DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo
2017-01-01
This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...
Hoffmann, Banesh
1975-01-01
From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p
Newell, Homer E
2006-01-01
When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e
Wolstenholme, E Œ
1978-01-01
Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl
Brand, Louis
2006-01-01
The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou
Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.
1994-12-27
A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.
Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.
1994-01-01
A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.
Robinson, Gilbert de B
2011-01-01
This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom
Thomas, E. G. F.
2012-01-01
This paper deals with the theory of integration of scalar functions with respect to a measure with values in a, not necessarily locally convex, topological vector space. It focuses on the extension of such integrals from bounded measurable functions to the class of integrable functions, proving
An introduction to vectors, vector operators and vector analysis
Joag, Pramod S
2016-01-01
Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering, this book covers fundamental concepts of vectors and their applications in a single volume. The first unit deals with basic formulation, both conceptual and theoretical. It discusses applications of algebraic operations, Levi-Civita notation, and curvilinear coordinate systems like spherical polar and parabolic systems and structures, and analytical geometry of curves and surfaces. The second unit delves into the algebra of operators and their types and also explains the equivalence between the algebra of vector operators and the algebra of matrices. Formulation of eigen vectors and eigen values of a linear vector operator are elaborated using vector algebra. The third unit deals with vector analysis, discussing vector valued functions of a scalar variable and functions of vector argument (both scalar valued and vector valued), thus covering both the scalar vector fields and vector integration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan
2015-01-01
We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...
Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.
2016-01-01
Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244
Macro motion vector quantization
Lee, Yoon Y.; Woods, John W.
1995-04-01
A new algorithm is developed for reducing the bit rate required for motion vectors. This algorithm is a generalization of block matching motion estimation in which the search region is represented as a codebook of motion vectors. The new algorithm, called macro motion vector quantization (MMVQ), generalized our earlier MVQ by coding a group of motion vectors. The codebook is a set of macro motion vectors which represent the block locations of the small neighboring blocks in the previous frame. We develop an interative design algorithm for the codebook. Our experiments show that the variances of displaced frame differences (DFDs) are reduced significantly compared to block matching algorithm (BMA) with the macroblock size.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-François Degbomont
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.
Vectors and their applications
Pettofrezzo, Anthony J
2005-01-01
Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its observation. The dynamical evolution of the heavy-ion collision is described by a transport equation of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
kfki.hu. Abstract. One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy- ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its ...
Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...
Choi, Soo-Min; Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Lee, Hyun Min; Mambrini, Yann; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierre, Mathias
2017-10-01
Strongly Interacting Massive Particles (SIMPs) have recently been proposed as light thermal dark matter relics. Here we consider an explicit realization of the SIMP mechanism in the form of vector SIMPs arising from an SU(2) X hidden gauge theory, where the accidental custodial symmetry protects the stability of the dark matter. We propose several ways of equilibrating the dark and visible sectors in this setup. In particular, we show that a light dark Higgs portal can maintain thermal equilibrium between the two sectors, as can a massive dark vector portal with its generalized Chern-Simons couplings to the vector SIMPs, all while remaining consistent with experimental constraints.
Schwalm, W. A.; Schwalm, M. K.; Giona, M.
1998-03-01
Space is filled with triangulating graph \\calG to serve as a quadrature grid. A discrete analog of the theory of differential forms is constructed using the associated simplical complex. The role of a basis for Λ^p at a point is played by the set of (p+1) -simplices containing a given vertex. Vector difference operations analogous to div, grad and curl, together with corresponding vector identities and exact difference analogs of the Stokes-type theorems, are obtained in terms of the boundary partial and coboundary d. Difference versions of the full vector Maxwell electromagnetic equations are analyzed on a random structure.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....
Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction
An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...
Vector and axial vector mesons at finite temperature
mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav
2002-01-01
We consider the thermal correlation functions of vector and axial-vector currents and evaluate corrections to the vector and axial-vector meson pole terms to one loop in chiral perturbation theory. As expected, the pole positions do not shift to leading order in temperature. But the residues decrease with temperature.
Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mijanur Rahaman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.
Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kate McElroy Horne
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family.
Free topological vector spaces
Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.
2016-01-01
We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...
Eisenman, Richard L
2005-01-01
This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robbins, Daniel [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University,TAMU 4242, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)
2016-01-22
We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.
Multithreading in vector processors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evangelinos, Constantinos; Kim, Changhoan; Nair, Ravi
2018-01-16
In one embodiment, a system includes a processor having a vector processing mode and a multithreading mode. The processor is configured to operate on one thread per cycle in the multithreading mode. The processor includes a program counter register having a plurality of program counters, and the program counter register is vectorized. Each program counter in the program counter register represents a distinct corresponding thread of a plurality of threads. The processor is configured to execute the plurality of threads by activating the plurality of program counters in a round robin cycle.
Support Vector Components Analysis
van der Ree, Michiel; Roerdink, Johannes; Phillips, Christophe; Garraux, Gaetan; Salmon, Eric; Wiering, Marco
2017-01-01
In this paper we propose a novel method for learning a distance metric in the process of training Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with the radial basis function kernel. A transformation matrix is adapted in such a way that the SVM dual objective of a classification problem is optimized. By using a
Sesquilinear uniform vector integral
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bucharest, Bucharest,. Academiei Str., 14, 010014, Romania. 2Technical University of Civil ... an integral of scalar functions with respect to vector measures, Dunford and his school introduced the spectral operators, thus founding the present operator theory (see ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Orthogonalisation of Vectors - Matrix Decomposition and Approximation Problems. Rajendra Bhatia. General Article Volume 5 ... Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Indian Statistical Institute 7, SJS Sansanwal Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India.
Treiman, Jay S
2014-01-01
Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2011-04-18
This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods. Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 4/27/2011.
Rudakov, A N
1990-01-01
This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).
Anisotropic vector Preisach particle
Fuezi, J
2000-01-01
The static 2D vector magnetic behaviour of an anisotropic silicon iron sheet is modelled by a particle which depicts its space-averaged behaviour. The magnitude of magnetization is governed by a classical Preisach operator with the projection of field strength on the magnetization direction as input. Its orientation is determined by the equilibrium between the field strength orientation and the anisotropy of the sheet.
Morgan, Eric René; Booth, Mark; Norman, Rachel; Mideo, Nicole; McCallum, Hamish; Fenton, Andy
2017-01-01
Many important and rapidly emerging pathogens of humans, livestock and wildlife are ‘vector-borne’. However, the term ‘vector’ has been applied to diverse agents in a broad range of epidemiological systems. In this perspective, we briefly review some common definitions, identify the strengths and weaknesses of each and consider the functional differences between vectors and other hosts from a range of ecological, evolutionary and public health perspectives. We then consider how the use of designations can afford insights into our understanding of epidemiological and evolutionary processes that are not otherwise apparent. We conclude that from a medical and veterinary perspective, a combination of the ‘haematophagous arthropod’ and ‘mobility’ definitions is most useful because it offers important insights into contact structure and control and emphasizes the opportunities for pathogen shifts among taxonomically similar species with similar feeding modes and internal environments. From a population dynamics and evolutionary perspective, we suggest that a combination of the ‘micropredator’ and ‘sequential’ definition is most appropriate because it captures the key aspects of transmission biology and fitness consequences for the pathogen and vector itself. However, we explicitly recognize that the value of a definition always depends on the research question under study. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289253
Lentiviral Vector Mediated Transgenesis.
Barde, Isabelle; Verp, Sonia; Offner, Sandra; Trono, Didier
2011-03-01
The genetic manipulation of rodents through the generation of fully transgenic animals or via the modification of selective cells or organs is a procedure of paramount importance for biomedical research, either to address fundamental questions or to develop preclinical models of human diseases. Lentiviral vectors occupy the front stage in this scene, as they can mediate the integration and stable expression of transgenes both in vitro and in vivo. Widely used to modify a variety of cells, including re-implantable somatic and embryonic stem cells, lentiviral vectors can also be directly administered in vivo, for instance in the brain. However, perhaps their most spectacular research application is in the generation of transgenic animals. Compared with the three-decade-old DNA pronuclear injection technique, lentivector-mediated transgenesis is simple, cheap, and highly efficient. Furthermore, it can take full advantage of the great diversity of lentiviral vectors developed for other applications, and thus allows for ubiquitous or tissue-specific or constitutive or externally controllable transgene expression, as well as RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:169-184. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M
2018-01-02
Generating stocks of Entry and Destination vectors for use in the Gateway recombinatorial cloning system requires transforming them into Escherichia coli strain DB3.1, where they can replicate because this strain is immune to the effects of the ccdB gene carried in the Gateway cassette. However, mutations in the ccdB gene can arise at low frequency, and these mutant plasmids will consequently allow growth of standard cloning strains of E. coli (e.g., DH5α). Therefore, after making new stocks of Gateway plasmids, their ability to grow in cloning strains of E. coli must be tested. This involves obtaining multiple stocks of vector, each arising from a single plasmid grown in a single DB3.1 bacterial colony, and transforming each stock into both DB3.1 and the preferred cloning strain of E. coli in a controlled fashion. Only vector stocks that effectively kill the standard cloning strain (i.e., no or few colonies are obtained after transformation) should be used in Gateway cloning reactions. The sequence can be performed in 3 d. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Scalar - vector soliton fiber lasers
Wu, Zhichao; Li, Lei; Luo, Yiyang; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming
2016-01-01
Rapid progress in passively mode-locked fiber lasers is currently driven by the recent discovery of vector feature of mode-locking pulses, namely, the group velocity-locked vector solitons, the phase locked vector solitons, and the high-order vector solitons. Those vector solitons are fundamentally different from the previously known scalar solitons. Here, we report a fiber laser where the mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is novel and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the working regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the conditions of very small birefringence.
Rodríguez, Yeinzon; Navarro, Andrés A.
2017-03-01
An alternative for the construction of fundamental theories is the introduction of Galileons. These are fields whose action leads to non higher than second-order equations of motion. As this is a necessary but not sufficient condition to make the Hamiltonian bounded from below, as long as the action is not degenerate, the Galileon construction is a way to avoid pathologies both at the classical and quantum levels. Galileon actions are, therefore, of great interest in many branches of physics, specially in high energy physics and cosmology. This proceedings contribution presents the generalities of the construction of both scalar and vector Galileons following two different but complimentary routes.
Architecture and Vector Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
von Seidlein, Lorenz; Knols, Bart GJ; Kirby, Matthew
2012-01-01
of vector-borne diseases have no access to electricity. Many houses in the hot, humid regions of Asia have adapted to the environment, they are built of porous materials and are elevated on stilts features which allow a comfortable climate even in the presence of bednets and screens. In contrast, many...... buildings in Africa and Asia in respect to their indoor climate characteristics and finally, show how state-of-the-art 3D modelling can predict climate characteristics and help to optimize buildings....
Vector wave propagation method.
Fertig, M; Brenner, K-H
2010-04-01
In this paper, we extend the scalar wave propagation method (WPM) to vector fields. The WPM [Appl. Opt.32, 4984 (1993)] was introduced in order to overcome the major limitations of the beam propagation method (BPM). With the WPM, the range of application can be extended from the simulation of waveguides to simulation of other optical elements like lenses, prisms and gratings. In that reference it was demonstrated that the wave propagation scheme provides valid results for propagation angles up to 85 degrees and that it is not limited to small index variations in the axis of propagation. Here, we extend the WPM to three-dimensional vectorial fields (VWPMs) by considering the polarization dependent Fresnel coefficients for transmission in each propagation step. The continuity of the electric field is maintained in all three dimensions by an enhanced propagation vector and the transfer matrix. We verify the validity of the method by transmission through a prism and by comparison with the focal distribution from vectorial Debye theory. Furthermore, a two-dimensional grating is simulated and compared with the results from three-dimensional RCWA. Especially for 3D problems, the runtime of the VWPM exhibits special advantage over the RCWA.
"Analytical" vector-functions I
Todorov, Vladimir Todorov
2017-12-01
In this note we try to give a new (or different) approach to the investigation of analytical vector functions. More precisely a notion of a power xn; n ∈ ℕ+ of a vector x ∈ ℝ3 is introduced which allows to define an "analytical" function f : ℝ3 → ℝ3. Let furthermore f (ξ )= ∑n =0 ∞ anξn be an analytical function of the real variable ξ. Here we replace the power ξn of the number ξ with the power of a vector x ∈ ℝ3 to obtain a vector "power series" f (x )= ∑n =0 ∞ anxn . We research some properties of the vector series as well as some applications of this idea. Note that an "analytical" vector function does not depend of any basis, which may be used in research into some problems in physics.
Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization
Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián
2011-01-01
Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2000-01-01
Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...... estimator automatically compensates for the axial velocity, when determining the transverse velocity by using fourth order moments rather than second order moments. The estimation is optimized by using a lag different from one in the estimation process, and noise artifacts are reduced by using averaging...... of RF samples. Further, compensation for the axial velocity can be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce spatial velocity dispersion....
Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics
Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro
2015-01-01
One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836
Vector-Tensor and Vector-Vector Decay Amplitude Analysis of B0->phi K*0
Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Clarke, C K; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gao, Y; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Z J; Hadavand, H K; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Judd, D; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lee, C L; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Panduro, W; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Park, W; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petrella, A; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prencipe, E; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pruvot, S; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Regensburger, J J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Serrano, J; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Sherwood, D J; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stängle, H; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Todyshev, Y K; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Vazquez, A; Verderi, M; Viaud, F B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; Wagner, A P; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walker, D; Walsh, J J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wang, W F; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wren, A C; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wulsin, H W; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; al, et
2007-01-01
We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B0->phi K^*_2(1430)0, phi K^*(892)0, and phi(K pi)^0_S-wave with a sample of about 384 million BBbar pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f_L of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853 +0.061-0.069 +-0.036 and 0.506 +-0.040 +-0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP-violation.
Transcriptional Silencing of Retroviral Vectors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Anders Henrik; Duch, M.; Pedersen, F.S.
1996-01-01
Although retroviral vector systems have been found to efficiently transduce a variety of cell types in vitro, the use of vectors based on murine leukemia virus in preclinical models of somatic gene therapy has led to the identification of transcriptional silencing in vivo as an important problem...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran
2014-01-01
We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give many equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenius map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors. In particular, surjectivity on f...
Estimation of Motion Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus
1993-01-01
This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...
Vectors on the Basketball Court
Bergman, Daniel
2010-01-01
An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…
The Neural Support Vector Machine
Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus
2013-01-01
This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a
GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter
Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong
2011-01-01
Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .
Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara eSavic
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples
Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudio Pessoa
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.
Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lark L. Coffey
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.
Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions
Coffey, Lark L.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Weaver, Scott C.
2014-01-01
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25421891
Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases - Incidence through Vectors.
Savić, Sara; Vidić, Branka; Grgić, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica
2014-01-01
Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector-borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and population of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector-borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, and leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fundamental role at primarily prevention and then treatment of vector-borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases. During a 4-year period, from 2009 to 2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analyzed for vector-borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis) in routine laboratory work. The analysis was done by serological tests - ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis, and blood smear for babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on average more then half of the samples
Vector control of induction machines
Robyns, Benoit
2012-01-01
After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for
Vector boson scattering at CLIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.
Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus.
van der Sluijs, Mirjam Tineke Willemijn; de Smit, Abraham J; Moormann, Rob J M
2016-01-01
Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from dam to fetus, or horizontal via direct contract. For several BTV-serotypes, vertical (transplacental) transmission has been described, resulting in severe congenital malformations. Transplacental transmission had been mainly associated with live vaccine strains. Yet, the European BTV-8 strain demonstrated a high incidence of transplacental transmission in natural circumstances. The relevance of transplacental transmission for the epizootiology is considered limited, especially in enzootic areas. However, transplacental transmission can have a substantial economic impact due to the loss of progeny. Inactivated vaccines have demonstrated to prevent transplacental transmission. Vector-free horizontal transmission has also been demonstrated. Since direct horizontal transmission requires close contact of animals, it is considered only relevant for within-farm spreading of BTV. The genetic determinants which enable vector-free transmission are present in virus strains circulating in the field. More research into the genetic changes which enable vector-free transmission is essential to better evaluate the risks associated with outbreaks of new BTV serotypes and to design more appropriate control measures.
Introduction to matrices and vectors
Schwartz, Jacob T
2001-01-01
In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.
All optical vector magnetometer Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector magnetic...
GRE Enzymes for Vector Analysis
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Microbial enzyme data that were collected during the 2004-2006 EMAP-GRE program. These data were then used by Moorhead et al (2016) in their ecoenzyme vector...
1987-11-01
Phrases: N/A ] 19 RCT lontilue on revrm if necozsary and identify by block number) •"SA Fubini type theorem is obtained for vector bimasure integrals...Abstract A Fubini type theorem is obtained for vector bimeasure integrals. AMS (1980) subject classification: Primary 28B05; Secondary 60G12...Ylinen [11]. In the works mentioned above the authors consistently impose, in their definition of integrability. a Fubini type condition which cannot
VectorBase: a home for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens
Lawson, Daniel; Arensburger, Peter; Atkinson, Peter; Besansky, Nora J.; Bruggner, Robert V.; Butler, Ryan; Campbell, Kathryn S.; Christophides, George K.; Christley, Scott; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Emmert, David; Hammond, Martin; Hill, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Lobo, Neil F.; MacCallum, M. Robert; Madey, Greg; Megy, Karine; Redmond, Seth; Russo, Susan; Severson, David W.; Stinson, Eric O.; Topalis, Pantelis; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Birney, Ewan; Gelbart, William M.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Louis, Christos; Collins, Frank H.
2007-01-01
VectorBase () is a web-accessible data repository for information about invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. VectorBase annotates and maintains vector genomes providing an integrated resource for the research community. Currently, VectorBase contains genome information for two organisms: Anopheles gambiae, a vector for the Plasmodium protozoan agent causing malaria, and Aedes aegypti, a vector for the flaviviral agents causing Yellow fever and Dengue fever. PMID:17145709
Giacosa, Francesco; Sammet, Julia; Janowski, Stanislaus
2017-06-01
We calculate two- and three-body decays of the (lightest) vector glueball into (pseudo)scalar, (axial-)vector, as well as pseudovector and excited vector mesons in the framework of a model of QCD. While absolute values of widths cannot be predicted because the corresponding coupling constants are unknown, some interesting branching ratios can be evaluated by setting the mass of the yet hypothetical vector glueball to 3.8 GeV as predicted by quenched lattice QCD. We find that the decay mode ω π π should be one of the largest (both through the decay chain O →b1π →ω π π and through the direct coupling O →ω π π ). Similarly, the (direct and indirect) decay into π K K*(892 ) is sizable. Moreover, the decays into ρ π and K*(892 )K are, although subleading, possible and could play a role in explaining the ρ π puzzle of the charmonium state ψ (2 S ) thanks to a (small) mixing with the vector glueball. The vector glueball can be directly formed at the ongoing BESIII experiment as well as at the future PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. If the width is sufficiently small (≲100 MeV ) it should not escape future detection. It should be stressed that the employed model is based on some inputs and simplifying assumptions: the value of glueball mass (at present, the quenched lattice value is used), the lack of mixing of the glueball with other quarkonium states, and the use of few interaction terms. It then represents a first step toward the identification of the main decay channels of the vector glueball, but shall be improved when corresponding experimental candidates and/or new lattice results will be available.
The biological control of disease vectors.
Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga
2012-09-21
Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Zika Virus Mosquito Vectors: Competence, Biology, and Vector Control.
Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Kramer, Laura D
2017-12-16
Zika virus (ZIKV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) has become one of the most medically important mosquito-borne viruses because of its ability to cause microcephaly in utero and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. This virus emerged from its sylvatic cycle in Africa to cause an outbreak in Yap, Federated States of Micronesia in 2007, French Polynesia in 2014, and most recently South America in 2015. The rapid expansion of ZIKV in the Americas largely has been due to the biology and behavior of its vector, Aedes aegypti. Other arboviruses transmitted by Ae. aegypti include the 2 flaviviruses dengue virus and yellow fever virus and the alphavirus chikungunya virus, which are also (re)emerging viruses in the Americas. This mosquito vector is highly domesticated, living in close association with humans in urban households. Its eggs are desiccation resistant, and the larvae develop rapidly in subtropical and tropical environments. Climate warming is facilitating range expansion of Ae. aegypti, adding to the threat this mosquito poses to human health, especially in light of the difficulty controlling it. Aedes albopictus, another highly invasive arbovirus vector that has only been implicated in one country (Gabon), is an important vector of ZIKV, but because of its wide geographic distribution may become a more important vector in the future. This article discusses the historical background of ZIKV and the biology and ecology of these 2 vectors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rastislav Lukac
2004-09-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.
A generalized nonlocal vector calculus
Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max
2015-10-01
A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.
Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oddershede, Niels
2008-01-01
Current ultrasonic blood flow velocity measurement systems are subject to a number of limitations, including limited frame rate, aliasing artifacts, and that only the velocity component along the ultrasound beam is estimated. This dissertation aims at solving some of these problems. The main part...... of the thesis considers a method for estimating the two-dimensional velocity vector within the image plane. This method, called synthetic aperture vector flow imaging, is first shortly reviewed. The main contribution of this work is partly an analysis of the method with respect to focusing effects, motion...... estimation. The method can be used for increasing the frame rate of color flow maps or alternatively for a new imaging modality entitled quadroplex imaging, featuring a color flow map and two independent spectrograms at a high frame rate. The second is an alternative method for ultrasonic vector velocity...
Gauge Theories of Vector Particles
Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.
1961-04-24
The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holbek, Simon
ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...... hampers the task of real-time processing. In a second study, some of the issue with the 2-D matrix array are solved by introducing a 2-D row-column (RC) addressing array with only 62 + 62 elements. It is investigated both through simulations and via experimental setups in various flow conditions...
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-09-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.
Learning with Support Vector Machines
Campbell, Colin
2010-01-01
Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a
Topological vector spaces and distributions
Horvath, John
2012-01-01
""The most readable introduction to the theory of vector spaces available in English and possibly any other language.""-J. L. B. Cooper, MathSciNet ReviewMathematically rigorous but user-friendly, this classic treatise discusses major modern contributions to the field of topological vector spaces. The self-contained treatment includes complete proofs for all necessary results from algebra and topology. Suitable for undergraduate mathematics majors with a background in advanced calculus, this volume will also assist professional mathematicians, physicists, and engineers.The precise exposition o
VECTOR MAPS IN MOBILE ROBOTICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ales Jelinek
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of vector map techniques used in mobile robotics and to present current state of the research in this field at the Brno University of Technology. Vector maps are described as a part of the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM problem in the environment without artificial landmarks or global navigation system. The paper describes algorithms from data acquisition to map building but particular emphasis is put on segmentation, line extraction and scan matching algorithms. All significant algorithms are illustrated with experimental results.
SCALAR AND VECTOR IN COMPULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valery F. Ochkov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with two fundamental data types – scalar and vector (array, without the ability of working with them one cannot solve using computer school or university tasks in mathematics, physics, chemistry and other technical training courses. Some fundamentals of teaching computer science at school and university are covered as well.
Vector description of nonlinear magnetization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rysak, A. E-mail: rysak@tytan.umcs.lublin.pl; Korczak, S.Z
2001-06-01
The definition of the nonlinear magnetization, which is usually applied in investigating superconductors is discussed in this paper. The nonlinear magnetization of the superconductor, as the response to the alternating magnetic field, is a periodic time function and is determined by the sequence of complex numbers {chi}{sub n}={chi}{sub n}'+i{chi}{sub n}'', n=1,2,3,.... The sequence {chi}{sub n} is named harmonic susceptibility. Finding some limits in this definition we propose a new description, substituting the complex sequence {chi}{sub n} with the sequence of real covariant vectors. Such a definition of the nonlinear magnetization, allows to determine function M(t) of an investigated system for an arbitrary initial phase {theta}{sub o} of the inducing magnetic field H{sub ac}=h{sub ac} sin({omega}t+{theta}{sub o}). Vector description, in our opinion, is superior to the complex one in respect of explicitness, simplicity, and universality. Circular diagrams are used to illustrate the new vector description. We also show how the vectors of the harmonic susceptibility can be derived from both numeric calculations and experimental data.
Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Ecuador
1998-12-01
species) only during the pupal and adult stages. Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis are economical, operationally feasible, and...12. Bees , Wasps and Hornets ..................................................................................31 B. Snakes...epidemic proportions. Transmission of the plague bacillus by fleas is species- specific. Not all fleas are competent vectors. Xenopsylla cheopis is the
Parallel Sparse Matrix - Vector Product
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Dammann, Bernd
This technical report contains a case study of a sparse matrix-vector product routine, implemented for parallel execution on a compute cluster with both pure MPI and hybrid MPI-OpenMP solutions. C++ classes for sparse data types were developed and the report shows how these class can be used...
Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando
The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal r...
The consequences of poor vectorization
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
This talk briefly discusses the vectorization problem and how it impacts scientific and engineering systems. A simple cost model of designing such system in context of different phases of software lifetime is considered. Finally a concept for scalable solution is presented.
Constraints in vector meson photoproduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F
2000-01-31
Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.
Constraints in Vector Meson Photoproduction
Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F.
2000-01-01
Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.
On Weighted Support Vector Regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder
2014-01-01
We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...
Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus
Kaplan, Samuel R.
2015-01-01
Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…
Large N Expansion. Vector Models
Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana
2006-01-01
Preliminary version of a contribution to the "Quantum Field Theory. Non-Perturbative QFT" topical area of "Modern Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics" (SELECTA), eds. Aref'eva I, and Sternheimer D, Springer (2007). Consists of two parts - "main article" (Large N Expansion. Vector Models) and a "brief article" (BPHZL Renormalization).
Vector-meson dominance revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terschlüsen Carla
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The interaction of mesons with electromagnetism is often well described by the concept of vector-meson dominance (VMD. However, there are also examples where VMD fails. A simple chiral Lagrangian for pions, rho and omega mesons is presented which can account for the respective agreement and disagreement between VMD and phenomenology in the sector of light mesons.
Sum rule analysis of vector and axial-vector spectral functions with excited states in vacuum
Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf
2012-01-01
We simultaneously analyze vector and axial-vector spectral functions in vacuum using hadronic models constrained by experimental data and the requirement that Weinberg-type sum rules are satisfied. Upon explicit inclusion of an excited vector state, viz. rho', and the requirement that the perturbative continua are degenerate in vector and axial-vector channels, we deduce the existence of an excited axial-vector resonance state, a1', in order that the Weinberg sum rules are satisfied. The resu...
Vector variational inequalities and their relations with vector optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surjeet Kaur Suneja
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, K- quasiconvex, K- pseudoconvex and other related functions have been introduced in terms of their Clarke subdifferentials, where is an arbitrary closed convex, pointed cone with nonempty interior. The (strict, weakly -pseudomonotonicity, (strict K- naturally quasimonotonicity and K- quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential maps have also been defined. Further, we introduce Minty weak (MVVIP and Stampacchia weak (SVVIP vector variational inequalities over arbitrary cones. Under regularity assumption, we have proved that a weak minimum solution of vector optimization problem (VOP is a solution of (SVVIP and under the condition of K- pseudoconvexity we have obtained the converse for MVVIP (SVVIP. In the end we study the interrelations between these with the help of strict K-naturally quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential map.
Introduction to vector velocity imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov
over the full region of interest and a real time image at a frame rate of 20 Hz can be displayed. Real time videos have been obtained from both our research systems and from commercial BK Medical scanners. The vector velocity images reveal the full complexity of the human blood flow. It is easy to see...... direction and the correct velocity magnitude for any orientation of the vessels. At complex geometries like bifurcations, branching and for valves the approach reveals how the velocity changes magnitude and direction over the cardiac cycle. Vector velocity reveals a wealth of new information that now...... is accessible to the ultrasound community. The displaying and studying of this information is challenging as complex flow changes rapidly over the cardiac cycle....
Vector Galileon and inflationary magnetogenesis
Nandi, Debottam; Shankaranarayanan, S.
2018-01-01
Cosmological inflation provides the initial conditions for the structure formation. However, the origin of large-scale magnetic fields can not be addressed in this framework. The key issue for this long-standing problem is the conformal invariance of the electromagnetic (EM) field in 4-D. While many approaches have been proposed in the literature for breaking conformal invariance of the EM action, here, we provide a completely new way of looking at the modifications to the EM action and generation of primordial magnetic fields during inflation. We explicitly construct a higher derivative EM action that breaks conformal invariance by demanding three conditions—theory be described by vector potential Aμ and its derivatives, Gauge invariance be satisfied, and equations of motion be linear in second derivatives of vector potential. The unique feature of our model is that appreciable magnetic fields are generated at small wavelengths while tiny magnetic fields are generated at large wavelengths that are consistent with current observations.
Clinical applications of power vectors.
Miller, Joseph M
2009-06-01
The study of infant vision is closely coupled to the study of the refraction, change in refraction over time, and the effect of spectacle correction on visual development. Frequently, reports are limited to descriptions of spherical equivalent or cylinder power without regard to axis, as data are frequently collected in the clinical format of sphere, cylinder, and axis (S, C, A). Conversion from clinical notation to a power vector representation of refraction allows unambiguous description of how refractions change over time and differ between repeated measurements. This article presents a series of examples of Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas that make the conversion from clinical notation to power vector format, and provides examples of useful applications of these methods.
Active set support vector regression.
Musicant, David R; Feinberg, Alexander
2004-03-01
This paper presents active set support vector regression (ASVR), a new active set strategy to solve a straightforward reformulation of the standard support vector regression problem. This new algorithm is based on the successful ASVM algorithm for classification problems, and consists of solving a finite number of linear equations with a typically large dimensionality equal to the number of points to be approximated. However, by making use of the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula, a much smaller matrix of the order of the original input space is inverted at each step. The algorithm requires no specialized quadratic or linear programming code, but merely a linear equation solver which is publicly available. ASVR is extremely fast, produces comparable generalization error to other popular algorithms, and is available on the web for download.
Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.
Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A
2015-01-01
Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.
Vector fields on singular varieties
Brasselet, Jean-Paul; Suwa, Tatsuo
2009-01-01
Vector fields on manifolds play a major role in mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem gives rise to the theory of Chern classes, key manifold-invariants in geometry and topology. It is natural to ask what is the ‘good’ notion of the index of a vector field, and of Chern classes, if the underlying space becomes singular. The question has been explored by several authors resulting in various answers, starting with the pioneering work of M.-H. Schwartz and R. MacPherson. We present these notions in the framework of the obstruction theory and the Chern-Weil theory. The interplay between these two methods is one of the main features of the monograph.
New Approach to Fractal Approximation of Vector-Functions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Igudesman, Konstantin; Davletbaev, Marsel; Shabernev, Gleb
2015-01-01
This paper introduces new approach to approximation of continuous vector-functions and vector sequences by fractal interpolation vector-functions which are multidimensional generalization of fractal...
Angles in Complex Vector Spaces
Scharnhorst, K.
1999-01-01
The article reviews some of the (fairly scattered) information available in the mathematical literature on the subject of angles in complex vector spaces. The following angles and their relations are considered: Euclidean, complex, and Hermitian angles, (Kasner's) pseudo-angle, the Kaehler angle (synonyms for the latter used in the literature are: angle of inclination, characteristic deviation, holomorphic deviation, holomorphy angle, Wirtinger angle, slant angle).
GAPS IN SUPPORT VECTOR OPTIMIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
STEINWART, INGO [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HUSH, DON [Los Alamos National Laboratory; SCOVEL, CLINT [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIST, NICOLAS [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-29
We show that the stopping criteria used in many support vector machine (SVM) algorithms working on the dual can be interpreted as primal optimality bounds which in turn are known to be important for the statistical analysis of SVMs. To this end we revisit the duality theory underlying the derivation of the dual and show that in many interesting cases primal optimality bounds are the same as known dual optimality bounds.
Ultrasonic Dynamic Vector Stress Sensor
Heyman, Joseph S.; Froggatt, Mark
1992-01-01
Stress inferred from measurements in specimens rather than in bonded gauges. Ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS) measures changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in material or structure at location touched by device when material or structure put under cyclic load. Includes phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe. Useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and evaluation of designs.
A ocean bottom vector magnetometer
Wang, Xiaomei; Teng, Yuntian; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jiemei
2017-04-01
The new development instrument with a compact spherical coil system and Overhauser magnetometer for measuring the total strength of the magnetic field and the vectors of strength, Delta inclination - Delta declination, meanwhile we also use a triaxial fluxgate instrument of the traditional instrument for geomagnetic vector filed measurement. The advantages of this method are be calibrated by each other and get good performances with automatic operation, good stability and high resolution. Firstly, a brief description of the instrument measurement principles and the key technologies are given. The instrument used a spherical coil system with 34 coils to product the homogeneous volume inside the coils which is large enough to accommodate the sensor of Overhauser total field sensor; the rest of the footlocker-sized ocean-bottom vector magnetometer consists of equipment to run the sensors and records its data (batteries and a data logger), weight to sink it to the sea floor, a remote-controlled acoustic release and flotation to bring the instrument back to the surface. Finally, the accuracy of the instrument was tested in the Geomagnetic station, and the measurement accuracies of total strength and components were better than 0.2nT and 1nT respectively. The figure 1 shows the development instrument structure. it includes six thick glass spheres which protect the sensor, data logger and batteries from the pressures of the deep sea, meanwhile they also provide recycling positive buoyancy; To cushion the glass, the spheres then go inside yellow plastic "hardhats". The triaxial fluxgate is inside No.1 glass spheres, data logger and batteries are inside No.2 glass spheres, the new vector sensor is inside No.3 glass spheres, acoustic communication unit is inside No.4 glass spheres, No.5 and No.6 glass spheres are empty which only provide recycling positive buoyancy. The figure 2 shows the development instrument Physical photo.
Olfaction in vector-host interactions
Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.
2010-01-01
This book addresses the topic how blood-feeding arthropods interact with their vertebrate hosts. As the transmission of infectious vector-borne pathogens is much dependent on the contact between vector and host, the efficacy of host location is of profound importance. Interruption of vector-host
Herbivore arthropods benefit from vectoring plant viruses
Belliure, B.; Janssen, A.; Maris, P.C.; Peters, D.; Sabelis, M.W.
2005-01-01
Plants infected with pathogens often attract the pathogens' vectors, but it is not clear if this is advantageous to the vectors. We therefore quantified the direct and indirect (through the host plant) effects of a pathogen on its vector. A positive direct effect of the plant-pathogenic Tomato
Vector and tensor analysis with applications
Borisenko, A I; Silverman, Richard A
1979-01-01
Concise and readable, this text ranges from definition of vectors and discussion of algebraic operations on vectors to the concept of tensor and algebraic operations on tensors. It also includes a systematic study of the differential and integral calculus of vector and tensor functions of space and time. Worked-out problems and solutions. 1968 edition.
New recombinant serotypes of AAV vectors.
Gao, Guangping; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wilson, James M
2005-06-01
AAV based vectors can achieve stable gene transfer with minimal vector related toxicities. AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) is the first AAV that was vectored for gene transfer applications. However, the restricted tissue tropism of AAV and its low transduction efficiency have limited its further development as vector. Recent studies using vectors derived from alternative AAV serotypes such as AAV1, 4, 5 and 6 have shown improved potency and broadened tropism of the AAV vector by packaging the same vector genome with different AAV capsids. In an attempt to search for potent AAV vectors with enhanced performance profiles, molecular techniques were employed for the detection and isolation of endogenous AAVs from a variety of human and non-human primate (NHP) tissues. A family of novel primate AAVs consisting of 110 non-redundant species of proviral sequences was discovered and turned to be prevalent in 18-19% of the tissues evaluated. Phylogenetic and functional analyses revealed that primate AAVs are segregated into clades based on phylogenetic relatedness. The members within a clade share functional and serological properties. Initial evaluation in mouse models of vectors based on these novel AAVs for tissue tropism and gene transfer potency led to the identification of some vector with improved gene transfer to different target tissues. Gene therapy treatment of several mouse and canine models with novel AAV vectors achieved long term phenotypic corrections. Vectors based on new primate AAVs could become the next generation of efficient gene transfer vehicles for various gene therapy applications.
Vectorizing and machine-spanning techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giroux, E D
1983-09-22
Techniques for vectorizing complex logic are shown using a decoupled sliding-surface calculation that is part of a two-dimensional Lagrangian simulation model. The same source coding can be run on many vector, parallel, and multiprocessor computers with very little or no alteration. The vectorizing techniques have been used for a wide range of problems.
Fubini's Theorem for Vector-Valued Measures
Uglanov, A. V.
1991-02-01
The situation is considered when either the transitional or initial measure is vector-valued (the other is, respectively, scalar-valued; thus the product measure is also vector-valued). The integrable function is vector-valued. In this situation two theorems of Fubini type are proved.
On the Distribution of Norm of Vector Projection and Rejection of Two Complex Normal Random Vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Maleki
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Vector projection and vector rejection are highly common and useful operations in mathematics, information theory, and signal processing. In this paper, we find the distribution of the norm of projection and rejection vectors when the original vectors are standard complex normally distributed.
Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors
Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.
2003-01-01
With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to
Problems and worked solutions in vector analysis
Shorter, LR
2014-01-01
""A handy book like this,"" noted The Mathematical Gazette, ""will fill a great want."" Devoted to fully worked out examples, this unique text constitutes a self-contained introductory course in vector analysis for undergraduate and graduate students of applied mathematics.Opening chapters define vector addition and subtraction, show how to resolve and determine the direction of two or more vectors, and explain systems of coordinates, vector equations of a plane and straight line, relative velocity and acceleration, and infinitely small vectors. The following chapters deal with scalar and vect
Integration of vector-valued functions with respect to vector measures defined on δ-rings
Chakraborty, N. D.; Basu, Santwana
2011-01-01
This paper extends the theory of scalar-valued integrable functions with respect to vector measures defined on δ-rings to the case of vector-valued tensor integrable functions with respect to vector measures defined on δ-rings. This paper also generalizes some results of G. F. Stefánsson for tensor integration theory of vector-valued functions with respect to vector measures defined on σ-algebras.
Multiscale vector fields for image pattern recognition
Low, Kah-Chan; Coggins, James M.
1990-01-01
A uniform processing framework for low-level vision computing in which a bank of spatial filters maps the image intensity structure at each pixel into an abstract feature space is proposed. Some properties of the filters and the feature space are described. Local orientation is measured by a vector sum in the feature space as follows: each filter's preferred orientation along with the strength of the filter's output determine the orientation and the length of a vector in the feature space; the vectors for all filters are summed to yield a resultant vector for a particular pixel and scale. The orientation of the resultant vector indicates the local orientation, and the magnitude of the vector indicates the strength of the local orientation preference. Limitations of the vector sum method are discussed. Investigations show that the processing framework provides a useful, redundant representation of image structure across orientation and scale.
Rotations with Rodrigues' vector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pina, E, E-mail: pge@xanum.uam.mx [Prof. Eugenio Mendez Docurro de la, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico DF (Mexico)
2011-09-15
The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.
Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field. Given...... examples of rotated families to argue this. There will be discussed several open questions concerning the number of transversals that can appear for a certain degree d of a polynomial vector field, and furthermore how transversals are analyzed with respect to bifurcations around multiple equilibrium points....
Deciphering Babesia-Vector Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Antunes
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Understanding host-pathogen-tick interactions remains a vitally important issue that might be better understood by basic research focused on each of the dyad interplays. Pathogens gain access to either the vector or host during tick feeding when ticks are confronted with strong hemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses. A prominent example of this is the Babesia spp.—tick—vertebrate host relationship. Babesia spp. are intraerythrocytic apicomplexan organisms spread worldwide, with a complex life cycle. The presence of transovarial transmission in almost all the Babesia species is the main difference between their life cycle and that of other piroplasmida. With more than 100 species described so far, Babesia are the second most commonly found blood parasite of mammals after trypanosomes. The prevalence of Babesia spp. infection is increasing worldwide and is currently classified as an emerging zoonosis. Babesia microti and Babesia divergens are the most frequent etiological agents associated with human babesiosis in North America and Europe, respectively. Although the Babesia-tick system has been extensively researched, the currently available prophylactic and control methods are not efficient, and chemotherapeutic treatment is limited. Studying the molecular changes induced by the presence of Babesia in the vector will not only elucidate the strategies used by the protozoa to overcome mechanical and immune barriers, but will also contribute toward the discovery of important tick molecules that have a role in vector capacity. This review provides an overview of the identified molecules involved in Babesia-tick interactions, with an emphasis on the fundamentally important ones for pathogen acquisition and transmission.
Bridging the Vector Calculus Gap
Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne
2003-05-01
As with Britain and America, mathematicians and physicists are separated from each other by a common language. In a nutshell, mathematics is about functions, but physics is about things. For the last several years, we have led an NSF-supported effort to "bridge the vector calculus gap" between mathematics and physics. The unifying theme we have discovered is to emphasize geometric reasoning, not (just) algebraic computation. In this talk, we will illustrate the language differences between mathematicians and physicists, and how we are trying reconcile them in the classroom. For further information about the project go to: http://www.physics.orst.edu/bridge
Dengue Vectors and their Spatial Distribution.
Higa, Yukiko
2011-12-01
The distribution of dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, is affected by climatic factors. In addition, since their life cycles are well adapted to the human environment, environmental changes resulting from human activity such as urbanization exert a great impact on vector distribution. The different responses of Ae. aegypti and Ae albopictus to various environments result in a difference in spatial distribution along north-south and urban-rural gradients, and between the indoors and outdoors. In the north-south gradient, climate associated with survival is an important factor in spatial distribution. In the urban-rural gradient, different distribution reflects a difference in adult niches and is modified by geographic and human factors. The direct response of the two species to the environment around houses is related to different spatial distribution indoors and outdoors. Dengue viruses circulate mainly between human and vector mosquitoes, and the vector presence is a limiting factor of transmission. Therefore, spatial distribution of dengue vectors is a significant concern in the epidemiology of the disease.Current technologies such as GIS, satellite imagery and statistical models allow researchers to predict the spatial distribution of vectors in the changing environment. Although it is difficult to confirm the actual effect of environmental and climate changes on vector abundance and vector-borne diseases, environmental changes caused by humans and human behavioral changes due to climate change can be expected to exert an impact on dengue vectors. Longitudinal monitoring of dengue vectors and viruses is therefore necessary.
Capsid Engineering of Adenovirus Vectors: Overcoming Early Vector-Host Interactions for Therapy.
Hagedorn, Claudia; Kreppel, Florian
2017-10-01
Adenovirus-based vectors comprise the most frequently used vector type in clinical studies to date. Both intense lab research and insights from the clinical trials reveal the importance of a comprehensive understanding of vector-host interactions. Especially for systemic intravenous adenovirus vector delivery, it is paramount to develop safe and efficacious vectors. Very early vector-host interactions that take place in blood long before the first cell is being transduced are phenomena triggered by the surface, shape, and size of the adenovirus vector particles. Not surprisingly, a multitude of different technologies ranging from genetics to chemistry has been developed to alter the adenovirus vector surface. In this review, we discuss the most important technologies and evaluate them for their suitability to overcome hurdles imposed by early vector-host interactions.
Supporting medical decisions with vector decision trees.
Sprogar, M; Kokol, P; Zorman, M; Podgorelec, V; Yamamoto, R; Masuda, G; Sakamoto, N
2001-01-01
The article presents the extension of a common decision tree concept to a multidimensional - vector - decision tree constructed with the help of evolutionary techniques. In contrary to the common decision tree the vector decision tree can make more than just one suggestion per input sample. It has the functionality of many separate decision trees acting on a same set of training data and answering different questions. Vector decision tree is therefore simple in its form, is easy to use and analyse and can express some relationships between decisions not visible before. To explore and test the possibilities of this concept we developed a software tool--DecRain--for building vector decision trees using the ideas of evolutionary computing. Generated vector decision trees showed good results in comparison to classical decision trees. The concept of vector decision trees can be safely and effectively used in any decision making process.
Vector assembly of colloids on monolayer substrates
Jiang, Lingxiang; Yang, Shenyu; Tsang, Boyce; Tu, Mei; Granick, Steve
2017-06-01
The key to spontaneous and directed assembly is to encode the desired assembly information to building blocks in a programmable and efficient way. In computer graphics, raster graphics encodes images on a single-pixel level, conferring fine details at the expense of large file sizes, whereas vector graphics encrypts shape information into vectors that allow small file sizes and operational transformations. Here, we adapt this raster/vector concept to a 2D colloidal system and realize `vector assembly' by manipulating particles on a colloidal monolayer substrate with optical tweezers. In contrast to raster assembly that assigns optical tweezers to each particle, vector assembly requires a minimal number of optical tweezers that allow operations like chain elongation and shortening. This vector approach enables simple uniform particles to form a vast collection of colloidal arenes and colloidenes, the spontaneous dissociation of which is achieved with precision and stage-by-stage complexity by simply removing the optical tweezers.
[Spatial vector electrocardiography: technique, perspectives of use].
Bakutskiĭ, V N; Volobuev, A N; Kriukov, N N; Romanchuk, P I
2003-01-01
Potentials of the use of computer synthesis of integral electrical vector of the heart D0 are described. Calculation of spatial angular vector velocity and linear velocity of its movement along trajectory can be carried out in a framework of biophysical dipole model. Spatial presentation of vector is realized and its behavior in accordance with established pathologies discussed. Possible diagnostic value of obtained results and utility of their introduction into clinical practice are stressed.
Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay Prakash Gupta
Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576
Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz
2000-01-01
The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...... of a magnetic field, three scale factors for normalization of the axes and three non-orthogonality angles which build up an orthogonal system intrinsically in the sensor. The advantage of this method compared with others lies in its linear least squares estimator, which finds independently and uniquely...... the parameters for a given data set. Therefore, a magnetometer may be characterized inexpensively in the Earth's magnetic-field environment. This procedure has been used successfully in the pre-flight calibration of the state-of-the-art magnetometers on board the magnetic mapping satellites Orsted, Astrid-2...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pihl, Michael Johannes
The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... Oscillation (TO) method, which estimates both the axial and the lateral velocity components. The first part of the scientific contribution demonstrates that a commercial implementation of the TO method is feasible. Afterwards, the method is expanded to a phased array geometry, and performance metrics based......:1 parallel receive beamforming. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the method. In the final part, an experimental investigation of the 3D TO method is presented. Velocity measurements of steady flow were conducted in a flow-rig system, and the data were acquired using an experimental...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuan-Ren Chen
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Even though the sensitivity of direct dark matter search experiments reaches the level of about 10−45 cm2, no confident signal of dark matter has been observed. We point out that, if dark matter is a vector boson, the null result in direct dark matter search experiments may be due to the destructive effects in dark-matter–nucleon elastic scattering. We illustrate the scenario using a modified Higgs portal model that includes exotic quarks. The significant cancellation can occur for a certain mass gap between new heavy quark and dark matter. As a result, the spin-independent dark-matter–nucleon elastic scattering is so suppressed that the future direct search experiments will hardly observe the signal of dark matter.
Vector optimization set-valued and variational analysis
Chen, Guang-ya; Yang, Xiaogi
2005-01-01
This book is devoted to vector or multiple criteria approaches in optimization. Topics covered include: vector optimization, vector variational inequalities, vector variational principles, vector minmax inequalities and vector equilibrium problems. In particular, problems with variable ordering relations and set-valued mappings are treated. The nonlinear scalarization method is extensively used throughout the book to deal with various vector-related problems. The results presented are original and should be interesting to researchers and graduates in applied mathematics and operations research
Extremal vectors and rectifiability | Enflo | Quaestiones Mathematicae
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The concept of extremal vectors of a linear operator with a dense range but not onto on a Hilbert space was introduced by P. Enflo in 1996 as a new approach to study invariant subspaces. Following this, there were several studies on analytic and geometric properties of backward minimal vectors and their applications to ...
Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik
1996-01-01
With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...
Clustering Categories in Support Vector Machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero
2017-01-01
The support vector machine (SVM) is a state-of-the-art method in supervised classification. In this paper the Cluster Support Vector Machine (CLSVM) methodology is proposed with the aim to increase the sparsity of the SVM classifier in the presence of categorical features, leading to a gain in in...
Semantic Vector Space Model: Implementation and Evaluation.
Liu, Geoffrey Z.
1997-01-01
Presents the Semantic Vector Space Model, a text representation and searching technique based on the combination of Vector Space Model with heuristic syntax parsing and distributed representation of semantic case structures. In this model, both documents and queries are represented as semantic matrices, and retrieval is achieved by computing…
Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
pUcD3 eukaryotic expression vector to express tagged-PEP protein for transient transfection analysis and identifying intracellular localization of PEP protein in future experiments. PEP-cDNA was amplified in different PCR reactions using pEGFP-PEP vector and 2 sets of primers introducing specific restriction sites at the ...
Radiative corrections to vector boson masses
Veltman, M.J.G.
1980-01-01
Weak and e.m. radiative corrections to vector boson masses are computed. Including corrections due to the presently known leptons and quarks, mass shifts of+3080 and +3310 MeV are obtained for the masses of the charged and neutral vector boson.
Deep Support Vector Machines for Regression Problems
Wiering, Marco; Schutten, Marten; Millea, Adrian; Meijster, Arnold; Schomaker, Lambertus
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe a novel extension of the support vector machine, called the deep support vector machine (DSVM). The original SVM has a single layer with kernel functions and is therefore a shallow model. The DSVM can use an arbitrary number of layers, in which lower-level layers contain
Malaria vector control: from past to future.
Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Barik, Tapan K; Reddy, B P Niranjan; Sharma, Poonam; Dash, Aditya P
2011-04-01
Malaria is one of the most common vector-borne diseases widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions. Despite considerable success of malaria control programs in the past, malaria still continues as a major public health problem in several countries. Vector control is an essential part for reducing malaria transmission and became less effective in recent years, due to many technical and administrative reasons, including poor or no adoption of alternative tools. Of the different strategies available for vector control, the most successful are indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), including long-lasting ITNs and materials. Earlier DDT spray has shown spectacular success in decimating disease vectors but resulted in development of insecticide resistance, and to control the resistant mosquitoes, organophosphates, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids were introduced in indoor residual spraying with needed success but subsequently resulted in the development of widespread multiple insecticide resistance in vectors. Vector control in many countries still use insecticides in the absence of viable alternatives. Few developments for vector control, using ovitraps, space spray, biological control agents, etc., were encouraging when used in limited scale. Likewise, recent introduction of safer vector control agents, such as insect growth regulators, biocontrol agents, and natural plant products have yet to gain the needed scale of utility for vector control. Bacterial pesticides are promising and are effective in many countries. Environmental management has shown sufficient promise for vector control and disease management but still needs advocacy for inter-sectoral coordination and sometimes are very work-intensive. The more recent genetic manipulation and sterile insect techniques are under development and consideration for use in routine vector control and for these, standardized procedures and methods are available but need thorough
Axial vector Z‧ and anomaly cancellation
Ismail, Ahmed; Keung, Wai-Yee; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James
2017-05-01
Whilst the prospect of new Z‧ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that in a large class of models masses of these new states are expected to be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.
Cascade Support Vector Machines with Dimensionality Reduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver Kramer
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cascade support vector machines have been introduced as extension of classic support vector machines that allow a fast training on large data sets. In this work, we combine cascade support vector machines with dimensionality reduction based preprocessing. The cascade principle allows fast learning based on the division of the training set into subsets and the union of cascade learning results based on support vectors in each cascade level. The combination with dimensionality reduction as preprocessing results in a significant speedup, often without loss of classifier accuracies, while considering the high-dimensional pendants of the low-dimensional support vectors in each new cascade level. We analyze and compare various instantiations of dimensionality reduction preprocessing and cascade SVMs with principal component analysis, locally linear embedding, and isometric mapping. The experimental analysis on various artificial and real-world benchmark problems includes various cascade specific parameters like intermediate training set sizes and dimensionalities.
Geoacoustic inversion using the vector field
Crocker, Steven E.
The main goal of this project was to study the use of the acoustic vector field, separately or in combination with the scalar field, to estimate the depth dependent geoacoustic properties of the seafloor via non-linear inversion. The study was performed in the context of the Sediment Acoustics Experiment 2004 (SAX04) conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where a small number of acoustic vector sensors were deployed in close proximity to the seafloor. A variety of acoustic waveforms were transmitted into the seafloor at normal incidence. The acoustic vector sensors were located both above and beneath the seafloor interface where they measured the acoustic pressure and the acoustic particle acceleration. Motion data provided by the buried vector sensors were affected by a suspension response that was sensitive to the mass properties of the sensor, the sediment density and sediment elasticity (e.g., shear wave speed). The suspension response for the buried vector sensors included a resonance within the analysis band of 0.4 to 2.0 kHz. The suspension resonance represented an unknown complex transfer function between the acoustic vector field in the seabed and data representing that field. Therefore, inverse methods developed for this study were required to 1) estimate dynamic properties of the sensor suspension resonance and 2) account for the associated corruption of vector field data. A method to account for the vector sensor suspense response function was integrated directly into the inversion methods such that vector channel data corruption was reduced and an estimate of the shear wave speed in the sediment was returned. Inversions of real and synthetic data sets indicated that information about sediment shear wave speed was carried by the suspension response of the buried sensors, as opposed to being contained inherently within the acoustic vector field.
Biosafety of onco-retroviral vectors.
VandenDriessche, Thierry; Collen, Désiré; Chuah, Marinee K L
2003-12-01
Extensive gene therapy studies in preclinical models and in clinical trials underscore the relative safety of onco-retroviral vectors. Up until recently, no adverse effects have been reported in nearly 2000 patients that were enrolled in gene therapy clinical trials involving onco-retroviral vectors. However, the main safety concern of using onco-retroviral vectors is related to the risk of malignant transformation following oncogene activation due to random onco-retroviral genomic integration. Based on primate studies, there is an apparent low risk of malignancy that is predominately associated with the occurrence of chronic retroviremia resulting from replication-competent retroviruses (RCR), particularly in immunosuppressed recipient hosts. However, in the latest packaging cell lines and vectors, the risk of RCR-generation has been drastically reduced, primarily by minimizing the homologous overlap between vector and helper sequences. Nevertheless, results from a recent preclinical study in mice and a clinical trial in patients suffering from SCID-X1 strongly suggest that onco-retroviral vectors devoid of RCR can contribute to lymphomagenesis by insertional activation of cellular oncogenes. The risk of inadvertent germline transmission of onco-retroviral vectors appears to be low, especially relative to the endogenous rate of germline insertion, which is known to occur naturally in the human population via transmission of endogenous retro-transposons. The strict dependency of onco-retroviral gene transfer on cell division is an important safety advantage that significantly limits the risks of horizontal transmission. Since improved onco-retroviral vectors or transduction protocols may result in an increased number of retroviral integrations per cell, this may concomitantly increase the risk of malignant transformation. The use of suicide genes, self-inactivating vectors and/or chromosomal insulators is, therefore, warranted to further enhance the safety features
Vector 33: A reduce program for vector algebra and calculus in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates
Harper, David
1989-06-01
This paper describes a package with enables REDUCE 3.3 to perform algebra and calculus operations upon vectors. Basic algebraic operations between vectors and between scalars and vectors are provided, including scalar (dot) product and vector (cross) product. The vector differential operators curl, divergence, gradient and Laplacian are also defined, and are valid in any orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. The package is written in RLISP to allow algebra and calculus to be performed using notation identical to that for operations. Scalars and vectors can be mixed quite freely in the same expression. The package will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers and scientists who need to perform vector calculations in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates.
GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7
Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus
2014-05-01
The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the
Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.
Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang
2017-07-01
Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.
HVJ liposomes and HVJ envelope vectors.
Kaneda, Yasufumi
2011-10-01
This protocol describes techniques for construction of fusion-mediated vectors based on inactivated HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; Sendai virus). HVJ liposomes are constructed by fusing liposomes containing DNA with inactivated HVJ. The HVJ envelope vector, a more simplified vector, incorporates DNA into inactivated HVJ particles without liposomes. Both vectors have many advantages. They can be used to introduce proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides (including antisense oligonucleotides, decoy oligonucleotides, and ribozymes), and short interfering RNA (siRNA), as well as plasmid DNA, into cultured cells in vitro and into organs in vivo. Fusion-mediated delivery avoids the degradation of therapeutic molecules before reaching the cytoplasm. Finally, repeated injection of the vector in vivo is not inhibited and even enhances the effects of the delivered molecules. These vectors have been used in many gene therapy experiments in animal models to address problems such as liver cirrhosis, hearing impairment, ischemic brain damage, peripheral arterial diseases, and cancers. This protocol describes methods for the preparation of HVJ liposomes and of HVJ envelope vectors and their use in delivery of plasmid DNA into various cells and tissues.
Malaria vector control and personal protection.
2006-01-01
Malaria transmission rates and risks can be greatly reduced by vector control, mitigating high malaria incidence and prevalence rates. Methods and strategies for malaria vector control (MVC) have been well documented by WHO, although its implementation varies widely. Technical guidelines for MVC strategies and materials are readily available, but the status and role of MVC have not been reviewed and redefined in terms of programme management and resource allocation. There are huge changes since November 1993 when the last WHO Study Group reviewed vector control for malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases, following the 1992 adoption of the Global Malaria Control Strategy. Operationally, with reform of the health sector in many countries, the centrally managed and vertically structured malaria control programme (MCP) has been superseded by a community-based and decentralized one. This poses challenges for effective implementation of MVC strategies. Therefore it became evident that the role of vector control in malaria control needs to be reconsidered to develop a strategic framework for MVC implementation by national malaria control programmes and other partners. This report of a WHO Study Group on Malaria Vector Control and Personal Protection reviewed the current vector control strategies and their effectiveness in various operational and eco-epidemiological settings, and identified challenges for implementation in different health systems. An outline strategic framework for strengthening malaria vector control implementation was developed. The process of deciding about which mosquito control method is appropriate in a given situation should be guided by an analysis of the level of malaria endemicity and vector bionomics, the eco-epidemiological setting, the health management system and an estimate of the programme sustainability. This report also provides a basis for the development of a strategic framework for strengthening malaria vector control
Meromorphic Vector Fields and Circle Packings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or meromorphic (allowing poles...... problems. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...
Vector analysis for mathematicians, scientists and engineers
Simons, S
1970-01-01
Vector Analysis for Mathematicians, Scientists and Engineers, Second Edition, provides an understanding of the methods of vector algebra and calculus to the extent that the student will readily follow those works which make use of them, and further, will be able to employ them himself in his own branch of science. New concepts and methods introduced are illustrated by examples drawn from fields with which the student is familiar, and a large number of both worked and unworked exercises are provided. The book begins with an introduction to vectors, covering their representation, addition, geome
Interior point decoding for linear vector channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wadayama, T [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: wadayama@nitech.ac.jp
2008-01-15
In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem.
Some remarks on a generalized vector product
Primitivo Acosta-Humánez; Moisés Aranda; Reinaldo Núñez
2011-01-01
In this paper we use a generalized vector product to construct an exterior form ∧ : (Rn) k → R( n k), where n k = n! (n−k)!k! , k ≤ n. Finally, for n = k − 1 we introduce the reversing operation to study this generalized vector product over palindromic and antipalindromic vectors Resumen. En este artículo usamos un producto vectorial generalizado para construir una forma exterior ∧ : (Rn) k → R( n k), en donde como es natural, n k = n! ...
Gene therapy using retrovirus vectors: vector development and biosafety at clinical trials.
Doi, Knayo; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro
2015-01-01
Retrovirus vectors (gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors) have been considered as promising tools to transfer therapeutic genes into patient cells because they can permanently integrate into host cellular genome. To treat monogenic, inherited diseases, retroviral vectors have been used to add correct genes into patient cells. Conventional gammaretroviral vectors achieved successful results in clinical trials: treated patients had therapeutic gene expression in target cells and had improved symptoms of diseases. However, serious side-effects of leukemia occurred, caused by retroviral insertional mutagenesis (IM). These incidences stressed the importance of monitoring vector integration sites in patient cells as well as of re-consideration on safer vectors. More recently lentiviral vectors which can deliver genes into non-dividing cells started to be used in clinical trials including neurological disorders, showing their efficacy. Vector integration site analysis revealed that lentiviruses integrate less likely to near promoter regions of oncogenes than gammaretroviruses and no adverse events have been reported in lentiviral vector-mediated gene therapy clinical trials. Therefore lentiviral vectors have promises to be applied to a wide range of common diseases in near future. For example, T cells from cancer patients were transduced to express chimeric T cell receptors recognizing their tumour cells enhancing patients' anti-cancer immunity.
Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy
Wold, William S. M.; Toth, Karoly
2013-01-01
Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vector...
Taxonomy and Biology of Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease.
DIPTERA, *DISEASE VECTORS, *TAXONOMY, *VECTOR ANALYSIS , ANTIBODIES, BIOLOGY , BRAIN, CHROMOSOMES, COLOMBIA, COLONIES( BIOLOGY ), DISEASES, FEMALES... HUMANS , INFECTIOUS DISEASES, LABORATORIES, LEISHMANIA, LEISHMANIASIS, NEUTRALIZATION, PATIENTS, SEROLOGY, STRAINS( BIOLOGY ).
Dengue Vectors and their Spatial Distribution
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Higa, Yukiko
2011-01-01
.... In addition, since their life cycles are well adapted to the human environment, environmental changes resulting from human activity such as urbanization exert a great impact on vector distribution...
Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Koreas
2015-01-01
Similarly, the civilian population may experience displacement, homelessness , reduced sanitation, increased exposure to vectors and disease, and...visit either of the following websites: 1. The WHO Searchable Snake/Antivenin Database 2. The Toxinology website ( Australia based) 69 REFERENCES
Viruses vector control proposal: genus Aedes emphasis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nelson Nogueira Reis
Full Text Available Abstract The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Recently, Zika and Chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. Without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. This article is focused on reviewing vector control strategies, their effectiveness, viability and economical impact. Among all, the Sterile Insect Technique is highlighted as the best option to be adopted in Brazil, once it is largely effectively used in the USA and Mexico for plagues related to agribusiness.
Viral vector-based influenza vaccines
de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345
Viruses vector control proposal: genus Aedes emphasis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nelson Nogueira Reis
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Recently, Zika and Chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. Without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. This article is focused on reviewing vector control strategies, their effectiveness, viability and economical impact. Among all, the Sterile Insect Technique is highlighted as the best option to be adopted in Brazil, once it is largely effectively used in the USA and Mexico for plagues related to agribusiness.
Low Power, Self Calibrated Vector Magnetometer Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project investigates a novel approach to vector magnetometry based on high precision measurements of the total magnetic field. The calibration is...
Inflight parity vector compensation for FDI
Hall, S. R.; Motyka, P.; Gai, E.; Deyst, J. J., Jr.
The performance of a failure detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm applied to a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) is limited by sensor errors such as input axis misalignment, scale factor errors, and biases. This paper presents a technique for improving the performance of FDI algorithms applied to redundant strapdown IMUs. A Kalman filter provides estimates of those linear combinations of sensor errors that affect the parity vector. These estimates are used to form a compensated parity vector which does not include the effects of sensor errors. The compensated parity vector is then used in place of the uncompensated parity vector to make FDI decisions. Simulation results are presented in which the algorithm is tested in a realistic flight environment that includes vehicle maneuvers, the effects of turbulence, and sensor failures. The results show that the algorithm can significantly improve FDI performance, especially during vehicle maneuvers.
Vector optimization theory, applications, and extensions
Jahn, Johannes
2011-01-01
This new edition of a key monograph has fresh sections on the work of Edgeworth and Pareto in its presentation in a general setting of the fundamentals and important results of vector optimization. It examines background material, applications and theories.
Sensorless vector and direct torque control
Vas, Peter
1998-01-01
This is the first comprehensive book on sensorless high performance a.c. drives. It is essential reading for anyone interested in acquiring a solid background on sensorless torque-controlled drives. It presents a detailed and unified treatment of sensorless vector-controlled and direct-torque controlled drive systems. It also discusses the applications of artificial intelligence to drives. Where possible, space vector theory is used and emphasis is laid on detailed mathematical and physical analysis. Sensorless drive schemes for different types of permanent magnet synchronous motors, synchronous reluctance motors, and induction motors are also presented. These include more than twenty vector drives e.g. five types of MRAS-based vector drives, and eleven types of direct-torque-controlled (DTC) drives, e.g. the ABB DTC drive. However, torque-controlled switched reluctance motor drives are also discussed due to their emerging importance. The book also covers various drive applications using artificial intellige...
Weaving Knotted Vector Fields with Tunable Helicity
Kedia, Hridesh; Foster, David; Dennis, Mark R.; Irvine, William T. M.
2016-12-01
We present a general construction of divergence-free knotted vector fields from complex scalar fields, whose closed field lines encode many kinds of knots and links, including torus knots, their cables, the figure-8 knot, and its generalizations. As finite-energy physical fields, they represent initial states for fields such as the magnetic field in a plasma, or the vorticity field in a fluid. We give a systematic procedure for calculating the vector potential, starting from complex scalar functions with knotted zero filaments, thus enabling an explicit computation of the helicity of these knotted fields. The construction can be used to generate isolated knotted flux tubes, filled by knots encoded in the lines of the vector field. Lastly, we give examples of manifestly knotted vector fields with vanishing helicity. Our results provide building blocks for analytical models and simulations alike.
Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.
Rodhain, F
2015-04-01
Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed.
Some remarks on a generalized vector product
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Primitivo Acosta-Humánez
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we use a generalized vector product to construct an exterior form ∧ : (Rn k → R( n k, where n k = n! (n−k!k! , k ≤ n. Finally, for n = k − 1 we introduce the reversing operation to study this generalized vector product over palindromic and antipalindromic vectors Resumen. En este artículo usamos un producto vectorial generalizado para construir una forma exterior ∧ : (Rn k → R( n k, en donde como es natural, n k = n! (n−k!k! , k ≤ n. Finalmente, para n = k − 1 introducimos la operación reversar para estudiar este producto vectorial generalizado sobre vectores palindrómicos y antipalindrómicos.
Weaving Knotted Vector Fields with Tunable Helicity.
Kedia, Hridesh; Foster, David; Dennis, Mark R; Irvine, William T M
2016-12-30
We present a general construction of divergence-free knotted vector fields from complex scalar fields, whose closed field lines encode many kinds of knots and links, including torus knots, their cables, the figure-8 knot, and its generalizations. As finite-energy physical fields, they represent initial states for fields such as the magnetic field in a plasma, or the vorticity field in a fluid. We give a systematic procedure for calculating the vector potential, starting from complex scalar functions with knotted zero filaments, thus enabling an explicit computation of the helicity of these knotted fields. The construction can be used to generate isolated knotted flux tubes, filled by knots encoded in the lines of the vector field. Lastly, we give examples of manifestly knotted vector fields with vanishing helicity. Our results provide building blocks for analytical models and simulations alike.
MAGELLAN SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS VECTOR DATA RECORD
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the Magellan Surface Characteristics Vector Data Record (SCVDR) which is an orbit-by-orbit reduction of Magellan scattering and emission...
VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica
Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.
2014-01-01
We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.
Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune
1997-01-01
result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...
Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune
result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...
Free divisors in prehomogeneous vector spaces
Granger, Michel; Mond, David; Schulze, Mathias
2009-01-01
We study linear free divisors, that is, free divisors arising as discriminants in prehomogeneous vector spaces, and in particular in quiver representation spaces. We give a characterization of the prehomogeneous vector spaces containing such linear free divisors. For reductive linear free divisors, we prove that the numbers of geometric and representation theoretic irreducible components coincide. As a consequence, we find that a quiver can only give rise to a linear free divisor if it has no...
Acoustical vector solitons in anisotropic media
Adamashvili, G. T.; Peikrishvili, M. D.; Koplatadze, R. R.
2017-04-01
A theory of acoustical vector solitons of self-induced transparency in anisotropic media is developed. It is shown that, in these systems, a two-component vector soliton oscillating with the difference and sum of the frequencies in the vicinity of the frequency of a carrying acoustic wave may arise. Explicit analytical expressions for the form and parameters of a nonlinear wave depending on the direction of pulse propagation are given.
Trichophoromyia auraensis is a putative vector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolina Bioni Garcia Teles
Full Text Available The sandfly Trichophoromyia auraensis has recently evolved as a proven vector of Leishmania (Viannia endemic to state of Acre in the north of Brazil. This note is intended to propose a correction in the report of the first occurrence of natural infection of Leishmania (Viannia in this species. We and the other scientific groups reinforced that Tr. auraensis is a possible vector involved in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre, Brazil.
Engineering HSV-1 vectors for gene therapy.
Goins, William F; Huang, Shaohua; Cohen, Justus B; Glorioso, Joseph C
2014-01-01
Virus vectors have been employed as gene transfer vehicles for various preclinical and clinical gene therapy applications, and with the approval of Glybera (alipogene tiparvovec) as the first gene therapy product as a standard medical treatment (Yla-Herttuala, Mol Ther 20: 1831-1832, 2013), gene therapy has reached the status of being a part of standard patient care. Replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors that replicate specifically in actively dividing tumor cells have been used in Phase I-III human trials in patients with glioblastoma multiforme, a fatal form of brain cancer, and in malignant melanoma. In fact, T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec, formerly known as OncoVex GM-CSF) displayed efficacy in a recent Phase III trial when compared to standard GM-CSF treatment alone (Andtbacka et al. J Clin Oncol 31: sLBA9008, 2013) and may soon become the second FDA-approved gene therapy product used in standard patient care. In addition to the replication-competent oncolytic HSV vectors like T-VEC, replication-defective HSV vectors have been employed in Phase I-II human trials and have been explored as delivery vehicles for disorders such as pain, neuropathy, and other neurodegenerative conditions. Research during the last decade on the development of HSV vectors has resulted in the engineering of recombinant vectors that are totally replication defective, nontoxic, and capable of long-term transgene expression in neurons. This chapter describes methods for the construction of recombinant genomic HSV vectors based on the HSV-1 replication-defective vector backbones, steps in their purification, and their small-scale production for use in cell culture experiments as well as preclinical animal studies.
Effect of pathogen-resistant vectors on the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne disease.
Arino, Julien; Bowman, Chris; Gumel, Abba; Portet, Stéphanie
2007-10-01
A model is introduced for the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne disease with two vector strains, one wild and one pathogen-resistant; resistance comes at the cost of reduced reproductive fitness. The model, which assumes that vector reproduction can lead to the transmission or loss of resistance (reversion), is analyzed in a particular case with specified forms for the birth and force of infection functions. The vector component can have, in the absence of disease, a coexistence equilibrium where both strains survive. In the case where reversion is possible, this coexistence equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when it exists. This equilibrium is still present in the full vector-host system, leading to a reduction of the associated reproduction number, thereby making elimination of the disease more feasible. When reversion is not possible, there can exist an additional equilibrium with only resistant vectors.
Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.
Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin
2016-08-01
There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blocking transmission of vector-borne diseases.
Schorderet-Weber, Sandra; Noack, Sandra; Selzer, Paul M; Kaminsky, Ronald
2017-04-01
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for significant health problems in humans, as well as in companion and farm animals. Killing the vectors with ectoparasitic drugs before they have the opportunity to pass on their pathogens could be the ideal way to prevent vector borne diseases. Blocking of transmission might work when transmission is delayed during blood meal, as often happens in ticks. The recently described systemic isoxazolines have been shown to successfully prevent disease transmission under conditions of delayed pathogen transfer. However, if the pathogen is transmitted immediately at bite as it is the case with most insects, blocking transmission becomes only possible if ectoparasiticides prevent the vector from landing on or, at least, from biting the host. Chemical entities exhibiting repellent activity in addition to fast killing, like pyrethroids, could prevent pathogen transmission even in cases of immediate transfer. Successful blocking depends on effective action in the context of the extremely diverse life-cycles of vectors and vector-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance which are summarized in this review. This complexity leads to important parameters to consider for ectoparasiticide research and when considering the ideal drug profile for preventing disease transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition
Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.
2017-05-01
One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.
Black holes in vector-tensor theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Minamitsuji, Masato; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2017-08-01
We study static and spherically symmetric black hole (BH) solutions in second-order generalized Proca theories with nonminimal vector field derivative couplings to the Ricci scalar, the Einstein tensor, and the double dual Riemann tensor. We find concrete Lagrangians which give rise to exact BH solutions by imposing two conditions of the two identical metric components and the constant norm of the vector field. These exact solutions are described by either Reissner-Nordström (RN), stealth Schwarzschild, or extremal RN solutions with a non-trivial longitudinal mode of the vector field. We then numerically construct BH solutions without imposing these conditions. For cubic and quartic Lagrangians with power-law couplings which encompass vector Galileons as the specific cases, we show the existence of BH solutions with the difference between two non-trivial metric components. The quintic-order power-law couplings do not give rise to non-trivial BH solutions regular throughout the horizon exterior. The sixth-order and intrinsic vector-mode couplings can lead to BH solutions with a secondary hair. For all the solutions, the vector field is regular at least at the future or past horizon. The deviation from General Relativity induced by the Proca hair can be potentially tested by future measurements of gravitational waves in the nonlinear regime of gravity.
Auto-tuning Dense Vector and Matrix-vector Operations for Fermi GPUs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg
2012-01-01
In this paper, we consider the automatic performance tuning of dense vector and matrix-vector operations on GPUs. Such operations form the backbone of level 1 and level 2 routines in the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) library and are therefore of great importance in many scientific...... for dense vector and matrix-vector operations by appropriately utilizing the fine-grained parallelism of the GPU. Our tuned kernels display between 25-100% better performance than the current CUBLAS 3.2 library....
Viral Vectors for in Vivo Gene Transfer
Thévenot, E.; Dufour, N.; Déglon, N.
The transfer of DNA into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell (gene transfer) is a central theme of modern biology. The transfer is said to be somatic when it refers to non-germline organs of a developed individual, and germline when it concerns gametes or the fertilised egg of an animal, with the aim of transmitting the relevant genetic modification to its descendents [1]. The efficient introduction of genetic material into a somatic or germline cell and the control of its expression over time have led to major advances in understanding how genes work in vivo, i.e., in living organisms (functional genomics), but also to the development of innovative therapeutic methods (gene therapy). The efficiency of gene transfer is conditioned by the vehicle used, called the vector. Desirable features for a vector are as follows: Easy to produce high titer stocks of the vector in a reproducible way. Absence of toxicity related to transduction (transfer of genetic material into the target cell, and its expression there) and no immune reaction of the organism against the vector and/or therapeutic protein. Stability in the expression of the relevant gene over time, and the possibility of regulation, e.g., to control expression of the therapeutic protein on the physiological level, or to end expression at the end of treatment. Transduction of quiescent cells should be as efficient as transduction of dividing cells. Vectors currently used fall into two categories: non-viral and viral vectors. In non-viral vectors, the DNA is complexed with polymers, lipids, or cationic detergents (described in Chap. 3). These vectors have a low risk of toxicity and immune reaction. However, they are less efficient in vivo than viral vectors when it comes to the number of cells transduced and long-term transgene expression. (Naked DNA transfer or electroporation is rather inefficient in the organism. This type of gene transfer will not be discussed here, and the interested reader is referred to the
New Approach to Fractal Approximation of Vector-Functions
Konstantin Igudesman; Marsel Davletbaev; Gleb Shabernev
2014-01-01
This paper introduces new approach to approximation of continuous vector-functions and vector sequences by fractal interpolation vector-functions which are multidimensional generalization of fractal interpolation functions. Best values of fractal interpolation vector-functions parameters are found. We give schemes of approximation of some sets of data and consider examples of approximation of smooth curves with different conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adachi, Masaaki; Ogasawara, Shinobu; Kume, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishizuki, Shigeru; Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Kawasaki, Nobuo; Kawai, Wataru [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yatake, Yo-ichi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
2001-02-01
Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and trans-ported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system, the SX-4 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 18 codes in fiscal 1999. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and the parallelization part on vector processors, the parallelization part on scalar processors and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors. In this vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of Relativistic Molecular Orbital Calculation code RSCAT, a microscopic transport code for high energy nuclear collisions code JAM, three-dimensional non-steady thermal-fluid analysis code STREAM, Relativistic Density Functional Theory code RDFT and High Speed Three-Dimensional Nodal Diffusion code MOSRA-Light on the VPP500 system and the SX-4 system are described. (author)
Improved Coinfection with Amphotropic Pseudotyped Retroviral Vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuehong Wu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Amphotropic pseudotyped retroviral vectors have typically been used to infect target cells without prior concentration. Although this can yield high rates of infection, higher rates may be needed where highly efficient coinfection of two or more vectors is needed. In this investigation we used amphotropic retroviral vectors produced by the Plat-A cell line and studied coinfection rates using green and red fluorescent proteins (EGFP and dsRed2. Target cells were primary human fibroblasts (PHF and 3T3 cells. Unconcentrated vector preparations produced a coinfection rate of ∼4% (defined as cells that are both red and green as a percentage of all cells infected. Optimized spinoculation, comprising centrifugation at 1200 g for 2 hours at 15∘C, increased the coinfection rate to ∼10%. Concentration by centrifugation at 10,000 g or by flocculation using Polybrene increased the coinfection rate to ∼25%. Combining the two processes, concentration by Polybrene flocculation and optimized spinoculation, increased the coinfection rate to 35% (3T3 or >50% (PHF. Improved coinfection should be valuable in protocols that require high transduction by combinations of two or more retroviral vectors.
Could dark energy be vector-like?
Armendáriz-Picón, C.
2004-07-01
In this paper I explore whether a vector field can be the origin of the present stage of cosmic acceleration. In order to avoid violations of isotropy, the vector has be part of a 'cosmic triad', that is, a set of three identical vectors pointing in mutually orthogonal spatial directions. A triad is indeed able to drive a stage of late accelerated expansion in the universe, and there exist tracking attractors that render cosmic evolution insensitive to initial conditions. However, as in most other models, the onset of cosmic acceleration is determined by a parameter that has to be tuned to reproduce current observations. The triad equation of state can be sufficiently close to minus one today, and for tachyonic models it might be even less than that. I briefly analyse linear cosmological perturbation theory in the presence of a triad. It turns out that the existence of non-vanishing spatial vectors invalidates the decomposition theorem, i.e. scalar, vector and tensor perturbations do not decouple from each other. In a simplified case it is possible to analytically study the stability of the triad along the different cosmological attractors. The triad is classically stable during inflation, radiation and matter domination, but it is unstable during (late time) cosmic acceleration. I argue that this instability is not likely to have a significant impact at present.
Emergence and Prevalence of Human Vector-Borne Diseases in Sink Vector Populations
Rascalou, Guilhem; Pontier, Dominique; Menu, Frédéric; Gourbière, Sébastien
2012-01-01
Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining ‘source’ populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining ‘sink’ vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15–55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale. PMID:22629337
Reducing the risk of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector mobilization with AAV type 5 vectors.
Hewitt, F Curtis; Li, Chengwen; Gray, Steven J; Cockrell, Shelley; Washburn, Michael; Samulski, R Jude
2009-04-01
Current adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy vectors package a transgene flanked by the terminal repeats (TRs) of AAV type 2 (AAV2). Although these vectors are replication deficient, wild-type (wt) AAV2 prevalent in the human population could lead to replication and packaging of a type 2 TR (TR2)-flanked transgene in trans during superinfection by a helper virus, leading to "mobilization" of the vector genome from treated cells. More importantly, it appears likely that the majority of currently characterized AAV serotypes as well as the majority of new novel isolates are capable of rescuing and replicating AAV2 vector templates. To investigate this possibility, we flanked a green fluorescent protein transgene with type 2 and, the most divergent AAV serotype, type 5 TRs (TR2 or TR5). Consistent with AAV clades, AAV5 specifically replicated TR5 vectors, while AAV2 and AAV6 replicated TR2-flanked vectors. To exploit this specificity, we created a TR5 vector production system for Cap1 to Cap5. Next, we showed that persisting recombinant AAV genomes flanked by TR2s or TR5s were mobilized in vitro after addition of the cognate AAV Rep (as well as Rep6 for TR2) and adenoviral helper. Finally, we showed that a cell line containing a stably integrated wt AAV2 genome resulted in mobilization of a TR2-flanked vector but not a TR5-flanked vector upon adenoviral superinfection. Based on these data and the relative prevalence of wt AAV serotypes in the population, we propose that TR5 vectors have a significantly lower risk of mobilization and should be considered for clinical use.
Emergence and prevalence of human vector-borne diseases in sink vector populations.
Rascalou, Guilhem; Pontier, Dominique; Menu, Frédéric; Gourbière, Sébastien
2012-01-01
Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining 'source' populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining 'sink' vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15-55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale.
Emergence and prevalence of human vector-borne diseases in sink vector populations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guilhem Rascalou
Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining 'source' populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining 'sink' vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15-55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale.
Resonance vector soliton of the Rayleigh wave.
Adamashvili, G T
2016-02-01
A theory of acoustic vector solitons of self-induced transparency of the Rayleigh wave is constructed. A thin resonance transition layer on an elastic surface is considered using a model of a two-dimensional gas of impurity paramagnetic atoms or quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for the profile and parameters of the Rayleigh vector soliton with two different oscillation frequencies is obtained, as well as simulations of this nonlinear surface acoustic wave with realistic parameters, which can be used in acoustic experiments. It is shown that the properties of a surface vector soliton of the Rayleigh wave depend on the parameters of the resonance layer, the elastic medium, and the transverse structure of the surface acoustic wave.
Phase interaction of short vector solitons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aseeva, N.V., E-mail: naseeva@hse.ru [Higher School of Economics, Faculty of Business Informatics and Applied Mathematics, State University, Bolshaya Pecherskaya 25/12, 603155 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gromov, E.M.; Tyutin, V.V. [Higher School of Economics, Faculty of Business Informatics and Applied Mathematics, State University, Bolshaya Pecherskaya 25/12, 603155 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2012-01-16
An interaction of vector solitons in the frame of coupled third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations taking into account third-order linear dispersion, nonlinear dispersion, and cross-phase modulation terms is considered. Phase nature of the solitons' interaction is shown. In particular, dependence of solitons' trajectories on initial distance between solitons is shown. Conditions of reflection and propagation of solitons through each other are obtained. -- Highlights: ► Short vector soliton's interaction in the frame of CTNSE without SRS is studied. ► Analytical and numerical approaches are considered. ► Phase effects lead to short vector soliton's interaction character change.
On-demand tailored vector beams.
Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; López-Mariscal, Carlos; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C
2017-08-20
We introduce an effective optical system to produce optical beams with arbitrary, inhomogeneous polarization states. Using our system, we are capable of generating vector beams with discretionarily chosen transverse complex fields in a straightforward way. We generate several different instances of well-known vector beams and the less common spirally polarized vector beams, as well as a full Poincaré beam. We visually show the continual transition between azimuthally and radially polarized beams via a collection of spirally polarized beams. We experimentally determine the polarization states of the generated beams and quantitatively assess the performance of our system. We find that the measured polarization distributions accurately coincide with the intended input polarization distributions.
Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Rene
an increasing trend in transmission potential over the last 25 years. However the model suggested that the climate in the Baltic See Region has always permitted transmission of these diseases. The model therefore suggests that a presently unknown factor until recently prevented introduction and spread......Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall pattern are likely to facilitate the spread and establishment of new vector borne diseases in the Baltic See Region. There are a large number of potential vector borne threats to the area. Existing endemic vector borne diseases are likely to increase...... and new exotic diseases like Usutu and West Nile Virus may lead to outbreaks in the region. In the worst case the combined effect of climate change and globalization may potentially lead to European outbreaks of important zoonotic mosquito borne infections like Rift Valley Fever in cattle and Japanese...
Generating Series for Nested Bethe Vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey Khoroshkin
2008-11-01
Full Text Available We reformulate nested relations between off-shell U_q(^gl_N Bethe vectors as a certain equation on generating series of strings of the composed U_q(^gl_N currents. Using inversion of the generating series we find a new type of hierarchical relations between universal off-shell Bethe vectors, useful for a derivation of Bethe equation. As an example of application, we use these relations for a derivation of analytical Bethe ansatz equations [Arnaudon D. et al., Ann. Henri Poincaré 7 (2006, 1217-1268, math-ph/0512037] for the parameters of universal Bethe vectors of the algebra U_q(^gl_2.
Interactions between parasites and insects vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hilary Hurd
1994-01-01
Full Text Available This review stresses the importance of studies that will provide a basic understanding of the pathology of parasite-infected vector insects. This knowledge should be a vital component of the very focussed initiatives currently being funded in the areas of vector control. Vector fecundity reduction is discussed as an example of such pathology. Underlying mechanisms are being investigated in a model system, Hymenolepis diminuta-infected Tenebrio molitor and in Onchocerca-infected blackflies and Plasmodium-infected Anopheles stephensi. In all cases, host vitellogenesis is disrupted by the parasite and, in the tapeworm/beetle model, interaction between the parasite and the endocrine control of the insect's reproductive physiology has been demonstrated.
Efficient intracellular assembly of papillomaviral vectors.
Buck, Christopher B; Pastrana, Diana V; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T
2004-01-01
Although the papillomavirus structural proteins, L1 and L2, can spontaneously coassemble to form virus-like particles, currently available methods for production of L1/L2 particles capable of transducing reporter plasmids into mammalian cells are technically demanding and relatively low-yield. In this report, we describe a simple 293 cell transfection method for efficient intracellular production of papillomaviral-based gene transfer vectors carrying reporter plasmids. Using bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) and human papillomavirus type 16 as model papillomaviruses, we have developed a system for producing papillomaviral vector stocks with titers of several billion transducing units per milliliter. Production of these vectors requires both L1 and L2, and transduction can be prevented by papillomavirus-neutralizing antibodies. The stocks can be purified by an iodixanol (OptiPrep) gradient centrifugation procedure that is substantially more effective than standard cesium chloride gradient purification. Although earlier data had suggested a potential role for the viral early protein E2, we found that E2 protein expression did not enhance the intracellular production of BPV1 vectors. It was also possible to encapsidate reporter plasmids devoid of BPV1 DNA sequences. BPV1 vector production efficiency was significantly influenced by the size of the target plasmid being packaged. Use of 6-kb target plasmids resulted in BPV1 vector yields that were higher than those with target plasmids closer to the native 7.9-kb size of papillomavirus genomes. The results suggest that the intracellular assembly of papillomavirus structural proteins around heterologous reporter plasmids is surprisingly promiscuous and may be driven primarily by a size discrimination mechanism.
Black hole superradiance signatures of ultralight vectors
Baryakhtar, Masha; Lasenby, Robert; Teo, Mae
2017-08-01
The process of superradiance can extract angular momentum and energy from astrophysical black holes (BHs) to populate gravitationally bound states with an exponentially large number of light bosons. We analytically calculate superradiant growth rates for vectors around rotating BHs in the regime where the vector Compton wavelength is much larger than the BH size. Spin-1 bound states have superradiance times as short as a second around stellar BHs, growing up to a thousand times faster than their spin-0 counterparts. The fast rates allow us to use measurements of rapidly spinning BHs in x-ray binaries to exclude a wide range of masses for weakly coupled spin-1 particles, 5 ×10-14-2 ×10-11 eV ; lighter masses in the range 6 ×10-20-2 ×10-17 eV start to be constrained by supermassive BH spin measurements at a lower level of confidence. We also explore routes to detection of new vector particles possible with the advent of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy. The LIGO-Virgo Collaboration could discover hints of a new light vector particle in statistical analyses of masses and spins of merging BHs. Vector annihilations source continuous monochromatic gravitational radiation which could be observed by current GW observatories. At design sensitivity, Advanced LIGO may measure up to thousands of annihilation signals from within the Milky Way, while hundreds of BHs born in binary mergers across the observable Universe may superradiate vector bound states and become new beacons of monochromatic gravitational waves.
Application of Bred Vectors To Data Assimilation
Corazza, M.; Kalnay, E.; Patil, Dj
We introduced a statistic, the BV-dimension, to measure the effective local finite-time dimensionality of the atmosphere. We show that this dimension is often quite low, and suggest that this finding has important implications for data assimilation and the accuracy of weather forecasting (Patil et al, 2001). The original database for this study was the forecasts of the NCEP global ensemble forecasting system. The initial differences between the control forecast and the per- turbed forecasts are called bred vectors. The control and perturbed initial conditions valid at time t=n(t are evolved using the forecast model until time t=(n+1) (t. The differences between the perturbed and the control forecasts are scaled down to their initial amplitude, and constitute the bred vectors valid at (n+1) (t. Their growth rate is typically about 1.5/day. The bred vectors are similar by construction to leading Lya- punov vectors except that they have small but finite amplitude, and they are valid at finite times. The original NCEP ensemble data set has 5 independent bred vectors. We define a local bred vector at each grid point by choosing the 5 by 5 grid points centered at the grid point (a region of about 1100km by 1100km), and using the north-south and east- west velocity components at 500mb pressure level to form a 50 dimensional column vector. Since we have k=5 global bred vectors, we also have k local bred vectors at each grid point. We estimate the effective dimensionality of the subspace spanned by the local bred vectors by performing a singular value decomposition (EOF analysis). The k local bred vector columns form a 50xk matrix M. The singular values s(i) of M measure the extent to which the k column unit vectors making up the matrix M point in the direction of v(i). We define the bred vector dimension as BVDIM={Sum[s(i)]}^2/{Sum[s(i)]^2} For example, if 4 out of the 5 vectors lie along v, and one lies along v, the BV- dimension would be BVDIM[sqrt(4), 1, 0
Integrated vector management for malaria control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Impoinvil Daniel E
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Integrated vector management (IVM is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1 evidence-based decision-making, 2 integrated approaches 3, collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4 advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5 capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with
Vector domain decomposition schemes for parabolic equations
Vabishchevich, P. N.
2017-09-01
A new class of domain decomposition schemes for finding approximate solutions of timedependent problems for partial differential equations is proposed and studied. A boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation is used as a model problem. The general approach to the construction of domain decomposition schemes is based on partition of unity. Specifically, a vector problem is set up for solving problems in individual subdomains. Stability conditions for vector regionally additive schemes of first- and second-order accuracy are obtained.
[Conflicts and vector-borne diseases].
Bygbjerg, Ib Christian
2010-01-11
Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting control.
Vectorized algorithms for spiking neural network simulation.
Brette, Romain; Goodman, Dan F M
2011-06-01
High-level languages (Matlab, Python) are popular in neuroscience because they are flexible and accelerate development. However, for simulating spiking neural networks, the cost of interpretation is a bottleneck. We describe a set of algorithms to simulate large spiking neural networks efficiently with high-level languages using vector-based operations. These algorithms constitute the core of Brian, a spiking neural network simulator written in the Python language. Vectorized simulation makes it possible to combine the flexibility of high-level languages with the computational efficiency usually associated with compiled languages.
Retrotransposon vectors for gene delivery in plants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hou Yi
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are abundant components of plant genomes, and although some plant retrotransposons have been used as insertional mutagens, these mobile genetic elements have not been widely exploited for plant genome manipulation. In vertebrates and yeast, retrotransposons and retroviruses are routinely altered to carry additional genes that are copied into complementary (cDNA through reverse transcription. Integration of cDNA results in gene delivery; recombination of cDNA with homologous chromosomal sequences can create targeted gene modifications. Plant retrotransposon-based vectors, therefore, may provide new opportunities for plant genome engineering. Results A retrotransposon vector system was developed for gene delivery in plants based on the Tnt1 element from Nicotiana tabacum. Mini-Tnt1 transfer vectors were constructed that lack coding sequences yet retain the 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs and adjacent cis sequences required for reverse transcription. The internal coding region of Tnt1 was replaced with a neomycin phosphotransferase gene to monitor replication by reverse transcription. Two different mini-Tnt1 s were developed: one with the native 5' LTR and the other with a chimeric 5' LTR that had the first 233 bp replaced by the CaMV 35 S promoter. After transfer into tobacco protoplasts, both vectors undergo retrotransposition using GAG and POL proteins provided in trans by endogenous Tnt1 elements. The transposition frequencies of mini-Tnt1 vectors are comparable with native Tnt1 elements, and like the native elements, insertion sites are within or near coding sequences. In this paper, we provide evidence that template switching occurs during mini-Tnt1 reverse transcription, indicating that multiple copies of Tnt1 mRNA are packaged into virus-like particles. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that mini-Tnt1 vectors can replicate efficiently in tobacco cells using GAG and POL proteins provided in trans by
Variable ordering structures in vector optimization
Eichfelder, Gabriele
2014-01-01
This book provides an introduction to vector optimization with variable ordering structures, i.e., to optimization problems with a vector-valued objective function where the elements in the objective space are compared based on a variable ordering structure: instead of a partial ordering defined by a convex cone, we see a whole family of convex cones, one attached to each element of the objective space. The book starts by presenting several applications that have recently sparked new interest in these optimization problems, and goes on to discuss fundamentals and important results on a wide ra
Vector Fields European user group meeting
2007-01-01
The "Vector Fields European user group meeting" will take place at CERN on 26 and 27 September 2007. Within this framework two workshops are organized at the CERN Training Centre: 24 September 2007 Modelling Magnets with Opera 25 September 2007 Modelling of Charged Particle Beam Devices with Opera If you are interested in attending the workshop or the user group meeting please contact Julie Shepherd (Vector Fields) or Pierre Baehler (CERN) directly at: Julie.Shepherd@vectorfields.co.uk, +44 (0) 1865 854933 or +44 (0) 1865 370151 Pierre.Baehler@cern.ch, 75016 / 160156.
Learning and Memory in Disease Vector Insects.
Vinauger, Clément; Lahondère, Chloé; Cohuet, Anna; Lazzari, Claudio R; Riffell, Jeffrey A
2016-10-01
Learning and memory plays an important role in host preference and parasite transmission by disease vector insects. Historically there has been a dearth of standardized protocols that permit testing their learning abilities, thus limiting discussion on the potential epidemiological consequences of learning and memory to a largely speculative extent. However, with increasing evidence that individual experience and associative learning can affect processes such as oviposition site selection and host preference, it is timely to review the recently acquired knowledge, identify research gaps and discuss the implication of learning in disease vector insects in perspective with control strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Constraints on vector meson photoproduction spin observables
Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, Frank
2000-01-01
Extraction of spin observables from vector meson photoproduction on a nucleon target is described. Starting from density matrix elements in the vector meson's rest frame, we transform to spin observables in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame. Several constraints on the transformed density matrix and on the spin observables follow from requiring that the angular distribution and the density matrix be positive definite. A set of constraints that are required in order to extract meaningful spin observables from forthcoming data are enunciated.
Vector coherent states for nanoparticle systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aremua, Isiaka [Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 613 Porto-Novo (Benin); Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert, E-mail: iaremua@imsp-uac.org, E-mail: norbert.hounkonnou@cipma.uac.bj [International Chair of Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey-Calavi, 072 BP 50 Cotonou (Benin)
2011-11-18
The first part of this work deals with a formalism of vector coherent states construction for a system of M Fermi-type modes associated with N bosonic modes. Then follows a generalization to a Hamiltonian describing the translational motion of the center of mass of a nanoparticle. The latter gives rise to a new mechanism for the electronic energy relaxation in nanocrystals, intensively studied today in condensed matter physics. Finite degeneracies of the involved Hamiltonian systems are also investigated. The defined vector coherent states satisfy relevant mathematical properties of continuity, resolution of identity, temporal stability and action identity. (paper)
Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A. Hepworth, Richard
2009-01-01
and uniqueness of flows on a manifold as well as the author's existing results for orbifolds. It sets the scene for a discussion of Morse Theory on a general proper stack and also paves the way for the categorification of other key aspects of differential geometry such as the tangent bundle and the Lie algebra......This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...
Elk, Seymour B.
1997-01-01
Suggests that the cross product of two vectors can be more easily and accurately explained by starting from the perspective of dyadics because then the concept of vector multiplication has a simple geometrical picture that encompasses both the dot and cross products in any number of dimensions in terms of orthogonal unit vector components. (AIM)
[Sendai virus vector: vector development and its application to health care and biotechnology].
Iida, Akihiro
2007-06-01
Sendai virus (SeV) is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genome and a member of the paramyxovirus family. We have developed SeV vector which has shown a high efficiently of gene transfer and expression of foreign genes to a wide range of dividing and non-dividing mammalian cells and tissues. One of the characteristics of the vector is that the genome is located exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells and does not go through a DNA phase; thus there is no concern about unwanted integration of foreign sequences into chromosomal DNA. Therefore, this new class of "cytoplasmic RNA vector", an RNA vector with cytoplasmic expression, is expected to be a safer and more efficient viral vector than existing vectors for application to human therapy in various fields including gene therapy and vaccination. In this review, I describe development of Sendai virus vector, its application in the field of biotechnology and clinical application aiming to treat for a large number of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases and neurologic disorders.
Host and vector-dependent effects on the risk of germline transmission of AAV vectors.
Favaro, Patricia; Downey, Harre D; Zhou, J Shangzhen; Wright, J Fraser; Hauck, Bernd; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Arruda, Valder R
2009-06-01
The assessment of the risk of germline transmission of vector-coded sequences is critical for clinical translation of gene transfer strategies. We used rabbit models to analyze the risk of germline transmission of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. Intravenous injection of AAV-2 or AAV-8 resulted in liver-mediated, long-term expression of therapeutic levels of human factor IX (hFIX) in a dose-dependent manner. In high-dose cohorts, AAV-8 resulted in twofold higher levels of circulating hFIX and of vector DNA in liver compared to AAV-2. Vector sequences were found in the semen of all rabbits. The kinetics of vector clearance from semen was dose- and time-dependent but serotype-independent. No late recurrence of AAV-8 sequences was found in the semen over several consecutive cycles of spermatogenesis. In a novel rabbit model, AAV-2 or AAV-8 sequences were detected in the semen of vasectomized animals that lack germ cells. Therefore, structures of the genitourinary (GU) tract, as well as the testis, contribute significantly to vector shedding in the semen. Collectively, data from these two models suggest that the risk of inadvertent germline transmission in males by AAV-8 vectors is low, similar to that of AAV-2, and that AAV dissemination to the semen is in part modulated by host-dependent factors.
Okamoto, Kenichi W; Gould, Fred; Lloyd, Alun L
2016-03-01
Many vector-borne diseases lack effective vaccines and medications, and the limitations of traditional vector control have inspired novel approaches based on using genetic engineering to manipulate vector populations and thereby reduce transmission. Yet both the short- and long-term epidemiological effects of these transgenic strategies are highly uncertain. If neither vaccines, medications, nor transgenic strategies can by themselves suffice for managing vector-borne diseases, integrating these approaches becomes key. Here we develop a framework to evaluate how clinical interventions (i.e., vaccination and medication) can be integrated with transgenic vector manipulation strategies to prevent disease invasion and reduce disease incidence. We show that the ability of clinical interventions to accelerate disease suppression can depend on the nature of the transgenic manipulation deployed (e.g., whether vector population reduction or replacement is attempted). We find that making a specific, individual strategy highly effective may not be necessary for attaining public-health objectives, provided suitable combinations can be adopted. However, we show how combining only partially effective antimicrobial drugs or vaccination with transgenic vector manipulations that merely temporarily lower vector competence can amplify disease resurgence following transient suppression. Thus, transgenic vector manipulation that cannot be sustained can have adverse consequences-consequences which ineffective clinical interventions can at best only mitigate, and at worst temporarily exacerbate. This result, which arises from differences between the time scale on which the interventions affect disease dynamics and the time scale of host population dynamics, highlights the importance of accounting for the potential delay in the effects of deploying public health strategies on long-term disease incidence. We find that for systems at the disease-endemic equilibrium, even modest
Peterson, Jennifer K; Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y; Dobson, Andrew P
2015-10-22
Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is the most important neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Latin America, infecting an estimated 5.7 million people in the 21 countries where it is endemic. It is one of the NTDs targeted for control and elimination by the 2020 London Declaration goals, with the first goal being to interrupt intra-domiciliary vector-borne T. cruzi transmission. A key question in domestic T. cruzi transmission is the role that synanthropic animals play in T. cruzi transmission to humans. Here, we ask, (1) do synanthropic animals need to be targeted in Chagas disease prevention policies?, and (2) how does the presence of animals affect the efficacy of vector control? We developed a simple mathematical model to simulate domestic vector-borne T. cruzi transmission and to specifically examine the interaction between the presence of synanthropic animals and effects of vector control. We used the model to explore how the interactions between triatomine bugs, humans and animals impact the number and proportion of T. cruzi-infected bugs and humans. We then examined how T. cruzi dynamics change when control measures targeting vector abundance are introduced into the system. We found that the presence of synanthropic animals slows the speed of T. cruzi transmission to humans, and increases the sensitivity of T. cruzi transmission dynamics to vector control measures at comparable triatomine carrying capacities. However, T. cruzi transmission is amplified when triatomine carrying capacity increases with the abundance of syntathoropic hosts. Our results suggest that in domestic T. cruzi transmission scenarios where no vector control measures are in place, a reduction in synanthropic animals may slow T. cruzi transmission to humans, but it would not completely eliminate transmission. To reach the 2020 goal of interrupting intra-domiciliary T. cruzi transmission, it is critical to target vector populations. Additionally, where vector control measures
New Constraints on Light Vectors Coupled to Anomalous Currents
Dror, Jeff A.; Lasenby, Robert; Pospelov, Maxim
2017-10-01
We derive new constraints on light vectors coupled to standard model (SM) fermions, when the corresponding SM current is broken by the chiral anomaly. The cancellation of the anomaly by heavy fermions results, in the low-energy theory, in Wess-Zumino-type interactions between the new vector and the SM gauge bosons. These interactions are determined by the requirement that the heavy sector preserves the SM gauge groups and lead to (energy /vector mass )2 enhanced rates for processes involving the longitudinal mode of the new vector. Taking the example of a vector coupled to a vector coupled to SM baryon number, Z decays and flavor-changing neutral current meson decays via the new vector can occur with (weak scale /vector mass )2 enhanced rates. These processes place significantly stronger coupling bounds than others considered in the literature, over a wide range of vector masses.
Effect of genome size on AAV vector packaging.
Wu, Zhijian; Yang, Hongyan; Colosi, Peter
2010-01-01
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector genomes have been limited to 5 kilobases (kb) in length because their packaging limit was thought to be similar to the size of the parent AAV genome. Recent reports claim that significantly larger vector genomes can be packaged intact. We examined the packaged vector genomes from plasmid-encoded AAV vectors that ranged from 4.7 to 8.7 kb in length, using AAV types 2, 5, and 8 capsids. Southern blot analysis indicated that packaged AAV vector genomes never exceeded 5.2 kb in length irrespective of the size of the plasmid-encoded vector or the capsid type. This result was confirmed by vector genome probing with strand-specific oligonucleotides. The packaged vector genomes derived from plasmid-encoded vectors exceeding 5 kb were heterogeneous in length and truncated on the 5' end. Despite their truncated genomes, vector preparations produced from plasmid-encoded vectors exceeding 5.2 kb mediated reporter gene expression in vitro at high multiplicity of infection (MOI). The efficiency of expression was substantially lower than that of reporter vectors with genomes <5 kb in length. We propose that transcriptionally functional, intact vector genomes are generated in cells transduced at high MOI from the fragmentary genomes of these larger vectors, probably by recombination.
Method for transforming a feature vector
Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Chen, C.; Kevenaar, Thomas A.M.; Akkermans, Antonius H.M.
2007-01-01
The present invention relates to a method for transforming a feature vector comprising a first and a second feature represented by a first and a second feature value, respectively, into a feature code using an encoder, said feature code usable in an algorithm and having a predetermined number of
Learning Latent Vector Spaces for Product Search
Van Gysel, C.; de Rijke, M.; Kanoulas, E.
2016-01-01
We introduce a novel latent vector space model that jointly learns the latent representations of words, e-commerce products and a mapping between the two without the need for explicit annotations. The power of the model lies in its ability to directly model the discriminative relation between
Ecology of parasite-vector interactions
Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.
2013-01-01
Vector-borne diseases continue to be one of the most important determinants affecting human and animal health. Large numbers of people suffer from diseases like malaria, dengue, filariasis and leishmaniasis, especially in the tropics. Whereas these diseases were eradicated from the temperate climate
Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain
Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei
2014-11-01
The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included.
Angry Birds Mathematics: Parabolas and Vectors
Lamb, John H.
2013-01-01
John Lamb, a professor of mathematics education and a teacher of high school precalculus, describes how he developed a way to use the elements of the game Angry Birds® as a platform to engage his students with the concepts of parabolas and vectors. The game could be categorized as a type of microworld game in which students interact with the…
Vector boson production in hadron nuclear collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, W.D. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Whitmore, J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Lab. for Elementary Particle Science); Toothacker, W.S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Mont Alto (USA)); Hill, J.C.; Neale, W.W. (Cambridge Univ. (UK)); Lucas, P.; Voyvodic, L. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Ammar, R.; Gress, J. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence (USA)); Bishop, J.M.; Biswas, N.N.; Cason, N.M.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Ruchti, R.C.; Shephard, W.D. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (USA))
1991-01-31
We report a search for the production of light quark vector bosons in hadron-nucleus collisions at 100 GeV bombarding energy. We find surprisingly few of these resonances produced. The lack of these particles is though to be due to the absorption by the many modestly energetic nucleons and the few anti-nucleons in the final state. (orig.).
Malaria vector control: current and future strategies
Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.
2009-01-01
The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of
Generating and measuring nondiffracting vector Bessel beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2013-09-01
Full Text Available modulator and an azimuthally varying birefringent plate, known as a q-plate. We extend our control of both the geometric and dynamic phases to perform a polarization and modal decomposition on the vector field. We study both single-charged Bessel beams...
NLO vector boson production with light jets
Bern, Z; Dixon, L J; Cordero, F Febres; Forde, D; Gleisberg, T; Hoeche, S; Ita, H; Kosower, D A; Maitre, D; Ozeren, K
2012-01-01
In this contribution we present recent progress in the computation of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections for the production of an electroweak vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders. We focus on results obtained using the virtual matrix element library BLACKHAT in conjunction with SHERPA, focusing on results relevant to understanding the background to top production.
Linearization of germs of hyperbolic vector fields
Bonckaert, P; Naudot, [No Value; Yang, JZ
2003-01-01
We develop a normal form to express asymptotically a conjugacy between a germ of resonant vector field and its linear part. We show that such an asymptotic expression can be written in terms of functions of the Logarithmic Mourtada type. To cite this article: P Bonckaert et al., C. R. Acad. Sci.
Perturbations of ultralight vector field dark matter
Cembranos, J A R; Jareño, S J Núñez
2016-01-01
We study the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in models of dark matter based on ultralight coherent vector fields. Very much as for scalar field dark matter, we find two different regimes in the evolution: for modes with $k^2\\ll {\\cal H}ma$, we have a particle-like behaviour indistinguishable from cold dark matter, whereas for modes with $k^2\\gg {\\cal H}ma$, we get a wave-like behaviour in which the sound speed is non-vanishing and of order $c_s^2\\simeq k^2/m^2a^2$. This implies that, also in these models, structure formation could be suppressed on small scales. However, unlike the scalar case, the fact that the background evolution contains a non-vanishing homogeneous vector field implies that, in general, the evolution of the three kinds of perturbations (scalar, vector and tensor) can no longer be decoupled at the linear level. More specifically, in the particle regime, the three types of perturbations are actually decoupled, whereas in the wave regime, the three vector field perturbations generate o...
Efficient Multiplicative Updates for Support Vector Machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Potluru, Vamsi K.; Plis, Sergie N; Mørup, Morten
2009-01-01
The dual formulation of the support vector machine (SVM) objective function is an instance of a nonnegative quadratic programming problem. We reformulate the SVM objective function as a matrix factorization problem which establishes a connection with the regularized nonnegative matrix factorizati...
Generalized Derivative Based Kernelized Learning Vector Quantization
Schleif, Frank-Michael; Villmann, Thomas; Hammer, Barbara; Schneider, Petra; Biehl, Michael; Fyfe, Colin; Tino, Peter; Charles, Darryl; Garcia-Osoro, Cesar; Yin, Hujun
2010-01-01
We derive a novel derivative based version of kernelized Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (KGLVQ) as an effective, easy to interpret, prototype based and kernelized classifier. It is called D-KGLVQ and we provide generalization error bounds, experimental results on real world data, showing
[Conflicts and vector-borne diseases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bygbjerg, Ib Christian
2010-01-01
not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting...
Closed-chain principal vector linkages
van der Wijk, V.; Flores, Paulo; Viadero, Fernando
2015-01-01
For high-speed robotics dynamic balance is an important property for low base vibrations and short cycle times. To consider dynamic balance in the beginning of the design process of a manipulator, mechanism solutions can be synthesized from principal vector linkages, which are fundamental kinematic
Artificial neural networks and support vector mac
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantitative structure-property relationships of electroluminescent materials: Artificial neural networks and support vector machines to predict electroluminescence of organic molecules. ALANA FERNANDES GOLIN and RICARDO STEFANI. ∗. Laboratório de Estudos de Materiais (LEMAT), Instituto de Ciências Exatas e da ...
Creating and decomposing vector Bessel beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2013-07-01
Full Text Available -1 58th Annual SAIP Conference, Richards Bay, 8-12 July 2013 Creating and decomposing vector Bessel beams Angela Dudley1,*, Yanming Li2, Thandeka Mhlanga1, Michael Escuti2 and Andrew Forbes1 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South...
High performance computing on vector systems
Roller, Sabine
2008-01-01
Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.
Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
higher statistics and inrceased acceptance in particular for low-momentum vector mesons. Keywords. Hadrons ... the mass splittings to decrease due to mass shifts or that the mass distributions of hadrons become softer in .... mass distribution for the most central collisions is compared in figure 3 with the spectral function of a ...
Dual AAV Vectors for Stargardt Disease.
Trapani, Ivana
2018-01-01
Stargardt disease (STGD1), due to mutations in the large ABCA4 gene, is the most common inherited macular degeneration in humans. Attempts at developing gene therapy approaches for treatment of STGD1 are currently ongoing. Among all the vectors available for gene therapy of inherited retinal diseases, those based on adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are the most promising given the efficacy shown in various animal models and their excellent safety profile in humans, as confirmed in many ongoing clinical trials. However, one of the main obstacles for the use of AAV is their limited effective packaging capacity of about 5 kb. Taking advantage of the AAV genome's ability to concatemerize , others and we have recently developed dual AAV vectors to overcome this limit. We tested dual AAV vectors for ABCA4 delivery, and found that they transduce efficiently both mouse and pig photoreceptors , and rescue the Abca4-/- mouse retinal phenotype, indicating their potential for gene therapy of STGD1. This chapter details how we designed dual AAV vectors for the delivery of the ABCA4 gene and describes the techniques that can be explored to evaluate dual AAV transduction efficiency in vitro and in the retina, and their efficacy in the mouse model of STGD1.
The Integration Order of Vector Autoregressive Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franchi, Massimo
We show that the order of integration of a vector autoregressive process is equal to the difference between the multiplicity of the unit root in the characteristic equation and the multiplicity of the unit root in the adjoint matrix polynomial. The equivalence with the standard I(1) and I(2...
Intraoperative Vector Flow Imaging of the Heart
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Pedersen, Mads Møller
2013-01-01
The cardiac flow is complex and multidirectional, and difficult to measure with conventional Doppler ultrasound (US) methods due to the one-dimensional and angle-dependent velocity estimation. The vector velocity method Transverse Oscillation (TO) has been proposed as a solution to this. TO is im...
Arabic Text Classification Using Support Vector Machines
Gharib, Tarek F.; Habib, Mena B.; Fayed, Zaki T.
2009-01-01
Text classification (TC) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. Arabic language is highly inflectional and derivational language which makes text mining a complex task. In this paper we applied the Support Vector Machines (SVM) model in
Vector meson photoproduction — model independent aspects
Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F.
2000-07-01
The rich spin structure of vector meson photoproduction allows for a systematic analysis of the angular and energy dependence of the spin observables in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame. Constraints for spin observables based on positivity of the spin density matrix, are discussed and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data.
Vector meson photoproduction - model independent aspects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F
2000-07-31
The rich spin structure of vector meson photoproduction allows for a systematic analysis of the angular and energy dependence of the spin observables in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame. Constraints for spin observables based on positivity of the spin density matrix, are discussed and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data.
A variational principle for vector equilibrium problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 111; Issue 4. A Variational Principle for Vector Equilibrium Problems. K R Kazmi. Volume 111 Issue 4 November 2001 pp 465-470. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pmsc/111/04/0465-0470. Keywords.
A variational principle for vector equilibrium problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45
, closed and convex set; (Y, P ) be a real ordered topological vector space with a partial order ≤P induced by a solid, pointed, closed and convex cone P with apex at origin, thus x ≤P y ⇐⇒ y − x ∈ P ∀x,y ∈ Y. If intP denotes the topological ...
Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... used to extract experimental information on in-medium properties of hadrons. Results on the light vector mesons ρ, , and , are summarized and compared. Almost all experiments report a softening of the spectral functions with increases in width depending on the density and temperature of the hadronic environment.
Robust Pseudo-Hierarchical Support Vector Clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Sass; Sjöstrand, Karl; Olafsdóttir, Hildur
2007-01-01
Support vector clustering (SVC) has proven an efficient algorithm for clustering of noisy and high-dimensional data sets, with applications within many fields of research. An inherent problem, however, has been setting the parameters of the SVC algorithm. Using the recent emergence of a method fo...
Teaching Universal Gravitation with Vector Games
Lowry, Matthew
2008-01-01
Like many high school and college physics teachers, I have found playing vector games to be a useful way of illustrating the concepts of inertia, velocity, and acceleration. Like many, I have also had difficulty in trying to get students to understand Newton's law of universal gravitation, specifically the inverse-square law and its application to…
(AJST) VARIABLE STRUCTURE UNIT VECTOR CONTROL OF ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Administrator
control scheme is proposed for a single power system model dominated by steam powered generators with reheat turbines as used in [2]. However the scheme presented here is unique in adopting a systematic procedure based on the unit vector control algorithm [ 9 ], for the synthesis of the control functions. An analysis ...
Mathematics for engineers III vector calculus
Baumann, Gerd
2011-01-01
This book is part of a four-volume textbook on Engineering Mathematics for undergraduates. Volume III treats vector calculus and differential equations of higher order. The text uses Mathematica as a tool to discuss and to solve examples from mathematics. The basic use of this language is demonstrated by examples.
Polynomial Vector Fields in One Complex Variable
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branner, Bodil
In recent years Adrien Douady was interested in polynomial vector fields, both in relation to iteration theory and as a topic on their own. This talk is based on his work with Pierrette Sentenac, work of Xavier Buff and Tan Lei, and my own joint work with Kealey Dias....
A vector model for error propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, D.L.; Geraldo, L.P.
1989-03-01
A simple vector model for error propagation, which is entirely equivalent to the conventional statistical approach, is discussed. It offers considerable insight into the nature of error propagation while, at the same time, readily demonstrating the significance of uncertainty correlations. This model is well suited to the analysis of error for sets of neutron-induced reaction cross sections. 7 refs., 1 fig.
Meromorphic connections on vector bundles over curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Descartes,. 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France. *Correspond author. E-mail: indranil@math.tifr.res.in; heu@math.unistra.fr. MS received 17 July 2013; revised 20 October 2013. Abstract. We give a criterion for filtered vector bundles over curves to admit a ...
Oracle Inequalities for High Dimensional Vector Autoregressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Callot, Laurent; Kock, Anders Bredahl
This paper establishes non-asymptotic oracle inequalities for the prediction error and estimation accuracy of the LASSO in stationary vector autoregressive models. These inequalities are used to establish consistency of the LASSO even when the number of parameters is of a much larger order of mag...
morphological identification of malaria vectors within anopheles ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DR. AMIN
Anopheles gambiae s.l. ranked the highest among other species. Further molecular identification of sub-species complex of An. gambiae s.l and An. funestus is strongly recommended in the area. Keywords: Identification, malaria, vectors, anopheles, species. INTRODUCTION. Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity ...
Generalized vector calculus on convex domain
Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng
2015-06-01
In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.
Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
2015-01-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…
Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.
2006-07-01
We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.
Vector difference calculus for physical lattice models
Schwalm, W.; Moritz, B.; Giona, M.; Schwalm, M.
1999-01-01
A vector difference calculus is developed for physical models defined on a general triangulating graph G, which may be a regular or an extremely irregular lattice, using discrete field quantities roughly analogous to differential forms. The role of the space Λp of p-forms at a point is taken on by the linear space generated at a graph vertex by the geometrical p-simplices which contain it. The vector operations divergence, gradient, and curl are developed using the boundary ∂ and coboundary d. Dot, cross, and scalar products are defined in such a way that discrete analogs of the vector integral theorems, including theorems of Gauss-Ostrogradski, Stokes, and Green, as well as most standard vector identities hold exactly, not as approximations to a continuum limit. Physical conservation laws for the models become theorems satisfied by the discrete fields themselves. Three discrete lattice models are constructed as examples, namely a discrete version of the Maxwell equations, the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow, and the Navier linearized model for a homogeneous, isotropic elastic medium. Weight factors needed for obtaining quantitative agreement with continuum calculations are derived for the special case of a regular triangular lattice. Green functions are developed using a generalized Helmholtz decomposition of the fields.
MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine
Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic
2016-09-01
In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.
VECTORS OF MALARIA AND FILARIASIS IN INDONESIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hoedojo Hoedojo
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Malaria at present is still one of the important mosquito-borne diseases in Indonesia. The disease is widespread all over the country and involves nearly all islands. Sixteen Anopheles species have been reconfirmed as malaria vectors. They were distributed geographically as follows: Coastal areas and lagoons ------------------------------------- An sundaicus and An.subpictus Cultivated ricefields and swampy areas -------------------- An.aconitus, An.barbirostris, An.nigerrimus and An.sinensis Forest inland areas in shaded temporary pools, muddy animal wallows and hoof-prints -------------------------------------------------------- An.balabacensis, An.bancrofti, An.farauti, An.koliensis and An.punctulatus Swamp forest edge in ditches with vegeta- ---------------- An.letifer and An.ludlowae don Hilly areas in seepages, streams and clear moving water ---------------------------------------------- Anflavirostris, An.maculatus and Anminimus. The species (of most general importance is An.sundaicus, which is restricted by its preference for brackish water and is prevalent in coastal areas of Java. Their types in behaviour of An.sundaicus appear as follows : 1. An.sundaicus in South Coast of Java in general. This species is essentially anthropophilic, exophagic and rests outdoor. It shows susceptible to DDT. 2. An.sundaicus in Cilacap, Central Java. This mosquito is a pure anthropophilic form. It bites man in houses and outdoors, rests indoors and is known resistant to DDT. 3. An.sundaicus in Yogyakarta and Purworejo, Central Java. This mosquito is a strong zoophilic species. It rests and prefers to bite outdoors and shows tolerance to DDT. Human filariasis in Indonesia is the result of infection by three endemic species, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori.W.bancrofti infection is found in both urban and rural areas. Twenty species of mosquitoes are confirmed as filariasis vectors. The urban type bancroftian filariasis
Chanda, Emmanuel; Govere, John M; Macdonald, Michael B; Lako, Richard L; Haque, Ubydul; Baba, Samson P; Mnzava, Abraham
2013-10-25
Integrated vector management (IVM) based vector control is encouraged by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, operational experience with the IVM strategy has mostly come from countries with relatively well-established health systems and with malaria control focused programmes. Little is known about deployment of IVM for combating multiple vector-borne diseases in post-emergency settings, where delivery structures are less developed or absent. This manuscript reports on the feasibility of operational IVM for combating vector-borne diseases in South Sudan. A methodical review of published and unpublished documents on vector-borne diseases for South Sudan was conducted via systematic literature search of online electronic databases, Google Scholar, PubMed and WHO, using a combination of search terms. Additional, non-peer reviewed literature was examined for information related to the subject. South Sudan is among the heartlands of vector-borne diseases in the world, characterized by enormous infrastructure, human and financial resource constraints and a weak health system against an increasing number of refugees, returnees and internally displaced people. The presence of a multiplicity of vector-borne diseases in this post-conflict situation presents a unique opportunity to explore the potential of a rational IVM strategy for multiple disease control and optimize limited resource utilization, while maximizing the benefits and providing a model for countries in a similar situation. The potential of integrating vector-borne disease control is enormous in South Sudan. However, strengthened coordination, intersectoral collaboration and institutional and technical capacity for entomological monitoring and evaluation, including enforcement of appropriate legislation are crucial.
Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management
Berg, van den, A.E.; Hildebrand, von, A.; Ragunathan, V.; Das, P K
2007-01-01
PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. APPROACH: We present an evaluation of a project that uses the "farmer field school" method to teach farmers how to manage vector-borne diseases and how to improve rice yields. Teaching farmers about...
Charmless Hadronic B Decays into Vector, Axial Vector and Tensor Final States at BaBar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gandini, Paolo; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan
2012-04-06
We present experimental measurements of branching fraction and longitudinal polarization fraction in charmless hadronic B decays into vector, axial vector and tensor final states with the final dataset of BABAR. Measurements of such kind of decays are a powerful tool both to test the Standard Model and search possible sources of new physics. In this document we present a short review of the last experimental results at BABAR concerning charmless quasi two-body decays in final states containing particles with spin 1 or spin 2 and different parities. This kind of decays has received considerable theoretical interest in the last few years and this particular attention has led to interesting experimental results at the current b-factories. In fact, the study of longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L} in charmless B decays to vector vector (VV), vector axial-vector (VA) and axial-vector axial-vector (AA) mesons provides information on the underlying helicity structure of the decay mechanism. Naive helicity conservation arguments predict a dominant longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L} {approx} 1 for both tree and penguin dominated decays and this pattern seems to be confirmed by tree-dominated B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B{sup +} {yields} {Omega}{rho}{sup +} decays. Other penguin dominated decays, instead, show a different behavior: the measured value of f{sub L} {approx} 0.5 in B {yields} {phi}K* decays is in contrast with naive Standard Model (SM) calculations. Several solutions have been proposed such as the introduction of non-factorizable terms and penguin-annihilation amplitudes, while other explanations invoke new physics. New modes have been investigated to shed more light on the problem.
Dispersive approach to QCD: τ lepton hadronic decay in vector and axial-vector channels
Nesterenko, A. V.
2015-01-01
The dispersive approach to QCD, which extends the applicability range of perturbation theory towards the infrared domain, is developed. This approach properly accounts for the intrinsically nonperturbative constraints, which originate in the low-energy kinematic restrictions on pertinent strong interaction processes. The dispersive approach proves to be capable of describing OPAL (update 2012) and ALEPH (update 2014) experimental data on inclusive τ lepton hadronic decay in vector and axial-vector channels in a self-consistent way.
Co-occurrence Vectors from Corpora vs. Distance Vectors from Dictionaries
Niwa, Y; Niwa, Yoshiki; Nitta, Yoshihiko
1995-01-01
A comparison was made of vectors derived by using ordinary co-occurrence statistics from large text corpora and of vectors derived by measuring the inter-word distances in dictionary definitions. The precision of word sense disambiguation by using co-occurrence vectors from the 1987 Wall Street Journal (20M total words) was higher than that by using distance vectors from the Collins English Dictionary (60K head words + 1.6M definition words). However, other experimental results suggest that distance vectors contain some different semantic information from co-occurrence vectors. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Fri Nov 12 12:25 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (newmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.94]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id MAA10923 for ; Fri, 12 Nov 1999 12:25:47 +0100 (MET) Received: from uuu.lanl.gov (uuu.lanl.gov [204.121.6.59]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id MAA18850 for ; Fri, 12 Nov 1999 12:25:46 +0100 (MET) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by uu...
Han, Bai-Yu; Cui, Han-Zhi; Yan, Xiang; Huang, Peng; Huang, Hua-Long; Fan, Zhong-Yi; Dou, Jing-Tao
2015-10-01
To observe the direct regulation of miR-127 on Bcl-6 and the effect of Bcl-6 in rescuing miR-127-induced cell cycle and cell growth inhibition. The 3'UTR and coding region of human bcl-6 gene were amplified by PCR and cloned into pcDNA3.0-Luc and pcDNA3.0-Flag vectors, respectively. Mutations were introduced into the seed sequences of the predicted miR-127 target sites within the Bcl-6 3'UTR using recombinant PCR. Luciferase assay was used to verify the direct targeted regulation of miR-127 on Bcl-6. In HepG2 cell models with overexpression or knockdown of miR-12, the changes of cell cycle and cell growth were investigated after transfection with the constructed vectors. The recombinant plasmids were successfully obtained as confirmed by double digestion and sequence identification. Luciferase assay showed that in 293T and HepG2 cells, miR-127 inhibited the activation of wild-type Bcl-6 3'UTR reporter vector but not mutated Bcl-6 3'UTR vector. Overexpression of miR-127 induced cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase and suppressed the growth of HepG2 cells, and these effects were reversed by Bcl-6 overexpression. We successfully cloned wild-type and mutated 3'UTR reporter vectors and expression vector of bcl-6 gene and confirmed their biological functions.
Adenovirus vectors can induce activation of endothelial cells: CD40 ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Adenovirus vectors can induce activation of endothelial cells: CD40-CD40L interactions partly participate in the endothelial cells activation induced by adenovirus vectors in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner.
Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part I: Sequential Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.
2016-01-01
The paper gives a review of the most important methods for blood velocity vector flow imaging (VFI) for conventional, sequential data acquisition. This includes multibeam methods, speckle tracking, transverse oscillation, color flow mapping derived vector flow imaging, directional beamforming, an...
Insect vectors of pathogens in selected undisposed refuse dumps in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
. The occurrence and abundance of these vectors suggests that vector-borne disease transmission is prevalent in Kaduna metropolis. The health implications of the presence of these insects and their role in disease transmission are ...
The tomography of quark-gluon plasma by vector mesons
Lovas, I
2003-01-01
The fireball formed in a heavy ion collisions is characterized by the impact parameter vector b-vector, which is orthogonal to the beam direction and can be determined from the multiplicity and the angular distribution of the reaction products. By appropriate rotations the b-vector vectors of each collision can be oriented into a fixed direction. Using the measured values of the momentum distributions of the vector mesons an integral equation can be formulated for the unknown emission densities (E sub M (r-vector)) and for the unknown absorption densities (DELTA mu sub M (r-vector,p)) of the different vector mesons M(ident to omega sup 0 , rho sup 0 , phi sup 0 , psi sup 0 , psi sup 0 ' UPSILON). (author)
Highly Sensitive Method for Titration of Adenovirus Vectors
sprotocols
2015-01-01
Authors: Hildegund Ertl, ZhiQuan Xiang, Yan Li, Dongming Zhou, Xiangyang Zhou, Wynetta Giles-Davis & Yi-lin E. Liu ### Abstract Clinical development of vaccines based on adenovirus (Ad) vectors requires accurate techniques to determine vector doses including contents of infectious particles. For vectors derived from Ad virus of human serotype 5 content of infectious particles can readily be determined by plaque assays. Vaccine vectors based on alternative Ad serotypes such as thos...
Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint
Stanke, Mario
2004-01-01
We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...
Topological vector spaces and their applications
Bogachev, V I
2017-01-01
This book gives a compact exposition of the fundamentals of the theory of locally convex topological vector spaces. Furthermore it contains a survey of the most important results of a more subtle nature, which cannot be regarded as basic, but knowledge which is useful for understanding applications. Finally, the book explores some of such applications connected with differential calculus and measure theory in infinite-dimensional spaces. These applications are a central aspect of the book, which is why it is different from the wide range of existing texts on topological vector spaces. In addition, this book develops differential and integral calculus on infinite-dimensional locally convex spaces by using methods and techniques of the theory of locally convex spaces. The target readership includes mathematicians and physicists whose research is related to infinite-dimensional analysis.
Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julian Heeck
2016-07-01
Full Text Available New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z′ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h→μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ→μZ′ opens up and for MZ′<2mμ gives better constraints than τ→3μ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.
Landscape epidemiology of vector-borne diseases.
Reisen, William K
2010-01-01
Landscape epidemiology describes how the temporal dynamics of host, vector, and pathogen populations interact spatially within a permissive environment to enable transmission. The spatially defined focus, or nidus, of transmission may be characterized by vegetation as well as by climate, latitude, elevation, and geology. The ecological complexity, dimensions, and temporal stability of the nidus are determined largely by pathogen natural history and vector bionomics. Host populations, transmission efficiency, and therefore pathogen amplification vary spatially, thereby creating a heterogeneous surface that may be defined by remote sensing and statistical tools. The current review describes the evolution of landscape epidemiology as a science and exemplifies selected aspects by contrasting the ecology of two different recent disease outbreaks in North America caused by West Nile virus, an explosive, highly virulent mosquito-borne virus producing ephemeral nidi, and Borrelia burgdorferi, a slowly amplifying chronic pathogen producing semipermanent nidi.
Measuring Source Code Similarity Using Reference Vectors
Ohno, Asako; Murao, Hajime
In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure similarity between program source codes. Different to others, our method doues not compare two source codes directly but compares two reference vectors, where a reference vector is calculated from one source code and a set of reference source codes. This means that our method requires no original source code when considering an application open to public such as a search engine for the program source code on the internet. We have built a simple search system and have evaluated with Java source codes made in the university course of basic programming. Results show that the system can achieve quite high average precision rate in very short time which means the proposed method can measure correct similarity very fast.
Relativistic Thermodynamics: A Modern 4-Vector Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Güémez
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Using the Minkowski relativistic 4-vector formalism, based on Einstein's equation, and the relativistic thermodynamics asynchronous formulation (Grøn (1973, the isothermal compression of an ideal gas is analyzed, considering an electromagnetic origin for forces applied to it. This treatment is similar to the description previously developed by Van Kampen (van Kampen (1969 and Hamity (Hamity (1969. In this relativistic framework Mechanics and Thermodynamics merge in the first law of relativistic thermodynamics expressed, using 4-vector notation, such as ΔUμ = Wμ + Qμ, in Lorentz covariant formulation, which, with the covariant formalism for electromagnetic forces, constitutes a complete Lorentz covariant formulation for classical physics.
Permutation entropy with vector embedding delays
Little, Douglas J.; Kane, Deb M.
2017-12-01
Permutation entropy (PE) is a statistic used widely for the detection of structure within a time series. Embedding delay times at which the PE is reduced are characteristic timescales for which such structure exists. Here, a generalized scheme is investigated where embedding delays are represented by vectors rather than scalars, permitting PE to be calculated over a (D -1 ) -dimensional space, where D is the embedding dimension. This scheme is applied to numerically generated noise, sine wave and logistic map series, and experimental data sets taken from a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser exhibiting temporally localized pulse structures within the round-trip time of the laser cavity. Results are visualized as PE maps as a function of embedding delay, with low PE values indicating combinations of embedding delays where correlation structure is present. It is demonstrated that vector embedding delays enable identification of structure that is ambiguous or masked, when the embedding delay is constrained to scalar form.
Directional Transverse Oscillation Vector Flow Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2017-01-01
A method for estimating vector velocities using transverse oscillation (TO) combined with directional beamforming is presented. In Directional Transverse Oscillation (DTO) a normal focused field is emitted and the received signals are beamformed in the lateral direction transverse to the ultrasound...... beam to increase the amount of data for vector velocity estimation. The approach is self-calibrating as the lateral oscillation period is estimated from the directional signal through a Fourier transform to yield quantitative velocity results over a large range of depths. The approach was extensively...... simulated using Field IIpro and implemented on the experimental SARUS scanner in connection with a BK Medical 8820e convex array transducer. Velocity estimates for DTO are found for beam-to-flow angles of 60, 75, and 90, and vessel depths from 24 to 156 mm. Using 16 emissions the Standard Deviation (SD...
Vector quarks in the Higgs triplet model
Bahrami, Sahar; Frank, Mariana
2014-08-01
We analyze the effects of introducing vector fermions in the Higgs triplet model. In this scenario, the model contains, in addition to the Standard Model particle content, one triplet Higgs representation and a variety of vectorlike fermion states, including singlet, doublet, and triplet states. We investigate the electroweak precision variables and impose restrictions on model parameters. We show that, for some representations, introducing vector quarks significantly alters the constraints on the mass of the doubly charged Higgs boson, bringing it in closer agreement with present experimental constraints. We also study the effects of introducing the vectorlike fermions on neutral Higgs phenomenology, in particular on the loop-dominated decays H→γγ and H→Zγ, and the restrictions they impose on the parameter space.
Higgsed Stueckelberg vector and Higgs quadratic divergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Durmuş Ali Demir
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Here we show that, a hidden vector field whose gauge invariance is ensured by a Stueckelberg scalar and whose mass is spontaneously generated by the Standard Model Higgs field contributes to quadratic divergences in the Higgs boson mass squared, and even leads to its cancellation at one-loop when Higgs coupling to gauge field is fine-tuned. In contrast to mechanisms based on hidden scalars where a complete cancellation cannot be achieved, stabilization here is complete in that the hidden vector and the accompanying Stueckelberg scalar are both free from quadratic divergences at one-loop. This stability, deriving from hidden exact gauge invariance, can have important implications for modeling dark phenomena like dark matter, dark energy, dark photon and neutrino masses. The hidden fields can be produced at the LHC.
Strong decays of light vector mesons
Jarecke, Dennis; Maris, Pieter; Tandy, Peter C.
2003-03-01
The vector meson strong decays ρ→ππ, φ→KK, and K⋆→πK are studied within a covariant approach based on the ladder-rainbow truncation of the QCD Dyson-Schwinger equation for the quark propagator and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the mesons. The model preserves the one-loop behavior of QCD in the ultraviolet regime, has two infrared parameters, and implements quark confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The three-point decay amplitudes are described in impulse approximation. The Bethe-Salpeter study motivates a method for estimating the masses of heavier mesons within this model without continuing the propagators into the complex plane. We test the accuracy via the ρ, φ, and K⋆ masses and then produce estimates of the model results for ma1 and mb1, as well as the proposed exotic vector π1(1400).
Vector Potential Quantization and the Quantum Vacuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constantin Meis
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the quantization of the vector potential amplitude of the electromagnetic field to a single photon state starting from the fundamental link equations between the classical electromagnetic theory and the quantum mechanical expressions. The resulting wave-particle formalism ensures a coherent transition between the classical electromagnetic wave theory and the quantum representation. A quantization constant of the photon vector potential is defined. A new quantum vacuum description results directly in having very low energy density. The calculated spontaneous emission rate and Lambs shift for the nS states of the hydrogen atom are in agreement with quantum electrodynamics. This low energy quantum vacuum state might be compatible with recent astrophysical observations.
Elements of mathematics topological vector spaces
Bourbaki, Nicolas
2003-01-01
This is a softcover reprint of the English translation of 1987 of the second edition of Bourbaki's Espaces Vectoriels Topologiques (1981). This second edition is a brand new book and completely supersedes the original version of nearly 30 years ago. But a lot of the material has been rearranged, rewritten, or replaced by a more up-to-date exposition, and a good deal of new material has been incorporated in this book, all reflecting the progress made in the field during the last three decades. Table of Contents. Chapter I: Topological vector spaces over a valued field. Chapter II: Convex sets and locally convex spaces. Chapter III: Spaces of continuous linear mappings. Chapter IV: Duality in topological vector spaces. Chapter V: Hilbert spaces (elementary theory). Finally, there are the usual "historical note", bibliography, index of notation, index of terminology, and a list of some important properties of Banach spaces. (Based on Math Reviews, 1983).
Image coding through predictive vector quantization
Narayan, Ajai; Ramabadran, Tenkasi V.
1993-01-01
This paper describes a predictive vector quantizer (PVQ) for coding grayscale images. The method described can be regarded as an extension of an existing speech coding algorithm in 1- dimension to 2-dimensional images. The method applies vector quantization (VQ) to innovations generated by the well known scalar differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) method. It tries to exploit the advantages of both the simplicity of DPCM and the high compressibility of VQ. Two types of code books, viz., random and deterministic, are used in the implementation. Performance results of the method with both types of codebooks are presented for industrial radiographic images. The results are also compared with reconstructions obtained using the discrete cosine transform (DCT) method.
Production and titration of lentiviral vectors.
Barde, Isabelle; Salmon, Patrick; Trono, Didier
2010-10-01
Lentiviral vectors have emerged over the last decade as powerful, reliable, and safe tools for stable gene transfer in a wide variety of mammalian cells. Unlike other vectors derived from oncoretroviruses, they allow for stable gene delivery into most nondividing primary cells, including neurons. This is why lentivectors (LVs) are becoming the most useful and promising tools in the field of neuroscience, not only for research, but also for future gene and cell therapy approaches. LVs derived from HIV-1 have gradually evolved to display many desirable features aimed at increasing both their safety and their versatility. These latest designs are reviewed in this unit. This unit also describes protocols for production and titration of LVs that can be implemented in a research laboratory setting, with an emphasis on standardization to improve transposability of results between laboratories.
Genetically engineering adenoviral vectors for gene therapy.
Coughlan, Lynda
2014-01-01
Adenoviral (Ad) vectors are commonly used for various gene therapy applications. Significant advances in the genetic engineering of Ad vectors in recent years has highlighted their potential for the treatment of metastatic disease. There are several methods to genetically modify the Ad genome to incorporate retargeting peptides which will redirect the natural tropism of the viruses, including homologous recombination in bacteria or yeast. However, homologous recombination in yeast is highly efficient and can be achieved without the need for extensive cloning strategies. In addition, the method does not rely on the presence of unique restriction sites within the Ad genome and the reagents required for this method are widely available and inexpensive. Large plasmids containing the entire adenoviral genome (~36 kbp) can be modified within Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and genomes easily rescued in Escherichia coli hosts for analysis or amplification. A method for two-step homologous recombination in yeast is described in this chapter.
Approximate gauge symemtry of composite vector bosons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, Mahiko
2010-06-01
It can be shown in a solvable field theory model that the couplings of the composite vector mesons made of a fermion pair approach the gauge couplings in the limit of strong binding. Although this phenomenon may appear accidental and special to the vector bosons made of a fermion pair, we extend it to the case of bosons being constituents and find that the same phenomenon occurs in more an intriguing way. The functional formalism not only facilitates computation but also provides us with a better insight into the generating mechanism of approximate gauge symmetry, in particular, how the strong binding and global current conservation conspire to generate such an approximate symmetry. Remarks are made on its possible relevance or irrelevance to electroweak and higher symmetries.
Generalized Toeplitz operators and cyclic vectors
Gassier, G; Zerouali, E H
2003-01-01
We give in this paper some asymptotic Von Neumann inequalities for power bounded operators in the class C subrho intersection C sub 1. and some spacial von Neumann inequalities associated with non zero elements of the point spectrum, when it is non void, of generalized Toeplitz operators. Introducing perturbed kernel, we consider classes C sub R which extend the classical classes C subrho. We give results about absolute continuity with respect to the Haar measure for operators in class C sub R intersection C sub 1. This allows us to give new results on cyclic vectors for such operators and provides invariant subspaces for their powers. Relationships between cyclic vectors for T and T* involving generalized Toeplitz operators are given and the commutativity of left brace T right brace', the commutant of T is discussed.
Advection of vector fields by chaotic flows
Balmforth, N J; Spiegel, E A
1993-01-01
We have introduced a new transfer operator for chaotic flows whose leading eigenvalue yields the dynamo rate of the fast kinematic dynamo and applied cycle expansion of the Fredholm determinant of the new operator to evaluation of its spectrum. The theory hs been tested on a normal form model of the vector advecting dynamical flow. If the model is a simple map with constant time between two iterations, the dynamo rate is the same as the escape rate of scalar quantties. However, a spread in Poincaré section return times lifts the degeneracy of the vector and scalar advection rates, and leads to dynamo rates that dominate over the scalar advection rates. For sufficiently large time spreads we have even found repellers for which the magnetic field grows exponentially, even though the scalar densities are decaying exponentially.
Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors
Felipe de Mello Vigoder; Michael Gordon Ritchie; Gabriella Gibson; Alexandre Afranio Peixoto
2013-01-01
Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and se...
Efficient Intracellular Assembly of Papillomaviral Vectors
Buck, Christopher B.; Diana V Pastrana; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.
2004-01-01
Although the papillomavirus structural proteins, L1 and L2, can spontaneously coassemble to form virus-like particles, currently available methods for production of L1/L2 particles capable of transducing reporter plasmids into mammalian cells are technically demanding and relatively low-yield. In this report, we describe a simple 293 cell transfection method for efficient intracellular production of papillomaviral-based gene transfer vectors carrying reporter plasmids. Using bovine papillomav...
THE VECTOR OF METODOLOGY IN FICTION STUDIES
GOLBAN, PETRU
2015-01-01
This study considers fiction, its certain characteristic features, principles and devices (thematic and narrative), and a number of structural elements correlated within interpretative models. The purpose of this study represents the attempt to establish a vector of methodology, i. e. an interpretative modality aimed at stipulating the direction of approach to the fictional text, and which consists of a set of methods, an ordered system of principles of research used for study in the field of...
Vector Addition System Reversible Reachability Problem
Leroux, Jérôme
2013-01-01
International audience; The reachability problem for vector addition systems is a central problem of net theory. This problem is known to be decidable but the complexity is still unknown. Whereas the problem is EXPSPACE-hard, no elementary upper bounds complexity are known. In this paper we consider the reversible reachability problem. This problem consists to decide if two configurations are reachable one from each other, or equivalently if they are in the same strongly connected component o...
Vectors for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer
2006-08-01
Medicine, Ankara, Turkey ; and 4Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Abstract S.c. injection of the Ad-sig-tumor-associated antigen (TAA)/ecdCD40L vector...hMUC1 is over- expressed. (Blood. 2004;104:2704-2713) © 2004 by The American Society of Hematology Introduction We previously reported that subcutaneous...The American Society of Hematology 2704 BLOOD, 1 NOVEMBER 2004 VOLUME 104, NUMBER 9 disrupting the regulation of anchorage-dependent growth, which
Vector-tensor interaction of gravitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Yuan-zhong; Guo han-ying
1982-11-01
In the paper, by using the equation of motion a particle, we show that the antigravity exist in the vector-tensor model of gravitation. Thus the motion of a particle deviates from the geodesic equation. In Newtonian approximation and weak gravitational field, acceleration of a particle in a spherically symmetric and astatic gravitation field is zero. The result is obviously not in agreement with gravitational phenomena.
A vector space approach to geometry
Hausner, Melvin
2010-01-01
The effects of geometry and linear algebra on each other receive close attention in this examination of geometry's correlation with other branches of math and science. In-depth discussions include a review of systematic geometric motivations in vector space theory and matrix theory; the use of the center of mass in geometry, with an introduction to barycentric coordinates; axiomatic development of determinants in a chapter dealing with area and volume; and a careful consideration of the particle problem. 1965 edition.
Some remarks on a generalized vector product
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Primitivo Acosta-Humánez
2011-01-01
Full Text Available En este artículo usamos un producto vectorial generalizado para n k construir una forma exterior ∧ : (Rn → R(k , en donde como es natural, n n! k = (n−k!k! , k ≤ n. Finalmente, para n = k − 1 introducimos la operación reversar para estudiar este producto vectorial generalizado sobre vectores palindrómicos y antipalindrómicos.
Scaffolding Vector Representations for Student Learning inside a Physics Game
D'Angelo Cynthia
2010-01-01
Vectors and vector addition are difficult concepts for many introductory physics students and traditional instruction does not usually sufficiently address these difficulties. Vectors play a major role in most topics in introductory physics and without a complete understanding of them many students are unable to make sense of the physics topics…
Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations
Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Hendrikx, P.; Enoe, Claes; Kirkeby, Karsten; Hoinville, Linda; Lindberg, A.
2016-01-01
Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and
Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change
Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato; Lepe-Lopez, Manuel A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian
2016-12-01
More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian regions to the Andes Mountains; however, a detailed characterization of the distribution of their vectors has never been carried out. We estimate the distribution of 14 vectors of the above vector-borne diseases under present-day and future climates. Our results consistently suggest that climate warming is likely threatening some vector species with extinction, locally or completely. These results suggest that climate change could reduce the burden of specific vector species. Other vector species are likely to shift and constrain their geographic range to the highlands in Ecuador potentially affecting novel areas and populations. These forecasts show the need for development of early prevention strategies for vector species currently absent in areas projected as suitable under future climate conditions. Informed interventions could reduce the risk of human exposure to vector species with distributional shifts, in response to current and future climate changes. Based on the mixed effects of future climate on human exposure to disease vectors, we argue that research on vector-borne diseases should be cross-scale and include climatic, demographic, and landscape factors, as well as forces facilitating disease transmission at fine scales.
Hyperorthogonal family of vectors and the associated Gram matrix
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglede, Bent
2014-01-01
A family of non-zero vectors in Euclidean n -space is termed hyperorthogonal if the angle between any two distinct vectors of the family is at least π/2 . Any hyperorthogonal family is finite and contains at most 2n vectors. It decomposes uniquely into the union of mutually orthogonal irreducible...
Spin information from vector-meson decay in photoproduction
Kloet, W. M.; Chiang, Wen-Tai; Tabakin, Frank
1998-08-01
For the photoproduction of vector mesons, all single and double spin observables involving vector-meson two-body decays are defined consistently in the γN center-of-mass frame. These definitions yield a procedure for extracting physically meaningful single and double spin observables that are subject to known rules concerning their angle and energy evolution. As part of this analysis, we show that measuring the two-meson decay of a photoproduced ρ or φ does not determine the vector meson's vector polarization, but only its tensor polarization. The vector meson decay into lepton pairs is also insensitive to the vector meson's vector polarization, unless one measures the spin of one of the leptons. Similar results are found for all double spin observables which involve observation of vector-meson decay. To access the vector meson's vector polarization, one therefore needs to either measure the spin of the decay leptons, make an analysis of the background interference effects, or relate the vector meson's vector polarization to other accessible spin observables.
Spin information from vector-meson decay in photoproduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kloet, W.M. [Department of Physics Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855-0849 (United States); Chiang, W.; Tabakin, F. [Department of Physics Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)
1998-08-01
For the photoproduction of vector mesons, all single and double spin observables involving vector-meson two-body decays are defined consistently in the {gamma}N center-of-mass frame. These definitions yield a procedure for extracting physically meaningful single and double spin observables that are subject to known rules concerning their angle and energy evolution. As part of this analysis, we show that measuring the two-meson decay of a photoproduced {rho} or {phi} does not determine the vector meson{close_quote}s vector polarization, but only its tensor polarization. The vector meson decay into lepton pairs is also insensitive to the vector meson{close_quote}s vector polarization, unless one measures the spin of one of the leptons. Similar results are found for all double spin observables which involve observation of vector-meson decay. To access the vector meson{close_quote}s vector polarization, one therefore needs to either measure the spin of the decay leptons, make an analysis of the background interference effects, or relate the vector meson{close_quote}s vector polarization to other accessible spin observables. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
A new Fenchel dual problem in vector optimization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 2. A New Fenchel Dual Problem in Vector ... We introduce a new Fenchel dual for vector optimization problems inspired by the form of the Fenchel dual attached to the scalarized primal multiobjective problem. For the vector primal-dual pair we ...
Real parabolic vector bundles over a real curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
weights are integral multiples of 1/N, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on (Y,σY ). ... The notion of parabolic vector bundles over a compact Riemann surface was introduced by Seshadri [4] and their .... stable. If F is a direct sum of stable vector bundles having the same slope, then F is called polystable.
Examples of in-vivo blood vector velocity estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Nielsen, Kristian R.
2007-01-01
In this paper examples of in-vivo blood vector velocity images of the carotid artery are presented. The transverse oscillation (TO) method for blood vector velocity estimation has been used to estimate the vector velocities and the method is first evaluated in a circulating flowrig where...
Environmental statistical modelling of mosquito vectors at different geographical scales
Cianci, D.
2015-01-01
Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, midges and flies. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasingly wider threat to global public health, both in terms of people affected and their geographical spread. Mosquitoes
Conformal Aspects of Spinor-Vector Duality
Faraggi, Alon E; Mohaupt, Thomas; Tsulaia, Mirian
2011-01-01
We present a detailed study of various aspects of Spinor-Vector duality in Heterotic string compactifications and expose its origin in terms of the internal conformal field theory. In particular, we illustrate the main features of the duality map by using simple toroidal orbifolds preserving N_4 = 1 and N_4 = 2 spacetime supersymmetries in four dimensions. We explain how the duality map arises in this context by turning on special values of the Wilson lines around the compact cycles of the manifold. We argue that in models with N_4 = 2 spacetime supersymmetry, the interpolation between the Spinor-Vector dual vacua can be continuously realized. We trace the origin of the Spinor-Vector duality map to the presence of underlying N = (2, 2) and N = (4, 4) SCFTs, and explicitly show that the induced spectral-flow in the twisted sectors is responsible for the observed duality. The isomorphism between current algebra representations gives rise to a number of chiral character identities, reminiscent of the recently-di...
``Massless'' vector field in de Sitter universe
Garidi, T.; Gazeau, J.-P.; Rouhani, S.; Takook, M. V.
2008-03-01
We proceed to the quantization of the massless vector field in the de Sitter (dS) space. This work is the natural continuation of a previous article devoted to the quantization of the dS massive vector field [J. P. Gazeau and M. V. Takook, J. Math. Phys. 41, 5920 (2000); T. Garidi et al., ibid. 43, 6379 (2002).] The term ``massless'' is used by reference to conformal invariance and propagation on the dS lightcone whereas ``massive'' refers to those dS fields which unambiguously contract to Minkowskian massive fields at zero curvature. Due to the combined occurrences of gauge invariance and indefinite metric, the covariant quantization of the massless vector field requires an indecomposable representation of the de Sitter group. We work with the gauge fixing corresponding to the simplest Gupta-Bleuler structure. The field operator is defined with the help of coordinate-independent de Sitter waves (the modes). The latter are simple to manipulate and most adapted to group theoretical approaches. The physical states characterized by the divergencelessness condition are, for instance, easy to identify. The whole construction is based on analyticity requirements in the complexified pseudo-Riemannian manifold for the modes and the two-point function.
Pattern vectors from algebraic graph theory.
Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R; Luo, Bin
2005-07-01
Graph structures have proven computationally cumbersome for pattern analysis. The reason for this is that, before graphs can be converted to pattern vectors, correspondences must be established between the nodes of structures which are potentially of different size. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we turn to the spectral decomposition of the Laplacian matrix. We show how the elements of the spectral matrix for the Laplacian can be used to construct symmetric polynomials that are permutation invariants. The coefficients of these polynomials can be used as graph features which can be encoded in a vectorial manner. We extend this representation to graphs in which there are unary attributes on the nodes and binary attributes on the edges by using the spectral decomposition of a Hermitian property matrix that can be viewed as a complex analogue of the Laplacian. To embed the graphs in a pattern space, we explore whether the vectors of invariants can be embedded in a low-dimensional space using a number of alternative strategies, including principal components analysis (PCA), multidimensional scaling (MDS), and locality preserving projection (LPP). Experimentally, we demonstrate that the embeddings result in well-defined graph clusters. Our experiments with the spectral representation involve both synthetic and real-world data. The experiments with synthetic data demonstrate that the distances between spectral feature vectors can be used to discriminate between graphs on the basis of their structure. The real-world experiments show that the method can be used to locate clusters of graphs.
ATLAS measurements of vector boson production
Debenedetti, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Vector boson production in pp collisions at 7, 8 and 13 TeV has been extensively studied by ATLAS. Recent results include the precision measurements of the transverse momentum of the Z/gamma* boson production, sensitive to soft resummation effects, hard jet emissions and electroweak corrections. A precise measurement of the angular coefficients of the Zboson production tests the underlying QCD dynamics of the DrellYan process. A first measurement of the inclusive W and Z cross section at a cms energy of 13TeV has been derived. The Production of jets in association with a vector boson is an important process to study QCD in a multiscale environment. Cross sections, differential in several kinematics variables, have been measured with the ATLAS detector and compared to stateoftheart QCD calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. First measurements of vector boson + jets production have been performed at cms energies of 13TeV. An overview of these results is given.
Replicon RNA Viral Vectors as Vaccines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenneth Lundstrom
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Single-stranded RNA viruses of both positive and negative polarity have been used as vectors for vaccine development. In this context, alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles virus and rhabdoviruses have been engineered for expression of surface protein genes and antigens. Administration of replicon RNA vectors has resulted in strong immune responses and generation of neutralizing antibodies in various animal models. Immunization of mice, chicken, pigs and primates with virus-like particles, naked RNA or layered DNA/RNA plasmids has provided protection against challenges with lethal doses of infectious agents and administered tumor cells. Both prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy has been achieved in cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, recombinant particles and replicon RNAs have been encapsulated by liposomes to improve delivery and targeting. Replicon RNA vectors have also been subjected to clinical trials. Overall, immunization with self-replicating RNA viruses provides high transient expression levels of antigens resulting in generation of neutralizing antibody responses and protection against lethal challenges under safe conditions.
Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra.
Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia
2015-12-01
In the mid 1980s, the development of multifractal concepts and techniques was an important breakthrough for complex system analysis and simulation, in particular, in turbulence and hydrology. Multifractals indeed aimed to track and simulate the scaling singularities of the underlying equations instead of relying on numerical, scale truncated simulations or on simplified conceptual models. However, this development has been rather limited to deal with scalar fields, whereas most of the fields of interest are vector-valued or even manifold-valued. We show in this paper that the combination of stable Lévy processes with Clifford algebra is a good candidate to bridge up the present gap between theory and applications. We show that it indeed defines a convenient framework to generate multifractal vector fields, possibly multifractal manifold-valued fields, based on a few fundamental and complementary properties of Lévy processes and Clifford algebra. In particular, the vector structure of these algebra is much more tractable than the manifold structure of symmetry groups while the Lévy stability grants a given statistical universality.
Multiscale benchmarking of drug delivery vectors.
Summers, Huw D; Ware, Matthew J; Majithia, Ravish; Meissner, Kenith E; Godin, Biana; Rees, Paul
2016-10-01
Cross-system comparisons of drug delivery vectors are essential to ensure optimal design. An in-vitro experimental protocol is presented that separates the role of the delivery vector from that of its cargo in determining the cell response, thus allowing quantitative comparison of different systems. The technique is validated through benchmarking of the dose-response of human fibroblast cells exposed to the cationic molecule, polyethylene imine (PEI); delivered as a free molecule and as a cargo on the surface of CdSe nanoparticles and Silica microparticles. The exposure metrics are converted to a delivered dose with the transport properties of the different scale systems characterized by a delivery time, τ. The benchmarking highlights an agglomeration of the free PEI molecules into micron sized clusters and identifies the metric determining cell death as the total number of PEI molecules presented to cells, determined by the delivery vector dose and the surface density of the cargo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sparagano, O A E; De Luna, C J
2008-07-01
Epidemiological studies on vectors and the pathogens they can carry (such as Borrelia burgdorferi) are showing some correlations between infection rates and biodiversity highlighting the "dilution" effects on potential vectors. Meanwhile other studies comparing sympatric small rodent species demonstrated that rodent species transmitting more pathogens are parasitized by more ectoparasite species. Studies on population structure and size have also proven a difference on the intensity of the parasitic infection. Furthermore, preliminary results in genetic improvement in mosquitoes (genetic markers, sexing, and genetic sterilization) will also increase performance as it has already been shown in field applications in developing countries. Recent results have greatly improved the fitness of genetically-modified insects compared to wild type populations with new approaches such as the post-integration elimination of transposon sequences, stabilising any insertion in genetically-modified insects. Encouraging results using the Sterile Insect Technique highlighted some metabolism manipulation to avoid the viability of offspring from released parent insect in the wild. Recent studies on vector symbionts would also bring a new angle in vector control capabilities, while complete DNA sequencing of some arthropods could point out ways to block the deadly impact on animal and human populations. These new potential approaches will improve the levels of control or even in some cases would eradicate vector species and consequently the vector-borne diseases they can transmit. In this paper we review some of the population biology theories, biological control methods, and the genetic techniques that have been published in the last years that are recommended to control for vector-borne diseases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Qiu; Peng, Qiyu; Huang, Bin; Cheryauka, Arvi; Gullberg, Grant T.
2008-05-15
The measurement of flow obtained using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound is formulated as a directional projection of a flow vector field. When a continuous ultrasound wave bounces against a flowing particle, a signal is backscattered. This signal obtains a Doppler frequency shift proportional to the speed of the particle along the ultrasound beam. This occurs for each particle along the beam, giving rise to a Doppler velocity spectrum. The first moment of the spectrum provides the directional projection of the flow along theultrasound beam. Signals reflected from points further away from the detector will have lower amplitude than signals reflected from points closer to the detector. The effect is very much akin to that modeled by the attenuated Radon transform in emission computed tomography.A least-squares method was adopted to reconstruct a 2D vector field from directional projection measurements. Attenuated projections of only the longitudinal projections of the vector field were simulated. The components of the vector field were reconstructed using the gradient algorithm to minimize a least-squares criterion. This result was compared with the reconstruction of longitudinal projections of the vector field without attenuation. Ifattenuation is known, the algorithm was able to accurately reconstruct both components of the full vector field from only one set of directional projection measurements. A better reconstruction was obtained with attenuation than without attenuation implying that attenuation provides important information for the reconstruction of flow vector fields.This confirms previous work where we showed that knowledge of the attenuation distribution helps in the reconstruction of MRI diffusion tensor fields from fewer than the required measurements. In the application of ultrasound the attenuation distribution is obtained with pulse wave transmission computed tomography and flow information is obtained with continuous wave Doppler.
Vreugdenhil Erno; Garner Keith M; Luijendijk Mieneke CM; Brans Maike AD; Fitzsimons Carlos P; de Backer Marijke WA; Adan Roger AH
2010-01-01
Abstract Background This study compared the transduction efficiencies of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, which was pseudotyped with an AAV1 capsid and encoded the green fluorescent protein (GFP), with a lentiviral (LV) vector, which was pseudotyped with a VSV-G envelop and encoded the discosoma red fluorescent protein (dsRed), to investigate which viral vector transduced the lateral hypothalamus or the amygdala more efficiently. The LV-dsRed and AAV1-GFP vector were mixed and injected...
Progressive Classification Using Support Vector Machines
Wagstaff, Kiri; Kocurek, Michael
2009-01-01
An algorithm for progressive classification of data, analogous to progressive rendering of images, makes it possible to compromise between speed and accuracy. This algorithm uses support vector machines (SVMs) to classify data. An SVM is a machine learning algorithm that builds a mathematical model of the desired classification concept by identifying the critical data points, called support vectors. Coarse approximations to the concept require only a few support vectors, while precise, highly accurate models require far more support vectors. Once the model has been constructed, the SVM can be applied to new observations. The cost of classifying a new observation is proportional to the number of support vectors in the model. When computational resources are limited, an SVM of the appropriate complexity can be produced. However, if the constraints are not known when the model is constructed, or if they can change over time, a method for adaptively responding to the current resource constraints is required. This capability is particularly relevant for spacecraft (or any other real-time systems) that perform onboard data analysis. The new algorithm enables the fast, interactive application of an SVM classifier to a new set of data. The classification process achieved by this algorithm is characterized as progressive because a coarse approximation to the true classification is generated rapidly and thereafter iteratively refined. The algorithm uses two SVMs: (1) a fast, approximate one and (2) slow, highly accurate one. New data are initially classified by the fast SVM, producing a baseline approximate classification. For each classified data point, the algorithm calculates a confidence index that indicates the likelihood that it was classified correctly in the first pass. Next, the data points are sorted by their confidence indices and progressively reclassified by the slower, more accurate SVM, starting with the items most likely to be incorrectly classified. The user
Shifting priorities in vector biology to improve control of vector-borne disease.
Lambrechts, Louis; Knox, Tessa B; Wong, Jacklyn; Liebman, Kelly A; Albright, Rebecca G; Stoddard, Steven T
2009-12-01
Vector control remains the primary measure available to prevent pathogen transmission for the most devastating vector-borne diseases (VBDs): malaria, dengue, trypanosomiasis, filariasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. Current control strategies, however, are proving insufficient and the remarkable advances in the molecular biology of disease vectors over the last two decades have yet to result in tangible tools that effectively reduce VBD incidence. Here we argue that vector biologists must fundamentally shift their approach to VBD research. We propose an agenda highlighting the most critical avenues to improve the effectiveness of vector control. Research priorities must be diversified to support simultaneous development of multiple, alternative control strategies. Knowledge across relevant diseases and disciplines should be better integrated and disease prevention efforts extended beyond the academic sector to involve private industry, ministries of health, and local communities. To obtain information of more immediate significance to public health, the research focus must shift from laboratory models to natural pathogen-transmission systems. Identification and characterization of heterogeneities inherent to VBD systems should be prioritized to allow development of local, adaptive control strategies that efficiently make use of limited resources. Importantly, increased involvement of disease-endemic country (DEC) scientists, institutes, and communities will be key to enhance and sustain the fight against VBD.
Test of understanding of vectors: A reliable multiple-choice vector concept test
Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro
2014-06-01
In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended problems in which a total of 2067 students participated. Using this taxonomy, we then designed a 20-item multiple-choice test [Test of understanding of vectors (TUV)] and administered it in English to 423 students who were completing the required sequence of introductory physics courses at a large private Mexican university. We evaluated the test's content validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. The results indicate that the TUV is a reliable assessment tool. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the students' understanding of the vector concepts evaluated in the test. The TUV is included in the Supplemental Material as a resource for other researchers studying vector learning, as well as instructors teaching the material.
Advances in Non-Viral DNA Vectors for Gene Therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cinnamon L. Hardee
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Uses of viral vectors have thus far eclipsed uses of non-viral vectors for gene therapy delivery in the clinic. Viral vectors, however, have certain issues involving genome integration, the inability to be delivered repeatedly, and possible host rejection. Fortunately, development of non-viral DNA vectors has progressed steadily, especially in plasmid vector length reduction, now allowing these tools to fill in specifically where viral or other non-viral vectors may not be the best options. In this review, we examine the improvements made to non-viral DNA gene therapy vectors, highlight opportunities for their further development, address therapeutic needs for which their use is the logical choice, and discuss their future expansion into the clinic
Non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams.
Aadhi, A; Vaity, Pravin; Chithrabhanu, P; Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabakar, Shashi; Singh, R P
2016-02-10
Vector vortex beams are classified into four types depending upon spatial variation in their polarization vector. We have generated all four of these types of vector vortex beams by using a modified polarization Sagnac interferometer with a vortex lens. Further, we have studied the non-coaxial superposition of two vector vortex beams. It is observed that the superposition of two vector vortex beams with same polarization singularity leads to a beam with another kind of polarization singularity in their interaction region. The results may be of importance in ultrahigh security of the polarization-encrypted data that utilizes vector vortex beams and multiple optical trapping with non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams. We verified our experimental results with theory.
A Simplified Voltage Vector Selection Strategy for Direct Torque Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Jian
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The direct torque control (DTC for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM under the control of switching table suffers from high torque ripple and variable switching frequency. For PMSM DTC system, voltage vector selection strategy as the hysteresis control principle determines the systems performance. The angle (a between stator flux vector and the applying voltage vector determines effect of the voltage vector on the amplitude of stator flux and torque angle. The effect of the voltage vector on toque is dependent on a, torque angle and parameters of PMSM. A voltage vector selection strategy based on the technology of space vector modulation (SVM is proposed to control stator flux, torque angle and torque. Experimental results for a 15-kW interior PMSM show it can decrease stator current and torque ripples and fix the switching frequency.
Effective SIMD Vectorization for Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinmin Tian
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Efficiently exploiting SIMD vector units is one of the most important aspects in achieving high performance of the application code running on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. In this paper, we present several effective SIMD vectorization techniques such as less-than-full-vector loop vectorization, Intel MIC specific alignment optimization, and small matrix transpose/multiplication 2D vectorization implemented in the Intel C/C++ and Fortran production compilers for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. A set of workloads from several application domains is employed to conduct the performance study of our SIMD vectorization techniques. The performance results show that we achieved up to 12.5x performance gain on the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. We also demonstrate a 2000x performance speedup from the seamless integration of SIMD vectorization and parallelization.
Gray, Robert W; Rolland, Jannick P
2015-10-01
Previous papers have shown how, for rotationally symmetric optical imaging systems, nodes in the field dependence of the wavefront aberration function develop when a rotationally symmetric optical surface within an imaging optical system is decentered and/or tilted. In this paper, we show how Shack's vector product (SVP) can be used to express the wavefront aberration function and to define vectors in terms of the Zernike polynomials. The wavefront aberration function is then expressed in terms of the Zernike vectors. It is further shown that SVP fits within the framework of two-dimensional geometric algebra (GA). Within the GA framework, an equation for the third-order node locations for the binodal astigmatism term that emerge in the presence of tilts and decenters is then demonstrated. A computer model of a three-mirror telescope system is used to demonstrate the validity of the mathematical development.
Virus infection of a weed increases vector attraction to and vector fitness on the weed
Chen, Gong; Pan, Huipeng; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Fang, Yong; Shi, Xiaobin; Zhang, Youjun
2013-01-01
Weeds are important in the ecology of field crops, and when crops are harvested, weeds often become the main hosts for plant viruses and their insect vectors. Few studies, however, have examined the relationships between plant viruses, vectors, and weeds. Here, we investigated how infection of the weed Datura stramonium L. by tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) affects the host preference and performance of the TYLCV vector, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Q. The results of a choice experiment indicated that B. tabaci Q preferentially settled and oviposited on TYLCV-infected plants rather than on healthy plants. In addition, B. tabaci Q performed better on TYLCV-infected plants than on healthy plants. These results demonstrate that TYLCV is indirectly mutualistic to B. tabaci Q. The mutually beneficial interaction between TYLCV and B. tabaci Q may help explain the concurrent outbreaks of TYLCV and B. tabaci Q in China. PMID:23872717
Holographic picture of heavy vector meson melting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braga, Nelson R.F.; Diles, Saulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel [Universidad de los Andes, High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Bogota (Colombia)
2016-11-15
The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1S, 2S and 3S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ(1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium. (orig.)
Vector sensor for scanning SQUID microscopy
Dang, Vu The; Toji, Masaki; Thanh Huy, Ho; Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Shishido, Hiroaki; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Hayashi, Masahiko; Ishida, Takekazu
2017-07-01
We plan to build a novel 3-dimensional (3D) scanning SQUID microscope with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. In the system, a vector sensor consists of three SQUID sensors and three pick-up coils realized on a single chip. Three pick-up coils are configured in orthogonal with each other to measure the magnetic field vector of X, Y, Z components. We fabricated some SQUID chips with one uniaxial pick-up coil or three vector pick-up coils and carried out fundamental measurements to reveal the basic characteristics. Josephson junctions (JJs) of sensors are designed to have the critical current density J c of 320 A/cm2, and the critical current I c becomes 12.5 μA for the 2.2μm × 2.2μm JJ. We carefully positioned the three pickup coils so as to keep them at the same height at the centers of all three X, Y and Z coils. This can be done by arranging them along single line parallel to a sample surface. With the aid of multilayer technology of Nb-based fabrication, we attempted to reduce an inner diameter of the pickup coils to enhance both sensitivity and spatial resolution. The method for improving a spatial resolution of a local magnetic field image is to employ an XYZ piezo-driven scanner for controlling the positions of the pick-up coils. The fundamental characteristics of our SQUID sensors confirmed the proper operation of our SQUID sensors and found a good agreement with our design parameters.
Forecasting Coronal Mass Ejections from Vector Magnetograms
Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In a 17 vector magnetogram study of 12 bipolar active regions (Falconer, Moore, & Gary, 2002, ApJ in press), we correlated four quantitative global magnetic measures with the Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) productivity of the active region. The global measures included a measure of active region size, the total magnetic flux phi and three measures of an active region global nonpotentiality 1) the net current (I (sub N)), 2) the length of the strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line (L(sub SS)) and 3) and the normalized twist (alpha = muIN/PHI). The CME productivity was determined from YOHKOH/SXT observations, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and when possible Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (SOHO/LASCO) observations within 12 days of the day of the magnetogram. We found that the three measures of global nonpotentiality (I(sub N), L(sub SS), alpha) were all well correlated (greater than 99% confidence level) with an active region's CME productivity. The sample size was to small to confirm if there was a statistical significant correlation of the globally nonscientist measures with future CME activity (i.e. from the date of the magnetogram forward). We are doubling our sample, and will report on the statistical significance of global nonpotentiality as a predictor of future CME productivity. The new active regions are all from the first year of the upgraded MSFC vector magnetograms. This work, is funded by NSF through the Space Weather Program, by NASA through the Living with the Star, Targeted Research and Technology, and by NASA Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program. The upgrade to the MSFC vector magnetograph was supported by the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) mission.
Vector blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper
2006-01-01
Two methods for making vector velocity estimation in medical ultrasound are presented. All of the techniques can find both the axial and transverse velocity in the image and can be used for displaying both the correct velocity magnitude and direction. The first method uses a transverse oscillation...... in the ultrasound field to find the transverse velocity. In-vivo examples from the carotid artery are shown, where complex turbulent flow is found in certain parts of the cardiac cycle. The second approach uses directional beam forming along the flow direction to estimate the velocity magnitude. Using a correlation...
2D vector-cyclic deformable templates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut
1998-01-01
matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation...... and probabillity measurement. The case study concerns estimation of meat percent in pork carcasses. Given two cross-sectional images - one at the front and one near the ham of the carcass - the areas of lean and fat and a muscle in the lean area are measured automatically by the deformable templates....
Malaria vectors of Timor-Leste.
Cooper, Robert D; Edstein, Michael D; Frances, Stephen P; Beebe, Nigel W
2010-02-02
The island of Timor lies at the south-eastern edge of Indonesia on the boundary of the Oriental and Australian faunal regions. The country of Timor-Leste, which occupies the eastern part of the island, is malarious, but anopheline faunal surveys and malaria vector incrimination date back to the 1960 s. Over the last decade the malaria vectors of south-east Asia and the south-west Pacific have been intensely studied using molecular techniques that can confirm identification within complexes of isomorphic species. The aim of this study is to accurately identify the Anopheles fauna of Timor-Leste using these techniques. The survey was carried out over the period February to June 2001. Standard entomological techniques--human landing collections, larval collections and CO2 baited light traps--were used to collect anophelines from the main geographical regions: coastal plains, inland plains, and highlands. Specimens were processed for identification by morphology and genotyped for the ribosomal DNA ITS2 by restriction analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic relationship of Anopheles sundaicus and Anopheles subpictus individuals was also assessed using DNA sequences from the ITS2 and mitochondrial cytochrome-b. All specimens, other than those from larval surveys, were processed to detect the presence of the Plasmodium parasite circumsporozoite protein by ELISA for vector incrimination. Of 2,030 specimens collected, seven species were identified by morphology: Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, An. sundaicus and Anopheles vagus. These were confirmed by molecular analysis with the addition of Anopheles flavirostris and an unidentified species designated here as An. vagus genotype B. This latter species was morphologically similar to An. vagus and An. subpictus and is likely to be the An. subpictus described by other workers for Timor. However, genetically this species showed strong affinities
Algorithms for quadratic matrix and vector equations
Poloni, Federico
2011-01-01
This book is devoted to studying algorithms for the solution of a class of quadratic matrix and vector equations. These equations appear, in different forms, in several practical applications, especially in applied probability and control theory. The equations are first presented using a novel unifying approach; then, specific numerical methods are presented for the cases most relevant for applications, and new algorithms and theoretical results developed by the author are presented. The book focuses on “matrix multiplication-rich” iterations such as cyclic reduction and the structured doubling algorithm (SDA) and contains a variety of new research results which, as of today, are only available in articles or preprints.
Enhanced gene expression from retroviral vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Micklem David R
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Retroviruses are widely used to transfer genes to mammalian cells efficiently and stably. However, genetic elements required for high-level gene expression are incompatible with standard systems. The retroviral RNA genome is produced by cellular transcription and post-transcriptional processing within packaging cells: Introns present in the retroviral genomic transcript are removed by splicing, while polyadenylation signals lead to the production of ineffective truncated genomes. Furthermore strong enhancer/promoters within the retroviral payload lead to detrimental competition with the retroviral enhancer/promoter. Results By exploiting a new method of producing the retroviral genome in vitro it is possible to produce infectious retroviral particles carrying a high-level expression cassette that completely prohibits production of infectious retroviral particles by conventional methods. We produced an expression cassette comprising a strong enhancer/promoter, an optimised intron, the GFP open reading frame and a strong polyadenylation signal. This cassette was cloned into both a conventional MMLV retroviral vector and a vector designed to allow in vitro transcription of the retroviral genome by T7 RNA polymerase. When the conventional retroviral vector was transfected into packaging cells, the expression cassette drove strong GFP expression, but no infectious retrovirus was produced. Introduction of the in vitro produced uncapped retroviral genomic transcript into the packaging cells did not lead to any detectable GFP expression. However, infectious retrovirus was easily recovered, and when used to infect target primary human cells led to very high GFP expression – up to 3.5 times greater than conventional retroviral LTR-driven expression. Conclusion Retroviral vectors carrying an optimized high-level expression cassette do not produce infectious virions when introduced into packaging cells by transfection of DNA
[Climate- and vector-borne diseases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.
2009-01-01
The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...
Vector bundles on complex projective spaces
Okonek, Christian; Spindler, Heinz
1980-01-01
This expository treatment is based on a survey given by one of the authors at the Séminaire Bourbaki in November 1978 and on a subsequent course held at the University of Göttingen. It is intended to serve as an introduction to the topical question of classification of holomorphic vector bundles on complex projective spaces, and can easily be read by students with a basic knowledge of analytic or algebraic geometry. Short supplementary sections describe more advanced topics, further results, and unsolved problems.
Malaria vectors of Timor-Leste
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frances Stephen P
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The island of Timor lies at the south-eastern edge of Indonesia on the boundary of the Oriental and Australian faunal regions. The country of Timor-Leste, which occupies the eastern part of the island, is malarious but anopheline faunal surveys and malaria vector incrimination date back to the 1960 s. Over the last decade the malaria vectors of south-east Asia and the south-west Pacific have been intensely studied using molecular techniques that can confirm identification within complexes of isomorphic species. The aim of this study is to accurately identify the Anopheles fauna of Timor-Leste using these techniques. Methods The survey was carried out over the period February to June 2001. Standard entomological techniques - human landing collections, larval collections and CO2 baited light traps - were used to collect anophelines from the main geographical regions: coastal plains, inland plains, and highlands. Specimens were processed for identification by morphology and genotyped for the ribosomal DNA ITS2 by restriction analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic relationship of Anopheles sundaicus and Anopheles subpictus individuals was also assessed using DNA sequences from the ITS2 and mitochondrial cytochrome-b. All specimens, other than those from larval surveys, were processed to detect the presence of the Plasmodium parasite circumsporozoite protein by ELISA for vector incrimination. Results Of 2,030 specimens collected, seven species were identified by morphology: Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, An. sundaicus and Anopheles vagus. These were confirmed by molecular analysis with the addition of Anopheles flavirostris and an unidentified species designated here as An. vagus genotype B. This latter species was morphologically similar to An. vagus and An. subpictus and is likely to be the An. subpictus described by other workers for Timor
Modern methods in topological vector spaces
Wilansky, Albert
2013-01-01
Designed for a one-year course in topological vector spaces, this text is geared toward advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students of mathematics. The subjects involve properties employed by researchers in classical analysis, differential and integral equations, distributions, summability, and classical Banach and Frechét spaces. Optional problems with hints and references introduce non-locally convex spaces, Köthe-Toeplitz spaces, Banach algebra, sequentially barrelled spaces, and norming subspaces.Extensive introductory chapters cover metric ideas, Banach space, topological vect
Support vector machines for spam categorization.
Drucker, H; Wu, D; Vapnik, V N
1999-01-01
We study the use of support vector machines (SVM's) in classifying e-mail as spam or nonspam by comparing it to three other classification algorithms: Ripper, Rocchio, and boosting decision trees. These four algorithms were tested on two different data sets: one data set where the number of features were constrained to the 1000 best features and another data set where the dimensionality was over 7000. SVM's performed best when using binary features. For both data sets, boosting trees and SVM's had acceptable test performance in terms of accuracy and speed. However, SVM's had significantly less training time.
A vector lattice version of Radström's embedding theorem
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Radström's embedding theorem for 'near vector spaces', which are essentially vector spaces without additive inverses, is extended to embeddings of 'near vector lattices', which are essentially vector lattices without additive inverses, into vector lattices. If the 'near vector space' is endowed with a metric, properties on the ...
Vector representations of multi-word terms for semantic relatedness.
Henry, Sam; Cuffy, Clint; McInnes, Bridget T
2017-12-13
This paper presents a comparison between several multi-word term aggregation methods of distributional context vectors applied to the task of semantic similarity and relatedness in the biomedical domain. We compare the multi-word term aggregation methods of summation of component word vectors, mean of component word vectors, direct construction of compound term vectors using the compoundify tool, and direct construction of concept vectors using the MetaMap tool. Dimensionality reduction is critical when constructing high quality distributional context vectors, so these baseline co-occurrence vectors are compared against dimensionality reduced vectors created using singular value decomposition (SVD), and word2vec word embeddings using continuous bag of words (CBOW), and skip-gram models. We also find optimal vector dimensionalities for the vectors produced by these techniques. Our results show that none of the tested multi-word term aggregation methods is statistically significantly better than any other. This allows flexibility when choosing a multi-word term aggregation method, and means expensive corpora preprocessing may be avoided. Results are shown with several standard evaluation datasets, and state of the results are achieved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Novel Cytotoxic Vectors Based on Adeno-Associated Virus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johannes Kohlschütter
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV are promising tools for gene therapy. The production of strongly toxic vectors, for example for cancer-directed gene transfer, is often unfeasible due to uncontrolled expression of toxic genes in vector-producing cells. Using an approach based on transcriptional repression, we have created novel AAV vectors carrying the genes coding for diphtheria toxin A (DTA and the pro-apoptotic PUMA protein. The DTA vector had a significant toxic effect on a panel of tumor cell lines, and abrogation of protein synthesis could be shown. The PUMA vector had a toxic effect on HeLa and RPMI 8226 cells, and sensitized transduced cells to doxorubicin. To permit targeted gene transfer, we incorporated the DTA gene into a genetically modified AAV-2 capsid previously developed by our group that mediates enhanced transduction of murine breast cancer cells in vitro. This vector had a stronger cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells than DTA vectors with wildtype AAV capsid or vectors with a random capsid modification. The vector production and application system presented here allows for easy exchange of promotors, transgenes and capsid specificity for certain target cells. It will therefore be of great possible value in a broad range of applications in cytotoxic gene therapy and significantly broadens the spectrum of available tools for AAV-based gene therapy.
Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe de Mello Vigoder
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.
Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors.
Vigoder, Felipe de Mello; Ritchie, Michael Gordon; Gibson, Gabriella; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio
2013-01-01
Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound "signatures" may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.
Improved NYVAC-based vaccine vectors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karen V Kibler
Full Text Available While as yet there is no vaccine against HIV/AIDS, the results of the phase III Thai trial (RV144 have been encouraging and suggest that further improvements of the prime/boost vaccine combination of a poxvirus and protein are needed. With this aim, in this investigation we have generated derivatives of the candidate vaccinia virus vaccine vector NYVAC with potentially improved functions. This has been achieved by the re-incorporation into the virus genome of two host range genes, K1L and C7L, in conjunction with the removal of the immunomodulatory viral molecule B19, an antagonist of type I interferon action. These novel virus vectors, referred to as NYVAC-C-KC and NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R, have acquired relevant biological characteristics, giving higher levels of antigen expression in infected cells, replication-competency in human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, activation of selective host cell signal transduction pathways, and limited virus spread in tissues. Importantly, these replication-competent viruses have been demonstrated to maintain a highly attenuated phenotype.
Viral Vectors for Plant Genome Engineering.
Zaidi, Syed Shan-E-Ali; Mansoor, Shahid
2017-01-01
Recent advances in genome engineering (GE) has made it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in plant cells, providing specifically engineered plants with traits of interest. Gene targeting efficiency depends on the delivery-method of both sequence-specific nucleases and repair templates, to plant cells. Typically, this is achieved using Agrobacterium mediated transformation or particle bombardment, both of which transform only a subset of cells in treated tissues. The alternate in planta approaches, stably integrating nuclease-encoding cassettes and repair templates into the plant genome, are time consuming, expensive and require extra regulations. More efficient GE reagents delivery methods are clearly needed if GE is to become routine, especially in economically important crops that are difficult to transform. Recently, autonomously replicating virus-based vectors have been demonstrated as efficient means of delivering GE reagents in plants. Both DNA viruses (Bean yellow dwarf virus, Wheat dwarf virus and Cabbage leaf curl virus) and RNA virus (Tobacco rattle virus) have demonstrated efficient gene targeting frequencies in model plants (Nicotiana benthamiana) and crops (potato, tomato, rice, and wheat). Here we discuss the recent advances using viral vectors for plant genome engineering, the current limitations and future directions.
Features from a Single Vector Pressure Stroke
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Freehand sketching in a real-time 3D styling system presents a different way to create a 3D model from the traditional CAD system. Strokes are the most common and useful objects in the expression of a stylist’s intention by using the gesture commands and in the construction of geometries. Not only are they sketched freely as drawing on a paper with a pen, but also they can be converted automatically into spline curves and then can be used to form a surface. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the features of stroke, the extraction and identification of these features, and the applications. Here, the features from a single vector pressure stroke have been discussed in detail according to their applications in an automotive freehand styling system in the early stage of conceptual design. The features have been divided into three parts: the input features, the calculable feature, and the added features. Over a hundred features have been defined and classified with the geometry or performance attributes. The features proposed have been applied in the identification of gesture commands, the expression of art vector stroke by pseudoantialiasing method, and a novel method to generate a spatial curve directly by the pressure of stroke in AutoSketch system.
Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudio Ricardo Lazzari
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.
Lattice calculation of coordinate-space vector and axial-vector current correlators in QCD
Tomii, M.; Cossu, G.; Fahy, B.; Fukaya, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Noaki, J.; Jlqcd Collaboration
2017-09-01
We study the vector and axial-vector current correlators in perturbative and nonperturbative regimes of QCD. The correlators in Euclidean coordinate space are calculated on the lattice using the Möbius domain-wall fermion formulation at three lattice spacings covering 0.044-0.080 fm. The dynamical quark effects of 2 +1 light flavors are included. The sum V +A and the difference V -A of the vector (V ) and axial-vector (A ) current correlators calculated on the lattice after extrapolating to the physical point agree with those converted from the ALEPH experimental data of hadronic τ decays. The level of the agreement in the V +A channel is about 1.3 σ or smaller in the region of |x |≥0.4 fm , while that in the V -A channel is about 1.8 σ at |x |=0.74 fm and smaller at other distances. We also extract the chiral condensate from the short-distance correlators on the lattice using the partially conserved axial current relation. Its result extrapolated to the chiral and continuum limit is compatible with other estimates at low energies.
Elbourne, A.; de Haan, J.
2009-01-01
Using the vector autoregressive methodology, we present estimates of monetary transmission for five new EU member countries in Central and Eastern Europe with more or less flexible exchange rates. We select sample periods to estimate over the longest possible period that can be considered as a
Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management
Berg, van den H.; Hildebrand, von A.; Ragunathan, V.; Das, P.K.
2007-01-01
PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SATIMIN HADIWIDJAJA
2005-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to show genetic variations of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus in East Flores, East Nusa Tenggara Province and non-vector in Banjarnegara, Central Java Province by isozyme electrophoresis and refined morphological examinations as isozymes and morphological characters are known as gene influenced factors. An. subpictus females were collected by using animal and human bait collection and reared individually in the laboratory. Progenies were used as materials for electrophoretic examination after eggs and larvae were morphologically confirmed as the species investigated. Each progeny was run on horizontal starch electrophoresis in a separate well according to Green et al. (1990, Sukowati et al. (1999 and Dharmawan et al. (2002 with modification. The visualized isozymes were malate dehydrogenase (Mdh, lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh, alkaline phosphatase (Alp, alpha esterase (Est, beta esterase (Est, malic enzyme (Me, leucine aminopeptidase (Lap, and acid phosphatase (Acp. Zymograms showed that Mdh, Ldh, Alp, Est and Me had been varied between vector and non-vector species. Refined morphological examination on larvae showed different number of branches of their inner clypeal hairs and observation on eggs revealed different size and ridge numbers. We concluded that An. subpictus in East Flores was genetically and morphologically different from Banjarnegara and suggested that the two variants might be members of An. subpictus species complex.
Vector correlations in rotationally inelastic molecular collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemeshko, Mikhail
2011-04-13
The thesis presents an analytic model that describes scalar and vector properties of molecular collisions, both field-free and in fields. The model is based on the sudden approximation and treats molecular scattering as the Fraunhofer diffraction of matter waves from the hard-core part of the interaction potential. The theory has no fitting parameters and is inherently quantum, rendering fully state- and energy-resolved scattering amplitudes and all the quantities that unfold from them in analytic form. This allows to obtain complex polarization moments inherent to quantum stereodynamics, and to account for interference and other non-classical effects. The simplicity and analyticity of the model paves a way to understanding the origin of the features observed in experiment and exact computations, such as the angular oscillations in the state-to-state differential cross sections and the polarization moments, the rotational-state dependent variation of the integral cross sections, and change of these quantities as a function of the applied field. The theory was applied to study the k - k{sup '} vector correlation (differential cross section) for the following collision systems: Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and Ne-OCS(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in an electrostatic field, Na{sup +}-N{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in a laser field, and He-CaH({sup 2}{sigma}), He-O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{sigma}), and He-OH(X{sup 2}{pi}) in a magnetic field. The model was able to reproduce the behavior of the differential cross sections and their variation with field strength. Combining the Fraunhofer model with the quantum theory of vector correlations made it possible to study three- and four-vector properties. The model results for the k-k{sup '}-j{sup '} vector correlation in Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and He-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) scattering were found to be in good agreement with experiment and exact computations. This allowed to demonstrate that the stereodynamics of such collisions is contained solely in the
ON THE ISSUE OF VECTOR CONTROL OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. I. Firago
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of one of the widespread types of vector control realization for the asynchronous motors with a short-circuited rotor. Of all more than 20 vector control types known presently, the following are applied most frequently: direct vector control with velocity pickup (VP, direct vector control without VP, indirect vector control with VP and indirect vector control without VP. Despite the fact that the asynchronous-motor indirect vector control without VP is the easiest and most spread, the absence of VP does not allow controlling the motor electromagnetic torque at zero velocity. This is the reason why for electric motor drives of such requirements they utilize the vector control with a velocity transducer. The systems of widest dissemination became the direct and indirect vector control systems with X-axis alignment of the synchronously rotating x–y-coordinate frame along the rotor flux-linkage vector inasmuch as this provides the simplest correlations for controlling variables. Although these two types of vector control are well presented in literature, a number of issues concerning their realization and practical application require further elaboration. These include: the block schemes adequate representation as consisted with the modern realization of vector control and clarification of the analytical expressions for evaluating the regulator parameters.The authors present a technique for evaluating the dynamics of an asynchronous electric motor drive with direct vector control and x-axis alignment along the vector of rotor flux linkage. The article offers a generalized structure of this vector control type with detailed description of its principal blocks: controlling system, frequency converter, and the asynchronous motor.The paper presents a direct vector control simulating model developed in the MatLab environment on the grounds of this structure. The authors illustrate the described technique with the results
Impact of anthropogenic environmental alterations on vector-borne diseases.
Vora, Neil
2008-01-01
The spread of infectious vector-borne diseases involves at least 3 organisms: a parasite, a vector, and a host. Alterations to the natural environment may change the context within which these entities interact, thus potentially affecting vector-borne disease epidemiology. In this review, examples are presented in which human-driven ecological changes may be contributing to the spread of vector-borne diseases. Such changes include deforestation, agriculture and animal husbandry, water control projects, urbanization, loss of biodiversity, introduction of alien species, and climate change. The global environment is currently being degraded at an alarming pace, potentially placing human populations at increasing risk for unnecessary and preventable outbreaks of vector-borne diseases. Further research is needed to improve our ability to predict and prevent emergence and reemergence of vector-borne diseases from environmental alterations.
Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements
Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.
Isometric Reflection Vectors and Characterizations of Hilbert Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donghai Ji
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A known characterization of Hilbert spaces via isometric reflection vectors is based on the following implication: if the set of isometric reflection vectors in the unit sphere SX of a Banach space X has nonempty interior in SX, then X is a Hilbert space. Applying a recent result based on well-known theorem of Kronecker from number theory, we improve this by substantial reduction of the set of isometric reflection vectors needed in the hypothesis.
Intraoperative Cardiac Ultrasound Examination Using Vector Flow Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse
2013-01-01
Conventional ultrasound (US) methods for blood velocity estimation only provide onedimensional and angle-dependent velocity estimates; thus, the complexity of cardiac flow has been difficult to measure. To circumvent these limitations, the Transverse Oscillation (TO) vector flow method has been...... thermodilution technique and showed a difference of 16%. Vector flow provides real-time, angle-independent vector velocities of cardiac blood flow. The technique can potentially reveal new information of cardiovascular physiology and give insight into blood flow dynamics....
EVX: vector execution on low power EDGE cores
Duric, Milovan; Palomar Pérez, Óscar; Smith, Aaron; Unsal, Osman Sabri; Cristal Kestelman, Adrián; Valero Cortés, Mateo; Burger, Doug
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a vector execution model that provides the advantages of vector processors on low power, general purpose cores, with limited additional hardware. While accelerating data-level parallel (DLP) workloads, the vector model increases the efficiency and hardware resources utilization. We use a modest dual issue core based on an Explicit Data Graph Execution (EDGE) architecture to implement our approach, called EVX. Unlike most DLP accelerators which utilize additional hard...
Compact stars in vector-tensor-Horndeski theory of gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)
2017-01-15
In this paper, we will analyze a theory of modified gravity, in which the field content of general relativity will be increased to include a vector field. We will use the Horndeski formalism to non-minimally couple this vector field to the metric. As we will be using the Horndeski formalism, this theory will not contain Ostrogradsky ghost degree of freedom. We will analyze compact stars using this vector-tensor-Horndeski theory. (orig.)
Structural Reliability Analysis Using Orthogonalizable Power Polynomial Basis Vector
Li Yejun; Huang Bin
2017-01-01
A new method for structural reliability analysis using orthogonalizable power polynomial basis vector is presented. Firstly, a power polynomial basis vector is adopted to express the initial series solution of structural response, which is determined by a series of deterministic recursive equation based on perturbation technique, and then transferred to be a set of orthogonalizable power polynomial basis vector using the orthogonalization technique. By conducting Garlekin projection, an accel...
Towards a new role for vector systematics in parasite control.
Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Loaiza, Jose R; Conn, Jan E
2011-11-01
Vector systematics research is being transformed by the recent development of theoretical, experimental and analytical methods, as well as conceptual insights into speciation and reconstruction of evolutionary history. We review this progress using examples from the mosquito genus Anopheles. The conclusion is that recent progress, particularly in the development of better tools for understanding evolutionary history, makes systematics much more informative for vector control purposes, and has increasing potential to inform and improve targeted vector control programmes.
Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts.
Shetty, Reshma P; Endy, Drew; Knight, Thomas F
2008-04-14
The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1) use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2) expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3) characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.
Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knight Thomas F
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.
Support vector machines optimization based theory, algorithms, and extensions
Deng, Naiyang; Zhang, Chunhua
2013-01-01
Support Vector Machines: Optimization Based Theory, Algorithms, and Extensions presents an accessible treatment of the two main components of support vector machines (SVMs)-classification problems and regression problems. The book emphasizes the close connection between optimization theory and SVMs since optimization is one of the pillars on which SVMs are built.The authors share insight on many of their research achievements. They give a precise interpretation of statistical leaning theory for C-support vector classification. They also discuss regularized twi
Isomorphism Theorem on Vector Spaces over a Ring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Futa Yuichi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this article, we formalize in the Mizar system [1, 4] some properties of vector spaces over a ring. We formally prove the first isomorphism theorem of vector spaces over a ring. We also formalize the product space of vector spaces. ℤ-modules are useful for lattice problems such as LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász [5] base reduction algorithm and cryptographic systems [6, 2].
Isomonodromic Deformations and Very Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two
Biswas, Indranil; Heu, Viktoria; Hurtubise, Jacques
2017-12-01
For the universal isomonodromic deformation of an irreducible logarithmic rank two connection over a smooth complex projective curve of genus at least two, consider the family of holomorphic vector bundles over curves underlying this universal deformation. In a previous work we proved that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter of this family is stable. Here we prove that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter is in fact very stable, meaning it does not admit any nonzero nilpotent Higgs field.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the composite-vector-boson model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garavaglia, T.
1986-11-15
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is discussed in the Abelian, QED-like, composite-vector-boson model. When the auxiliary vector field has a nonzero vacuum expectation value, a global symmetry, Lorentz invariance, is broken. It is shown that the regularization of the saddle-point conditions for the quantum fluctuation generating functional is consistent only with a spacelike vacuum expectation value for the auxiliary vector field.
Dermacentor reticulatus: a vector on the rise.
Földvári, Gábor; Široký, Pavel; Szekeres, Sándor; Majoros, Gábor; Sprong, Hein
2016-06-01
Dermacentor reticulatus is a hard tick species with extraordinary biological features. It has a high reproduction rate, a rapid developmental cycle, and is also able to overcome years of unfavourable conditions. Dermacentor reticulatus can survive under water for several months and is cold-hardy even compared to other tick species. It has a wide host range: over 60 different wild and domesticated hosts are known for the three active developmental stages. Its high adaptiveness gives an edge to this tick species as shown by new data on the emergence and establishment of D. reticulatus populations throughout Europe. The tick has been the research focus of a growing number of scientists, physicians and veterinarians. Within the Web of Science database, more than a fifth of the over 700 items published on this species between 1897 and 2015 appeared in the last three years (2013-2015). Here we attempt to synthesize current knowledge on the systematics, ecology, geographical distribution and recent spread of the species and to highlight the great spectrum of possible veterinary and public health threats it poses. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is a severe leading canine vector-borne disease in many endemic areas. Although less frequently than Ixodes ricinus, D. reticulatus adults bite humans and transmit several Rickettsia spp., Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus or Tick-borne encephalitis virus. We have not solely collected and reviewed the latest and fundamental scientific papers available in primary databases but also widened our scope to books, theses, conference papers and specialists colleagues' experience where needed. Besides the dominant literature available in English, we also tried to access scientific literature in German, Russian and eastern European languages as well. We hope to inspire future research projects that are necessary to understand the basic life-cycle and ecology of this vector in order to understand and prevent disease threats. We
Prospects for Foamy Viral Vector Anti-HIV Gene Therapy
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Arun K. Nalla
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Stem cell gene therapy approaches for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection have been explored in clinical trials and several anti-HIV genes delivered by retroviral vectors were shown to block HIV replication. However, gammaretroviral and lentiviral based retroviral vectors have limitations for delivery of anti-HIV genes into hematopoietic stem cells (HSC. Foamy virus vectors have several advantages including efficient delivery of transgenes into HSC in large animal models, and a potentially safer integration profile. This review focuses on novel anti-HIV transgenes and the potential of foamy virus vectors for HSC gene therapy of HIV.
Research of DOA Estimation Based on Single MEMS Vector Hydrophone.
Zhang, Wen Dong; Guan, Ling Gang; Zhang, Guo Jun; Xue, Chen Yang; Zhang, Kai Rui; Wang, Jian Ping
2009-01-01
The MEMS vector hydrophone is a novel acoustic sensor with a "four-beam-cilia" structure. Based on the MEMS vector hydrophone with this structure, the paper studies the method of estimated direction of arrival (DOA). According to various research papers, many algorithms can be applied to vector hydrophones. The beam-forming approach and bar graph approach are described in detail. Laboratory tests by means of the a standing-wave tube are performed to validate the theoretical results. Both the theoretical analysis and the results of tests prove that the proposed MEMS vector hydrophone possesses the desired directional function.
Wave-vector and polarization dependence of conical refraction
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Turpin, A; Loiko, Yu V; Kalkandjiev, T K; Tomizawa, H; Mompart, J
2013-01-01
We experimentally address the wave-vector and polarization dependence of the internal conical refraction phenomenon by demonstrating that an input light beam of elliptical transverse profile refracts...
Vector optimization and monotone operators via convex duality recent advances
Grad, Sorin-Mihai
2014-01-01
This book investigates several duality approaches for vector optimization problems, while also comparing them. Special attention is paid to duality for linear vector optimization problems, for which a vector dual that avoids the shortcomings of the classical ones is proposed. Moreover, the book addresses different efficiency concepts for vector optimization problems. Among the problems that appear when the framework is generalized by considering set-valued functions, an increasing interest is generated by those involving monotone operators, especially now that new methods for approaching them by means of convex analysis have been developed. Following this path, the book provides several results on different properties of sums of monotone operators.
Vector optical field generation based on birefringent phase plate.
Wang, Jiazhou; Cao, Axiu; Pang, Hui; Zhang, Man; Wang, Guangyi; Chen, Jian; Shi, Lifang; Deng, Qiling; Hu, Song
2017-05-29
Vector optical field has recently gained interest in a variety of application fields due to its novel characteristics. Conventional approaches of generating vector optical fields have difficulties in forming highly continuous polarization and suffer from the issue of high energy utilization rates. In order to address these issues, in this study a single optical path was proposed to generate vector optical fields where the birefringent phase plate modulated a linear polarized light into a vector optical field, which was then demodulated to a non-uniform linear polarization distribution of the vector optical field by the polarization demodulation module. Both a theoretical model and numerical simulations of the vector optical field generator were developed, illustrating the relationship between the polarization distribution of the target vector optical field and the depth distribution of the birefringent phase plate. Furthermore, the birefringent phase plate with predefined surface distributions was fabricated by grayscale exposure and ion etching. The generated vector optical field was experimentally characterized, capable of producing continuous polarization with high light energy utilization ratio, consistent with simulations. This new approach may have the potential of being widely used in future studies of generating well-controlled vector optical fields.
/D=4, /N=1 orientifolds with vector structure
Klein, M.; Rabadán, R.
2001-02-01
We construct compact type IIB orientifolds with discrete groups Z4, Z6, Z6' , Z8, Z12 and Z12' . These models are N=1 supersymmetric in D=4 and have vector structure. The possibility of having vector structure in ZN orientifolds with even N arises due to an alternative Ω-projection in the twisted sectors. Some of the models without vector structure are known to be inconsistent because of uncancelled tadpoles. We show that vector structure leads to a sign flip in the twisted Klein bottle contribution. As a consequence, all the tadpoles can be cancelled by introducing D9-branes and D5-branes.
TV-L1 optical flow for vector valued images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rakêt, Lars Lau; Roholm, Lars; Nielsen, Mads
2011-01-01
a generalized algorithm that works on vector valued images, by means of a generalized projection step. We give examples of calculations of flows for a number of multi- dimensional constancy assumptions, e.g. gradient and RGB, and show how the developed methodology expands to any kind of vector valued images....... The resulting algorithms have the same degree of parallelism as the case of one-dimensional images, and we have produced an efficient GPU implementation, that can take vector valued images with vectors of any dimension. Finally we demonstrate how these algorithms generally produce better flows than the original...
Kagale, Sateesh; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Wigness, Merek; Bender, Tricia; Yang, Wen; Borhan, M. Hossein; Rozwadowski, Kevin
2012-01-01
Plant viral expression vectors are advantageous for high-throughput functional characterization studies of genes due to their capability for rapid, high-level transient expression of proteins. We have constructed a series of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based vectors that are compatible with Gateway technology to enable rapid assembly of expression constructs and exploitation of ORFeome collections. In addition to the potential of producing recombinant protein at grams per kilogram FW of leaf tissue, these vectors facilitate either N- or C-terminal fusions to a broad series of epitope tag(s) and fluorescent proteins. We demonstrate the utility of these vectors in affinity purification, immunodetection and subcellular localisation studies. We also apply the vectors to characterize protein-protein interactions and demonstrate their utility in screening plant pathogen effectors. Given its broad utility in defining protein properties, this vector series will serve as a useful resource to expedite gene characterization efforts. PMID:23166857
Quantum nonlinear lattices and coherent state vectors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellinas, Demosthenes; Johansson, M.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1999-01-01
for the CSV parameters. The so obtained evolution equations are intimately related to the respective evolution equations for the classical lattices, provided we account for the ordering rules (normal, symmetric) adopted for their quantization. Analysing the geometrical content of the factorization ansatz made......Quantized nonlinear lattice models are considered for two different classes, boson and fermionic ones. The quantum discrete nonlinear Schrodinger model (DNLS) is our main objective, but its so called modified discrete nonlinear (MDNLS) version is also included, together with the fermionic polaron...... (FP) model. Based on the respective dynamical symmetries of the models, a method is put forward which by use of the associated boson and spin coherent state vectors (CSV) and a factorization ansatz for the solution of the Schrodinger equation, leads to quasiclassical Hamiltonian equations of motion...
When do support vector machines work fast?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinwart, I. (Ingo); Scovel, James C.
2004-01-01
The authors establish learning rates to the Bayes risk for support vector machines (SVM's) with hinge loss. Since a theorem of Devroyte states that no learning algorithm can learn with a uniform rate to the Bayes risk for all probability distributions they have to restrict the class of considered distributions: in order to obtain fast rates they assume a noise condition recently proposed by Tsybakov and an approximation condition in terms of the distribution and the reproducing kernel Hilbert space used by the SVM. for Gaussian RBF kernels with varying widths they propose a geometric noise assumption on the distribution which ensures the approximation condition. This geometric assumption is not in terms of smoothness but describes the concentration of the marginal distribution near the decision boundary. In particular they are able to describe nontrivial classes of distributions for which SVM's using a Gaussian kernel can learn with almost linear rate.
Elastic Vector Solitons in Soft Architected Materials
Deng, B.; Raney, J. R.; Tournat, V.; Bertoldi, K.
2017-05-01
We demonstrate experimentally, numerically, and analytically that soft architected materials can support the propagation of elastic vector solitons. More specifically, we focus on structures comprising a network of squares connected by thin and highly deformable ligaments and investigate the propagation of planar nonlinear elastic waves. We find that for sufficiently large amplitudes two components—one translational and one rotational—are coupled together and copropagate without dispersion. Our results not only show that soft architected materials offer a new and rich platform to study the propagation of nonlinear waves, but also open avenues for the design of a new generation of smart systems that take advantage of nonlinearities to control and manipulate the propagation of large amplitude vibrations.
Plasmonic oligomers in cylindrical vector light beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Hentschel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the excitation as well as propagation of magnetic modes in plasmonic nanostructures. Such structures are particularly suited for excitation with cylindrical vector beams. We study magneto-inductive coupling between adjacent nanostructures. We utilize high-resolution lithographic techniques for the preparation of complex nanostructures consisting of gold as well as aluminium. These structures are subsequently characterized by linear optical spectroscopy. The well characterized and designed structures are afterwards studied in depth by exciting them with radial and azimuthally polarized light and simultaneously measuring their plasmonic near-field behavior. Additionally, we attempt to model and simulate our results, a project which has, to the best of our knowledge, not been attempted so far.
Performance of a vector velocity estimator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1998-01-01
It is a well-known limitation of all commercially available scanners that only the velocity component along the propagation direction of the emitted pulse is measured, when evaluating blood velocities with ultrasound. Proposals for solving this limitation using several transducers or speckle...... tracking can be found in the literature, but no method with a satisfactory performance has been found that can be used in a commercial implementation. A method for estimation of the velocity vector is presented. Here an oscillation transverse to the ultrasound beam is generated, so that a transverse motion...... yields a change in the received signals. The method uses two ultrasound beams for sampling the in-phase and quadrature component of the lateral field, and a set of samples (in-phase and quadrature in both time and space) are taken for each pulse-echo line. These four samples are then used...
Quantitative Measurements using Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2016-01-01
L/stroke (true: 1.15 mL/stroke, bias: 12.2%). Measurements down to 160 mm were obtained with a relative standard deviation and bias of less than 10% for the lateral component for stationary, parabolic flow. The method can, thus, find quantitative velocities, angles, and volume flows at sites currently......Duplex Vector Flow Imaging (VFI) imaging is introduced as a replacement for spectral Doppler, as it automatically can yield fully quantitative flow estimates without angle correction. Continuous VFI data over 9 s for 10 pulse cycles were acquired by a 3 MHz convex probe connected to the SARUS...... scanner for pulsating flow mimicking the femoral artery from a CompuFlow 1000 pump (Shelley Medical). Data were used in four estimators based on directional transverse oscillation for velocity, flow angle, volume flow, and turbulence estimation and their respective precisions. An adaptive lag scheme gave...
Model reduction methods for vector autoregressive processes
Brüggemann, Ralf
2004-01-01
1. 1 Objective of the Study Vector autoregressive (VAR) models have become one of the dominant research tools in the analysis of macroeconomic time series during the last two decades. The great success of this modeling class started with Sims' (1980) critique of the traditional simultaneous equation models (SEM). Sims criticized the use of 'too many incredible restrictions' based on 'supposed a priori knowledge' in large scale macroeconometric models which were popular at that time. Therefore, he advo cated largely unrestricted reduced form multivariate time series models, unrestricted VAR models in particular. Ever since his influential paper these models have been employed extensively to characterize the underlying dynamics in systems of time series. In particular, tools to summarize the dynamic interaction between the system variables, such as impulse response analysis or forecast error variance decompo sitions, have been developed over the years. The econometrics of VAR models and related quantities i...
Artificial Neural Network for Displacement Vectors Determination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Bohmann
1997-09-01
Full Text Available An artificial neural network (NN for displacement vectors (DV determination is presented in this paper. DV are computed in areas which are essential for image analysis and computer vision, in areas where are edges, lines, corners etc. These special features are found by edges operators with the following filtration. The filtration is performed by a threshold function. The next step is DV computation by 2D Hamming artificial neural network. A method of DV computation is based on the full search block matching algorithms. The pre-processing (edges finding is the reason why the correlation function is very simple, the process of DV determination needs less computation and the structure of the NN is simpler.
The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Layla Kamareddine
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.
Supernova Recognition using Support Vector Machines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romano, Raquel A.; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Ding, Chris
2006-10-01
We introduce a novel application of Support Vector Machines(SVMs) to the problem of identifying potential supernovae usingphotometric and geometric features computed from astronomical imagery.The challenges of this supervised learning application are significant:1) noisy and corrupt imagery resulting in high levels of featureuncertainty,2) features with heavy-tailed, peaked distributions,3)extremely imbalanced and overlapping positiveand negative data sets, and4) the need to reach high positive classification rates, i.e. to find allpotential supernovae, while reducing the burdensome workload of manuallyexamining false positives. High accuracy is achieved viaasign-preserving, shifted log transform applied to features with peaked,heavy-tailed distributions. The imbalanced data problem is handled byoversampling positive examples,selectively sampling misclassifiednegative examples,and iteratively training multiple SVMs for improvedsupernovarecognition on unseen test data. We present crossvalidationresults and demonstrate the impact on a largescale supernova survey thatcurrently uses the SVM decision value to rank-order 600,000 potentialsupernovae each night.
Labour motivation : an axiomatic vector model
Kotliarov, Ivan
2008-01-01
En el presente artículo se da una lista de axiomas necesarios para la construcción de una teoría matemática de la motivación humana. Se propone un modelo matemático de la motivación en el trabajo. La motivación se representa como un vector resultante de la motivación parcial generada por grupos específicos de necesidades. El modelo de Vroom se incluye en el modelo propuesto como ejemplo de motivación. Se establece una correlación entre los gastos de motivación, el nivel de motivación y el niv...
Locally analytic vectors in representations of locally
Emerton, Matthew J
2017-01-01
The goal of this memoir is to provide the foundations for the locally analytic representation theory that is required in three of the author's other papers on this topic. In the course of writing those papers the author found it useful to adopt a particular point of view on locally analytic representation theory: namely, regarding a locally analytic representation as being the inductive limit of its subspaces of analytic vectors (of various "radii of analyticity"). The author uses the analysis of these subspaces as one of the basic tools in his study of such representations. Thus in this memoir he presents a development of locally analytic representation theory built around this point of view. The author has made a deliberate effort to keep the exposition reasonably self-contained and hopes that this will be of some benefit to the reader.
Scope of Support Vector Machine in Steganography
Tanwar, Rohit; Malhotrab, Sona
2017-08-01
Steganography is a technique used for secure transmission of data. Using audio as a cover file opens path for many extra features. In order to overcome the limitations of conventional LSB technique, various variants were proposed by different authors. In order to achieve robustness, use of various optimization techniques has been tradition. In this paper the focus is put on use of Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Intelligence in steganography. To list detailed scope, merits and de-merits of the two optimization techniques is the main constituent of this paper. In spite of analyzing the two techniques, the motivation and applicability of machine learning algorithm in the problem statement is also discussed. This paper will guide the path in using Support Vector Machine for optimizing the data hiding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeth M Everson
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy using retroviral vectors has immense potential, but vector-mediated genotoxicity limits use in the clinic. Lentiviral vectors are less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors and have become the vector of choice in clinical trials. Foamy retroviral vectors have a promising integration profile and are less prone to read-through transcription than gammaretroviral or lentiviral vectors. Here, we directly compared the safety and efficacy of foamy vectors to lentiviral vectors in human CD34+ repopulating cells in immunodeficient mice. To increase their genotoxic potential, foamy and lentiviral vectors with identical transgene cassettes with a known genotoxic spleen focus forming virus promoter were used. Both vectors resulted in efficient marking in vivo and a total of 825 foamy and 460 lentiviral vector unique integration sites were recovered in repopulating cells 19 weeks after transplantation. Foamy vector proviruses were observed less often near RefSeq gene and proto-oncogene transcription start sites than lentiviral vectors. The foamy vector group were also more polyclonal with fewer dominant clones (two out of six mice than the lentiviral vector group (eight out of eight mice, and only lentiviral vectors had integrants near known proto-oncogenes in dominant clones. Our data further support the relative safety of foamy vectors for HSC gene therapy.
Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and the art of the possible
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Salvatella
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In a recent article in the Reader’s Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly “the art of the possible.”
VectorBase: improvements to a bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vector genomics.
Megy, Karine; Emrich, Scott J; Lawson, Daniel; Campbell, David; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Hughes, Daniel S T; Koscielny, Gautier; Louis, Christos; Maccallum, Robert M; Redmond, Seth N; Sheehan, Andrew; Topalis, Pantelis; Wilson, Derek
2012-01-01
VectorBase (http://www.vectorbase.org) is a NIAID-supported bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. It hosts data for nine genomes: mosquitoes (three Anopheles gambiae genomes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus), tick (Ixodes scapularis), body louse (Pediculus humanus), kissing bug (Rhodnius prolixus) and tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans). Hosted data range from genomic features and expression data to population genetics and ontologies. We describe improvements and integration of new data that expand our taxonomic coverage. Releases are bi-monthly and include the delivery of preliminary data for emerging genomes. Frequent updates of the genome browser provide VectorBase users with increasing options for visualizing their own high-throughput data. One major development is a new population biology resource for storing genomic variations, insecticide resistance data and their associated metadata. It takes advantage of improved ontologies and controlled vocabularies. Combined, these new features ensure timely release of multiple types of data in the public domain while helping overcome the bottlenecks of bioinformatics and annotation by engaging with our user community.
Wu, Y; Ling, F; Hou, J; Guo, S; Wang, J; Gong, Z
2016-07-01
Vector-borne diseases are one of the world's major public health threats and annually responsible for 30-50% of deaths reported to the national notifiable disease system in China. To control vector-borne diseases, a unified, effective and economic surveillance system is urgently needed; all of the current surveillance systems in China waste resources and/or information. Here, we review some current surveillance systems and present a concept for an integrated surveillance system combining existing vector and vector-borne disease monitoring systems. The integrated surveillance system has been tested in pilot programmes in China and led to a 21·6% cost saving in rodent-borne disease surveillance. We share some experiences gained from these programmes.
Counting Subspaces of a Finite Vector Space – 2
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Counting Subspaces of a Finite Vector Space – 2. Amritanshu Prasad. Keywords. Gaussian binomial coefficients, finite vector spaces. Amritanshu Prasad has been at the Institute of. Mathematical Sciences,. Chennai since 2003. His mathematical interests include representation theory, harmonic analysis, and combinatorics ...
Insect vectors of pathogens in selected undisposed refuse dumps in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The occurrence and abundance of these vectors suggests that vector-borne disease transmission is prevalent in Kaduna metropolis. The health implications of the presence of these insects and their role in disease transmission are highlighted. Proper disposal of refuse dumps is recommended to avoid public health ...
Viral Vectors for Use in the Development of Biodefense Vaccines
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lee, John S; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Parker, Michael D
2005-01-01
... agents of bioterrorism or biowarfare. The use of viruses, for example adenovirus, vaccinia virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, as vaccine-vectors has enabled researchers to develop effective means for countering the threat of bioterrorism and biowarfare. An overview of the different viral vectors and the threats they counter will be discussed.
Statistical Survey of Mosquito Vectors in the Vicinity of Waldhuni ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
West African Journal of Applied Ecology ... Mosquitoes are one of the most medically significant vectors, and they transmit parasites and pathogens, which have major impact on the human population. The vector borne ... Similarly, the significant relationship among malarial cases and Culex population was observed.
A mini binary vector series for plant transformation.
Xiang, C; Han, P; Lutziger, I; Wang, K; Oliver, D J
1999-07-01
A streamlined mini binary vector was constructed that is less than 1/2 the size of the pBIN19 backbone (3.5 kb). This was accomplished by eliminating over 5 kb of non-T-DNA sequences from the pBIN19 vector. The vector still retains all the essential elements required for a binary vector. These include a RK2 replication origin, the nptIII gene conferring kanamycin resistance in bacteria, both the right and left T-DNA borders, and a multiple cloning site (MCS) in between the T-DNA borders to facilitate cloning. Due to the reduced size, more unique restriction sites are available in the MCS, thus allowing more versatile cloning. Since the traF region was not included, it is not possible to mobilize this binary vector into Agrobacterium by triparental mating. This problem can be easily resolved by direct transformation. The mini binary vector has been demonstrated to successfully transform Arabidopsis plants. Based on this mini binary vector, a series of binary vectors were constructed for plant transformation.
The Development of the Differential MEMS Vector Hydrophone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guojun Zhang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available To solve the problem that MEMS vector hydrophones are greatly interfered with by the vibration of the platform and flow noise in applications, this paper describes a differential MEMS vector hydrophone that could simultaneously receive acoustic signals and reject acceleration signals. Theoretical and simulation analyses have been carried out. Lastly, a prototype of the differential MEMS vector hydrophone has been created and tested using a standing wave tube and a vibration platform. The results of the test show that this hydrophone has a high sensitivity, Mv = −185 dB (@ 500 Hz, 0 dB reference 1 V/μPa, which is almost the same as the previous MEMS vector hydrophones, and has a low acceleration sensitivity, Mv = −58 dB (0 dB reference 1 V/g, which has decreased by 17 dB compared with the previous MEMS vector hydrophone. The differential MEMS vector hydrophone basically meets the requirements of acoustic vector detection when it is rigidly fixed to a working platform, which lays the foundation for engineering applications of MEMS vector hydrophones.
The Development of the Differential MEMS Vector Hydrophone.
Zhang, Guojun; Liu, Mengran; Shen, Nixin; Wang, Xubo; Zhang, Wendong
2017-06-08
To solve the problem that MEMS vector hydrophones are greatly interfered with by the vibration of the platform and flow noise in applications, this paper describes a differential MEMS vector hydrophone that could simultaneously receive acoustic signals and reject acceleration signals. Theoretical and simulation analyses have been carried out. Lastly, a prototype of the differential MEMS vector hydrophone has been created and tested using a standing wave tube and a vibration platform. The results of the test show that this hydrophone has a high sensitivity, Mv = -185 dB (@ 500 Hz, 0 dB reference 1 V/μPa), which is almost the same as the previous MEMS vector hydrophones, and has a low acceleration sensitivity, Mv = -58 dB (0 dB reference 1 V/g), which has decreased by 17 dB compared with the previous MEMS vector hydrophone. The differential MEMS vector hydrophone basically meets the requirements of acoustic vector detection when it is rigidly fixed to a working platform, which lays the foundation for engineering applications of MEMS vector hydrophones.
Analisis Vector Group Pada Hubungan Paralel Transformator Unit Gardu Bergerak
Husodo, Budi Yanto; Firmansyah, Firmansyah
2016-01-01
Operasi paralel transformator distribusi dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kapasitas daya penyaluran tenaga listrik atau meminimalisir pemadaman pada sistem penyaluran tenaga listrik. Namun pada prakteknya, tidak semua transformator dapat dihubungkan paralel. Ada beberapafaktor yang perlu diperhatikan sebelum melakukan operasi paralel transformator. Selain tegangan dan frekuensi harus sama, vector group transformator juga harus sesuai. Vector group merupakan polaritas pada transfo...
Construction of an expression vector for Lactococcus lactis based on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PRECIOUS
2009-11-02
Nov 2, 2009 ... To construct an expression vector for Lactococcus lactis, the EmPMT fragment which contained the erythromycin resistance gene, P32 promoter, multiple cloning site (MCS) and terminator (T) was subcloned into the small cryptic plasmid pAR141. The resulting vector, designated as pAR1411, was found to ...
Versatile epitope tagging vector for gene expression in mammalian cells.
Hosfield, T; Lu, Q
1998-08-01
We have constructed an epitope-tagging vector, pCMV-Tag1, for gene expression in mammalian cells. This vector, which allows for N-terminal, C-terminal and internal tagging of the gene product of interest with the FLAG and/or c-myc epitopes, enables researchers to rapidly and efficiently characterize gene products in vivo.
Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato
2016-01-01
More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian reg...
A Worksheet to Enhance Students’ Conceptual Understanding in Vector Components
Wutchana, Umporn; Emarat, Narumon
2017-09-01
With and without physical context, we explored 59 undergraduate students’conceptual and procedural understanding of vector components using both open ended problems and multiple choice items designed based on research instruments used in physics education research. The results showed that a number of students produce errors and revealed alternative conceptions especially when asked to draw graphical form of vector components. It indicated that most of them did not develop a strong foundation of understanding in vector components and could not apply those concepts to such problems with physical context. Based on the findings, we designed a worksheet to enhance the students’ conceptual understanding in vector components. The worksheet is composed of three parts which help students to construct their own understanding of definition, graphical form, and magnitude of vector components. To validate the worksheet, focus group discussions of 3 and 10 graduate students (science in-service teachers) had been conducted. The modified worksheet was then distributed to 41 grade 9 students in a science class. The students spent approximately 50 minutes to complete the worksheet. They sketched and measured vectors and its components and compared with the trigonometry ratio to condense the concepts of vector components. After completing the worksheet, their conceptual model had been verified. 83% of them constructed the correct model of vector components.
Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis
Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease, Bluetongue, and likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burden worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the diff...
Lagrangian vector field and Lagrangian formulation of partial differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Chen
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the Lagrangian formulation of a system of second order quasilinear partial differential equations. Specifically we construct a Lagrangian vector field such that the flows of the vector field satisfy the original system of partial differential equations.
Parallel Vector Fields and Einstein Equations of Gravity
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
106. Parallel Vector Fields and. Einstein Equations of Gravity. By Isidore Mahara. National University of Rwanda. Department of Applied Mathematics. Abstract. In this paper, we prove that no nontrivial timelike or spacelike parallel vector field exists in a region where the gravitational field created by macroscopic bodies and.
AAV Vectorization of DSB-mediated Gene Editing Technologies.
Moser, Rachel J; Hirsch, Matthew L
2016-01-01
Recent work both at the bench and the bedside demonstrate zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), CRISPR/Cas9, and other programmable site-specific endonuclease technologies are being successfully utilized within and alongside AAV vectors to induce therapeutically relevant levels of directed gene editing within the human chromosome. Studies from past decades acknowledge that AAV vector genomes are enhanced substrates for homology-directed repair in the presence or absence of targeted DNA damage within the host genome. Additionally, AAV vectors are currently the most efficient format for in vivo gene delivery with no vector related complications in >100 clinical trials for diverse diseases. At the same time, advancements in the design of custom-engineered site-specific endonucleases and the utilization of elucidated endonuclease formats have resulted in efficient and facile genetic engineering for basic science and for clinical therapies. AAV vectors and gene editing technologies are an obvious marriage, using AAV for the delivery of repair substrate and/or a gene encoding a designer endonuclease; however, while efficient delivery and enhanced gene targeting by vector genomes are advantageous, other attributes of AAV vectors are less desirable for gene editing technologies. This review summarizes the various roles that AAV vectors play in gene editing technologies and provides insight into its trending applications for the treatment of genetic diseases.
Ethical dilemmas in malaria vector research in Africa: Making the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Malaria vector research presents several dilemmas relating to the various ways in which humans are used in the malaria vector research enterprise. A review of the past and present practices reveals much about the prevailing attitudes and assumptions with regard to the ethical conduct of research involving humans.
Sylvatic triatominae: a new challenge in vector control transmission.
Guhl, Felipe; Pinto, Nestor; Aguilera, Germán
2009-07-01
Over the last 10 years, Uruguay, Chile and Brazil have been certified as being free from disease transmission by Triatoma infestans, the main domiciliated vector for Chagas disease in the Southern Cone countries. This demonstrates that programmes addressing the vector for the disease's transmission are effective. These programmes have resulted in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of Chagas disease in Latin America. Guatemala was certified a few months ago as being free from disease transmission by Rhodnius prolixus, the main domiciliated vector for Chagas disease in Central American countries. However, the main concern for different countries' current control programmes is the continuity and sustainability of future vector control actions. The prevalence and incidence figures for individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico and Andean and Central American countries highlights the need for broadened strategies in the struggle against the disease and its vectors. A number of triatomine insects are parasite vectors, each with a different life history. Therefore, it is important that new vector control strategies be proposed, keeping in mind that some species are found in peridomiciliary areas and wild ecotopes. The only viable control strategy is to reduce human interactions with vector insects so that the re-infestation and re-colonisation of human habitats will not take place.
Sylvatic triatominae: a new challenge in vector control transmission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe Guhl
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Over the last 10 years, Uruguay, Chile and Brazil have been certified as being free from disease transmission by Triatoma infestans, the main domiciliated vector for Chagas disease in the Southern Cone countries. This demonstrates that programmes addressing the vector for the disease's transmission are effective. These programmes have resulted in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of Chagas disease in Latin America. Guatemala was certified a few months ago as being free from disease transmission by Rhodnius prolixus, the main domiciliated vector for Chagas disease in Central American countries. However, the main concern for different countries' current control programmes is the continuity and sustainability of future vector control actions. The prevalence and incidence figures for individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico and Andean and Central American countries highlights the need for broadened strategies in the struggle against the disease and its vectors. A number of triatomine insects are parasite vectors, each with a different life history. Therefore, it is important that new vector control strategies be proposed, keeping in mind that some species are found in peridomiciliary areas and wild ecotopes. The only viable control strategy is to reduce human interactions with vector insects so that the re-infestation and re-colonisation of human habitats will not take place.
Vector bilinear autoregressive time series model and its superiority ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this research, a vector bilinear autoregressive time series model was proposed and used to model three revenue series (X1, X2, X3) . The “orders” of the three series were identified on the basis of the distribution of autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions and were used to construct the vector bilinear models.
Figaro: a novel statistical method for vector sequence removal
White, James Robert; Roberts, Michael; Yorke, James A.; Pop, Mihai
2009-01-01
Motivation Sequences produced by automated Sanger sequencing machines frequently contain fragments of the cloning vector on their ends. Software tools currently available for identifying and removing the vector sequence require knowledge of the vector sequence, specific splice sites and any adapter sequences used in the experiment—information often omitted from public databases. Furthermore, the clipping coordinates themselves are missing or incorrectly reported. As an example, within the ~1.24 billion shotgun sequences deposited in the NCBI Trace Archive, as many as ~735 million (~60%) lack vector clipping information. Correct clipping information is essential to scientists attempting to validate, improve and even finish the increasingly large number of genomes released at a ‘draft’ quality level. Results We present here Figaro, a novel software tool for identifying and removing the vector from raw sequence data without prior knowledge of the vector sequence. The vector sequence is automatically inferred by analyzing the frequency of occurrence of short oligo-nucleotides using Poisson statistics. We show that Figaro achieves 99.98% sensitivity when tested on ~1.5 million shotgun reads from Drosophila pseudoobscura. We further explore the impact of accurate vector trimming on the quality of whole-genome assemblies by re-assembling two bacterial genomes from shotgun sequences deposited in the Trace Archive. Designed as a module in large computational pipelines, Figaro is fast, lightweight and flexible. Availability Figaro is released under an open-source license through the AMOS package (http://amos.sourceforge.net/Figaro). PMID:18202027
Parallel Vector Fields and Einstein Equations of Gravity | Mahara ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we prove that no nontrivial timelike or spacelike parallel vector field exists in a region where the gravitational field created by macroscopic bodies and governed by Einstein's equations does not vanish. In other words, we prove that the existence of such vector fields in a region implies the vanishing of the ...
Digital practical tracking: Algorithms with vector settling time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stojčić Mihajlo J.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper nonlinear stationary digital system with separated control is treated. The new definitions of practical tracking with vector settling time are presented. Furthermore, new criteria and control algorithms which ensure digital practical tracking with vector settling time are given and proven. The results are simulated on an example.
An Ensemble of Deep Support Vector Machines for Image Categorization
Abdullah, Azizi; Veltkamp, Remco C.; Wiering, Marco
2009-01-01
This paper presents the deep support vector machine (D-SVM) inspired by the increasing popularity of deep belief networks for image recognition. Our deep SVM trains an SVM in the standard way and then uses the kernel activations of support vectors as inputs for training another SVM at the next
An orientation calibration procedure for two acoustic vector sensor configurations
Basten, T.G.H.; Bree, H.E. de; Yntema, D.R.
2009-01-01
Acoustic vector sensors can be used for far field sound source localization, offering an alternative to far field beamforming. These sensors are able to measure the 3D acoustic particle velocity vector and the scalar value sound pressure. Two sensor configurations exist. The USP probe is based upon
Statistical Theory of the Vector Random Decrement Technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Ibrahim, S. R.
1999-01-01
The Vector Random Decrement technique has previously been introduced as an effcient method to transform ambient responses of linear structures into Vector Random Decrement functions which are equivalent to free decays of the current structure. The modal parameters can be extracted from the free...
Malaria vectors resistance to commonly used insecticides in the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was carried out in 2015 to assess the level of resistance of sibling species of Anopheles gambiae complex the principal malaria vector from Bichi in Kano state to three classes of insecticides; (DDT, Permethrin and Bendiocarb) approved by World Health Organization (WHO) for vector control with the aim of ...
Recombinant adenovirus vectors with knobless fibers for targeted gene transfer
van Beusechem, VW; van Rijswijk, ALCT; van Es, HHG; Haisma, HJ; Pinedo, HM; Gerritsen, WR
2000-01-01
Adenoviral vector systems for gene therapy can be much improved by targeting vectors to specific cell types. This requires both the complete ablation of native adenovirus tropism and the introduction of a novel binding affinity in the viral capsid. We reasoned that these requirements could be
A Search for Vector Diquarks at the CERN LHC
Arik, E; Cetin, S A; Sultansoy, S F
2002-01-01
Resonant production of the first generation vector diquarks at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been investigated. It is shown that the LHC will be able to discover vector diquarks with masses up to 9 (8) TeV if coupling alpha_(D)~alpha_(s) (alpha_(em)).
Population Health Vulnerabilities to Vector-borne Diseases ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
People in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa suffer from poverty, food insecurity, a fragile economy, and social vulnerability. With climate change, they may also face increasing threats from vector-borne diseases. Vector-borne diseases, such as West Nile Virus and malaria, are spread through the bites of small organisms ...
Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species, their feeding and resting behaviour as well as breeding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine malaria vector species abundance and identify their larval habitats in Huye district, southern Rwanda. Methods: Adult mosquitoes were ...
Monitoring of Putative Vectors of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8, Germany
Hoffmann, Bernd; Bauer, Burkhard; Bauer, Christian; Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Beer, Martin; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Geier, Martin; Gethmann, Jörn M.; Kiel, Ellen; Liebisch, Gabriele; Liebisch, Arndt; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schaub, Günter A.; Werner, Doreen
2009-01-01
To identify the vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in Germany, we monitored Culicoides spp. biting midges during April 2007–May 2008. Molecular characterization of batches of midges that tested positive for BTV suggests C. obsoletus sensu stricto as a relevant vector of bluetongue disease in central Europe. PMID:19788820
Viral Vectors for Use in the Development of Biodefense Vaccines
2005-06-17
development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1308 6. Anti-vector immune responses associated with virus-vectored vaccines...to influence the outcome of a local election. Another radical group in Japan, the Aum Shinrikyo, allegedly conducted research on BoNT, B. anthracis...aflotoxin and actively researched Clostridium perfringins, rotavirus , echovi- rus 71, and camelpox virus for use in biological warfare [2,3]. Their
Compositions of nuclear maps with vector measures and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The properties of the compositions of nuclear maps, between two locally convex spaces, with vector measures and measurable functions are investigated. The composition with a vector measure has improved variational properties and a precompact range. The measurability and integrability properties of the composition of ...
mothers' knowledge on malaria and vector management strategies
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2006-09-01
Sep 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Maternal knowledge on malaria and vector control measures are important because they enable mothers make an informed choice on the method of malaria control to use for their children under five years. Objective: To determine the mothers' knowledge on malaria and vector ...
Arterial secondary blood flow patterns visualized with vector flow ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Jens Munk
2011-01-01
and velocity magnitudes the blood flow patterns were visualised with streamlines in Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA). The rotational flow was quantified by the angular frequency for each cardiac cycle, and the mean rotational frequencies and standard deviations were calculated for the abdominal aorta f-1......This study presents the first quantification and visualisation of secondary flow patterns with vector flow ultrasound. The first commercial implementation of the vector flow method Transverse Oscillation was used to obtain in-vivo, 2D vector fields in real-time. The hypothesis of this study...... was that the rotational direction is constant within each artery. Three data sets of 10 seconds were obtained from three main arteries in healthy volunteers. For each data set the rotational flow patterns were identified during the diastole. Each data set contains a 2D vector field over time and with the vector angles...
Data-driven identification of potential Zika virus vectors
Evans, Michelle V; Dallas, Tad A; Han, Barbara A; Murdock, Courtney C; Drake, John M
2017-01-01
Zika is an emerging virus whose rapid spread is of great public health concern. Knowledge about transmission remains incomplete, especially concerning potential transmission in geographic areas in which it has not yet been introduced. To identify unknown vectors of Zika, we developed a data-driven model linking vector species and the Zika virus via vector-virus trait combinations that confer a propensity toward associations in an ecological network connecting flaviviruses and their mosquito vectors. Our model predicts that thirty-five species may be able to transmit the virus, seven of which are found in the continental United States, including Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. We suggest that empirical studies prioritize these species to confirm predictions of vector competence, enabling the correct identification of populations at risk for transmission within the United States. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22053.001 PMID:28244371
Classification of complex polynomial vector fields in one complex variable
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branner, Bodil; Dias, Kealey
2010-01-01
This paper classifies the global structure of monic and centred one-variable complex polynomial vector fields. The classification is achieved by means of combinatorial and analytic data. More specifically, given a polynomial vector field, we construct a combinatorial invariant, describing...... the topology, and a set of analytic invariants, describing the geometry. Conversely, given admissible combinatorial and analytic data sets, we show using surgery the existence of a unique monic and centred polynomial vector field realizing the given invariants. This is the content of the Structure Theorem......, the main result of the paper. This result is an extension and refinement of Douady et al. (Champs de vecteurs polynomiaux sur C. Unpublished manuscript) classification of the structurally stable polynomial vector fields. We further review some general concepts for completeness and show that vector fields...
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in cancer gene therapy.
Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Schaffer, David V
2016-10-28
Gene delivery vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been utilized in a large number of gene therapy clinical trials, which have demonstrated their strong safety profile and increasingly their therapeutic efficacy for treating monogenic diseases. For cancer applications, AAV vectors have been harnessed for delivery of an extensive repertoire of transgenes to preclinical models and, more recently, clinical trials involving certain cancers. This review describes the applications of AAV vectors to cancer models and presents developments in vector engineering and payload design aimed at tailoring AAV vectors for transduction and treatment of cancer cells. We also discuss the current status of AAV clinical development in oncology and future directions for AAV in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On Discrete Killing Vector Fields and Patterns on Surfaces
Ben-Chen, Mirela
2010-09-21
Symmetry is one of the most important properties of a shape, unifying form and function. It encodes semantic information on one hand, and affects the shape\\'s aesthetic value on the other. Symmetry comes in many flavors, amongst the most interesting being intrinsic symmetry, which is defined only in terms of the intrinsic geometry of the shape. Continuous intrinsic symmetries can be represented using infinitesimal rigid transformations, which are given as tangent vector fields on the surface - known as Killing Vector Fields. As exact symmetries are quite rare, especially when considering noisy sampled surfaces, we propose a method for relaxing the exact symmetry constraint to allow for approximate symmetries and approximate Killing Vector Fields, and show how to discretize these concepts for generating such vector fields on a triangulated mesh. We discuss the properties of approximate Killing Vector Fields, and propose an application to utilize them for texture and geometry synthesis. Journal compilation © 2010 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications
Roth, Mary Ellen
At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type
2010-01-01
Background This study compared the transduction efficiencies of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, which was pseudotyped with an AAV1 capsid and encoded the green fluorescent protein (GFP), with a lentiviral (LV) vector, which was pseudotyped with a VSV-G envelop and encoded the discosoma red fluorescent protein (dsRed), to investigate which viral vector transduced the lateral hypothalamus or the amygdala more efficiently. The LV-dsRed and AAV1-GFP vector were mixed and injected into the lateral hypothalamus or into the amygdala of adult rats. The titers that were injected were 1 × 108 or 1 × 109 genomic copies of AAV1-GFP and 1 × 105 transducing units of LV-dsRed. Results Immunostaining for GFP and dsRed showed that AAV1-GFP transduced significantly more cells than LV-dsRed in both the lateral hypothalamus and the amygdala. In addition, the number of LV particles that were injected can not easily be increased, while the number of AAV1 particles can be increased easily with a factor 100 to 1000. Both viral vectors appear to predominantly transduce neurons. Conclusions This study showed that AAV1 vectors are better tools to overexpress or knockdown genes in the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala of adult rats, since more cells can be transduced with AAV1 than with LV vectors and the titer of AAV1 vectors can easily be increased to transduce the area of interest. PMID:20626877
de Backer, Marijke W A; Fitzsimons, Carlos P; Brans, Maike A D; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Garner, Keith M; Vreugdenhil, Erno; Adan, Roger A H
2010-07-13
This study compared the transduction efficiencies of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, which was pseudotyped with an AAV1 capsid and encoded the green fluorescent protein (GFP), with a lentiviral (LV) vector, which was pseudotyped with a VSV-G envelop and encoded the discosoma red fluorescent protein (dsRed), to investigate which viral vector transduced the lateral hypothalamus or the amygdala more efficiently. The LV-dsRed and AAV1-GFP vector were mixed and injected into the lateral hypothalamus or into the amygdala of adult rats. The titers that were injected were 1 x 108 or 1 x 109 genomic copies of AAV1-GFP and 1 x 105 transducing units of LV-dsRed. Immunostaining for GFP and dsRed showed that AAV1-GFP transduced significantly more cells than LV-dsRed in both the lateral hypothalamus and the amygdala. In addition, the number of LV particles that were injected can not easily be increased, while the number of AAV1 particles can be increased easily with a factor 100 to 1000. Both viral vectors appear to predominantly transduce neurons. This study showed that AAV1 vectors are better tools to overexpress or knockdown genes in the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala of adult rats, since more cells can be transduced with AAV1 than with LV vectors and the titer of AAV1 vectors can easily be increased to transduce the area of interest.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vreugdenhil Erno
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the transduction efficiencies of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector, which was pseudotyped with an AAV1 capsid and encoded the green fluorescent protein (GFP, with a lentiviral (LV vector, which was pseudotyped with a VSV-G envelop and encoded the discosoma red fluorescent protein (dsRed, to investigate which viral vector transduced the lateral hypothalamus or the amygdala more efficiently. The LV-dsRed and AAV1-GFP vector were mixed and injected into the lateral hypothalamus or into the amygdala of adult rats. The titers that were injected were 1 × 108 or 1 × 109 genomic copies of AAV1-GFP and 1 × 105 transducing units of LV-dsRed. Results Immunostaining for GFP and dsRed showed that AAV1-GFP transduced significantly more cells than LV-dsRed in both the lateral hypothalamus and the amygdala. In addition, the number of LV particles that were injected can not easily be increased, while the number of AAV1 particles can be increased easily with a factor 100 to 1000. Both viral vectors appear to predominantly transduce neurons. Conclusions This study showed that AAV1 vectors are better tools to overexpress or knockdown genes in the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala of adult rats, since more cells can be transduced with AAV1 than with LV vectors and the titer of AAV1 vectors can easily be increased to transduce the area of interest.
Precessing Asteroids ftrom Radius Vector Models?
Drummond, Jack D.
2014-11-01
Examining a sample of asteroids (the first 99) for which radius vector models have been constructed from mostly lightcurves, located on a web site where such models are listed (http://astro.troja.mff.cuni.cz/projects/damit ; see Durech et al. (2010), DAMIT: a database of asteroid models, A&A, 513, A46), we fit their surfaces as triaxial ellipsoids and provide their three dimensions. In the process we also derive an Euler angular offset θ between each model's spin axis and its axis of maximum moment of inertia assuming a uniform distribution of mass. Most θ's conform to a chi-squared distribution having a maximum at 3° and a mean at 5°, and with the square root of the variance being 3°. However, seven models produce θ>20°, which we interpret as indicating possibly strong precessors, tumblers, or due to incorrect models: asteroids (68), (89), (125), (162), (167), (222), and (230). Nine others produce an excess over the distribution at 12°probability of an impact sufficient to change the angular momentum of the asteroid implied by θ during the damping time to return to rotation about the small axis is vanishingly small (less than 1 in 10000) for the 8 out of 16 asteroids with absolute dimensions. The most likely resolution, then, is that the rotational pole for the 16 asteroid models with high θ needs to be adjusted by θ degrees.
Integrated vector management: The Zambian experience
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Katebe Cecilia
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zambian Malaria Control Programme with the Roll Back Malaria (RBM partners have developed the current National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP 2006–2011 which focuses on prevention based on the Integrated Vector Management (IVM strategy. The introduction and implementation of an IVM strategy was planned in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO steps towards IVM implementation namely Introduction Phase, Consolidation Phase and Expansion Phase. Achievements IVM has created commitment for Legal and Regulatory policy review, monitoring, Research and a strong stewardship by the chemical suppliers. It has also leveraged additional resources, improved inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building and enhanced community participation which facilitated a steady scaling up in coverage and utilisation of key preventive interventions. Thus, markedly reducing malaria incidence and case fatalities in the country. Conclusion Zambia has successfully introduced, consolidated and expanded IVM activities. Resulting in increased coverage and utilization of interventions and markedly reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality while ensuring a better protection of the environment.
Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.
Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi
2017-01-01
Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.
Measurement Scale of the SOLIS Vector Spectromagnetograph
Jones, H. P.; Harvey, J. W.; Henney, C. J.; Keller, C. U.; Malanushenko, O. M.
2004-05-01
Longitudinal magnetograms obtained with the SOLIS Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) during a cross-calibration period are compared with similar data from the NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph (SPM) at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope as well as with SOHO/MDI and GONG magnetograms. The VSM began observations at the University of Arizona agricultural test site and collaborative observations were obtained with both the VSM and SPM from 2003 Aug 05 through 2003 Sep 21 when the SPM was officially retired. The VSM replaces the SPM and continues the 30-year NSO/Kitt Peak synoptic magnetogram record. Magnetograms are compared by equating histograms and, for selected examples, by pixel-by-pixel comparison of coregistered images. The VSM was not corrected for polarization crosstalk and was operated without fast guiding. Solar activity was at best moderate during this period. Over the range of observed fields, the VSM magnetograms show greatly improved sensitivity but are otherwise virtually identical with "raw" SPM magnetograms. GONG magnetograms are also closely comparable with the SPM while MDI flux values tend to be stronger by a factor of 1.2 - 1.4. Dependence of the results on seeing will be discussed. Partial funding for this work was provided through Solar and Heliospheric Research Supporting Research and Technology grants from NASA's Office of Space Sciences.
Greensilica® vectors for smart textiles.
Matos, Joana C; Avelar, Inês; Martins, M Bárbara F; Gonçalves, M Clara
2017-01-20
The present work aims developing a versatile Greensilica® vector/carrier, able to bind to a wide range of textile matrices of carbohydrate polymers and susceptible of being loaded with chemicals/drugs/therapeutic molecules, to create a green tailor-made (multi)functional high-tech textile. A green, eco-friendly, ammonia-free, easily scalable, time-saving sol-gel process was established for the production of those silica-based colloidal particles (SiO2, amine-SiO2, diamine-SiO2, and epoxy-SiO2). Two different textile matrices (cotton, polyester) were functionalized, through the impregnation of Greensilica® particles. The impregnation was performed with and without cure. Diamine-SiO2 colloidal particles exhibited the higher bonding efficiency in cured textile matrices (both cotton and polyester), while with no cure the best adherence to cotton and polyester textile matrices was achieved with diamine-SiO2 and amine-SiO2, respectively. Use once and throw away and continued use applications were envisaged and screened through washing tests. The efficiency of the textiles impregnation was confirmed by SEM, and quantified by ICP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vector-Valued Jack Polynomials from Scratch
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Jean-Gabriel Luque
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Vector-valued Jack polynomials associated to the symmetric group S_N are polynomials with multiplicities in an irreducible module of S_N and which are simultaneous eigenfunctions of the Cherednik-Dunkl operators with some additional properties concerning the leading monomial. These polynomials were introduced by Griffeth in the general setting of the complex reflections groups G(r,p,N and studied by one of the authors (C. Dunkl in the specialization r=p=1 (i.e. for the symmetric group. By adapting a construction due to Lascoux, we describe an algorithm allowing us to compute explicitly the Jack polynomials following a Yang-Baxter graph. We recover some properties already studied by C. Dunkl and restate them in terms of graphs together with additional new results. In particular, we investigate normalization, symmetrization and antisymmetrization, polynomials with minimal degree, restriction etc. We give also a shifted version of the construction and we discuss vanishing properties of the associated polynomials.
Support vector machine with Dirichlet feature mapping.
Nedaie, Ali; Najafi, Amir Abbas
2017-11-16
The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a supervised learning algorithm to analyze data and recognize patterns. The standard SVM suffers from some limitations in nonlinear classification problems. To tackle these limitations, the nonlinear form of the SVM poses a modified machine based on the kernel functions or other nonlinear feature mappings obviating the mentioned imperfection. However, choosing an efficient kernel or feature mapping function is strongly dependent on data structure. Thus, a flexible feature mapping can be confidently applied in different types of data structures without challenging a kernel selection and its tuning. This paper introduces a new flexible feature mapping approach based on the Dirichlet distribution in order to develop an efficient SVM for nonlinear data structures. To determine the parameters of the Dirichlet mapping, a tuning technique is employed based on the maximum likelihood estimation and Newton's optimization method. The numerical results illustrate the superiority of the proposed machine in terms of the accuracy and relative error rate measures in comparison to the traditional ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Computerized Interactive Gaming via Supporting Vector Machines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Jiang
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Computerized interactive gaming requires automatic processing of large volume of random data produced by players on spot, such as shooting, football kicking, and boxing. This paper describes a supporting vector machine-based artificial intelligence algorithm as one of the possible solutions to the problem of random data processing and the provision of interactive indication for further actions. In comparison with existing techniques, such as rule-based and neural networks, and so forth, our SVM-based interactive gaming algorithm has the features of (i high-speed processing, providing instant response to the players, (ii winner selection and control by one parameter, which can be predesigned and adjusted according to the needs of interaction and game design or specific level of difficulties, and (iii detection of interaction points is adaptive to the input changes, and no labelled training data is required. Experiments on numerical simulation support that the proposed algorithm is robust to random noise, accurate in picking up winning data, and convenient for all interactive gaming designs.
Highly Efficient Vector-Inversion Pulse Generators
Rose, Franklin
2004-01-01
Improved transmission-line pulse generators of the vector-inversion type are being developed as lightweight sources of pulsed high voltage for diverse applications, including spacecraft thrusters, portable x-ray imaging systems, impulse radar systems, and corona-discharge systems for sterilizing gases. In this development, more than the customary attention is paid to principles of operation and details of construction so as to the maximize the efficiency of the pulse-generation process while minimizing the sizes of components. An important element of this approach is segmenting a pulse generator in such a manner that the electric field in each segment is always below the threshold for electrical breakdown. One design of particular interest, a complete description of which was not available at the time of writing this article, involves two parallel-plate transmission lines that are wound on a mandrel, share a common conductor, and are switched in such a manner that the pulse generator is divided into a "fast" and a "slow" section. A major innovation in this design is the addition of ferrite to the "slow" section to reduce the size of the mandrel needed for a given efficiency.
Scott, Thomas W; Morrison, Amy C
2010-01-01
Accounting for variation in mosquito vector populations will improve dengue surveillance and prevention. Because Aedes aegypti, the principle dengue virus (DENV) vector, transmit the virus with remarkable efficiency, entomological thresholds are especially low. Assessing risk of human infection based on immature mosquito indices has proven difficult. Greater emphasis should be placed on relative abundance of adult vectors in relation to human serotype-specific herd immunity, introduction of unique viruses, mosquito-human contact and weather. The most appropriate spatial scale for assessing entomological risk is the individual household. The scale for measuring DENV transmission risk has yet to be determined but is clearly larger than the household and likely to exceed several city blocks. Because households are expected to be a primary site for human DENV infection, intradomicile vector control strategies should be a priority, especially when the force of transmission is high. The most effective intervention strategy will combine vector control with vaccine delivery for rapid and sustained disease prevention.
Current vector control challenges in the fight against malaria.
Benelli, Giovanni; Beier, John C
2017-10-01
The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control. The majority of National Malaria Control Programs in Africa still rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These methods reduce malaria incidence but generally have little impact on malaria prevalence. In addition to outdoor transmission, growing levels of insecticide resistance in targeted vectors threaten the efficacy of LLINs and IRS. Larvicidal treatments can be useful, but are not recommended for rural areas. The research needed to improve the quality and delivery of mosquito vector control should focus on (i) optimization of processes and methods for vector control delivery; (ii) monitoring of vector populations and biting activity with reliable techniques; (iii) the development of effective and eco-friendly tools to reduce the burden or locally eliminate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases; (iv) the careful evaluation of field suitability and efficacy of new mosquito control tools to prove their epidemiological impact; (v) the continuous monitoring of environmental changes which potentially affect malaria vector populations; (vi) the cooperation among different disciplines, with main emphasis on parasitology, tropical medicine, ecology, entomology, and ecotoxicology. A better understanding of behavioral ecology of malaria vectors is required. Key ecological obstacles that limit the effectiveness of vector control include the variation in mosquito behavior, development of insecticide resistance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodriguez, Pedro; Busquets-Monge, Sergio; Blaabjerg, Frede
2011-01-01
This work presents the development of the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) of a new multi-level converter topology. First, the proposed converter and its natural space vector diagram are presented. Secondly, a modified space vector diagram based on the virtual-vectors technique is shown...
Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.
Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar
2014-08-22
Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.
Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y
2012-12-01
Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance.
An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric J. Kremer
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2 biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1-deleted to helper-dependent (HD CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors.
Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurens Bollen
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person’s understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.
Hybrid viral vectors for vaccine and antibody production in plants.
Yusibov, Vidadi; Streatfield, Stephen J; Kushnir, Natasha; Roy, Gourgopal; Padmanaban, Annamalai
2013-01-01
Plants have a demonstrated potential for large-scale, rapid production of recombinant proteins for diverse product applications, including subunit vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. In this field, the accent has recently shifted from the engineering of "edible" vaccines based on stable expression of target protein in transgenic or transplastomic plants to the development of purified formulated vaccines that are delivered via injection. The injectable vaccines are commonly produced using transient expression of target gene delivered into genetically unmodified plant host via viral or bacterial vectors. Most viral vectors are based on plant RNA viruses, where nonessential sequences are replaced with the gene of interest. Utilization of viral hybrids that consist of genes and regulatory elements of different virus species, or transcomplementation systems (vector/transgene) had a substantial impact on the level of target protein expression. Development and introduction of agroviral hybrid vectors that combine genetic elements of bacterial binary plasmids and plant viral vectors, and agroinfiltration as a tool of the vector delivery have resulted in significant progress in large-scale production of recombinant vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in plants. This article presents an overview of plant hybrid viral vector expression systems developed so far.
Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; Kelly, Mossy; De Cock, Mieke
2017-12-01
The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person's understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.
Merging vector features extracted from imagery with GIS data using vector linking
Lewis, Robine
1996-12-01
Development of vector feature extraction techniques combined with large amounts of digital map data can create a rich database for intelligence activities. Our ability to use this data depends on understanding the relationships between different features and different representations of the same feature. Linking is the process of determining that two features in different layers represent the same object. Links between features in two or more layers can be used for: co-registering vector data from multiple sources, automatic revisions of linear data, feature attribute inheritance, or network transversal problems. One sample application uses linking for generating a database with features extracted from stereo imagery and attributes from existing DMA data sources. Time and personnel are limited resources. Therefore, the linking process needs to be automated. Two data sets are used -- pre-existing road data at 1:250 K scale (Set A) and stereo imagery used for extracting 1:50 K roads (Set B). Set A is richly attributed. We want the spatial accuracy of the roads from Set B and the attributes of the roads from Set A. Linking can match the two sets of roads. A new combined data set is created in several stages. Roads where a one-to-one linkage exists between A and B use the spatial data from Set B and the attributes from Set A. Roads that are unique in either set are added. Attributes are retained for the roads from Set A. This paper discusses a new technique for automatic feature linking developed at GDE Systems Inc. and demonstrated in a prototype. The prototype uses the characteristics of a linear vector feature to identify the same features from different sources and from different scales.
Rates, polarizations, and asymmetries in charmless vector-vector B meson decays.
Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel De Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H
2003-10-24
With a sample of approximately 89 x 10(6) B(-)B pairs collected with the BABAR detector, we perform a search for B meson decays into pairs of charmless vector mesons (phi, rho, and K*). We measure the branching fractions, determine the degree of longitudinal polarization, and search for CP violation asymmetries in the processes B+-->phiK(*+), B0-->phiK(*0), B+-->rho(0)K(*+), and B+-->rho(0)rho(+). We also set an upper limit on the branching fraction for the decay B0-->rho(0)rho(0).
Geographic range of vector-borne infections and their vectors: the role of African wildlife.
van Vuuren, M; Penzhorn, B L
2015-04-01
The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention. There is no evidence for persistent vector-borne viral infections in African wildlife. For some viral infections, wildlife may act as a reservoir through the inter-epidemic circulation of viruses with mild or subclinical manifestations. Wildlife may also act as introductory or transporting hosts when moved to new regions, e.g. for lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. Wildlife may also act as amplifying hosts when exposed to viruses in the early part of the warm season when vectors are active, with spillover to domestic animals later in the season, e.g. with bluetongue and African horse sickness. Some tick species found on domestic animals are more abundant on wildlife hosts; some depend on wildlife hosts to complete their life cycle. Since the endemic stability of a disease depends on a sufficiently large tick population to ensure that domestic animals become infected at an early age, the presence of wildlife hosts that augment tick numbers may be beneficial. Many wild ungulate species are reservoirs of Anaplasma spp., while the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) has not been elucidated. Wild ungulates are not usually reservoirs of piroplasms that affect livestock; however, there are two exceptions: zebra, which are reservoirs of Babesia caballi and Theileria
The control of vector-borne disease epidemics.
Hosack, Geoffrey R; Rossignol, Philippe A; van den Driessche, P
2008-11-07
The theoretical underpinning of our struggle with vector-borne disease, and still our strongest tool, remains the basic reproduction number, R(0), the measure of long term endemicity. Despite its widespread application, R(0) does not address the dynamics of epidemics in a model that has an endemic equilibrium. We use the concept of reactivity to derive a threshold index for epidemicity, E(0), which gives the maximum number of new infections produced by an infective individual at a disease free equilibrium. This index describes the transitory behavior of disease following a temporary perturbation in prevalence. We demonstrate that if the threshold for epidemicity is surpassed, then an epidemic peak can occur, that is, prevalence can increase further, even when the disease is not endemic and so dies out. The relative influence of parameters on E(0) and R(0) may differ and lead to different strategies for control. We apply this new threshold index for epidemicity to models of vector-borne disease because these models have a long history of mathematical analysis and application. We find that both the transmission efficiency from hosts to vectors and the vector-host ratio may have a stronger effect on epidemicity than endemicity. The duration of the extrinsic incubation period required by the pathogen to transform an infected vector to an infectious vector, however, may have a stronger effect on endemicity than epidemicity. We use the index E(0) to examine how vector behavior affects epidemicity. We find that parasite modified behavior, feeding bias by vectors for infected hosts, and heterogeneous host attractiveness contribute significantly to transitory epidemics. We anticipate that the epidemicity index will lead to a reevaluation of control strategies for vector-borne disease and be applicable to other disease transmission models.
Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields
Chen, Guoning
2012-10-01
Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.
The Role of the Harmonic Vector Average in Motion Integration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alan eJohnston
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition to the geometrically correct global velocity as indicated by the intersection of constraints (IOC solution. Here a new combination rule, the harmonic vector average (HVA, is introduced, as well as a new algorithm for computing the IOC solution. The vector sum can be discounted as an integration strategy as it increases with the number of elements. The vector average over local vectors that vary in direction always provides an underestimate of the true global speed. The harmonic vector average however provides the correct global speed and direction for an unbiased sample of local velocities with respect to the global motion direction, as is the case for a simple closed contour. The HVA over biased samples provides an aggregate velocity estimate that can still be combined through an IOC computation to give an accurate estimate of the global velocity, which is not true of the vector average. Psychophysical results for type II Gabor arrays show perceived direction and speed falls close to the intersection of constraints direction for Gabor arrays having a wide range of orientations but the IOC prediction fails as the mean orientation shifts away from the global motion direction and the orientation range narrows. In this case perceived velocity generally defaults to the harmonic vector average.
Recombinant alphaviruses as vectors for anti-tumour and anti-microbial immunotherapy
Riezebos-Brilman, A; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; Huckriede, A; Wischut, J; Daemen, T
Background: Vectors derived from alphaviruses are gaining interest for their high transfection potency and strong immunogenicity. Objectives: After a brief introduction on alphaviruses and their vectors, an overview is given on current preclinical immunotherapy studies using vector systems based on
Ultrafast Optics: Vector Cavity Fiber Lasers - Physics and Technology
2016-06-14
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0065 Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology Dingyuan Tang NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 28 Mar 2013 to 27 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers...Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vector Cavity Fiber Laser 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF
Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology
2016-06-14
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0065 Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology Dingyuan Tang NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 28 Mar 2013 to 27 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers...Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vector Cavity Fiber Laser 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF
Ultrafast Optics: Vector Cavity Laser - Physics and Technology
2016-06-14
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0065 Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology Dingyuan Tang NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 28 Mar 2013 to 27 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers...Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vector Cavity Fiber Laser 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF
The entire regularization path for the support vector domain description
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus
2006-01-01
-class support vector machine classifier. Recently, it was shown that the regularization path of the support vector machine is piecewise linear, and that the entire path can be computed efficiently. This pa- per shows that this property carries over to the support vector domain description. Using our results...... the solution to the one-class classification can be solved for any amount of regularization with roughly the same computational complexity required to solve for a particularly value of the regularization parameter. The possibility of evaluating the results for any amount of regularization not only offers more...
A new Fenchel dual problem in vector optimization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
solutions appropriate for vector optimization. All the vectors considered are column vectors. For x = (x1,...,xn)T and y = (y1,...,yn)T in Rn by xT y = ∑n i=1 xiyi we denote the usual inner product. Hav- ing a function f : Rn → ¯R = R ∪ {±∞} its effective domain is denoted by dom(f ) = {x ∈ Rn: f (x) < +∞}. The function f is said to ...
Music Signal Processing Using Vector Product Neural Networks
Fan, Z. C.; Chan, T. S.; Yang, Y. H.; Jang, J. S. R.
2017-05-01
We propose a novel neural network model for music signal processing using vector product neurons and dimensionality transformations. Here, the inputs are first mapped from real values into three-dimensional vectors then fed into a three-dimensional vector product neural network where the inputs, outputs, and weights are all three-dimensional values. Next, the final outputs are mapped back to the reals. Two methods for dimensionality transformation are proposed, one via context windows and the other via spectral coloring. Experimental results on the iKala dataset for blind singing voice separation confirm the efficacy of our model.
Hierarchical Vector Quantization with Application to Speech Waveform Coding.
Shoham, Yair
Digital voice communication has long been of great engineering concern due to the vital role of voice communication in human society. Recently, a new and theoretically powerful coding technique, Vector Quantization (VQ), has been used in enhancing existing speech coders and in developing new coding algorithms. VQ operates on a vector of source samples as an elementary unit. The basic coding operation is that of pattern matching, where a finite set of codevectors (the codebook) is searched for the best approximation to the input source vector. However, the applicability of VQ to speech coding is limited by the computational complexity, associated with the codebook search, which grows exponentially with the source dimension and the coding rate. A fundamental property of speech is that it is composed of long highly correlated segments, due to its quasi-periodicity and short -term stationarity. These features of speech cannot be directly exploited by vector quantization because of the complexity problem. Thus, to be able to efficiently exploit the redundancy in speech by a VQ-based coding scheme, a special technique is needed, capable of handling very high dimensional vectors. Such a technique, called Hierarchical Vector Quantization (HVQ) is developed in this work. HVQ is based on representing the source by a multi -level tree-structure of low dimensional vectors. The bottom level of the tree contains the data vectors which are subvectors of the main high dimensional input. Vectors at higher levels contain suitably defined signal parameters which are extracted from the lower levels. These parameters, called features, are used as side-information in coding the data vectors. This technique partially exploits the correlation and structure of the main input vector while actually performing low dimensional, low complexity vector quantization. In this work HVQ, is used in quantizing the coefficients of a specially structured transform coder. This coder employs variable
Robotic Pectoral Fin Thrust Vectoring Using Weighted Gait Combinations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John S. Palmisano
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A method was devised to vector propulsion of a robotic pectoral fin by means of actively controlling fin surface curvature. Separate flapping fin gaits were designed to maximize thrust for each of three different thrust vectors: forward, reverse, and lift. By using weighted combinations of these three pre-determined main gaits, new intermediate hybrid gaits for any desired propulsion vector can be created with smooth transitioning between these gaits. This weighted gait combination (WGC method is applicable to other difficult-to-model actuators. Both 3D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental results are presented.
In-vivo examples of synthetic aperture vector flow imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oddershede, Niels; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann
2007-01-01
are processed, and movies of full vector flow images are generated. This paper presents still frames from different time instances of these movies. The movie from the femoral data tracks the accelerating velocity in the femoral artery during systole and a backwards flow at the end of the systole. A complex flow...... would be needed. Synthetic aperture vector flow imaging could potentially provide this. The purpose of this paper is to test the synthetic aperture vector flow imaging method on challenging in-vivo data. Two synthetic aperture in-vivo data sets are acquired using a commercial linear array transducer...
Preliminary evaluation of vector flow and spectral velocity estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per
Spectral estimation is considered as the golden standard in ultrasound velocity estimation. For spectral velocity estimation the blood flow angle is set by the ultrasound operator. Vector flow provides temporal and spatial estimates of the blood flow angle and velocity. A comparison of vector flow...... estimation and spectral estimates is presented. The variation of the blood flow angle and the effect on the velocity estimate is investigated. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned. Real-time spectral and vector flow data were obtained simultaneously from one range gate...
On a Lie Algebraic Characterization of Vector Bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pierre B.A. Lecomte
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We prove that a vector bundle π: E→M is characterized by the Lie algebra generated by all differential operators on E which are eigenvectors of the Lie derivative in the direction of the Euler vector field. Our result is of Pursell-Shanks type but it is remarkable in the sense that it is the whole fibration that is characterized here. The proof relies on a theorem of [Lecomte P., J. Math. Pures Appl. (9 60 (1981, 229-239] and inherits the same hypotheses. In particular, our characterization holds only for vector bundles of rank greater than 1.
Relevance Vector Machine for Survival Analysis.
Kiaee, Farkhondeh; Sheikhzadeh, Hamid; Mahabadi, Samaneh Eftekhari
2016-03-01
An accelerated failure time (AFT) model has been widely used for the analysis of censored survival or failure time data. However, the AFT imposes the restrictive log-linear relation between the survival time and the explanatory variables. In this paper, we introduce a relevance vector machine survival (RVMS) model based on Weibull AFT model that enables the use of kernel framework to automatically learn the possible nonlinear effects of the input explanatory variables on target survival times. We take advantage of the Bayesian inference technique in order to estimate the model parameters. We also introduce two approaches to accelerate the RVMS training. In the first approach, an efficient smooth prior is employed that improves the degree of sparsity. In the second approach, a fast marginal likelihood maximization procedure is used for obtaining a sparse solution of survival analysis task by sequential addition and deletion of candidate basis functions. These two approaches, denoted by smooth RVMS and fast RVMS, typically use fewer basis functions than RVMS and improve the RVMS training time; however, they cause a slight degradation in the RVMS performance. We compare the RVMS and the two accelerated approaches with the previous sparse kernel survival analysis method on a synthetic data set as well as six real-world data sets. The proposed kernel survival analysis models have been discovered to be more accurate in prediction, although they benefit from extra sparsity. The main advantages of our proposed models are: 1) extra sparsity that leads to a better generalization and avoids overfitting; 2) automatic relevance sample determination based on data that provide more accuracy, in particular for highly censored survival data; and 3) flexibility to utilize arbitrary number and types of kernel functions (e.g., non-Mercer kernels and multikernel learning).
3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.
2005-02-17
Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.
Existence and Stability of Solutions for Implicit Multivalued Vector Equilibrium Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Qiuying
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A class of implicit multivalued vector equilibrium problems is studied. By using the generalized Fan-Browder fixed point theorem, some existence results of solutions for the implicit multivalued vector equilibrium problems are obtained under some suitable assumptions. Moreover, a stability result of solutions for the implicit multivalued vector equilibrium problems is derived. These results extend and unify some recent results for implicit vector equilibrium problems, multivalued vector variational inequality problems, and vector variational inequality problems.
Virus-based transient expression vectors for woody crops: a new frontier for vector design and use.
Dawson, William O; Folimonova, Svetlana Y
2013-01-01
Virus-based expression vectors are commonplace tools for the production of proteins or the induction of RNA silencing in herbaceous plants. This review considers a completely different set of uses for viral vectors in perennial fruit and nut crops, which can be productive for periods of up to 100 years. Viral vectors could be used in the field to modify existing plants. Furthermore, with continually emerging pathogens and pests, viral vectors could express genes to protect the plants or even to treat plants after they become infected. As technologies develop during the life span of these crops, viral vectors can be used for adding new genes as an alternative to pushing up the crop and replanting with transgenic plants. Another value of virus-based vectors is that they add nothing permanently to the environment. This requires that effective and stable viral vectors be developed for specific crops from endemic viruses. Studies using viruses from perennial hosts suggest that these objectives could be accomplished.
Qin, Li-Tang; Liu, Shu-Shen; Liu, Hai-Ling; Zhang, Yong-Hong
2010-01-01
Accurate description of hormetic dose-response curves (DRC) is a key step for the determination of the efficacy and hazards of the pollutants with the hormetic phenomenon. This study tries to use support vector regression (SVR) and least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR) to address the problem of curve fitting existing in hormesis. The SVR and LS-SVR, which are entirely different from the non-linear fitting methods used to describe hormetic effects based on large sample, are at present only optimum methods based on small sample often encountered in the experimental toxicology. The tuning parameters (C and p1 for SVR, gam and sig2 for LS-SVR) determining SVR and LS-SVR models were obtained by both the internal and external validation of the models. The internal validation was performed by using leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation and the external validation was performed by splitting the whole data set (12 data points) into the same size (six data points) of training set and test set. The results show that SVR and LS-SVR can accurately describe not only for the hermetic J-shaped DRC of seven water-soluble organic solvents consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ether, tetrahydrofuran, and isopropanol, but also for the classical sigmoid DRC of six pesticides including simetryn, prometon, bromacil, velpar, diquat-dibromide monohydrate, and dichlorvos. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trópicos, microbios y vectores The tropics, microbes, and vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Caponi
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Analizamos el modo como los investigadores argentinos y brasileños, de fines del XIX e inicios del XX, construyeron sus programas de investigación referidos a las enfermedades tropicales. Aun cuando la higiene brasileña y argentina fueron herederas directas de los programas y principios pasteurianos, Brasil enfrentó sus problemas sanitarios con un nuevo programa de investigación donde se integraban la bacteriología, la parasitología y la preocupación con los vectores. Argentina, por su parte, desconsideró los problemas presentados por las enfermedades tropicales e insistió en reducir todos sus problemas sanitarios a aquellos que podían ser pensados en un paradigma donde se integraban los estudios microbiológicos y las estrategias "aeristas" propias de la higiene clásica.The article analyzes how Argentinean and Brazilian researchers designed their tropical disease research programs in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Even though Brazilian and Argentinean hygiene were direct descendants of Pasteurian programs and principles, Brazil addressed its public health problems through a new research agenda that embraced bacteriology, parasitology, and a concern with vectors. Argentina, on the other hand, disregarded the problems caused by tropical disease, insisting instead on reducing all of its health issues to those that could be approached through a paradigm embracing microbiology studies and the "aerista" strategies typical of classic hygiene.
Three new shuttle vectors for heterologous expression in Zymomonas mobilis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qinghua Cao
2016-01-01
Conclusions: These results indicated that these expression vectors are useful tools for gene expression in Z. mobilis and this could provide a solid foundation for further studies of heterologous gene expression in Z. mobilis.
Scalar and vector vortex beams from the source
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Naidoo, Darryl
2016-10-01
Full Text Available . Advanced Solid State Lasers 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), 30 October–3 November 2016, Boston, Massachusetts United States Scalar and vector vortex beams from the source Naidoo, Darryl Roux...
Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.
Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French
1983-01-01
Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.
A Model of Medium Depolarisation Effects on Polarisation Vector Position
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Moc
1994-07-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of modelling the influence of real atmosphere with precipitation clouds on the radar signal polarisation status. The relationship between the signal vector depolarisation shift value and the initial wave polarisation is examined.
Deep Learning for Person Reidentification Using Support Vector Machines
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Mengyu Xu; Zhenmin Tang; Yazhou Yao; Lingxiang Yao; Huafeng Liu; Jingsong Xu
2017-01-01
.... Different from previous works, we represent the pairs of pedestrian images as new resized input and use linear Support Vector Machine to replace softmax activation function for similarity learning...
Experimental Evaluation of Integral Transformations for Engineering Drawings Vectorization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vaský Jozef
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The concept of digital manufacturing supposes application of digital technologies in the whole product life cycle. Direct digital manufacturing includes such information technology processes, where products are directly manufactured from 3D CAD model. In digital manufacturing, engineering drawing is replaced by CAD product model. In the contemporary practice, lots of engineering paper-based drawings are still archived. They could be digitalized by scanner and stored to one of the raster graphics format and after that vectorized for interactive editing in the specific software system for technical drawing or for archiving in some of the standard vector graphics file format. The vector format is suitable for 3D model generating, too.The article deals with using of selected integral transformations (Fourier, Hough in the phase of digitalized raster engineering drawings vectorization.
ASTEROID SPIN VECTOR COMPILATION V5.0
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a comprehensive tabulation of asteroid spin vector determinations, compiled by Agnieszka Kryszczynska and based on the earlier compilation by Per Magnusson....
Geometric Algebra Software for Teaching Complex Numbers, Vectors and Spinors.
Lounesto, Pertti; And Others
1990-01-01
Presents a calculator-type computer program, CLICAL, in conjunction with complex number, vector, and other geometric algebra computations. Compares the CLICAL with other symbolic programs for algebra. (Author/YP)
Vector space model for document representation in information retrieval
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Dan MUNTEANU
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the basics of information retrieval: the vector space model for document representation with Boolean and term weighted models, ranking methods based on the cosine factor and evaluation measures: recall, precision and combined measure.
Cytomegalovirus vectors violate CD8+ T cell epitope recognition paradigms
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hansen, Scott G; Sacha, Jonah B; Hughes, Colette M; Ford, Julia C; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Scholz, Isabel; Gilbride, Roxanne M; Lewis, Matthew S; Gilliam, Awbrey N; Ventura, Abigail B; Malouli, Daniel; Xu, Guangwu; Richards, Rebecca; Whizin, Nathan; Reed, Jason S; Hammond, Katherine B; Fischer, Miranda; Turner, John M; Legasse, Alfred W; Axthelm, Michael K; Edlefsen, Paul T; Nelson, Jay A; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Früh, Klaus; Picker, Louis J
2013-01-01
...) vectors elicit SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells that recognize unusual, diverse, and highly promiscuous epitopes, including dominant responses to epitopes restricted by class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules...
Targeting a Novel Vector for Breast Cancer Gene Therapy
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bzik, David
2002-01-01
.... The primary purpose and scope of this IDEA award project is to experimentally examine approaches to safely target the Toxoplasma gondii parasite gene therapy vector to breast cancer tissue using...
Non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields
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Jaume Gine
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents sufficient conditions for the non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields. Classical methods for the nonexistence of limit cycles are connected with the theory developed here.
Hybrid generation and analysis of vector vortex beams.
Mamani, Sandra; Bendau, Ethan; Secor, Jeff; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tu, Jiufeng J; Alfano, Robert R
2017-03-10
A method is described for generating optical vector vortex beams carrying superpositions of orbital angular momentum states by using a tandem application of a spatial light modulator with a vortex retarder. The vortex component has a spatially inhomogeneous phase front that can carry orbital angular momentum, and the vector nature is a spatially inhomogeneous state of polarization in the laser beam profile. The vector vortex beams are characterized experimentally by imaging the beams at points across the focal plane in an astigmatic system using a tilted lens. Mathematical analysis of the Gouy phase shows good agreement with the phase structure obtained in the experimental images. The polarization structure of the vector beam and the orbital angular momentum of the vortex beam are shown to be preserved.
Inelastic Vector Soliton Collisions: A Lattice-Based Quantum Representation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Yepez, Jeffrey
2004-01-01
.... Under appropriate conditions the exact 2-soliton vector solutions yield in elastic soliton collisions, in agreement with the theoretical predictions of Radhakrishnan et al. (1997 Phys. Rev. E56, 2213...
Structural Reliability Analysis Using Orthogonalizable Power Polynomial Basis Vector
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Li Yejun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A new method for structural reliability analysis using orthogonalizable power polynomial basis vector is presented. Firstly, a power polynomial basis vector is adopted to express the initial series solution of structural response, which is determined by a series of deterministic recursive equation based on perturbation technique, and then transferred to be a set of orthogonalizable power polynomial basis vector using the orthogonalization technique. By conducting Garlekin projection, an accelerating factor vector of the orthogonalizable power polynomial expansion is determined by solving small scale algebraic equations. Numerical results of a continuous bridge structure on reliability analysis shows that the proposed method can achieve the accuracy of the Direct Monte Carlo method and can save a lot of computation time at the same time, it is both accurate and efficient, and is very competitive to be used in structural reliability analysis.
Quantile Acoustic Vectors vs. MFCC Applied to Speaker Verification
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Mayorga-Ortiz Pedro
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe speaker and command recognition related experiments, through quantile vectors and Gaussian Mixture Modelling (GMM. Over the past several years GMM and MFCC have become two of the dominant approaches for modelling speaker and speech recognition applications. However, memory and computational costs are important drawbacks, because autonomous systems suffer processing and power consumption constraints; thus, having a good trade-off between accuracy and computational requirements is mandatory. We decided to explore another approach (quantile vectors in several tasks and a comparison with MFCC was made. Quantile acoustic vectors are proposed for speaker verification and command recognition tasks and the results showed very good recognition efficiency. This method offered a good trade-off between computation times, characteristics vector complexity and overall achieved efficiency.
LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...