

  2. Substituição de farinhas de origem animal por ingredientes de origem vegetal em dietas para frangos de corte Substitution of animal by-product meals by vegetable ingredients in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bellaver

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido às exigências de alguns importadores, por motivação cultural ou devido a zoonoses recém acontecidas na Europa, tem havido um direcionamento para fabricação de rações vegetais com base em milho e farelo de soja (FS. Esse direcionamento traz conseqüências na produção e por isso, objetivou-se avaliar a resposta de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO e farinha de vísceras de aves (FV e dietas contendo milho e FS. As dietas foram calculadas para conterem 3.050 e 3.150 kcal EM/kg de ração nas fases inicial e de crescimento, respectivamente, e com os demais nutrientes calculados para atenderem às exigências das aves. A substituição de ingredientes foi testada variando-se os níveis de proteina nas fases inicial e de crescimento respectivamente, da seguinte forma: 1. Dieta com inclusão de 4% de FCO suína e 3% de FV, calculada por proteína ideal, com 22% (inicial e 20 % de PB (crescimento; 2. Dieta semelhante à dieta 1, sem farinhas de origem animal, formulada a base de milho e FS, com PB e lisina digestível semelhantes à dieta 1; 3. Dieta semelhante à dieta 2, com 23% (inicial e 21% de PB (crescimento e lisina digestível semelhante a dieta 1; 4. Dieta semelhante à dieta 2, com 24% (inicial e 22% de PB (crescimento e lisina digestível 6% e 5% superiores à dieta 1. Houve diminuição significativa da matéria seca da cama das aves devido à presença de ingredientes exclusivamente vegetais e aumento do teor de proteína das dietas (P0,05; havendo, porém, maior peso dos pés (PThe demand of some importers due to cultural reasons or to zoonosis that recently emerged in Europe, there has been a trend to manufacture vegetable feeds based on corn and soybean meal (SBM. This influences live production, and therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the response of broilers fed diets containing either meat and bone meal (MBM and offal meal (OM, or vegetable diets based on corn and

  3. The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Moschonis, George; Betoko, Aisha; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Manios, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline

    2013-09-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether early feeding practices influence later fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. The study used data from 4 European cohorts: the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant study, the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort, and the Greek EuroPrevall study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed in each cohort by food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between early feeding practices, such as breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding, and fruit and/or vegetable intake in 2-4-y-old children were tested by using logistic regressions, separately in each cohort, after adjustment for infant's age and sex and maternal age, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. Large differences in early feeding practices were highlighted across the 4 European cohorts with longer breastfeeding duration in the Generation XXI Birth Cohort and earlier introduction to complementary foods in ALSPAC. Longer breastfeeding duration was consistently related to higher fruit and vegetable intake in young children, whereas the associations with age of introduction to fruit and vegetable intake were weaker and less consistent across the cohorts. Mothers' fruit and vegetable intake (available in 3 of the cohorts) did not substantially attenuate the relation with breastfeeding duration. The concordant positive association between breastfeeding duration and fruit and vegetable intake in different cultural contexts favors an independent specific effect.

  4. Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes para juvenis de jundiá Apparent digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients for jundia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Campagnoli de Oliveira Filho

    2006-08-01

    and 82.2% of DM, while ground corn showed the lowest apparent digestibility coefficients (73.0% of protein, 59.1% of energy and 57.2% of DM. The other ingredients showed intermediary results. The broken rice (high energy ingredient showed 80.7% of protein, 64.8% of energy and 60.5% of DM, while the soybean meal and fish processing waste meal (high protein ingredient showed 88.6 and 77.7%, respectively, for protein digestibility. The energy digestibility for the same ingredients were 76.5 and 74.8%, while for DM were 73.3 and 58.6%. The results show that jundia juveniles, although presenting an omnivorous feeding habit, is able to digest high protein ingredients better than high energy ingredients, suggesting that this species is an omnivore with carnivorous tendency.

  5. Combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy for nutritional evaluation of feed ingredients and non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase complex on performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanhini Neto, Roberto; N'Guetta, Eric; Gady, Cecile; Francesch, Maria; Preynat, Aurélie

    2017-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for nutritional evaluation of feed ingredients and the addition of non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase complex (NSP enzymes) on the growth performance of broilers fed diets produced with low-quality wheat and soybean meal. A 2 × 2 trial design was performed, with seven replicates of 40 male Ross 308 broilers per treatment, evaluating the effect of the addition of NSP enzymes and the ingredients' nutritional matrix based on table values or NIRS values. Diets without added enzymes were formulated to reach nutritional requirements, whereas diets with enzymes were reformulated, reducing the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) by 85 kcal/kg. In the overall period (days 0-35), broilers fed diets formulated using NIRS values had higher (P nutritional approaches are efficient in improving broilers' performances by themselves and even more so when they are combined. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. The probabilistic model of the process mixing of animal feed ingredients into a continuous mixer-reactor

    OpenAIRE

    L. I. Lytkina; A. A. Shevtsov; E. S. Shentsova; O. A. Apalikhina

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model of the polydisperse medium mixing process reflects its stochastic features in the form of uneven distribution of phase elements on the time of their presence in apparatus, particle size, ripple retention of the apparatus, random distribution of the material and thermal phase flows of the working volume, heterogeneity of the medium physical- and chemical properties, complicated by chemical reaction. For the mathematical description of the mixing process of animal feed ingr...

  7. Fruit and Vegetable Intakes of Preschool Children Are Associated With Feeding Practices Facilitating Internalization of Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Yoonna

    2016-05-01

    To examine the association between feeding practices and both fruit and vegetable intakes of preschoolers. Cross-sectional; data collected from 2009 to 2010. Child care centers enrolled in the cohort of the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids program. Three hundred and sixteen mother-child dyads were recruited in the baseline survey as primary caregivers of children aged 2-5 years. Ten aspects of maternal feeding practices were measured using a Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. The frequency of children's fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated by mothers. Spearman's rank order correlation and linear regression analysis between parental feeding practices and both fruit and vegetable consumption were adjusted for potential confounders. Pearson's correlation coefficients among 10 parental feeding practices were calculated. Children in the study consumed fruit 1.7 ± 0.9 times per day and vegetables 1.4 ± 0.8 times per day. Feeding practices of building a healthy home food environment and involvement were positively related and those of restriction for health were negatively related to children's vegetable consumption (P < .001); moreover, encouraging balance and variety and monitoring were positively related to children's fruit consumption (P < .001). The results of this study suggest that both fruit and vegetable intakes of preschool children are more likely to increase if parents employ feeding practices that encourage child autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-11-19

    Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake. These learning processes are likely to have a long-term impact. Children's consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) is below recommendations in many countries. Thus, it is crucial to establish preferences for FV early, when infants are learning to eat. The development of food preferences mainly starts when infants discover their first solid foods. This narrative review summarizes the factors that influence FV acceptance at the start of the CF period: previous milk feeding experience; timing of onset of CF; repeated exposures to the food; variety of foods offered as of the start of the CF period; quality and sensory properties of the complementary foods; quality of the meal time context; and parental responsive feeding.

  9. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Nicklaus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Complementary feeding (CF, which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN, is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake. These learning processes are likely to have a long-term impact. Children’s consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV is below recommendations in many countries. Thus, it is crucial to establish preferences for FV early, when infants are learning to eat. The development of food preferences mainly starts when infants discover their first solid foods. This narrative review summarizes the factors that influence FV acceptance at the start of the CF period: previous milk feeding experience; timing of onset of CF; repeated exposures to the food; variety of foods offered as of the start of the CF period; quality and sensory properties of the complementary foods; quality of the meal time context; and parental responsive feeding.

  10. The use of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a feed ingredient on air emissions and performance from laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W; Angel, R; Applegate, T J

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of feeding diets containing 0, 10, or 20% distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS) to laying hens (21 to 26 wk of age) on emissions of NH3 and H2S. Hy-Line W-36 hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental rooms for a 5-wk period (hens in 3 rooms were offered the 10% and 20% DDGS diets each; hens in 2 rooms were offered the 0% DDGS diet). Diets were formulated to contain similar CP levels (18.3%), nonphytate P (0.46%), and Ca (4.2%). On an analyzed basis, the 0, 10, and 20% DDGS diets contained 0.22, 0.27, and 0.42% S. Egg weight (50.9 g), egg production (85%), and feed intake (87.9 g/hen per d) were unaffected by diet (P > 0.05) over the study period. Daily NH3 emissions from hens fed diets containing 0, 10, and 20% DDGS were 105.4, 91.7, and 80.2 mg/g of N consumed, respectively (P hens fed commercial diets containing 0, 10, and 20% DDGS were 2.6, 2.4, and 1.1 mg/g of S consumed, respectively. Overall, feeding 21- to 26-wk-old laying hens diets containing 20% DDGS decreased daily NH3 emissions by 24% and H2S emissions by 58%. Each hen emitted approximately 280 mg of NH3 and 0.5 mg of H2S daily when fed a control diet containing 18% CP and 0.2% S. The results of this study demonstrate that 20% DDGS derived from ethanol production can be fed to laying hens, resulting in lower emissions of NH3 and H2S with no apparent adverse effects on hen performance.

  11. Substitution or addition? How overweight and obese adults incorporate vegetables into their diet during a randomized controlled vegetable feeding trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: When attempting to eat healthier, individuals may add vegetables to their diet (addition) without changing other eating behaviors. Alternatively, individuals adding vegetables may decrease consumption of other foods (substitution). Distinguishing between the two means of incorporation of ...

  12. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) as a model for investigating the safety of GM feed ingredients (soya and maize); performance, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissener, Nini H; Johannessen, Lene E; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Berdal, Knut G; Nordgreen, Andreas; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    A 20-d zebrafish (Danio rerio) feeding trial, in which a near doubling of fish weight was achieved, was conducted with GM feed ingredients to evaluate feed intake, growth, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA. A partial aim of the study was to assess zebrafish as a model organism in GM safety assessments. Roundup Ready soya (RRS), YieldGard Bt maize (MON810) and their non-modified, maternal, near-isogenic lines were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Soya variety and maize variety were the main factors, both with two levels; non-GM and GM. Compared with fish fed non-GM maize, those fed GM maize exhibited significantly better growth, had lower mRNA transcription levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and a tendency (non-significant) towards lower transcription of heat shock protein 70 in liver. Sex of the fish and soya variety had significant interaction effects on total RNA yield from the whole liver and transcription of SOD-1, suggesting that some diet component affecting males and females differently was present in different levels in the GM and the non-GM soya used in the present study. Dietary DNA sequences were detected in all of the organs analysed, but not all of the samples. Soya and maize rubisco (non-transgenic, multicopy genes) were most frequently detected, while MON810 transgenic DNA fragments were detected in some samples and RRS fragments were not detected. In conclusion, zebrafish shows promise as a model for this application.

  13. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH BULU AYAM MENJADI BAHAN PAKAN IKAN DENGAN FERMENTASI Bacillus subtilis (Utilization of Waste Chicken Feather to Fish Feed Ingredients Material with Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Siswani Mulia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan limbah bulu ayam menjadi bahan pakan ikan dengan fermentasi Bacillus subtilis. Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL 4 perlakuan, 3 kali ulangan, yaitu P0 : tepung bulu ayam non fermentasi; P1 : fermentasi dengan inokulum B. subtilis 5 mL/2 g tepung bulu ayam; P2 : fermentasi dengan inokulum B. subtilis 10 mL/2 g tepung bulu ayam; P3 : fermentasi dengan inokulum B. subtilis 15 mL/2 g tepung bulu ayam. Parameter yang diamati adalah hasil uji proksimat meliputi kadar protein kasar, kadar air, kadar abu, kadar lemak kasar, kadar serat kasar, dan parameter pendukung yaitu uji organoleptik, berupa sifat fisik tepung bulu ayam, meliputi warna, tekstur, dan bau. Data berupa hasil uji proksimat dianalisis menggunakan ANAVA dan Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT dengan taraf uji 5%, sedangkan untuk data hasil organoleptik dianalisis secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemanfaatan limbah bulu ayam menjadi bahan pakan ikan dapat dilakukan dengan fermentasi B. subtilis. Fermentasi tepung bulu ayam menggunakan B. subtillis dapat meningkatkan kualitas bahan baku pakan ikan. Perlakuan P2 (inokulum 10 mL/2 g tepung bulu ayamadalah perlakuan yang paling efektif karena menghasilkan protein tertinggi yaitu 80,59%, dengan perubahan sifat fisik menjadi putih sampai putih kekuningan (warna, lembut (tekstur, dan khas kurang menyengat (bau.   ABSTRACT This study aims to utilize waste chicken feathers into fish feed ingredients by fermentation of Bacillus subtilis. The research has done by experimental methods with completely randomized design (CRD 4 treatments, 3 repetitions, ie P0: non-fermented chicken feather meal; P1: fermentation with B. subtilis 5 mL inoculum/2 g chicken feather meal; P2: 10 mL/2 g chicken feather meal; P3: 15 mL/2 g chicken feather meal. Parameters measured were the proximate test results include the levels of crude protein

  14. Effectiveness of Accelerator and Inoculum in Fermentation of Goat’s Rumen Contents as Animal Feed Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrie, B.; Sente, U.; Mayasari, K.; Syah, R. F.

    2018-02-01

    The goat’s rumen contents is slaughterhouse waste that has potential to be used as animal feed, but it has to be first processed into silage. This study aims to determine the type of accelerator and to investigate whether the addition of inoculum was required during the fermentation process. The research was conducted using a Completely Randomized Factorial Design, consisting of 2 treatment factors and 6 replications. The treatment factors were: a) Accelerator (rice bran or cassava pomade/onggok); b) Inoculum Lactobacillus plantarum (with or without using inoculant). Results showed that there was an increase in crude protein (CP) content with the use of rice bran at after fermentation compared to before fermentation. The CP contents with the use of onggok almost the same at after and before fermentation. Increase in the content of crude fiber (CF) after fermentation was both for using rice bran or onggok. However, the content of CF using onggok was much higher than with rice bran. There was no significant effect for both types of accelerators used in CP and CF contents at after fermentation with or without the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum as the inoculant. It can be concluded that for the fermentation of goat’s rumen contents it is better to use rice bran rather than onggok as the accelerator and inoculant is not required during the fermentationprocess.

  15. Two-stage in vitro digestibility assay, a tool for formulating non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme combinations for commonly used feed ingredients of poultry rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramana Reddy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt was made to assess the effect of pure enzyme combinations with the objective of formulating customized enzyme mixtures based on sugar release when subjected to two-stage in vitro digestion assay. Materials and Methods: A two-stage in vitro digestibility assay was carried out for commonly used feed ingredients for poultry viz., maize, soy bean meal, sunflower cake, and de-oiled rice bran supplemented with three concentrations of xylanase (5000; 7500 and 10000 IU/kg, cellulase (50; 100 and 400 IU/kg and â-D-glucanase (100; 200 and 400 IU/kg were used to formulate various NSP enzymes combinations. In total 27 NSP enzyme combinations (3x3x3 were formulated and the sugar released due to NSP digestion was quantified by phenol sulphuric acid method. Results: The total sugar release was significantly (P<0.05 higher with supplementation of various enzymes combinations for maize, sunflower cake and de-oiled rice bran where as no significant (P<0.05 interaction of various NSP enzymes combinations was observed for soy bean meal. The NSP digestibility was highest in combination (xylanase-5000, cellulase-50 and â-D-glucanase-400 IU/kg, (xylanase-10000, cellulase-50 and â-D-glucanase-200 IU/kg and (xylanase-7500, cellulase- 100 and â-D-glucanase-100 IU/kg for maize, sunflower cake and de-oiled rice bran respectively. In case of sunflower cake, significant (P<0.01 three way interaction was observed among the xylanase, cellulose, and â-D-glucanase enzymes and the two-way interactions between the enzymes were also significant (P<0.01. Conclusion: It is concluded that 'n' number of non-starch Polysaccharide enzymes combinations can be screened for their efficiency to digest non-starch Polysaccharides present in various feed ingredients commonly used in poultry rations by employing two-stage in vitro digestibility assay as a tool. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 525-529

  16. Supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient to modulate thermoregulation, physiologic, and production responses in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Schubach, K M; Batista, L F D; Miranda, M F; Colombo, E A; Rodrigues, R O; Junior, J R G; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-06-01

    This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis). During the experimental period (d -6 to 56), cows were maintained in a single drylot pen with ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration, and milked twice daily. Cows received Omnigen-AF mixed with 200 g of corn (as-fed basis) after the daily morning milking through self-locking head gates, whereas CON cows concurrently received 56 g of kaolin mixed with 200 g of corn. For feed intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 4 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 4 times per group from d 1 to 56. From d -6 to 0, d 15 to 28, and d 43 to 56, cow vaginal temperature was recorded hourly. Environmental temperature-humidity index (THI) was also recorded hourly from d 15 to 28 and d 43 to 56. Cows were evaluated for body weight and BCS on d -6 and 56, individual milk production was recorded daily from d -6 to 56, and milk samples were collected on d -6, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 for analyses of somatic cell count and milk components. Blood samples were collected on d -6, -3, 0, 9, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 36, 45, 48, 51, 54, and 56. Results from samples or observations collected from d -6 to 0 were included as an independent covariate in each respective analysis. Environmental THI was 74.2 ± 0.5 and cows were exposed to THI >68 for 633 h within a total of 672 h of evaluation. Cows assigned to CON had greater vaginal temperature on d

  17. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  18. Feeding ecology of Rhabdosargus holubi (family Sparidae) in multiple vegetated refugia of selected warm temperate estuaries in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, L.; Strydom, N. A.; Perissinotto, R.; Adams, J. B.; Lemley, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Estuarine marine-dependent species, such as Rhabdosargus holubi, depend greatly on structured sheltered environments and important feeding areas provided by estuaries. In this study, we investigate the ecological feeding niches of the estuarine marine-dependent sparid, R. holubi, by using conventional stomach contents and stable isotope methods (δ13C and δ15N signatures). The study has been carried out in five temperate estuaries in order to understand how fish feed in multiple intertidal vegetated habitats. These habitats included the submerged seagrass, Zostera capensis, and both previously unexplored small intertidal cord grass, Spartina maritima, and the common reed, Phragmites australis. The diet varied amongst habitats, estuaries and fish sizes and data consistently confirmed their omnivorous diet relating to ontogenetic niche shifts. Stomach contents revealed the importance of benthic prey within both the S. maritima and P. australis habitats in the absence of large intertidal vegetation, available during low tides. Similarly, isotopic mixing models showed that R. holubi from these habitats have a greater isotopic niche compared to the Z. capensis habitat, due to their limited availability during the falling tide, suggesting migration between available habitats. Stable isotopes confirmed that R. holubi actively feeds on the epiphytic algae (especially diatoms) covering the leaves and stalks of plant matter, as supported by Bayesian mixing models. These findings add to the current knowledge regarding habitat partitioning in multiple aquatic vegetation types critical to fish ecology and the effective management and conservation of estuaries.

  19. Vegetable, livestock and agroindustrial products and byproducts: An alternative tilapia feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Salas, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the culture of tilapia limited supply and high cost of fish meal have forced nutritionists to consider alternative sources of protein. Due to the importance of the products and by-products in fish feed, this paper aims to show the alternatives that have been used to partially or totally replace fish meal and soybean meal in tilapia growing. This paper showsthe maximum or optimal use of vegetable by-products for tilapia as cottonseed meal, sunflower, canola, soybean and Leucaena. It also deals with the inclusion with agro-industrial by-product such as corn, sorghum, coffee pulp, cocoa, wheat and citrus. The present study also deals with the use of aquatic plants such as Lemna and Azolla, single-celled plant protein source as antibiotics and probiotics. Finally, this paper also refers to animal by-products as silage, manure and earthworm usage. There is a high potential for using plant, livestock and agro-industrial by-products in fresh and processed food for the tilapia, but depending on the product, pretreatment to improve its balance of nutrients or eliminate anti-nutritional factors may be required.

  20. Effect of Vegetable Oil Fortified Feeds on the Content of Fatty Acids in Breast and Thigh Muscles in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Krejčí-Treu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to compare the effect of six vegetable oils added to feeding mixtures that were administered to broiler chickens on the content of major fatty acids in chicken meat. The experiment started with 90 one-day-old Ross 308 meat hybrid male chickens that were divided into six groups. Chickens were fed complete feeding mixtures for the prefattening (BR1, fattening (BR2, and post-fattening (BR3 of broiler chickens. The BR1 feeding mixture was administered to chickens aged 1-10 days, the BR2 feeding mixture was given from Day 11 to Day 30, and the BR3 feeding mixture was then administered until Day 42. The BR1 feeding mixture that was administered to all six groups during the first ten days of the experiment was supplemented with soybean oil. BR2 and BR3 feeding mixtures used to feed chickens aged 11-42 days were fortified with soybean oil (SO Group, rapeseed oil (RO Group, sunflower oil (SFO Group, flaxseed oil (FO Group, olive oil (OO Group, and evening primrose oil (EPO Group. The vegetable oils used differed by the composition of fatty acids, particularly by the content of oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid. The use of the above-described experimental diets in young broilers from Day 11 to 42 had a significant effect on the content of fatty acids in the fat from breast and thigh muscles. The content of α-linolenic acid in breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received the feed containing flaxseed oil (21.16 g/100 g of oil and 17.13 g/100 g of oil, respectively significantly increased (p ⪬ 0.01. The highest content of linoleic acid (p ⪬ 0.01 in breast and thigh muscles was found in chickens that were fed the feed containing primrose oil (59.13 g/100 g and 51.71 g/100 g. A significant increase (p ⪬ 0.01 in the level of oleic acid was detected in both breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received olive oil fortified feed (52.44 g/100 g and 43.70 g/100 g of oil. No significant variation was

  1. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    2017-08-01

    To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire, and children's dietary intakes. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to assess the associations between the parental feeding styles studied ('control', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding') and children's dietary intakes (consumption of fruit, vegetables, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)). The modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations was explored. North-western part of the Netherlands. Children aged 3-7 years (n 5926). Both 'encouragement' and 'control' were associated with higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of SSB, but only 'encouragement' was positively associated with fruit and water intakes. 'Instrumental feeding' showed a positive association with SSB and negative associations with fruit, vegetable and water consumption. No significant associations were found for 'emotional feeding'. Maternal educational level and children's ethnicity moderated some associations; for example, 'control' was beneficial for vegetable intake in all subgroups, whereas the association with SSB was beneficial only in highly educated mothers. The study shows that both encouraging and controlling feeding styles may improve children's dietary behaviour, while 'instrumental feeding' may have a detrimental effect. Furthermore, maternal educational level and children's ethnicity influence these associations. The study's findings could provide a basis for development of interventions to improve parental feeding styles.

  2. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-01-01

    To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. Food parenting practices and F & V intake. Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast-feeding duration and child eating characteristics in relation to later vegetable intake in 2–6-year-old children in ten studies throughout Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Jager, Gerry; Olsen, Annemarie; Costarelli, Vassiliki; Boer, Eric; Zeinstra, Gertrude G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Breast-feeding is thought to facilitate young children’s acceptance of new foods, including vegetables, but the evidence for this relationship appears inconsistent across studies. Increasing children’s vegetable intake remains challenging; therefore the present study aimed to investigate

  4. Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Horsted, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds...... were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in foraging activity, the use of the range was monitored one day per week at 4 different times of the day...

  5. FUNCTION FEED ADDITIVE OF CAROTE-NOID VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS FOR POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Koshchayev A. G.; Kalyuzhniy S. A.; Koshchaeva O. V.; Gavrilenko D. V.; Eliseev M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The article is concerned with the use of functional feed additives from pumpkin fruits and alfalfa juice for the poultry industry. In the study of laying hen it has been found that the use of a feed additive in-creased pumpkin paste content in serum and egg yolk carotenoids is more than two times, and the concentration of vitamin A in these tissues increased slightly, not exceeding 20%. Livability and productivity of poultry increased and average expendable fodder per head per day decreased. ...

  6. Production Guides for Meat and Vegetable Entrees and Desserts Developed for Use in the Frozen Foil Pack Feeding System, F.E. Warren Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    crurbs, dry 2,32 1,053 Note: At. no time shall Nonfat dry milk 2.32 1,053 temperature of uncooked Eggs , whole, beaten 1.31 595 meatballs be over 500 F...Listing 94-99 Meat 94 Dairy, Egg , Condiment 96 Vegetables 98 Production Guide Index 100-103 Meat Entree 100 Vegetable Entree 102 Desserts 103 2...Filling Eggs , whole, beaten 2.75 1,249 6. Combine all filling Cheese, cottage, drained 6.50 2,951 ingredients, mix thoroughly Cheese, grated parmesan

  7. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklaus , Sophie

    2016-01-01

    RevueThis article in open access journal belongs to the collection Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days; International audience; Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to ...

  8. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  9. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  10. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...... will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...... a mix based on pea, wheat, sunflower and beans. In the second study, one group of rainbow trout was fed a traditional diet based on fish meal and fish oil, whereas the other five groups were fed diets in which 40 % of the fish meal was replaced with plant proteins from peas, horse bean and rapeseed...

  11. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  12. Effect of different accellerators and inoculums used in fermentation on quality of dead chicken silage flour as feed ingredient for catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bakrie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at investigating the effect using molasses and cornmeal as additives with Lactobacillus sp. and Streptomyces sp. as inoculums during fermentation on the quality of silage flour made from dead chickens. The study was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of 2 factors with 5 replications. The materials used were the newly dead chickens which were chopped and mixed thoroughly with all ingredients; then transferred into a 5 liters plastic box for fermentation. Observations were made after 3 weeks fermentation, including: a physical characteristics, b microbial contents, and c nutritional contents. The data were calculated using variance analysis utilizing computer program of SPSS version 21.0. It was found that based on the protein contents the Lactobacillus sp. (19.0% was better than the Streptomyces sp. (17.8% if combined with molasses and corn meal as the accelerators. However, the fat contents produced were relatively similar for both of the inoculums (mean of 37.8%. It can be concluded that in order to obtain a best fermented product in terms of the protein and fat content, the dead chicken should be fermented using molasses and cornmeal as the accelerator and Lactobacillus sp. as the inoculum.

  13. Lead deposit on vegetation growing along highways traveled by automobiles. Milk cow feeding experiments with hay contaminated with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovay, E

    1971-03-01

    Measurements conducted in Switzerland from 1967 through 1970 revealed that vegetation growing along highways contained lead in concentrations in excess of 100 ppm. Although the amounts of lead in vegetation rapidly decrease with distance from the highway, lead can be detected up to a distance of about 100 M. The rate and extent of dispersion of lead particles depended on seasonal orographic and/or meteorological conditions. Lead retention by different plant organs is governed by their nature and composition. Plants with large hairy leaves or leaves with a rough surface accumulate much more lead than plants with smooth leaves. From 35-65% of the plant tissue lead content can be removed by thorough washing, an indication that the contamination consists for the most part in a surface deposit. But plant roots growing in lead-contaminated soil absorb the element, even if present in a relatively insoluble form. In spite of these observations, no symptoms of plant disease or a decrease in crop yield has been noted. High tightly growing hedges of perennials (pine or fir) markedly reduce the dispersion of exhaust gases. Feeding trials with mild cows involving hay harvested along highways demonstrated that a high percentage of the lead ingested with the fodder was eliminated. Some organs like bones, kidneys, and the liver accumulated large quantities of lead (up to 21-fold quantities). After four weeks on the contaminated hay, the lead content in milk quadrupled. The cows ingested 1300 mg lead daily with contaminated fodder containing 99 ppm Pb. Toxic symptoms in cattle and horses do not appear until an ingestion level of about 2200 mg Pb/day is reached. 36 references.

  14. Apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of conventional ingredients for the silver mojarra, Diapterus rhombeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Oliveira de Magalhães Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the nutritional value of feed ingredient is an important step in the formulation of diets in order to maximize animal productivity. Thus a study was conducted to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of dry matter (ADCDM, crude protein (ADCCP, gross energy (ADCGE and amino acids (ADCAA of conventional feed ingredients for juvenile silver mojarra (13.0 ± 3.23 g. The study was conducted in the laboratory for nutrition and feeding of fish (AQUANUT, using 80 silver mojarra collected in nature, which were kept in digestibility aquaria for a period of 21 days. The following ingredients were evaluated: fish meal, soybean meal, corn meal, corn gluten meal, rice bran, wheat bran and starch, which substituted 30% of a reference pelletized diet with 325.00 g kg-1 crude protein and 3,692 Kcal kg-1 gross energy. Additionally 1.0 g kg-1 chrome oxide was added to each diet as a marker. The excreta were obtained using three repetitions for each tested ingredient, which were dried for further analyses. The soybean meal showed the best ADCDM value (67.45%, followed by the other ingredients. There was no significant difference between the soybean meal (95.16%, fish meal (92.97% and the corn meal (91.90% for the best ADCCP coefficients. The ADCGE for soybean meal and maize meal were 65.23% and 60.31%, respectively, followed by fish meal (51.85%. The results demonstrate that silver mojarra can digest animal protein as well as that of vegetal origin. Silver mojarra can also efficiently digest and absorb some of the main amino acids of fish, such as lysine, methionine and threonine, from the same studied ingredients.

  15. Comparison of feed intake, digestion and rumen function among domestic ruminant species grazing in upland vegetation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L M M; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Celaya, R; Rodrigues, M A M; García, U; Frutos, P; Osoro, K

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare feed intake, digestion, rumen fermentation parameters and bacterial community of 5 beef cows, 12 crossed ewes and 12 goats grazing together in spring-early summer on heather-gorse vegetation communities with an adjacent area of improved pasture. Organic matter intake (OMI) and digestibility (OMD) were estimated using alkane markers. Ruminal fluid samples were collected for measuring fermentation parameters, and studying the bacterial community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Spot samples of urine were taken to determine purine derivative (PD) and creatinine concentrations to estimate microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Herbaceous species were the main dietary component in all animal species. Cattle had higher (p rumen bacterial structure. Differences among animal species were also observed in the relative frequency of several T-RFs. Certain T-RFs compatible with Lachnospiraceae, Proteobacteria and Clostridiales species were not found in goats, while these animals showed high relative frequencies of some fragments compatible with the Ruminococcaceae family that were not detected in sheep and cattle. Results suggest a close relationship between animals' grazing behaviour and rumen bacterial structure and its function. Goats seem to show a greater specialization of their microbial populations to deal with the greater fibrous and tannin content of their diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Temporal changes of aquatic macrophytes vegetation in a Iowland groundwater feed eutrophic course (Klátovské rameno, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Oťahel'ová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Klátovské rameno is the lowland slow-flowing groundwater feed eutrophic tributary of the Malý Dunaj River (Danube Plain, where our study of temporal changes of aquatic macrophytes vegetation was realised in 1999 and 2005. For survey of aquatic vascular macrophytes the Kohler’s method (Janauer 2003 was used, which is compliant with European standard EN 14184. Altogether 35 aquatic macrophyte species were recorded during the survey. Nuphar lutea persisted as the most dominant species in 1996 and 2005. Species diversity increased slightly after the nine years: ten species immigrated to the watercourse. The changes in species abundance have shown weak differences, however the abundance of Sparganium emersum has increased markedly. Alien species Elodea canadensis and both S. emersum and Hydrocharis morsus-ranae significantly enlarged their distribution in the stream. The ecological quality of the river, based on the aquatic macrophytes assessment criteria, was slightly impaired after nine years, but still 90% of its studied course has a high or good ecological status.

  17. A step-by-step introduction to vegetables at the beginning of complementary feeding. The effects of early and repeated exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Marion M; Schwartz, C; Madrelle, J; Croden, F; Nekitsing, C; Vereijken, C M J L; Weenen, H

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) is associated with willingness to accept vegetables. This may be due to the variety of flavours delivered via breast milk. Some mothers add vegetables to milk during complementary feeding (CF) to enhance acceptance. The present study tested a step-by-step exposure to vegetables in milk then rice during CF, on intake and liking of vegetables. Just before CF, enrolled mothers were randomised to an intervention (IG, n = 18; 6 BF) or control group (CG, n = 18; 6 BF). IG infants received 12 daily exposures to vegetable puree added to milk (days 1-12), then 12 × 2 daily exposures to vegetable puree added to rice at home (days 13-24). Plain milk and rice were given to CG. Then both received 11 daily exposures to vegetable puree. Intake was weighed and liking rated on days 25-26 and 33-35 after the start of CF in the laboratory, supplemented by the same data recorded at home. Vegetables were rotated daily (carrots, green beans, spinach, broccoli). Intake, liking and pace of eating were greater for IG than CG infants. Intake and liking of carrots were greater than green beans. However, at 6m then 18m follow up, vegetable (carrot > green beans) but not group differences were observed. Mothers reported appreciation of the structure and guidance of this systematic approach. Early exposure to vegetables in a step-by-step method could be included in CF guidelines and longer term benefits assessed by extending the exposure period. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Comportamento alimentar da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a diferentes ingredientes alimentares Alimentary ingredients and the feeding behavior of Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as respostas comportamentais da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a 14 ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes: farinhas de carne, de peixe, de crisálidas, de camarão, de girassol, de algodão e de mandioca, ovo integral liofilizado, levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farelos de soja e de trigo, glúten de milho, fubá de milho e raspa de mandioca. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado a uma ração denominada controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros, contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registradas as respostas dos animais para cada ingrediente, separadamente. Concluiu-se que as respostas comportamentais da tilápia variam de acordo com o ingrediente oferecido e que parece existir uma correlação positiva entre o grau de atrato-palatabilidade de um ingrediente e a ocorrência de confrontos agonísticos entre os indivíduos. Sugere-se que ingredientes classificados como de alta atrato-palatabilidade (farinhas de crisálidas, de peixe, de carne, de camarão e ovo liofilizado integral sejam adicionados às dietas especiais para peixes, visando ao aumento da ingestão alimentar nos períodos pré-invernais, situações de estresse ou estados patológicos.Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus responses to attractivity and taste of fourteen food ingredients, here classified as animal sources (shrimp, fish, silkworm and meat meal, integral lyophilized egg and sugar-cane-yeast, vegetable protein sources (maize gluten, soybean bran, sunflower meal and cotton bran and energetics (maize flour, manioc scraping, manioc bran and wheat bran were investigated. These ingredients were compared to a control diet, using a two-choice method. Four 750 liters aquaria stocked with three fries each and two feeders installed respectively at the right and left corner where used to register the responses of the

  19. 常用饲料原料蛋白质在梅花鹿瘤胃内降解率的测定%Determination of Protein Ruminal Degradability of Common Feed Ingredients in Sika Deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍坤; 徐超; 宁浩然; 王凯英; 赵家平; 李光玉

    2012-01-01

    : In order to investigate the protein degradation rule in rumen of several common feed ingredients in deer, four adult male sika deer fitted with permanent rumen cannulas were selected to estimate the protein ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal, corn germ meal, rapeseed meal, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) , corn gluten meal, corn fiber and Chinese wildrye using the nylon bag technology. The results showed as follows: protein ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal was always the highest, compared with other common feed ingredients, the difference in protein ruminal degradability at all time points was extremely significant (P<0.01). 2) The protein ruminal degradability at 48 hour in descending order was cottonseed meal, corn gluten meal, Chinese wildrye, DDGS, corn germ meal, rapeseed meal and corn fiber, and the protein ruminal dynamic degradability showed the similar change law. It is concluded that protection technology of protein bypass rumen must be used in practice to reduce waste of protein source because of high degradability of cottonseed meal; rapeseed meal is a kind of new protein supplement to develop because of its low protein ruminal degradability; corn germ meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn fiber and Chinese wildrye can be used as common feed ingredients in deer production. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24 (11) : 2257-2262]%为研究几种鹿常用饲料原料的蛋白质瘤胃降解规律,以4头安装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的成年雄性梅花鹿为试验动物,采用尼龙袋法对棉籽粕、玉米胚芽粕、菜籽粕、干酒糟及其可溶物(DDGS)、玉米蛋白粉、玉米纤维及羊草的蛋白质瘤胃降解率进行测定.结果表明:1)棉籽粕的蛋白质瘤胃降解率始终最高,与其他几种饲料原料相比,在各时间点的差异均达到极显著(P<0.01).2)48 h的蛋白质瘤胃降解率从高到低依次为棉籽粕、玉米蛋白粉、羊草、DDGS、玉米胚芽粕、菜籽粕

  20. CRITICAL QUALITY PARAMETERS VEGETABLE FEED FOR OSTRICHES (STRUTHIO CAMELUS DOMESTICUS ON AN ARTIFICIAL PASTURE IN TcChR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of studying nutrition African ostriches for different ages in zoos, nurseries and small farms evaluated the nutritional value and balance of each of the components of plant feed, providing the needs for normal growth of poultry, development and productivity, to increase body weight, to increase egg production, quality hatching eggs, meat quality, output and quality of the young. Currently, in most cases, bird feed by copying the natural food, but it is the species, age and seasonal specifics, ensure that in the conditions of the zoo, nursery and farm problematic. Therefore, to solve this problem, we proposed the formulation of plant feed for feeding African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms that promote bird health, increase the rate of feeding, increase egg production, increase their survival, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw mat erials at cheaper developed using the optimization program "Food Optima Expert". To sustain ostriches exchange energy feed should be not less than 260 kcal / 100 g, protein content not less than 16 %. The complex research to develop formulations of plant feed for African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms and the quality of their analysis may be of interest in the full feeding African ostriches. The proposed formulation can extend its range of multi-component feed with a sufficiently high biological, energy value, the balanced composition of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals adapted for ostriches, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw materials at lower cost.

  1. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggblom Per

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6% and rape seed meal (10.0%. Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of third countries usually with an unknown salmonella status.

  2. A vegetable oil feeding history affects digestibility and intestinal fatty acid uptake in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Inge; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik; Sundell, Kristina S

    2009-04-01

    Future expansion of aquaculture relies on the use of alternatives to fish oil in fish feed. This study examined to what extent the nature of the feed oil affects intestinal lipid uptake properties in rainbow trout. The fish were fed a diet containing fish (FO), rapeseed (RO) or linseed (LO) oil for 8 weeks after which absorptive properties were assessed. Differences in digestibility due to feed oil history were measured using diet FO with an indigestible marker. Intestinal integrity, paracellular permeability, in vitro transepithelial fatty acid transport (3H-18:3n-3 and 14C-16:0) and their incorporation into intestinal epithelia were compared using Ussing chambers. Feed oil history did not affect the triacylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine ratio (TAG/PC) of the newly synthesized lipids in the segments. The lower TAG/PC ratio with 16:0 (2:1) than with 18:3 (10:1) showed the preferential incorporation of 16:0 into polar lipids. The FO-feeding history decreased permeability and increased transepithelial resistance of the intestinal segments. Transepithelial passage rates of 18:3n-3 were higher when pre-fed LO compared to RO or FO. Similarly, pre-feeding LO increased apparent lipid and fatty acid digestibilities compared to RO or FO. These results demonstrate that the absorptive intestinal functions in fish can be altered by the feed oil history and that the effect remains after a return to a standard fish oil diet.

  3. Feeding of holoshesthes Heterodon eigenmann (Teleostei, Cheirodontinae of the cajuru reservoir (Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to the vegetal biomass on its depletion zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Camilo Carvalho Alvim

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Stomach contents of Holoshesthes heterodon Eigenmann, 1915 (Teleostei, Cheirodontinae, collected in the depletion zone of Cajuru reservoir when it was at its maximum water level in two stations with different vegetal densities, were studied in order to investigate the influence of the flooded vegetal biomass on the food quantity and quality ingested by fish. Eighteen individuals from each station were examined. The standard length was l.53±0.05 cm and l.52±0.05 cm, respectively at the lower biomass (8.19 kg diy weight/ha and higher biomass (38.10 kg diy weight/ha sampling stations. The stomach repletion Index (SRI was applied for the quantitative analysis. The alimentary index (IAi was used for the quali-quantitative analysis, with the volume of the items obtained through the points method. SRI did not show values significatively different between the two stations, p>0.05, by applying the Mann-Whitney test. In both situations, Cladocera was the most important item. There were no correlation between the flooded vegetal biomass in the depletion zone and the intake of food by H. heterodon. However, as there were no empty stomachs, possibly even the lower vegetal biomass was enough to provide abundant feeding resources.

  4. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaneva, M.; Minkova, M.; Zajko, G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90 Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  5. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  6. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  7. Inulin levels on animal and vegetal diets for broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Tiago Mozer da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inulin inclusion levels in diets with ingredients of vegetable and animal origin, on the performance and carcass yield of broilers chickens. Were used 1056 chicks, of one day old, housed in reused poultry litter, distributed in a completely randomized design, in a factorial 2 x 4 (animal and vegetable diets x inclusion levels of inulin, totaling eight treatments, six replicates and 22 birds per experimental unit. The inulin levels were: 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%. At seven, 21 and 40 days of age were evaluated: final weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and viability. At 40 days were evaluated: productive efficiency, economic variables and carcass yield. No effects of inulin and type of diet were observed on the performance from one to seven days old (P>0.05. From one to 21 days, a feed consumption decreased (P<0.05 with the inclusion of inulin. The diet with animal ingredients provided greater carcass yield, thigh and lower abdominal fat percentage (P<0.05 at 40 days of age. The abdominal fat reduced (P<0.05 with the inclusion of inulin incresase. It is concluded that inulin can be used, up to the level of 0.75% in diets of animal or vegetable origin without sacrificing the broilers performance.

  8. [Animal feeding and feed legislation after the detection of the first indigenous BSE cases in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphues, J

    2002-08-01

    In Great Britain, even the earliest tangible signs indicating the epidemiologic significance of meat and bone meal in the spreading of BSE soon gave rise to increasingly rigorous legislative measures regulating animal feedstuffs. In 1994 a ban on the feeding of animal proteins to ruminants was implemented throughout the entire EU. But until the first BSE cases were actually confirmed in locally raised cattle (November 2000), feeding practice and legislation more or less in Germany remained unaffected by the efforts undertaken in Great Britain. This situation was suddenly changed on 1 December, 2000, when the so-called "Verfütterungsverbot" was put into effect, a law which drastically extended bans regarding the feedstuffs (including fishmeal and animal fats) as well as the species concerned (all animals used in food production). In 2001 the "contamination" phenomenon (ingredients of animal origin were detected in mixed feeds) became a vital issue for the feed industry; through the media, the subject "feedstuff safety" gained a previously unseen level of public awareness. Those circles concerned with mixed feed production and animal husbandry were increasingly confronted with the consequences of the "Verfütterungsverbot" (availability and pricing of substitute ingredients; the demand for amino acids and inorganic sources of phosphorus; problems finding adequate substitutes for animal fats; poor digestibility of alternative components such as indigenous legumes or vegetable fats in calf diets; lower utilization rate of original phosphorus in mixed feeds with negative consequences for skeletal development). With the conditional approval of fishmeal (except in feeds for ruminants) the situation has eased again to a certain degree; on the EU level there are increasing signals pointing toward a political intention to reinstate the utilization of by-products of slaughtered animals qualified for human consumption (with the exception of fallen/dead animals and specific

  9. Ruminal Degradation Characteristics and Small Intestinal Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Protein of Six Feed Ingredients%6种饲料原料瘤胃降解特性和瘤胃非降解蛋白质的小肠消化率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连生; 牛俊丽; 徐元君; 王芳; 郑琛; 李发第; 郭江鹏; 卜登攀

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the ruminal degradation characteristics and small intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) of six feed ingredients for dairy cows from Xinjiang, including corn silage, cottonseed hulls, alfalfa meal, alfalfa hay, grape seed meal and tomato sauce residue.Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with permanent rumen fistulas were selected to estimate the ruminal degradation characteristics of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) and small intestinal digestibility and intestinal digestible crude protein (IDCP) content of RUP by nylon-bag technique and modified three-step in vitro method.The results showed as follows:1) DM effective degradability of alfalfa meal and corn silage was higher, which was significantly higher than that of alfalfa hay and tomato sauce residue (P alfalfa meal > corn silage > alfalfa hay > cottonseed hulls > grape seed meal with significant differences among feed ingredients (P alfalfa meal > cottonseed hulls > alfalfa hay > tomato sauce residue > grape seed meal, and the differences among feed ingredients were significant (P cottonseed hulls > alfalfa hay > tomato sauce residue > alfalfa meal > grape seed meal with significant differences among feed ingredients (P苜蓿草粉>玉米青贮>苜蓿干草>棉籽壳>葡萄籽粕,各原料间差异显著(P苜蓿草粉>棉籽壳>苜蓿干草>番茄酱渣>葡萄籽粕,各组饲料原料间差异显著(P棉籽壳>苜蓿干草>番茄酱渣>苜蓿草粉>葡萄籽粕,各组饲料原料间差异显著(P0.05),显著高于依次降低的玉米青贮、番茄酱渣、葡萄籽粕、棉籽壳(P<0.05).综上所述,不同饲料原料具有不同的瘤胃降解特性,进入小肠IDCP的含量也不同.玉米青贮的DM、NDF和ADF在瘤胃的有效降解率较高,苜蓿草粉RUP的Idg较高,苜蓿草粉和苜蓿干草的IDCP含量较高.

  10. Feeding habit of the Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in a vegetation transition zone in south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Talamoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tapirs are considered generalist herbivores and the differences in the proportions of dietary items are often attributed to differences in the habitats where individuals live. This study characterized the feeding habit of Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 in a nature reserve in south-eastern Brazil, located in a region considered a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Atlantic Forest biomes. Fecal samples from T. terrestris individuals were collected monthly at six sampling areas that encompassed a total of 242.22 ha. There were 147 fresh samples found (77 during the dry season and 70 during the wet season. The diet of the tapirs in this reserve was characterized by the prevalent browsing on leaves and stems. There was a low frequency of fruit seeds in the diet of the tapirs during both the wet and dry seasons. However, in the dry season a higher percentage of samples containing seeds was observed. Fruits of Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Annonaceae were most consumed during the dry season. Most of the fruit seeds found presented small mean diameter (3.7-8.4 mm and most of the fruits were capsules and dry fruits. The characteristics of the fruits consumed by the tapirs indicate that they forage in the lower forest stratum and upon species from Cerrado. Additionally, Psidium myrtoides O. Berg. clusters found in the study site suggest that the tapirs may be acting as dispersal agents of this species.

  11. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years

  12. Measurements of the acid-binding capacity of ingredients used in pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Some feed ingredients bind more acid in the stomach than others and for this reason may be best omitted from pig starter foods if gastric acidity is to be promoted. The objective of this study was to measure the acid-binding capacity (ABC of ingredients commonly used in pig starter foods. Ingredients were categorised as follows: (i milk products (n = 6, (ii cereals (n = 10, (iii root and pulp products (n = 5, (iv vegetable proteins (n = 11, (v meat and fish meal (n = 2, (vi medication (n = 3, (vii amino acids (n = 4, (viii minerals (n = 16, (ix acid salts (n = 4, (x acids (n = 10. A 0.5 g sample of food was suspended in 50 ml distilled de-ionised water with continuous stirring. This suspension was titrated with 0.1 mol/L HCl or 0.1 mol/L NaOH so that approximately 10 additions of titrant was required to reach pH 3.0. The pH readings after each addition were recorded following equilibration for three minutes. ABC was calculated as the amount of acid in milliequivalents (meq required to lower the pH of 1 kg food to (a pH 4.0 (ABC-4 and (b pH 3.0 (ABC-3. Categories of food had significantly different (P

  13. Growth data - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  14. Fish culture data - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  15. Chemical composition of fish and diets - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  16. The evaluation of energy in fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    New and alternative plant ingredients are increasingly incorporated in fish feed due to the scarcity of captured fish and increased fishmeal and fish oil prices. As a result, current fish feeds are characterized by a highly variable ingredients composition, leading to a similar variability in the

  17. Use of total {sup 137}Cs deposition to predict contamination in feed vegetation and reindeer 25 years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, Lavrans [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration, P.O. Box 1104, N-9504 Alta (Norway); Thoerring, Haavard; Ytre-Eide, Martin A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Chernobyl fallout has so far caused contamination challenges for animal production in various areas of Norway for nearly 30 years, particularly for sheep, goats and reindeer. The persistent uptake and long-term trends of radiocaesium in forest and mountain areas still justifies maintaining the elevated permissible level for radiocaesium of 3,000 Bq/kg in reindeer meat. In comparison, Japanese authorities chose 100 Bq/kg as the permissible level for radiocaesium in Japanese foodstuffs. The slow decline in contamination levels in reindeer during the last 10-15 years have necessitated an evaluation of the remediation strategy for reindeer herding. The former seasonal differences in contamination levels in reindeer meat made 'early slaughtering' (in autumn instead of winter) an effective measure. However, such seasonal differences are no longer systematic, and differences in contamination levels in reindeer at slaughter now appear to be more strongly related to the differences in deposition levels in the areas grazed prior to slaughter. In 2011 Norwegian authorities (i.e. the Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, and the Geological Survey of Norway) therefore carried out an aerial survey covering 2,500 km{sup 2} of the most contaminated grazing areas to obtain more detailed information on geographical variability in deposition levels. The area included major parts of the grazing areas of three reindeer herding companies. The usefulness of deposition maps as bases for directing animal grazing to less contaminated areas depends on how well the total deposition correlate with the contamination levels in grazed vegetation. In the case of reindeer this covers both green plants and lichens. In 2012 the aerial survey was therefore supplemented by geo-referenced deposition measurements and sampling of various plant and lichen species at totally 17 sites ranging in deposition levels from 2.6 to 190 kBq/m{sup 2

  18. Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Thaddaeus May; Kevin C. Klatt; Jacob Smith; Eumenia Castro; Mark Manary; Marie A. Caudill; Farook Jahoor; Marta L. Fiorotto

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed...

  19. Digestibilidade do fósforo de alimentos de origem vegetal determinada em suínos em crescimento e terminação Phosphorus digestibility from vegetal feed origins determined in growing and finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Bünzen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDAP e verdadeira (CDVP do fósforo de 11 alimentos de origem vegetal utilizados na alimentação de suínos. Foram utilizados 78 animais mestiços distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 × 2 × 13 (metodologia × fase × tratamento e três repetições por tratamento (alimento-teste. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade foram avaliados utilizando-se, simultaneamente, duas metodologias (coleta total de fezes e uso de indicador fecal, Cr2O3 em duas fases de produção (crescimento e terminação, cada uma com 36 suínos com 25,0 ± 3,0 e 60,0 ± 5,0 kg de peso corporal, respectivamente. Determinaram-se os coeficientes de digestibilidade de 11 alimentos, uma ração-referência e uma ração com baixo conteúdo de fósforo total (0,03% para estimativa das perdas de fósforo endógeno nas duas fases de desenvolvimento. Os valores médios de CDAP e CDVP do fósforo encontrados com suínos em crescimento e terminação foram, respectivamente, 45,01 e 68,32% para o milho; 31,3 e 66,97% para o sorgo; 31,84 e 41,31% para o farelo de glúten de milho (22% PB; 38,28 e 53,20% farelo de glúten de milho (60% PB; 32,42 e 40,61% para o farelo de algodão (30% PB; 37,50 e 43,95% para o farelo de algodão (40% PB; 50,76 e 55,74% para o farelo de trigo; 38,75 e 52,19% para o farelo de soja; 33,61 e 41,21% para o concentrado protéico de soja; 41,67 e 55,81% a soja integral extrusada e, 56,84 e 66,56% para a levedura desidratada de cana de açúcar. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os CDAP e CDVP determinados pelas metodologias de coleta total de fezes e de indicador fecal. Na fase de terminação, os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente e verdadeira dos alimentos testados foram maiores que os obtidos na fase de crescimento.The coefficients of apparent (CADP and true (CTDP digestibility of phosphorus of eleven plant feed of vegetal

  20. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style

  1. INGREDIENT BRANDING - A GROWTH OPPORTUNITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2017-01-01

    Co-branding is an increasingly used strategy, consisting of marketing products representing two brands or more. Ingredient branding fits in the scope of co-branding, consisting of the inclusion of key attributes of one brand into another brand as ingredients. Ingredient branding is one of the many brand strategies used in marketing to provide differentiation criteria for the customers. In recent years, its importance and incidence have dramatically increased Extant research provides disparate...

  2. Mothers' self-reported grocery shopping behaviours with their 2- to 7-year-old children: relationship between feeding practices and mothers' willingness to purchase child-requested nutrient-poor, marketed foods, and fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn; Babawale, Oluborode; Thompson, David M; Morris, Amanda S; Harris, Jennifer L; Sisson, Susan B; Cheney, Marshall K; Lora, Karina R

    2017-12-01

    To assess relationships between mothers' feeding practices (food as a reward, food for emotion regulation, modelling of healthy eating) and mothers' willingness to purchase child-marketed foods and fruits/vegetables (F&V) requested by their children during grocery co-shopping. Cross-sectional. Mothers completed an online survey that included questions about feeding practices and willingness (i.e. intentions) to purchase child-requested foods during grocery co-shopping. Feeding practices scores were dichotomized at the median. Foods were grouped as nutrient-poor or nutrient-dense (F&V) based on national nutrition guidelines. Regression models compared mothers with above-the-median v. at-or-below-the-median feeding practices scores on their willingness to purchase child-requested food groupings, adjusting for demographic covariates. Participants completed an online survey generated at a public university in the USA. Mothers (n 318) of 2- to 7-year-old children. Mothers who scored above-the-median on using food as a reward were more willing to purchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·60, Ppurchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·29, Ppurchase nutrient-dense foods (β=0·22, Ppurchase child-requested, nutrient-poor foods. Parental feeding practices may facilitate or limit children's foods requested in grocery stores. Parent-child food consumer behaviours should be investigated as a route that may contribute to children's eating patterns.

  3. Ingredients for sustained excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Alikhan, S.; Steed, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Point Lepreau, a 680MWe CANDU reactor, has, since startup, been one of the world's best performing reactors. Many of the ingredients for this success can be found at other plants, but Pt Lepreau has found a ''chemistry'' that has sustained its performance at a very high level. Our belief is that this is the result of two major influences: Pt Lepreau is the only nuclear unit in a small utility, all its nuclear expertise exists at the station, and all necessary disciplines can be readily galvanized to solve problems and get work done. The structure of the organization is simple, with station management involvement in day to day activities. This fosters accountability and a natural efficiency that does not need slogans to achieve its purpose. Turning to the factors that have contributed to the station's success, the IAEA's technical exchange visit in July 1990 identified four items ''which are particularly noteworthy since they can be developed and used widely in the nuclear industry to enhance safety and availability. These are: quality assurance applications; the degree to which system engineers are employed; the dedication of skilled resources to and thoroughness of outage planning; and the in-house development of computers to assist directly in the day to day, medium and long term management of the generating station''. (Author)

  4. Feeding Strategies Derived from Behavioral Economics and Psychology Can Increase Vegetable Intake in Children as Part of a Home-Based Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravener, Terri L; Schlechter, Haley; Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Schwartz, Marlene; Zucker, Nancy; Finkelstein, Stacey; Wang, Y Claire; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral economics and psychology have been applied to altering food choice, but most studies have not measured food intake under free-living conditions. To test the effects of a strategy that pairs positive stimuli (ie, stickers and cartoon packaging) with vegetables and presents them as the default snack. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with children who reported consumption of fewer than two servings of vegetables daily. Children (aged 3 to 5 years) in both control (n=12) and treatment (n=12) groups received a week's supply of plainly packaged (ie, generic) vegetables, presented by parents as a free choice with an alternative snack (granola bar), during baseline (Week 1) and follow-up (Week 4). During Weeks 2 and 3, the control group continued to receive generic packages of vegetables presented as a free choice, but the treatment group received vegetables packaged in containers with favorite cartoon characters and stickers inside, presented by parents as the default choice. Children in the treatment group were allowed to opt out of the vegetables and request the granola bar after an imposed 5-minute wait. General Linear Model repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare vegetable and granola bar intake between control and treatment groups across the 4-week study. Both within- and between-subjects models were tested. A time×treatment interaction on vegetable intake was significant. The treatment group increased vegetable intake from baseline to Week 2 relative to control (Ppsychology in the home to increase children's vegetable intake and decrease intake of a high-energy-density snack. Additional studies are needed to test the long-term sustainability of these practices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  6. Chemical composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  7. Lipid composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  8. Growth - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  9. Different levels of macadamia oil cake meal, and wood ash vs. feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOCM) and wood ash as feed ingredients for poultry under subsistence farming conditions. In this article, the effect of these ingredients on bone characteristics is reported. Two hundred and eighty eight day-old New Hampshire chickens were ...

  10. How active ingredient localisation in plant tissues determines the targeted pest spectrum of different chemistries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Anke; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    information sets revealed that the intracellular localisation of active ingredients determines the performance of test compounds against different target pests because of different feeding behaviours: mites feed on mesophyll, and aphids and whiteflies mostly in the vascular system. Polar compounds have a slow...

  11. Serum markers of bone turnover change in response to depletion and repletion of fruit and vegetable intake in adults: A 28-wk single-arm experimental feeding intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from controlled intervention trials are lacking to support observational evidence suggesting a positive association between intake of fruit and vegetable (FV) and bone health. The objective of this study was to assess serum markers of bone turnover change in response to FV depletion and repleti...

  12. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina De Carli Loureiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry matter. Ten adult dogs were distributed in double Latin block squares (5x5 with five treatments and five periods, totalling ten repetitions per treatment. The residue sirloin steak presented the highest levels of essential (414.2g kg-1 of dry matter and non-essential (399.0g kg-1 of dry matter amino acids in tested ingredients. No differences (P>0.05 were observed in apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter - ADCDM (907g kg-1, ADCOM (930g kg-1, ADCCP (841g kg-1, ADCAEE (954g kg-1 values, and DE (5069kcal kg-1 and ME (4781kcal kg-1 values between testicle, residue sirloin steak, and liver. The trachea presented lower digestibility and energy values (digestible and metabolizable than the other ingredients. This lower trachea digestibility resulted in higher faecal volume for natural and dry matter (P0.05 in faecal score between ingredients. Ingredients tested in this study can be used in feeds for adult dogs; however, their nutritional levels and digestibility values should be considered for correct diet balance.

  14. Radiation technology and feed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  15. Modelling approach to limit aflatoxin B1 contamination in dairy cattle compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding dairy cattle with safe compound feed helps farmers to ensure food safety. However, several ingredients often used in compound feed production can be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which may result into milk contaminated with aflatoxin M1. Given the number of ingredients and their

  16. Evaluation of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The material was milled using a hammer mill to produce the leaf meal. Microdesmis puberula leaf meal contain 17.32% crude protein, 6.52% ether extract, 12.25% total ash, 24.84% crude fibre, 24.06% NFE and an appreciable percent of minerals. Three broiler starter diets were formulated to contain the meal at dietary ...

  17. the amino acid composition of selected south african feed ingredients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of assessing the balance of amino acids, each is presented as a percentage of the requirements of broilers up to 3 weeks of age. ... nutritional importance of the total sulphur amino acids .... out and the primary amino acid analysis result sheet.

  18. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  19. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  20. Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Modeling Output Online

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Yao; Rogala, Jim; Sullivan, John; Rohweder, Jason

    2005-01-01

    .... Predictions for distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation beds can potentially increase hunter observance of voluntary avoidance zones where foraging birds are left alone to feed undisturbed...

  1. A new world of ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Flore, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Insects have been absent from European diets with only few regional exceptions, making them an uncommon ingredient in the kitchens of fine dining establishments. This chapter investigates whether a piece the puzzle of understanding the temporality or permanence of edible insects in modern Europea...

  2. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  3. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  4. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for .... However, there is no consistent rationale for setting ... feed and poultry growing mash) , eleven different raw ingredients that ..... containing culture material, deoxynivalenol-contaminated wheat, or their.

  5. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  6. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  7. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  8. Effects of fish oil replacement and re-feeding on the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) of market size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; López, Francisco J; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorinated biphenyls were determined in raw materials, fish feeds and fillets from fish exposed through the productive cycle (14 months) to experimental diets with different percentages of fish oil replacement with vegetable oils. Detectable amounts of organochlorine compounds were found in raw materials derived from fish sources with none being detected in vegetable ingredients. Fish feeds presented trace concentrations of contaminants at the ng/g level, which varied according to the contribution of the different resources used in their manufacture. Contaminants did not accumulate during the first 11 months of exposure, and low concentrations of organochlorine compounds were found both at the start and at the end of this feeding period. Fillets from fish fed the fish oil diet presented the highest concentrations of organochlorine compounds, with these decreasing in proportion to fish oil replacement. Three months of fish oil re-feeding during the finishing phase only produced significant bioaccumulation over the course of the first month. By optimizing fish meal and fish oil replacement with vegetable oils alternative feeds can contribute to significantly reduce the risk of organochlorine uptake by consumers.

  9. Value of Bitter Leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina ) Meal as Feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) leaf meal as feed ingredient on the performance, feed cost and carcass and organ weights of finisher broilers. The leaves were air dried under room temperature, ground and sieved through a 3 mm mesh to produce the meal.

  10. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds | Mngadi | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycotoxin contamination of feeds results in economic loss and transmission of toxins in the food chain. Animal feeds, the raw ingredients used in their manufacture, namely, maize, wheat, sunflower seeds, cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for contaminating ...

  11. Excellent N-fixing and P-solubilizing traits in earthworm gut-isolated bacteria: A vermicompost based assessment with vegetable market waste and rice straw feed mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nazneen; Singh, Archana; Saha, Sougata; Venkata Satish Kumar, Mattaparthi; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2016-12-01

    Vermicomposting is a dependable waste recycling technology which greatly augments N and P levels mainly through microbial action. This paper aims to identify efficient N-fixing (NFB) and P-solubilizing (PSB) bacteria from earthworm intestines. Various combinations of vegetable market waste, rice straw, and cowdung were fed to two earthworm species (Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus). Total organic C decreased, pH shifted towards neutrality, and NPK availability, and microbial (NFB, PSB, and total bacteria) population increased remarkably during vermicomposting with E. fetida. Therefore, 45 NFB and 34 PSB strains isolated from Eisenia gut were initially screened, their inter-dominance assessed, and 8 prolific strains were identified through 16SrRNA sequencing. Interestingly, two novel N-fixing strains of Kluyvera ascorbata emerged as an efficient biofertilizer candidate. Moreover, both N-fixing and P-solubilizing strains of Serratia and Bacillus were isolated from earthworm gut. All the isolated strains significantly improved soil health and facilitated crop growth as compared to commercial biofertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early nutritional intervention can improve utilisation of vegetable-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Michael; Migaud, Herve; Metochis, Christoforos; Vera, Luisa M; Leeming, Daniel; Tocher, Douglas R; Taylor, John F

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated nutritional programming in Atlantic salmon to improve utilisation of a vegetable-based diet. At first exogenous feeding, fry were fed either a marine-based diet (Diet Mstimulus, 80% fishmeal (FM)/4% fish oil (FO)) or a vegetable-based diet (Diet Vstimulus, 10% FM/0% FO) for 3 weeks. Subsequently, all fish were then fed under the same conditions with a commercial, marine-based, diet for 15 weeks and thereafter challenged with a second V diet (Diet Vchallenge, 10% FM/0% FO) for 6 weeks. Diploid and triploid siblings were run in parallel to examine ploidy effects. Growth performance, feed intake, nutrient utilisation and intestinal morphology were monitored. Fish initially given Diet Vstimulus (V-fish) showed 24 % higher growth rate and 23 % better feed efficiency compared with M-fish when later challenged with Diet Vchallenge. There was no difference in feed intake between nutritional histories, but increased nutrient retentions highlighted the improved utilisation of a V diet in V-fish. There were generally few significant effects of nutritional history or ploidy on enteritis scores in the distal intestine after the challenge phase as only V-triploids showed a significant increase (Pnutritional programming and the ability to respond better when challenged later in life may be attributed to physiological and/or metabolic changes induced by the stimulus. This novel study showed the potential of nutritional programming to improve the use of plant raw material ingredients in feeds for Atlantic salmon.

  13. Het effect van voersamenstelling op bacteriële darmaandoeningen bij varkens = The effect of feed composition on bacterial intestinal diseases in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Feed composition, and especially carbohydrate composition, may affect the development of enteric bacterial diseases. Also the kind of feed ingredients (soybean or not) and feed treatment (milling size, pelletizing, fermentation) may be important. A more coarse grinding, no pelletizing and

  14. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described

  15. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described.

  16. Assessment of heavy metals in chicken feeds available in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-12-08

    Dec 8, 2014 ... through eggs and meats. Supplementation of some ... heavy metal contaminations of chicken meat, eggs and other products .... processing and mixing of ingredients to the feed. ... Additives and Contaminants, 22(2): 141-. 149.

  17. Proximate analyses - Utilization of Marine Process Waste for Aquaculture Feeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Limited amounts of forage fish are available as an ingredient in feeds for the expanding aquaculture industry. Work is being conducted on a variety of underutilized...

  18. The benefits of authoritative feeding style: caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hughes, Sheryl O; Morales, Miriam

    2005-04-01

    This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors.

  19. Feeds, water quality, gut morphology and digestion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trần Ngọc Thiên Kim, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition, ingredient and nutrients, are important to consider for maintaining intestinal functions. Studies on both positive (using feed additives) and negative effects (using high inclusion of plant ingredients) of fish feeds are numerous, however, between studies results are often

  20. Effect of feeding lambs with a tanniferous shrub (rockrose) and a vegetable oil blend on fatty acid composition of meat lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, A; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Pires, V M R; Dentinho, M T; Alfaia, C M; Jerónimo, E; Prates, J A M; Santos-Silva, J; Bessa, R J B

    2016-12-01

    The effects of feeding Cistus ladanifer (Cistus) and a blend of soybean and linseed oil (1 : 2 vol/vol) on fatty acid (FA) composition of lamb meat lipids and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of desaturase enzymes was assessed. In total, 54 male lambs were randomly assigned to 18 pens and to nine diets, resulting from the combination of three inclusion levels of Cistus (50 v. 100 v. 200 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and three inclusion levels of oil (0 v. 40 v. 80 g/kg of DM). The forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diets was 1 : 1. Longissimus muscle lipids were extracted, fractionated into neutral (NL) and polar lipid (PL) and FA methyl esters obtained and analyzed by GLC. The expression of genes encoding Δ5, Δ6 and Δ9 desaturases (fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD)) was determined. Intramuscular fat, NL and PL contents were not affected by oil or Cistus. Oil supplementation reduced (P<0.05) 16:0, c9-16:1, 17:0, c9-17:1 and c9-18:1 FA and increased (P<0.05) 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and the majority of biohydrogenation intermediates in NL. Cistus alone had few effects on FA of NL but interacted with oil (P<0.05) by increasing t10-18:1,t10,t12-18:2,t10,c12-18:2 and t7,c9-18:2. The t10-/t11-18:1 ratio increased with both Cistus and oil levels. The c9, t11-18:2 did not increase (P<0.05) with both oil and Cistus dietary inclusion. Oil reduced c9-16:1, 17:0, c9-17:1,c9-18:1, 20:4n-6, 22:4n-6 and 20:3n-9 proportions in PL, and increased 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:3n-3 and of most of the biohydrogenation intermediates. The Cistus had only minor effects on FA composition of PL. Cistus resulted in a reduction (P<0.05) of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the meat PL. The expression level of SCD mRNA increased (P=0.015) with Cistus level, although a linear relationship with condensed tannins intake (P=0.11) could not be established. FADS1 mRNA expressed levels increased linearly (P=0.019) with condensed tannins intake. In summary, the

  1. X-ray diffraction study of kanwa used as active ingredient in achu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) technique was used to identify the mineral constituents of kanwa; an earthy material widely used as active ingredient in achu soup and other vegetable soups in Cameroon and several other West African countries. Results depicted trona (Na3H (CO3)2.2H2O) to be the main ...

  2. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.

  3. Utility of Rice Bran Mixed with Fermentation Extract of Vegetable Waste Unconditioned as Probiotics from Vegetable Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Setya Utama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of the study was to enhance utilization of Lactobacillus Sp. and Saccharomyces sp. as starter for fermentation of waste cabbage and green mustard to enhance the utility of rice bran as an ingredient of poultry feed. The first stage of the study was to characterize the extract of fermented wasted vegetable with difference concentration of glucose and different period of time for incubation. Completely randomized design using 3 x 3 factorial with three replications was used for the first stage of the study. The second stage of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the extract of fermented wasted vegetable to improve the quality and utility of rice bran. Completely randomized design with four treatments and 4 replications. The third stage of the study was to obtain the value of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention, as well as metabolic energy of rice bran after fermentation in broiler hatching. The third stage analysis was conducted by t-test analysis. The results of the study showed that the microbial characteristics on the extract of fermented wasted vegetable in two days incubation time and 2% concentration of glucose was able to produce pH of 3.80, log of total lactic acid bacteria 7.38 and types of microbes that grow predominantly were Lactobacillus Sp. and Saccharomyces Sp. The effectiveness of the extract fermented wasted vegetable for the fermentation of rice bran were shown in additional concentration of extract wasted vegetable of 40% with a moisture content of  toluene 65.24%, 13.36% ash, 14.93% protein, 7.61% crude fat, 12.39% crude fiber, nitrogen free extract material (NFE 51.59% and 0.07% biomass. The biological value and the availability of fermented rice bran were higher than unfermented rice bran on the broiler chickens after hatching. The values were justified from nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention also metabolic energy. The study concluded that the benefits and utility of rice bran could

  4. Long-Term Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Feed and Feed Raw Materials with a Special Focus on South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhee Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium fungi produce toxic substances called mycotoxins, which can cause disease and harmful effects in grains, livestock, and humans. Deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin, is one of the Fusarium mycotoxins that is known to cause vomiting in livestock. This study shows the occurrence of deoxynivalenol in feedstuffs (compound feed and feed ingredients between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea. A total of 653 domestic samples were collected at five time points, including 494 compound feed samples and 159 feed ingredient samples. DON contamination levels were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with pretreatment using an immunoaffinity column (IAC. The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ were estimated at 1–10 µg/kg and 3–35 µg/kg, respectively. Two compound feeds (two gestating sow feed samples out of 160 pig feed samples exceeded the European Commission (EC guidance value, while no feed ingredient samples exceeded the EC or South Korean guidance values. There were statistically significant differences in the mean contamination levels of compound feed and feed ingredients that indicated a decreasing trend over time.

  5. Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-05-01

    Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.

  6. Chemical Composition and Nutritive Benefits of Chicory (Cichorium intybus as an Ideal Complementary and/or Alternative Livestock Feed Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma Chinyelu Nwafor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicory is a perennial plant grown in different parts of the world, used as forage for livestock, as folklore remedies, or as a vegetable addition in human diets. There are several varieties of the chicory plant, known differently globally due to its numerous medicinal, culinary, and nutritional qualities. Most parts of the plant contain a potpourri of nutrients ranging within carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, soluble fiber, trace elements, and bioactive phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the various nutritive, prophylactic, and therapeutic qualities of chicory. Inulin, coumarins, tannins, monomeric flavonoids, and sesquiterpene lactones are some of the major phytocompounds mostly found in chicory plants. The health-promoting activities attributed to chicory comprise, among others, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial, antimutagenic, antifungal, anthelmintic, immune-stimulating, and antihepatotoxic and its antioxidative qualities. As a versatile plant, chicory’s chemical composition and use as a suitable livestock feed supplement or as an alternative feed ingredient (AFI are thus reviewed.

  7. What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was

  8. The effect of ingredients in dry dog foods on the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Malathi; Glickman, Nita W; Glickman, Lawrence T

    2006-01-01

    Using dry dog food label information, the hypothesis was tested that the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) increases with an increasing number of soy and cereal ingredients and a decreasing number of animal-protein ingredients among the first four ingredients. A nested case-control study was conducted with 85 GDV cases and 194 controls consuming a single brand and variety of dry food. Neither an increasing number of animal-protein ingredients (P=0.79) nor an increasing number of soy and cereal ingredients (P=0.83) among the first four ingredients significantly influenced GDV risk. An unexpected finding was that dry foods containing an oil or fat ingredient (e.g., sunflower oil, animal fat) among the first four ingredients were associated with a significant (P=0.01), 2.4-fold increased risk of GDV. These findings suggest that the feeding of dry dog foods that list oils or fats among the first four label ingredients predispose a high-risk dog to GDV.

  9. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary

    Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to

  10. Modulation of selenium tissue distribution and selenoprotein expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with graded levels of plant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Monica B; Dam, Thi M C; Walton, James; Morken, Thea; Campbell, Patrick J; Tocher, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Increased substitution of marine ingredients by terrestrial plant products in aquafeeds has been proven to be suitable for Atlantic salmon farming. However, a reduction in n-3 long-chain PUFA is a consequence of this substitution. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of fishmeal and oil substitution on levels of micronutrients such as Se, considering fish are major sources of this mineral for human consumers. To evaluate the effects of dietary marine ingredient substitution on tissue Se distribution and the expression of Se metabolism and antioxidant enzyme genes, Atlantic salmons were fed three feeds based on commercial formulations with increasing levels of plant proteins (PP) and vegetable oil. Lipid content in flesh did not vary at any sampling point, but it was higher in the liver of 1 kg of fish fed higher PP. Fatty acid content reflected dietary input and was related to oxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Liver had the highest Se levels, followed by head kidney, whereas the lowest contents were found in brain and gill. The Se concentration of flesh decreased considerably with high levels of substitution, reducing the added value of fish consumption. Only the brain showed significant differences in glutathione peroxidase, transfer RNA selenocysteine 1-associated protein 1b and superoxide dismutase expression, whereas no significant regulation of Se-related genes was found in liver. Although Se levels in the diets satisfied the essential requirements of salmon, high PP levels led to a reduction in the supply of this essential micronutrient.

  11. FOOD AS VECTOR FOR NUTRACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days people consumption habits are changing they are inclined to buy healthy food that fulfills the need of essential nutrients in the body. With increasing educational level, people are becoming ready to accept different types of food & beverages that have added nutritional ingredient. Hence with this change, nutraceutical ingredient is gaining importance. Nutraceutical are those that combine technological and health properties. Nutraceutical Ingredients are substances with clinically confirmed health benefits and have broad applications in foods, beverages, dietary supplements and nutritional preparations. There are huge numbers of ingredients which are still unexplored. They have still not gained popularity in food industry. In this review paper a brief introduction of nutraceutical ingredient, its market and detailed knowledge of- Ginseng, Pine Bark Extract, Seabuckthorn, Buckwheat is mentioned.

  12. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  13. PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND IN VITRO FERMENTATION OF PROTEIN FEEDS FOR RUMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel L. Guevara-Mesa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate 20 protein feeds grouped in forages, vegetal by- products and animal by-products used for ruminant diets. Protein fractions (PF: A, non-protein nitrogen (NPN; B1, buffer-soluble protein; B2, buffer-insoluble, NDF-soluble protein; B3, NDF-insoluble, ADF-soluble protein; and C, ADF-insoluble protein, were determined for each ingredient.  Protein composition was correlated with total gas production in vitro (GP, gas production rate (S, lag time (L, DM disappearance (DMDIV and residual protein (RPIV. The completely randomised designed was analysed using mixed proc. and Tukey contrasts. Forages contained 18.29, 7.86, 66.00, 2.96, 4.89% of fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C, respectively. Vegetable by-products contained 22.55, 4.55, 59.51, 8.84, 4.55% of each fraction, in the same order. Animal by-products contained 19.13, 4.52, 70.24, 3.74, 2.37% of each fraction, in the same order. Vetch, wheat bran and poultry litter had the greatest Vmax in each group. Vmax was correlated (P≤0.01 with total protein (r = -0.45, ADF (r = 0.27 and DMDIV (r = 0.61. In conclusion, there were differences in protein composition and kinetics of in vitro gas production among ingredients.

  14. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  15. Analysis of Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s ExpoCast program is developing high throughput (HT) approaches to generate the needed exposure estimates to compare against HT bioactivity data generated from the US inter-agency Tox21 and the US EPA ToxCast programs. Assessing such exposures for the thousands of chemicals in consumer products requires data on product composition. This is a challenge since quantitative product composition data are rarely available. We developed methods to predict the weight fractions of chemicals in consumer products from weight fraction-ordered chemical ingredient lists, and curated a library of such lists from online manufacturer and retailer sites. The probabilistic model predicts weight fraction as a function of the total number of reported ingredients, the rank of the ingredient in the list, the minimum weight fraction for which ingredients were reported, and the total weight fraction of unreported ingredients. Weight fractions predicted by the model compared very well to available quantitative weight fraction data obtained from Material Safety Data Sheets for products with 3-8 ingredients. Lists were located from the online sources for 5148 products containing 8422 unique ingredient names. A total of 1100 of these names could be located in EPA’s HT chemical database (DSSTox), and linked to 864 unique Chemical Abstract Service Registration Numbers (392 of which were in the Tox21 chemical library). Weight fractions were estimated for these 864 CASRN. Using a

  16. Continuous wok-frying of vegetables:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of loosely bound water from the vegetables allows the products to be frozen and re-heated without drip loss, and it is also an advantage when using them as ingredients in composite foods, such as pâtés. Examples developed by a professional chef indicate that he saved up to half of the cooking time compared...

  17. Attributional versus consequential life cycle assessment and feed optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van Hannah H.E.; Bikker, Paul; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Feed production is responsible for the majority of the environmental impact of livestock production, especially for monogastric animals, such as pigs. Some feeding strategies demonstrated that replacing one ingredient with a high impact, e.g. soybean meal (SBM), with an alternative

  18. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Program-Expert Safety Assessments of Cosmetic Ingredients in an Open Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ivan J; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Heldreth, Bart; Fiume, Monice M; Gill, Lillian J

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) is a nonprofit program to assess the safety of ingredients in personal care products in an open, unbiased, and expert manner. Cosmetic Ingredient Review was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC), with the support of the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). Cosmetic Ingredient Review remains the only scientific program in the world committed to the systematic, independent review of cosmetic ingredient safety in a public forum. Cosmetic Ingredient Review operates in accordance with procedures modeled after the USFDA process for reviewing over-the-counter drugs. Nine voting panel members are distinguished, such as medical professionals, scientists, and professors. Three nonvoting liaisons are designated by the USFDA, CFA, and PCPC to represent government, consumer, and industry, respectively. The annual rate of completing safety assessments accelerated from about 100 to more than 400 ingredients by implementing grouping and read-across strategies and other approaches. As of March 2017, CIR had reviewed 4,740 individual cosmetic ingredients, including 4,611 determined to be safe as used or safe with qualifications, 12 determined to be unsafe, and 117 ingredients for which the information is insufficient to determine safety. Examples of especially challenging safety assessments and issues are presented here, including botanicals. Cosmetic Ingredient Review continues to strengthen its program with the ongoing cooperation of the USFDA, CFA, the cosmetics industry, and everyone else interested in contributing to the process.

  19. Effect of polyunsatured aldehyde (A3 as an antiparasitary ingredient of Caligus rogercresseyi in the feed of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Efecto del aldehído poli-insaturado (A3 como ingrediente antiparasitario de Caligus rogercresseyi en la alimentación de salmón del atlántico, Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Troncoso

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs such as 2-trans, 4-trans decadenial (A3 have a detrimental effect on the development of copepod sharmful to the salmon industrysuch as Caligus rogercresseyi (sea lice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of A3 as a salmon feed ingredient in order to reduce reproduction of Caligus rogercresseyi in infested Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The toxicity of A3 was assessed histopathologically for 7 days, using intra-peritoneal injections of different doses (0, 0.24, 0.47, 2.37, 11.86, and 23.71 mg kg-1 in brain, intestine, skin, liver, and muscletissues of Salmosalar at the end of each treatment. The effect of A3 on sea lice was evaluated using 250 Atlantic salmon in an open-flow system of seawater (~13°C. The effect of the dosage in the fish diet was evaluated at two levels (9 mg kg-1, 18 mg kg-1 and considering a control (without A3 for 4, 8, and 12 days, once the sea lice had reached maturity. As a complement, the persistent effect of diluted A3 in sea water (0.5 g L-1 was evaluated at 10, 12, and 14°C for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 days; and the maximum persistence was found at 10 days at 10°C. The results showed that the dosages over 0.47 mg kg-1 had no toxic effect on Atlantic salmon, but induced a detrimental effect on Caligus rogercresseyi (reduction of 15% of mature females with a dose of 18 mg kg-1, which could be attributed to alterations in the embryonic development of the sea lice. A3 is a potential supplement in the diet of salmon. However, studies ofits mechanism of action should be undertaken prior to its use.Algunos aldehídos poli-insaturados (PUAs tales como 2-trans, 4-trans decadenal (A3 tienen efecto perjudicial para el desarrollo de copépodos perjudiciales para la industria del salmón, tales como Caligus rogercresseyi (piojo de mar. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el uso potencial de A3 en alimentación de salmones, de forma de reducir la reproducción de

  20. Circulating bile acids in healthy adults respond differently to a dietary pattern characterized by whole grains, legumes and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars: a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginos, Bigina N R; Navarro, Sandi L; Schwarz, Yvonne; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Dongfang; Randolph, Timothy W; Shojaie, Ali; Hullar, Meredith A J; Lampe, Paul D; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L; Raftery, Daniel; Lampe, Johanna W

    2018-02-16

    The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m 2 ) and half overweight to obese (BMI 28.0-39.9 kg/m 2 ). Participants consumed two four-week controlled diets in randomized order: 1) a whole grain diet (WG diet), designed to be low in glycemic load (GL), high in whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables, and 2) a refined grain diet (RG diet), designed to be high GL, high in refined grains and added sugars, separated by a four-week washout period. Quantitative targeted analysis of 55 bile acid species in fasting plasma was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, and CRP were measured in fasting serum. Linear mixed models were used to test the effects of diet on bile acid concentrations, and determine the association between plasma bile acid concentrations and HOMA-IR and CRP. Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 was used to control for multiple testing. A total of 29 plasma bile acids were reliably detected and retained for analysis. Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) were statistically significantly higher after the WG compared to the RG diet (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant differences by BMI or sex. When evaluating the association of bile acids and HOMA-IR, GCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 5β-cholanic acid-3β,12

  1. The functionality of plum ingredients in meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nathan; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2015-04-01

    Dried plums (prunes) have been marketed to consumers for consumption directly from the package as a convenient snack and have been reported to have broad health benefits. Only recently have fractionated, dried plum ingredients been investigated for their functionality in food and feed products. Dried plum puree, dried plum fiber, dried plum powder, dried plum concentrate, and fresh plum concentrate have been investigated to date. They have been evaluated as fat replacers in baked goods, antioxidants in meat formulations, phosphate replacers in chicken marinades, and antimicrobials in food systems. Overall, dried plum products have been shown to be effective at reducing lipid oxidation and show promise as antimicrobials. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  3. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat... label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in § 163.130 or skim milk chocolate in § 163.140...

  4. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root... fermentation products thereof, whose primary function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional. Natural...

  5. The effect of pre-enrichment media on the recovery and detection of Salmonella in feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methodology for detecting Salmonella in feeds and feed ingredients are adapted from food safety methods. These methods do not take into account the stressed state of Salmonella in feed, presence of competing microorganisms nor the sample matrix. The objective was to evaluate four pre-enrichm...

  6. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  7. Ultrasonic Recovery and Modification of Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkhu, Kamaljit; Manasseh, Richard; Mawson, Raymond; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    There are two general classes of effects that sound, and ultrasound in particular, can have on a fluid. First, very significant modifications to the nature of food and food ingredients can be due to the phenomena of bubble acoustics and cavitation. The applied sound oscillates bubbles in the fluid, creating intense forces at microscopic scales thus driving chemical changes. Second, the sound itself can cause the fluid to flow vigorously, both on a large scale and on a microscopic scale; furthermore, the sound can cause particles in the fluid to move relative to the fluid. These streaming phenomena can redistribute materials within food and food ingredients at both microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  8. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  9. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  10. Valor nutricional e energético de espécies vegetais importantes na alimentação do Tambaqui Nutritional and energy value from important vegetal species in tambaqui feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Moreira da Silva

    2003-12-01

    survey and types of fruits consumed for this species, we used information from the literature complemented with results obtained from analyses of the digestive content collected from captured fish and from the main fisheries landing and market in Manaus, the Panair fair. Fifteen digestive tracts were collected weekly at the fair, during nine months. The digestive tract were removed and put in plastic bags, stored in styrofoam boxes with ice and brought to the laboratory, where they remained in the freezer (-20ºC. Analyses of the digestive tract contents consisted of the fruits and seeds collected, preserved in alcohol 70% and identified from the digestive tracts, constituting a reference collection. After identification, fruits and seeds species collected from the varzea and igapo areas were collected for proximate analyses, according to A.O.A.C (1995 and crude energy (kJ/g using a calorimetric bomb. 46 vegetation species distributed in 21 families and classified into nine types of fruits were identified. According to our data, tambaqui feeds encompass at least 133 species, between fruits and seeds, from 38 families and 15 types of fruits. Consumption of these items varied between triturated and/or whole. Proximate analyses from 14 seeds and 40 fruits species demonstrated that these items are more energetic than proteinous.

  11. Different levels of macadamia oil cake meal, and wood ash vs. feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    2014-03-14

    Mar 14, 2014 ... as feed ingredients for poultry under subsistence farming conditions. ... differences in tibia weight, diameter, volume, density and breaking strength. ... on bone characteristics are reported when different dietary levels of MOCM ...

  12. The risk of contamination of food with toxic substances present in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Meijer, G.A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic substances such as dioxins, mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are almost ubiquitous in the environment. Thus, they are also present in ingredients for animal feed. Adequate risk management depends on knowledge of absorption, metabolism,

  13. What are the "ingredients" for economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolla, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Is there a recipe for economic growth? Perhaps some Miracle-Gro for the economy? If only it were that easy. While the exact recipe is a mystery, economists have identified some of the key ingredients. This month’s newsletter discusses the role that economic institutions play in fostering long-term economic growth.

  14. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to maintaining the quality of the food, they help control contamination that can cause foodborne illness, including life-threatening ... still be considered safe. Regulations known as Good Manufacturing ... limit the amount of food ingredients used in foods to the amount necessary ...

  15. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  16. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  17. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  18. Results with Complementary Food Using Local Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, Munirul; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, Iqbal; Huq, Sayeeda; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Sarker, Shafiqul Alam

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate complementary food is a must for optimum growth of infants and children. The food should be diverse and be given in sufficient quantities 2-4 times a day depending upon age. Poverty, food insecurity, and lack of awareness regarding the choice of nutritious food ingredients are deterrents to optimum complementary feeding. In Bangladesh, 77% of children do not receive appropriate complementary food and, hence, the high prevalence of childhood malnutrition. We developed ready-to-use complementary foods (RUCFs) using locally available food ingredients, rice/lentil and chickpea, which conform to standard specifications. These foods were found to be acceptable by children and their mothers compared to the Pushti packet, the cereal-based supplement used in the erstwhile National Nutrition Program of Bangladesh. In a cluster-randomized community-based trial in rural Bangladesh among more than 5,000 children, the efficacy of rice/lentil- and chickpea-based RUCFs was compared with another commonly used supplementary food called wheat-soy blend++ (WSB++) and a commercial product called Plumpy'doz. Deceleration in length for age was significantly lower (by 0.02-0.04/month) in the rice/lentil, Plumpy'doz, and chickpea groups compared to the control group at 18 months of age. Weight-for-length z-score decline was lower only in Plumpy'doz and chickpea groups. WSB++ was not different from the control group. In children who received chickpea RUCF or Plumpy'doz, the prevalence of stunting was 5-6% lower at 18 months. These foods can be used to prevent or treat malnutrition among children, particularly those from food-insecure households. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Indigenous food ingredients for complementary food formulations to combat infant malnutrition in Benin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadare, Flora J; Madode, Yann E; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Kindossi, Janvier M; Ayosso, Juvencio Og; Honfo, S Hermann; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; Linnemann, Anita R; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews indigenous Beninese food resources as potential ingredients for complementary infant foods with the aim to develop affordable formulations for low-income households in each agro-ecological zone of the country. Potential ingredients were selected on their documented nutritional value. The selected foods encompass 347 food resources, namely 297 plant products from home gardens or collected from natural vegetation and 50 animals, either domesticated or from the wild. The compiled data reveal that the distribution of the available food resources was unbalanced between agro-ecological zones. Only a few animal ingredients are obtainable in northern Benin. Most resources are seasonal, but their availability may be extended. A high variation was observed in energy and nutrient contents. Antinutritional factors were identified in some resources, but processing techniques were reported to reduce their presence in meals. In general, ingredients from local tree foods (Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa) were adequate as sources of nutrients for complementary infant foods. Based on this review, local foods for the development of complementary food formulas for Beninese infants and children may be selected for each agro-ecological zone. The approach used is exemplary for other sub-Saharan African countries in need of complementary infant foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  1. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  2. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Kawatra; Rathai Rajagopalan

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant...

  3. Innovative natural functional ingredients from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Merichel; Herrero, Miguel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2009-08-26

    Nowadays, a wide variety of compounds such as polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or phytosterols obtained, for example, from wine, fish byproducts, or plants are employed to prepare new functional foods. However, unexplored natural sources of bioactive ingredients are gaining much attention since they can lead to the discovery of new compounds or bioactivities. Microalgae have been proposed as an interesting, almost unlimited, natural source in the search for novel natural functional ingredients, and several works have shown the possibility to find bioactive compounds in these organisms. Some advantages can be associated with the study of microalgae such as their huge diversity, the possibility of being used as natural reactors at controlled conditions, and their ability to produce active secondary metabolites to defend themselves from adverse or extreme conditions. In this contribution, an exhaustive revision is presented involving the research for innovative functional food ingredients from microalgae. The most interesting results in this promising field are discussed including new species composition and bioactivity and new processing and extraction methods. Moreover, the future research trends are critically commented.

  4. Oil Dispersion with Abamectin as Active Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Gašić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abamectin was developed as an insecticide, nematocide and acaricide for use on a varietyof agricultural and horticultural crops. The products with this active ingredient can befound on the market mostly formulated as emulsifiable concentrate (EC. Usually producersrecommend using the EC formulation of abamectin together with some kind of adjuvants(natural oils to improve efficacy of the active ingredient. To overcome the efficacy problemwe tried to formulate the active ingredient abamectin as oil dispersion (OD. Oil dispersion,preferably based on naturally derived oils could improve pesticide efficacy. This type of pesticideformulation contains oil instead of water as in classical suspension concentrate andtypically has better retention and coverage. In the case of abamectin, in this investigationsoybean oil was used with the mixture of different nonionic emulsifiers. Content of abamecetinin formulation was 1.8 %. The developed formulation was tested for few importantparameters. The obtained physicochemical properties for the above mentioned formulationhave shown that it is stable and could be used in plant protection.

  5. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  6. Assessment of the effects of fish meal, wheat gluten, soy protein concentrate and feed moisture on extruder system parameters and the technical quality of fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of feed ingredient functionality plays a vital role in modern fish feed manufacturing practice. The aim of this study was to examine the extrusion behaviour of blends containing alternative protein sources from plant origin to fish meal (FM), such as wheat gluten (WG) and soy protein

  7. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron... electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. This action... CFR part 579) to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of...

  8. Shrimp Feed Formulation via Evolutionary Algorithm with Power Heuristics for Handling Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosshairy Abd. Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulating feed for shrimps represents a challenge to farmers and industry partners. Most previous studies selected from only a small number of ingredients due to cost pressures, even though hundreds of potential ingredients could be used in the shrimp feed mix. Even with a limited number of ingredients, the best combination of the most appropriate ingredients is still difficult to obtain due to various constraint requirements, such as nutrition value and cost. This paper proposes a new operator which we call Power Heuristics, as part of an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA, which acts as a constraint handling technique for the shrimp feed or diet formulation. The operator is able to choose and discard certain ingredients by utilising a specialized search mechanism. The aim is to achieve the most appropriate combination of ingredients. Power Heuristics are embedded in the EA at the early stage of a semirandom initialization procedure. The resulting combination of ingredients, after fulfilling all the necessary constraints, shows that this operator is useful in discarding inappropriate ingredients when a crucial constraint is violated.

  9. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... declaration of ingredients is thereby required to be used in conjunction with products of both the old and new formulations, the labeling shall declare the ingredients of both the old and new formulations separately in a... paragraph is inapplicable to any ingredient mentioned in advertising, or in labeling other than in the...

  10. Ingredient and labeling issues associated with allergenic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-01-01

    Foods contain a wide range of food ingredients that serve numerous technical functions. Per capita consumer exposure to most of these food ingredients is rather low with a few notable exceptions such as sugar and starch. Some food ingredients including edible oils, hydrolyzed proteins, lecithin, starch, lactose, flavors and gelatin may, at least in some products, be derived from sources commonly involved in IgE-mediated food allergies. These ingredients should be avoided by consumers with allergies to the source material if the ingredient contains detectable protein residues. Other food ingredients, including starch, malt, alcohol and vinegar, may be derived in some cases from wheat, rye or barley, the grains that are implicated in the causation of celiac disease. If these ingredients contain gluten residues, then they should be avoided by celiac sufferers. A few food ingredients are capable of eliciting allergic sensitization, although these ingredients would be classified as rarely allergenic. These ingredients include carmine, cochineal extract, annatto, tragacanth gum and papain. Food manufacturers should declare the presence of allergenic food ingredients in the ingredient listings on product labels so that allergic consumers can know to avoid these potentially hazardous products.

  11. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...

  12. Analytical Control of a Starter Pig Feed Medicated with Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zemanová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin concentrations were determined by two independent laboratories for a pig starter feed medicated from a coated amoxicillin premix. The analytical method was previously transferred from one laboratory to the other one. The data between the two laboratories were consistent, showing ruggedness of the assay. Mean amoxicillin feed concentrations before and after pelletization were higher than 90% of the theoretical content, confirming satisfactory stability of this active ingredient in the coated form tested.

  13. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “ coriander seed oil ” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    were observed when feeding other vegetable oils, although not as severe as that seen for CSO. The dose level of CSO was more than a thousand fold higher than the proposed use level. In a subchronic study using 150, 450 or 1 000 mg/kg bw per day of CSO, a treatment-related effect was observed on blood......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on “coriander seed oil (CSO)” as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Petroselinic acid (PA......) is the major fatty acid in CSO. Conventional edible oil technologies are used to manufacture the NFI. The NFI is intended to be marketed as a food supplement for healthy adults, at a maximum level of 600 mg per day (i.e. 8.6 mg/kg bw per day for a 70 kg person), which would lead to significantly higher intakes...

  15. Refining low protein modular feeds for children on low protein tube feeds with organic acidaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A; Evans, S; Ashmore, C; Chahal, S; Santra, S; MacDonald, A

    2017-12-01

    Children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) who are dependent on tube feeding and require a protein restriction are commonly fed by 'modular tube feeds' consisting of several ingredients. A longitudinal, prospective two-phase study, conducted over 18 months assessed the long-term efficacy of a pre-measured protein-free composite feed. This was specifically designed to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children (aged over 1 year) with organic acidaemias on low protein enteral feeds and to be used as a supplement with an enteral feeding protein source. All non-protein individual feed ingredients were replaced with one protein-free composite feed supplying fat, carbohydrate, and micronutrients. Thirteen subjects, median age 7.4y (3-15.5y), all nutritionally tube dependent (supplying nutritional intake: ≥ 90%, n = 12; 75%, n = 1), and diagnosed with organic acidaemias (Propionic acidaemia, n = 6; Vitamin B 12 non-responsive methyl malonic acidaemia, n = 4; Isovaleric acidaemia, n = 2; Glutaric aciduria type1, n = 1); were studied. Nutritional intake, biochemistry and anthropometry were monitored at week - 8, 0, 12, 26 and 79. Energy intake remained unchanged, providing 76% of estimated energy requirements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids significantly increased from week 0 to week 79, but sodium, potassium, magnesium, decosahexanoic acid and fibre did not meet suggested requirements. Plasma zinc, selenium, haemoglobin and MCV significantly improved, and growth remained satisfactory. Natural protein intake met WHO/FAO/UNU 2007 recommendations. A protein-free composite feed formulated to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children aged over 1 year improved nutritional intake, biochemical nutritional status, and simplified enteral tube feeding regimens in children with organic acidaemias.

  16. Relationship between gas production and starch degradation in feed samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, W.Z.; Gelder, van A.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    An investigation was completed of the possibilities to estimate starch fermentation in rumen fluid using the gas production technique by incubating the total sample. Gas production from six starchy feed ingredients and eight maize silage samples were recorded and related to starch degradation

  17. Microscopic recognition and identification of fish meal in compound feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Prins, Theo; Rhee, van de N.; Vliege, J.J.M.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Fish meal is an accepted ingredient in compound feed. Unauthorised application is primarily enforced by visual inspection, i.e., microscopy. In order to document the visually available diversity, fragments of bones and scales of 17 teleost fish species belonging to seven different orders were

  18. Metabolisable energy values of some non-conventional feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A metabolism trial was designed to evaluate dietary energy values (AME, AMEn, TME, TMEn) of eight readily available non-conventional feeding ingredients viz: cassava root meal (CRM); cassava leaf meal (CLM), mango leaf meal (MLM), shrimp waste meal (SWM), full-fat soyabean (FFSB), palm oil sludge (POS), corn cob ...

  19. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  20. Anti-microbial resistance of E. Coli isolates from feeds and poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between September 2002 and February 2003, 614 samples collected from four large-scale and five small-scale farms, one turkey breeder farm and two hatcheries as well as five commercial feed brands and various feed ingredients in Imo state, Nigeria were analyzed for the presence of E. coli. Thereafter, isolates were ...

  1. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  2. Efeito da aplicação de extratos aquosos em couve na alimentação de largatas de Ascia monuste orseis Effect of aqueous vegetal extratcts application on larva feeding behavior of Ascia monuste orseis at kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de extratos aquosos de amêndoas de Azadirachta indica e frutos de Sapindus saponaria, aplicados em discos de folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala nas concentrações de 0,0117% e 1,0342% (p/v, respectivamente, foram estudados sobre a alimentação das lagartas de Ascia monuste orseis. Avaliou-se a atratividade e o consumo de área foliar de lagartas de primeiro e terceiro ínstar durante 24 horas, em condições de laboratório (T = 25 ± 2ºC, UR = 60 ± 10% e fotofase = 12 horas. Nos testes com e sem chance de escolha, para lagartas de primeiro ínstar e teste sem chance de escolha para lagartas de terceiro ínstar, não houve diferença quanto à atratividade das lagartas. No teste com chance de escolha para lagartas de terceiro ínstar, houve menor atratividade das lagartas pelos discos de folhas tratadas com S. saponaria, diferindo da testemunha. No decorrer de 24 horas de avaliações, pode-se observar 58,3% de lagartas atraídas na testemunha, não diferindo de A. indica e diferindo de S. saponaria, com 39,3% e 2,4% das lagartas atraídas, respectivamente. Quanto ao consumo de área foliar, o extrato de S. saponaria diminuiu o consumo de lagartas, em todos os testes realizados. Quando não tinham opção de escolha para se alimentar de folhas sem os extratos, as lagartas consumiram as folhas tratadas nas concentrações testadas, porém em menor quantidade. Os extratos testados neste experimento demonstram ter efeitos sobre a alimentação das lagartas de A. monuste orseis, possivelmente com propriedades deterrentes e/ou supressoras de alimentação.The effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica almonds and of Sapindus saponaria fruits, applied on disks of kale leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala at concentrations of 0.0117% and 1.0342% (w/v, respectively, were studied on larval feeding behavior of Ascia monuste orseis. Data on leaves attractiveness and consumption at first and third larval instar were

  3. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Karina De Carli; Haese, Douglas; Kill, João Luís; Pires, Achicine Furno; Fernandes, Danieli Rankel; Colnago, Geraldo Luiz; Lucas, Wendius Henrique; Gama, Gabriela Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food) in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry ...

  4. Uso de ingredientes provenientes de OGM em rações e seu impacto na produção de alimentos de origem animal para humanos Use of ingredients from OGM in feed and its impact on the production of food of animal origin for human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal E. Vercesi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios o homem buscou selecionar as plantas alimentícias para maior produtividade. O conhecimento da estrutura do DNA permitiu que a engenharia genética se desenvolvesse consideravelmente fornecendo ferramentas para a realização de alterações específicas no genoma. Os produtos destas alterações são denominados transgênicos ou organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM e apresentam alto potencial de aplicação em diversas áreas da atividade humana como: agricultura, medicina, saúde, produção e processamento de alimentos, produção bioquímica, controle de doenças e biorremediação. Atualmente, as plantas transgênicas, oriundas da tecnologia do DNA recombinante, trouxeram novas variedades já cultivadas em mais de 100 milhões de hectares em 23 países, incluindo o Brasil, onde 8 variedades já foram aprovadas pela Comissão Técnica Nacional de Biossegurança (CTNBio. Esse método de melhoramento genético facilitou a introdução de características desejáveis em plantas, como resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos e otimização da composição de alguns nutrientes essenciais à saúde animal e humana. Enquanto estes avanços da biotecnologia abrem novas perspectivas para a solução de problemas em áreas como a agricultura, a liberação de transgênicos para uso na natureza traz preocupações quanto a possíveis problemas de natureza ecológica e para a saúde humana e animal. Estas preocupações deram origem à criação de agências governamentais para controlar o uso desta tecnologia e regulamentar a segurança dos alimentos transgênicos e seus derivados. Até o momento, os estudos científicos mostram que os transgênicos liberados comercialmente são tão seguros ou mais ao meio ambiente e a saúde animal e humana que os convencionais.From the origins the man has looked and selected vegetables with nutritive value for larger productivity. The knowledge of DNA structure allowed genetic

  5. Small-Scale Shock Testing of Propellants and Ingredients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawley, S

    2004-01-01

    .... The use of small-scale gap testing to evaluate the shock sensitivity of individual propellant ingredients and propellant formulations is a valuable method for experimentally establishing shock...

  6. CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES ON FIBROUS FEEDSTUFFS DENSIFICATION AND ITS INTERACTION WITH LIQUID INGREDIENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordesimo, Lester O.; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2015-10-01

    There has been continuing interest and support in using herbaceous biomass, mostly agricultural crop residues, in the U.S. as feedstocks for producing bioenergy, liquid transportation fuels, and industrial chemicals/materials. With the potential of greater collection of agricultural crop residues for the foregoing industrial applications there will be a commensurate greater availability of crop residues for utilization in agricultural production. Agricultural crop residues are typically used in agricultural production as roughage or bedding for cattle. Use of herbaceous biomass, corn stover of greatest interest at the present time, and processing coproducts thereof, as a feed ingredient presents an opportunity to reduce ration costs and improve livestock enterprise profitability by replacing an amount of corn and other feed grains in livestock diets with proper formulation. The obvious advantage of utilizing corn stover is its wide availability and low cost.

  7. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  8. Plant protein-based feeds and commercial feed enable isotopic tracking of aquaculture emissions into marine macrozoobenthic bioindicator species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, Henrik; Hillgruber, Nicola; Rößner, Yvonne; Focken, Ulfert

    2017-06-01

    Brittle stars (Ophiura spp.) and other benthic macrofauna were collected in a prospective mariculture area in the North Sea to determine if these taxa could be used as indicator species to track nutrients released from future offshore aquaculture sites. We analysed natural carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures in tissues from macrofauna and compared these to six feed ingredients and four experimental diets made thereof, as well as to a commercial feed with and without lipid and carbonate removal. Our data suggest practicability of using isotopic signatures of Ophiura spp. to track aquaculture-derived organic material if plant-based fish diet ingredients and commercial feed were used for fish farming in the German Exclusive Economic Zone. Diets with high fish meal content would not be detected in Ophiura spp. using isotopic measures due to the similarity with the marine background. Our data provide valuable baseline information for studies on the impact of offshore aquaculture on the marine environment.

  9. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon–water–energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in the new Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the water use efficiency and leaf area index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, a negative feedback mechanism in the vegetation–soil water system is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large leaf area index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

  10. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  13. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  14. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  15. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  16. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any of...

  17. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ingredient: (a) Benzocaine 5 to 20 percent. (b) Benzyl alcohol 1 to 4 percent. (c) Dibucaine 0.25 to 1...

  18. Structured adsorbents for isolation of functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Illera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Separation and purification of functional ingredients from raw or waste streams are often done via processes that include a chromatographic step using a packed bed of resin particles that have affinity for the ingredients to be separated. A column packed with these particles presents numerous

  19. 21 CFR 340.10 - Stimulant active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stimulant active ingredient. 340.10 Section 340.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE STIMULANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredient § 340.10...

  20. Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Fogliano, V.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients

  1. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine Nkirote; Imungi, Jasper Kathenya; Okoth, Michael; Momanyi, Clare; Biesalski, Han Konrad; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-05-01

    Recently, tannins have received considerable attention as health-promoting component in various plant foods and several studies have reported on its nutraceutical properties. However, no study has established the role of condensed tannins in indigenous foods of Kenya. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) and antidiabetic effects (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities) of condensed tannins in some selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous cereals, legumes, oil seeds, and vegetables. The condensed tannin content of the grains and vegetables ranged between 2.55 and 4.35 g/100 g DM and 1.53 and 5.73 g/100 g DM, respectively. The scavenging effect of acetonic extract on DPPH radical ranged from 77% to 90% while the reducing power was found to be 31 to 574 mmol Fe(II)/g DM in all the investigated food ingredients. The condensed tannin extracts of the analyzed samples showed promising antidiabetic effects with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of 23% to 44% and 58% to 88%, respectively. Condensed tannins extracted from the amaranth grain, finger millet, field bean, sunflower seeds, drumstick, and amaranth leaves exerted significantly higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities than other food ingredients. Among the traditional processing methods, roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be more suitable mild treatments for preserving the tannin compound and its functional properties as opposed to soaking + cooking and blanching treatments. The identified elite sources of optimally processed indigenous food ingredients with promising results could be used as health-promoting ingredients through formulation of therapeutic diets. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, L J; Hayes, J; Rosen, J; Knight, P

    1999-01-01

    A method was developed to quantitate emamectin benzoate in fish feed at levels between 5 and 15 ppm. The active ingredient is extracted from 20 g medicated feed into aqueous-methanolic solvent by overnight shaking. A solid-phase extraction procedure using a 2 g C18 cartridge is then used to concentrate the active residue and remove interfering matrix components. The extracted drug and internal standard are eluted from the cartridge, evaporated to dryness, and reconstituted in methanol. A control feed sample and fortified control working standard are simultaneously prepared. Remaining interferences and sample analysis are further separated on a gradient liquid chromatographic system. Recovery of emamectin benzoate from fortified feeds ranged from 97 to 100%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2%. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated feeds resulted in CVs ranging from 2.3 to 4.2% and recoveries of 88 to 98% of label claim.

  3. Multivariate image analysis for quality inspection in fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg

    Aquaculture is today one of the fastest growing food producing sectors in the world. Access to good and effective fish feed is a condition for optimised and sustainable aquaculture activity. In the aquaculture industry it is of utmost importance that the fish get feed of proper size and nutrition....... The colour appearance of fish products is important for customers. Salmonid fish get their red colour from a natural pigment called astaxanthin. To ensure a similar red colour of fish in aquaculture astaxanthin is used as an additive coated on the feed pellets. Astaxanthin can either be of natural origin......, or synthesised chemically. Common for both types is that they are relatively expensive in comparison to the other feed ingredients. This thesis investigates multi-variate data collection for visual inspection and optimisation of industrial production in the fish feed industry. Quality parameters focused on here...

  4. Apparent digestibility of energetic ingredients by pirarucu juveniles, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe dos Santos-Cipriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of feed ingredient digestibility for the pirarucu is a fundamental step in the development of feeds that promote proper growth of the specie while in captivity. A digestibility trial was conducted with four treatments in triplicate (corn starch, corn, rice bran and wheat bran to evaluate the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude protein and amino acids by the pirarucu. We used indirect methodology with the inclusion of chromium oxide at 0.1% in the feeds. In total, 18 juveniles were used, with an average live weight of 235 ± 36 g. The sampled juveniles were trained to consume the feeds prior to testing. The corn and cornstarch presented the best apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of dry matter, with 76.37% and 70.66%, respectively, followed by rice bran (46.23% and wheat bran (45.13%. The best ADCs of crude protein were observed in corn (93.44% and cornstarch (90.94% compared to rice bran (68.23% and wheat bran (68.58%. There was no significant difference in the ADC of gross energy; the values ranged from 47.10% for corn starch to 40.10% for corn. The corn and corn starch presented the best ADCs for all the amino acids evaluated, followed by rice bran and wheat bran.

  5. Burning characteristics of chemically isolated biomass ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the burning characteristics of isolated fractions of a biomass species. So, woody shells of hazelnut were chemically treated to obtain the fractions of extractives-free bulk, lignin, and holocellulose. Physical characterization of these fractions were determined by SEM technique, and the burning runs were carried out from ambient to 900 o C applying thermal analysis techniques of TGA, DTG, DTA, and DSC. The non-isothermal model of Borchardt-Daniels was used to DSC data to find the kinetic parameters. Burning properties of each fraction were compared to those of the raw material to describe their effects on burning, and to interpret the synergistic interactions between the fractions in the raw material. It was found that each of the fractions has its own characteristic physical and thermal features. Some of the characteristic points on the thermograms of the fractions could be followed definitely on those of the raw material, while some of them seriously shifted to other temperatures or disappeared as a result of the co-existence of the ingredients. Also, it is concluded that the presence of hemicellulosics and celluloses makes the burning of lignin easier in the raw material compared to the isolated lignin. The activation energies can be arranged in the order of holocellulose < extractives-free biomass < raw material < lignin.

  6. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects

  7. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  8. The Positive Impact of the Early-Feeding of a Plant-Based Diet on Its Future Acceptance and Utilisation in Rainbow Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurden, I.; Borchert, P.; Balasubramanian, M.N.; Schrama, J.W.; Dupont-Nivet, M.; Quillet, E.; Kaushik, S.J.; Panserat, S.; Médale, F.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional

  9. Suitability of a lime source high in manganese as a feed ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die Ouplaaskalk is teen 1% en 4% in 'n vetmestingsrantsoen vir lammers geplaas en vergelyk met 'n ander b'ron van kalk (Kulukalk; 45 mg Mn/kg), ingesluit teen dieselfde vlakke. Lammers in die vier behandelings is vir 69 dae individueel gevoer en daarna geslag. Die finale rantsoene het geen minerale teen toksiese ...

  10. Suitability of a lime source high in manganese as a feed ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plasma enzyme levels, mineral concentrations in plasma, faeces and kidneys, mineral content of livers, haematology, hislopathol- ogy of livers and kidneys and bone measurements.It is concluded that the Ouplaas lime, .... Table 1 Mineral composition of the pure lime sources (dry basis). Lime sources. Na. (vo). Mg. (vo). K.

  11. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED INGREDIENTS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were ...

  13. Effect of Sorghum -Barley Brewer's Spent Grain as a Feed Ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine if the inclusion of Sorghum-Barley Brewer's Spent Grain (SBBSG) in broiler diets will affect growth performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 380 Ross broiler chicks were brooded on a common diet without SBBSG for 28 days after which they were randomly assigned to ...

  14. TENDENCIES AND PECULIARITIES OF SHRIMP FEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIUDMYLA V. FIHURSKA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is food sector, which is growing rapidly in the last 25 years with annual growth rate 8,2 . One of the mostperspective branches of aquaculture is shrimp farming. The cost of feeds is up to 80% of the cost of shrimp breeding, so providingthe industry with high-quality feeds is the important goal of the feed industry in all over the world. The theoretical research was devotedto the task of compound shrimp feed production. In order to satisfy shrimp requirements, shrimp feeding systems were shown.Existing shrimp breeding systems are shown as different from the type of reservoirs (static / running water, indoor or outdoor, feedingmethods, and the species of grown shrimp. Features of the nutritional standards for freshwater and saltwater shrimps were analyzed.Nutrient requirements of shrimp have been changed through shrimp life-cycle. The shrimp life-cycle was shown.World leaders-producers of compound mixed feeds for shrimps were shown. The analysis of pellet size and nutritional valueof compound mixed feeds of crude protein content in prestart, starter, grower and finish periods of cultivation and in accordancewith the system of cultivation and feeding shrimp (intensive, extensive, semi-intensive is carried out. The requirements for the contentof main minerals, vitamins and restrictions to the content of crude fiber are given. Traditional ingredients are described. Bindersand preservatives, which are used for shrimp feeds, are shown and subscribed. In raw material the main problem is the need to ensurehigh protein content in the shrimp feed recipes. Because of many factors, fish meal quantity should be reduced in recipes. Becauseof its attractive amino acid content, availability and relatively affordable price, soybean meal and soy concentrates have receivedincreasing attention as substitutes for marine animal meals.The features of technological lines and processes of production of mixed feeds for shrimp are shown.Еhe advantages and

  15. Impact of non-binder ingredients and molecular weight of polymer binders on heat assisted twin screw dry granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Thompson, M R; O'Donnell, K P

    2018-01-30

    Two grades of commercial AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME were used as polymer binders to explore the influence of polymer viscosity and concentration on a novel heat assisted dry granulation process with a twin screw extruder. Contributions of other non-binder ingredients in the formulations were also studied for lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and an active pharmaceutical ingredient of caffeine. As sensitive indicators of processing conditions that expose the drug to high internally generated heat, dehydration of α-lactose monohydrate and polymorphic transformation of caffeine were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Additionally, any decomposition of caffeine was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Granular samples were characterized by particle size, circularity, fracture strength and their temperature on the exit of extruder. Higher screw speed and lower feed rate were found to help particles agglomerate by allowing feed particles a greater opportunity to increase in temperature. Lower binder molecular weight and higher binder concentration enable granules to build stronger strength and thereby lead to higher particle size. This new twin screw dry granulation was demonstrated as offering advantages over conventional hot melt granulation by minimizing thermal degradation of the tested ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on Chinese herbal medicine active ingredients labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Vegetable-Oil Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Jeppe Lindegaard

    be desirable to enhance specific properties such as shelf life, viscosity, texture, sensory aspects and physical appearance. Vegetable oils and fats constitute a considerable part of many food products such as chocolate, margarine, bread, spreads and ice cream. Several attractive properties found......In recent years the food sector has experienced a great boost in demand for tailor-made fats and oils to produce so-called functional foods, where ingredients have been carefully modified to yield products with specific, valuable properties. Depending on market segment and product, it may...... in these products, including flavor release, melting profile and appearance, are governed by the oils and fats added. Consequently, altering the fat phase may lead to enhanced properties of the products. The primary focus of the present work is vegetable oils and fats originating from different sources covering...

  18. Nutrient digestibility in food waste ingredients for Pekin and Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, A; Normand, L; Chavez, E R; Touchburn, S P

    1998-09-01

    Food wastes are valuable resources to be recycled into new added-value products through animal production. The determination of energy and digestibility values of these wastes is essential for feed formulation. Corn, soybean meal (SBM), and a total of nine industrial food waste ingredients were tested in a comparative metabolic study in Pekin and Muscovy ducklings at two different ages during growth. The "precision-feeding" technique was employed to establish DM, fat, and fiber digestibility as well as retention of N and energy (AME, AMEn in Pekins; and AME, AMEn, TME, TMEn in Muscovies) for the 11 ingredients. For Pekin at 3 wk of age, the AMEn of peanuts, tofu, pogo, granola, waste diet, bread, corn, SBM, okara, and brewers grains were 5,141, 4,019, 3,971, 3,908, 3,141, 2,279, 1,572, and 1,442 kcal/kg, respectively. For Pekin at 6 wk of age, the AMEn of peanuts, pogo, tofu, granola, waste diet, bread, corn, SBM, and okara were 5,340, 4,327, 4,254, 4,079, 3,567, 3,302, 3,201, 2,416, and 1,562 kcal/kg, respectively. For Muscovy at 7 wk of age, the TMEn of peanuts, pogo, granola, waste diet, corn, tofu, bread, SBM, okara, and peanut skin were 5,207, 4,321, 4,057, 3,733, 3,233, 3,180, 3,084, 2,236, 1,575, and 904 kcal/kg, respectively. For Muscovy at 11 wk of age, the TMEn of peanuts, pogo, granola, tofu, waste diet, corn, bread, SBM, okara, and brewers grains were 5,077, 4,137, 4,025, 3,921, 3,586, 3,254, 3,123, 2,245, 2,007, and 1,392 kcal/kg, respectively. Nitrogen retention was significantly (P waste diet and lower for bread, corn, granola, brewers grains, and peanut skin. Dry matter digestibility was high for granola, pogo, corn, bread, and the food waste diet. Fat digestibility was generally the same for all the ingredients and was consistently over 97%. Bread neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was significantly (P waste ingredients as well as corn and SBM in both Pekin and Muscovy ducklings at two different ages during growth to market weight.

  19. Consumer product chemical weight fractions from ingredient lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing human exposures to chemicals in consumer products requires composition information. However, comprehensive composition data for products in commerce are not generally available. Many consumer products have reported ingredient lists that are constructed using specific gu...

  20. How to Successfully Build a Clear Label Paradigm : Ingredient Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Careful labeling and consumer education may make the difference for the future success of individual ingredients and the products that rely on them. The second of a two-part report on a clear label strategy.

  1. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient shall be a specific name and not a collective (generic) name, except that: (1) Spices, flavorings..., concentrated milk, reconstituted milk, and dry whole milk may be declared as “milk”. (5) Bacterial cultures may...

  2. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. An accurate and precise representation of drug ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Josh; Bian, Jiang; Hogan, William R

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we built the Drug Ontology (DrOn) to support comparative effectiveness research use cases. Here, we have updated our representation of ingredients to include both active ingredients (and their strengths) and excipients. Our update had three primary lines of work: 1) analysing and extracting excipients, 2) analysing and extracting strength information for active ingredients, and 3) representing the binding of active ingredients to cytochrome P450 isoenzymes as substrates and inhibitors of those enzymes. To properly differentiate between excipients and active ingredients, we conducted an ontological analysis of the roles that various ingredients, including excipients, have in drug products. We used the value specification model of the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations to represent strengths of active ingredients and then analyzed RxNorm to extract excipient and strength information and modeled them according to the results of our analysis. We also analyzed and defined dispositions of molecules used in aggregate as active ingredients to bind cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. Our analysis of excipients led to 17 new classes representing the various roles that excipients can bear. We then extracted excipients from RxNorm and added them to DrOn for branded drugs. We found excipients for 5,743 branded drugs, covering ~27% of the 21,191 branded drugs in DrOn. Our analysis of active ingredients resulted in another new class, active ingredient role. We also extracted strengths for all types of tablets, capsules, and caplets, resulting in strengths for 5,782 drug forms, covering ~41% of the 14,035 total drug forms and accounting for ~97 % of the 5,970 tablets, capsules, and caplets in DrOn. We represented binding-as-substrate and binding-as-inhibitor dispositions to two cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP2C19 and CYP2D6) and linked these dispositions to 65 compounds. It is now possible to query DrOn automatically for all drug products that contain active

  4. Nuclear EMP: ingredients of an EMP protection engineering methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Spogen, L.R. Jr.

    1977-02-01

    A fundamental methodology of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection engineering is described. Operations performed within the framework of this methodology are discussed. These operations, along with problem constraints and data, constitute the essential ingredients needed to implement the overall engineering methodology. Basic definitions and descriptions of these essential ingredients are provided. The issues discussed represent the first step in developing a methodology for protecting systems against EMP effects

  5. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjin Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes. The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards.

  6. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjin; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Jaewoo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Seo, Jungkwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2018-01-01

    The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes). The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards. PMID:29652814

  7. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each... statement, displaying the product's percentage of organic contents on the information panel. (b...

  8. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  9. Parasitic Contamination in Commonly- Consumed Vegetables in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raw (fresh vegetables are an important ingredient of healthy diet. Many enteric bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens could be transmitted by vegetables. Mazandaran province is located in northern Iran with a coastal area and extensive fields for vegetable cultivation. The current study is designed to evaluate the parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables. Methods: A total of 150 samples of fresh vegetables obtained from markets were examined for parasitic infections using standard methods. Results: Out of 104 samples (60.3% were contaminated with parasites. Parsley and radish with prevalence rates of 90% (18/20 and 39.1% (9/23 were the most and least contaminated vegetables. Free living larva and Trichostrongylus were the most and least common parasites in our results. Conclusion: It can be concluded that parasitological contamination of raw vegetables may be a health threat to consumers of such products.

  10. Dietary fibre as functional ingredient in meat products: a novel approach for healthy living - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Banerjee, Rituparna

    2010-06-01

    There is a rapid change in our overall lifestyle due to impact of globalization. Every day hasty life has forced consumers to be dependent upon fast foods, which contain meagre amount of dietary fibre. Non-starch polysaccharides and resistant oligosaccharides, lignin, substances associated with NSP and lignin complex in plants, other analogous carbohydrates, such as resistant starch and dextrins, and synthesized carbohydrate compounds, like polydextrose are categorized as dietary fibre. They are mostly concentrated in cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables. It has been proclaimed that daily dietary fibre intake helps in prevention of many nutritional disorders like gut related problems, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer and obesity. Meat is generally lacking this potential ingredient, which could be incorporated while products processing to make them more healthful. Various fibre rich sources have been attempted in different products attributed to their technological and health benefits and many are in the queue to be used in a variety of meat products. Selection of appropriate fibre rich ingredients and their proper incorporation can improve health image of meat products.

  11. Nutraceutical Potential of New Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Ingredients for Beverage Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Zarazúa, Maria Guadalupe; Bah, Moustapha; Costa, Anabela Silvia Gomes; Rodrigues, Francisca; Pimentel, Filipa Botelho; Rojas-Molina, Isela; Rojas, Alejandra; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto

    2017-10-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been extensively used as animal feed, due to its fiber, protein, minerals, and vitamins, being also a useful source of phenolic compounds with potential therapeutic benefits. Nevertheless, its potential use as human ingredient is scarce. The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional composition, amino acid profile, and antioxidant capacity (AOC) of freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and fibrous residual material (RM), two new alfalfa-derived products (Adps) recently launched as ingredients for beverage preparations. Results demonstrated a high content of proteins (23-30 g/100 g FDJ and 13-17 g/100 g RM), crude fiber (29 g/100 g RM), and minerals (such as sodium, calcium, iron, and zinc). No significant difference was found in caloric content (4 kcal/g). Essential and nonessential amino acids were quantified in both Adps being leucine and lysine the most abundant. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and their changes along the different harvesting periods of the year were also examined. FDJ presented the highest TPC in May (19 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight [dw]), while in October TFC had the maximum value (4 mg catechin equivalents/g dw). Both products exhibited an interesting AOC by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. This study reports the nutraceutical potential of two new types of Adps.

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  16. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  17. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  20. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and

  1. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  2. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  3. Does feeding frequency affect utilization of added amino acids in Nile tilapia?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Rezaul; Bajgai, Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the major farmed fish species, with main production in Asia, South and Central America that can tolerate a wide range of environmental stress and easily adapt with low quality of feed ingredients. The aims of the experiments were to determine effects of feeding frequency on utilization of protein and energy in Nile tilapia, to quantify differences in excretion of ammonia and ammonium in Nile tilapia fed the same daily ration, distributed over 2 a...

  4. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  5. Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Waldorf, Heidi; Saini, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease.

  6. HIM-herbal ingredients in-vivo metabolism database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Tang, Kailin; Liu, Qi; Sun, Yi; Huang, Qi; Zhu, Ruixin; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Duanfeng; Huang, Chenggang; Cao, Zhiwei

    2013-05-31

    Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients' metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski's Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients' targets databases). A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/.

  7. COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED STUFF FOR ADDITIONAL FEEDING IN INFANTS’ NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ya. Kon’

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a problem of rational nutrition of infants with commercially produced additional feeding stuff containing fruits and vegetables. Equally with traditional form of fruits and vegetables in infants’ nutrition (juices, nectars, mashed products, there are new types of food — combined mush products containing fruits, cereals and milk. The article analyzes compound, properties of these products and peculiarities of their use in infants’ nutrition. Authors give recommendations on terms of inclusion these products in diet of infants.Key words: infants, nutrition, additional feeding, mashed products.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:119-123

  8. Influence of vegetable diets on physiological and immune responses to thermal stress in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gesto, Manuel; Batista, Sónia

    2018-01-01

    quality parameters. However, scarce information is available regarding the long-term impact of vegetable diets (combining the inclusion of both vegetable protein and oils) on the stress response and immunity of this fish species. This study aims to evaluate the concomitant effect of the extended use...... of vegetable protein-based diets with fish oil (FO) replacement (0, 50 or 100%) by vegetable oils (VO), on the response to acute (10 min) or prolonged (4 days) stress, induced by thermal shock. Plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate as well as hepatic levels of glucose, glycogen and lactate were......The substitution of fish resources as ingredients for aquafeeds by those based on vegetable sources is needed to ensure aquaculture sustainability in the future. It is known that Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) accepts high dietary content of plant ingredients without altering growth or flesh...

  9. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  10. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  11. [Study on artificial compound feed for Buthus martensii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Cai; Shen, Xue-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Han, Xiu-Kun

    2014-03-01

    To solve the problem that the single feed causing malnutrition, extension of the life cycle and low survival rates of Buthus martensii. By using Minitab (R) 15.1.1.0.0., 7 different kinds of compound feed were designed, including minced meat mud (pork,chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin as raw material. Different proportions of compound feed that taking the yellow mealworm as main component had a significant effect on the growth, mortality and birth number of Buthus martensii. Compound feed 5 significantly reduced mortality of youth scorpion. The compound feed 4 was the best in improving the weight of scorpion larvae and youth scorpion, and the farrowing number of mother scorpion. Other indicators were also good. Proportions in meatmud (pork, chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin was 30.00%, 25.00%, 20.08%, 15.58%, 8.08% and 1.25%, respectively. The growth of Buthus martensii is significantly influenced by the type of feed. In the production of compound feed, the yellow mealworm with compound feed 4 can be popularized.

  12. 137Cs absorption factors (AFs) from contaminated cooking water to some vegetable and protein samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide in contaminated freshwater may directly gain access to the human body through two major routes: drinking and cooking food with fresh water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked food. The degree of contamination of food during cooking depends both on absorption power of the individual ingredients and the level of radionuclide present in the water. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the individual ingredients to the concentration in the cooking water can be designated as 'Absorption factor' (AF). AF can be used to predict the radionuclide absorbed by the ingredients cooked with contaminated water, to assess the internal radiation dose to the consumer and radionuclide transfer from the cooking water to the ingredients. A better understanding of the variables that affect the AF in various ingredients during cooking is central to deriving the contamination level of the ingredients. 10 kinds of greens and vegetable and 3 kinds of animal protein were boiled with 37 Cs contaminated freshwater and corresponding AFs were determined in both hot and cooled condition

  13. What Is "Natural"? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Edgar; Chambers, Edgar; Castro, Mauricio

    2018-04-23

    Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural.

  14. Effects of Some Topological Ingredients on the Evolutionary Ultimatum Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Lili; Zhang Jianxiong; Tang Wansheng; Zhang Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at figuring out the crucial topological ingredients which affect the outcomes of the ultimatum game located on different networks, encompassing the regular network, the random network, the small-world network, and the scale-free network. With the aid of random interchanging algorithm, we investigate the relations between the outcomes of the ultimatum game and some topological ingredients, including the average range, the clustering coefficient and the heterogeneity, and so forth. It is found that for the regular, random and small-work networks, the average range and the clustering coefficient have evident impacts on the ultimatum game, while for the scale-free network, the original degree heterogeneity and the underlying rich-club characterizations are the mainly important topological ingredients that influence the outcomes of ultimatum game substantially.

  15. What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural.

  16. Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha......-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other...... of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients....

  17. What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Edgar; Castro, Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural. PMID:29690627

  18. Modern features of complementary feeding and their efficiency in baby-led feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Duka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Baby-led feeding exists in the practice of pediatrics since 2002. But there are still no clear results on the effectiveness of its implementation and the impact on the health of young children. Particular attention is required to study the effectiveness of introducing complementary feeding. Materials and methods. We analyzed 245 questionnaires of infants with baby-led-feeding. In the questionnaires for mothers, questions were raised about the initiation of the introduction of complementary feeding, its types, the child’s reaction, with the assessment of physical development and the previous diseases. Results. Children with baby-led-feeding have a tendency to late introduction of complementary feeding (from 6 months. It turned out that until this age, the child receives only breast milk, which can’t satisfy the need for important constituent ingredients. They are necessary for the child at this age, and it leads to various metabolic disorders in the form of allergic di­seases, metabolic syndrome, anemia, osteoporosis and others. Particular concern was caused by the fact that children start receiving meat products too late, which naturally leads to the development of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, contrary to the current norms and regulations, we noticed frequent facts of self-consumption of the whole milk itself and fermented milk products made from it (kephir, yoghurt. Conclusions. Based on the study of this question, it was proved that the existing provisions on the introduction of complementary foods with baby-led-feeding require supervision and correction in accordance with the state of children’s health and the existing provisions of the World Health Organization.

  19. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The

  20. Capacity of milk composition to identify the feeding system used to feed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Fernando; Santiago, Carme; Jiménez-Calderón, José D; Martínez-Fernández, Adela

    2017-08-01

    This Research Paper addresses the hypothesis that is possible to identify the type of feed used for dairy cows by means of the analysis of milk composition and the fatty acid profile of milk fat. Sixteen dairy farms were monitored during 1 year with quarterly visits between summer 2014 and spring 2015. Rations varied throughout the year due to annual dynamic change of forage production, forage rotation, variation of nutrient requirements according to physiological state of the animal, etc. The ingredients of the rations were analysed by cluster identifying five feeding systems based on the main ingredient of the diet: grazing, maize silage, grass silage, dry forage and concentrate. Milk composition could explain up to 91·3% of the total variability among feeding systems, while fatty acid profile could explain only up to 61·2% of total variability. However, when the sum of types of fatty acids and their ratios are taken, up to 93·5% of total variability could be explained. The maize silage system had the greatest milk yield, protein, solid non-fat and urea proportions, as well as the highest proportion of saturated fatty acid and lowest concentration of trans11 18 : 1, cis9 18 : 1 and 18 : 3 n3. Principal component analysis distinguishes the maize silage system from other feeding systems, both from milk composition and milk fatty acid profile. Concentrate system overlapped partially with the grazing, grass silage and dry forage systems. The latter systems had the highest concentrations of cis9 18 : 1, trans11 18 : 1 and 18 : 3, but there was no clear differentiation among them.

  1. Feeding style of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practice of their infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Adriana Oliveira da COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate feeding styles of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practices of their infants. Methods A cross-sectional study comparing a group of dyads of 50 adolescent mothers (ages 15 to 19 with 62 adult mothers (ages 24 to 44 and their infants (9 to 24 months was performed. All mothers and infants were assisted by three basic health family units in the city of Recife, Brazil. Data were collected through a structured interview on socioeconomic conditions, maternal styles of feeding the child, and evaluation of infant feeding practices. The food styles were classified as responsive, authoritative, and passive, according to the adapted form of Carvalhaes, Perosa and Silveira of 2009. The frequency of food intake was calculated for six food groups (1. Bread and cereals; 2. Fruits and vegetables; 3. Meat, eggs, and beans; 4. Milk and dairy products; 5. Sugars, sweets, and fats; 6. Industrialized food. Children’s anthropometry and body mass index by age were classified into Z-score according to the World Health Organization Standard Curves, 2006. Results Adolescent mothers began complementary feeding more frequently before the seventh month (.=0,02, presented less responsive (.=0.04 and more authoritarian feeding styles (.=0.01, and their children received more foods with sugars, oils, and fats (.=0.02, and less meat, eggs, and beans (.=0.06 than the children of adult mothers. Conclusion Adolescent mothers adopt less responsive eating styles and offer more inadequate complementary feeding for their infants.

  2. Lipases: particularly effective biocatalysts for cosmetic active ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvergnaux Florent

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are the tools of choice in the on-going quest for non-pollutant processes to discover molecules for use in skin products. Amongst these biocatalysts, lipases offer considerable potential in terms of ingredient development and are of interest in skin dermocosmetic formulations possessing sensory or biological activities. Lipases have been studied for around thirty years and, in most cases, these enzymes function under what are deemed to be mild conditions, displaying remarkable efficacy particularly in terms of selectivity. This particularly effective strategy will be illustrated through typical synthesis, demonstrating how ester or amide active ingredients are obtained.

  3. Downstream Processability of Crystal Habit-Modified Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pudasaini, Nawin; Upadhyay, Pratik Pankaj; Parker, Christian Richard

    2017-01-01

    Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability and tablet......Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability...

  4. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El din, M D; Farag, H; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab.

  5. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  6. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were driven by very high concentrations of CDD. A team comprised of individuals from the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the US Department of Agriculture (DA) traced the source of elevated CDD to a minor component in the poultry feed. This component was ball clay and it was used as an anti-caking agent in the soybean meal. The ball clay often comprised less than 0.2% of the dry weight of the complete ration in contaminated poultry. The investigation traced the ball clay to a mine in Mississippi. After learning that other ball clay mines in Kentucky and Tennessee also contained elevated CDD levels, the FDA issued a letter to producers or users of clay products in animal feeds asking that they cease using ball clay in any animal feed or feed ingredient. Subsequent contaminations of animal feed in Belgium with PCB and of citrus pulp from Brazil with CDD and CDF alerted countries worldwide that animal feeds can become contaminated with CDD/CDF/PCB (DFP) via contamination of minor feed components. This type of contamination can overshadow the normal air-to-leaf process that is thought to dominate the food chain for terr

  7. Preservation of hatchery waste by lactic acid fermentation. 2. Large-scale fermentation and feeding trial to evaluate feeding value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, A C; Patterson, P H

    1997-09-01

    Two waste streams from a Leghorn hatchery were preserved and recycled by fermentation with a by-product carbohydrate and extrusion processing into new feed ingredients that were evaluated with broiler chickens. Cockerel chicks (CC) and a 60:40 ratio of CC:shell waste (CC:SW) were fermented in 189-L barrels for 21 d following grinding, then mixing with a liquid culture (0.2%) and carbohydrate source at 15 and 16.66%, respectively. At 2 wk, pH was 4.44 and 5.09 for the CC and CC:SW products compared with higher values of 6.54 and 6.98 for the raw ingredients at the onset. Negligible hydrogen sulfide and no ammonia gas were recorded during the fermentation period. At 21 d, the fermented CC and CC:SW were extruded, dried, and ground to meals containing CP and TMEn levels of 47.4%, 3,187 kcal/kg, and 33.1%, 2,696 kcal/kg, respectively. Broiler chickens were fed a control diet and the CC (5 and 10%) and CC:SW (2.5 and 5%) ingredient diets with corn and soybean meal for 6 wk to evaluate feeding value and carcass yield. Body weight, gain and feed conversion at 42 d for birds fed diets supplemented with CC or CC:SW at all levels were comparable to those of the control. Diets supplemented with hatchery by-product had no negative effect on carcass measurements except ready to cook carcass and wing yield, which were significantly greater for the 10% CC:SW birds than for the control. These data indicate that nutrient dense hatchery by-products can be preserved with fermentation up to 21 d and support broiler live performance and carcass yield as dietary ingredients equal to or better than a corn-soybean meal control.

  8. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  9. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 352.20 Section 352.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effective date was stayed until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the text is set forth as...

  10. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 352...

  11. 21 CFR 333.320 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 333.320 Section 333.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Note: At 75 FR 9776, Mar. 4, 2010, § 333.320 was revised, effective Mar. 4, 2011. For the convenience...

  12. Literacy: An Essential Ingredient in the Recipe for Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The ingredients that underpin economic growth are well-known and generally accepted; population growth, physical capital, financial capital and human capital all play a part in creating long term differences in the wealth of nations. There remains, however, considerable debate about the ideal recipe for economic growth. Recently, Statistics Canada…

  13. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  14. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more and more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future. (author)

  15. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... alcohol 95 percent in an anhydrous glycerin 5 percent base. [65 FR 48905, Aug. 10, 2000] ...

  16. The Chemistry of Curcumin, the Health Promoting Ingredient in Turmeric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2010-01-01

    Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting ingredient in turmeric. The case was developed to review core concepts in organic chemistry and…

  17. 7 CFR 58.634 - Assembling and combining mix ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembling and combining mix ingredients. 58.634 Section 58.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...

  18. Introducing CSR - The Missing Ingredient in the Land Reform Recipe?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article identifies corporate social responsibility (CSR) as one of the missing ingredients in the recipe for a successful land reform programme. The article introduces CSR and discusses the business case for CSR; identifies its benefits; considers its possible limitations; and examines the major drivers behind the notion.

  19. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1985-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more and more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  20. Consumer preferences for different combinations of carriers and functional ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    Kleef, van Trijp & Luning, 2005; Patch, Tapsell & Williams, 2005). With this in mind, the present study aimed at uncovering which functional ingredients consumers accept in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and liver pâté...

  1. Antiulcerogenic benefits of herbal ingredients in ethanol-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiulcerogenic benefits of herbal ingredients in ethanol-induced animal models. ... Although therapeutic approaches are widely available, preventive regimens are limited. Numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal ... gastric ulcer. Key words: Herbal Medicines, Gastric ulcer, Prevention, Animal models, Alcohol ...

  2. Consumer needs and requirements for food and ingredient traceability information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of improved food traceability systems has aimed to restore consumer confidence in food safety and quality, in part by being able to provide consumers with more information about the origins of foods and food ingredients. However, little is known about consumers’ opinions and beliefs

  3. Microencapsulation as a tool for incorporating bioactive ingredients into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, S S; Oliveira, J C; Crean, A M

    2010-11-01

    Microencapsulation has been developed by the pharmaceutical industry as a means to control or modify the release of drug substances from drug delivery systems. In drug delivery systems microencapsulation is used to improve the bioavailability of drugs, control drug release kinetics, minimize drug side effects, and mask the bitter taste of drug substances. The application of microencapsulation has been extended to the food industry, typically for controlling the release of flavorings and the production of foods containing functional ingredients (e.g. probiotics and bioactive ingredients). Compared to the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry has lower profit margins and therefore the criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are more stringent. The type of microcapsule (reservoir and matrix systems) produced and its resultant release properties are dependent on the microencapsulation technology, in addition to the physicochemical properties of the core and the shell materials. This review discusses the factors that affect the release of bioactive ingredients from microcapsules produced by different microencapsulation technologies. The key criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are also discussed. Two of the most common physical microencapsulation technologies used in pharmaceutical processing, fluidized-bed coating, and extrusion-spheronization are explained to highlight how they might be adapted to the microencapsulation of functional bioactive ingredients in the food industry.

  4. Structuring of expanded snacks based on patato ingredients : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Broeze, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review the current knowledge on the structuring via bubble expansion of starchy snacks, which are formulated on the basis of potato ingredients. These snacks are rarely discussed in scientific literature, but there are a scant number of patents dealing with various formulations and

  5. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  6. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  7. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  8. Fate of Salmonella enterica in a mixed ingredient salad containing lettuce, cheddar cheese, and cooked chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Federica; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Food service and retail sectors offer consumers a variety of mixed ingredient salads that contain fresh-cut vegetables and other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, cereals, dairy products, cooked seafood, cooked meat, cured meats, or dairy products obtained from external suppliers. Little is known about the behavior of enteric bacterial pathogens in mixed ingredient salads. A model system was developed to examine the fate of Salmonella enterica (inoculum consisting of S. enterica serovars Agona, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Brandenberg, and Kentucky) on the surface of romaine lettuce tissues incubated alone and in direct contact with Cheddar cheese or cooked chicken. S. enterica survived but did not grow on lettuce tissues incubated alone or in contact with Cheddar cheese for 6 days at either 6 or 14°C. In contrast, populations increased from 2.01 ± 0.22 to 9.26 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) when lettuce washed in water was incubated in contact with cooked chicken at 14°C. Populations on lettuce leaves were reduced to 1.28 ± 0.14 CFU/cm(2) by washing with a chlorine solution (70 ppm of free chlorine) but increased to 8.45 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) after 6 days at 14°C. Experimentation with a commercial product in which one third of the fresh-cut romaine lettuce was replaced with inoculated lettuce revealed that S. enterica populations increased by 4 log CFU/g during storage for 3 days at 14°C. These findings indicate that rapid growth of bacterial enteric pathogens may occur in mixed ingredient salads; therefore, strict temperature control during the manufacture, distribution, handling, and storage of these products is critical.

  9. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  10. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  11. Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Tang, Sou Teng; Lim, See Meng

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins are colored water-soluble pigments belonging to the phenolic group. The pigments are in glycosylated forms. Anthocyanins responsible for the colors, red, purple, and blue, are in fruits and vegetables. Berries, currants, grapes, and some tropical fruits have high anthocyanins content. Red to purplish blue-colored leafy vegetables, grains, roots, and tubers are the edible vegetables that contain a high level of anthocyanins. Among the anthocyanin pigments, cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in most of the plants. The colored anthocyanin pigments have been traditionally used as a natural food colorant. The color and stability of these pigments are influenced by pH, light, temperature, and structure. In acidic condition, anthocyanins appear as red but turn blue when the pH increases. Chromatography has been largely applied in extraction, separation, and quantification of anthocyanins. Besides the use of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural dyes, these colored pigments are potential pharmaceutical ingredients that give various beneficial health effects. Scientific studies, such as cell culture studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, show that anthocyanidins and anthocyanins possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various non-communicable diseases. These studies confer the health effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins, which are due to their potent antioxidant properties. Different mechanisms and pathways are involved in the protective effects, including free-radical scavenging pathway, cyclooxygenase pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and inflammatory cytokines signaling. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural food colorants and their nutraceutical properties for health. Abbreviations : CVD: Cardiovascular disease VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.

  12. Feed- and feed additives-related aspects of gut health and development in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluske, John R

    2013-01-07

    The development of new/different management and feeding strategies to stimulate gut development and health in newly-weaned pigs, in order to improve growth performance while minimizing the use of antimicrobial compounds such as antibiotic growth promotants (AGP) and heavy mineral compounds, is essential for the long-term sustainability of the pig industry. Factors including the sub-optimal intake of nutrients and energy, inappropriate microbiota biomass and (or) balance, immature and compromised immune function, and psychosomatic factors caused by weaning can compromise both the efficiency of digestion and absorption and intestinal barrier function through mucosal damage and alteration of tight junction integrity. As a consequence, pigs at weaning are highly susceptible to pathogenic enteric conditions such as post-weaning diarrhea that may be caused by serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Many dietary components, e.g., protein, fiber, feed additives and minerals, are known to influence microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract that in turn can impact upon pig growth and health, although the relationships between these are sometimes not necessarily apparent or obvious. In a world climate of increased scrutiny over the use of antibiotics per se in pig production, certain feed additives are seen as alternatives/replacements to antibiotics, and have evolved in some cases to have important roles in everyday commercial pig nutrition. Nevertheless and in general, there remains inconsistency and variability in the efficacy of some feed additives and in cases of severe disease outbreaks, for example, therapeutic antibiotics and/or heavy minerals such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are generally relied upon. If feed ingredients and (or) feed additives are to be used with greater regularity and reliability, then it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms whereby antibiotics and minerals such as ZnO influence animal physiology, in conjunction with the use of

  13. Level and characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in feed and feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyun; Ding, Gangdou; Zhou, Zhiguang; Liu, Xun; Wang, Yixiao; Xie, HeidQunhui; Xu, Tuan; Wang, Pu; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Feed security is a prerequisite for safe animal food products. In this study, 13 groups of feed and feed ingredients, totaling 2067 samples, were collected in the period of 2011 to 2014 from China. The highest mean level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was found in fish meals and shell powders, with a concentration of 60.35ng/kg, followed by mineral origin materials. In terms of the toxicity equivalent concentration, the fish oil group showed the highest PCDD/F levels because of their bio-accumulation through the aquatic food chain, with an average concentration of 1.26ng WHO-TEQ/kg, while the lowest level was observed in compound feed for chickens and pigs, with an average value of 0.16ng WHO-TEQ/kg. OCDD and OCDF were the predominant congeners in all groups except fish oils, in which the primary congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF. For zinc chloride samples, different from other zinc-based compound samples, the main congeners were 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF (17%), 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF (15%), 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF (12%) and OCDF (30%). Considering toxicity equivalency factors, the dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1, 2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, and the contribution to the total TEQ was 29%, 16%, 14% and 12%, respectively. Overall, 2.1% (43 out of 2067) of all the analyzed samples exceeded the different individual 'European Union maximum limited levels for PCDD/Fs. This study is beneficial for the determination of the status of contamination levels of feed and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Climatic drivers of vegetation based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Jeroen; Martens, Brecht; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Molini, Annalisa; Miralles, Diego

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics are driven by climate, and at the same time they play a key role in forcing the different bio-geochemical cycles. As climate change leads to an increase in frequency and intensity of hydro-meteorological extremes, vegetation is expected to respond to these changes, and subsequently feed back on their occurrence. This response can be analysed using time series of different vegetation diagnostics observed from space, in the optical (e.g. Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF)) and microwave (Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD)) domains. In this contribution, we compare the climatic drivers of different vegetation diagnostics, based on a monthly global data-cube of 24 years at a 0.25° resolution. To do so, we calculate the wavelet coherence between each vegetation-related observation and observations of air temperature, precipitation and incoming radiation. The use of wavelet coherence allows unveiling the scale-by-scale response and sensitivity of the diverse vegetation indices to their climatic drivers. Our preliminary results show that the wavelet-based statistics prove to be a suitable tool for extracting information from different vegetation indices. Going beyond traditional methods based on linear correlations, the application of wavelet coherence provides information about: (a) the specific periods at which the correspondence between climate and vegetation dynamics is larger, (b) the frequencies at which this correspondence occurs (e.g. monthly or seasonal scales), and (c) the time lag in the response of vegetation to their climate drivers, and vice versa. As expected, areas of high rainfall volumes are characterised by a strong control of radiation and temperature over vegetation. Furthermore, precipitation is the most important driver of vegetation variability over short terms in most regions of the world - which can be explained by the rapid response of leaf development towards available water content

  15. Formulated feed preference for survival and optimal growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-seven Bulinus snail species were fed for eight weeks with eleven diets consisting of different feed-formulations and vegetables. Snails reared exclusively on grower's mash, corn fibre meal and fish meal did not survive for up to two weeks. The result from this investigation indicatesthat there isno signiicant difference ...

  16. Comparative utilization and cost benefit of feeding three novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding three differently processed discarded vegetable-bovine blood-rumen content mixture on nutrient digestibility and cost benefits of broiler chickens. A total of 1,080 day-old Marshal broiler chickens were fed diet containing discarded vegetablefresh bovine ...

  17. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  1. Individual and job-related variation in infant feeding practices among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Tucker, Jenna; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    To document working mothers' infant feeding practices and delineate factors that may shape infant feeding. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a community sample of working women with 8-month old infants (n=199). Nearly all working mothers used commercially prepared foods like infant cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Approximately one-fifth fed infants french fries, sweetened beverages, and sweetened desserts. Unhealthy infant feeding was elevated among unmarried mothers, those with less education, and those with a nonstandard work schedule. Working mothers use commercially prepared foods for infant feeding. Socially disadvantaged working mothers' infant feeding may pose health and developmental risks.

  2. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Sørensen

    Full Text Available Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group. The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.

  3. Transmission System Vegetation Management Program. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for Bonneville and the public, and interfere with their ability to maintain these facilities. They need to (1) keep vegetation away from the electric facilities; (2) increase their program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools they can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This DEIS establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this EIS). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed: manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 24 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, they consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides on any vegetation. Both would favor a management

  4. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  5. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  6. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella -free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10 6 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10 6 PFU/g) concentrations significantly ( P contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10 7 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  7. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  8. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  9. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we

  10. Utilization of shrimp industry waste in the formulation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino; Oliveira de Souza, Erivelto; Bora, Pushkar Singh

    2007-02-01

    A rapid expansion of fisheries is demanding an adequate supply of efficient, nutritious and inexpensive fish feed, because feed contributes highly to the cost of fish production. Shrimp head, a waste product from the shrimp export industry qualifies as an economical, abundant and good quality protein source for fish feeds. In the present work, shrimp head silage powder, which contained approximately 40% protein, was used as a substitute for fish flour. Four feeds, in the form of pellets, were prepared by substituting shrimp head silage for fish flour at 0%, 33.3%, 66.6% and 100% dietary levels. Other ingredients such as corn, soy, bovine blood, cassava and corn cob flours, soy oil, vitamin premix, salt, and other components also were used in the formulation. A commercial fish feed was used as the control. The proximate composition of these feeds did not differ significantly at p>0.05, except for the protein content of the control feed, which was about 30.6% versus 35.4-36.9% protein in the other diets. No significant differences (p>0.05 level) in weight and length of juveniles fed with the different feeds during a period of 60 days were observed. In all cases, an excellent correlation (0.9950-0.9996) between weight and length of juveniles was observed. No significant difference in growth of juveniles fed on R1, R2, R3, or R4, or the control feed, was observed. Similarly, the proximate analyses of the flesh of juveniles did not present significant differences (p>0.05). The result of the study indicates that the shrimp head silage could replace fish flour as an ingredient in tilapia feed with economic advantages and without sacrificing the quality of the feed.

  11. Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Manas Ranjan Swain; Marimuthu Anandharaj; Ramesh Chandra Ray; Rizwana Parveen Rani

    2014-01-01

    As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are eas...

  12. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Potential Health and Beauty Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Chrapusta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR, which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials.

  13. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Potential Health and Beauty Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapusta, Ewelina; Kaminski, Ariel; Duchnik, Kornelia; Bober, Beata; Adamski, Michal; Bialczyk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials. PMID:29065484

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Chinese five-spice ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Soong, Yean Yean; Lim, Siang Wee; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds in spices were reportedly found to possess high antioxidant capacities (AOCs), which may prevent or reduce risk of human diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. The potential AOC of Chinese five-spice powder (consist of Szechuan pepper, fennel seed, cinnamon, star anise and clove) with varying proportion of individual spice ingredients was investigated through four standard methods. Our results suggest that clove is the major contributor to the AOC of the five-spice powder whereas the other four ingredients contribute to the flavour. For example, the total phenolic content as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values increased linearly with the clove percentage in five-spice powder. This observation opens the door to use clove in other spice mixtures to increase their AOC and flavour. Moreover, linear relationships were also observed between AOC and the total phenolic content of the 32 tested spice samples.

  15. Microalgae as healthy ingredients for functional food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J; Cardoso, C; Bandarra, N M; Afonso, C

    2017-08-01

    Microalgae are very interesting and valuable natural sources of highly valuable bioactive compounds, such as vitamins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, enzymes and fibre. Due to their potential, microalgae have become some of the most promising and innovative sources of new food and functional products. Moreover, microalgae can be used as functional ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of foods and, thus, to favourably affect human health by improving the well-being and quality of life, but also by curtailing disease and illness risks. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health benefits associated with the consumption of microalgae, bioactive compounds, functional ingredients, and health foods.

  16. Acrylamide content distribution and possible alternative ingredients for snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I

    2012-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.

  17. Potential Antitumor Effects of Pomegranates and Its Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Alsahli, Mohammed A; Almatroodi, Saleh A

    2017-01-01

    The treatment based on plant or plant derivatives is a promising strategy in the killing of cancers cells. Moreover, wide-ranging finding has established that medicinal plant and its ingredient modulate several cells signaling pathways or inhibiting the carcinogenesis process. In this vista, pomegranates fruits, seeds and peels illustrate cancer preventive role seems to be due to rich source of antioxidant and other valuable ingredients. Furthermore, anti-tumour activities of pomegranates have been evidences through the modulation of cell signaling pathways including transcription factor, apoptosis and angiogenesis. In this review article, anti-tumor activity of pomegranates and its components or its different type of extracts are described to understand the mechanism of action of pomegranates in cancer therapy.

  18. [TLC-FT-SERS study on ingredients of Isrhynchophylline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Song-ying; Zhao, Yi-xue; Ren, Gui-fen; Zi, Feng-lan

    2002-02-01

    A new method for analysing the ingredients of Isrhynchophylline in Uncaria Rhynchophylla Jacks by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is reported in this paper. The results show that the characteristic spectra bands of Isrhynchophylline situated at the thin layer with the amount of sample about 2.5 micrograms were obtained. The difference between SERS and solid spectra was found. Great enhancement of the 1,615 cm-1 spectral band was abstained. Molecule was absorbed in surface silver sol by pi electrons in phenyl and by pair of electrons in N together. An absorption model of Isrhynchophylline and silver sol was proposed. This method can be used to analyse the chemical ingredients with high sensitivity.

  19. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST

  20. Encapsulation of health-promoting ingredients: applications in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolve, Roberta; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline Laure; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio; Zhang, Zhibing

    2016-12-01

    Many nutritional experts and food scientists are interested in developing functional foods containing bioactive agents and many of these health-promoting ingredients may benefit from nano/micro-encapsulation technology. Encapsulation has been proven useful to improve the physical and the chemical stability of bioactive agents, as well as their bioavailability and efficacy, enabling their incorporation into a wide range of formulations aimed to functional food production. There are several reviews concerning nano/micro-encapsulation techniques, but none are focused on the incorporation of the bioactive agents into food matrices. The aim of this paper was to investigate the development of microencapsulated food, taking into account the different bioactive ingredients, the variety of processes, techniques and coating materials that can be used for this purpose.

  1. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; P<0·001) and more likely to smoke (18 v. 8 %; P=0·004). The first food was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  2. Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day

  3. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jakyeom; Jung, Jae Keun; Seo, Seongwon

    2015-01-01

    Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans) to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps) residues (APR) as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC). The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG), APR, and its fermented form (FAPR). The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01); pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07), especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM) after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW). Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06). Conversely, the fermentation

  4. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826

  5. Triboelectrification of active pharmaceutical ingredients: week acids and their salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinuma, Kenta; Ishii, Yuji; Yashihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Estuo; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Tarada, Katsuhide

    2015-09-30

    The effect of salt formulation on the electrostatic property of active pharmaceutical ingredients was investigated. The electrostatic property of weak acids (carboxylic acids and amide-enole type acid) and their sodium salts was evaluated by a suction-type Faraday cage meter. Free carboxylic acids showed negative chargeability, whereas their sodium salts showed more positive chargeability than the free acids. However, no such trend was observed for amide-enole type acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of Continuous Crystallizers for Production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capellades Mendez, Gerard; Christensen, Troels V.

    The production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is conducted primarily in batch processes. This manufacturing approach is reinforced by a patent-driven business model and the need to minimize the process development times for newly patented drugs. However, the regulatory and business...... environments are now changing. The increasing costs of drug development, combined with the strict regulations and the competition from generic manufacturers, have pushed pharmaceutical companies to seek cheaper and more sustainable production methods. Transition from batch to Continuous Pharmaceutical...

  7. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  8. Botanicals and anti-inflammatories: natural ingredients for rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Jason; Waldorf, Heidi; Berson, Diane

    2011-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by cutaneous hypersensitivity. There are many therapeutic options available for the treatment of rosacea, but none are curative. Since the pathogenesis of rosacea remains elusive, it is not surprising that no single treatment is paramount and that many patients find therapies unsatisfactory or even exacerbating. Treatments are prescribed to work in concert with each other in order to ameliorate the common clinical manifestations, which include: papules and pustules, telangiectasias, erythema, gland hypertrophy, and ocular disease. The most validated topical therapies include metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Many other topical therapies, such as calcineurin inhibitors, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical corticosteroids, and permethrin have demonstrated varying degrees of success. Due to the inconsistent results of the aforementioned therapies patients are increasingly turning to alternative products containing natural ingredients or botanicals to ease inflammation and remit disease. Additional research is needed to elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the management of rosacea, but some important considerations regarding the natural ingredients with clinical data will be discussed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients and processing aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1984-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3-10 kGy (0.3-1 mrad) have proved sufficient to reduce the viable counts to a satisfactory level. Ionising radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature. The flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for satisfactory decontamination, and radiation obviates the chemical residue problem. The microflora surviving radiation decontamination of dry ingredients are more susceptible to subsequent antimicrobial treatments. Recontamination can be prevented as the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation could be carried out in commercial containers and would result in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of these commodities is an established technology in several countries and more clearances on irradiated foods are expected to be granted in the near future.

  10. The use of irradiated ingredients in food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.; Zachariev, G.; Farkas, J.; Szabad, J.; Toth-Pesti, K.

    1978-01-01

    The microbe-count reducing effects of gamma radiation and of ethylene oxide were compared in ground paprika and dried onion flakes. It was established that the commercially applied ethylene oxide gas treatment has the same bactericidal effect (2-3 log cycles reduction of the total viable bacterial count) as a 5kGy radiation dose. However, ethylene oxide treatment of paprika was practically ineffective in relation to the mould count, while irradiation with 5kGy destroyed the moulds very effectively. The colour and pigment content of paprika powder were not diminished by this radiation dose. A dry mixture intended for use in canned luncheon meat was treated with 5kGy. The canned meat product produced with the radiation-decontaminated ingredients was microbiologically stable even when heat-sterilized by a sterilization equivalent of F 0 =1.1. Considering the organoleptic features and microbiological safety, a heat treatment of about F 0 =3 is suggested when using irradiated ingredients. This is about the half of the F 0 value generally proposed for completely stable canned meat products. Besides the saving of energy, a good quality can be achieved by using radiation-decontaminated ingredients. (author)

  11. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hyland; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-09-01

    New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, "Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?" We assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine. Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients Regarding Their Skin Sensitization Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Steiling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro. It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization.

  14. Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Omnes, Marie-Hélène; Le Goasduff, Julien; Le Delliou, Hervé; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Quazuguel, Patrick; Robin, Jean H.

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA) supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility...

  15. Nano-microdelivery systems for oral delivery of an active ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oral delivery of one or more active ingredients in the form of a lipid nano-micro-delivery system comprising a lipid nano-micro-structure comprising at least one lipid and at least one active ingredient, said at least one active ingredient being immobilized in said lipid nano...

  16. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic...

  17. Salmonella risk to consumers via pork is related to the Salmonella prevalence in pig feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnqvist, M; Välttilä, V; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P

    2018-05-01

    Pigs are an important source of human infections with Salmonella, one of the most common causes of sporadic gastrointestinal infections and foodborne outbreaks in the European region. Feed has been estimated to be a significant source of Salmonella in piggeries in countries of a low Salmonella prevalence. To estimate Salmonella risk to consumers via the pork production chain, including feed production, a quantitative risk assessment model was constructed. The Salmonella prevalence in feeds and in animals was estimated to be generally low in Finland, but the relative importance of feed as a source of Salmonella in pigs was estimated as potentially high. Discontinuation of the present strict Salmonella control could increase the risk of Salmonella in slaughter pigs and consequent infections in consumers. The increased use of low risk and controlled feed ingredients could result in a consistently lower residual contamination in pigs and help the tracing and control of the sources of infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fermented liquid feed - Microbial and nutritional aspects and impact on enteric diseases in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2012-01-01

    The use of liquid feed in pig nutrition has recently gained interest due to several reasons: (1) the political wish of decreasing the use of antibiotics in pig production; (2) the current fluctuations in feed prices what makes liquid feed, with the possibility of using cheap liquid ingredients......, an interesting feeding strategy; (3) the policies aiming at increasing production of renewable biofuel with a corresponding increase in liquid co-products from the bioethanol industry, suitable for liquid feeding; (4) environmental policies aiming at decreasing disposal of waste, for example, liquid co-products...... mixture. Several factors affect the microbial and nutritional characteristics of the final product and therefore knowledge on the impact of these factors on the characteristics of the mixture is crucial. The initial hours of incubation are characterized by high pH, low numbers of lactic acid bacteria...

  19. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bread and cereal, and plenty of fruits and vegetables. Drink Up! It's important for young athletes to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, which can zap strength, energy, and coordination and ...

  20. Development and acceptability testing of ready-to-use supplementary food made from locally available food ingredients in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, M Iqbal; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Islam, M Munirul; de Pee, Saskia; Steiger, Georg; Fuli, Rachel; Sarker, Shafiqul A M; Parveen, Monira; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-06-27

    Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) made of locally available food ingredients can improve micronutrient status and growth of children. The objective of this study was to develop RUSF using locally available food ingredients and test their acceptability. A checklist was prepared of food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for preparing RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and micronutrient premix. To test the acceptability of the RUSF compared to Pushti packet (a cereal based food-supplement) in terms of amount taken by children, a clinical trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6-18 months in a slum of Dhaka city. The mothers were also asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point Hedonic Scale (1 = dislike extremely, 7 = like extremely). Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice-lentil and the other on chickpea. The total energy obtained from 50 g of rice-lentil, chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet were 264, 267 and 188 kcal respectively. Children were offered 50 g of RUSF and they consumed (mean ± SD) 23.8 ± 14 g rice-lentil RUSF, 28.4 ± 15 g chickpea based RUSF. Pushti packet was also offered 50 g but mothers were allowed to add water, and children consumed 17.1 ± 14 g. Mean feeding time for two RUSFs and Pushti packet was 20.9 minutes. Although the two RUSFs did not differ in the amount consumed, there was a significant difference in consumption between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet (p = 0.012). Using the Hedonic Scale the two RUSFs were more liked by mothers compared to Pushti packet. Recipes of RUSF were developed using locally available food ingredients. The study results suggest that rice-lentil and chickpea-based RUSF are well accepted

  1. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... button, close the clamp on the feeding set, disconnect the extension set from the button, and close ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  12. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical

  13. Vegetation Identification With LIDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helt, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific terrain element of interest is vegetation, and in particular, tree type. Data taken on April 12th, 2005, were taken over a 10 km 20 km region which is mixed use agriculture and wetlands...

  14. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vegetation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  16. [Effect of a new low-cholesterol meat and vegetal product on correction of simulated lipid metabolism disorders in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, I F; Slozhenkina, M I; Karpenko, E V; Giro, T M; Andreeva, S V

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the biomedical evaluation of meat and cereal spread from low-cholesterol raw material with vegetable ingredients, recommended as a functional food. The experimental model with myocardial infarction like changes in hearts of the animals, accompanied by vascular changes similar to atherosclerotic changes in humans, as well as the modeling of the metabolic imbalance of lipids have been carried out by intramuscular injection of epinephrine and unbalanced feeding the animals with food rich in cholesterol, with a high content of carbohydrates and fats. Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. The rats in groups 1-3 were induced the cardio distress with intramuscular injection of epinephrine; group IV consisted of intact (healthy) animals. Dramatic changes in biochemical blood status that indicated heart disease have been observed within 2 days after the injection of epinephrine (0.2 ml per 1 kg of animal body weight) to the tested animals. During the experiment a sharp increase in activity of indicator enzymes of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST), with a predominance of AST over ALT, along with an increase in LDH activity have been observed. The 1.4-1.6 fold increase in blood serum creatinine has also been found. Later the animals in groups 1, 2, 3 with simulated cardio pathology were fed a ration with intervention of food rich in cholesterol, with a high content of carbohydrates and fats (50% of the diet) for a month for induction of lipid metabolism disorders. An increase in the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides by 3 fold or more has been observed. In addition, an accumulation of sulfhydryl groups has been noted, as evidenced by increased rates of thymol. For further normalization of lipid metabolism, the animals in tested group I were fed the diet with intervention of spread, developed in accordance with GOST 12318-91 "Canned meat "Meat spread"; the rats of group 2 were fed with

  17. Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Kelp and Copper Sulfate: Initial Investigations of Dioxin Formation in Mineral Feed Supplements (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...

  18. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  19. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din Farag, M.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  1. The bio refinery; producing feed and fuel from grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, D V; Burton, E J; Williams, P E V

    2016-04-15

    It is both possible and practicable to produce feed and fuel from grain. Using the value of grain to produce renewable energy for transport, while using the remaining protein content of the grain as a valuable protein source for livestock and for fish, can be seen as a complimentary and optimal use of all the grain constituents. Consideration must be given to maximise the value of the yeast components, as substantial yeast is generated during the fermentation of the grain starch to produce ethanol. Yeast is a nutritionally rich feed ingredient, with potential for use both as feed protein and as a feed supplement with possible immunity and gut health enhancing properties. Bioprocessing, with the consequent economies of scale, is a process whereby the value of grain can be optimised in a way that is traditional, natural and sustainable for primarily producing protein and oil for feed with a co-product ethanol as a renewable fuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Hauschild, L; Kipper, M; Pires, P G S; Pomar, C

    2017-12-04

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region. Three feeding programs were applied for growing-finishing pigs: conventional phase feeding by group (CON); precision daily feeding by group (PFG) (whole herd fed the same daily adjusted diet); and precision daily feeding by individual (PFI) (diets adjusted daily to match individual nutrient requirements). Raising pigs (1 t pig BW at farm gate) in South Brazil under the CON feeding program using grain cultivated in the same region led to emissions of 1840 kg of CO2-eq, 13.1 kg of PO4-eq and 32.2 kg of SO2-eq. Simulations using grain from the Central-West region showed a greater climate change impact. Compared with the previous scenario, a 17% increase in climate change impact was found when simulating with soybeans produced in Central-West Brazil, whereas a 28% increase was observed when simulating with corn and soybeans from Central-West Brazil. Compared with the CON feeding program, the PFG and PFI programs reduced the potential environmental impact. Applying the PFG program mitigated the potential climate change impact and eutrophication by up to 4%, and acidification impact by up to 3% compared with the CON program. Making a further adjustment by feeding pigs according to their individual nutrient requirements mitigated the potential climate change impact by up to 6% and the potential eutrophication and acidification impact

  3. Feeding infants and young children. From guidelines to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Marion M; Cecil, Joanne E; Jackson, Diane M; Schwartz, Camille

    2011-12-01

    Following a workshop on infant feeding held at the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen on March 17, 2010 experts were invited to exchange ideas and to review evidence on both pre and post natal dietary environments in shaping children's eating habits. A central theme during the workshop was the idea of "sensitive periods" during infancy for learning about foods and a particular focus was developed around acceptance and intake of fruits and vegetables. Presentations covered the guidelines provided by various governments on how to feed infants during weaning; the importance of the in utero experience; the impact of varying the sensory experience at weaning; the effect of parenting styles and practices on children's eating habits; the use of visual experience in promoting intake of vegetables; and reports from mothers regarding their decisions about weaning and the introduction of vegetables. This collection of papers seeks to review guidance from governments on feeding infants and to consider current evidence on parental feeding practices with the aim of enhancing insight into best practice in establishing healthy eating in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Minimally processed beetroot waste as an alternative source to obtain functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anne Porto Dalla; Hermes, Vanessa Stahl; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of waste are generated by the minimally processed vegetables industry, such as those from beetroot processing. The aim of this study was to determine the best method to obtain flour from minimally processed beetroot waste dried at different temperatures, besides producing a colorant from such waste and assessing its stability along 45 days. Beetroot waste dried at 70 °C originates flour with significant antioxidant activity and higher betalain content than flour produced from waste dried at 60 and 80 °C, while chlorination had no impact on the process since microbiological results were consistent for its application. The colorant obtained from beetroot waste showed color stability for 20 days and potential antioxidant activity over the analysis period, thus it can be used as a functional additive to improve nutritional characteristics and appearance of food products. These results are promising since minimally processed beetroot waste can be used as an alternative source of natural and functional ingredients with high antioxidant activity and betalain content.

  5. Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming

    2016-07-01

    Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Development of healthy marine ingredients from waste products from smoked rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for healthy marine omega-3 oils as well as new functional proteins for human consumption. At the same time there is an increasing demand for fish oil as an ingredient in fish feed due to the growth in production of farmed fish. The aquaculture industry currently uses...... approx. 850.000 tons of fish oil per year, which is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. The demand for fish oil for human consumption has been estimated to 425.000 tons by 2017. The present production of fish oil from wild fish is 1 mio. tons/year. Due to sustainability issues...... it is not possible to increase the production of fish oil from wild fish further. A possible source of omega-3 oils for human consumption is waste products from the fish industry. At present only approximately 40 % of the fish is used for human consumption and the rest is turned into waste products. Rainbow trout...

  7. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.

  8. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  9. Lithium carbonate tablets. Preparation techniques influence over active ingredient liberation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, J.H.F.; Oliveira, A.G. de; Toledo Salgado, P.E. de

    1989-01-01

    Lithium carbonate tablets, prepared using wet and dry granulation, were assessed in vitro so as to determine the active ingredient dissolution. In this study, standardized formulations were used and developed with usual adjuvants (lactose - maize starch). Parallel to the dissolution testing. The influence of the preparation process over some physical characteristics (hardness, friability and disintegration) was also analysed. Although a better performance was observed of tables prepared using dry granulation, the authors concluded that the wet process is more suitable in preparing tables with the mentioned drug. (author)

  10. Process Analytical Technology for Crystallization of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Qu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is witnessing increased pressure to introduce innovative and efficient processes for manufacturing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in order to be competitive as well as to meet the stringent product quality requirements set by regulatory authorities...... parameters and their impact on quality of APIs and subsequently the drug products assume great significance for pharmaceutical industry. Methods: This review paper focuses on application of PAT tools, an integral part of Quality by Design (QbD) approach, for better understanding, control, and design...

  11. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker?s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to...

  12. Perspectives for the Use of Ionizing Radiation in the Decontamination (Salmonella Radicidation) of Some Frozen Proteinaceous Foods and Dry Mixed Feed Ingredients; Perspectives de l'Emploi des Rayonnements pour la Decontamination (Radicidation de Salmonella) de Certains Aliments Proteiques Congeles et des Constituants de Melanges Alimentaires Secs pour Animaux; Perspektivy ispol'zovaniya ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya dlya unichtozheniya bakterij (Gruppy Salmonella) nekotorykh zamorozhennykh belkovykh osnovnykh pishchevykh produktov i sukhikh komponentov smeshannogo'fura; Radiodescontaminacion (Radicidacion de la Salmonella) de Algunos Alimentos Proteicos Basicos Congelados y de Componentes de Alimentos Secos para Animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossel, D. A.A. [Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research T.N.O., Zeist (Netherlands)

    1966-11-15

    Radiation decontamination, particularly of proteinaceous staple foods of low water activity, seemed to be promising, as one of the first applications of ionizing energy in food ancieed processing because of (a) restricted radiochemical damage to the commodities concerned; (b) absence of microbial proliferation subsequent to irradiation; and (c) some, often unique, technological advantages, such as applicability to materials already packaged, e.g. mixed feed ingredients, and effective decontamination without simultaneously- losing freshness, as in the case of red meats and poultry. As a first step, laboratory-scale dose range-finding experiments in this area were carried out earlier with, at the same time, sub-acute testing for wholesomeness. The results of these experiments were very promising. Pilot-plant-scale tests were next carried out, while concurrently research on wholesomeness was extended to a full two years/three generations assay with rats. In these tests it was confirmed that a dose of the order of 0.7 {+-} 0.1 Mrad suffices for the elimination of Salmonellae from frozen and dried proteinaceous products, such as chickens, fish meal and mixed feed. If, for reasons of analytical facility, a negative Enterobacteriaceae test for representative numbers of samples of the order of 10 g of radicidized material were preferred, the radiation dose would have to be slightly raised; the strict maximum would then amount to 1.0 Mrad, e.g. when mixed feeds, initially containing higher numbers of relatively radiation-resistant, pigmented Enterobacter strains were to be treated. No consistent, radiation-dependent, untoward effects on the experimental animals used, i.e. rats and, to a lesser extent, piglets, was detected at any of the irradiation levels tested. It is, therefore, concluded that the third evaluation step can now be undertaken, that is: tentative commercial-scale decontamination experiments in the region of production. Latin American countries like Argentina

  13. Feed intake and behavior of dairy goats when offered an elevated feed bunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Heather W; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Weary, Daniel M; Zobel, Gosia

    2018-04-01

    Goats are browsers and select vegetation at various heights when foraging. On commercial farms, dairy goats are typically fed from low-level feed bunks. The objective of this study was to determine how feed intake and feeding behavior vary when goats are offered feed at variable heights, with the potential of evaluating the benefits of offering an elevated feeder to dairy goats. Thirteen Saanen X dairy goats were housed in a home pen with a lying area of wood shavings, where they were pre-exposed for 24 d to 3 feeder heights designed to result in differences in head height while feeding: floor level (head lowered relative to body), head level (head level relative to body), and elevated level (head and neck angled upward). Nine groups of 3 goats each were randomly selected and housed for 24 h in a test pen identical to the home pen except that it contained 1 of each of the 3 feeder heights. Each feeder contained ad libitum chopped alfalfa silage and a top-dressed corn-based supplement, refreshed twice daily. Refusals from inside and under each feeder were weighed to calculate intake. Feed intake increased with increasing feeder height (mean ± SE; 0.18, 0.29, and 0.34 ± 0.04 kg of DM/goat for floor-level, head-level, and elevated-level feeders, respectively). Total feeding time did not vary with feeder height, but feeding rate tended to be faster at the elevated-level feeder (14.5 ± 2.1 g of DM/min) compared with head-level (9.2 ± 2.3 g of DM/min) and floor-level (8.9 ± 2.1 g of DM/min) feeders. Goats visited the floor-level feeder (36.4 ± 8.4 visits/goat) less than the head-level (79.4 ± 8.4 visits/goat) and elevated-level (74.8 ± 8.4 visits/goat) feeders. The number of displacements per minute of feeding time (physical removal of another goat from the feeding place) was greater at the elevated-level feeder (0.46 ± 0.06 displacements/min) compared with the floor-level feeder (0.23 ± 0.06 displacements/min) and tended to differ from the head-level feeder (0

  14. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  15. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  16. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  17. Antiviral Effects of Saffron and its Major Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Sepehr; Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Bolhassani, Azam

    2018-01-01

    The lack of an effective vaccine against viral infections, toxicity of the synthetic anti-viral drugs and the generation of resistant viral strains led to discover novel inhibitors. Recently, saffron and its compounds were used to treat different pathological conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-HSV-1 and anti-HIV-1 activities of Iranian saffron extract and its major ingredients including crocin and picrocrocin as well as cytotoxicity in vitro. The data showed that the aqueous saffron extract was not active against HIV-1 and HSV-1 virions at certain doses (i.e., a mild activity), but crocin and picrocrocin indicated significant anti-HSV-1 and also anti-HIV-1 activities. Crocin inhibited the HSV replication at before and after entry of virions into Vero cells. Indeed, crocin carotenoid suppressed HSV penetration in the target cells as well as disturbed virus replication after entry into the cells. Picrocrocin was also effective for inhibiting virus entry and also its replication. This monoterpen aldehyde showed higher anti-HSV effects after virus penetrating in the cells. Generally, these sugar-containing compounds extracted from saffron showed to be effective antiherpetic drug candidates. The recent study is the first report suggesting antiviral activities for saffron extract and its major ingredients. Crocin and picrocrocin could be a promising anti-HSV and anti-HIV agent for herbal therapy against viral infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Active ingredients in anti-stigma programmes in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, Vanessa; Thornicroft, Graham; Huxley, Peter; Farmer, Paul

    2005-04-01

    This paper draws upon a review of the relevant literature and the results of the recent Mental Health Awareness in Action (MHAA) programme in England to discuss the current evidence base on the active ingredients in effective anti-stigma interventions in mental health. The MHAA Programme delivered educational interventions to 109 police officers, 78 adults from different community groups whose working lives involved supporting people with mental health problems but who had received no mental health training and 472 schools students aged 14-15. Each adult target group received two intervention sessions lasting two hours. The two school lessons were 50 minutes each. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intent were assessed at baseline and follow-up. In addition focus groups were held with mental health service users to explore the impact of stigma on their lives and facilitators of educational workshops were interviewed to provide expert opinion on 'what works' to reduce psychiatric stigma. Personal contact was predictive of positive changes in knowledge and attitudes for the school students but not the police officers or community adult group. The key active ingredient identified by all intervention groups and workshop facilitators were the testimonies of service users. The statements of service users (consumers) about their experience of mental health problems and of their contact with a range of services had the greatest and most lasting impact on the target audiences in terms of reducing mental health stigma.

  19. In chemico skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2018-03-24

    Skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients is necessary for consumers' protection and occupational hazard identification. There are currently very few available alternative methods that can assist in the evaluation of complex mixtures. Chemical methods can provide essential information in a timely manner and thus help to reduce the need for in vivo testing, and they can complement and facilitate targeted in vitro assays. In the present work, the applicability of the high-throughput screening with dansyl cysteamine (DCYA) method for the systematic evaluation of skin sensitization of complex botanicals was explored. Botanical ingredients of four unrelated plant species were obtained and tested with the high-throughput fluorescence method at three concentrations. To illustrate the minimal matrix effects of the tested extracts on the developed method, the least DCYA-reactive extract (Rosa canina) was spiked with known sensitizers at different concentrations. The data obtained from the four plant extracts and the spiking experiments with known sensitizers, suggest that the high-throughput screening-DCYA method can be successfully applied for estimating the skin sensitization potential of complex botanical matrices. This is the first report of an attempt to develop a versatile in chemico method for the rapid detection of reactive skin sensitizers in complex botanical extracts, which could complement the battery of existing validated, non-animal methods. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Utilization of Durian Seed Flour as Filler Ingredient of Meatball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Malini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Durian seed flour contains starch consisted of amylose and amylopectin like tapioca flour, so it can be utilized as a filler in meatball production. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the nutrient content and quality of durian seed flour, the best level of durian seed flour addition to the meatball production, and the quality of beef meatball during storage in room temperature and refrigerator. Complete randomized design (CRD was used with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments used different filler ingredients consisted of: 1 100% tapioca, 2 50% tapioca + 50% durian seed flour, and 3 100% durian seed flour utilization. The results showed that durian seed flour could affect the protein levels and hardness of beef meatballs. In the organoleptic test, the addition of durian seed flour had no effect on the appearance of the color, flavor, aroma, and texture. The meatballs with 100% durian seed flour had the lowest hardness. The protein content of the meatballs with 100% durian seed flour was the highest. The used of 50% durian seed flour gave the best effect to beef meatball during storage. Meatball could be stored up to 8 h in room temperature while refrigerator could keep it longer up to 12 d. It was concluded that the addition 50% durian seed flour may substitute tapioca flour as filler ingredient of beef meatball.

  1. Development of a Consumer Product Ingredient Database for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in consumer products using product Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) publicly provided by a large retailer. The resulting database represents 1797 unique chemicals mapped to 8921 consumer products and a hierarchy of 353 consumer product “use categories” within a total of 15 top-level categories. We examine the utility of this database and discuss ways in which it will support (i) exposure screening and prioritization, (ii) generic or framework formulations for several indoor/consumer product exposure modeling initiatives, (iii) candidate chemical selection for monitoring near field exposure from proximal sources, and (iv) as activity tracers or ubiquitous exposure sources using “chemical space” map analyses. Chemicals present at high concentrations and across multiple consumer products and use categories that hold high exposure potential are identified. Our database is publicly available to serve regulators, retailers, manufacturers, and the public for predictive screening of chemicals in new and existing consumer products on the basis of exposure and risk. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts resear

  2. Hydroxytyrosol: Health Benefits and Use as Functional Ingredient in Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Lorena; Ros, Gaspar; Nieto, Gema

    2018-01-23

    Hydroxytyrosol (HXT) is a phenolic compound drawn from the olive tree and its leaves as a by-product obtained from the manufacturing of olive oil. It is considered the most powerful antioxidant compound after gallic acid and one of the most powerful antioxidant compounds between phenolic compounds from olive tree followed by oleuropein, caffeic and tyrosol. Due to its molecular structure, its regular consumption has several beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and as a protector of skin and eyes, etc. For these reasons, the use of HXT extract is a good strategy for use in meat products to replace synthetics additives. However, this extract has a strong odour and flavour, so it is necessary to previously treat this compound in order to not alter the organoleptic quality of the meat product when is added as ingredient. The present review exposes the health benefits provided by HXT consumption and the latest research about its use on meat. In addition, new trends about the application of HXT in the list of ingredients of healthier meat products will be discussed.

  3. Hydroxytyrosol: Health Benefits and Use as Functional Ingredient in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Martínez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxytyrosol (HXT is a phenolic compound drawn from the olive tree and its leaves as a by-product obtained from the manufacturing of olive oil. It is considered the most powerful antioxidant compound after gallic acid and one of the most powerful antioxidant compounds between phenolic compounds from olive tree followed by oleuropein, caffeic and tyrosol. Due to its molecular structure, its regular consumption has several beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and as a protector of skin and eyes, etc. For these reasons, the use of HXT extract is a good strategy for use in meat products to replace synthetics additives. However, this extract has a strong odour and flavour, so it is necessary to previously treat this compound in order to not alter the organoleptic quality of the meat product when is added as ingredient. The present review exposes the health benefits provided by HXT consumption and the latest research about its use on meat. In addition, new trends about the application of HXT in the list of ingredients of healthier meat products will be discussed.

  4. Active ingredients from natural botanicals in the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W-L; Zhu, L; Jiang, J-G

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is considered as a chronic disease that can induce a series of comorbidities and complications. Chinese medicine has long clinical experiences in the treatment of obesity. This review summarizes the natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that are reported to have anti-obesity effects in the past two decades. Botanic TCM comprises 90% of total Chinese crude drugs, and generally contains various active ingredients, in which the effective anti-obesity ingredients identified can be divided into saponins, polysaccharides, alkaloids, polyphenols and others. Astragaloside IV, glycyrrhizin, macrostemonoside A, berberine, betaine, capsaicin, matrine, methyl piperate, piperine, rutaecarpine, asimilobine, epigallocatechingallate, magnolol, resveratrol, soybean-isoflavone, α-linolenic acid, emodin, geniposide, phillyrin, salidroside and ursolic acid are specified in this review, and their sources, models, efficacy are described. It is concluded that the mechanisms of these components for the treatment of obesity include: (i) suppression of appetite, increase of satiety, reduction of energy intake; (ii) reduction in the digestion and absorption of exogenous lipid; (iii) attenuation of the synthesis of endogenous lipid; (iv) promotion of the oxidation and expenditure of lipid and (v) improvement of lipid metabolism disorder. Authors believe that the effective compounds from TCM will provide an alternative and hopeful way for the treatment of obesity. © 2014 World Obesity.

  5. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  6. Database search for safety information on cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    Ethical considerations with respect to experimental animal use and regulatory testing are worldwide under heavy discussion and are, in certain cases, taken up in legislative measures. The most explicit example is the European cosmetic legislation, establishing a testing ban on finished cosmetic products since 11 September 2004 and enforcing that the safety of a cosmetic product is assessed by taking into consideration "the general toxicological profile of the ingredients, their chemical structure and their level of exposure" (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003). Therefore the availability of referenced and reliable information on cosmetic ingredients becomes a dire necessity. Given the high-speed progress of the World Wide Web services and the concurrent drastic increase in free access to information, identification of relevant data sources and evaluation of the scientific value and quality of the retrieved data, are crucial. Based upon own practical experience, a survey is put together of freely and commercially available data sources with their individual description, field of application, benefits and drawbacks. It should be mentioned that the search strategies described are equally useful as a starting point for any quest for safety data on chemicals or chemical-related substances in general.

  7. EU legislations affecting safety data availability of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.

  8. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  9. Macroalgae-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic Industry—An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa B. Pimentel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  11. [Examination of processed vegetable foods for the presence of common DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of processed vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes.

  12. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  13. Ingredient classification according to the digestible amino acid profile: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed: 1 to classify ingredients according to the digestible amino acid (AA profile; 2 to determine ingredients with AA profile closer to the ideal for broiler chickens; and 3 to compare digestible AA profiles from simulated diets with the ideal protein profile. The digestible AA levels of 30 ingredients were compiled from the literature and presented as percentages of lysine according to the ideal protein concept. Cluster and principal component analyses (exploratory analyses were used to compose and describe groups of ingredients according to AA profiles. Four ingredient groups were identified by cluster analysis, and the classification of the ingredients within each of these groups was obtained from a principal component analysis, showing 11 classes of ingredients with similar digestible AA profiles. The ingredients with AA profiles closer to the ideal protein were meat and bone meal 45, fish meal 60 and wheat germ meal, all of them constituting Class 1; the ingredients from the other classes gradually diverged from the ideal protein. Soybean meal, which is the main protein source for poultry, showed good AA balance since it was included in Class 3. On the contrary, corn, which is the main energy source in poultry diets, was classified in Class 8. Dietary AA profiles were improved when corn and/or soybean meal were partially or totally replaced in the simulations by ingredients with better AA balance.

  14. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    in the relationship between creative artists and the Anglo-American popular music industry in the mid-1960s. Finally, and in retrospect, the figure of the vegetable cast into relief the counter-culture's utopian and dystopian dynamics as manifested in these song-writers' personal lives, now rendered as contemporary...... lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  15. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate...... (both the vegetable oil and alcohol) feed rate/concentration is manipulated simultaneously. The results of the simulation were tested in the laboratory and are sufficiently positive to suggest the implementation of a feeding strategy for large scale enzymatic biodiesel production...

  16. Using Dehydrated Vegetables in Some Brown Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Bakery products as basic and popular food, could be used in the prevention of nutritive deficiencies of many important nutrients, by supplementing the products with biologically valuable ingredients. Such ingredients are dehydrated vegetables in the form of powder. For establishing the bread quality, a special importance shows it’s chemical composition, because the substances that enter in it’s constitution serve to obtaining the energy necessary to the human body. Beside the chemical composition, the bread quality and alimentary use, respectively, depends a large measure on a series of signs: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, breads’ volume. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aims are obtaining some bread assortments with high nutritional value, and improving their sensorial and rheological features, by adding dehydrated vegetables at different levels 4% potato flakes, 2% dehydrated onion, 0.5% dehydrated garlic and 2% dehydrated leek.

  17. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  18. Large-Scale Production of Fuel and Feed from Marine Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, Mark [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In summary, this Consortium has demonstrated a fully integrated process for the production of biofuels and high-value nutritional bioproducts at pre-commercial scale. We have achieved unprecedented yields of algal oil, and converted the oil to viable fuels. We have demonstrated the potential value of the residual product as a viable feed ingredient for many important animals in the global food supply.

  19. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  1. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  2. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  4. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  5. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  6. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  7. Feeding habits of the crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, in a mosaic area with native and exotic vegetation in Southern Brazil Hábito alimentar do cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, em área de mosaico de vegetação nativa e exótica no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 is the most widespread neotropical canid, most commonly inhabiting forested areas. This animal is a generalist omnivore that is able to use environments disturbed by human activities. The aim of this study was to describe its diet through the stomach content analysis of 30 samples obtained from specimens that were run over in a mosaic composed by Araucaria Pine Forest, Semidecidual Seasonal Forest, natural grasslands, and exotic vegetation. The items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (F.O. and percentage of occurrence (P.O.. A total of 64 food items were found among 171 occurrences. According to F.O. method, plant items corresponded to 93.3% of the occurrences, followed by animal items (86.7% and human rejects (16.6%. Among plants, fruits accounted for 92.9% of the occurrences, followed by leaves (53.6% and flowers (10.7%. Syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham. Glassman, 1968 and the exotic Hovenia dulcis Thunberg were the most consumed fruits (30% each, and the most consumed leaves were Poaceae. Among preyed animals, the F.O. was 73.3% for invertebrates (mostly Orthoptera and Coleoptera, 36.7% each and 63.3% for vertebrates (mostly mammals, 33.3%. Regarding the P.O. method, there was an overestimation of invertebrates (98.1% due to the presence of ants and termites in the stomach of a single individual. In general, C. thous presented its usual diet. Its generalistic feeding habits can positively influence its survival in altered environments. This study also compares different methods for dietary analysis and discusses some opportunistic behaviors of C. thous, such as the consumption of exotic species and the use of silviculture areas as hunting sites.Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 é o canídeo neotropical mais amplamente distribuído e habita principalmente ambientes florestados. Este animal possui hábito alimentar onívoro generalista e demonstra capacidade de utilizar ambientes perturbados pela ação do

  8. On-farm feed: the potential for improving profitability in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ibiyo, L.M.O.; Olowosegun, T.

    2005-01-01

    The urge to develop a standard practical diet for farmed fish in Nigeria has been on the increase since the last decade. Since ages diets has ever represent the largest single cost item of most fish farm operations. This is the reason why careful selection of feed ingredients for use in aqafeed plays a vital role in the resultant nutritional and economic success of farmed fish. In an attempt to meet the objectives of culturing fish two main sources of fish feed have been identified for meetin...

  9. leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prerequisite for successful in vitro culture is the establishment of an aseptic technique, thus the experiment was to investigate suitable sterilization regimes for the leaf explants of Gnetum africanum, an endangered green leafy vegetable. Three sterilization regimes were tested to establish the best regime using three to four ...

  10. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of cost-effective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products.

  11. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB.

  12. Applications of peanut skins as a functional food ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a low-value byproduct of the peanut industry, with hundreds of thousands of tons being produced annually. Following their removal during the preparation of common peanut products, peanut skins are either discarded or used as a minor component of animal feed. Recent studies have fo...

  13. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Canopy Modeling of Aquatic Vegetation: Construction of Submerged Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2018-04-01

    The unique spectral characteristics of submerged vegetation in wetlands determine that the conventional terrestrial vegetation index cannot be directly employed to species identification and parameter inversion of submerged vegetation. Based on the Aquatic Vegetation Radiative Transfer model (AVRT), this paper attempts to construct an index suitable for submerged vegetation, the model simulated data and a scene of Sentinel-2A image in Taihu Lake, China are utilized for assessing the performance of the newly constructed indices and the existent vegetation indices. The results show that the angle index composed by 525 nm, 555 nm and 670 nm can resist the effects of water columns and is more sensitive to vegetation parameters such as LAI. Furthermore, it makes a well discrimination between submerged vegetation and water bodies in the satellite data. We hope that the new index will provide a theoretical basis for future research.

  15. Alternative fish feed production from waste chicken feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.

  16. D- and I-optimal design of mixture experiments in the presence of ingredient availability constraints

    OpenAIRE

    SYAFITRI, Utami; SARTONO, Bagus; GOOS, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mixture experiments usually involve various constraints on the proportions of the ingredients of the mixture under study. In this paper, inspired by the fact that the available stock of certain ingredients is often limited, we focus on a new type of constraint, which we refer to as an ingredient availability constraint. This type of constraint substantially complicates the search for optimal designs for mixture experiments. One difficulty, for instance, is that the optimal number of experimen...

  17. Risk management of allergenic food ingredients in hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov-Raljić Jovanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergens have appeared in the last two decades as a concealed form of threat which significantly endangers public health, and their labelling on food products, drinks, and non pre-packed gastro-products is clearly defined with legal regulations. In practice, the chemical risk management is faced with several unexpected problems. Some of them are declarations or statements about allergenic ingredients, where a nutritional allergen that the food contains is labelled with an unusual name, or similar products from different manufacturers where one is safe and the other contains allergens. A hospitality facility which deals with production and distribution of unpackaged foods should, in addition to a developed HACCP concept and standardized recipes for food preparation, prepare a detailed, precise, and clearly defined plan for management of chemical risks.

  18. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  19. Microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients via metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Photomutagenicity of cosmetic ingredient chemicals azulene and guaiazulene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Yan Jian; Fu, Peter P.; Parekh, Karishma A.; Yu Hongtao

    2003-01-01

    The photomutagenicity of the popular skin conditioning agents azulene and guaiazulene were tested in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102. Following irradiation with UVA and/or visible light, both azulene and guaiazulene exhibited mutagenicity 4-5-fold higher than the spontaneous background mutation. In contrary, naphthalene, a structural isomer of azulene, was not photomutagenic under the same conditions. Azulene was photomutagenic when irradiated with UVA light alone, visible light alone, or a combination of UVA and visible light. Azulene and guaiazulene are not mutagenic when the experiment is conducted with the exclusion of light. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when using cosmetic products with azulene/guaiazulene as ingredients since after applying these products on the skin, exposure to sunlight is inevitable