Sample records for vector polarization tracking

  1. Spin Resonances for Stored Deuteron Beams in COSY. Vector Polarization. Tracking with Spink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio,A.; Lehrach, A.


    Results of measurements of vector and tensor polarization of a deuteron beam in the storage ring COSY have been published by the SPIN{at}COSY collaboration. In this experiment a RF Dipole was used that produced spin flip. The strength of the RFD-induced depolarizing resonance was calculated from the amount of spin flipping and the results shown in the figures of the cited paper. In this note we present the simulation of the experimental data (vector polarization) with the spin tracking code Spink.

  2. PolarTrack: Optical Outside-In Device Tracking that Exploits Display Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rädle, Roman; Jetter, Hans-Christian; Fischer, Jonathan


    PolarTrack is a novel camera-based approach to detecting and tracking mobile devices inside the capture volume. In PolarTrack, a polarization filter continuously rotates in front of an off-the-shelf color camera, which causes the displays of observed devices to periodically blink in the camera feed...

  3. Wave-vector and polarization dependence of conical refraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turpin, A; Loiko, Yu V; Kalkandjiev, T K; Tomizawa, H; Mompart, J


    We experimentally address the wave-vector and polarization dependence of the internal conical refraction phenomenon by demonstrating that an input light beam of elliptical transverse profile refracts...

  4. Digital practical tracking: Algorithms with vector settling time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojčić Mihajlo J.


    Full Text Available In this paper nonlinear stationary digital system with separated control is treated. The new definitions of practical tracking with vector settling time are presented. Furthermore, new criteria and control algorithms which ensure digital practical tracking with vector settling time are given and proven. The results are simulated on an example.

  5. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polarization property is important to the optical imaging system. It has recently been understood that the polarization properties of light can be fruitfully used for improving the characteristics of imaging system that includes polarizing devices. The vector wave imagery lends an additional degree of freedom that can be utilized ...

  6. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...

  7. Polar POLICRYPS diffractive structures generate cylindrical vector beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alj, Domenico; Caputo, Roberto, E-mail:; Umeton, Cesare [Department of Physics and CNR-NANOTEC University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Paladugu, Sathyanarayana [Soft Matter Lab, Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Volpe, Giovanni [Soft Matter Lab, Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)


    Local shaping of the polarization state of a light beam is appealing for a number of applications. This can be achieved by employing devices containing birefringent materials. In this article, we present one such enables converting a uniformly circularly polarized beam into a cylindrical vector beam (CVB). This device has been fabricated by exploiting the POLICRYPS (POlymer-LIquid CRYstals-Polymer-Slices) photocuring technique. It is a liquid-crystal-based optical diffraction grating featuring polar symmetry of the director alignment. We have characterized the resulting CVB profile and polarization for the cases of left and right circularly polarized incoming beams.

  8. Polarization Vector Rotations: Real, Spurious, Hidden and Imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri M. Larionov


    Full Text Available Large and variable polarization is an inherent property of a majority of blazars. Systematic rotations of the polarization vector have been claimed for several blazars. In some cases, however, the reality of these rotations may be questionable. We suggest an additional method for the verification of the reality of polarization position angle rotations based on the correlation of the normalized Stokes parameters.

  9. Role of Polarized G Protein Signaling in Tracking Pheromone Gradients. (United States)

    McClure, Allison W; Minakova, Maria; Dyer, Jayme M; Zyla, Trevin R; Elston, Timothy C; Lew, Daniel J


    Yeast cells track gradients of pheromones to locate mating partners. Intuition suggests that uniform distribution of pheromone receptors over the cell surface would yield optimal gradient sensing. However, yeast cells display polarized receptors. The benefit of such polarization was unknown. During gradient tracking, cell growth is directed by a patch of polarity regulators that wanders around the cortex. Patch movement is sensitive to pheromone dose, with wandering reduced on the up-gradient side of the cell, resulting in net growth in that direction. Mathematical modeling suggests that active receptors and associated G proteins lag behind the polarity patch and act as an effective drag on patch movement. In vivo, the polarity patch is trailed by a G protein-rich domain, and this polarized distribution of G proteins is required to constrain patch wandering. Our findings explain why G protein polarization is beneficial and illuminate a novel mechanism for gradient tracking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vector plane wave spectrum of an arbitrary polarized electromagnetic wave. (United States)

    Guo, Hanming; Chen, Jiabi; Zhuang, Songlin


    By using the method of modal expansions of the independent transverse fields, a formula of vector plane wave spectrum (VPWS) of an arbitrary polarized electromagnetic wave in a homogenous medium is derived. In this formula VPWS is composed of TM- and TE-mode plane wave spectrum, where the amplitude and unit polarized direction of every plane wave are separable, which has more obviously physical meaning and is more convenient to apply in some cases compared to previous formula of VPWS. As an example, the formula of VPWS is applied to the well-known radially and azimuthally polarized beam. In addition, vector Fourier-Bessel transform pairs of an arbitrary polarized electromagnetic wave with circular symmetry are also derived.

  11. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amplitude and phase step filters were used on the pupil of the optical system to achieve ... of polarization Fourier optics dealing with vector wave imagery and image processing. [8–10]. Recently, Moreno et al have ..... obtained in circular aperture using. Gaussian modulation of the transmission function of a circular aperture.

  12. Visual Tracking With Convolutional Random Vector Functional Link Network. (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam


    Deep neural network-based methods have recently achieved excellent performance in visual tracking task. As very few training samples are available in visual tracking task, those approaches rely heavily on extremely large auxiliary dataset such as ImageNet to pretrain the model. In order to address the discrepancy between the source domain (the auxiliary data) and the target domain (the object being tracked), they need to be finetuned during the tracking process. However, those methods suffer from sensitivity to the hyper-parameters such as learning rate, maximum number of epochs, size of mini-batch, and so on. Thus, it is worthy to investigate whether pretraining and fine tuning through conventional back-prop is essential for visual tracking. In this paper, we shed light on this line of research by proposing convolutional random vector functional link (CRVFL) neural network, which can be regarded as a marriage of the convolutional neural network and random vector functional link network, to simplify the visual tracking system. The parameters in the convolutional layer are randomly initialized and kept fixed. Only the parameters in the fully connected layer need to be learned. We further propose an elegant approach to update the tracker. In the widely used visual tracking benchmark, without any auxiliary data, a single CRVFL model achieves 79.0% with a threshold of 20 pixels for the precision plot. Moreover, an ensemble of CRVFL yields comparatively the best result of 86.3%.

  13. Understanding polarization correlation of entangled vector meson pairs (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Wang, Siguang; Mao, Yajun


    We propose an experimental test of local hidden variable theories against quantum mechanics by measuring the polarization correlation of entangled vector meson pairs. In our study, the form of the polarization correlation probability is reproduced in a natural way by interpreting the two-body decay of the meson as a measurement of its polarization vector within the framework of quantum mechanics. This provides more detailed information on the quantum entanglement, thus a new Monte Carlo method to simulate the quantum correlation is introduced. We discuss the feasibility of carrying out such a test at experiments in operation currently and expect that the measured correlated distribution may provide us with deeper insight into the fundamental question about locality and reality.

  14. Wave-vector and polarization dependence of conical refraction. (United States)

    Turpin, A; Loiko, Yu V; Kalkandjiev, T K; Tomizawa, H; Mompart, J


    We experimentally address the wave-vector and polarization dependence of the internal conical refraction phenomenon by demonstrating that an input light beam of elliptical transverse profile refracts into two beams after passing along one of the optic axes of a biaxial crystal, i.e. it exhibits double refraction instead of refracting conically. Such double refraction is investigated by the independent rotation of a linear polarizer and a cylindrical lens. Expressions to describe the position and the intensity pattern of the refracted beams are presented and applied to predict the intensity pattern for an axicon beam propagating along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal.

  15. Vector beams generated by tunable liquid crystal polarization holograms (United States)

    Ruiz, U.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.


    Two optically coupled nematic liquid crystal (NLC) polarization holograms (PHs) enable nearly 100% generation efficiency for vector beams (VBs) with spatially variant phase and polarization. Adopting a spatial light modulator assisted holographic approach, the PHs are recorded in the photoaligning substrates of the NLC cell and amplified by the NLC bulk. Owing to negligible NLC absorption at the visible and near infrared wavelengths and the ability to electrically adjust its optical birefringence, a single device allows us to generate VBs with the highest possible efficiency at any wavelength in the transparency range. In particular, we report the generation of VBs with an efficiency of 96% at a wavelength of 633 nm.

  16. Vector-Sensor MUSIC for Polarized Seismic Sources Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme I. Mars


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of high-resolution polarized source detection and introduces a new eigenstructure-based algorithm that yields direction of arrival (DOA and polarization estimates using a vector-sensor (or multicomponent-sensor array. This method is based on separation of the observation space into signal and noise subspaces using fourth-order tensor decomposition. In geophysics, in particular for reservoir acquisition and monitoring, a set of Nx-multicomponent sensors is laid on the ground with constant distance Δx between them. Such a data acquisition scheme has intrinsically three modes: time, distance, and components. The proposed method needs multilinear algebra in order to preserve data structure and avoid reorganization. The data is thus stored in tridimensional arrays rather than matrices. Higher-order eigenvalue decomposition (HOEVD for fourth-order tensors is considered to achieve subspaces estimation and to compute the eigenelements. We propose a tensorial version of the MUSIC algorithm for a vector-sensor array allowing a joint estimation of DOA and signal polarization estimation. Performances of the proposed algorithm are evaluated.

  17. Rates, polarizations, and asymmetries in charmless vector-vector B meson decays. (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel De Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H


    With a sample of approximately 89 x 10(6) B(-)B pairs collected with the BABAR detector, we perform a search for B meson decays into pairs of charmless vector mesons (phi, rho, and K*). We measure the branching fractions, determine the degree of longitudinal polarization, and search for CP violation asymmetries in the processes B+-->phiK(*+), B0-->phiK(*0), B+-->rho(0)K(*+), and B+-->rho(0)rho(+). We also set an upper limit on the branching fraction for the decay B0-->rho(0)rho(0).

  18. Circularly polarized inertial wave vectors in rotating fluids (United States)

    Cogley, A. C.


    The Navier-Stokes equations for a rotating fluid are harmonically analyzed for planar motion in an infinite half-space. All solutions are shown to be a sum of two inertial wave vectors, one circularly polarized to the left (CPL) and the other circularly polarized to the right (CPR). These basic solutions are therefore presented in the same nomenclature and form as that found useful by experimentalists in analyzing flow data (called 'rotary spectra'). The CPL wave acts counter to the Coriolis force and consequently has a slower phase speed and larger damping than the CPR wave. At resonance (forcing frequency = Coriolis frequency) the CPR wave has an infinite phase speed and no damping and is the important component leading to the singular nature of the solutions for certain boundary conditions. All possible resonant singularities are explicitly shown. The unsteady development of these unbounded (limited space structure), cyclic (no time origin or structure) flows is presented to show that with time structure the resonant singularities evolve in a self-similar manner.

  19. Adaptive Compressive Tracking via Online Vector Boosting Feature Selection. (United States)

    Liu, Qingshan; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Kaihua; Wu, Yi


    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the large scale target appearance variations due to its data-independent random projection matrix that results in less discriminative features. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose an adaptive CT approach, which selects the most discriminative features to design an effective appearance model. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects. First, the most discriminative features are selected via an online vector boosting method. Second, the object representation is updated in an effective online manner, which preserves the stable features while filtering out the noisy ones. Furthermore, a simple and effective trajectory rectification approach is adopted that can make the estimated location more accurate. Finally, a multiple scale adaptation mechanism is explored to estimate object size, which helps to relieve interference from background information. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark and the VOT2014 challenges demonstrate the superior performance of our method.

  20. Track Circuit Fault Diagnosis Method based on Least Squares Support Vector (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Sun, Fengru


    In order to improve the troubleshooting efficiency and accuracy of the track circuit, track circuit fault diagnosis method was researched. Firstly, the least squares support vector machine was applied to design the multi-fault classifier of the track circuit, and then the measured track data as training samples was used to verify the feasibility of the methods. Finally, the results based on BP neural network fault diagnosis methods and the methods used in this paper were compared. Results shows that the track fault classifier based on least squares support vector machine can effectively achieve the five track circuit fault diagnosis with less computing time.

  1. Stokes vector characterization of the polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. (United States)

    Molitor, Andreas; Hartmann, Sébastien; Elsässer, Wolfgang


    We demonstrate that a full polarization analysis in terms of the Stokes vector parameters is necessary to determine the polarization state of light emitted by vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). For three selected representative VCSEL devices, we measured the injection current dependence of the three Stokes parameters and compared these results with linearly selected polarization P-I curves, clearly demonstrating that a complete polarization analysis is required to unveil the full polarization behavior.

  2. Dynamic plasmonic beam shaping by vector beams with arbitrary locally linear polarization states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Yuquan; Zhang, Chonglei [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Du, Luping [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Min, Changjun, E-mail:, E-mail:; Yuan, X.-C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Micro and Nano Optics and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zhu, Siwei [Institute of Oncology, Tianjin Union Medicine Centre, Tianjin 300121 (China); Paul Urbach, H. [Optics Research Group, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)


    Vector beams, which have space-variant state of polarization (SOP) comparing with scalar beams with spatially homogeneous SOP, are used to manipulate surface plasmon polarizations (SPPs). We find that the excitation, orientation, and distribution of the focused SPPs excited in a high numerical aperture microscopic configuration highly depend on the space-variant polarization of the incident vector beam. When it comes to vector beam with axial symmetry, multi-foci of SPPs with the same size and uniform intensity can be obtained, and the number of foci is depending on the polarization order n. Those properties can be of great value in biological sensor and plasmonic tweezers applications.

  3. Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Ji, Wei; Wei, Bing-Yan; Hu, Wei; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing


    Arbitrary vector beams (VBs) are realized by the designed polarization converters and corresponding vector-photoaligned q-plates. The polarization converter is a specific twisted nematic cell with one substrate homogeneously aligned and the other space-variantly aligned. By combining a polarization-sensitive alignment agent with a dynamic micro-lithography system, various categories of liquid crystal polarization converters are demonstrated. Besides, traditional radially/azimuthally polarized light, high-order and multi-ringed VBs, and a VB array with different orders are generated. The obtained converters are further utilized as polarization masks to implement vector-photoaligning. The technique facilitates both the volume duplication of these converters and the generation of another promising optical element, the q-plate, which is suitable for the generation of VBs for coherent lasers. The combination of proposed polarization converters and correspondingly fabricated q-plates would drastically enhance the capability of polarization control and may bring more possibilities for the design of photonic devices.

  4. Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peng; Ji, Wei; Wei, Bing-Yan; Hu, Wei, E-mail:; Lu, Yan-Qing, E-mail: [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chigrinov, Vladimir [Center for Display Research, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)


    Arbitrary vector beams (VBs) are realized by the designed polarization converters and corresponding vector-photoaligned q-plates. The polarization converter is a specific twisted nematic cell with one substrate homogeneously aligned and the other space-variantly aligned. By combining a polarization-sensitive alignment agent with a dynamic micro-lithography system, various categories of liquid crystal polarization converters are demonstrated. Besides, traditional radially/azimuthally polarized light, high-order and multi-ringed VBs, and a VB array with different orders are generated. The obtained converters are further utilized as polarization masks to implement vector-photoaligning. The technique facilitates both the volume duplication of these converters and the generation of another promising optical element, the q-plate, which is suitable for the generation of VBs for coherent lasers. The combination of proposed polarization converters and correspondingly fabricated q-plates would drastically enhance the capability of polarization control and may bring more possibilities for the design of photonic devices.

  5. Uni-Vector-Sensor Dimensionality Reduction MUSIC Algorithm for DOA and Polarization Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanmei Wang


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of multiple signal classification- (MUSIC- based direction of arrival (DOA and polarization estimation and proposes a new dimensionality reduction MUSIC (DR-MUSIC algorithm. Uni-vector-sensor MUSIC algorithm provides estimation for DOA and polarization; accordingly, a four-dimensional peak search is required, which hence incurs vast amount of computation. In the proposed DR-MUSIC method, the signal steering vector is expressed in the product form of arrival angle function matrix and polarization function vector. The MUSIC joint spectrum is converted to the form of Rayleigh-Ritz ratio by using the feature where the 2-norm of polarization function vector is constant. A four-dimensional MUSIC search reduced the dimension to two two-dimensional searches and the amount of computation is greatly decreased. The theoretical analysis and simulation results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Poynting vector profile of a tightly focused radially polarized beam in the presence of primary aberrations. (United States)

    Gaffar, M; Boruah, Bosanta R


    The Poynting vector profile of a tightly focused radially polarized beam has some unique and interesting properties. For instance the light on the optical axis in the focal volume corresponds to a null Poynting vector, indicating the light there to be nonpropagating. However, the beam here is considered to be an unaberrated one. Thus it will be important to know whether the commonly occurring monochromatic aberrations can have any effect on the ideal Poynting vector profile of a radially polarized beam. In this paper we make use of the Fourier transform form of the vectorial diffraction theory to investigate the effect of primary aberrations on the Poynting vector profile of a radially polarized beam under tight focusing conditions. We present here the results from our study on the behavior of both the time averaged and time dependent Poynting vector profiles in the focal volume.

  7. Generation of cylindrically polarized vector vortex beams with digital micromirror device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Meng; Zhong, Mincheng; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Yinmei, E-mail: [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Ren, Yuxuan [National Center for Protein Sciences Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS, Shanghai 201210 (China)


    We propose a novel technique to directly transform a linearly polarized Gaussian beam into vector-vortex beams with various spatial patterns. Full high-quality control of amplitude and phase is implemented via a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) binary holography for generating Laguerre-Gaussian, Bessel-Gaussian, and helical Mathieu–Gaussian modes, while a radial polarization converter (S-waveplate) is employed to effectively convert the optical vortices into cylindrically polarized vortex beams. Additionally, the generated vector-vortex beams maintain their polarization symmetry after arbitrary polarization manipulation. Due to the high frame rates of DMD, rapid switching among a series of vector modes carrying different orbital angular momenta paves the way for optical microscopy, trapping, and communication.

  8. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light? (United States)

    Labhart, Thomas


    The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a manner similar to that of humans perceiving spectral stimuli as specific hues. To analyze e-vector orientation, the signals of at least three polarization-sensitive sensors (analyzer channels) with different e-vector tuning axes must be compared. The object-based, imaging polarization vision systems of cephalopods and crustaceans, as well as the water-surface detectors of flying backswimmers, use just two analyzer channels. Although this excludes the perception of specific e-vector orientations, a two-channel system does provide a coarse, categoric analysis of polarized light stimuli, comparable to the limited color sense of dichromatic, 'color-blind' humans. The celestial compass of insects employs three or more analyzer channels. However, that compass is multimodal, i.e. e-vector information merges with directional information from other celestial cues, such as the solar azimuth and the spectral gradient in the sky, masking e-vector information. It seems that invertebrate organisms take no interest in the polarization details of visual stimuli, but polarization vision grants more practical benefits, such as improved object detection and visual communication for cephalopods and crustaceans, compass readings to traveling insects, or the alert 'water below!' to water-seeking bugs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Dynamic plasmonic beam shaping by vector beams with arbitrary locally linear polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Z.; Du, L.; Min, C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhu, S.; Urbach, H.P.; Yuan, X.C.


    Vector beams, which have space-variant state of polarization (SOP) comparing with scalar beams with spatially homogeneous SOP, are used to manipulate surface plasmon polarizations (SPPs). We find that the excitation, orientation, and distribution of the focused SPPs excited in a high numerical

  10. Measuring the self-healing of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milione, G


    Full Text Available of the “self-healing” of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of radially and azimuthally polarized vector Bessel beams Giovanni Milione,1,2,3∗ Angela Dudley,4∗ Thien An Nguyen,1,3 Kamonasish Chakraborty,1,3 Ebrahim Karimi,5 Andrew Forbes,4...

  11. Experimental measurement of the self-healing of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of radially and azimuthally polarized vector Bessel beams

    CERN Document Server

    Milione, Giovanni; Nguyen, Thien An; Chakraborty, Ougni; Karimi, Ebrahim; Forbes, Andrew; Alfano, Robert R


    We experimentally measured the self-healing of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of radial and azimuthal polarized vector Bessel beams. Radial and azimuthal polarized vector Bessel beams were generated via a digital version of Durnin's method, using a spatial light modulator in concert with a liquid crystal $q$-plate. As a proof of principle, their intensities and spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization were measured using Stokes polarimetry as they propagated through two disparate obstructions. It was found, similar to their intensities, the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of a radial and azimuthal polarized vector Bessel beams self-heal. Similar to scalar Bessel beams, the self-healing of vector Bessel beams can be understood via geometric optics, i.e., the interference of the unobstructed conical rays in the shadow region of the obstruction. The self-healing of vector Bessel beams may have applications in, for example, optical trapping.

  12. Improvement of Carrier Phase Tracking Based on a Joint Vector Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Chen


    Full Text Available Carrier phase measurements are essential to high precision positioning. Usually, the carrier phase measurements are generated from the phase lock loop in a conventional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver. However there is a dilemma problem to the design of the loop parameters in a conventional tracking loop. To address this problem and improve the carrier phase tracking sensitivity, a carrier phase tracking method based on a joint vector architecture is proposed. The joint vector architecture contains a common loop based on extended Kalman filter to track the common dynamics of the different channels and the individual loops for each channel to track the satellite specific dynamics. The transfer function model of the proposed architecture is derived. The proposed method and the conventional scalar carrier phase tracking are tested with a high quality simulator. The test results indicate that carrier phase measurements of satellites start to show cycle slips using the proposed method when carrier noise ratio is equal to and below 15 dB-Hz instead of 21 dB-Hz with using the conventional phase tracking loop. Since the joint vector based tracking loops jointly process the signals of all available satellites, the potential interchannel influence between different satellites is also investigated.

  13. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles. (United States)

    Hailer, Frank


    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Platform for Manipulating Polarization Modes Realized with Jones Vectors in MATHEMATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Dae Choi


    Full Text Available The fundamental conception in physics of the propagation of the electromagnetic wave polarization in matter is newly understood as the cardinal keyword in free-space quantum communication technology and cosmology in astrophysics. Interactive visualization of the propagation mechanism of polarized electromagnetism in a medium with its helicity has accordingly received attention from scientists exploiting the protocol of quantum key distribution (QKD to guarantee unconditional security in cryptography communication. We have provided a dynamic polarization platform for presenting the polarization modes of a transverse electromagnetic wave, converting the state of polarization through the arrangement of optical elements, using Jones vectors calculations in Methematica. The platform graphically simulates the mechanism of production and propagation of the polarized waves in a medium while satisfying Maxwell's equations.

  15. Dual-channel polarization holography: a technique for recording two complex amplitude components of a vector wave. (United States)

    Barada, Daisuke; Ochiai, Takanori; Fukuda, Takashi; Kawata, Shigeo; Kuroda, Kazuo; Yatagai, Toyohiko


    In this Letter, the principle of polarization holography for recording an arbitrary vector wave on a thin polarization-sensitive recording medium is proposed. It is analytically shown that the complex amplitudes of p- and s-polarization components are simultaneously recorded and independently reconstructed by using an s-polarized reference beam. The characteristics are experimentally verified.

  16. Nonnormal operators in physics, a singular-vectors approach: illustration in polarization optics. (United States)

    Tudor, Tiberiu


    The singular-vectors analysis of a general nonnormal operator defined on a finite-dimensional complex vector space is given in the frame of a pure operatorial ("nonmatrix," "coordinate-free") approach, performed in a Dirac language. The general results are applied in the field of polarization optics, where the nonnormal operators are widespread as operators of various polarization devices. Two nonnormal polarization devices representative for the class of nonnormal and even pathological operators-the standard two-layer elliptical ideal polarizer (singular operator) and the three-layer ambidextrous ideal polarizer (singular and defective operator)-are analyzed in detail. It is pointed out that the unitary polar component of the operator exists and preserves, in such pathological case too, its role of converting the input singular basis of the operator in its output singular basis. It is shown that for any nonnormal ideal polarizer a complementary one exists, so that the tandem of their operators uniquely determines their (common) unitary polar component.

  17. Fuzzy simultaneous measurement of two polarization vector components (United States)

    Shepard, Scott


    The advent of quantum computers threatens the security of conventional encryption schemes (e.g., those based upon the excessive amount of computational time that might be required to guess your password). Quantum encryption is intended to restore the security by basing it instead upon the impossibility of the simultaneous measurement of two noncommuting operators. I derive a measurement associated with the angular momentum lowering operator, which describes a simultaneous (yet realizable) measurement of two noncommuting spin-vector components. Correlations between two such detectors are also discussed and compared with the conventional Stern-Gerlach results.

  18. The research and application of visual saliency and adaptive support vector machine in target tracking field. (United States)

    Chen, Yuantao; Xu, Weihong; Kuang, Fangjun; Gao, Shangbing


    The efficient target tracking algorithm researches have become current research focus of intelligent robots. The main problems of target tracking process in mobile robot face environmental uncertainty. They are very difficult to estimate the target states, illumination change, target shape changes, complex backgrounds, and other factors and all affect the occlusion in tracking robustness. To further improve the target tracking's accuracy and reliability, we present a novel target tracking algorithm to use visual saliency and adaptive support vector machine (ASVM). Furthermore, the paper's algorithm has been based on the mixture saliency of image features. These features include color, brightness, and sport feature. The execution process used visual saliency features and those common characteristics have been expressed as the target's saliency. Numerous experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and timeliness of the proposed target tracking algorithm in video sequences where the target objects undergo large changes in pose, scale, and illumination.

  19. Joint polarization tracking and channel equalization based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Yang, Yanfu; Zhong, Kangping; Liu, Jie; Wu, Xiong; Yao, Yong


    We propose a joint polarization tracking and channel equalization scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter (RD-LKF) by introducing the butterfly finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter in our previously proposed RD-LKF method. Along with the fast polarization tracking, it can also simultaneously compensate the inter-symbol interference (ISI) effects including residual chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. Compared with the conventional radius-directed equalizer (RDE) algorithm, it is demonstrated experimentally that three times faster convergence speed, one order of magnitude better tracking capability, and better BER performance is obtained in polarization division multiplexing 16 quadrature amplitude modulation system. Besides, the influences of the algorithm parameters on the convergence and the tracking performance are investigated by numerical simulation.

  20. On the Possibility of Resonances in Longitudinally Polarized Vector Boson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Veltman, H.


    Assuming that no Higgs has been found below 1 TeV, we study the physics of longitudinally polarized vector boson ( ) scattering in the TeV region, using a one loop calculation and partial wave analysis. We show that the occurrence of a resonance in the isospin I = 1 channel depends on a certain

  1. Fermi wave vector for the partially spin-polarized composite-fermion Fermi sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coimbatore Balram, Ajit; Jain, Jainendra


    The fully spin polarized composite fermion (CF) Fermi sea at half filled lowest Landau level has a Fermi wave vector $k^*_{\\rm F}=\\sqrt{4\\pi\\rho_e}$, where $\\rho_e$ is the density of electrons or composite fermions, supporting the notion that the interaction between composite fermions can...... CFFSs at $\

  2. Measuring the self-healing of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milione, G


    Full Text Available us My IOPscience Measuring the self-healing of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of vector Bessel beams Giovanni Milione1,2,3,4, Angela Dudley5, Thien An Nguyen1,2, Ougni Chakraborty1,2, Ebrahim Karimi6, Andrew Forbes5,7 and Robert R...

  3. Optical image encoding based on digital holographic recording on polarization state of vector wave. (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Xu, Qinzu


    We propose and analyze a compact optical image encoder based on the principle of digital holographic recording on the polarization state of a vector wave. The optical architecture is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with in-line digital holographic recording mechanism. The original image is represented by distinct polarization states of elliptically polarized light. This state of polarization distribution is scrambled and then recorded by a two-step digital polarization holography method with random phase distributed reference wave. Introduction of a rotation key in the object arm and phase keys in the reference arm can achieve the randomization of plaintext. Statistical property of cyphertext is analyzed from confusion and diffusion point of view. Fault tolerance and key sensitivity of the proposed approach are also investigated. A chosen plaintext attack on the proposed algorithm exhibits its high security level. Simulation results that support the theoretical analysis are presented.

  4. The Research and Application of Visual Saliency and Adaptive Support Vector Machine in Target Tracking Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuantao Chen


    Full Text Available The efficient target tracking algorithm researches have become current research focus of intelligent robots. The main problems of target tracking process in mobile robot face environmental uncertainty. They are very difficult to estimate the target states, illumination change, target shape changes, complex backgrounds, and other factors and all affect the occlusion in tracking robustness. To further improve the target tracking’s accuracy and reliability, we present a novel target tracking algorithm to use visual saliency and adaptive support vector machine (ASVM. Furthermore, the paper’s algorithm has been based on the mixture saliency of image features. These features include color, brightness, and sport feature. The execution process used visual saliency features and those common characteristics have been expressed as the target’s saliency. Numerous experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and timeliness of the proposed target tracking algorithm in video sequences where the target objects undergo large changes in pose, scale, and illumination.

  5. Automatic parametrization of Support Vector Machines for short texts polarity detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Sanabria Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The information from social media is emerging as a valuable source in decision-making, unfortunately the tools to turn these data into useful information still need some work. Using Support Vector Machines for polarity detection in short texts are popular among researchers for their good results, but parameter optimization to train classification models is a complex and costly process. This article compares two algorithms for automated parameter optimization in the process of creating classification models for polarity detection: the recently created Grey Wolf Optimizer and the Grid Search, using accuracy and f-score metrics.

  6. Novel Strategy for Tracking the Microbial Degradation of Azo Dyes with Different Polarities in Living Cells. (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Xu, Meiying; Chen, Xingjuan; Yang, Yonggang; Wang, Haiji; Sun, Guoping


    Direct visualization evidence is important for understanding the microbial degradation mechanisms. To track the microbial degradation pathways of azo dyes with different polar characterizations, sensors based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from 1,8-naphthalimide to azo dyes were synthesized, in which the quenched fluorescence will recover when the azo bond was cleaved. In living cells, the sensor-tracking experiment showed that the low polarity and hydrophobic azo dye can be taken up into the cells and reduced inside the cells, whereas the high polarity and hydrophilic azo dye can be reduced only outside the cells because of the selective permeability of the cell membranes. These results indicated that there were two different bacterial degradation pathways available for different polarity azo dyes. To our knowledge, no fluorescent sensor has yet been designed for illuminating the microbial degradation mechanisms of organic pollutants with different characteristics.

  7. Polypropylene track membranes as a promising material for targets with polarized protons (United States)

    Barashkova, I. I.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Kravets, L. I.


    Polypropylene track membranes made by irradiation of polypropylene films with a beam of high-energy heavy ions followed by chemical etching of latent ion tracks are proposed for being used as a polarized target material. To give membranes paramagnetic properties needed for allowing dynamic polarization of nuclei, the nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl was introduced in the samples by the thermal diffusion technique. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance method, we obtained information on paramagnetic centers in the polymer matrix of the membranes and determined the nitroxyl radical concentration and rotational mobility of the spin probe in them.

  8. Vector-Sensor Array Processing for Polarization Parameters and DOA Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Paulus


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method allowing a complete characterization of wave signals received on a vector-sensor array. The proposed technique is based on wavefields separation processing and on estimation of fundamental waves attributes as the state of polarization state and the direction of arrival. Estimation of these attributes is an important step in data processing for a wide range of applications where vector sensor antennas technology is involved such as seismic processing, electromagnetic fields studies, and telecommunications. Compared to the classic techniques, the proposed method is based on computation of multicomponent wideband spectral matrices which enable to take into account all information given by the vector sensor array structures and thus provide a complete characterization of a larger number of sources.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, M. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 34 Ohia Ku Street, Pukalani, Maui, HI 96768 (United States); Tomczyk, S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [High Altitude Observatory, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)


    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments.

  10. Structured caustic vector vortex optical field: manipulating optical angular momentum flux and polarization rotation. (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chen, Zhaozhong; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Li, Pei-Gang; Yu, Zhongliang; Ding, Jianping; He, Sailing


    A caustic vector vortex optical field is experimentally generated and demonstrated by a caustic-based approach. The desired caustic with arbitrary acceleration trajectories, as well as the structured states of polarization (SoP) and vortex orders located in different positions in the field cross-section, is generated by imposing the corresponding spatial phase function in a vector vortex optical field. Our study reveals that different spin and orbital angular momentum flux distributions (including opposite directions) in different positions in the cross-section of a caustic vector vortex optical field can be dynamically managed during propagation by intentionally choosing the initial polarization and vortex topological charges, as a result of the modulation of the caustic phase. We find that the SoP in the field cross-section rotates during propagation due to the existence of the vortex. The unique structured feature of the caustic vector vortex optical field opens the possibility of multi-manipulation of optical angular momentum fluxes and SoP, leading to more complex manipulation of the optical field scenarios. Thus this approach further expands the functionality of an optical system.

  11. Complex unitary vectors for the direction of propagation and for the polarization of electromagnetic waves in absorbing isotropic media. (United States)

    Alfonso, S; Alberdi, C; Diñeiro, J M; Berrogui, M; Hernández, B; Sáenz, C


    We introduce a formalism based on complex unitary vectors for the direction of propagation and for the polarization in order to describe in detail the propagation of inhomogeneous plane waves in absorbing isotropic media. We obtain analytic expressions for the displacement vector, the electric field, the magnetic field, and the Poynting vector, and we study their geometry in terms of the geometrical interpretation of the complex directions of propagation inside the material. We introduce a complex coordinate system based on complex unitary vectors, where the description of the polarization states of the field vectors and the Poynting vector becomes simpler. The physical meaning and the interpretation of the mathematical operations involving these complex unitary vectors is provided.

  12. Unscented Kalman filters for polarization state tracking and phase noise mitigation. (United States)

    Jignesh, Jokhakar; Corcoran, Bill; Zhu, Chen; Lowery, Arthur


    Simultaneous polarization and phase noise tracking and compensation is proposed based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF). We experimentally demonstrate the tracking under noise-loading and after 800-km single-mode fiber transmission with 20-Gbaud QPSK and 16-QAM signals. These experiments show that the proposed UKF outperforms both conventional blind tracing algorithms and a previously proposed extended Kalman filter, at the cost of higher complexity. Additionally, we propose and test modified Kalman filter algorithms to reduce computational complexity.

  13. Modulation Format Independent Joint Polarization and Phase Tracking for Coherent Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Czegledi, Cristian B; Karlsson, Magnus; Johannisson, Pontus


    The state of polarization and the carrier phase drift dynamically during transmission in a random fashion in coherent optical fiber communications. The typical digital signal processing solution to mitigate these impairments consists of two separate blocks that track each phenomenon independently. Such algorithms have been developed without taking into account mathematical models describing the impairments. We study a blind, model-based tracking algorithm to compensate for these impairments. The algorithm dynamically recovers the carrier phase and state of polarization jointly for an arbitrary modulation format. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, having a fast convergence rate and an excellent tolerance to phase noise and dynamic drift of the polarization. The computational complexity of the algorithm is lower compared to state-of-the-art algorithms at similar or better performance, which makes it a strong candidate for future optical systems.

  14. Automated identification and tracking of polar-cap plasma patches at solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burston


    Full Text Available A method of automatically identifying and tracking polar-cap plasma patches, utilising data inversion and feature-tracking methods, is presented. A well-established and widely used 4-D ionospheric imaging algorithm, the Multi-Instrument Data Assimilation System (MIDAS, inverts slant total electron content (TEC data from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers to produce images of the free electron distribution in the polar-cap ionosphere. These are integrated to form vertical TEC maps. A flexible feature-tracking algorithm, TRACK, previously used extensively in meteorological storm-tracking studies is used to identify and track maxima in the resulting 2-D data fields. Various criteria are used to discriminate between genuine patches and "false-positive" maxima such as the continuously moving day-side maximum, which results from the Earth's rotation rather than plasma motion. Results for a 12-month period at solar minimum, when extensive validation data are available, are presented. The method identifies 71 separate structures consistent with patch motion during this time. The limitations of solar minimum and the consequent small number of patches make climatological inferences difficult, but the feasibility of the method for patches larger than approximately 500 km in scale is demonstrated and a larger study incorporating other parts of the solar cycle is warranted. Possible further optimisation of discrimination criteria, particularly regarding the definition of a patch in terms of its plasma concentration enhancement over the surrounding background, may improve results.

  15. Simultaneous source localization and polarization estimation via non-orthogonal joint diagonalization with vector-sensors. (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Ke; Lin, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Wen; Xu, You-Gen


    Joint estimation of direction-of-arrival (DOA) and polarization with electromagnetic vector-sensors (EMVS) is considered in the framework of complex-valued non-orthogonal joint diagonalization (CNJD). Two new CNJD algorithms are presented, which propose to tackle the high dimensional optimization problem in CNJD via a sequence of simple sub-optimization problems, by using LU or LQ decompositions of the target matrices as well as the Jacobi-type scheme. Furthermore, based on the above CNJD algorithms we present a novel strategy to exploit the multi-dimensional structure present in the second-order statistics of EMVS outputs for simultaneous DOA and polarization estimation. Simulations are provided to compare the proposed strategy with existing tensorial or joint diagonalization based methods.

  16. Lagrangian displacement tracking using a polar grid between endocardial and epicardial contours for cardiac strain imaging. (United States)

    Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy


    Accurate cardiac deformation analysis for cardiac displacement and strain imaging over time requires Lagrangian description of deformation of myocardial tissue structures. Failure to couple the estimated displacement and strain information with the correct myocardial tissue structures will lead to erroneous result in the displacement and strain distribution over time. Lagrangian based tracking in this paper divides the tissue structure into a fixed number of pixels whose deformation is tracked over the cardiac cycle. An algorithm that utilizes a polar-grid generated between the estimated endocardial and epicardial contours for cardiac short axis images is proposed to ensure Lagrangian description of the pixels. Displacement estimates from consecutive radiofrequency frames were then mapped onto the polar grid to obtain a distribution of the actual displacement that is mapped to the polar grid over time. A finite element based canine heart model coupled with an ultrasound simulation program was used to verify this approach. Segmental analysis of the accumulated displacement and strain over a cardiac cycle demonstrate excellent agreement between the ideal result obtained directly from the finite element model and our Lagrangian approach to strain estimation. Traditional Eulerian based estimation results, on the other hand, show significant deviation from the ideal result. An in vivo comparison of the displacement and strain estimated using parasternal short axis views is also presented. Lagrangian displacement tracking using a polar grid provides accurate tracking of myocardial deformation demonstrated using both finite element and in vivo radiofrequency data acquired on a volunteer. In addition to the cardiac application, this approach can also be utilized for transverse scans of arteries, where a polar grid can be generated between the contours delineating the outer and inner wall of the vessels from the blood flowing though the vessel.

  17. VCSEL-powered and polarization-maintaining fiber-optic grating vector rotation sensor. (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Du, Fa; Zhang, Zhaochuan; Li, Chunjie; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques


    A compact fiber-optic vector rotation sensor in which a short section of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber stub containing a straight fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is spliced to another single mode fiber without any lateral offset is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Due to the intrinsic birefringence of the PM fiber, two well-defined resonances (i.e. orthogonally polarized FBG core modes) with wavelength separation of 0.5 nm have been achieved in reflection, and they exhibit a high sensitivity to fiber rotation. Both the orientation and the angle of rotation can be determined unambiguously via simple power detection of the relative amplitudes of the orthogonal core reflections. Meanwhile, instead of using a broadband source (BBS), the sensor is powered by a commercial vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with the laser wavelength matched to the PM-FBG core modes, which enables the sensor to work at much higher power levels (~15 dB better than BBS). This improves the signal-to-noise ratio considerably (~50 dB), and makes a demodulation filter unnecessary. Vector rotation measurement with a sensitivity of 0.09 dB/deg has been achieved via cost-effective single detector real time power measurement, and the unwanted power fluctuations and temperature perturbations can be effectively referenced out.

  18. Biquaternion beamspace with its application to vector-sensor array direction findings and polarization estimations (United States)

    Li, Dan; Xu, Feng; Jiang, Jing Fei; Zhang, Jian Qiu


    In this paper, a biquaternion beamspace, constructed by projecting the original data of an electromagnetic vector-sensor array into a subspace of a lower dimension via a quaternion transformation matrix, is first proposed. To estimate the direction and polarization angles of sources, biquaternion beamspace multiple signal classification (BB-MUSIC) estimators are then formulated. The analytical results show that the biquaternion beamspaces offer us some additional degrees of freedom to simultaneously achieve three goals. One is to save the memory spaces for storing the data covariance matrix and reduce the computation efforts of the eigen-decomposition. Another is to decouple the estimations of the sources' polarization parameters from those of their direction angles. The other is to blindly whiten the coherent noise of the six constituent antennas in each vector-sensor. It is also shown that the existing biquaternion multiple signal classification (BQ-MUSIC) estimator is a specific case of our BB-MUSIC ones. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the analytical ones.

  19. A Spatiotemporal Database to Track Human Scrub Typhus Using the VectorMap Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J Kelly


    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap ( to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases.

  20. Spin Tracking of Polarized Protons in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, M. [Fermilab; Lorenzon, W. [Michigan U.; Aldred, C. [Michigan U.


    The Main Injector (MI) at Fermilab currently produces high-intensity beams of protons at energies of 120 GeV for a variety of physics experiments. Acceleration of polarized protons in the MI would provide opportunities for a rich spin physics program at Fermilab. To achieve polarized proton beams in the Fermilab accelerator complex, shown in Fig.1.1, detailed spin tracking simulations with realistic parameters based on the existing facility are required. This report presents studies at the MI using a single 4-twist Si-berian snake to determine the depolarizing spin resonances for the relevant synchrotrons. Results will be presented first for a perfect MI lattice, followed by a lattice that includes the real MI imperfections, such as the measured magnet field errors and quadrupole misalignments. The tolerances of each of these factors in maintaining polariza-tion in the Main Injector will be discussed.

  1. Tracking Changes in Cardiac Output: Statistical Considerations on the 4-Quadrant Plot and the Polar Plot Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Wagner, Julia Y


    When comparing 2 technologies for measuring hemodynamic parameters with regard to their ability to track changes, 2 graphical tools are omnipresent in the literaturethe 4-quadrant plot and the polar...

  2. The Vector Vortex Coronagraph: Sensitivity to Low-Order Aberrations, Central Obscuration, Chromaticism, and Polarization (United States)

    Mawet, Dimitri; Pueyo, Laurent; Moody, Dwight; Krist, John; Serabyn, Eugene


    The Vector Vortex Coronagraph is a phase-based coronagraph, one of the most efficient in terms of inner working angle, throughput, discovery space, contrast, and simplicity. Using liquid-crystal polymer technology, this new coronagraph has recently been the subject of lab demonstrations in the near-infrared, visible and was also used on sky at the Palomar observatory in the H and K bands (1.65 and 2.2 micrometers, respectively) to image the brown dwarf companion to HR 7672, and the three extasolar planets around HR 8799. However, despite these recent successes, the Vector Vortex Coronagraph is, as are most coronagraphs, sensitive to the central obscuration and secondary support structures, low-order aberrations (tip-tilt, focus, etc), bandwidth (chromaticism), and polarization when image-plane wavefront sensing is performed. Here, we consider in detail these sensitivities as a function of the topological charge of the vortex and design properties inherent to the manufacturing technology, and show that in practice all of them can be mitigated to meet specific needs.

  3. A Systematic Approach for Solving the Great Circle Track Problems based on Vector Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chih-Li


    Full Text Available A systematic approach, based on multiple products of the vector algebra (S-VA, is proposed to derive the spherical triangle formulae for solving the great circle track (GCT problems. Because the mathematical properties of the geometry and algebra are both embedded in the S-VA approach, derivations of the spherical triangle formulae become more understandable and more straightforward as compared with those approaches which use the complex linear combination of a vector basis. In addition, the S-VA approach can handle all given initial conditions for solving the GCT problems simpler, clearer and avoid redundant formulae existing in the conventional approaches. With the technique of transforming the Earth coordinates system of latitudes and longitudes into the Cartesian one and adopting the relative longitude concept, the concise governing equations of the S-VA approach can be easily and directly derived. Owing to the advantage of the S-VA approach, it makes the practical navigator quickly adjust to solve the GCT problems. Based on the S-VA approach, a program namely GCTPro_VA is developed for friendly use of the navigator. Several validation examples are provided to show the S-VA approach is simple and versatile to solve the GCT problems.

  4. Relationship Between the Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortext ,North Pacific Storm Track and the West Wind Drift (United States)

    Lian, Y.; Li, S.; Liu, Z.; Shen, B.; Yang, Q.


    : For this study, we use the daily and the monthly data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction- National Centers for Atmospheric Research(NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis. In addition, we employ the monthly sea surface temperature data and the area index of the polar vortex in the Pacific sector from Beijing Climate Center. The time of the data set covers from 1951 to 2002.We study the relationship between the polar area in the northern hemisphere and the sea surface temperature in the west wind drift( we also do the same work between the storm track and the polar area) in the spring, the result shows that: (1) In the Pacific sector (150° E - 120° W), there is obvious negative correlation between the area index of the polar vortex and the index of sea surface temperature in west wind drift area in spring. Moreover, we also find the same phenomenon between the Pacific sector polar vortex area index and the storm track in the spring. With respect to the definition of the storm track index and the index of the west wind drift area sea surface temperature, we will give some explanation at the end of the paper. (2)By using the M-K(Mann-Kendall) test method, we found that the spring polar area index in the Pacific sector and the spring storm track index all have an abrupt change in 1969. The value of the spring polar area index is smaller than that of the average throughout the 1950s and 1960's,but during the 1970s and 1980s it is on the contrary. Analysing the index variety we can conclude that the location of the Pacific storm track is more northward throughout the 1950's and 1960's but more southward during the 1970s and 1980s.Using the M-K(Mann-Kendall) test method ,we also found the spring index of the sea surface temperature in the west wind drift area have an abrupt change in 1973.It means that the sea surface temperature of the west wind drift is colder during the 1950s and 1960's,but during the 1970s and 1980s it is warmer. (3)During the 1950s and 1960s

  5. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo


    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  6. Molecular markers for the identification and global tracking of whitefly vector-Begomovirus complexes. (United States)

    Brown, J K


    Recent unprecedented upsurges in populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) have drawn much attention to its worldwide importance as an insect pest and as the vector of emergent begomoviruses (Family: Geminiviridae; Genus: Begomovirus). Several begomoviruses that are considered 'new' and others previously regarded as minor pathogens have been linked to recent epidemics. Recent studies have revealed much variation in begomoviruses, despite the view that DNA-containing viruses do not rapidly accumulate mutations. Also, certain B. tabaci 'variants' are known that more effectively or selectively transmit certain begomoviruses and exhibit biotic differences that may influence their spread. Patterns of distribution and dissemination of begomoviruses transmitted by B. tabaci are poorly understood because standardized molecular-based tracking methods have not been available. Understanding virus/whitefly vector/host plant interrelationships in the context of emerging problems can be achieved only by linking predicted evolutionary histories with epidemiology using molecular phylogenetic approaches. Identification and validation of informative molecular sequences are essential initial steps in this process. Genus-wide degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers have been developed to amplify and sequence the 'core' region of the coat protein open reading frame (ORF) (V1), permitting 'universal' detection and provisional virus identification by comparisons with described viral genotypes. In subsequent studies reported here, several potentially informative viral ORFs and a non-coding region are explored. Of particular use for expanding diversity studies are group- or virus-specific sequences that can be targeted by utilizing newly available core CP sequences, or additional conserved regions around which broad spectrum primers can be designed to target variable sequences in key ORFs or non-coding regions. Prospective markers under exploration were selected with a

  7. Log-polar mapping-based scale space tracking with adaptive target response (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Wen, Gongjian; Kuai, Yangliu; Zhang, Ximing


    Correlation filter-based tracking has exhibited impressive robustness and accuracy in recent years. Standard correlation filter-based trackers are restricted to translation estimation and equipped with fixed target response. These trackers produce an inferior performance when encountered with a significant scale variation or appearance change. We propose a log-polar mapping-based scale space tracker with an adaptive target response. This tracker transforms the scale variation of the target in the Cartesian space into a shift along the logarithmic axis in the log-polar space. A one-dimensional scale correlation filter is learned online to estimate the shift along the logarithmic axis. With the log-polar representation, scale estimation is achieved accurately without a multiresolution pyramid. To achieve an adaptive target response, a variance of the Gaussian function is computed from the response map and updated online with a learning rate parameter. Our log-polar mapping-based scale correlation filter and adaptive target response can be combined with any correlation filter-based trackers. In addition, the scale correlation filter can be extended to a two-dimensional correlation filter to achieve joint estimation of the scale variation and in-plane rotation. Experiments performed on an OTB50 benchmark demonstrate that our tracker achieves superior performance against state-of-the-art trackers.

  8. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife (United States)

    Stapleton, Seth P.; LaRue, Michelle A.; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Garshelis, David L.; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd C.


    Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark- recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  9. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife. (United States)

    Stapleton, Seth; LaRue, Michelle; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen; Garshelis, David; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd


    Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark-recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  10. Human saccadic eye movements and tracking by active foveation in log polar space (United States)

    Lim, Fee-Lee; Venkatesh, Svetha; West, Geoffrey A. W.


    One of the possible models of the human visual system (HVS) in the computer vision literature has a high resolution fovea and exponentially decreasing resolution periphery. The high resolution fovea is used to extract necessary information in order to solve a vision task and the periphery may be used to detect motion. To obtain the desired information, the fovea is guided by the contents of the scene and other knowledge to position the fovea over areas of interest. These eye movements are called saccades and corrective saccades. A two stage process has been implemented as a mechanism for changing foveation in log polar space. Initially, the open loop stage roughly foveates on the best interest feature and then the closed loop stage is invoked to accurately iteratively converge onto the foveation point. The open loop stage developed for the foveation algorithm is applied to saccadic eye movements and a tracking system. Log polar space is preferred over Cartesian space as: (1) it simultaneously provides high resolution and a wide viewing angle; and (2) feature invariance occurs in the fovea which simplifies the foveation process.

  11. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Stapleton

    Full Text Available Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark-recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105 was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152. Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  12. Vacuum polarization in the model of Dirac fermions with anomalous magnetic moment interacting with background axial-vector condensate and magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubnov A.F.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider vacuum polarization effects in the model of charged fermions with anomalous magnetic moment and axial-vector interaction term in a uniform magnetic field. Nontrivial orrections to the effective Lagrangian from the anomalous moment and axial-vector term are calculated with account for various configurations of parameters of the model.

  13. Phase regeneration for polarization-division multiplexed signals based on vector dual-pump nondegenerate phase sensitive amplification. (United States)

    Yang, Weili; Yu, Yu; Ye, Mengyuan; Chen, Guanyu; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xinliang


    The polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) technology is a practical method to double the transmission capacity, and the corresponding phase regeneration (PR) for PDM signals is meaningful and necessary to extend the transmission distance and increase the transparency for the phase-encoded PDM system. Those reported PDM PR schemes either utilized polarization-diversity technique or required special PDM format. In order to overcome these issues, the PR for the PDM phase-modulated signals is proposed and theoretically demonstrated in this paper, based on the vector dual-pump nondegenerate phase sensitive amplification (PSA). The theoretical model is established and the detailed characteristics are investigated to optimize the PR performance. Results show an obvious phase squeezing for the degraded 80 Gbit/s PDM differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals, and the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the regenerated signals on dual polarization states can be improved from 22.58% and 21.39% to 4.57% and 4.63%, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed scheme for PDM quaternary-phase shift keying (QPSK) signals is investigated. The proposed scheme can be useful and promising in current PDM based coherent fiber-optic communication.

  14. Polarization evolution of vector wave amplitudes in twisted fibers pumped by single and paired pulses. (United States)

    Almanee, M; Haus, J W; Armas-Rivera, I; Beltrán-Pérez, G; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Duran-Sanchez, M; Álvarez-Tamayo, R I; Kuzin, E A; Bracamontes-Rodríguez, Y E; Pottiez, O


    Nonlinear polarization dynamics of single and paired pulses in twisted fibers is experimentally and numerically studied. Accompanying a dramatic difference in the output spectrum when a single- or double-amplified soliton pulse is launched in the fiber, the output polarization for the two cases also reveals very different characteristics.

  15. Radioiodinated Capsids Facilitate In Vivo Non-Invasive Tracking of Adeno-Associated Gene Transfer Vectors. (United States)

    Kothari, P; De, B P; He, B; Chen, A; Chiuchiolo, M J; Kim, D; Nikolopoulou, A; Amor-Coarasa, A; Dyke, J P; Voss, H U; Kaminsky, S M; Foley, C P; Vallabhajosula, S; Hu, B; DiMagno, S G; Sondhi, D; Crystal, R G; Babich, J W; Ballon, D


    Viral vector mediated gene therapy has become commonplace in clinical trials for a wide range of inherited disorders. Successful gene transfer depends on a number of factors, of which tissue tropism is among the most important. To date, definitive mapping of the spatial and temporal distribution of viral vectors in vivo has generally required postmortem examination of tissue. Here we present two methods for radiolabeling adeno-associated virus (AAV), one of the most commonly used viral vectors for gene therapy trials, and demonstrate their potential usefulness in the development of surrogate markers for vector delivery during the first week after administration. Specifically, we labeled adeno-associated virus serotype 10 expressing the coding sequences for the CLN2 gene implicated in late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with iodine-124. Using direct (Iodogen) and indirect (modified Bolton-Hunter) methods, we observed the vector in the murine brain for up to one week using positron emission tomography. Capsid radioiodination of viral vectors enables non-invasive, whole body, in vivo evaluation of spatial and temporal vector distribution that should inform methods for efficacious gene therapy over a broad range of applications.

  16. Gene delivery to carcinoma cells via novel non-viral vectors: nanoparticle tracking analysis and suicide gene therapy. (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Senait; Singh, Aruna; Koons, Stephen; Bernt, William; Konopka, Krystyna; Duzgunes, Nejat


    Suicide gene therapy of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may be a viable approach to the treatment of this cancer. However, human OSCC cells are relatively resistant to efficient transfection by non-viral vectors. To identify an optimal vector for gene delivery, we compared the transfection activities and efficiencies of Glycofect, Metafectene, Metafectene Pro, Metafectene Easy and FuGENE HD, using the OSCC cell line, HSC-3, and the cervical carcinoma cell line, HeLa. The size distribution and ζ-potential of the complexes of these vectors with plasmid DNA were assessed by nanoparticle tracking analysis and electrophoretic mobility measurements, respectively. Metafectene Easy and FuGENE HD mediated the highest transfection activity (measured as luciferase expression) and efficiency (measured as the percentage of cells transfected with ß-galactosidase). These vectors were used to deliver a plasmid encoding herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, followed by ganciclovir treatment. By day 9, HeLa cell viability was 22±3% of controls with FuGENE HD and 26±3% with Metafectene Easy. The viability of HSC-3 cells was 42±25% with FuGENE HD, and 58±28% with Metafectene Easy. The reduction in viability was statistically significant in both cases (p⩽0.005; average of 3 independent experiments), although there was considerable variability between experiments with the HSC-3 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polar Pathfinder Daily 25 km EASE-Grid Sea Ice Motion Vectors (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily ice motion vectors are computed from a wide variety of sensors ranging from passive microwave radiometers, such as the Scanning Multichannel Microwave...

  18. Polar Pathfinder Daily 25 km EASE-Grid Sea Ice Motion Vectors, Version 3 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides daily sea ice motion vectors derived from a wide variety of sensors in both gridded and non-gridded (raw) files. For the gridded data, weekly...

  19. A novel non-uniform control vector parameterization approach with time grid refinement for flight level tracking optimal control problems. (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao; Xiao, Long; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Chunhua; Gui, Weihua


    High quality control method is essential for the implementation of aircraft autopilot system. An optimal control problem model considering the safe aerodynamic envelop is therefore established to improve the control quality of aircraft flight level tracking. A novel non-uniform control vector parameterization (CVP) method with time grid refinement is then proposed for solving the optimal control problem. By introducing the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis, an efficient time grid refinement approach is presented and an adaptive time grid is automatically obtained. With this refinement, the proposed method needs fewer optimization parameters to achieve better control quality when compared with uniform refinement CVP method, whereas the computational cost is lower. Two well-known flight level altitude tracking problems and one minimum time cost problem are tested as illustrations and the uniform refinement control vector parameterization method is adopted as the comparative base. Numerical results show that the proposed method achieves better performances in terms of optimization accuracy and computation cost; meanwhile, the control quality is efficiently improved. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurements of spin alignment of vector mesons and global polarization of hyperons with ALICE at the LHC arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    We present the measurements related to global polarization of $\\Lambda$ hyperons and spin alignment of $\\mathrm{K^{*0}}~$ vector mesons at mid-rapidity for Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}~$= 2.76 TeV using the ALICE detector at the LHC. The global polarization measurements are carried out with respect to the first order event plane while the spin alignment measurements are carried out with respect to the production plane. No global polarization signal for $\\Lambda$ is observed for 5-15\\% and 15-50\\% central Pb-Pb collisions. The spin density matrix element $\\rho_{00}$ is found to have values slightly below 1/3 at low transverse momentum ($p_{\\mathrm{T}}$) for $\\mathrm{K^{*0}}~$ mesons, while it is consistent with 1/3 (no spin alignment) at higher $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$. No spin alignment is observed for $\\mathrm{K^{*0}}~$ in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV and for the spin zero hadron $\\mathrm{K^{0}_{S}}~$ in 20-40\\% Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}~$ = 2.76 TeV.

  1. DOA and Polarization Estimation Using an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Uniform Circular Array Based on the ESPRIT Algorithm. (United States)

    Wu, Na; Qu, Zhiyu; Si, Weijian; Jiao, Shuhong


    In array signal processing systems, the direction of arrival (DOA) and polarization of signals based on uniform linear or rectangular sensor arrays are generally obtained by rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT). However, since the ESPRIT algorithm relies on the rotational invariant structure of the received data, it cannot be applied to electromagnetic vector sensor arrays (EVSAs) featuring uniform circular patterns. To overcome this limitation, a fourth-order cumulant-based ESPRIT algorithm is proposed in this paper, for joint estimation of DOA and polarization based on a uniform circular EVSA. The proposed algorithm utilizes the fourth-order cumulant to obtain a virtual extended array of a uniform circular EVSA, from which the pairs of rotation invariant sub-arrays are obtained. The ESPRIT algorithm and parameter pair matching are then utilized to estimate the DOA and polarization of the incident signals. The closed-form parameter estimation algorithm can effectively reduce the computational complexity of the joint estimation, which has been demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  2. Polarization tracking system for free-space optical communication, including quantum communication (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Hughes, Richard John


    Quantum communication transmitters include beacon lasers that transmit a beacon optical signal in a predetermined state of polarization such as one of the states of polarization of a quantum communication basis. Changes in the beacon polarization are detected at a receiver, and a retarder is adjusted so that the states of polarization in a received quantum communication optical signal are matched to basis polarizations. The beacon and QC signals can be at different wavelengths so that the beacon does not interfere with detection and decoding of the QC optical signal.

  3. Complex unitary vectors for the direction of propagation and for the polarization of electromagnetic waves in uniaxial and absorbing dielectric media. (United States)

    Diñeiro, J M; Berrogui, M; Alfonso, S; Alberdi, C; Hernández, B; Sáenz, C


    The propagation of inhomogeneous and elliptically polarized plane waves in absorbing uniaxial anisotropic media is described using complex unitary vectors to represent the direction of propagation and the direction of polarization. Detailed expressions for electric displacement, electric field, and magnetic field vectors are obtained for the ordinary and extraordinary waves, and their geometry is discussed. According to the complex direction of propagation, three particular cases are studied: the real case (homogeneous wave), the case perpendicular to the optical axis, and the case coplanar with the optic axis. The case of isotropic media is also analyzed.

  4. The Differential Vector Phase-Locked Loop for Global Navigation Satellite System Signal Tracking (United States)


    second. Using orthogonal codes in a code division multiple access ( CDMA ) scheme, all satellites share the same frequency. The signal-in-space from the...and a rover receiver front end connected to a receiver aboard a mobile platform. The data from each system are recorded in such a way that there is...Performance Code and Carrier Tracking Architecture for Ground- Based Mobile GNSS Receivers”. Proceedings of the ION-ITM-10, 3054–3068. Institute of Navigation

  5. Modified particle filtering algorithm for single acoustic vector sensor DOA tracking. (United States)

    Li, Xinbo; Sun, Haixin; Jiang, Liangxu; Shi, Yaowu; Wu, Yue


    The conventional direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm with static sources assumption usually estimates the source angles of two adjacent moments independently and the correlation of the moments is not considered. In this article, we focus on the DOA estimation of moving sources and a modified particle filtering (MPF) algorithm is proposed with state space model of single acoustic vector sensor. Although the particle filtering (PF) algorithm has been introduced for acoustic vector sensor applications, it is not suitable for the case that one dimension angle of source is estimated with large deviation, the two dimension angles (pitch angle and azimuth angle) cannot be simultaneously employed to update the state through resampling processing of PF algorithm. To solve the problems mentioned above, the MPF algorithm is proposed in which the state estimation of previous moment is introduced to the particle sampling of present moment to improve the importance function. Moreover, the independent relationship of pitch angle and azimuth angle is considered and the two dimension angles are sampled and evaluated, respectively. Then, the MUSIC spectrum function is used as the "likehood" function of the MPF algorithm, and the modified PF-MUSIC (MPF-MUSIC) algorithm is proposed to improve the root mean square error (RMSE) and the probability of convergence. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the two proposed algorithms.

  6. Modified Particle Filtering Algorithm for Single Acoustic Vector Sensor DOA Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Li


    Full Text Available The conventional direction of arrival (DOA estimation algorithm with static sources assumption usually estimates the source angles of two adjacent moments independently and the correlation of the moments is not considered. In this article, we focus on the DOA estimation of moving sources and a modified particle filtering (MPF algorithm is proposed with state space model of single acoustic vector sensor. Although the particle filtering (PF algorithm has been introduced for acoustic vector sensor applications, it is not suitable for the case that one dimension angle of source is estimated with large deviation, the two dimension angles (pitch angle and azimuth angle cannot be simultaneously employed to update the state through resampling processing of PF algorithm. To solve the problems mentioned above, the MPF algorithm is proposed in which the state estimation of previous moment is introduced to the particle sampling of present moment to improve the importance function. Moreover, the independent relationship of pitch angle and azimuth angle is considered and the two dimension angles are sampled and evaluated, respectively. Then, the MUSIC spectrum function is used as the “likehood” function of the MPF algorithm, and the modified PF-MUSIC (MPF-MUSIC algorithm is proposed to improve the root mean square error (RMSE and the probability of convergence. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the two proposed algorithms.

  7. Vector characterization of zero-order terahertz Bessel beams with linear and circular polarizations. (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xinke; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Han, Peng; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan


    As a kind of special beams, Bessel beams are always a research hot spot in optics due to its non-diffractive and self-healing properties. Here, zero-order terahertz (THz) Bessel beams with linear and circular polarizations are generated by using a THz quarter wave plate and Teflon axicons with different opening angles. By applying a THz digital holographic imaging system, the evolutions of the transverse (E x , E y ) and longitudinal (E z ) electric fields are coherently measured and analyzed during the propagation processes of the THz Bessel beams. The vectorial Rayleigh diffraction integral is used to accurately reproduce the amplitude, phase, and non-diffractive feature of each polarization component for the THz Bessel beams. With varying opening angles of the axicons, the focal spots, diffraction-free ranges, and Gouy phase shifts of the THz Bessel beams are compared and discussed. The experiment and simulation results provide a comprehensive view for exactly understanding peculiar features of THz Bessel beams.

  8. A Support Vector Machine Hydrometeor Classification Algorithm for Dual-Polarization Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Roberto


    Full Text Available An algorithm based on a support vector machine (SVM is proposed for hydrometeor classification. The training phase is driven by the output of a fuzzy logic hydrometeor classification algorithm, i.e., the most popular approach for hydrometer classification algorithms used for ground-based weather radar. The performance of SVM is evaluated by resorting to a weather scenario, generated by a weather model; the corresponding radar measurements are obtained by simulation and by comparing results of SVM classification with those obtained by a fuzzy logic classifier. Results based on the weather model and simulations show a higher accuracy of the SVM classification. Objective comparison of the two classifiers applied to real radar data shows that SVM classification maps are spatially more homogenous (textural indices, energy, and homogeneity increases by 21% and 12% respectively and do not present non-classified data. The improvements found by SVM classifier, even though it is applied pixel-by-pixel, can be attributed to its ability to learn from the entire hyperspace of radar measurements and to the accurate training. The reliability of results and higher computing performance make SVM attractive for some challenging tasks such as its implementation in Decision Support Systems for helping pilots to make optimal decisions about changes inthe flight route caused by unexpected adverse weather.

  9. Preferential macrophage recruitment and polarization in LPS-induced animal model for COPD: noninvasive tracking using MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achraf Al Faraj

    Full Text Available Noninvasive imaging of macrophages activity has raised increasing interest for diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory diseases (COPD, which make them attractive vehicles to deliver contrast agents for diagnostic or drugs for therapeutic purposes. This study was designed to monitor and evaluate the migration of differently polarized M1 and M2 iron labeled macrophage subsets to the lung of a LPS-induced COPD animal model and to assess their polarization state once they have reached the inflammatory sites in the lung after intravenous injection. Ex vivo polarized bone marrow derived M1 or M2 macrophages were first efficiently and safely labeled with amine-modified PEGylated dextran-coated SPIO nanoparticles and without altering their polarization profile. Their biodistribution in abdominal organs and their homing to the site of inflammation in the lung was tracked for the first time using a free-breathing non-invasive MR imaging protocol on a 4.7T magnet after their intravenous administration. This imaging protocol was optimized to allow both detection of iron labeled macrophages and visualization of inflammation in the lung. M1 and M2 macrophages were successfully detected in the lung starting from 2 hours post injection with no variation in their migration profile. Quantification of cytokines release, analysis of surface membrane expression using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry investigations confirmed the successful recruitment of injected iron labeled macrophages in the lung of COPD mice and revealed that even with a continuum switch in the polarization profile of M1 and M2 macrophages during the time course of inflammation a balanced number of macrophage subsets predominate.

  10. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of B quarks using momentum-weighted track charge at SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junk, Thomas Robert [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    This thesis presents a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter Ab by analyzing the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks in e+e- → Z0 → b$\\bar{b}$. Data were taken at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), with the Stanford Large Detector (SLD), which records the products of e+e- interactions at a center of mass energy √s = 91.2 GeV/c2 at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC/SLD experimental apparatus provides a unique and ideal environment for measuring electroweak asymmetries. Heavy flavor decays of the Z0 were identified inclusively by taking advantage of the long lifetime of B hadrons, the small, stable SLC beam spot, and SLD`s precise tracking detectors. Two analysis techniques for measuring Ab are presented: a binned fit to the left-right forward-backwards asymmetry of tagged events signed with momentum-weighted track charge, and a self-calibrating maximum-likelihood technique using momentum-weighted charge from the two hemispheres in each tagged event. From our 1994-1995 sample of 3.6 pb-1, having a luminosity-weighted average e- polarization of 77.3%, and our 1993 sample of 1.8 pb-1, having a luminosity-weighted polarization of 63.1%, we obtain Ab = 0.848 ± 0.046(stat.) ± 0.050(syst.).

  11. Polarized e-bunch acceleration at Cornell RCS: Tentative tracking simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rubin, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    An option as an injector into eRHIC electron storage ring is a rapid-cyclic synchrotron (RCS). Rapid acceleration of polarized electron bunches has never been done, Cornell synchrotron might lend itself to dedicated tests, which is to be first explored based on numerical investigations. This paper is a very preliminary introduction to the topic.

  12. Debris Flows and Water Tracks in Continental Antarctica: Water as a geomorphic agent in a hyperarid polar desert (United States)

    Hauber, E.; Sassenroth, C.; De Vera, J.-P.; Schmitz, N.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Johnsson, A.


    Most studies using Antarctica as a Mars analogue have focused on the McMurdo Dry Valleys, which are among the coldest and driest places on Earth. However, other ice-free areas in continental Antarctica also display landforms that can inform the study of the possible geomorphic impact of water in a polar desert. Here we present a new analogue site in the interior of the Transantarctic Mountains in Northern Victoria Land. Gullies show unambiguous evidence for debris flows, and water tracks act as shallow subsurface pathways of water on top of the permafrost tale. Both processes are driven by meltwater from glacier ice and snow in an environ-ment which never experiences rainfall and in which the air temperatures probably never exceed 0°C.

  13. Procedure for measuring photon and vector meson circular polarization variation with respect to the reaction plane in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (United States)

    Tang, A. H.; Wang, G.


    The electromagnetic (EM) field pattern created by spectators in relativistic heavy-ion collisions plants a seed of positive (negative) magnetic helicity in the hemisphere above (below) the reaction plane. Owing to the chiral anomaly, the magnetic helicity interacts with the fermionic helicity of the collision system and causes photons emitted in upper and lower hemispheres to have different preferences in the circular polarization. Similar helicity separation for massive particles, owing to the global vorticity, is also possible. In this paper, we lay out a procedure to measure the variation of the circular polarization with respect to the reaction plane in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for massless photons, as well as similar polarization patterns for vector mesons decaying into two daughters. We propose to study the yield differentially and compare the yield between upper and lower hemispheres to identify and quantify such effects.

  14. Statistics of a parallel Poynting vector in the auroral zone as a function of altitude using Polar EFI and MFE data and Astrid-2 EMMA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen


    Full Text Available We study the wave-related (AC and static (DC parallel Poynting vector (Poynting energy flux as a function of altitude in auroral field lines using Polar EFI and MFE data. The study is statistical and contains 5 years of data in the altitude range 5000–30000 km. We verify the low altitude part of the results by comparison with earlier Astrid-2 EMMA Poynting vector statistics at 1000 km altitude. The EMMA data are also used to statistically compensate the Polar results for the missing zonal electric field component. We compare the Poynting vector with previous statistical DMSP satellite data concerning the electron precipitation power. We find that the AC Poynting vector (Alfvén-wave related Poynting vector is statistically not sufficient to power auroral electron precipitation, although it may, for Kp>2, power 25–50% of it. The statistical AC Poynting vector also has a stepwise transition at R=4 RE, so that its amplitude increases with increasing altitude. We suggest that this corresponds to Alfvén waves being in Landau resonance with electrons, so that wave-induced electron acceleration takes place at this altitude range, which was earlier named the Alfvén Resonosphere (ARS. The DC Poynting vector is ~3 times larger than electron precipitation and corresponds mainly to ionospheric Joule heating. In the morning sector (02:00–06:00 MLT we find that the DC Poynting vector has a nontrivial altitude profile such that it decreases by a factor of ~2 when moving upward from 3 to 4 RE radial distance. In other nightside MLT sectors the altitude profile is more uniform. The morning sector nontrivial altitude profile may be due to divergence of the perpendicular Poynting vector field at R=3–4 RE.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interactions

  15. High Arctic summer warming tracked by increased Cassiope tetragona growth in the world's northernmost polar desert. (United States)

    Weijers, Stef; Buchwal, Agata; Blok, Daan; Löffler, Jörg; Elberling, Bo


    Rapid climate warming has resulted in shrub expansion, mainly of erect deciduous shrubs in the Low Arctic, but the more extreme, sparsely vegetated, cold and dry High Arctic is generally considered to remain resistant to such shrub expansion in the next decades. Dwarf shrub dendrochronology may reveal climatological causes of past changes in growth, but is hindered at many High Arctic sites by short and fragmented instrumental climate records. Moreover, only few High Arctic shrub chronologies cover the recent decade of substantial warming. This study investigated the climatic causes of growth variability of the evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona between 1927 and 2012 in the northernmost polar desert at 83°N in North Greenland. We analysed climate-growth relationships over the period with available instrumental data (1950-2012) between a 102-year-long C. tetragona shoot length chronology and instrumental climate records from the three nearest meteorological stations, gridded climate data, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) indices. July extreme maximum temperatures (JulTemx ), as measured at Alert, Canada, June NAO, and previous October AO, together explained 41% of the observed variance in annual C. tetragona growth and likely represent in situ summer temperatures. JulTemx explained 27% and was reconstructed back to 1927. The reconstruction showed relatively high growing season temperatures in the early to mid-twentieth century, as well as warming in recent decades. The rapid growth increase in C. tetragona shrubs in response to recent High Arctic summer warming shows that recent and future warming might promote an expansion of this evergreen dwarf shrub, mainly through densification of existing shrub patches, at High Arctic sites with sufficient winter snow cover and ample water supply during summer from melting snow and ice as well as thawing permafrost, contrasting earlier notions of limited shrub growth sensitivity to

  16. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohdy Sarah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus, parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus. These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g, arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1 the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2 due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3 individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only

  17. Polar vectors as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of irritable bowel syndrome treatments: An analysis with pinaverium bromide 100 mg plus simethicone 300 mg po bid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. López-Alvarenga


    Conclusions: Analysis with polar vectors enables treatment response to be measured in different IBS subtypes. All the groups showed improvement with PB + S, but each one had its own characteristic response in relation to vector magnitude and direction. The proposed method can be implemented in clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy of IBS treatments.

  18. Detection of Earth-rotation Doppler shift from Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Cross-Track Infrared Sounder. (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Han, Yong; Weng, Fuzhong


    The Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Satellite is a Fourier transform spectrometer and provides a total of 1305 channels for sounding the atmosphere. Quantifying the CrIS spectral accuracy, which is directly related to radiometric accuracy, is crucial for improving its data assimilation in numerical weather prediction. In this study, a cross-correlation method is used for detecting the effect of Earth-rotation Doppler shift (ERDS) on CrIS observations. Based on a theoretical calculation, the ERDS can be as large as about 1.3 parts in 10(6) (ppm) near Earth's equator and at the satellite scan edge for a field of regard (FOR) of 1 or 30. The CrIS observations exhibit a relative Doppler shift as large as 2.6 ppm for a FOR pair of 1 and 30 near the equator. The variation of the ERDS with latitude and scan position detected from CrIS observations is similar to that derived theoretically, which indicates that the spectral stability of the CrIS instrument is very high. To accurately calibrate CrIS spectral accuracy, the ERDS effect should be removed. Since the ERDS is easily predictable, the Doppler shift is correctable in the CrIS spectra.

  19. Wave-vector and polarization dependent impedance model for a hexagonal periodic metasurface exemplified through finite-difference time-domain simulations. (United States)

    Ding, Yi S; He, Yang


    An isotropic impedance sheet model is proposed for a loop-type hexagonal periodic metasurface. Both frequency and wave-vector dispersion are considered near the resonance frequency. Therefore both the angle and polarization dependences of the metasurface impedance can be properly and simultaneously described in our model. The constitutive relation of this model is transformed into auxiliary differential equations which are integrated into the finite-difference time-domain algorithm. Finally, a finite large metasurface sample under oblique illumination is used to test the model and the algorithm. Our model and algorithm can significantly increase the accuracy of the homogenization methods for modeling periodic metasurfaces.

  20. Measurement of the vector np → dπ{sup 0}π{sup 0} reaction with polarized beam in the region of the d*(2380) resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlarson, P.; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Gullstroem, C.O.; Heijkenskjoeld, L.; Johansson, T.; Marciniewski, P.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Morsch, H.P.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Department of Nuclear Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Bardan, W.; Ciepal, I.; Czerwinski, E.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Khatri, G.; Kistryn, S.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Schaetti-Ozerianska, I.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Zielinski, M.J. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Bashkanov, M. [University of Edinburgh, James Clerk Maxwell Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Bergmann, F.S.; Demmich, K.; Huesken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Sitterberg, K.; Taeschner, A. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Department, Warsaw (Poland); Bhatt, H.; Varma, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Physics, Powai, Maharashtra (India); Bondar, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Shwartz, B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Buescher, M.; Engels, R.; Goldenbaum, F.; Hejny, V.; Khan, F.A.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Stassen, R.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Zurek, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Clement, H. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro- and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Wuestner, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Zentralinstitut fuer Engineering, Elektronik und Analytik, Juelich (Germany); Eyrich, W.; Zink, A. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Fedorets, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Foehl, K. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Goswami, A.; Roy, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Department of Physics, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Grigoryev, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, High Energy Physics Division, Gatchina, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energiy Physics, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Klos, B.; Stephan, E. [University of Silesia, August Chelkowski Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Kupsc, A.; Pszczel, D. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Department, Warsaw (Poland); Lalwani, K. [Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, JLN Marg, Department of Physics, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India); Maier, R.; Stroeher, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA-FAME, Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Perez del Rio, E. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Pyszniak, A. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (PL); Ritman, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (DE); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA-FAME, Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, Juelich (DE); RWTH Aachen, Aachen (DE); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik I, Bochum (DE); Sawant, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Physics, Powai, Maharashtra (IN); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (DE); Skorodko, T. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (DE); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro- and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (DE); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (RU); Sopov, V. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Yamamoto, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (JP); Zabierowski, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Department of Astrophysics, Lodz (PL); Collaboration: WASA-at-COSY Collaboration


    We report on a high-statistics measurement of the most basic double-pionic fusion reaction vector np→dπ{sup 0}π{sup 0} over the energy region of the d*(2380) resonance by use of a polarized deuteron beam and observing the double fusion reaction in the quasifree scattering mode. The measurements were performed with the WASA detector setup at COSY. The data reveal substantial analyzing powers and confirm conclusions about the d* resonance obtained from unpolarized measurements. We also confirm the previous unpolarized data obtained under complementary kinematic conditions. (orig.)

  1. An introduction to vectors, vector operators and vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joag, Pramod S


    Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering, this book covers fundamental concepts of vectors and their applications in a single volume. The first unit deals with basic formulation, both conceptual and theoretical. It discusses applications of algebraic operations, Levi-Civita notation, and curvilinear coordinate systems like spherical polar and parabolic systems and structures, and analytical geometry of curves and surfaces. The second unit delves into the algebra of operators and their types and also explains the equivalence between the algebra of vector operators and the algebra of matrices. Formulation of eigen vectors and eigen values of a linear vector operator are elaborated using vector algebra. The third unit deals with vector analysis, discussing vector valued functions of a scalar variable and functions of vector argument (both scalar valued and vector valued), thus covering both the scalar vector fields and vector integration.

  2. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Talavera

    Full Text Available The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn. A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding

  3. Two-Dimensional DOA and Polarization Estimation for a Mixture of Uncorrelated and Coherent Sources with Sparsely-Distributed Vector Sensor Array. (United States)

    Si, Weijian; Zhao, Pinjiao; Qu, Zhiyu


    This paper presents an L-shaped sparsely-distributed vector sensor (SD-VS) array with four different antenna compositions. With the proposed SD-VS array, a novel two-dimensional (2-D) direction of arrival (DOA) and polarization estimation method is proposed to handle the scenario where uncorrelated and coherent sources coexist. The uncorrelated and coherent sources are separated based on the moduli of the eigenvalues. For the uncorrelated sources, coarse estimates are acquired by extracting the DOA information embedded in the steering vectors from estimated array response matrix of the uncorrelated sources, and they serve as coarse references to disambiguate fine estimates with cyclical ambiguity obtained from the spatial phase factors. For the coherent sources, four Hankel matrices are constructed, with which the coherent sources are resolved in a similar way as for the uncorrelated sources. The proposed SD-VS array requires only two collocated antennas for each vector sensor, thus the mutual coupling effects across the collocated antennas are reduced greatly. Moreover, the inter-sensor spacings are allowed beyond a half-wavelength, which results in an extended array aperture. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and favorable performance of the proposed method.

  4. Use of along-track magnetic field differences in lithospheric field modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils


    We demonstrate that first differences of polar orbiting satellite magnetic data in the along-track direction can be used to obtain high resolution models of the lithospheric field. Along-track differences approximate the north–south magnetic field gradients for non-polar latitudes. In a test case......, using 2 yr of low altitude data from the CHAMP satellite, we show that use of along-track differences of vector field data results in an enhanced recovery of the small scale lithospheric field, compared to the use of the vector field data themselves. We show that the along-track technique performs....... Experiments in modelling the Earth's lithospheric magnetic field with along-track differences are presented here as a proof of concept. We anticipate that use of such along-track differences in combination with east–west field differences, as are now provided by the Swarm satellite constellation...

  5. Distinct transduction difference between adeno-associated virus type 1 and type 6 vectors in human polarized airway epithelia. (United States)

    Yan, Z; Lei-Butters, D C M; Keiser, N W; Engelhardt, J F


    Of the many biologically isolated adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes, AAV1 and AAV6 share the highest degree of sequence homology, with only six different capsid residues. We compared the transduction efficiencies of rAAV1 and rAAV6 in primary polarized human airway epithelia and found significant differences in their abilities to transduce epithelia from the apical and basolateral membranes. rAAV1 transduction was ~10-fold higher than rAAV6 following apical infection, whereas rAAV6 transduction was ~10-fold higher than rAAV1 following basolateral infection. Furthermore, rAAV6 demonstrated significant polarity of transduction (100-fold; basolateral » apical), whereas rAAV1 transduced from both membranes with equal efficiency. To evaluate capsid residues responsible for the observed serotype differences, we mutated the six divergent amino acids either alone or in combination. Results from these studies demonstrated that capsid residues 418 and 531 most significantly controlled membrane polarity differences in transduction between serotypes, with the rAAV6-D418E/K531E mutant demonstrating decreased (~10-fold) basolateral transduction and the rAAV1-E418D/E531K mutant demonstrating a transduction polarity identical to rAAV6-WT (wild type). However, none of the rAAV6 mutants obtained apical transduction efficiencies of rAAV1-WT, suggesting that all six divergent capsid residues in AAV1 act in concert to improve apical transduction of HAE.

  6. The role of water tracks in altering biotic and abiotic soil properties and processes in a polar desert in Antarctica (United States)

    Ball, Becky A.; Levy, Joseph


    Groundwater discharge via water tracks is a largely unexplored passageway routing salts and moisture from high elevations to valley floors in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica. Given the influence that water tracks have on the distribution of liquid water in seasonally thawed Antarctic soils, it is surprising how little is known about their role in structuring biotic and abiotic processes this cold desert ecosystem. Particularly, it is unclear how soil biota will respond to the activation of new water tracks resulting from enhanced active layer thickening or enhanced regional snowmelt. In the MDV, water tracks are both wetter and more saline than the surrounding soils, constituting a change in soil habitat suitability for soil biology and therefore the ecological processes they carry out. To investigate the net impact that water tracks have on Dry Valley soil biology, and therefore the ecosystem processes for which they are responsible, we analyzed microbial biomass and activity in soils inside and outside of three water tracks and relate this to the physical soil characteristics. Overall, our results suggest that water tracks can significantly influence soil properties, which can further impact biological biovolume and both biotic and abiotic fluxes of CO2. However, the nature of its impact differs with water track, further suggesting that not all water tracks can be regarded the same.

  7. Study of photoproduction of vector mesons on deuterium by 5. 5 GeV linearly polarized photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V.P.


    The experimental results of a deuterium bubble chamber photoproduction study of half a million pictures at 5.5 GeV are presented. This experiment has been performed using a monoenergetic and linearly polarized photon beam facility at SLAC. At 5.5 GeV the beam polarization is greater than 90%, and the average FWHM of the beam energy spectrum is 0.6 GeV. The reaction ..gamma..d ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/d has been studied in detail. A clear sample of ..gamma..d ..-->.. rho/sup 0/d channel was obtained and from the rho/sup 0/ decay distribution in terms of an extended density matrix which includes correlation with the beam polarization, nine independent density matrix parameters were determined. The study of rho/sup 0/ production and decay in the reaction channel ..gamma..d ..-->.. rho/sup 0/d was found to proceed almost completely through natural parity exchanges; the contribution from unnatural parity exchanges being only (5.3 +- 4.5)% for momentum transfer absolute value t less than or equal to 0.25 GeV/sup 2/. For the rho/sup 0/ mass and width, the values (766 +- 5) and (139 +- 11) MeV, respectively were obtained. The rho/sup 0/ production cross section in this channel has been determined to be (9.1 +- 0.8)

  8. Distinct Transduction Difference Between Adeno-Associated Virus Type 1 and Type 6 Vectors in Human Polarized Airway Epithelia


    Yan, Ziying; Lei-Butters, Diana Chi Man; Keiser, Nicholas W; Engelhardt, John F.


    Of the many biologically isolated AAV serotypes, AAV1 and AAV6 share the highest degree of sequence homology, with only six different capsid residues. We compared the transduction efficiencies of rAAV1 and rAAV6 in primary polarized human airway epithelia (HAE) and found significant differences in their abilities to transduce epithelia from the apical and basolateral membranes. rAAV1 transduction was ~10-fold higher than rAAV6 following apical infection, while rAAV6 transduction was ~10-fold ...

  9. Impact of Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Transduction on the Tightness of a Polarized Model of Airway Epithelium and Effect of Cationic Polymer Polyethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Castellani


    Full Text Available Lentiviral (LV vectors are promising agents for efficient and long-lasting gene transfer into the lung and for gene therapy of genetically determined pulmonary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, however, they have not been evaluated for cytotoxicity and impact on the tightness of the airway epithelium. In this study, we evaluated the transduction efficiency of a last-generation LV vector bearing Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP gene as well as cytotoxicity and tight junction (TJ integrity in a polarized model of airway epithelial cells. High multiplicities of infection (MOI showed to be cytotoxic, as assessed by increase in propidium iodide staining and decrease in cell viability, and harmful for the epithelial tightness, as demonstrated by the decrease of transepithelial resistance (TER and delocalization of occludin from the TJs. To increase LV efficiency at low LV:cell ratio, we employed noncovalent association with the polycation branched 25ߙkDa polyethylenimine (PEI. Transduction of cells with PEI/LV particles resulted in 2.5–3.6-fold increase of percentage of GFP-positive cells only at the highest PEI:LV ratios (1×107 PEI molecules/transducing units with 50 MOI LV as compared to plain LV. At this dose PEI/LV transduction resulted in 6.5±2.4% of propidium iodide-positive cells. On the other hand, PEI/LV particles did not determine any alteration of TER and occludin localization. We conclude that PEI may be useful for improving the efficiency of gene transfer mediated by LV vectors in airway epithelial cells, in the absence of high acute cytotoxicity and alteration in epithelial tightness.

  10. Utilization of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band for Arctic Ship Tracking and Fisheries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Straka


    Full Text Available Maritime ships operating on-board illumination at night appear as point sources of light to highly sensitive low-light imagers on-board environmental satellites. Unlike city lights or lights from offshore gas platforms, whose locations remain stationary from one night to the next, lights from ships typically are ephemeral. Fishing boat lights are most prevalent near coastal cities and along the thermal gradients in the open ocean. Maritime commercial ships also operate lights that can be detected from space. Such observations have been made in a limited way via U.S. Department of Defense satellites since the late 1960s. However, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellite, which carries a new Day/Night Band (DNB radiometer, offers a vastly improved ability for users to observe commercial shipping in remote areas such as the Arctic. Owing to S-NPP’s polar orbit and the DNB’s wide swath (~3040 km, the same location in Polar Regions can be observed for several successive passes via overlapping swaths—offering a limited ability to track ship motion. Here, we demonstrate the DNB’s improved ability to monitor ships from space. Imagery from the DNB is compared with the heritage low-light sensor, the Operational Linescan System (OLS on board the Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP satellites, and is evaluated in the context of tracking individual ships in the Polar Regions under both moonlit and moonless conditions. In a statistical sense, we show how DNB observations of ship lights in the East China Sea can be correlated with seasonal fishing activity, while also revealing compelling structures related to regional fishery agreements established between various nations.

  11. Tracking the return of Aedes aegypti to Brazil, the major vector of the dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. (United States)

    Kotsakiozi, Panayiota; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Caccone, Adalgisa; Evans, Benjamin; Schama, Renata; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Powell, Jeffrey R


    Aedes aegypti, commonly known as "the yellow fever mosquito", is of great medical concern today primarily as the major vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, although yellow fever remains a serious health concern in some regions. The history of Ae. aegypti in Brazil is of particular interest because the country was subjected to a well-documented eradication program during 1940s-1950s. After cessation of the campaign, the mosquito quickly re-established in the early 1970s with several dengue outbreaks reported during the last 30 years. Brazil can be considered the country suffering the most from the yellow fever mosquito, given the high number of dengue, chikungunya and Zika cases reported in the country, after having once been declared "free of Ae. aegypti". We used 12 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic structure of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, genetic variability, genetic affinities with neighboring geographic areas, and the timing of their arrival and spread. This enabled us to reconstruct their recent history and evaluate whether the reappearance in Brazil was the result of re-invasion from neighboring non-eradicated areas or re-emergence from local refugia surviving the eradication program. Our results indicate a genetic break separating the northern and southern Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, with further genetic differentiation within each cluster, especially in southern Brazil. Based on our results, re-invasions from non-eradicated regions are the most likely scenario for the reappearance of Ae. aegypti in Brazil. While populations in the northern cluster are likely to have descended from Venezuela populations as early as the 1970s, southern populations seem to have derived more recently from northern Brazilian areas. Possible entry points are also revealed within both southern and northern clusters that could inform strategies to control and monitor this important arbovirus vector.

  12. An Example of the Informative Potential of Polar Coordinate Analysis: Sprint Tactics in Elite 1,500-m Track Events (United States)

    Aragón, Sonia; Lapresa, Daniel; Arana, Javier; Anguera, M. Teresa; Garzón, Belén


    Polar coordinate analysis is a powerful data reduction technique based on the Zsum statistic, which is calculated from adjusted residuals obtained by lag sequential analysis. Its use has been greatly simplified since the addition of a module in the free software program HOISAN for performing the necessary computations and producing…

  13. Vector meson production and deep-inelastic scattering on (polarized) sup 1 H, sup 2 H, sup 3 He and sup 1 sup 4 N targets

    CERN Document Server

    Steenhoven, G V D


    Selected results of diffractive vector meson leptoproduction and inclusive deep-inelastic lepton scattering are presented. The data have been obtained by the HERMES collaboration using polarized sup 1 H, sup 2 H, sup 3 He, and unpolarized sup 1 sup 4 N targets that were internal to the HERA 27.5 GeV positron beam. Three topics are addressed: (i) The longitudinal part of the rho sup 0 production cross section is shown to be fairly well described by a pQCD calculation based on the Off-Forward Parton Distribution (OFPD) framework; (ii) The rho sup 0 production data reveal a non-zero asymmetry with respect to the spin orientation of the sup 1 H target; and (iii) The ratio of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering data on sup 1 sup 4 N (or sup 3 He) and sup 2 H targets shows a surprising deviation with respect to existing NMC and E665 data on sup 1 sup 2 C, which is interpreted in terms of an A-dependence of the quantity R sigma sub L /sigma sub T.

  14. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission


    Liu, Xiang(Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou University, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China); Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.; Jopson, R. M.; Gnauck, A. H.; Dinu, M.; Xie, C; Winzer, P. J.


    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedi...

  15. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.


    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all...... reach in a dispersion-managed transmission link. We further study the impact of polarization-mode dispersion on the performance gain brought by the phase-conjugated twin waves, showing a gain of ∼3.8 dB in signal quality factors.......-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled...

  16. Influence of size of the spherical scatterers and the attenuation coefficient on the polarization memory based on the Electric Monte Carlo simulation (United States)

    Guan, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Han, Hongwei; Zhong, Wei


    When light travels in water, the state of polarization of the incident light changes as the photons are scattered with suspended particles or reflected on the target surface. In order to increase the working distance, underwater polarized light imaging (UPLI) technology usually makes use of the different depolarization effect between the water body and target on the incident polarized light to filter the backscattered light. So it is significant to study the depolarization characteristics of polarized light in water. In this paper, a Field Monte Carlo (EMC) program is developed to simulate the transmission characteristics of polarized light in water with specific particle and attenuation coefficient. EMC method is different from the traditional Monte Carlo method which tracks the Stokes vector of the beam. It uses the Jones mechanism to characterize the polarization state of the photons. By tracking the two vertical components of the photonic vibrating electric vector, the polarization state and the depolarization effect of polarized light transmitted through a body of water can be obtained. The simulation results are based on horizontal polarization, vertical polarization, 45 degree linearly polarized light(LPL) and right circularly polarized light(CPL) as incident light , Stokes vectors of four types of received light is obtained respectively, and the related parameters are calculated to analyze the polarization memory performance. The numerical results show that water body have good polarization memory property and the influence of the particle size and the attenuation coefficient on the LPL is obvious than that circularly of the polarized light, and the CPL has better polarization memory ability.

  17. Absolute Geostrophic Velocity Inverted from the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC3.0) of the Arctic Ocean with the P-Vector Method (NCEI Accession 0156425) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset (called PHC-V) comprises 3D gridded climatological fields of absolute geostrophic velocity of the Arctic Ocean inverted from the Polar science center...

  18. Human tracking with thermal omnidirectional vision (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Li, Y. F.; Chen, H.


    In this paper, we explore a new tracking system for human tracking in thermal catadioptric omnidirectional vision. Due to very limited features can be adopted in thermal image except for contour information, we proposed to use Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) feature to represent the contour information and employ Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the foreground and background. In this paper, there are three novel points. First, the classification posterior probability of SVM will be adopted to relate the observation likelihood of particle filter to guide the particles for tracking purpose instead of neglect in previous tracking method. Second, due to no existing thermal catadioptric omnidirectional vision database available in public, a thermal catadioptric omnidirectional video database and extracted human samples have been established for academic studies. Third, tracking window distribution of particle filter has been adjusted to fit the characteristic of catadioptric omnidirectional vision on account of the size of target in image is varying when the distance between target and omni-sensor changed in world coordinate. In addition, the catadioptric omnidirectional imaging is different with traditional imaging for inherent distortion, so the polar coordinate will be used. The experimental results show that the proposed tracking approach has a stable performance.

  19. Scalar - vector soliton fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhichao; Li, Lei; Luo, Yiyang; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming


    Rapid progress in passively mode-locked fiber lasers is currently driven by the recent discovery of vector feature of mode-locking pulses, namely, the group velocity-locked vector solitons, the phase locked vector solitons, and the high-order vector solitons. Those vector solitons are fundamentally different from the previously known scalar solitons. Here, we report a fiber laser where the mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is novel and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the working regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the conditions of very small birefringence.

  20. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh


    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  1. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E


    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  2. On-demand tailored vector beams. (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; López-Mariscal, Carlos; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C


    We introduce an effective optical system to produce optical beams with arbitrary, inhomogeneous polarization states. Using our system, we are capable of generating vector beams with discretionarily chosen transverse complex fields in a straightforward way. We generate several different instances of well-known vector beams and the less common spirally polarized vector beams, as well as a full Poincaré beam. We visually show the continual transition between azimuthally and radially polarized beams via a collection of spirally polarized beams. We experimentally determine the polarization states of the generated beams and quantitatively assess the performance of our system. We find that the measured polarization distributions accurately coincide with the intended input polarization distributions.

  3. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ


    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  4. Non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams. (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Vaity, Pravin; Chithrabhanu, P; Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabakar, Shashi; Singh, R P


    Vector vortex beams are classified into four types depending upon spatial variation in their polarization vector. We have generated all four of these types of vector vortex beams by using a modified polarization Sagnac interferometer with a vortex lens. Further, we have studied the non-coaxial superposition of two vector vortex beams. It is observed that the superposition of two vector vortex beams with same polarization singularity leads to a beam with another kind of polarization singularity in their interaction region. The results may be of importance in ultrahigh security of the polarization-encrypted data that utilizes vector vortex beams and multiple optical trapping with non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams. We verified our experimental results with theory.

  5. Vector-Tensor and Vector-Vector Decay Amplitude Analysis of B0->phi K*0

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Clarke, C K; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gao, Y; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Z J; Hadavand, H K; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Judd, D; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lee, C L; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Panduro, W; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Park, W; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petrella, A; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prencipe, E; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pruvot, S; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Regensburger, J J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Serrano, J; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Sherwood, D J; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stängle, H; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Todyshev, Y K; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Vazquez, A; Verderi, M; Viaud, F B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; Wagner, A P; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walker, D; Walsh, J J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wang, W F; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wren, A C; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wulsin, H W; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; al, et


    We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B0->phi K^*_2(1430)0, phi K^*(892)0, and phi(K pi)^0_S-wave with a sample of about 384 million BBbar pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f_L of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853 +0.061-0.069 +-0.036 and 0.506 +-0.040 +-0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP-violation.

  6. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Damask, Jay N


    The strong investments into optical telecommunications in the late 1990s resulted in a wealth of new research, techniques, component designs, and understanding of polarization effects in fiber. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications brings together recent advances in the field to create a standard, practical reference for component designers and optical fiber communication engineers. Beginning with a sound foundation in electromagnetism, the author offers a dissertation of the spin-vector formalism of polarization and the interaction of light with media. Applications discussed include optical isolators, optical circulators, fiber collimators, and a variety of applied waveplate and prism combinations. Also included in an extended discussion of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), their representation, behavior, statistical properties, and measurement. This book draws extensively from the technical and patent literature and is an up-to-date reference for researchers and c...

  7. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part I: Sequential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.


    The paper gives a review of the most important methods for blood velocity vector flow imaging (VFI) for conventional, sequential data acquisition. This includes multibeam methods, speckle tracking, transverse oscillation, color flow mapping derived vector flow imaging, directional beamforming, an...

  8. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis


    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  9. Topologically Protected Complete Polarization Conversion (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Xiao, Meng; Fan, Shanhui


    We consider the process of conversion between linear polarizations as light is reflected from a photonic crystal slab. We observe that, over a wide range of frequencies, complete polarization conversion can be found at isolated wave vectors. Moreover, such an effect is topological: the complex reflection coefficients have a nonzero winding number in the wave vector space. We also show that bound states in continuum in this system have their wave vectors lying on the critical coupling curve that defines the condition for complete polarization conversion. Our work points to the use of topological photonics concepts for the control of polarization, and suggests the exploration of topological properties of scattering matrices as a route towards creating robust optical devices.

  10. Slab track


    Golob, Tina


    The last 160 years has been mostly used conventional track with ballasted bed, sleepers and steel rail. Ensuring the high speed rail traffic, increasing railway track capacities, providing comfortable and safe ride as well as high reliability and availability railway track, has led to development of innovative systems for railway track. The so-called slab track was first built in 1972 and since then, they have developed many different slab track systems around the world. Slab track was also b...

  11. Cloning vector (United States)

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.


    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  12. Cloning vector (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.


    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  13. Spin information from vector-meson decay in photoproduction (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Chiang, Wen-Tai; Tabakin, Frank


    For the photoproduction of vector mesons, all single and double spin observables involving vector-meson two-body decays are defined consistently in the γN center-of-mass frame. These definitions yield a procedure for extracting physically meaningful single and double spin observables that are subject to known rules concerning their angle and energy evolution. As part of this analysis, we show that measuring the two-meson decay of a photoproduced ρ or φ does not determine the vector meson's vector polarization, but only its tensor polarization. The vector meson decay into lepton pairs is also insensitive to the vector meson's vector polarization, unless one measures the spin of one of the leptons. Similar results are found for all double spin observables which involve observation of vector-meson decay. To access the vector meson's vector polarization, one therefore needs to either measure the spin of the decay leptons, make an analysis of the background interference effects, or relate the vector meson's vector polarization to other accessible spin observables.

  14. Spin information from vector-meson decay in photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W.M. [Department of Physics Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855-0849 (United States); Chiang, W.; Tabakin, F. [Department of Physics Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)


    For the photoproduction of vector mesons, all single and double spin observables involving vector-meson two-body decays are defined consistently in the {gamma}N center-of-mass frame. These definitions yield a procedure for extracting physically meaningful single and double spin observables that are subject to known rules concerning their angle and energy evolution. As part of this analysis, we show that measuring the two-meson decay of a photoproduced {rho} or {phi} does not determine the vector meson{close_quote}s vector polarization, but only its tensor polarization. The vector meson decay into lepton pairs is also insensitive to the vector meson{close_quote}s vector polarization, unless one measures the spin of one of the leptons. Similar results are found for all double spin observables which involve observation of vector-meson decay. To access the vector meson{close_quote}s vector polarization, one therefore needs to either measure the spin of the decay leptons, make an analysis of the background interference effects, or relate the vector meson{close_quote}s vector polarization to other accessible spin observables. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking (United States)


    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  16. Polarization-resolved sensing with tilted fiber Bragg gratings: theory and limits of detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bialiayeu, Aliaksandr; Albert, Jacques


    Polarization based sensing with tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors is analysed theoretically by two alternative approaches. The first method is based on tracking the grating transmission for two orthogonal states of linear polarized light that are extracted from the measured Jones matrix or Stokes vectors of the TFBG transmission spectra. The second method is based on the measurements along the system principle axes and polarization dependent loss (PDL) parameter, also calculated from measured data. It is shown that the frequent crossing of the Jones matrix eigenvalues as a function of wavelength leads to a non-physical interchange of the calculated principal axes; a method to remove this unwanted mathematical artefact and to restore the order of the system eigenvalues and the corresponding principal axes is provided. A comparison of the two approaches reveals that the PDL method provides a smaller standard deviation and therefore lower limit of detection in refractometric sensing. Furthermore, the pol...

  17. Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo


    In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on the statistical properties of polarization speckle, described by stochastic Stokes parameters fluctuating in space. Based on the Gaussian assumption for the random electric field components and polar-interferometer, we investigated theoretically...... and experimentally the statistics of Stokes parameters of polarization speckle, including probability density function of Stokes parameters with the spatial degree of polarization, autocorrelation of Stokes vector and statistics of spatial derivatives for Stokes parameters....

  18. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B


    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  19. Efficient and stable expression of GFP through Wheat streak mosaic virus-based vectors in cereal hosts using a range of cleavage sites: Formation of dense fluorescent aggregates for sensitive virus tracking (United States)

    A series of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV)-based expression vectors were developed by engineering cycle 3 GFP (GFP) cistron between P1 and HC-Pro cistrons with several catalytic/cleavage peptides at the C-terminus of GFP. WSMV-GFP vectors with the Foot-and-mouth disease virus 1D/2A or 2A catalytic...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E. G. F.


    This paper deals with the theory of integration of scalar functions with respect to a measure with values in a, not necessarily locally convex, topological vector space. It focuses on the extension of such integrals from bounded measurable functions to the class of integrable functions, proving

  1. Vector optical field generation based on birefringent phase plate. (United States)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Cao, Axiu; Pang, Hui; Zhang, Man; Wang, Guangyi; Chen, Jian; Shi, Lifang; Deng, Qiling; Hu, Song


    Vector optical field has recently gained interest in a variety of application fields due to its novel characteristics. Conventional approaches of generating vector optical fields have difficulties in forming highly continuous polarization and suffer from the issue of high energy utilization rates. In order to address these issues, in this study a single optical path was proposed to generate vector optical fields where the birefringent phase plate modulated a linear polarized light into a vector optical field, which was then demodulated to a non-uniform linear polarization distribution of the vector optical field by the polarization demodulation module. Both a theoretical model and numerical simulations of the vector optical field generator were developed, illustrating the relationship between the polarization distribution of the target vector optical field and the depth distribution of the birefringent phase plate. Furthermore, the birefringent phase plate with predefined surface distributions was fabricated by grayscale exposure and ion etching. The generated vector optical field was experimentally characterized, capable of producing continuous polarization with high light energy utilization ratio, consistent with simulations. This new approach may have the potential of being widely used in future studies of generating well-controlled vector optical fields.

  2. Coronal Polarization of Pseudostreamers and the Solar Polar Field Reversal (United States)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Guennou, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Auchere, F.


    The reversal of the solar polar magnetic field is notoriously hard to pin down due to the extreme viewing angle of the pole. In Cycle 24, the southern polar field reversal can be pinpointed with high accuracy due to a large-scale pseudostreamer that formed over the pole and persisted for approximately a year. We tracked the size and shape of this structure with multiple observations and analysis techniques including PROBA2/SWAP EUV images, AIA EUV images, CoMP polarization data, and 3D tomographic reconstructions. We find that the heliospheric field reversed polarity in February 2014, whereas in the photosphere, the last vestiges of the previous polar field polarity remained until March 2015. We present here the evolution of the structure and describe its identification in the Fe XII 1074nm coronal emission line, sensitive to the Hanle effect in the corona.

  3. The Venus Emissivity Mapper — Investigating the Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics of Venus' Polar Region (United States)

    Widemann, T.; Marcq, E.; Tsang, C.; Mueller, N.; Kappel, D.; Helbert, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S.


    VEM will map cloud particle modes and their temporal variations, and track cloud-level wind field in the polar vortices. VOX circular polar orbit geometry will provide an unprecedented simultaneous study of both polar regions.

  4. Identification and tracking of low energy spectator protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussgiller, A.


    The present theses discusses the development, technical design and realization as well as the read-out electronics of a detection system for the identification and tracking of low energy spectator protons. With the knowledge of the four-momentum of such spectator protons it will be possible to use deuterium as an effective neutron target. Previous measurements with an early version of the detection system have already shown that this method works quite well to investigate for instance the {omega} or {eta}-meson production in proton-neutron collisions. Moreover, after the completion and installation of the polarized internal target (PIT) at ANKE, it will be even possible to engage in that field with double polarized experiments. To increase the luminosity the polarized target is equipped with an extended target cell. The described detection-system will provide the vertex reconstruction for this extended interaction region. In addition, it will act as an independent beam polarimeter at ANKE. The detection system consists of three layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors which are arranged in a telescope structure and placed inside the accelerator vacuum as close as 2 cm to the interaction region. The modular design of the electronics and the support structures for the detectors allows one to exchange detectors and electronics in a maximum flexible way. In a minimum configuration the telescope is equipped with two detectors, a thin ({approx} 69 {mu}m) double-sided Silicon strip detector as a first layer and a very thick ({>=} 5 mm) double-sided micro-structured Lithium-drifted Silicon detector as a second layer. With this arrangement it is possible to track and identify protons in a kinetic energy range from 2.5 MeV to 25 MeV. For deuterons this range for such a telescope configuration is from 4 MeV to 34 MeV. The performance concerning the energy determination and tracking is shown based on data taken during a beam-time in November of 2003. With the existing

  5. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator...

  6. Online Tracking (United States)

    ... for other purposes, such as research, measurement, and fraud prevention. Mobile browsers work much like traditional web ... users’ Do Not Track preferences. Can I block online tracking? Consumers can learn about tracker-blocking browser ...

  7. Upsilon polarization measurement at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhr, Thomas


    Measurements of production cross sections and polarizations are essential inputs for a theoretical understanding of heavy vector meson production. In this article the CDF measurement of the Y(1S) polarization in the kinematic range |y|<0.6 and 2 < pT [GeV/c] < 40 using a data sample of 2.9/fb is described. Compared to the CDF Run I measurement, with which it agrees, it extends the covered pT range, allowing for a better comparison to predictions in the perturbative regime. The observed trend towards longitudinal polarization at high transverse momentum disagrees with predictions based on non-relativistic QCD.

  8. Polar low monitoring (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid


    Polar lows are intense mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems, developing poleward of the main baroclinic zone and associated with high surface wind speeds. Small size and short lifetime, sparse in-situ observations in the regions of their development complicate polar low study. Our knowledge of polar lows and mesocyclones has come almost entirely during the period of satellite remote sensing since, by virtue of their small horizontal scale, it was rarely possible to analyse these lows on conventional weather charts using only the data from the synoptic observing network. However, the effects of intense polar lows have been felt by coastal communities and seafarers since the earliest times. These weather systems are thought to be responsible for the loss of many small vessels over the centuries, although the nature of the storms was not understood and their arrival could not be predicted. The actuality of the polar low research is stipulated by their high destructive power: they are a threat to such businesses as oil and gas exploration, fisheries and shipping. They could worsen because of global warming: a shrinking of sea ice around the North Pole, which thawed to its record minimum in the summer of 2007, is likely to give rise to more powerful storms that form only over open water and can cause hurricane-strength winds. Therefore, study of polar lows, their timely detection, tracking and forecasting represents a challenge for today meteorology. Satellite passive microwave data, starting from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite, remain invaluable source of regularly available remotely sensed data to study polar lows. The sounding in this spectral range has several advantages in comparison with observations in visible and infrared ranges and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data: independence on day time and clouds, regularity and high temporal resolution in Polar Regions. Satellite

  9. Particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Safarík, K; Newby, J; Sørensen, P


    In this lecture we will present a short historical overview of different tracking detectors. Then we will describe currently used gaseous and silicon detectors and their performance. In the second part we will discuss how to estimate tracking precision, how to design a tracker and how the track finding works. After a short description of the LHC the main attention is drawn to the ALICE experiment since it is dedicated to study new states in hadronic matter at the LHC. The ALICE tracking procedure is discussed in detail. A comparison to the tracking in ATLAS, CMS and LHCb is given. (5 refs).

  10. Polarized light sensitivity and orientation in coral reef fish post-larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igal Berenshtein

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the larvae of coral-reef fishes reveal that these tiny vertebrates possess remarkable swimming capabilities, as well as the ability to orient to olfactory, auditory, and visual cues. While navigation according to reef-generated chemicals and sounds can significantly affect dispersal, the effect is limited to the vicinity of the reef. Effective long-distance navigation requires at least one other capacity-the ability to maintain a bearing using, for example, a sun compass. Directional information in the sun's position can take the form of polarized-light related cues (i.e., e-vector orientation and percent polarization and/or non-polarized-light related cues (i.e., the direct image of the sun, and the brightness and spectral gradients. We examined the response to both types of cues using commercially-reared post-larvae of the spine-cheeked anemonefish Premnas biaculeatus. Initial optomotor trials indicated that the post-larval stages are sensitive to linearly polarized light. Swimming directionality was then tested using a Drifting In-Situ Chamber (DISC, which allowed us to examine the response of the post-larvae to natural variation in light conditions and to manipulated levels of light polarization. Under natural light conditions, 28 of 29 post-larvae showed significant directional swimming (Rayleigh's test p<0.05, R = 0.74±0.23, but to no particular direction. Swimming directionality was positively affected by sky clarity (absence of clouds and haze, which explained 38% of the observed variation. Moreover, post-larvae swimming under fully polarized light exhibited a distinct behavior of tracking the polarization axis, as it rotated along with the DISC. This behavior was not observed under partially-polarized illumination. We view these findings as an indication for the use of sun-related cues, and polarized light signal in specific, by orienting coral-reef fish larvae.

  11. Polarization ellipse and Stokes parameters in geometric algebra. (United States)

    Santos, Adler G; Sugon, Quirino M; McNamara, Daniel J


    In this paper, we use geometric algebra to describe the polarization ellipse and Stokes parameters. We show that a solution to Maxwell's equation is a product of a complex basis vector in Jackson and a linear combination of plane wave functions. We convert both the amplitudes and the wave function arguments from complex scalars to complex vectors. This conversion allows us to separate the electric field vector and the imaginary magnetic field vector, because exponentials of imaginary scalars convert vectors to imaginary vectors and vice versa, while exponentials of imaginary vectors only rotate the vector or imaginary vector they are multiplied to. We convert this expression for polarized light into two other representations: the Cartesian representation and the rotated ellipse representation. We compute the conversion relations among the representation parameters and their corresponding Stokes parameters. And finally, we propose a set of geometric relations between the electric and magnetic fields that satisfy an equation similar to the Poincaré sphere equation.

  12. Vector wave propagation method. (United States)

    Fertig, M; Brenner, K-H


    In this paper, we extend the scalar wave propagation method (WPM) to vector fields. The WPM [Appl. Opt.32, 4984 (1993)] was introduced in order to overcome the major limitations of the beam propagation method (BPM). With the WPM, the range of application can be extended from the simulation of waveguides to simulation of other optical elements like lenses, prisms and gratings. In that reference it was demonstrated that the wave propagation scheme provides valid results for propagation angles up to 85 degrees and that it is not limited to small index variations in the axis of propagation. Here, we extend the WPM to three-dimensional vectorial fields (VWPMs) by considering the polarization dependent Fresnel coefficients for transmission in each propagation step. The continuity of the electric field is maintained in all three dimensions by an enhanced propagation vector and the transfer matrix. We verify the validity of the method by transmission through a prism and by comparison with the focal distribution from vectorial Debye theory. Furthermore, a two-dimensional grating is simulated and compared with the results from three-dimensional RCWA. Especially for 3D problems, the runtime of the VWPM exhibits special advantage over the RCWA.

  13. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.


    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  14. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves through polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification enabling transmission over 4000-km dispersion-managed TWRS fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.


    We experimentally demonstrate the first Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin waves, consisting of eight 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier, enabling more than doubled reach in dispersion-managed transmission...

  15. The possibilities of polar meteorology, environmental remote sensing, communications and space weather applications from Artificial Lagrange Orbit (United States)

    Lazzara, Matthew A.; Coletti, Alex; Diedrich, Benjamin L.


    The ability to observe meteorological events in the polar regions of the Earth from satellite celebrated an anniversary, with the launch of TIROS-I in a pseudo-polar orbit on 1 April 1960. Yet, after 50 years, polar orbiting satellites are still the best view of the polar regions of the Earth. The luxuries of geostationary satellite orbit including rapid scan operations, feature tracking, and atmospheric motion vectors (or cloud drift winds), are enjoyed only by the middle and tropical latitudes or perhaps only cover the deep polar regions in the case of satellite derived winds from polar orbit. The prospect of a solar sailing satellite system in an Artificial Lagrange Orbit (ALO, also known as "pole sitters") offers the opportunity for polar environmental remote sensing, communications, forecasting and space weather monitoring. While there are other orbital possibilities to achieve this goal, an ALO satellite system offers one of the best analogs to the geostationary satellite system for routine polar latitude observations. A summary is given of the current on-going activities using composite satellite imagery over both Arctic and Antarctic regions. The use of both polar orbiting and geostationary satellite imagery together currently provide the best continental and hemispheric view of these regions, and provide an analog for what could be possible from an ALO satellite platform. How the composites are made as well as a brief description of applications is discussed. Potential user applications of environmental remote sensing from an ALO satellite platform are outlined along with critical space weather observations. In addition, the increasing need for communication and data relay in the remote polar-regions is reviewed along with an ALO satellite system potential capability to relay data from other satellite constellations. These current efforts foreshadow only a portion of the possibilities that are desired by the user community.

  16. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry


    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  17. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  18. Positronium formation reaction of polarized positrons and polarized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirade, T. [Dept. of Materials Science, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kumada, T. [Advanced Science Research Centre, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)


    Positrons injected in molecular solids or polymers will have positronium formation around the terminal spur of the positron track, the so-called positron spur, with active species in the spur, such as excess electrons. In the usual case, the electrons are not polarized. At low enough temperatures, long-lived weakly localized electrons are accumulated by irradiation in darkness, and positrons will have a chance to form positronium with these long-lived weakly localized electrons. For these electrons, it is possible to cause them to be polarized by applying a magnetic field at very low temperatures. We have successfully observed the effect on the positronium formation reaction of polarized positrons and polarized electrons. (orig.)

  19. Polar predictions


    Crame, Alistair; Francis, Jane; Robinson, Stuart; Bowman, Vanessa


    In an effort to improve understanding of faunal evolution and its relationship to climate change, the PALEOPOLAR project is challenging existing theories about the Early Cenozoic era using an integrated, multidisciplinary approach in the polar regions

  20. Recoil detection with a polarized sup 3 He target

    CERN Document Server

    Higinbotham, D W; Bauer, T; Boersma, D J; Van der Brand, J F J; Bulten, H J; Van Buuren, L D; Ent, R; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Geurts, D; Harvey, M; Heimberg, P; Norum, B E; Passchier, I; Poolman, H R; Six, E; Steenbakkers, M F M; Szczerba, D; Vries, H D


    The ultra-thin gas targets used in storage ring internal target experiments allow low energy, heavy nuclei to emerge from the target region. A detector capable of analyzing these nuclei provides unique access to many nuclear reactions. We report here the first use of such a detector in conjunction with a polarized sup 3 He internal target and a polarized electron beam. The results of using the detector as a luminosity monitor and as a polarimeter to measure the product of beam and target polarizations are presented. The ability to study coherent pion production via the reactions sup 3 H=vector (e-vector, e' sup 3 He)pi sup 0 and sup 3 H-vector(e-vector, e' sup 3 H)pi sup + is shown along with the ability of the detector to unambiguously separate the two- and three-body breakup channels of the reaction sup 3 H-vectore(e-vector, e'p).

  1. Generating and measuring nondiffracting vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available modulator and an azimuthally varying birefringent plate, known as a q-plate. We extend our control of both the geometric and dynamic phases to perform a polarization and modal decomposition on the vector field. We study both single-charged Bessel beams...

  2. Tracking FEMA


    Leskanic, Tyler; Kays, Kevin; Maier, Emily; Cannon, Seth


    The zip archive attached to this project is the compressed TrackingFEMA Git repository. It contains the CMS (RefineryCMS - Rails), processing scripts, as well as visualization sample code. The processing scripts are in a folder called TrackingFEMAProcessing. The visualizations are contained in Visualization. The rest of the rails files are contained within the usual Ruby on Rails file system structure. The finished product is a website visualizing the efforts of disaster response organizat...

  3. Multitarget Tracking Using Optical Processing (United States)


    aircraft). In this case, the (d) Frame 8 learning phase of the process modeling is complete; no more 11, = 0.005841. novel vectors are added and no...Molniya satellite tracked frame estimator location Geostationary (36,000 km range), point target Mean varks (30 out of 256) between frames optical _= =o...each section plotted in Fig. 10. Each line style in this figure corresponds to a plot line in Fig. 10. point target crosses the sensor field of view

  4. Production of nuclear polarization of unstable nuclei via polarization transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Y., E-mail:; Nagae, D.; Abe, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics (Japan); Nagatomo, T. [Institute of Materials Structure Science (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics (Japan); Suzuki, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Fukuoka, S.; Nishikiori, R.; Niwa, T. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics (Japan); Matsuta, K. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Tagishi, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics (Japan)


    The polarized {sup 20}F(I{sup {pi}} = 2{sup + }, T{sub 1/2} = 11.163 s), {sup 24m}Al(I{sup {pi}} = 1{sup + }, T{sub 1/2} = 131.3 ms), {sup 29}P(I{sup {pi}} = 1/2{sup + }, T{sub 1/2} = 4.142 s) and {sup 41}Sc(I{sup {pi}} = 7/2{sup -}, T{sub 1/2} = 596.3 ms) isotopes were produced by nuclear-polarization transfer reactions with polarized proton or deuteron beams. In the case of {sup 29}P isotope, we have produced the polarization by two reactions; {sup 29}Si(p-vector,n){sup 29}P and {sup 28}Si(d-vector,n){sup 29}P. The degree of nuclear polarization of those nuclei have been measured using the {beta}-ray detected nuclear magnetic resonance method.

  5. Oil detection in RADARSAT-2 quad-polarization imagery: implications for ScanSAR performance (United States)

    Cheng, Angela; Arkett, Matt; Zagon, Tom; De Abreu, Roger; Mueller, Derek; Vachon, Paris; Wolfe, John


    Environment Canada's Integrated Satellite Tracking of Pollution (ISTOP) program uses RADARSAT-2 data to vector pollution surveillance assets to areas where oil discharges/spills are suspected in support of enforcement and/or cleanup efforts. RADARSAT-2's new imaging capabilities and ground system promises significant improvement's in ISTOP's ability to detect and report on oil pollution. Of specific interest is the potential of dual polarization ScanSAR data acquired with VV polarization to improve the detection of oil pollution compared to data acquired with HH polarization, and with VH polarization to concurrently detect ship targets. A series of 101 RADARSAT-2 fine quad images were acquired over Coal Oil Point, near Santa Barbara, California where a seep field naturally releases hydrocarbons. The oil and gas releases in this region are visible on the sea surface and have been well documented allowing for the remote sensing of a constant source of oil at a fixed location. Although the make-up of the oil seep field could be different from that of oil spills, it provides a representative target that can be routinely imaged under a variety of wind conditions. Results derived from the fine quad imagery with a lower noise floor were adjusted to mimic the noise floor limitations of ScanSAR. In this study it was found that VV performed better than HH for oil detection, especially at higher incidence angles.

  6. Polar Stratigraphy (United States)


    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  7. Implementing Polarization In 3D Mcrt Codes (United States)

    Peest, Christian; Siebenmorgen, R.; Baas, M.; Camps, P.; Stalevski, M.


    Monte Carlo Radiative transfer codes (MCRT) are a powerful tool to interpret the results of astronomical measurements. However, the majority of the MCRT codes are not able to calculate polarization maps. Our code is already capable of calculating the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,V) for scattering of light by electrons and spherical grains. We are currently implementing the mechanisms of dichroic extinction and polarized dust emission and present first results.

  8. Statistics of narrow-band partially polarized light (United States)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail


    A complete single-point statistical description of a narrow-band partially polarized optical field is developed in terms of the 2D period-averaged probability density function (PA-PDF) of the electrical field vector. This statistic can be measured using the coherent (heterodyne) detection. PA-PDF carries more information about the partially polarized light than the traditional Stokes vector. For a simple Gaussian partially polarized field the PA-PDF depends on 13 real parameters in contrast to the four parameters of the Stokes vector or coherence tensor. We show on several examples that the polarization state of the wave, as described by PA-PDF can vary significantly even while Stokes vector remains fixed.

  9. Diffractive S and D-wave vector mesons in deep inelastic scattering


    Ivanov, I. P.; Nikolaev, N.N.


    We derive helicity amplitudes for diffractive leptoproduction of the S and D wave states of vector mesons. We predict a dramatically different spin dependence for production of the S and D wave vector mesons. We find very small $R=\\sigma_{L}/\\sigma_{T}$ and abnormally large higher twist effects in production of longitudinally polarized D-wave vector mesons.

  10. Tracking Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Bimbó, K.


    Depending on a relevant task at hand, information can be represented at different levels, less or more detailed, each supporting its own appropriate logical languages. We discuss a few of these levels and their connections, and investigate when and how information growth at one level can be tracked

  11. FDTD simulation of trapping nanowires with linearly polarized and radially polarized optical tweezers. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaoping


    In this paper a model of the trapping force on nanowires is built by three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and Maxwell stress tensor methods, and the tightly focused laser beam is expressed by spherical vector wave functions (VSWFs). The trapping capacities on nanoscale-diameter nanowires are discussed in terms of a strongly focused linearly polarized beam and radially polarized beam. Simulation results demonstrate that the radially polarized beam has higher trapping efficiency on nanowires with higher refractive indices than linearly polarized beam.

  12. Charmless Hadronic B Decays into Vector, Axial Vector and Tensor Final States at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandini, Paolo; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan


    We present experimental measurements of branching fraction and longitudinal polarization fraction in charmless hadronic B decays into vector, axial vector and tensor final states with the final dataset of BABAR. Measurements of such kind of decays are a powerful tool both to test the Standard Model and search possible sources of new physics. In this document we present a short review of the last experimental results at BABAR concerning charmless quasi two-body decays in final states containing particles with spin 1 or spin 2 and different parities. This kind of decays has received considerable theoretical interest in the last few years and this particular attention has led to interesting experimental results at the current b-factories. In fact, the study of longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L} in charmless B decays to vector vector (VV), vector axial-vector (VA) and axial-vector axial-vector (AA) mesons provides information on the underlying helicity structure of the decay mechanism. Naive helicity conservation arguments predict a dominant longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L} {approx} 1 for both tree and penguin dominated decays and this pattern seems to be confirmed by tree-dominated B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B{sup +} {yields} {Omega}{rho}{sup +} decays. Other penguin dominated decays, instead, show a different behavior: the measured value of f{sub L} {approx} 0.5 in B {yields} {phi}K* decays is in contrast with naive Standard Model (SM) calculations. Several solutions have been proposed such as the introduction of non-factorizable terms and penguin-annihilation amplitudes, while other explanations invoke new physics. New modes have been investigated to shed more light on the problem.

  13. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.


    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  14. Tracking inside the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Badalà, A; Lo Re, G; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Pulvirenti, A; Riggi, F


    One of the main purposes of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) is to improve the resolution of the track parameters found in the main ALICE tracker detector, the Time Projector Chamber (TPC). Some results about tracking efficiency and resolution of track parameters obtained with a tracking code, based on the Kalman filter algorithm are presented.

  15. Spontaneous Formation of Vector Vortex Beams in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with Feedback (United States)

    Jimenez-Garcia, Jesus; Rodriguez, Pedro; Guillet, T.; Ackemann, T.


    The spontaneous emergence of vector vortex beams with nonuniform polarization distribution is reported in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with frequency-selective feedback. Antivortices with a hyperbolic polarization structure and radially polarized vortices are demonstrated. They exist close to and partially coexist with vortices with uniform and nonuniform polarization distributions characterized by four domains of pairwise orthogonal polarization. The spontaneous formation of these nontrivial structures in a simple, nearly isotropic VCSEL system is remarkable and the vector vortices are argued to have solitonlike properties.

  16. Polar Codes (United States)


    added by the decoder is K/ρ+Td. By the last assumption, Td and Te are both ≤ K/ρ, so the total latency added is between 2K/ρ and 4K /ρ. For example...better resolution near the decision point. Reference [12] showed that in decoding a (1024, 512) polar code, using 6-bit LLRs resulted in per- formance

  17. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors (United States)

    Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.


    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  18. Doppler tracking (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher Jacob

    This study addresses the development of a methodology using the Doppler Effect for high-resolution, short-range tracking of small projectiles and vehicles. Minimal impact on the design of the moving object is achieved by incorporating only a transmitter in it and using ground stations for all other components. This is particularly useful for tracking objects such as sports balls that have configurations and materials that are not conducive to housing onboard instrumentation. The methodology developed here uses four or more receivers to monitor a constant frequency signal emitted by the object. Efficient and accurate schemes for filtering the raw signals, determining the instantaneous frequencies, time synching the frequencies from each receiver, smoothing the synced frequencies, determining the relative velocity and radius of the object and solving the nonlinear system of equations for object position in three dimensions as a function of time are developed and described here.

  19. Characterization of Partially Polarized Light Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Piquero, Gemma


    Polarization involves the vectorial nature of light fields. In current applications of optical science, the electromagnetic description of light with its vector features has been shown to be essential: In practice, optical radiation also exhibits randomness and spatial non-uniformity of the polarization state. Moreover, propagation through photonic devices can alter the correlation properties of the light field, resulting in changes in polarization. All these vectorial properties have been gaining importance in recent years, and they are attracting increasing attention in the literature. This is the framework and the scope of the present book, which includes the authors’ own contributions to these issues.

  20. Locomotive track detection for underground (United States)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing


    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  1. Tracking Porters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Saltofte, Margit


    Anthropology attempts to gain insight into people's experiential life-worlds through long-term fieldwork. The quality of anthropological knowledge production, however, does not depend solely on the duration of the stay in the field, but also on a particular way of seeing social situations. The an...... the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital....

  2. VectorBase (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  3. A two-step along-track spectral analysis for estimating the magnetic signals of magnetospheric ring current from Swarm data (United States)

    Martinec, Zdeněk; Velímský, Jakub; Haagmans, Roger; Šachl, Libor


    This study deals with the analysis of Swarm vector magnetic field measurements in order to estimate the magnetic field of magnetospheric ring current. For a single Swarm satellite, the magnetic measurements are processed by along-track spectral analysis on a track-by-track basis. The main and lithospheric magnetic fields are modelled by the CHAOS-6 field model and subtracted from the along-track Swarm magnetic data. The mid-latitude residual signal is then spectrally analysed and extrapolated to the polar regions. The resulting model of the magnetosphere (model MME) is compared to the existing Swarm Level 2 magnetospheric field model (MMA_SHA_2C). The differences of up to 10 nT are found on the nightsides Swarm data from 2014 April 8 to May 10, which are due to different processing schemes used to construct the two magnetospheric magnetic field models. The forward-simulated magnetospheric magnetic field generated by the external part of model MME then demonstrates the consistency of the separation of the Swarm along-track signal into the external and internal parts by the two-step along-track spectral analysis.

  4. Deposition of molecular probes in heavy ion tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Esser, M


    By using polarized fluorescence techniques the physical properties of heavy ion tracks such as the dielectric number, molecular alignment and track radius can be traced by molecular fluorescence probes. Foils of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were used as a matrix for the ion tracks wherein fluorescence probes such as aminostyryl-derivatives can be incorporated using a suitable solvent, e.g. N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) as transport medium. The high sensitivity of fluorescence methods allowed the comparison of the probe properties in ion tracks with the virgin material. From the fluorescence Stokes shift the dielectric constants could be calculated, describing the dielectric surroundings of the molecular probes. The lower dielectric constant in the tracks gives clear evidence that there is no higher accommodation of the highly polar solvent DMF in the tracks compared with the virgin material. Otherwise the dielectric constant in the tracks should be higher than in the virgin material. The orientation of t...

  5. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan


    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  6. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors (United States)

    Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.


    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  7. Study of [phi] and f[sub 2](1270) meson polarization at p[sub T] [>=] 2 GeV/c in [pi][sup -]Be interactions at CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belogianni, A.; Benayoun, M.; Bloodworth, L.J.; Carney, J.N.; Di Bari, D.; Elia, D.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Krumstein, Z.V.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Malamant, A.; Manzari, V.; Merekov, Yu.P.; Narjoux, J.L.; Navach, F.; Quercigh, E.; Safarik, K.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Stassinaki, M.; Trainor, M.T.; Vassiliadis, G.; Vichou, I.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Volte, A.; Votruba, M.F.; Zitoun, R. (Nuclear Physics Dept., Athens Univ. (Greece) Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Coll. de France-IN2P3, Paris (France) Physics Dept., Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dipt. di Fisica dell' Univ., INFN, Bari (Italy) CERN, European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland) JINR, Lab. of Nuclear Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation) LPNHE, Univ. de Paris VI et VII (France)); WA77 Collaboration


    We present the analysis of data samples taken by the WA77 experiment for [pi][sup -]Be interactions at 300 and 150 GeV/c. The trigger selects a pair of oppositely charged particles with p[sub T] [>=] 2 GeV/c balancing the transverse momentum of a third high-p[sub T] track. The primary aim of this experiment was the search for higher-twist production, mainly that of vector mesons. since there are definite predictions for the polarization of mesons produced in fragmentation and through the higher-twist mechanism, we study the polarization properties of clearly identified mesons, namely the [phi] and f[sub 2](1270) mesons. The results are compatible with no polarization. This can be interpreted as a production dominantly due to parton fragmentation. (orig.)

  8. North Polar Erg (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. This region of the north polar erg is dominated by a different form of dunes than yesterday's image. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 81.4, Longitude 121.9 East (238.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. [Tracking axis of the body tracking test(BTT)]. (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoe; Ikemiyagi, Fuyuko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Toshitake; Takanami, Taro; Tamura, Yuya; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya


    We report herein on the use of the body tracking test (BTT), which is a method for quantitatively evaluating dynamic body balancing function, and how the body center moves during tracking by healthy subjects. We investigated 779 healthy subjects with no history of vertigo or balance disorder and a mean age of 37.9 years. Breakdown is as follows. Under 10 years old is 81 (37 boy and 44 girl), 10 years of age is 162 (73 boy and 89 girl), 20 years of age is 110 (43 men and 67 women), 30 years of age is 73 (44 male, 29 female), 40 years of age is 79 (49 men and 30 women), 50 years of age is 77 (40 men and 37 women), 60 years of age is 100 (53 men and 47 women), 70 years of age is 73 (27 men and 46 women), 80 years of age is 24 (15 men and 9 women). For the visual stimulus, we used a constant-speed antero-posterior (A-P) stimulus BTT and a constant-speed lateral BTT. BTT analysis involved principal axis analysis, in which the principal axis was the first principal component according to a principal component analysis technique. The axis tilt in the principal axis direction was assessed by calculating the coordinate Y-axis and X-axis tilt. In the anteroposterior (A-P) BTT, subjects of all ages exhibited an angle of tilt in the clockwise direction (the "plus" direction), together with the position vector and velocity vector. In the lateral BTT, we observed that the subjects tracked with a tilt in the counter-clockwise direction (the "minus" direction), together with the position vector and velocity vector. In terms of the subjects' ages, the angle of tilt from 0 degree in the antero-posterior (A-P) BTT showed the clockwise direction (the "plus" direction). In the lateral BTT, subjects 10 to 30 years of age exhibited tracking along the X-axis, with no observable tilt. Movement of the center of gravity may be a major acquired ability (practice) with respect to the direction of tilt of the tracking axis. Spatial sensory ability primarily involves the right parietal lobe of

  10. Covariance estimation in Terms of Stokes Parameters iwth Application to Vector Sensor Imaging (United States)


    vector sensor imaging problem: estimating the magnitude, polarization, and direction of plane wave sources from a sample covariance matrix of vector mea...Covariance estimation in terms of Stokes parameters with application to vector sensor imaging Ryan Volz∗, Mary Knapp†, Frank D. Lind∗, Frank C. Robey...Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA Abstract— Vector sensor imaging presents a challeng- ing problem in covariance estimation when allowing arbitrarily

  11. Kalman Filter Tracking on Parallel Architectures (United States)

    Cerati, Giuseppe; Elmer, Peter; Lantz, Steven; McDermott, Kevin; Riley, Dan; Tadel, Matevž; Wittich, Peter; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avi


    Power density constraints are limiting the performance improvements of modern CPUs. To address this we have seen the introduction of lower-power, multi-core processors, but the future will be even more exciting. In order to stay within the power density limits but still obtain Moore's Law performance/price gains, it will be necessary to parallelize algorithms to exploit larger numbers of lightweight cores and specialized functions like large vector units. Example technologies today include Intel's Xeon Phi and GPGPUs. Track finding and fitting is one of the most computationally challenging problems for event reconstruction in particle physics. At the High Luminosity LHC, for example, this will be by far the dominant problem. The need for greater parallelism has driven investigations of very different track finding techniques including Cellular Automata or returning to Hough Transform. The most common track finding techniques in use today are however those based on the Kalman Filter [2]. Significant experience has been accumulated with these techniques on real tracking detector systems, both in the trigger and offline. They are known to provide high physics performance, are robust and are exactly those being used today for the design of the tracking system for HL-LHC. Our previous investigations showed that, using optimized data structures, track fitting with Kalman Filter can achieve large speedup both with Intel Xeon and Xeon Phi. We report here our further progress towards an end-to-end track reconstruction algorithm fully exploiting vectorization and parallelization techniques in a realistic simulation setup.

  12. Macro motion vector quantization (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y.; Woods, John W.


    A new algorithm is developed for reducing the bit rate required for motion vectors. This algorithm is a generalization of block matching motion estimation in which the search region is represented as a codebook of motion vectors. The new algorithm, called macro motion vector quantization (MMVQ), generalized our earlier MVQ by coding a group of motion vectors. The codebook is a set of macro motion vectors which represent the block locations of the small neighboring blocks in the previous frame. We develop an interative design algorithm for the codebook. Our experiments show that the variances of displaced frame differences (DFDs) are reduced significantly compared to block matching algorithm (BMA) with the macroblock size.

  13. Polar Unconformity (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 19 August 2004 The arrows (see Figure 1) in this July 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image indicate the location of an unconformity in the layered sequence of the martian north polar cap. An unconformity is a geologic term that indicates a break in the depositional record of a sedimentary deposit. In this case, the change is recorded by the presence of a series of polar layers that are truncated (cut off) along the line of arrows. The erosion that cut these layers along a gentle slope were later covered by a new set of layers that occur from the arrow tips upward to the top of the sequence shown here. The image is located near 85.2oN, 7.3oW. The bright features in the lower third of the image are frost-covered sand dunes. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper right.

  14. Assessing the Polarization of a Quantum Field from Stokes Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimov, A. B.; Björk, G.; Söderholm, J.


    We propose an operational degree of polarization in terms of the variance of the Stokes vector minimized over all the directions of the Poincaré sphere. We examine the properties of this second-order definition and carry out its experimental determination. Quantum states with the same standard...... (first-order) degree of polarization are correctly discriminated by this new measure. We argue that a comprehensive quantum characterization of polarization properties requires a whole hierarchy of higher-order degrees....

  15. Circularly-polarized plane waves in a deformed Hadamard material


    Destrade, Michel; Hayes, Michael


    Small amplitude inhomogeneous plane waves propagating in any direction in a homogeneously deformed Hadamard material are considered. Conditions for circular polarization are established. The analysis relies on the use of complex vectors (or bivectors) to describe the slowness and the polarization of the waves. Generally, homogeneous circularly-polarized plane waves may propagate in only two directions, the directions of the acoustic axes, in a homogeneously deformed Hadamard material. For inh...

  16. Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)


    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.


    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The Objective for 2006 was to complete all of the CMS Tracker sub-detectors and to start the integration of the sub-detectors into the Tracker Support Tube (TST). The Objective for 2007 is to deliver to CMS a completed, installed, commissioned and calibrated Tracking System (Silicon Strip and Pixels) aligned to < 100µ in April 2008 ready for the first physics collisions at LHC. In November 2006 all of the sub-detectors had been delivered to the Tracker Integration facility (TIF) at CERN and the tests and QA procedures to be carried out on each sub-detector before integration had been established. In December 2006, TIB/TID+ was integrated into TOB+, TIB/TID- was being prepared for integration, and TEC+ was undergoing tests at the final tracker operating temperature (-100 C) in the Lyon cold room. In February 2007, TIB/TID- has been integrated into TOB-, and the installation of the pixel support tube and the services for TI...

  18. Distributed, Collaborative Human-Robotic Networks for Outdoor Experiments in Search, Identify and Track (United States)


    curve built from the output from the A* algorithm The planned paths are then fed into a modified vector polar histogram ( VPH ) controller which...provides motor actuation commands to the Segway platform. The VPH controller continuously aims for a look-ahead point on the path a set distance away...Various concepts from the Enhanced Vector Field Histogram method (VFH+)22 and the Vector Polar Histogram method ( VPH )23 are employed, including LIDAR

  19. Climatology and Genesis Environment of North Atlantic Polar Lows (United States)

    Michel, Clio; Spengler, Thomas


    Polar lows are intense maritime cyclones occurring during cold air outbreaks in high latitudes. We use the Melbourne University cyclone algorithm to detect and track polar lows. The algorithm employs the Laplacian of mean sea level pressure and is applied to the ERA-Interim reanalyses from 1979 to 2014. Track density maps indicate that polar lows mainly occur close to Svalbard, as well as in the northern Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. This is in accordance to previous studies about polar low tracks densities which are using less objective method and shorter time periods. Also the cyclogenesis density correlates well with the winter-time climatology of cold air outbreaks. Furthermore, we present inter- and intra-annual variability of polar lows and its relation to the NAO as well as sea ice extent. We also differentiated the polar low genesis environment into forward and reverse shear conditions, where forward shear implies that the thermal and mean wind are in the same direction, whereas they are opposite for reverse shear conditions. The forward and reverse shear results based on the objective tracking are similar to a previous study based on polar low tracks from the STARS data set provided by MET Norway.

  20. Common barrel and forward CA tracking algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykhailo, Pugach [Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); KINR, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gorbunov, Sergey; Kisel, Ivan [Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration


    There are complex detector setups which consist of barrel (cylindrical) and forward parts, and such systems require a special approach in the registered charged particles track finding procedure. Currently the tracking procedure might be performed in both parts of such detector independently from each other, but the final goal on this direction is a creation of a combined tracking, which will work in both parts of the detector simultaneously. The basic algorithm is based on Kalman Filter (KF) and Cellular Automata (CA). And the tracking procedure in such a complex system is rather extraordinary as far as it requires 2 different models to describe the state vector of segments of the reconstructed track in the mathematical apparatus of the KF-algorithm. To overcome this specifics a mathematical apparatus of transition matrices must be developed and implemented, so that one can transfer from one track model to another. Afterwards the work of the CA is performed, which reduces to segments sorting, their union into track-candidates and selection of the best candidates by the chi-square criteria after fitting of the track-candidate by the KF. In this report the algorithm, status and perspectives of such combined tracking are described.

  1. Seasonal and solar-cycle variations of polar magnetic fields resolved via eigenanalysis and graph theory (United States)

    Shore, Robert; Freeman, Mervyn; Gjerloev, Jesper


    We apply the meteorological analysis method of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) to ground magnetometer measurements, and subsequently use graph theory to classify the results. The EOF method is used to characterise and separate contributions to the variability of the Earth's external magnetic field (EMF) in the northern polar region. EOFs decompose the noisy EMF data into a small number of independent spatio-temporal basis functions, which collectively describe the majority of the magnetic field variance. We use these basis functions (computed monthly) to infill where data are missing, providing a self-consistent description of the EMF at 5-minute resolution spanning 1997—2009 (solar cycle 23). Each of the EOF basis functions can typically be associated with one of the Disturbance Polar (DP)-type current systems (e.g. DP2, DP1, DPY, NBZ), or with the motion of these systems. This association allows us to describe the varying behaviour of the current systems over the 144 months (i.e. 1997—2009) of our reanalysis. However, the EOF basis functions are (by definition) ranked by their contribution to the total variance, and thus a given current system may be described by a different rank of basis vector from month to month. We use graph theory to find clusters of quantifiably-similar spatial basis functions, and thereby track a given pattern throughout the span of 144 months. Via this method, we present the seasonal and solar cycle variations in the polar current systems.

  2. Hybrid generation and analysis of vector vortex beams. (United States)

    Mamani, Sandra; Bendau, Ethan; Secor, Jeff; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tu, Jiufeng J; Alfano, Robert R


    A method is described for generating optical vector vortex beams carrying superpositions of orbital angular momentum states by using a tandem application of a spatial light modulator with a vortex retarder. The vortex component has a spatially inhomogeneous phase front that can carry orbital angular momentum, and the vector nature is a spatially inhomogeneous state of polarization in the laser beam profile. The vector vortex beams are characterized experimentally by imaging the beams at points across the focal plane in an astigmatic system using a tilted lens. Mathematical analysis of the Gouy phase shows good agreement with the phase structure obtained in the experimental images. The polarization structure of the vector beam and the orbital angular momentum of the vortex beam are shown to be preserved.

  3. The origin of radio pulsar polarization (United States)

    Dyks, J.


    Polarization of radio pulsar profiles involves a number of poorly understood, intriguing phenomena, such as the existence of comparable amounts of orthogonal polarization modes (OPMs), strong distortions of polarization angle (PA) curves into shapes inconsistent with the rotating vector model (RVM), and the strong circular polarization V which can be maximum (instead of zero) at the OPM jumps. It is shown that the comparable OPMs and large V result from a coherent addition of phase-delayed waves in natural propagation modes, which are produced by a linearly polarized emitted signal. The coherent mode summation implies opposite polarization properties to those known from the incoherent case, in particular, the OPM jumps occur at peaks of V, whereas V changes sign at a maximum linear polarization fraction L/I. These features are indispensable to interpret various observed polarization effects. It is shown that statistical properties of emission and propagation can be efficiently parametrized in a simple model of coherent mode addition, which is successfully applied to complex polarization phenomena, such as the stepwise PA curve of PSR B1913+16 and the strong PA distortions within core components of pulsars B1933+16 and B1237+25. The inclusion of coherent mode addition opens the possibility for a number of new polarization effects, such as inversion of relative modal strength, twin minima in L/I coincident with peaks in V, 45° PA jumps in weakly polarized emission, and loop-shaped core PA distortions. The empirical treatment of the coherency of mode addition makes it possible to advance the understanding of pulsar polarization beyond the RVM model.

  4. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi


    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  5. Three-dimensional polarization algebra. (United States)

    R Sheppard, Colin J; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto


    If light is focused or collected with a high numerical aperture lens, as may occur in imaging and optical encryption applications, polarization should be considered in three dimensions (3D). The matrix algebra of polarization behavior in 3D is discussed. It is useful to convert between the Mueller matrix and two different Hermitian matrices, representing an optical material or system, which are in the literature. Explicit transformation matrices for converting the column vector form of these different matrices are extended to the 3D case, where they are large (81×81) but can be generated using simple rules. It is found that there is some advantage in using a generalization of the Chandrasekhar phase matrix treatment, rather than that based on Gell-Mann matrices, as the resultant matrices are of simpler form and reduce to the two-dimensional case more easily. Explicit expressions are given for 3D complex field components in terms of Chandrasekhar-Stokes parameters.

  6. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  7. The role of the harmonic vector average in motion integration


    Johnston, Alan; Scarfe, Peter


    The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition t...

  8. The role of the harmonic vector average in motion integration.


    Johnston, A.; Scarfe, P.


    The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition t...

  9. Monitoring electromagnetic tracking error using redundant sensors (United States)

    Harish, Vinyas; Bibic, Eden; Lasso, Andras; Holden, Matthew S.; Vaughan, Thomas; Baum, Zachary; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor


    PURPOSE: The intraoperative measurement of tracking error is crucial to ensure the reliability of electromagnetically navigated procedures. For intraoperative use, methods need to be quick to set up, easy to interpret, and not interfere with the ongoing procedure. Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of using redundant electromagnetic sensors to alert users to tracking error in a navigated intervention setup. METHODS: Electromagnetic sensors were fixed to a rigid frame around a region of interest and on surgical tools. A software module was designed to detect tracking error by comparing real-time measurements of the differences between inter-sensor distances and angles to baseline measurements. Once these measurements were collected, a linear support vector machine-based classifier was used to predict tracking errors from redundant sensor readings. RESULTS: Measuring the deviation in the reported inter-sensor distance and angle between the needle and cautery served as a valid indicator for electromagnetic tracking error. The highest classification accuracy, 86%, was achieved based on readings from the cautery when the two sensors on the cautery were close together. The specificity of this classifier was 93% and the sensitivity was 82%. CONCLUSION: Placing redundant electromagnetic sensors in a workspace seems to be feasible for the intraoperative detection of electromagnetic tracking error in controlled environments. Further testing should be performed to optimize the measurement error threshold used for classification in the support vector machine, and improve the sensitivity of our method before application in real procedures.

  10. Kalman Filter Tracking on Parallel Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerati Giuseppe


    Full Text Available Power density constraints are limiting the performance improvements of modern CPUs. To address this we have seen the introduction of lower-power, multi-core processors such as GPGPU, ARM and Intel MIC. In order to achieve the theoretical performance gains of these processors, it will be necessary to parallelize algorithms to exploit larger numbers of lightweight cores and specialized functions like large vector units. Track finding and fitting is one of the most computationally challenging problems for event reconstruction in particle physics. At the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC, for example, this will be by far the dominant problem. The need for greater parallelism has driven investigations of very different track finding techniques such as Cellular Automata or Hough Transforms. The most common track finding techniques in use today, however, are those based on a Kalman filter approach. Significant experience has been accumulated with these techniques on real tracking detector systems, both in the trigger and offline. They are known to provide high physics performance, are robust, and are in use today at the LHC. Given the utility of the Kalman filter in track finding, we have begun to port these algorithms to parallel architectures, namely Intel Xeon and Xeon Phi. We report here on our progress towards an end-to-end track reconstruction algorithm fully exploiting vectorization and parallelization techniques in a simplified experimental environment.

  11. Visual tracking via robust multitask sparse prototypes (United States)

    Zhang, Huanlong; Hu, Shiqiang; Yu, Junyang


    Sparse representation has been applied to an online subspace learning-based tracking problem. To handle partial occlusion effectively, some researchers introduce l1 regularization to principal component analysis (PCA) reconstruction. However, in these traditional tracking methods, the representation of each object observation is often viewed as an individual task so the inter-relationship between PCA basis vectors is ignored. We propose a new online visual tracking algorithm with multitask sparse prototypes, which combines multitask sparse learning with PCA-based subspace representation. We first extend a visual tracking algorithm with sparse prototypes in multitask learning framework to mine inter-relations between subtasks. Then, to avoid the problem that enforcing all subtasks to share the same structure may result in degraded tracking results, we impose group sparse constraints on the coefficients of PCA basis vectors and element-wise sparse constraints on the error coefficients, respectively. Finally, we show that the proposed optimization problem can be effectively solved using the accelerated proximal gradient method with the fast convergence. Experimental results compared with the state-of-the-art tracking methods demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves favorable performance when the object undergoes partial occlusion, motion blur, and illumination changes.

  12. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J


    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  13. The role of light-induced nanostructures in femtosecond laser micromachining with vector and scalar pulses. (United States)

    Hnatovsky, Cyril; Shvedov, Vladlen G; Krolikowski, Wieslaw


    In this article we compare the results of micromachining of fused silica and silicon with tightly focused scalar (viz., circularly and linearly polarized) and vector (viz., azimuthally and radially polarized) femtosecond laser pulses. We show that drilling with radially polarized pulses produces holes with smoother and better-delineated walls compared with the other polarizations used, whereas linearly polarized pulses can machine 20-nm wide single grooves in fused silica when the electric field of the pulse is aligned perpendicular to the cutting direction. The observed polarization-controlled micromachining is due to the formation of sub-diffraction-limited nanostructures that are optically produced in the multi-pulse irradiation regime.

  14. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay (United States)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie


    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  15. First measurement of the helicity-dependent vector gamma)vector(p)->p eta differential cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, J; Aulenbacher, K; Beck, R; Drechsel, D; Von Harrach, D; Heid, E; Altieri, S; Annand, J R M; Anton, G; Bradtke, C; Görtz, S; Harmsen, J; Braghieri, A; D'Hose, N; Dutz, H; Grabmayr, P; Hansen, K; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, T; Helbing, K; Holvoet, H; Van Hoorebeke, L; Horikawa, N; Iwata, T; Jahn, O; Jennewein, P; Kageya, T; Kiel, B; Klein, F; Kondratiev, R; Kossert, K; Krimmer, J; Lang, M; Lannoy, B; Leukel, R; Lisin, V; Matsuda, T; McGeorge, J C; Meier, A; Menze, D; Meyer, Werner T; Michel, T; Naumann, J; Panzeri, A; Pedroni, P; Pinelli, T; Preobrajenski, I; Radtke, E; Reichert, E; Reicherz, G; Rohlof, C; Rosner, G; Ryckbosch, D; Sauer, M C; Schoch, B; Schumacher, M; Seitz, B; Speckner, T; Takabayashi, N; Tamas, G; Thomas, A; Van De Vyver, R; Wakai, A; Weihofen, W; Wissmann, F; Zapadtka, F; Zeitler, G


    The helicity dependence of the vector(gamma)vector(p)->p eta reaction has been measured for the first time at a center-of-mass angle theta sup * subeta=70 in the photon energy range from 780 MeV to 790 MeV. The experiment, performed at the Mainz microtron MAMI, used a 4 pi-detector system, a circularly polarized, tagged photon beam, and a longitudinally polarized frozen-spin target. The helicity 3/2 cross-section is found to be small and the results for helicity 1/2 agree with predictions from the MAID analysis. (orig.)

  16. Extraocular sensitivity to polarized light in an echinoderm. (United States)

    Johnsen, S


    This study tests the hypotheses that the birefringent calcite and stereom structure of the brittlestar (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) endoskeleton polarizes light and that certain brittlestars respond to polarized light. The first hypothesis was tested in Ophioderma brevispinum by examining ossicles from freshly killed specimens under polarized light. This analysis revealed that the lateral arm shields, oral arm shields, arm spines and aboral disk ossicles are dichroic and thus polarize light. The second hypothesis was tested in two orientation experiments under polarized light. The results from the first orientation experiment showed (1) that, under polarized light, animals oriented significantly and unimodally, (2) that, under polarized light with the e-vector perpendicular to that in 1, animals oriented significantly and unimodally to within 18 degrees of the bearing of the animals in 1, and (3) that, under unpolarized light, animals did not orient significantly. The results from the second orientation experiment showed that, under polarized light, animals oriented significantly and unimodally to within 17 degrees of an individual preference previously established under polarized light; but under unpolarized light, animals did not orient significantly to an individual preference established under polarized light. Thus, O. brevispinum orients under polarized, but not unpolarized, light. The unimodal orientation and lack of consistent alignment with the e-vector suggest that polarized light is not used as a directional cue but instead as a signal to sustain oriented behavior. The dichroism of the ossicles of O. brevispinum and the animal's capacity (though eyeless) to discriminate between polarized and unpolarized light suggest that the mechanism of polarization sensitivity may rely on polarizing filters built from the animal's skeleton.

  17. Bessel beams with spatial oscillating polarization (United States)

    Fu, Shiyao; Zhang, Shikun; Gao, Chunqing


    Bessel beams are widely used in optical metrology mainly because of their large Rayleigh range (focal length). Radial/azimuthal polarization of such beams is of interest in the fields of material processing, plasma absorption or communication. In this paper an experimental set-up is presented, which generates a Bessel-type vector beam with a spatial polarization, oscillating along the optical axis, when propagating in free space. A first holographic axicon (HA) HA1 produces a normal, linearly polarized Bessel beam, which by a second HA2 is converted into the spatial oscillating polarized beam. The theory is briefly discussed, the set-up and the experimental results are presented in detail. PMID:27488174

  18. Could dark energy be vector-like? (United States)

    Armendáriz-Picón, C.


    In this paper I explore whether a vector field can be the origin of the present stage of cosmic acceleration. In order to avoid violations of isotropy, the vector has be part of a 'cosmic triad', that is, a set of three identical vectors pointing in mutually orthogonal spatial directions. A triad is indeed able to drive a stage of late accelerated expansion in the universe, and there exist tracking attractors that render cosmic evolution insensitive to initial conditions. However, as in most other models, the onset of cosmic acceleration is determined by a parameter that has to be tuned to reproduce current observations. The triad equation of state can be sufficiently close to minus one today, and for tachyonic models it might be even less than that. I briefly analyse linear cosmological perturbation theory in the presence of a triad. It turns out that the existence of non-vanishing spatial vectors invalidates the decomposition theorem, i.e. scalar, vector and tensor perturbations do not decouple from each other. In a simplified case it is possible to analytically study the stability of the triad along the different cosmological attractors. The triad is classically stable during inflation, radiation and matter domination, but it is unstable during (late time) cosmic acceleration. I argue that this instability is not likely to have a significant impact at present.


    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN in July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker was ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC have been installed, together with the Tracker cable channels, in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services. All of the Tracker Safety, Power, DCS and the VME Readout Systems have been installed at P5 and are being tested and commissioned with CMS. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS before Christmas. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on Y...


    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN on 18 July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker will be ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC will be installed in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services, and will be completed in October. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS at the end of October, after the completion of the installation of the EB/HB services. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on YB0 and commissioned with CMS in December. The FPix and BPix continue to make ...

  1. Vector mesons in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its observation. The dynamical evolution of the heavy-ion collision is described by a transport equation of ...

  2. Vector mesons in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Abstract. One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy- ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its ...

  3. Initial investigations of (np)-scattering with a polarized deuterium target at ANKE-COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing


    The understanding of the forces among nucleons is fundamental to the whole of nuclear and hadronic physics. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering is the ideal probe to study the nuclear forces. The scattering amplitudes for the complete description of the NN interactions can be reconstructed from phase-shift analyses (PSA), which requires measurements with polarized experiments. The existing data allow to extract unambiguous proton-proton (pp) amplitudes below 2 GeV. However, there is very little known about the neutron-proton (np) system above 800 MeV nucleon energy. THE ANKE-COSY collaboration has embarked on a systematic program which aims to extract the np scattering amplitudes through the deuteron-proton charge-exchange process dp→{pp}{sub s}n. First part of the program via polarized deuteron beam and hydrogen target allowed successful measurement of np amplitudes up to 1.135 GeV nucleon energy, which is the maximum nucleon energy that can be accessed with deuteron beam at COSY. Via inverse kinematics, i.e. using a proton beam incident on a polarized deuterium target will allow to enhance the np study up to 2.8 GeV, the highest energy available at COSY. The method of inverse kinematics has to be validated prior to the production experiment. As the proof-of-principle (POP) experiment, the initial research has been conducted at proton energy T{sub p}=600 MeV using a polarized deuterium target. The projectiles were measured by two silicon tracking telescopes (STT) placed closed to the target and by the ANKE sub-detection systems. Four polarization modes of the deuterium target were employed. In order to increase the effective target thickness, polarized deuterium atoms produced by the atomic beam source (ABS) was filled into a storage cell, where the circulating COSY beam collides with the target. The target polarizations were measured using the proton-deuteron elastic reaction. The vector and tensor analyzing powers A{sub y} and A{sub yy} of pvector d

  4. In-vivo examples of synthetic aperture vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann


    are processed, and movies of full vector flow images are generated. This paper presents still frames from different time instances of these movies. The movie from the femoral data tracks the accelerating velocity in the femoral artery during systole and a backwards flow at the end of the systole. A complex flow...... would be needed. Synthetic aperture vector flow imaging could potentially provide this. The purpose of this paper is to test the synthetic aperture vector flow imaging method on challenging in-vivo data. Two synthetic aperture in-vivo data sets are acquired using a commercial linear array transducer...

  5. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  6. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas. (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken


    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas. We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1-2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts.

  7. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease. (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar


    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing polarization swings in 3C 279

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiehlmann S.


    Full Text Available Quasar 3C 279 is known to exhibit episodes of optical polarization angle rotation. We present new, well-sampled optical polarization data for 3C 279 and introduce a method to distinguish between random and deterministic electric vector position angle (EVPA variations. We observe EVPA rotations in both directions with different amplitudes and find that the EVPA variation shows characteristics of both random and deterministic cases. Our analysis indicates that the EVPA variation is likely dominated by a random process in the low brightness state of the jet and by a deterministic process in the flaring state.

  9. Polarization evolution of radially polarized partially coherent vortex fields: role of Gouy phase of Laguerre-Gauss beams. (United States)

    Martínez-Herrero, R; Prado, F


    In the framework of the paraxial approximation, we derive the analytical expressions for describing the effect of the Gouy phase of Laguerre-Gauss beams on the polarization evolution of partially coherent vortex fields whose electric field vector at some transverse plane exhibits a radially polarized behavior. At each transverse plane, the polarization distribution across the beam profile is characterized by means of the percentage of irradiance associated with the radial or azimuthal components. The propagation laws for these percentages are also presented. As an illustrative example, we analyze a radially polarized partially coherent vortex beam.

  10. Modeling and simulation of adaptive multimodal optical sensors for target tracking in the visible to near infrared (United States)

    Presnar, Michael D.

    This work investigates an integrated aerial remote sensor design approach to address moving target detection and tracking problems within highly cluttered, dynamic ground-based scenes. Sophisticated simulation methodologies and scene phenomenology validations have resulted in advancements in artificial multimodal truth video synthesis. Complex modeling of novel micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) devices, optical systems, and detector arrays has resulted in a proof of concept for a state-of-the-art imaging spectropolarimeter sensor model that does not suffer from typical multimodal image registration problems. Test methodology developed for this work provides the ability to quantify performance of a target tracking application with varying ground scenery, flight characteristics, or sensor specifications. The culmination of this research is an end-to-end simulated demonstration of multimodal aerial remote sensing and target tracking. Deeply hidden target recognition is shown to be enhanced through the fusing of panchromatic, hyperspectral, and polarimetric image modalities. The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation model was leveraged to synthesize truth spectropolarimetric sensor-reaching radiance image cubes comprised of coregistered Stokes vector bands in the visible to near-infrared. An intricate synthetic urban scene containing numerous moving vehicular targets was imaged from a virtual sensor aboard an aerial platform encircling a stare point. An adaptive sensor model was designed with a superpixel array of MOEMS devices fabricated atop a division of focal plane detector. Degree of linear polarization (DoLP) imagery is acquired by combining three adjacent micropolarizer outputs within each 2x2 superpixel whose respective transmissions vary with wavelength, relative angle of polarization, and wire-grid spacing. A novel micromirror within each superpixel adaptively relays light between a panchromatic imaging channel and a hyperspectral

  11. Wavelength Dependence of the Polarization Singularities in a Two-Mode Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. G. Krishna Inavalli


    Full Text Available We present here an experimental demonstration of the wavelength dependence of the polarization singularities due to linear combination of the vector modes excited directly in a two-mode optical fiber. The coherent superposition of the vector modes excited by linearly polarized Gaussian beam as offset skew rays propagated in a helical path inside the fiber results in the generation of phase singular beams with edge dislocation in the fiber output. The polarization character of these beams is found to change dramatically with wavelength—from left-handed elliptically polarized edge dislocation to right-handed elliptically polarized edge-dislocation through disclinations. The measured behaviour is understood as being due to intermodal dispersion of the polarization corrections to the propagating vector modes, as the wavelength of the input beam is scanned.

  12. Space object tracking with delayed measurements (United States)

    Chen, Huimin; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh


    This paper is concerned with the nonlinear filtering problem for tracking a space object with possibly delayed measurements. In a distributed dynamic sensing environment, due to limited communication bandwidth and long distances between the earth and the satellites, it is possible for sensor reports to be delayed when the tracking filter receives them. Such delays can be complete (the full observation vector is delayed) or partial (part of the observation vector is delayed), and with deterministic or random time lag. We propose an approximate approach to incorporate delayed measurements without reprocessing the old measurements at the tracking filter. We describe the optimal and suboptimal algorithms for filter update with delayed measurements in an orbital trajectory estimation problem without clutter. Then we extend the work to a single object tracking under clutter where probabilistic data association filter (PDAF) is used to replace the recursive linear minimum means square error (LMMSE) filter and delayed measurements with arbitrary lags are be handled without reprocessing the old measurements. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithms in realistic space object tracking scenarios using the NASA General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT).

  13. Multiple scattering of elliptically polarized light in two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodnichev, E. E., E-mail: [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)


    For elliptically polarized light incident on a two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities, the Stokes parameters of scattered waves are calculated. Multiple scattering is assumed to be sharply anisotropic. The degree of polarization of scattered radiation is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of depth when the incident wave is circularly polarized or its polarization vector is not parallel to the symmetry axis of the inhomogeneities.

  14. Vector SIMP dark matter (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Lee, Hyun Min; Mambrini, Yann; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierre, Mathias


    Strongly Interacting Massive Particles (SIMPs) have recently been proposed as light thermal dark matter relics. Here we consider an explicit realization of the SIMP mechanism in the form of vector SIMPs arising from an SU(2) X hidden gauge theory, where the accidental custodial symmetry protects the stability of the dark matter. We propose several ways of equilibrating the dark and visible sectors in this setup. In particular, we show that a light dark Higgs portal can maintain thermal equilibrium between the two sectors, as can a massive dark vector portal with its generalized Chern-Simons couplings to the vector SIMPs, all while remaining consistent with experimental constraints.

  15. Vector Difference Calculus (United States)

    Schwalm, W. A.; Schwalm, M. K.; Giona, M.


    Space is filled with triangulating graph \\calG to serve as a quadrature grid. A discrete analog of the theory of differential forms is constructed using the associated simplical complex. The role of a basis for Λ^p at a point is played by the set of (p+1) -simplices containing a given vertex. Vector difference operations analogous to div, grad and curl, together with corresponding vector identities and exact difference analogs of the Stokes-type theorems, are obtained in terms of the boundary partial and coboundary d. Difference versions of the full vector Maxwell electromagnetic equations are analyzed on a random structure.

  16. Software for Interactively Visualizing Solar Vector Magnetograms of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Astr. (2008) 29, 107–111. Software for Interactively Visualizing Solar Vector Magnetograms of Udaipur Solar Observatory ... tion and analysis software have been developed to make the data processing pipeline user-friendly and less ... The straight and symmetric telescope design is used to avoid instrumental polarization ...

  17. Parallel femtosecond laser processing with vector-wave control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaki Yoshio


    Full Text Available Parallel femtosecond laser processing with a computer-generated hologram displayed on a spatial light modulator, has the advantages of high throughput and high energy-use efficiency. for further increase of the processing efficiency, we demonstrated parallel femtosecond laser processing with vector-wave control that is based on polarization control using a pair of spatial light modulators.

  18. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  19. GAP Land Cover - Vector (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  20. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  1. Energy flow characteristics of vector X-Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed


    The vector form of X-Waves is obtained as a superposition of transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized field components. It is shown that the signs of all components of the Poynting vector can be locally changed using carefully chosen complex amplitudes of the transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization components. Negative energy flux density in the longitudinal direction can be observed in a bounded region around the centroid; in this region the local behavior of the wave field is similar to that of wave field with negative energy flow. This peculiar energy flux phenomenon is of essential importance for electromagnetic and optical traps and tweezers, where the location and momenta of microand nanoparticles are manipulated by changing the Poynting vector, and in detection of invisibility cloaks. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  2. Solar tracking system (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.


    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  3. Polarization properties of receiving telescopes in atmospheric remote sensing polarization lidars. (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Liu, Dong; Huang, Zihao; Wang, Binyu; Bai, Jian; Cheng, Zhongtao; Zhang, Yupeng; Tang, Peijun; Yang, Liming; Su, Lin


    A receiving telescope is an indispensable component in an atmospheric remote sensing polarization lidar. In order to achieve accurate atmospheric depolarization measurements, it is necessary to study the polarization properties of receiving telescopes, which are embodied by their Mueller matrices. In this paper, the Mueller matrices of receiving telescopes are obtained by ray tracing with space vectors. The relationship between the measurement errors of the atmospheric depolarization parameter and the elements of the Mueller matrix of receiving telescopes is derived. The polarization properties of receiving telescopes in terms of orientation, field of view, and F number are analyzed, respectively. By comparing two common receiving telescopes in linear and circular polarization lidars, it is found that the measurement errors caused by the Newton telescopes in circular polarization lidars are significantly greater than those in linear polarization lidars, while the performances of the Cassegrain telescopes in the two lidars are almost identical. What is more, the measurement errors caused by the Cassegrain telescopes are much less than the counterparts caused by the Newton telescopes. According to the comparison results, the optimal telescopes are respectively presented for polarization lidars working in different polarization states and laser wavelengths.

  4. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction (United States)

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  5. Vector and axial vector mesons at finite temperature


    mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav


    We consider the thermal correlation functions of vector and axial-vector currents and evaluate corrections to the vector and axial-vector meson pole terms to one loop in chiral perturbation theory. As expected, the pole positions do not shift to leading order in temperature. But the residues decrease with temperature.

  6. Torque vectoring for improving stability of small electric vehicles (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Weigel-Milleret, K.


    The electric vehicles solutions based on the individually controlled electric motors propel a single wheel allow to improve the dynamic properties of the vehicle by varying the distribution of the driving torque. Most of the literature refer to the vehicles with a track typical for passenger cars. This paper examines whether the narrow vehicle (with a very small track) torque vectoring bring a noticeable change of the understeer characteristics and whether torque vectoring is possible to use in securing a narrow vehicle from roll over (roll mitigation). The paper contains road tests of the steering characteristics (steady state understeer characteristic quasi-static acceleration with a fixed steering wheel (SH = const) and on the constant radius track (R = const)) of the narrow vehicle. The vehicle understeer characteristic as a function of a power distribution is presented.

  7. Volume polarization holographic recording in thick photopolymer for optical memory. (United States)

    Lin, Shiuan Huei; Cho, Sheng-Lung; Chou, Shin-Fu; Lin, June Hua; Lin, Chih Min; Chi, Sien; Hsu, Ken Yuh


    Based on a vector wave theory of volume holograms, dependence of holographic reconstruction on the polarization states of the writing and reading beams is discussed. It is found that under paraxial approximation the circular polarization holograms provide a better distinction of the reading beams. Characteristics of recording polarization holograms in thick phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ/PMMA) photopolymer are experimentally investigated. It is found that the circular polarization holographic recording possesses better dynamic range and material sensitivity, and a uniform spatial frequency response over a wide range. The performance is comparable to that of the intensity holographic recording in PQ/PMMA. Based on theoretical analyses and the material properties, a polarization multiplexing holographic memory using circularly polarization recording configuration for increasing storage capacity has been designed and experimentally demonstrated.

  8. Efficient generation of vector beams by calibrating the phase response of a spatial light modulator. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Ma, Chaojie; Liu, Sheng; Cheng, Huachao; Han, Lei; Zhao, Jianlin


    The spatial light modulator (SLM) is considered as an effective device to create beams with inhomogeneous phases and polarizations, such as vortex beams and vector beams. However, the nonlinear responses of SLM severely reduce the generation efficiency of these beams. In this paper, by calibrating the SLM to present a linear phase response in the scope of 0-2π, we propose a convenient and efficient method of creating vector beams with arbitrary polarizations based on phase encoding. Compared with the common methods of generating vector beams, our approach can distinctly enhance the generation efficiency.

  9. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  10. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman


    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  11. Quantitative tissue polarimetry using polar decomposition of 3 x 3 Mueller matrix (United States)

    Swami, M. K.; Manhas, S.; Buddhiwant, P.; Ghosh, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.


    Polarization properties of any optical system are completely described by a sixteen-element (4 x 4) matrix called Mueller matrix, which transform the Stokes vector describing the polarization properties of incident light to the stokes vector of scattered light. Measurement of all the elements of the matrix requires a minimum of sixteen measurements involving both linear and circularly polarized light. However, for many diagnostic applications, it would be useful if all the polarization parameters of the medium (depolarization (Δ), differential attenuation of two orthogonal polarizations, that is, diattenuation (d), and differential phase retardance of two orthogonal polarizations, i.e., retardance (δ )) can be quantified with linear polarization measurements alone. In this paper we show that for a turbid medium, like biological tissue, where the depolarization of linearly polarized light arises primarily due to the randomization of the field vector's direction by multiple scattering, the polarization parameters of the medium can be obtained from the nine Mueller matrix elements involving linear polarization measurements only. Use of the approach for measurement of polarization parameters (Δ, d and δ) of normal and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) tissues resected from human oral cavity are presented.

  12. Calculating track thrust with track functions (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Ming; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.


    In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a “calorimetric” measurement using both charged and neutral particles and a “track-based” measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe, and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on nonperturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. In this paper, we present the first calculation of the event shape “track thrust” and compare to measurements performed at ALEPH and DELPHI. This calculation is made possible through the recently developed formalism of track functions, which are nonperturbative objects describing how energetic partons fragment into charged hadrons. By incorporating track functions into soft-collinear effective theory, we calculate the distribution for track thrust with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Due to a partial cancellation between nonperturbative parameters, the distributions for calorimeter thrust and track thrust are remarkably similar, a feature also seen in LEP data.

  13. Object tracking with hierarchical multiview learning (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Shunli; Zhang, Li


    Building a robust appearance model is useful to improve tracking performance. We propose a hierarchical multiview learning framework to construct the appearance model, which has two layers for tracking. On the top layer, two different views of features, grayscale value and histogram of oriented gradients, are adopted for representation under the cotraining framework. On the bottom layer, for each view of each feature, three different random subspaces are generated to represent the appearance from multiple views. For each random view submodel, the least squares support vector machine is employed to improve the discriminability for concrete and efficient realization. These two layers are combined to construct the final appearance model for tracking. The proposed hierarchical model assembles two types of multiview learning strategies, in which the appearance can be described more accurately and robustly. Experimental results in the benchmark dataset demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve better performance than many existing state-of-the-art algorithms.

  14. Extending geometrical optics: A Lagrangian theory for vector waves (United States)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.


    Even when neglecting diffraction effects, the well-known equations of geometrical optics (GO) are not entirely accurate. Traditional GO treats wave rays as classical particles, which are completely described by their coordinates and momenta, but vector-wave rays have another degree of freedom, namely, their polarization. The polarization degree of freedom manifests itself as an effective (classical) "wave spin" that can be assigned to rays and can affect the wave dynamics accordingly. A well-known manifestation of polarization dynamics is mode conversion, which is the linear exchange of quanta between different wave modes and can be interpreted as a rotation of the wave spin. Another, less-known polarization effect is the polarization-driven bending of ray trajectories. This work presents an extension and reformulation of GO as a first-principle Lagrangian theory, whose effective Hamiltonian governs the aforementioned polarization phenomena simultaneously. As an example, the theory is applied to describe the polarization-driven divergence of right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in weakly magnetized plasma.

  15. OCAPI: a multidirectional multichannel polarizing imager (United States)

    Le Naour, C.; Eichen, G.; Léon, J. F.


    OCAPI (Optical Carbonaceous and anthropogenic Aerosols Pathfinder Instrument) is an imager dedicated to the observation of the spectral, directional and polarized signatures of the solar radiance reflected by the Earth-Atmosphere system. The measurements are used to study air quality and pollution by tracking aerosol quantity, types and circulation at various scales in the visible range. The main characteristics of OCAPI are a 110° along track and cross track field of view, eight polarized channels distributed between 320 and 2130 nm. The resolution is 4 x 4 km2 in the visible and the shortwave infrared (SWIR) range, and 10 x 10 km2 in the UV. The instrumental concept is derived from POLDER and PARASOL with additional channels in the UV and SWIR to better determine aerosol properties and constrain Earth surface and cloud contributions in the detected signal. It is based on three wide field-ofview telecentric optics (UV, Visible and SWIR), a rotating wheel bearing spectral and polarized filters and two dimensional detector arrays at the focal plane of the optics. The instrument requirements, concept and budgets are presented.

  16. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate McElroy Horne


    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family.

  17. Free topological vector spaces


    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.


    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  18. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L


    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  19. Scalar-vector bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robbins, Daniel [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University,TAMU 4242, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)


    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  20. Multithreading in vector processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Kim, Changhoan; Nair, Ravi


    In one embodiment, a system includes a processor having a vector processing mode and a multithreading mode. The processor is configured to operate on one thread per cycle in the multithreading mode. The processor includes a program counter register having a plurality of program counters, and the program counter register is vectorized. Each program counter in the program counter register represents a distinct corresponding thread of a plurality of threads. The processor is configured to execute the plurality of threads by activating the plurality of program counters in a round robin cycle.

  1. Graphing Polar Curves (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.


    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  2. Antenna Polarization Optimization for Target Detection in Non-Gaussian Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cheng


    Full Text Available Adaptive polarization design of radar antenna has recently become the focus of attention in radar polarization community. A polarimetric detector against non-Gaussian clutter with transmitter polarization optimization has been proposed in this paper. First, the radar data model including the realistic dependence of the clutter on the transmitted polarization is introduced. Then the polarimetric detector with transmitter polarization optimization is developed. By employing the simulation, we demonstrate that the polarization waveform optimization can bring the significant performance gain on target detection as compared to the conventional full-polarization approach. Besides, jointly optimizing transmitter and receiver polarization to form a scalar measurement is confirmed not to achieve a better detection performance than vector measurement with only transmitter polarization optimization.

  3. Quad-Polarization Transmission for High-Capacity IM/DD Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Porto da Silva, Edson


    We report the first experimental demonstration of IM/DD links usi ng four states of polarization. Fiber - Induced polarization rotation is compensated with a simple tracking algorithm operating on the Stokes space. The principle is prove n at 128 Gb/s over 2 - km SSMF......We report the first experimental demonstration of IM/DD links usi ng four states of polarization. Fiber - Induced polarization rotation is compensated with a simple tracking algorithm operating on the Stokes space. The principle is prove n at 128 Gb/s over 2 - km SSMF...

  4. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  5. Support Vector Components Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Michiel; Roerdink, Johannes; Phillips, Christophe; Garraux, Gaetan; Salmon, Eric; Wiering, Marco


    In this paper we propose a novel method for learning a distance metric in the process of training Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with the radial basis function kernel. A transformation matrix is adapted in such a way that the SVM dual objective of a classification problem is optimized. By using a

  6. Sesquilinear uniform vector integral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bucharest, Bucharest,. Academiei Str., 14, 010014, Romania. 2Technical University of Civil ... an integral of scalar functions with respect to vector measures, Dunford and his school introduced the spectral operators, thus founding the present operator theory (see ...

  7. Orthogonalisation of Vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Orthogonalisation of Vectors - Matrix Decomposition and Approximation Problems. Rajendra Bhatia. General Article Volume 5 ... Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Indian Statistical Institute 7, SJS Sansanwal Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India.

  8. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S


    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  9. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  10. Performance of ATLAS tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Shaun; The ATLAS collaboration


    Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has provided new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher centre-of-mass energies and luminosity leading to increasingly high-multiplicity envi-ronments. This talk provides an overview of the tracking performance, highlighting tracking improvements due to the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) and the introduction of time-dependent alignment.

  11. Polarization simulations in the RHIC run 15 lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.


    RHIC polarized proton Run 15 uses a new acceleration ramp optics, compared to RHIC Run 13 and earlier runs, in relation with electron-lens beam-beam compensation developments. The new optics induces different strengths in the depolarizing snake resonance sequence, from injection to top energy. As a consequence, polarization transport along the new ramp has been investigated, based on spin tracking simulations. Sample results are reported and discussed.

  12. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.


    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  13. Tracking studies in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    Beam and polarization tracking studies in eRHIC energy recovery electron recirculator are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the FFAG lattice. These simulations provide examples of some of the beam and spin optics aspects of the linear FFAG lattice concept and its application in eRHIC, they provide code benchmarking for synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion in addition, and pave the way towards end-to-end 6-D(phasespace)+3D(spin) tracking simulations.

  14. Replicon RNA Viral Vectors as Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom


    Full Text Available Single-stranded RNA viruses of both positive and negative polarity have been used as vectors for vaccine development. In this context, alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles virus and rhabdoviruses have been engineered for expression of surface protein genes and antigens. Administration of replicon RNA vectors has resulted in strong immune responses and generation of neutralizing antibodies in various animal models. Immunization of mice, chicken, pigs and primates with virus-like particles, naked RNA or layered DNA/RNA plasmids has provided protection against challenges with lethal doses of infectious agents and administered tumor cells. Both prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy has been achieved in cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, recombinant particles and replicon RNAs have been encapsulated by liposomes to improve delivery and targeting. Replicon RNA vectors have also been subjected to clinical trials. Overall, immunization with self-replicating RNA viruses provides high transient expression levels of antigens resulting in generation of neutralizing antibody responses and protection against lethal challenges under safe conditions.

  15. Wavelength and polarization affect phototaxis of the Asian citrus psyllid (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, D. citri, is a primary pest for citrus production due to its status as a vector of the citrus disease, huanglongbing. We investigated phototactic behavior of D. citri to evaluate effects of light of specific wavelength or polarization using a horizontal bioassay arena. Wave...

  16. Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra. (United States)

    Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia


    In the mid 1980s, the development of multifractal concepts and techniques was an important breakthrough for complex system analysis and simulation, in particular, in turbulence and hydrology. Multifractals indeed aimed to track and simulate the scaling singularities of the underlying equations instead of relying on numerical, scale truncated simulations or on simplified conceptual models. However, this development has been rather limited to deal with scalar fields, whereas most of the fields of interest are vector-valued or even manifold-valued. We show in this paper that the combination of stable Lévy processes with Clifford algebra is a good candidate to bridge up the present gap between theory and applications. We show that it indeed defines a convenient framework to generate multifractal vector fields, possibly multifractal manifold-valued fields, based on a few fundamental and complementary properties of Lévy processes and Clifford algebra. In particular, the vector structure of these algebra is much more tractable than the manifold structure of symmetry groups while the Lévy stability grants a given statistical universality.

  17. Orthogonalisation of Vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The QR and the Polar Decompositions. The Gram-Schmidt process can be represented as an interesting matrix factoring theorem: Every invertible matrix A can be factored as A = Q R, where Q is unitary and R is upper triangular. We can cl}pose R so that all its diagonal entries are positive. With this restriction Q and R are ...

  18. Linear Polarization Properties of Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Pushkarev


    Full Text Available We used 15 GHz multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA polarization sensitive observations of 484 sources within a time interval 1996–2016 from the MOJAVE program, and also from the NRAO data archive. We have analyzed the linear polarization characteristics of the compact core features and regions downstream, and their changes along and across the parsec-scale active galactic nuclei (AGN jets. We detected a significant increase of fractional polarization with distance from the radio core along the jet as well as towards the jet edges. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have a higher degree of polarization and exhibit more stable electric vector position angles (EVPAs in their core features and a better alignment of the EVPAs with the local jet direction. The latter is accompanied by a higher degree of linear polarization, suggesting that compact bright jet features might be strong transverse shocks, which enhance magnetic field regularity by compression.

  19. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr


    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  20. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr


    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  1. Performance of a hydrogen/deuterium polarized gas target in a storage ring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, L.D.; Szczerba, D.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Klous, S.; Mul, F.A.; Poolman, H.R.; Simani, M.C.


    The performance of a hydrogen/deuterium polarized gas target in a storage ring is presented. The target setup consisted of an atomic beam source, a cryogenic storage cell and a Breit-Rabi polarimeter. High frequency transition units were constructed to produce vector polarized hydrogen and

  2. Tracking by Neural Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jofrehei, Arash


    Current track reconstruction methods start with two points and then for each layer loop through all possible hits to find proper hits to add to that track. Another idea would be to use this large number of already reconstructed events and/or simulated data and train a machine on this data to find tracks given hit pixels. Training time could be long but real time tracking is really fast. Simulation might not be as realistic as real data but tracking efficiency is 100 percent for that while by using real data we would probably be limited to current efficiency. The fact that this approach can be a lot faster and even more efficient than current methods by using simulation data can make it a great alternative for current track reconstruction methods used in both triggering and tracking.

  3. Tracks: Nurses and the Tracking Network

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights the utility of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for nurses in a variety of work settings. It features commentary from the American Nurses Association and includes stories from a public health nurse in Massachusetts.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects (DEHHE)/Environmental Health Tracking Branch (EHTB).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  4. Object tracking with stereo vision (United States)

    Huber, Eric


    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  5. Singular polarimetry: evolution of polarization singularities in electromagnetic waves propagating in a weakly anisotropic medium. (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Yu; Niv, Avi; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez


    We describe the evolution of a paraxial electromagnetic wave characterizing by a non-uniform polarization distribution with singularities and propagating in a weakly anisotropic medium. Our approach is based on the Stokes vector evolution equation applied to a non-uniform initial polarization field. In the case of a homogeneous medium, this equation is integrated analytically. This yields a 3-dimensional distribution of the polarization parameters containing singularities, i.e. C-lines of circular polarization and L-surfaces of linear polarization. The general theory is applied to specific examples of the unfolding of a vectorial vortex in birefringent and dichroic media.

  6. Exact elegant Laguerre-Gaussian vector wave packets. (United States)

    Nasalski, W


    An exact closed-form representation is derived of a vector elegant Laguerre-Gaussian wave packet. Its space-time representation consists of three mutually orthogonal field components--of a common azimuthal index and different radial indices--uniquely distinguished by first three powers of the paraxial parameter. The transverse components are of tm-radial and te-azimuthal polarization and appear, under their normal incidence, to be eigenmodes of any horizontally planar, homogeneous and isotropic structure, with eigenvalues given by the reflection and transmission coefficients. In this context, the interrelations between the cross-polarization symmetries of wave packets in free space and at medium planar interfaces are discussed.

  7. Sagnac Interferometer Based Generation of Controllable Cylindrical Vector Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acevedo


    Full Text Available We report on a novel experimental geometry to generate cylindrical vector beams in a very robust manner. Continuous control of beams’ properties is obtained using an optically addressable spatial light modulator incorporated into a Sagnac interferometer. Forked computer-generated holograms allow introducing different topological charges while orthogonally polarized beams within the interferometer permit encoding the spatial distribution of polarization. We also demonstrate the generation of complex waveforms obtained by combining two orthogonal beams having both radial modulations and azimuthal dislocations.

  8. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 400094 (India)


    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  9. A new classification scheme of European cyclone tracks with relevance to precipitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hofstätter, M; Chimani, B; Lexer, A; Blöschl, G


    .... The other types are less frequent (Mediterranean 12%, Polar 7%, Continental 2%, and Vb 4%). The track types show distinct characteristics in terms of cyclone intensity and cyclone life stage when entering central Europe...

  10. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray


    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  11. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Polar) (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  12. Helices and vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Rudakov, A N


    This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).

  13. Anisotropic vector Preisach particle

    CERN Document Server

    Fuezi, J


    The static 2D vector magnetic behaviour of an anisotropic silicon iron sheet is modelled by a particle which depicts its space-averaged behaviour. The magnitude of magnetization is governed by a classical Preisach operator with the projection of field strength on the magnetization direction as input. Its orientation is determined by the equilibrium between the field strength orientation and the anisotropy of the sheet.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shajeena


    Full Text Available Tracking is essentially a matching problem. This paper proposes a tracking scheme for video objects on compressed domain. This method mainly focuses on locating the object region and evolving the detection of movement, which improves tracking precision. Motion Vectors (MVs are used for block matching. At each frame, the decision of whether a particular block belongs to the object being tracked is made with the help of histogram matching. During the process of matching and evolving the direction of movement, similarities of target region are compared to ensure that there is no overlapping and tracking performed in a right way. Experiments using the proposed tracker on videos demonstrate that the method can reliably locate the object of interest effectively.

  15. What is a vector? (United States)

    Morgan, Eric René; Booth, Mark; Norman, Rachel; Mideo, Nicole; McCallum, Hamish; Fenton, Andy


    Many important and rapidly emerging pathogens of humans, livestock and wildlife are ‘vector-borne’. However, the term ‘vector’ has been applied to diverse agents in a broad range of epidemiological systems. In this perspective, we briefly review some common definitions, identify the strengths and weaknesses of each and consider the functional differences between vectors and other hosts from a range of ecological, evolutionary and public health perspectives. We then consider how the use of designations can afford insights into our understanding of epidemiological and evolutionary processes that are not otherwise apparent. We conclude that from a medical and veterinary perspective, a combination of the ‘haematophagous arthropod’ and ‘mobility’ definitions is most useful because it offers important insights into contact structure and control and emphasizes the opportunities for pathogen shifts among taxonomically similar species with similar feeding modes and internal environments. From a population dynamics and evolutionary perspective, we suggest that a combination of the ‘micropredator’ and ‘sequential’ definition is most appropriate because it captures the key aspects of transmission biology and fitness consequences for the pathogen and vector itself. However, we explicitly recognize that the value of a definition always depends on the research question under study. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289253

  16. Lentiviral Vector Mediated Transgenesis. (United States)

    Barde, Isabelle; Verp, Sonia; Offner, Sandra; Trono, Didier


    The genetic manipulation of rodents through the generation of fully transgenic animals or via the modification of selective cells or organs is a procedure of paramount importance for biomedical research, either to address fundamental questions or to develop preclinical models of human diseases. Lentiviral vectors occupy the front stage in this scene, as they can mediate the integration and stable expression of transgenes both in vitro and in vivo. Widely used to modify a variety of cells, including re-implantable somatic and embryonic stem cells, lentiviral vectors can also be directly administered in vivo, for instance in the brain. However, perhaps their most spectacular research application is in the generation of transgenic animals. Compared with the three-decade-old DNA pronuclear injection technique, lentivector-mediated transgenesis is simple, cheap, and highly efficient. Furthermore, it can take full advantage of the great diversity of lentiviral vectors developed for other applications, and thus allows for ubiquitous or tissue-specific or constitutive or externally controllable transgene expression, as well as RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:169-184. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Propagating Gateway Vectors. (United States)

    Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M


    Generating stocks of Entry and Destination vectors for use in the Gateway recombinatorial cloning system requires transforming them into Escherichia coli strain DB3.1, where they can replicate because this strain is immune to the effects of the ccdB gene carried in the Gateway cassette. However, mutations in the ccdB gene can arise at low frequency, and these mutant plasmids will consequently allow growth of standard cloning strains of E. coli (e.g., DH5α). Therefore, after making new stocks of Gateway plasmids, their ability to grow in cloning strains of E. coli must be tested. This involves obtaining multiple stocks of vector, each arising from a single plasmid grown in a single DB3.1 bacterial colony, and transforming each stock into both DB3.1 and the preferred cloning strain of E. coli in a controlled fashion. Only vector stocks that effectively kill the standard cloning strain (i.e., no or few colonies are obtained after transformation) should be used in Gateway cloning reactions. The sequence can be performed in 3 d. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Production of a nuclear spin polarized23Na-beam by optical pumping (United States)

    Dreves, W.; Kamke, W.; Broermann, W.; Fick, D.


    Nuclear spin polarization of an atomic23Na-beam was produced by a combination of optical pumping with a dye laser and a sextupole magnet and, alternatively, by optical pumping with two dye lasers. The maximum value measured for the vector polarization was P z=0.86+0.08, using beam foil spectroscopy. Further improvements of polarized ion sources based on this principle are discussed.

  19. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha


    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  20. Generation and conversion of mode beams and their polarization states (United States)

    Karpeev, S. V.


    New polarization converter for transforming the circulary polarized laser modes into cylindrical vector beams (CVB) including beams of higher orders is proposed. The generation of CVB in birefringent crystals is studied analytically and experimentally in paraxial and non-paraxial regimes. At sharp focusing (in the non-paraxial case) two focuses corresponding ordinary and extraordinary beams are formed along the crystal's axis. The results are extended to the generation of higher-order radially and azimuthally polarized mode beams. Using the simulation the possibility of fabricating crystal-based devices suitable for application in fiber optics was shown. The results of the experimental study on the generation of cylindrical vector beams in a crystal of Iceland spar agree with the results of the simulation.

  1. Geometric algebra description of polarization mode dispersion, polarization-dependent loss, and Stokes tensor transformations. (United States)

    Soliman, George; Yevick, David; Jessop, Paul


    This paper demonstrates that numerous calculations involving polarization transformations can be condensed by employing suitable geometric algebra formalism. For example, to describe polarization mode dispersion and polarization-dependent loss, both the material birefringence and differential loss enter as bivectors and can be combined into a single symmetric quantity. Their frequency and distance evolution, as well as that of the Stokes vector through an optical system, can then each be expressed as a single compact expression, in contrast to the corresponding Mueller matrix formulations. The intrinsic advantage of the geometric algebra framework is further demonstrated by presenting a simplified derivation of generalized Stokes parameters that include the electric field phase. This procedure simultaneously establishes the tensor transformation properties of these parameters.

  2. Tracking dynamic team activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambe, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA (United States)


    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  3. The Role of the Harmonic Vector Average in Motion Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eJohnston


    Full Text Available The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition to the geometrically correct global velocity as indicated by the intersection of constraints (IOC solution. Here a new combination rule, the harmonic vector average (HVA, is introduced, as well as a new algorithm for computing the IOC solution. The vector sum can be discounted as an integration strategy as it increases with the number of elements. The vector average over local vectors that vary in direction always provides an underestimate of the true global speed. The harmonic vector average however provides the correct global speed and direction for an unbiased sample of local velocities with respect to the global motion direction, as is the case for a simple closed contour. The HVA over biased samples provides an aggregate velocity estimate that can still be combined through an IOC computation to give an accurate estimate of the global velocity, which is not true of the vector average. Psychophysical results for type II Gabor arrays show perceived direction and speed falls close to the intersection of constraints direction for Gabor arrays having a wide range of orientations but the IOC prediction fails as the mean orientation shifts away from the global motion direction and the orientation range narrows. In this case perceived velocity generally defaults to the harmonic vector average.

  4. An automatic contrail tracking algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazquez-Navarro


    Full Text Available A method designed to track the life cycle of contrail-cirrus using satellite data with high temporal and spatial resolution, from its formation to the final dissolution of the aviation-induced cirrus cloud is presented. The method follows the evolution of contrails from their linear stage until they are undistinguishable from natural cirrus clouds. Therefore, the study of the effect of aircraft-induced clouds in the atmosphere is no longer restricted to linear contrails and can include contrail-cirrus. The method takes advantage of the high spatial resolution of polar orbiting satellites and the high temporal resolution of geostationary satellites to identify the pixels that belong to an aviation induced cloud. The high spatial resolution data of the MODIS sensor is used for contrail detection, and the high temporal resolution of the SEVIRI sensor in the Rapid Scan mode is used for contrail tracking. An example is included in which the method is applied to the study of a long lived contrail over the bay of Biscay.

  5. Polarization feedback laser stabilization (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.


    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  6. Non-uniformity calibration for MWIR polarization imagery obtained with integrated microgrid polarimeters (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Zheng; Shi, Ze-Lin; Feng, Bin; Hui, Bin; Zhao, Yao-Hong


    Integrating microgrid polarimeters on focal plane array (FPA) of an infrared detector causes non-uniformity of polarization response. In order to reduce the effect of polarization non-uniformity, this paper constructs an experimental setup for capturing raw flat-field images and proposes a procedure for acquiring non-uniform calibration (NUC) matrix and calibrating raw polarization images. The proposed procedure takes the incident radiation as a polarization vector and offers a calibration matrix for each pixel. Both our matrix calibration and two-point calibration are applied to our mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) polarization imaging system with integrated microgrid polarimeters. Compared with two point calibration, our matrix calibration reduces non-uniformity by 30 40% under condition of flat-field data test with polarization. The ourdoor scene observation experiment indicates that our calibration can effectively reduce polarization non-uniformity and improve the image quality of our MWIR polarization imaging system.

  7. Fluoroscopic tumor tracking for image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Cerviño, Laura I.; Tang, Xiaoli; Vasconcelos, Nuno; Jiang, Steve B.


    Accurate lung tumor tracking in real time is a keystone to image-guided radiotherapy of lung cancers. Existing lung tumor tracking approaches can be roughly grouped into three categories: (1) deriving tumor position from external surrogates; (2) tracking implanted fiducial markers fluoroscopically or electromagnetically; (3) fluoroscopically tracking lung tumor without implanted fiducial markers. The first approach suffers from insufficient accuracy, while the second may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previous studies in fluoroscopic markerless tracking are mainly based on template matching methods, which may fail when the tumor boundary is unclear in fluoroscopic images. In this paper we propose a novel markerless tumor tracking algorithm, which employs the correlation between the tumor position and surrogate anatomic features in the image. The positions of the surrogate features are not directly tracked; instead, we use principal component analysis of regions of interest containing them to obtain parametric representations of their motion patterns. Then, the tumor position can be predicted from the parametric representations of surrogates through regression. Four regression methods were tested in this study: linear and two-degree polynomial regression, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The experimental results based on fluoroscopic sequences of ten lung cancer patients demonstrate a mean tracking error of 2.1 pixels and a maximum error at a 95% confidence level of 4.6 pixels (pixel size is about 0.5 mm) for the proposed tracking algorithm.

  8. Phase conjugation of vector fields by degenerate four-wave mixing in a Fe-doped LiNbO₃. (United States)

    Qian, Sheng-Xia; Li, Yongnan; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian


    We propose a method to generate the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field by degenerate four-wave mixing in a c-cut Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystal. We demonstrate experimentally that the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field can be generated. In particular, the phase-conjugate vector field has also the peculiar function of compensating the polarization distortion, as the traditional phase-conjugate scaler field can compensate the phase distortion.

  9. DCS Budget Tracking System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  10. Measuring magnetic field vector by stimulated Raman transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenli; Wei, Rong, E-mail:; Lin, Jinda; Wang, Yuzhu [Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Dong, Richang; Zou, Fan; Chen, Tingting [Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)


    We present a method for measuring the magnetic field vector in an atomic fountain by probing the line strength of stimulated Raman transitions. The relative line strength for a Λ-type level system with an existing magnetic field is theoretically analyzed. The magnetic field vector measured by our proposed method is consistent well with that by the traditional bias magnetic field method with an axial resolution of 6.1 mrad and a radial resolution of 0.16 rad. Dependences of the Raman transitions on laser polarization schemes are also analyzed. Our method offers the potential advantages for magnetic field measurement without requiring additional bias fields, beyond the limitation of magnetic field intensity, and extending the spatial measurement range. The proposed method can be widely used for measuring magnetic field vector in other precision measurement fields.

  11. Polarization Shaping for Control of Nonlinear Propagation (United States)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Larocque, Hugo; Yao, Alison M.; Travis, Christopher; De Leon, Israel; Rubano, Andrea; Karimi, Ebrahim; Oppo, Gian-Luca; Boyd, Robert W.


    We study the nonlinear optical propagation of two different classes of light beams with space-varying polarization—radially symmetric vector beams and Poincaré beams with lemon and star topologies—in a rubidium vapor cell. Unlike Laguerre-Gauss and other types of beams that quickly experience instabilities, we observe that their propagation is not marked by beam breakup while still exhibiting traits such as nonlinear confinement and self-focusing. Our results suggest that, by tailoring the spatial structure of the polarization, the effects of nonlinear propagation can be effectively controlled. These findings provide a novel approach to transport high-power light beams in nonlinear media with controllable distortions to their spatial structure and polarization properties.

  12. Determination of deuteron beam polarizations at COSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chiladze


    Full Text Available The vector (P_{z} and tensor (P_{zz} polarizations of a deuteron beam have been measured using elastic deuteron–carbon scattering at 75.6 MeV and deuteron-proton scattering at 270 MeV. After acceleration to 1170 MeV inside the COSY storage ring, the polarizations of the deuterons were remeasured by studying the analyzing powers of a variety of nuclear reactions. For this purpose a hydrogen cluster target was employed at the ANKE magnetic spectrometer, which is situated at an internal target position in the ring. The overall precisions obtained were about 4% for both P_{z} and P_{zz}. Though all the measurements were consistent with the absence of depolarization during acceleration, only an upper limit of about 6% could be placed on such an effect.

  13. Symplectic orbit and spin tracking code for all-electric storage rings (United States)

    Talman, Richard M.; Talman, John D.


    Proposed methods for measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the proton use an intense, polarized proton beam stored in an all-electric storage ring "trap." At the "magic" kinetic energy of 232.792 MeV, proton spins are "frozen," for example always parallel to the instantaneous particle momentum. Energy deviation from the magic value causes in-plane precession of the spin relative to the momentum. Any nonzero EDM value will cause out-of-plane precession—measuring this precession is the basis for the EDM determination. A proposed implementation of this measurement shows that a proton EDM value of 10-29e -cm or greater will produce a statistically significant, measurable precession after multiply repeated runs, assuming small beam depolarization during 1000 s runs, with high enough precision to test models of the early universe developed to account for the present day particle/antiparticle population imbalance. This paper describes an accelerator simulation code, eteapot, a new component of the Unified Accelerator Libraries (ual), to be used for long term tracking of particle orbits and spins in electric bend accelerators, in order to simulate EDM storage ring experiments. Though qualitatively much like magnetic rings, the nonconstant particle velocity in electric rings gives them significantly different properties, especially in weak focusing rings. Like the earlier code teapot (for magnetic ring simulation) this code performs exact tracking in an idealized (approximate) lattice rather than the more conventional approach, which is approximate tracking in a more nearly exact lattice. The Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi (BMT) equation describing the evolution of spin vectors through idealized bend elements is also solved exactly—original to this paper. Furthermore the idealization permits the code to be exactly symplectic (with no artificial "symplectification"). Any residual spurious damping or antidamping is sufficiently small to permit reliable tracking for the

  14. A new measurement of electron transverse polarization in polarized nuclear β-decay (United States)

    Kawamura, H.; Akiyama, T.; Hata, M.; Hirayama, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Ishii, T.; Kameda, D.; Mitsuoka, S.; Miyatake, H.; Nagae, D.; Nakaya, Y.; Ninomiya, K.; Nitta, M.; Ogawa, N.; Onishi, J.; Seitaibashi, E.; Tanaka, S.; Tanuma, R.; Totsuka, Y.; Toyoda, T.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Murata, J.


    The Mott polarimetry for T-violation (MTV) experiment tests time-reversal symmetry in polarized nuclear β-decay by measuring an electron’s transverse polarization as a form of angular asymmetry in Mott scattering using a thin metal foil. A Mott scattering analyzer system developed using a tracking detector to measure scattering angles offers better event selectivity than conventional counter experiments. In this paper, we describe a pilot experiment conducted at KEK-TRIAC using a prototype system with a polarized 8Li beam. The experiment confirmed the sound performance of our Mott analyzer system to measure T-violating triple correlation (R correlation), and therefore recommends its use in higher-precision experiments at the TRIUMF-ISAC.

  15. Generation of vector beams using a double-wedge depolarizer: Non-quantum entanglement (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.


    Propagation of horizontally polarized Gaussian beam through a double-wedge depolarizer generates vector beams with spatially varying state of polarization. Jones calculus is used to show that such beams are maximally nonseparable on the basis of even (Gaussian)-odd (Hermite-Gaussian) mode parity and horizontal-vertical polarization state. The maximum nonseparability in the two degrees of freedom of the vector beam at the double wedge depolarizer output is verified experimentally using a modified Sagnac interferometer and linear analyser projected interferograms to measure the concurrence 0.94±0.002 and violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell-like inequality 2.704±0.024. The investigation is carried out in the context of the use of vector beams for metrological applications.

  16. Group velocity locked vector dissipative solitons in a high repetition rate fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yiyang; Li, Lei; Sun, Qizhen; Wu, Zhichao; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming


    Vectorial nature of dissipative solitons (DSs) with high repetition rates is studied for the first time in a normal-dispersion fiber laser. Despite the fact that the formed DSs are strongly chirped and the repetition rate is greater than 100 MHz, polarization locked and polarization rotating group velocity locked vector DSs can be formed under 129.3 MHz fundamental mode-locking and 258.6 MHz harmonic mode-locking of the fiber laser, respectively. The two orthogonally polarized components of these vector DSs possess distinctly different central wavelengths and travel together at the same group velocity in the laser cavity, resulting in a gradual spectral edge and small steps on the optical spectra, which can be considered as an auxiliary indicator of the group velocity locked vector DSs.

  17. Scalar and vector Galileons (United States)

    Rodríguez, Yeinzon; Navarro, Andrés A.


    An alternative for the construction of fundamental theories is the introduction of Galileons. These are fields whose action leads to non higher than second-order equations of motion. As this is a necessary but not sufficient condition to make the Hamiltonian bounded from below, as long as the action is not degenerate, the Galileon construction is a way to avoid pathologies both at the classical and quantum levels. Galileon actions are, therefore, of great interest in many branches of physics, specially in high energy physics and cosmology. This proceedings contribution presents the generalities of the construction of both scalar and vector Galileons following two different but complimentary routes.

  18. Architecture and Vector Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Knols, Bart GJ; Kirby, Matthew


    of vector-borne diseases have no access to electricity. Many houses in the hot, humid regions of Asia have adapted to the environment, they are built of porous materials and are elevated on stilts features which allow a comfortable climate even in the presence of bednets and screens. In contrast, many...... buildings in Africa and Asia in respect to their indoor climate characteristics and finally, show how state-of-the-art 3D modelling can predict climate characteristics and help to optimize buildings....

  19. Polarization modulators for CMBPol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P A R; Savini, G [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Chuss, D T [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Hanany, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota/Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Haynes, V; Pisano, G [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy - Alan Turing Building, Upper Brooke street, Manchester, M13 4PL (United Kingdom); Keating, B G [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Kogut, A [Code 665 Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ruhl, J E [Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Wollack, E J [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We review a number of technologies that are candidates for active polarization modulators for CMBPol. The technologies are appropriate for instruments that use bolometric detectors and include birefringent crystal-based and metal-mesh-based half-wave plates, variable phase polarization modulator, Faraday rotator, and photolithographed modulators. We also give a current account of the status of millimeter-wave orthomode transducers.

  20. The Polar Insulation Investigation (United States)

    Urban-Rich, Juanita


    In this article, the author developed an activity called "The Polar Insulation Investigation." This activity builds on students' natural interest in "things polar" and introduces them to animal adaptations in a unique way. The aim of the exploration is to determine the role of animal coverings (e.g., blubber, fur, and feathers) and to see which is…

  1. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission ...

  2. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.


    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  3. Fast and Accurate Collocation of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Measurements with Cross-Track Infrared Sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likun Wang


    Full Text Available Given the fact that Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS are currently onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP satellite and will continue to be carried on the same platform as future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites for the next decade, it is desirable to develop a fast and accurate collocation scheme to collocate VIIRS products and measurements with CrIS for applications that rely on combining measurements from two sensors such as inter-calibration, geolocation assessment, and cloud detection. In this study, an accurate and fast collocation method to collocate VIIRS measurements within CrIS instantaneous field of view (IFOV directly based on line-of-sight (LOS pointing vectors is developed and discussed in detail. We demonstrate that this method is not only accurate and precise from a mathematical perspective, but also easy to implement computationally. More importantly, with optimization, this method is very fast and efficient and thus can meet operational requirements. Finally, this collocation method can be extended to a wide variety of sensors on different satellite platforms.

  4. Polarization Mode Dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Galtarossa, Andrea


    This book contains a series of tutorial essays on polarization mode dispersion (PMD) by the leading experts in the field. It starts with an introductory review of the basic concepts and continues with more advanced topics, including a thorough review of PMD mitigation techniques. Topics covered include mathematical representation of PMD, how to properly model PMD in numerical simulations, how to accurately measure PMD and other related polarization effects, and how to infer fiber properties from polarization measurements. It includes discussions of other polarization effects such as polarization-dependent loss and the interaction of PMD with fiber nonlinearity. It additionally covers systems issues like the impact of PMD on wavelength division multiplexed systems. This book is intended for research scientists or engineers who wish to become familiar with PMD and its system impacts.

  5. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    CERN Document Server

    She, Alan


    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristi...

  6. Optically polarized 3He (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.


    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  7. CWI at TREC 2012, KBA track and Session Track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Araújo (Samur); C. Boscarino (Corrado); G.G. Gebremeskel (Gebre); J. He (Jiyin); A.P. de Vries (Arjen); E.M. Voorhees; L. P. Buckland (Buckland, Lori P.)


    htmlabstractWe participated in two tracks: Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Track and Session Track. In the KBA track, we focused on experi- menting with different approaches as it is the first time the track is launched. We experimented with supervised and unsupervised re- trieval models. Our

  8. Polarized neutron reflectometry of magnetic nanostructures (United States)

    Toperverg, B. P.


    Among a number of methods employed to characterize various types of magnetic nano-structures Polarized Neutron Reflectometry (PNR) is shown to be a unique tool providing a scope of quantitative information on magnetization arrangement over relevant scales. Deeply penetrating into materials neutron spins are able to resolve vectorial profile of magnetic induction with accuracy of a fraction of Oersted over a fraction of nano-meters. This property is exploited in measurements of specular PNR which hence constitutes the method of depth resolved vector magnetometry widely used to examine magnetic states in exchange coupled magnetic superlattices, exchange bias systems, spin valves, exchange springs, superconducting/ferromagnetic heterostructure, etc. Off-specular polarized neutron scattering (OS-PNS) measures the in-plane magnetization distribution over scales from hundreds of nanoto hundreds of micrometers providing, in combination with specular PNR, access to lateral long range fluctuations of the magnetization vector and magnetic domains in these systems. OSPNS is especially useful in studies of co-operative magnetization reversal processes in various films and multilayers laterally patterned into periodic arrays of stripes, or islands of various dimentions, shapes, internal structures, etc., representing an interest for e.g. spintronics. Smaller sizes of 10?100 nm are accessed with the method of Polarized Neutrons Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering (PN-GISAS), which in a combination with specular PNR and OS-PNS is used to study self-assembling of magnetic nano-particles on flat surfaces, while Polarized Neutron Grazing Incidence Diffraction (PN-GID) complete the scope of magnetic information over wide range of scales in 3D space. The review of recent results obtained employing the methods listed above is preceded by the detailed theoretical consideration and exemplified by new developments addressing with PNR fast magnetic kinetics in nano-systems.

  9. Molecular content of polar-ring galaxies (United States)

    Combes, F.; Moiseev, A.; Reshetnikov, V.


    We have searched for CO lines in a sample of 21 new morphologically determined polar-ring galaxies (of which nine are kinematically confirmed), obtained from a wide search in the Galaxy Zoo project by Moiseev and collaborators. Polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) are a unique class of objects, tracing special episodes in the galaxy mass assembly: they can be formed through galaxy interaction and merging, but also through accretion from cosmic filaments. Furthermore, they enable the study of dark matter haloes in three dimensions. The polar ring itself is a sub-system rich in gas, where molecular gas is expected, and new stars are formed. Among the sample of 21 PRGs, we have detected five CO-rich systems, that can now be followed up with higher spatial resolution. Their average molecular mass is 9.4 × 109M⊙, and their average gas fraction is 27% of their baryonic mass, with a range from 15 to 43%, implying that they have just accreted a large amount of gas. The position of the detected objects in the velocity-magnitude diagram is offset from the Tully-Fisher relation of normal spirals, as was already found for PRGs. This work is part of our multi-wavelength project to determine the detailed morphology and dynamics of PRGs, test through numerical models their formation scenario, and deduce their dark matter content and 3D-shape. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Spectra of detections are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ("> or via

  10. Kalman filter tracking on parallel architectures (United States)

    Cerati, G.; Elmer, P.; Krutelyov, S.; Lantz, S.; Lefebvre, M.; McDermott, K.; Riley, D.; Tadel, M.; Wittich, P.; Wurthwein, F.; Yagil, A.


    We report on the progress of our studies towards a Kalman filter track reconstruction algorithm with optimal performance on manycore architectures. The combinatorial structure of these algorithms is not immediately compatible with an efficient SIMD (or SIMT) implementation; the challenge for us is to recast the existing software so it can readily generate hundreds of shared-memory threads that exploit the underlying instruction set of modern processors. We show how the data and associated tasks can be organized in a way that is conducive to both multithreading and vectorization. We demonstrate very good performance on Intel Xeon and Xeon Phi architectures, as well as promising first results on Nvidia GPUs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Dullemond, Cornelis P [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Momose, Munetake; Tsukagoshi, Takashi, E-mail: [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan)


    The millimeter-wave polarization of the protoplanetary disk around HL Tau has been interpreted as the emission from elongated dust grains aligned with the magnetic field in the disk. However, the self-scattering of thermal dust emission may also explain the observed millimeter-wave polarization. In this paper, we report a modeling of the millimeter-wave polarization of the HL Tau disk with the self-polarization. Dust grains are assumed to be spherical and to have a power-law size distribution. We change the maximum grain size with a fixed dust composition in a fixed disk model to find the grain size to reproduce the observed signature. We find that the direction of the polarization vectors and the polarization degree can be explained with the self-scattering. Moreover, the polarization degree can be explained only if the maximum grain size is ∼150 μm. The obtained grain size from the polarization is different from that which has been previously expected from the spectral index of the dust opacity coefficient (a millimeter or larger) if the emission is optically thin. We discuss that porous dust aggregates may solve the inconsistency of the maximum grain size between the two constraints.

  12. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK


    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  13. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking (United States)

    Koerselman, Kristian


    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  14. Bewegingsvolgsysteem = Monitor tracking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slycke, P.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Roetenberg, D.


    A motion tracking system for tracking an object composed of object parts in a three-dimensional space. The system comprises a number of magnetic field transmitters; a number of field receivers for receiving the magnetic fields of the field transmitters; a number of inertial measurement units for

  15. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  16. Plasmonic oligomers in cylindrical vector light beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Hentschel


    Full Text Available We investigate the excitation as well as propagation of magnetic modes in plasmonic nanostructures. Such structures are particularly suited for excitation with cylindrical vector beams. We study magneto-inductive coupling between adjacent nanostructures. We utilize high-resolution lithographic techniques for the preparation of complex nanostructures consisting of gold as well as aluminium. These structures are subsequently characterized by linear optical spectroscopy. The well characterized and designed structures are afterwards studied in depth by exciting them with radial and azimuthally polarized light and simultaneously measuring their plasmonic near-field behavior. Additionally, we attempt to model and simulate our results, a project which has, to the best of our knowledge, not been attempted so far.

  17. Stokes vector analysis of LWIR polarimetric in adverse weather (United States)

    Michalson, Jacob L.; Romano, Joao M.; Roth, Luz


    It is understood that Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery has the potential for detecting man-made objects in natural clutter backgrounds. Unlike Spectral and conventional broadband, polarimetric imagery takes advantage of the polarized signals emitted by the smooth surfaces of man-made materials. Studying the effect of how meteorological conditions affect polarization signals is imperative in order to understand where and how polarimetric technology can be beneficial to the war fighter. In this paper we intend to demonstrate the effects of weather on the performance of Stokes vector components, S0, S1, S2, and the Degree of Linear Polarization (DOLP) as detectors of man-made materials. Using the Hyperspectral Polarimetric Image Collection Experiment (SPICE) data collection, we analyze approximately one thousand images and correlate the performance of each of the detection metrics to individual meteorological measurements.

  18. Vector correlations in rotationally inelastic molecular collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemeshko, Mikhail


    The thesis presents an analytic model that describes scalar and vector properties of molecular collisions, both field-free and in fields. The model is based on the sudden approximation and treats molecular scattering as the Fraunhofer diffraction of matter waves from the hard-core part of the interaction potential. The theory has no fitting parameters and is inherently quantum, rendering fully state- and energy-resolved scattering amplitudes and all the quantities that unfold from them in analytic form. This allows to obtain complex polarization moments inherent to quantum stereodynamics, and to account for interference and other non-classical effects. The simplicity and analyticity of the model paves a way to understanding the origin of the features observed in experiment and exact computations, such as the angular oscillations in the state-to-state differential cross sections and the polarization moments, the rotational-state dependent variation of the integral cross sections, and change of these quantities as a function of the applied field. The theory was applied to study the k - k{sup '} vector correlation (differential cross section) for the following collision systems: Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and Ne-OCS(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in an electrostatic field, Na{sup +}-N{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in a laser field, and He-CaH({sup 2}{sigma}), He-O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{sigma}), and He-OH(X{sup 2}{pi}) in a magnetic field. The model was able to reproduce the behavior of the differential cross sections and their variation with field strength. Combining the Fraunhofer model with the quantum theory of vector correlations made it possible to study three- and four-vector properties. The model results for the k-k{sup '}-j{sup '} vector correlation in Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and He-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) scattering were found to be in good agreement with experiment and exact computations. This allowed to demonstrate that the stereodynamics of such collisions is contained solely in the

  19. Why we are tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper


    In this short essay, concerning why we are tracking, I will try to frame tracking as an evolutionary developed skill that humans need to survive. From an evolutionary point zero life must reflect upon itself in regard to its surrounding world as a kind of societal self-synchronization in this reg......In this short essay, concerning why we are tracking, I will try to frame tracking as an evolutionary developed skill that humans need to survive. From an evolutionary point zero life must reflect upon itself in regard to its surrounding world as a kind of societal self......-synchronization in this regard (Spencer 1890, Luhmann 2000, Tække 2014, 2011). I was inspired by Jill Walker Rettberg’s book: “Seeing Ourselves through Technology” and her presentation at the seminar: “Tracking Culture” arranged by Anders Albrechtslund in Aarhus January 2015....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot ( Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (, the display and user interface (, and the program command line and configuration file parameters ( The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  1. Generation of Airy vortex and Airy vector beams based on the modulation of dynamic and geometric phases. (United States)

    Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun


    We propose a novel method for the generation of Airy vortex and Airy vector beams based on the modulation of dynamic and geometric phases. In our scheme, the Airy beam is generated by the dynamic phase with a spatial light modulator, and the vortex phase or the vector polarization is modulated by the geometric phase with a dielectric metasurface. The modulation of the geometric phase provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the phase and the polarization of Airy beams. This scheme can be extended to generate any other types of optical beams with desirable phase and polarization.

  2. Performance of a vector velocity estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    It is a well-known limitation of all commercially available scanners that only the velocity component along the propagation direction of the emitted pulse is measured, when evaluating blood velocities with ultrasound. Proposals for solving this limitation using several transducers or speckle...... tracking can be found in the literature, but no method with a satisfactory performance has been found that can be used in a commercial implementation. A method for estimation of the velocity vector is presented. Here an oscillation transverse to the ultrasound beam is generated, so that a transverse motion...... yields a change in the received signals. The method uses two ultrasound beams for sampling the in-phase and quadrature component of the lateral field, and a set of samples (in-phase and quadrature in both time and space) are taken for each pulse-echo line. These four samples are then used...

  3. Tunable supercontinuum light vector vortex beam generator using a q-plate. (United States)

    Rumala, Yisa S; Milione, Giovanni; Nguyen, Thien An; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Hossain, Zabir; Nolan, Daniel; Slussarenko, Sergei; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Alfano, Robert R


    Spatially coherent multicolored optical vector vortex beams were created using a tunable liquid crystal q-plate and a supercontinuum light source. The feasibility of the q-plate as a tunable spectral filter (switch) was demonstrated, and the polarization topology of the resulting vector vortex beam was mapped. Potential applications include multiplexing for broadband high-speed optical communication, ultradense data networking, and super-resolution microscopy.

  4. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias


    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  5. "Analytical" vector-functions I (United States)

    Todorov, Vladimir Todorov


    In this note we try to give a new (or different) approach to the investigation of analytical vector functions. More precisely a notion of a power xn; n ∈ ℕ+ of a vector x ∈ ℝ3 is introduced which allows to define an "analytical" function f : ℝ3 → ℝ3. Let furthermore f (ξ )= ∑n =0 ∞ anξn be an analytical function of the real variable ξ. Here we replace the power ξn of the number ξ with the power of a vector x ∈ ℝ3 to obtain a vector "power series" f (x )= ∑n =0 ∞ anxn . We research some properties of the vector series as well as some applications of this idea. Note that an "analytical" vector function does not depend of any basis, which may be used in research into some problems in physics.

  6. Schmidt decompositions of parametric processes II: vector four-wave mixing. (United States)

    McKinstrie, C J; Ott, J R; Karlsson, M


    In vector four-wave mixing, one or two strong pump waves drive two weak signal and idler waves, each of which has two polarization components. In this paper, vector four-wave mixing processes in a randomly-birefringent fiber (modulation interaction, phase conjugation and Bragg scattering) are studied in detail. For each process, the Schmidt decompositions of the coupling matrices facilitate the solution of the signal-idler equations and the Schmidt decomposition of the associated transfer matrix. The results of this paper are valid for arbitrary pump polarizations.

  7. Complex-Vector Time-Delay Control of Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P. C.; Tang, Y.


    to develop dynamically fast and accurate current controllers is even more intensive with more features expected to be embedded within a single control module. Believing in its continual importance, this paper contributes by proposing a complex-vector time-delay control scheme that can achieve high tracking......Precise controlling of current produced by power converters is an important topic that has attracted interests over the last few decades. With the recent proliferation of grid-tied converters where the control of power flow is indirectly governed by the accuracy of current tracking, motivation...... a set of load-matching control characteristics that are less sensitive to external noise interferences. These added features, complementing the basic requirement of fast and accurate fundamental positive-sequence tracking, render the proposed scheme as an attractive alternative for high-end converter...

  8. Skew projectors and generalized observables in polarization optics: a biorthogonal analyses [Invited]. (United States)

    Tudor, Tiberiu


    This paper constitutes an application of the polarization optics in the problem of quantum measurement. The non-Hermitian operators of the nonorthogonal multilayer optical polarizers represent observables in the sense of the generalized quantum theory of measurement. The intimate spectral structure of these polarizers can be disclosed in the frame of skew-angular vector bases and biorthonormal vector systems. We show that these polarizers correspond to skew projectors; their operators are "generated" by skew projectors in the sense of the spectral theorem of linear operators theory. Thus the common feature of all the polarizers (Hermitian and non-Hermitian) is that their "nuclei" are (orthogonal or skew) projectors--the generating projectors.

  9. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián


    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  10. X-Parameter Based Modelling of Polar Modulated Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yelin; Nielsen, Troels Studsgaard; Sira, Daniel


    X-parameters are developed as an extension of S-parameters capable of modelling non-linear devices driven by large signals. They are suitable for devices having only radio frequency (RF) and DC ports. In a polar power amplifier (PA), phase and envelope of the input modulated signal are applied...... is modelled by X-parameters and the envelope path of the polar PA is simulated by a low-pass filter. The solution can be applied to a group of polar PAs who have the similar topology and design as the one in this work. Modulated signals with different channel bandwidths were applied to the model of the polar...... PA for simulations. The simulated error vector magnitude (EVM) and adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) were compared with the measured data to validate the model. The maximum differences between the simulated and measured EVM and ACPR are less than 2% point and 3 dB, respectively....

  11. Four-component polarization measurement of lidar atmospheric scattering. (United States)

    Houston, J D; Carswell, A I


    Measurements of the backscattering from the lower atmosphere of linearly polarized ruby lidar pulses at 694 nm are described. A four-channel receiver provides simultaneous measurements of the four components of the Stokes vector of the scattered radiation. These data are used to obtain information on the polarization state of the scattering and its dependence on atmospheric conditions. Results are presented and discussed for clear air, hazes, and several cloud types. In water droplet clouds some rotation of the plane of polarization and changes in ellipticity are noted in the backscattered wave. Linear polarization of the penetrating lidar beam is strongly preserved even in quite dense clouds. In view of the increased complexity of the four-component measurement technique it would appear that in such cases two-channel measurements of delta would be the most efficient lidar approach.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar) (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar) (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  14. Polarized scintillator targets (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.


    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  15. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail:; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S


    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.


    Sailor, V.L.; Aichroth, R.W.


    The plane of polarization of a beam of polarized neutrons is changed by this invention, and the plane can be flipped back and forth quicitly in two directions in a trouble-free manner. The invention comprises a guide having a plurality of oppositely directed magnets forming a gap for the neutron beam and the gaps are spaced longitudinally in a spiral along the beam at small stepped angles. When it is desired to flip the plane of polarization the magnets are suitably rotated to change the direction of the spiral of the gaps. (AEC)

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar) (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  18. Contributions in anomalous fermion momenta of neutral vector boson in plane-wave field

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenko, E Y


    The contributions of the neutral vector boson to the anomalous magnetic and electric momenta of the polarized fermion moving in the plane-wave electromagnetic field are considered in this paper. The contributions are divided by the fermion spin polarization states, which makes it possible to investigate the important problem on the contributions to the fermion anomalous momenta, coming from the the fermion transition to the intermediate state spin-nonflip or spin flip of fermion

  19. Scattering from cylinders using the two-dimensional vector plane wave spectrum: addendum. (United States)

    Pawliuk, Peter; Yedlin, Matthew


    The solution for the vector plane wave spectrum scattering from multiple cylinders by Pawliuk and Yedlin [J. Opt. Soc. A28, 1177 (2011)] only provided the single scattering coefficients for the TM polarization case. The TE solution is similar except for the form of the single scattering coefficients. Here we describe the single scattering coefficients for both polarizations and three types of cylinders: dielectrics, perfect electric conductors, and perfect magnetic conductors.

  20. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...... estimator automatically compensates for the axial velocity, when determining the transverse velocity by using fourth order moments rather than second order moments. The estimation is optimized by using a lag different from one in the estimation process, and noise artifacts are reduced by using averaging...... of RF samples. Further, compensation for the axial velocity can be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce spatial velocity dispersion....

  1. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics (United States)

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro


    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  2. Gyroscopically Stabilized Robot: Balance and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Ou


    Full Text Available The single wheel, gyroscopically stabilized robot - Gyrover, is a dynamically stable but statically unstable, underactuated system. In this paper, based on the dynamic model of the robot, we investigate two classes of nonholonomic constraints associated with the system. Then, based on the backstepping technology, we propose a control law for balance control of Gyrover. Next, through transferring the systems states from Cartesian coordinate to polar coordinate, control laws for point-to-point control and line tracking in Cartesian space are provided.

  3. Discontinuous fission tracks in crystalline detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadderton, L.T. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Inst. of Advanced Studies); Biersack, J.P. (Hahn-Meitner-Institut fuer Kernforschung Berlin G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)); Koul, S.L. (CSIRO, Clayton (Australia). Div. of Materials Science and Technology)


    Latent intermittent fission fragment tracks were seen as long ago as 1962, using direct transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that the intermittency arises from periodic bursts of electronic energy loss along the particle trajectory, and that this makes it possible to measure the thickness of a crystal, using TEM, to an accuracy of one atomic (or molecular) layer. In other words anisotropy of the basic crystal lattice is responsible also for the latent track structure, as it is for the well-known angular variations in particle ranges evidenced in etched track polar plots, for which ''channelling'' and ''quasi-channelling'' are responsible. Simple probability theory, isotropic fragment emission, and the lattice structures of muscovite mica and molybdenite are used to predict the most probable extended defect length for at least an order of magnitude comparison with the X-ray work, since crystal orientations are not specified. Speculation is made on the consequences of this work for the etching of latent tracks. (author).

  4. Measuring and understanding write width and off-track as a function of linear density in perpendicular recording (United States)

    Fernandez-de-Castro, Juan; Sandler, Gene; Hurben, Michel; Lu, Pu-Ling; Curland, Nathan


    Multiple techniques have been developed and used to characterize the width of a written track in perpendicular recording. This work investigates written tracks using the WPE (write plus erase) test based on writing the main track at a given density and trimming both sides of the track multiple times with another density. The edge of the original track, after each trimming step, is characterized by a narrow band measurement of the read-back signal as a function of cross-track position. The use of a narrow band filter improves the test SNR and helps separate the track into 2 sections: A good region (track center) and a degraded region (track edge). Test and micro-magnetic analysis were used under multiple linear densities for the main track and for the trimming tracks. The results indicate that the WPE value decreases as the density increased between 200 kfci and 1500 kfci. For densities lower than 200 kfci and higher than 1500 kfci, the WPE value does not change significantly. When the main track was fixed at 200 kfci, increasing the trimming density resulted in a higher WPE. Using a micro-magnetic model and spin-stand tests, it is demonstrated that the apparent increase in WPE is caused by a region with opposite polarity at the edge of the main track (in the media) produced by the magneto-static (demagnetization) field generated by the main track. The section with opposite polarity is found to be coherent with the main track. During the read-back process, the field from the opposite polarity region in the media is integrated by the reader (read sensitivity function) and subtracted from the main track signal. The result is a loss in signal at the track edge that yields a larger WPE value. This phenomenon could have a direct impact on shingled recording.

  5. Coordenadas polares: curvas maravillosas


    Norberto Jaime Chau Pérez; Roy Wil Sánchez Gutiérrez


    Se presenta una actividad colaborativa en la que se trabaja el tema coordenadas polares. Se presentan los objetivos de aprendizaje, el desarrollo de la actividad, los conocimientos previos necesarios y recomendaciones para una aplicación posterior.

  6. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)


    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.


    Wernet, M. P.


    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or

  8. An Open-Loop Vector Receiver Architecture for GNSS-Based Scintillation Monitoring




    GNSS-based studies of the ionosphere are typically conducted using navigation receivers which track both the carrier and code phase either on a satellite-by-satellite basis, or collectively via a vector structure [3]. Information relating to phase and amplitude scintillation is gathered from the receiver’s estimate of the carrier phase and the receiver correlators values, respectively. The quality of these parameters, however, is directly influenced by how well the receiver can track the GNSS...

  9. A whole origin for polarization and magnetization (United States)

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.


    Considering a light invariance fourth interpretation there is a fields set with the same Lorentz nature to be investigated. They are fields sharing the same Lorentz group representation. Taking the case {1/2,1/2} a potential fields family is introduced. It provides a whole gauge theory for these fields be related. Studying the abelian case a non-linear model is obtained. They build up a fields groups behaviour with granular and collective aspects. A systemic behaviour for nature is proposed. While the first one reproduces the usual case, the second one introduces a new aspect which is to consider the collective phenomena. Nature phenomena should be described by a individual-collective complementarity. Considering Maxwell equations, the model reobtains and extends the Maxwell electromagnetism meaning. It introduces a Physics of Light and at this paper one focuses on a new origin for the polarization and magnetization vectors. The equations of motion corresponding to this non-linear abelian model identify them as the collective fields. Thus from a systemic Lagrangian derived from a fourth interpretation to light invariance one obtains an origin for the polarization and magnetization vectors.

  10. EDITORIAL: Polarization Optics (United States)

    Turunen, Jari; Friesem, Asher A.; Friberg, Ari T.


    This special issue on Polarization Optics contains one review article and 23 research papers, many of which are based on presentations at the International Commission for Optics Topical Meeting on Polarization Optics, held in Polvijärvi, Finland, between 30 June and 3 July 2003. While this issue should not in any sense be considered as a `proceedings' of this meeting, the possibility of submitting papers to it was widely advertised during the meeting, which was attended by a large fraction of prominent scientists in the field of polarization optics. Thus the quality of papers in this special issue is high. In announcing both the meeting and this special issue, we emphasized that the concept of `polarization optics' should be understood in a wide sense. In fact, all contributions dealing with the vectorial nature of light were welcome. As a result, the papers included here cover a wide range of different aspects of linear and nonlinear polarization optics. Both theoretical and experimental features are discussed. We are pleased to see that the conference and this special issue both reflect the wide diversity of important and novel polarization phenomena in optics. The papers in this special issue, and other recently published works, demonstrate that even though polarization is a fundamental property of electromagnetic fields, interest in it is rapidly increasing. The fundamental relations between partial coherence and partial polarization are currently under vigorous research in electromagnetic coherence theory. In diffractive optics it has been found that the exploitation of the vectorial nature of light can be of great benefit. Fabrication of sophisticated, spatially variable polarization-control elements is becoming possible with the aid of nanolithography. Polarization singularities and the interplay of bulk properties and topology in nanoscale systems have created much enthusiasm. In nonlinear optics, the second harmonic waves generated on reflection and

  11. Polarization Versus Agglomeration


    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues


    The aim of this paper is to analyze the processes of polarization and agglomeration, to explain the mechanisms and causes of these phenomena in order to identify similarities and differences. As the main implication of this study should be noted that both process pretend to explain the concentration of economic activity and population in certain places, through cumulative phenomena, but with different perspectives, in other words, the polarization with a view of economic development and agglo...

  12. Polar Cap Patch Dynamics (United States)


    associated with the rotation of the extreme density may in itself lead to a stronger growth of ionospheric irregularities . These irregularities may...continue to grow all the way across the polar cap. The result is more efficient creation of ionospheric irregularities . Title 4: Motion of polar...the cusp ionosphere over Svalbard to investigate the production of decameter scale irregularities in the electron plasma associated with HF radar

  13. Regulation of osteoclast polarization. (United States)

    Takahashi, Naoyuki; Ejiri, Sadakazu; Yanagisawa, Shigeru; Ozawa, Hidehiro


    Osteoclast function consists of several processes: recognition of mineralized tissues, development of ruffled borders and sealing zones, secretion of acids and proteolytic enzymes into the space beneath the ruffled border, and incorporation and secretion of bone degradation products using the transcytosis system. One of the most important questions concerning osteoclast function is how osteoclasts recognize bone and polarize. During the past decade, new approaches have been taken to investigate the regulation of osteoclast polarization. Attachment of osteoclasts to some proteins containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence motif through vitronectin receptors is the first step in inducing the polarization of osteoclasts. Physical properties of bone such as hardness or roughness are also required to induce osteoclast polarity. Osteoclasts cultured even on plastic dishes secrete protons toward the dish surface, suggesting that osteoclasts recognize plastic as a mineralized matrix and secrete protons. This notion was supported by the recent findings that bisphosphonates and reveromycin A were specifically incorporated into polarized osteoclasts cultured even on plastic dishes. On the other hand, a sealing zone, defined as a thick band of actin, is induced in osteoclasts adherent only on an apatite-containing mineralized matrix. These results suggest that osteoclasts recognize physical properties of the mineralized tissue to secrete protons, and also sense apatite itself or components of apatite to form the sealing zone. Here, we review recent findings on the regulation of osteoclast polarization. We also discuss how osteoclasts recognize mineralized tissues to form the sealing zone.

  14. Polarizations on abelian varieties (United States)

    Silverberg, A.; Zarhin, Yu. G.


    Every isogeny class over an algebraically closed field contains a principally polarized abelian variety ([10, corollary 1 to theorem 4 in section 23]). Howe ([3]; see also [4]) gave examples of isogeny classes of abelian varieties over finite fields with no principal polarizations (but not with the degrees of all the polarizations divisible by a given non-zero integer, as in Theorem 1·1 below). In [17] we obtained, for all odd primes [script l], isogeny classes of abelian varieties in positive characteristic, all of whose polarizations have degree divisible by [script l]2. We gave results in the more general context of invertible sheaves; see also Theorems 6·1 and 5·2 below. Our results gave the first examples for which all the polarizations of the abelian varieties in an isogeny class have degree divisible by a given prime. Inspired by our results in [17], Howe [5] recently obtained, for all odd primes [script l], examples of isogeny classes of abelian varieties over fields of arbitrary characteristic different from [script l] (including number fields), all of whose polarizations have degree divisible by [script l]2.

  15. A Novel Attitude Determination System Aided by Polarization Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhi


    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a novel attitude determination system aided by polarization sensor. An improved heading angle function is derived using the perpendicular relationship between directions of E-vector of linearly polarized light and solar vector in the atmospheric polarization distribution model. The Extended Kalman filter (EKF with quaternion differential equation as a dynamic model is applied to fuse the data from sensors. The covariance functions of filter process and measurement noises are deduced in detail. The indoor and outdoor tests are conducted to verify the validity and feasibility of proposed attitude determination system. The test results showed that polarization sensor is not affected by magnetic field, thus the proposed system can work properly in environments containing the magnetic interference. The results also showed that proposed system has higher measurement accuracy than common attitude determination system and can provide precise parameters for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV flight control. The main contribution of this paper is implementation of the EKF for incorporating the self-developed polarization sensor into the conventional attitude determination system. The real-world experiment with the quad-rotor proved that proposed system can work in a magnetic interference environment and provide sufficient accuracy in attitude determination for autonomous navigation of vehicle.

  16. Agency Correspondence Tracking System (ACTS) (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Agency Correspondence Tracking System: is an executive correspondence tracking system for the Administrator. It collects and organizes information on reports...

  17. Vector mode conversion based on tilted fiber Bragg grating in ring-core fibers (United States)

    Mi, Yuean; Ren, Guobin; Gao, Yixiao; Li, Haisu; Zhu, Bofeng; Liu, Yu


    We propose a vector mode conversion approach based on tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) written in ring-core fiber with effective separation of eigenmodes. The mode coupling properties of TFBG are numerically investigated. It is shown that under the constraint of phase matching, the conversion of high-order vector modes could be achieved at specific wavelengths. Moreover, the polarization of incident light and tilt angle of TFBG play critical roles in mode coupling process. The proposed TFBG provides an efficient method to realize high-order vector mode conversion, and it shows great potential for fibers based OAM beam generation and fiber lasers with vortex beams output.

  18. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) (United States)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; hide


    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  19. Transcriptional Silencing of Retroviral Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Duch, M.; Pedersen, F.S.


    Although retroviral vector systems have been found to efficiently transduce a variety of cell types in vitro, the use of vectors based on murine leukemia virus in preclinical models of somatic gene therapy has led to the identification of transcriptional silencing in vivo as an important problem...

  20. On the Witt vector Frobenius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran


    We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give many equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenius map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors. In particular, surjectivity on f...

  1. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus


    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  2. Vectors on the Basketball Court (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel


    An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…

  3. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus


    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a

  4. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong


    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  5. LHCb VELO Tracking Resolutions

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexander, Michael


    The excellent tracking performance of the Vertex Locator (VELO) at LHCb is presented. The resolutions it achieves on single hits, impact parameters, and primary vertex positions are shown, with particular attention paid to measurement of impact parameters.

  6. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka


    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  7. LHCb on track

    CERN Document Server


    On 7 and 8 June 2006, the last large component of the LHCb experiment was lowered into the cavern. This 10-tonne, 18-metre long metal structure known as 'the bridge' will support the LHCb tracking system.

  8. Neonate turtle tracking data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project are to use novel satellite tracking methods to provide improved estimation of threats at foraging areas and along migration routes for...

  9. Procurement Tracking System (PTS) (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Procurement Tracking System (PTS) is used solely by the procurement staff of the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management...

  10. Track Loading Vehicle - TLV (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TLV is designed to apply forces close to the strength limits of the rails and other track structure components, such as ties, rail fasteners, and ballast, while...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Radio Science (RS) data archive contains both raw radio tracking data collected during the surface lifetime of the MPF Lander and results...

  12. Human Capital Tracking Tool - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  13. Case Analysis Tracking System (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — CATS tracks Public and Federal Agency Reference Requests for OPF (Official Personnel Folder) , EMF (Employee Medical Folder), and eOPF (electronic Official Personnel...

  14. Matter Tracking Information System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  15. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles


    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. ( helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  16. Financial Disclosure Tracking System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's FDTS identifies personal service contractors and local employees who should file disclosure reports. It tracks late filers and identifies those who must take...

  17. Unconventional Coding Technique Applied to Multi-Level Polarization Modulation (United States)

    Rutigliano, G. G.; Betti, S.; Perrone, P.


    A new technique is proposed to improve information confidentiality in optical-fiber communications without bandwidth consumption. A pseudorandom vectorial sequence was generated by a dynamic system algorithm and used to codify a multi-level polarization modulation based on the Stokes vector. Optical-fiber birefringence, usually considered as a disturbance, was exploited to obfuscate the signal transmission. At the receiver end, the same pseudorandom sequence was generated and used to decode the multi-level polarization modulated signal. The proposed scheme, working at the physical layer, provides strong information security without introducing complex processing and thus latency.

  18. Polarized Light Microscopy (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.


    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  19. Effects of Antegrade Accessory Pathway Conduction on QRS Terminal Vector in Patients with Preexcitation Syndrome. (United States)

    Liu, Renguang; Chen, Q I; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yingjie; Xu, Zhaolong; Wang, Gaopin


    Ventricle preexcitation through accessory pathway changes QRS initial vector, and manifests as delta wave on electrocardiogram (ECG). However, QRS terminal vector can also be affected. A total of 158 patients who had single accessory pathway (AP) with antegrade conduction capacity were included and divided into two groups according to the ECG with or without delta wave. Note that 150 patients had delta wave (overt AP group) on ECG; classical preexcitation syndrome was diagnosed before radiofrequency ablation. Eight patients had no delta wave on ECG (unapparent AP group); preexcitation was induced by transesophageal atrial pacing. ECGs and intracardiac electrogram (IEGM) before and after ablation and during atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia were analyzed. (1) In the overt AP group: QRS terminal vector amplitude and polarity changes were observed in all the 150 patients, and were related to AP location and delta wave polarity. (2) In the unapparent AP group: QRS terminal vector changes were found in two out of eight patients, and the initial activation of ventricle myocardium via AP on IEGM was almost simultaneous with the onset of QRS complex on ECG. It is not only the QRS initial vector, but also the QRS terminal vector that can be changed by the antegrade accessory pathway conduction in patients with preexcitation syndrome. The change of QRS terminal vector is valuable for the diagnosis of atypical preexcitation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Polarization Ratio Determination with Two Identical Linearly Polarized Antennas (United States)


    Fourier transform analysis of 21 measurements with one of the antennas rotating about its axis a circular polarization ratio is derived which can be... transformed into an equivalent linear polarization ratio. A linearly polarized reference antenna is not required. The technique was verified the polarization ratio of an an- tenna is of interest for potential frequency / polarization re-use. Newell [1] and Joy [2] developed the three

  1. Stimulated electromagnetic emission polarization under different polarizations of pump waves


    E. D. Tereshchenko; R. Y. Yurik; Baddeley, L.


    The results of investigations into the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) polarization under different modes of the pump wave polarization are presented. The present results were obtained in November 2012 during a heating campaign utilizing the SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) heating facility, transmitting in both O- and X-mode polarization, and a PGI (Polar Geophysical Institute) radio interferometer capable of recording the polarization of the recei...

  2. Models and Algorithms for Tracking Target with Coordinated Turn Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghui Yuan


    Full Text Available Tracking target with coordinated turn (CT motion is highly dependent on the models and algorithms. First, the widely used models are compared in this paper—coordinated turn (CT model with known turn rate, augmented coordinated turn (ACT model with Cartesian velocity, ACT model with polar velocity, CT model using a kinematic constraint, and maneuver centered circular motion model. Then, in the single model tracking framework, the tracking algorithms for the last four models are compared and the suggestions on the choice of models for different practical target tracking problems are given. Finally, in the multiple models (MM framework, the algorithm based on expectation maximization (EM algorithm is derived, including both the batch form and the recursive form. Compared with the widely used interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, the EM algorithm shows its effectiveness.

  3. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic


    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  4. Efficient Sample Tracking With OpenLabFramework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Schmidt, Steffen; Trojnar, Jakub


    of samples created and need to be replaced with state-of-the-art laboratory information management systems. Such systems have been developed in large numbers, but they are often limited to specific research domains and types of data. One domain so far neglected is the management of libraries of vector clones...... and genetically engineered cell lines. OpenLabFramework is a newly developed web-application for sample tracking, particularly laid out to fill this gap, but with an open architecture allowing it to be extended for other biological materials and functional data. Its sample tracking mechanism is fully customizable...

  5. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K


    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  6. Polarization: A Must for Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidal M.


    Full Text Available Recent realistic simulations confirm that the polarization of the fuel would improve significantly the DT fusion efficiency. We have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are related to the polarization persistence. The experimental polarization of DT fuel is a technological challenge. Possible paths for Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF and for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF are reviewed. For MCF, polarized gas can be used. For ICF, cryogenic targets are required. We consider both, the polarization of gas and the polarization of solid DT, emphasizing the Dynamic Nuclear polarization (DNP of HD and DT molecules.

  7. Analysis of polarized pulse propagation through one-dimensional scattering medium (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yao, Feng-Ju; Xie, Ming; Yi, Hong-Liang


    This paper analyzes the polarized light propagation in a one-dimensional scattering medium with the upper surface subjected to an oblique incident short-pulsed laser beam using the natural element method (NEM). The NEM discretization scheme for the transient vector radiative transfer equation (TVRTE) is presented in detail. The accuracy of the natural element method for transient vector radiative transfer in the scattering medium is assessed. Numerical results show that the NEM is accurate, and effective in solving transient polarized radiative problems. We examine a square short-pulsed laser transport firstly in the atmosphere with Mie scattering and then within aerosol scattering medium. We then investigate the transient polarized radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere-ocean system. The time-resolved signals and the polarization state of the Stokes vector are presented and analyzed. It is found that the scattering types of the medium make greatly influence on the transient transportation of the polarized light. Critically, the polarization states of the backward and forward scattered photons show significantly different time varying trends. For the two-layer system with dissimilar refractive index distributions, due to the total-reflection effect, the existence of a Fresnel interface significantly changes the polarization state of the light, and discontinuous distribution features are observed on the interface.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann method for one-dimensional vector radiative transfer. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping


    A one-dimensional vector radiative transfer (VRT) model based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) that considers polarization using four Stokes parameters is developed. The angular space is discretized by the discrete-ordinates approach, and the spatial discretization is conducted by LBM. LBM has such attractive properties as simple calculation procedure, straightforward and efficient handing of boundary conditions, and capability of stable and accurate simulation. To validate the performance of LBM for vector radiative transfer, four various test problems are examined. The first case investigates the non-scattering thermal-emitting atmosphere with no external collimated solar. For the other three cases, the external collimated solar and three different scattering types are considered. Particularly, the LBM is extended to solve VRT in the atmospheric aerosol system where the scattering function contains singularities and the hemisphere space distributions for the Stokes vector are presented and discussed. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are discussed. Numerical results show that the LBM is accurate, flexible and effective to solve one-dimensional polarized radiative transfer problems.

  9. Photon polarization in np fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, G; Kumar, S P


    A model-independent irreducible tensor formalism is developed to discuss photon polarization in np fusion. It is shown that photon polarization arising out of the interference of the dominant isovector M1 amplitude at thermal neutron energies with the small isoscalar M1 and E2 amplitudes can be studied with advantage in suitably designed polarized beam and polarized target experiments, where the neutron and proton polarizations are either opposite to each other or orthogonal to each other. (letter to the editor)

  10. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa


    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  11. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey


    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  12. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Weaver, Scott C.


    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25421891

  13. High room temperature optical polarization due to spin-valley coupling in monolayer WS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Hanbicki


    Full Text Available We prepare single-layer WS2 films such that the photoluminescence is from either the neutral exciton or the negatively charged trion. While the neutral exciton emission has zero polarization at room temperature, we observe a room temperature optical polarization in excess of 40% for the trion. Using an applied gate voltage, we can modulate the electron density, and subsequently the polarization of the trion emission continuously from 20-40%. Both the polarization and the emission energy monotonically track the gate voltage with the emission energy increasing by 45 meV. We discuss the role electron capture by the exciton has on suppressing the intervalley scattering process.

  14. Mesoscopic correlation with polarization rotation of electromagnetic waves. (United States)

    Chabanov, A A; Trégourès, N P; van Tiggelen, B A; Genack, A Z


    Mesoscopic correlations are observed in the polarization of microwave radiation transmitted through a random waveguide. These measurements, supported by diagrammatic theory, permit an unambiguous decomposition of the intensity correlation function of a vector wave into short, long, and infinite range components. Infinite range correlation that leads to universal conductance fluctuations is measured and found to be in agreement with calculations. The long and infinite range components include nonuniversal frequency-independent terms associated with coupling into and out of the sample.

  15. Attosecond polarization control in atomic RABBITT-like experiments assisted by a circularly polarized laser (United States)

    Boll, D. I. R.; Fojón, O. A.


    We study theoretically the single ionization of noble gas atoms by the combined action of an attosecond pulse train with linear polarization and an assistant laser field with circular polarization. We employ a non-perturbative model that under certain approximations gives closed-form expressions for the angular distributions of photoelectrons. Interestingly, our model allow us to interpret these angular distributions as two-centre interferences where the orientation and the modulus of the separation vector between the virtual emitters is governed by the assistant laser field. Additionally, we show that such a configuration of light fields is similar to the polarization control technique, where both the attosecond pulse train and the assistant laser field have linear polarizations whose relative orientation may be controlled. Moreover, in order to compare our results with the available experimental data, we obtain analytical expressions for the cross sections integrated over the photoelectron emission angles. By means of these expressions, we define the ‘magic time’ as the delay for which the total cross sections for atomic targets exhibit the same functional form as the one of the monochromatic photoionization of diatomic molecular targets.

  16. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases - Incidence through Vectors. (United States)

    Savić, Sara; Vidić, Branka; Grgić, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica


    Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector-borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and population of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector-borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, and leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fundamental role at primarily prevention and then treatment of vector-borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases. During a 4-year period, from 2009 to 2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analyzed for vector-borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis) in routine laboratory work. The analysis was done by serological tests - ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis, and blood smear for babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on average more then half of the samples

  17. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit


    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  18. Vector boson scattering at CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.

  19. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio


    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  20. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest


    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...... polarization response when compared to traditional integral chargeability inversion. The quality of the inversion results has been assessed by a complete uncertainty analysis of the model parameters; furthermore, borehole information confirm the outcomes of the field interpretations. With this new accurate...

  1. A lunar polar expedition (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas


    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  2. Nested Vector-Sensor Array Processing via Tensor Modeling (Briefing Charts) (United States)


    algorithm based on HOSVD for a mixture of polarized sources, in EUSIPCO 2013, Marrakech, Marocco, Sep. 2013. CSSIP Lab 12 Applications: Acoustic Vector...CSSIP Lab 15 EM Case II: DOA Estimation Fig. 2: MUSIC spectrum using a ULA (left: tensor-based) and a nested array (middle: matrix- based; right: tensor

  3. Luge Track Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Mont


    Simple geometric models of ice surface shape and equations of motion of objects on these surfaces can be used to explain ejection of sliders from ice tracks. Simulations using these can be used to explain why certain design features can be viewed as proximate causes of ejection from the track and hence design flaws. This paper studies the interaction of a particle model for the luge sled (or its right runner) with the ice fillet commonly connecting inside vertical walls and the flat track bottom. A numerical example analyzes the 2010 luge accident at the Vancouver Olympics. It shows that this runner-fillet interaction, and specifically the fillet's positive curvature up the inside wall, can cause a vertical velocity more than sufficient to clear the outside exit wall. In addition its negative curvature along the track, together with large vertical velocity, explains loss of fillet or wall contact and slider ejection. This exposes the fillet along inside walls as a track design flaw. A more transparent design ...

  4. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia


    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  5. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus. (United States)

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam Tineke Willemijn; de Smit, Abraham J; Moormann, Rob J M


    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from dam to fetus, or horizontal via direct contract. For several BTV-serotypes, vertical (transplacental) transmission has been described, resulting in severe congenital malformations. Transplacental transmission had been mainly associated with live vaccine strains. Yet, the European BTV-8 strain demonstrated a high incidence of transplacental transmission in natural circumstances. The relevance of transplacental transmission for the epizootiology is considered limited, especially in enzootic areas. However, transplacental transmission can have a substantial economic impact due to the loss of progeny. Inactivated vaccines have demonstrated to prevent transplacental transmission. Vector-free horizontal transmission has also been demonstrated. Since direct horizontal transmission requires close contact of animals, it is considered only relevant for within-farm spreading of BTV. The genetic determinants which enable vector-free transmission are present in virus strains circulating in the field. More research into the genetic changes which enable vector-free transmission is essential to better evaluate the risks associated with outbreaks of new BTV serotypes and to design more appropriate control measures.

  6. Trends and Variability of North Pacific Polar Lows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen


    Full Text Available The 6-hourly 1948–2010 NCEP 1 reanalyses have been dynamically downscaled for the region of the North Pacific. With a detecting-and-tracking algorithm, the climatology of North Pacific Polar Lows has been constructed. This derived climatology is consistent with the limited observational evidence in terms of frequency and spatial distribution. The climatology exhibits strong year-to-year variability but weak decadal variability and a small positive trend. A canonical correlation analysis describes the conditioning of the formation of Polar Lows by characteristic seasonal mean flow regimes, which favor, or limit, cold air outbreaks and upper air troughs.

  7. A Theoretical Understanding of Circular Polarization Memory in Random Media (United States)

    Dark, Julia

    Radiative transport theory describes the propagation of light in random media that absorb, scatter, and emit radiation. To describe the propagation of light, the full polarization state is quantified using the Stokes parameters. For the sake of mathematical convenience, the polarization state of light is often neglected leading to the scalar radiative transport equation for the intensity only. For scalar transport theory, there is a well-established body of literature on numerical and analytic approximations to the radiative transport equation. We extend the scalar theory to the vector radiative transport equation (vRTE). In particular, we are interested in the theoretical basis for a phenomena called circular polarization memory. Circular polarization memory is the physical phenomena whereby circular polarization retains its ellipticity and handedness when propagating in random media. This is in contrast to the propagation of linear polarization in random media, which depolarizes at a faster rate, and specular reflection of circular polarization, whereby the circular polarization handedness flips. We investigate two limits that are of known interest in the phenomena of circular polarization memory. The first limit we investigate is that of forward-peaked scattering, i.e. the limit where most scattering events occur in the forward or near-forward directions. The second limit we consider is that of strong scattering and weak absorption. In the forward-peaked scattering limit we approximate the vRTE by a system of partial differential equations motivated by the scalar Fokker-Planck approximation. We call the leading order approximation the vector Fokker-Planck approximation. The vector Fokker Planck approximation predicts that strongly forward-peaked media exhibit circular polarization memory where the strength of the effect can be calculated from the expansion of the scattering matrix in special functions. In addition, we find in this limit that total intensity

  8. Particle tracking velocimetry of a gliding arc discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas


    A 35 kHz AC gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure is generated between two diverging electrodes and extended by an air flow. The gas flow velocity is measured by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) while the moving velocity of the plasma column of the gliding arc discharge is measured...... by analyzing the movie taken by a high-speed camera. The two-dimensional velocity vector of the gas flow and of the gliding arc in the imaging plane was determined....

  9. Safety of recombinant VSV-Ebola virus vaccine vector in pigs. (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Marzi, Andrea; Bushmaker, Trenton; Brining, Doug; Scott, Dana; Richt, Juergen A; Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz


    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in fast-track development of vaccine candidates. We tested a vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein for safety in pigs. Inoculation did not cause disease and vaccine virus shedding was minimal, which indicated that the vaccine virus does not pose a risk of dissemination in pigs.

  10. Star-Mapping Tools Enable Tracking of Endangered Animals (United States)


    Software programmer Jason Holmberg of Portland, Oregon, partnered with a Goddard Space Flight Center astrophysicist to develop a method for tracking the elusive whale shark using the unique spot patterns on the fish s skin. Employing a star-mapping algorithm originally designed for the Hubble Space Telescope, Holmberg created the Shepherd Project, a photograph database and pattern-matching system that can identify whale sharks by their spots and match images contributed to the database by photographers from around the world. The system has been adapted for tracking other rare and endangered animals, including polar bears and ocean sunfish.

  11. Model of ballistic targets' dynamics used for trajectory tracking algorithms (United States)

    Okoń-FÄ fara, Marta; Kawalec, Adam; Witczak, Andrzej


    There are known only few ballistic object tracking algorithms. To develop such algorithms and to its further testing, it is necessary to implement possibly simple and reliable objects' dynamics model. The article presents the dynamics' model of a tactical ballistic missile (TBM) including the three stages of flight: the boost stage and two passive stages - the ascending one and the descending one. Additionally, the procedure of transformation from the local coordinate system to the polar-radar oriented and the global is presented. The prepared theoretical data may be used to determine the tracking algorithm parameters and to its further verification.

  12. Negotiating Family Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom; Sonne Damkjær, Maja

    This presentation explores the question: What motivates the use of tracking technologies in families, and how does the use transform the relations between parent and child? The purpose is to investigate why tracking technologies are used in families and how these technologies potentially change...... the relation between parents and children. The use of tracking technologies in families implicate negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can lead to strategies of resistance or modification (Fotel and Thomsen, 2004; Rooney, 2010; Steeves and Jones, 2010......). In the presentation, we report from a qualitative study that focuses on intergenerational relations. The study draws on empirical data from workshops with Danish families as well as individual and group interviews. We aim to gain insights about the sharing habits and negotiations in intimate family relations...

  13. Characteristics of track cycling. (United States)

    Craig, N P; Norton, K I


    Track cycling events range from a 200 m flying sprint (lasting 10 to 11 seconds) to the 50 km points race (lasting approximately 1 hour). Unlike road cycling competitions where most racing is undertaken at submaximal power outputs, the shorter track events require the cyclist to tax maximally both the aerobic and anaerobic (oxygen independent) metabolic pathways. Elite track cyclists possess key physical and physiological attributes which are matched to the specific requirements of their events: these cyclists must have the appropriate genetic predisposition which is then maximised through effective training interventions. With advances in technology it is now possible to accurately measure both power supply and demand variables under competitive conditions. This information provides better resolution of factors that are important for training programme design and skill development.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  15. The physics of polarization (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  16. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  17. Introduction to matrices and vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Jacob T


    In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.

  18. All optical vector magnetometer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector magnetic...

  19. GRE Enzymes for Vector Analysis (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Microbial enzyme data that were collected during the 2004-2006 EMAP-GRE program. These data were then used by Moorhead et al (2016) in their ecoenzyme vector...

  20. Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) (United States)


    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE , REPELLENTS Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae...detections. Progenesis CoMet (Nonlinear Dynamics Limited, Newcastle, UK ; software was used to process the Thermo raw data Þles... antimicrobial compound in the houseßy,Musca domestica. Insect Biochem.Mol. Biol. 34: 43Ð49. Ready, P. D. 2013. Biology of phlebotomine sand ßies as vectors of

  1. Commissioning experiment of the polarized internal gas target with deuterium at ANKE/COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration


    In order to conduct the production experiments with polarized deuterium target and (un)polarized proton beam at ANKE/COSY, a commissioning experiment of the polarized internal target with deuterium is imperative. The commissioning experiment includes the measurements of both the vector (Q{sub y}) and tensor (Q{sub yy}) polarization of the deuterium gas target through the nuclear reactions with large and well known analyzing powers, which can be detected in ANKE. The dependence of the polarizations along the storage cell is also determined. The poster presents the physics case for the experiments with deuterium polarized internal target and the apparatus needed for the commissioning experiment, as well as the procedure of extraction for spin observables.

  2. Fast Compressive Tracking. (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan


    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.

  3. The Importance of Magnetic Reflection Condition and Polarization Factor: Case Study of MnF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Purwanto


    Full Text Available Neutron diffraction has been widely accepted as a versatile tool to investigate magnetic structure of crystalline materials, which contribute significantly to the scientific and technological advances. Starting from a general formulation of the magnetic structure factor, one can often simplify the formulation depending on the crystallographic structure and the magnetic wave propagation vector of the sample. The simplification allows magnetic moment coupling and polarization deduction without the need of the refinement process. This paper elaborates such simplification for MnF2 to provide the determination of the magnetic moment coupling and polarization direction simply based on the reflection condition and polarization factor. The determination of the magnetic structure excluding its magnitude by the reflection condition and polarization factor is much more conclusive than by any magnetic structure refinement. Furthermore, MnF2 illustrates a rare compound that has antiferromagnetic structure with zero magnetic wave propagation vector, i.e.; it has the same antiferromagnetic and crystallographic unit cell.

  4. Focusing properties of radially polarized multi-cosine Gaussian correlated Schell-model beams (United States)

    Tang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Daomu; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Hehe


    Scalar partially coherent beams with multi-cosine Gaussian Schell-model correlations were introduced recently (Mei et al., 2015) [9]. In this paper, we introduce a new class of vector multi-cosine Gaussian correlated sources with radial polarization. The realizability conditions for such sources and corresponding beam conditions are established. Analytical formulas for the cross-spectral density matrix of such beam propagating through a stigmatic ABCD optical system are derived and used to examine their focusing properties in detail. The results demonstrate the novel vector sources can generate lattice-like intensity patterns in the focal plane, and possess periodic distribution of the degree of polarization. It is also shown that the initial polarization structure is broken due to the special source coherence and the state of polarization displays in a more complex way in the focal plane. Besides, such characteristics can be flexible modulated by varying the source coherence parameters.

  5. A Note on Vector Bimeasures. (United States)


    Phrases: N/A ] 19 RCT lontilue on revrm if necozsary and identify by block number) •"SA Fubini type theorem is obtained for vector bimasure integrals...Abstract A Fubini type theorem is obtained for vector bimeasure integrals. AMS (1980) subject classification: Primary 28B05; Secondary 60G12...Ylinen [11]. In the works mentioned above the authors consistently impose, in their definition of integrability. a Fubini type condition which cannot

  6. Spirit Leaves Telling Tracks (United States)


    Scientists have found clues about the nature of martian soil through analyzing wheel marks from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in this image. The image was taken by Spirit's rear hazard-identification camera just after the rover drove approximately 1 meter (3 feet) northwest off the Columbia Memorial Station (lander platform) early Thursday morning. That the wheel tracks are shallow indicates the soil has plenty of strength to support the moving rover. The well-defined track characteristics suggest the presence of very fine particles in the martian soil (along with larger particles). Scientists also think the soil may have some cohesive properties.

  7. Muon Track Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Alberto C; Genchev, V; Khanov, A I; Stepanov, N; Vankov, P


    For most physical processes the tracks observed in the muon stations must be matched with the corresponding tracks in the inner tracker, the external muon system providing muon identification and triggering but the tracker points giving the precise momentum measurement at lower momenta. For high momenta the momentum resolution is much improved by the interconnection of inner and outer measurements. The matching of outer and inner measurements is more delicate in case of muons embedded in jets. A study of the matching procedure was carried out using samples of (b, anti b) jets at high Pt, requiring (b, anti b) -> mu decays.

  8. Tracking Your Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hennum, Kelly M


    This book provides you with the means to set development goals and to track your progress on achieving them. It can help you efficiently gather and make sense of information about your progress and avoid common pitfalls that can block your development. Tracking your development can be captures in a few steps: articulating your goal, creating an action plan, gathering information about your behavior, indentifying barriers and support, and revising your action plan. Taking these steps will greatly increase the likelihood of achieving your goals.

  9. The Effect of Gravitation on the Polarization State of a Light Ray (United States)

    Ghosh, Tanay; Sen, A. K.


    In the present work, detailed calculations have been carried out on the rotation of the polarization vector of an electromagnetic wave due to the presence of a gravitational field of a rotating body. This has been done using the general expression of Maxwell’s equation in curved spacetime. Considering the far-field approximation (i.e., the impact parameter is greater than the Schwarzschild radius and rotation parameter), the amount of rotation of the polarization vector as a function of impact parameter has been obtained for a rotating body (considering Kerr geometry). The present work shows that the rotation of the polarization vector cannot be observed in the case of Schwarzschild geometry. This work also calculates the rotational effect when considering prograde and retrograde orbits for the light ray. Although the present work demonstrates the effect of rotation of the polarization vector, it confirms that there would be no net polarization of an electromagnetic wave due to the curved spacetime geometry in a Kerr field.

  10. Acquiring negative polarity items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, J.


    Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) are words or expressions that exhibit a restricted distribution to certain negative contexts only. For example, yet is an NPI and must appear in the scope of a negation: Mary has *(not) finished yet. The existence of NPIs such as yet gives rise to a learnability

  11. Polarized structure functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, P.J.G.


    We discuss the spin structure of quarks in hadrons, in particular the transverse spin polarization or transversity. The most direct way to probe transversity appears to be via azimuthal spin asymmetries. This brings in the role of intrinsic transverse momenta of quarks in hadrons and the study of

  12. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  13. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.


    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  14. Acquisition of Oocyte Polarity. (United States)

    Clapp, Mara; Marlow, Florence L


    Acquisition of oocyte polarity involves complex translocation and aggregation of intracellular organelles, RNAs, and proteins, along with strict posttranscriptional regulation. While much is still unknown regarding the formation of the animal-vegetal axis, an early marker of polarity, animal models have contributed to our understanding of these early processes controlling normal oogenesis and embryo development. In recent years, it has become clear that proteins with self-assembling properties are involved in assembling discrete subcellular compartments or domains underlying subcellular asymmetries in the early mitotic and meiotic cells of the female germline. These include asymmetries in duplication of the centrioles and formation of centrosomes and assembly of the organelle and RNA-rich Balbiani body, which plays a critical role in oocyte polarity. Notably, at specific stages of germline development, these transient structures in oocytes are temporally coincident and align with asymmetries in the position and arrangement of nuclear components, such as the nuclear pore and the chromosomal bouquet and the centrioles and cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm. Formation of these critical, transient structures and arrangements involves microtubule pathways, intrinsically disordered proteins (proteins with domains that tend to be fluid or lack a rigid ordered three-dimensional structure ranging from random coils, globular domains, to completely unstructured proteins), and translational repressors and activators. This review aims to examine recent literature and key players in oocyte polarity.

  15. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...

  16. Stealth configurations in vector-tensor theories of gravity (United States)

    Chagoya, Javier; Tasinato, Gianmassimo


    Studying the physics of compact objects in modified theories of gravity is important for understanding how future observations can test alternatives to General Relativity. We consider a subset of vector-tensor Galileon theories of gravity characterized by new symmetries, which can prevent the propagation of the vector longitudinal polarization, even in absence of Abelian gauge invariance. We investigate new spherically symmetric and slowly rotating solutions for these systems, including an arbitrary matter Lagrangian. We show that, under certain conditions, there always exist stealth configurations whose geometry coincides with solutions of Einstein gravity coupled with the additional matter. Such solutions have a non-trivial profile for the vector field, characterized by independent integration constants, which extends to asymptotic infinity. We interpret our findings in terms of the symmetries and features of the original vector-tensor action, and on the number of degrees of freedom that it propagates. These results are important to eventually describe gravitationally bound configurations in modified theories of gravity, such as black holes and neutron stars, including realistic matter fields forming or surrounding the object.

  17. Highly transparent twist polarizer metasurface (United States)

    Faniayeu, Ihar; Khakhomov, Sergei; Semchenko, Igor; Mizeikis, Vygantas


    A twist polarizer metasurface for polarization rotation by an angle of 90 ° is proposed and realized at microwave frequencies. The metasurface consists of sub-wavelength metallic helices arranged periodically in a single layer and operates in transmission geometry with a nearly unity cross-polarization conversion coefficient at resonance. The structure exhibits low reflectivity R polarization orientation of the incident wave. Moreover, it can operate with high efficiency at oblique incidence angles of up to 35 ° . Such twist polarizer metasurfaces are potentially applicable as electromagnetic/optical isolators and frequency-selective polarization antennas.

  18. Numerical simulations of fast-axis instability of vector solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers. (United States)

    Du, Yueqing; Shu, Xuewen; Cheng, Peiyun


    We demonstrate the fast-axis instability in mode-locked fiber lasers numerically for the first time. We find that the energy of the fast mode will be transferred to the slow mode when the strong pump strength makes the soliton period short. A nearly linearly polarized vector soliton along the slow-axis could be generated under certain cavity parameters. The final polarization of the vector soliton is related to the initial polarization of the seed pulse. Two regimes of energy exchanging between the slow mode and the fast mode are explored and the direction of the energy flow between two modes depends on the phase difference. The dip-type sidebands are found to be intrinsic characteristics of the mode-locked fiber lasers under high pulse energy.

  19. Multiwavelength mode-locked cylindrical vector beam fiber laser based on mode selective coupler (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Cai, Yu; Wang, Jie; Wan, Hongdan; Zhang, Zuxing; Zhang, Lin


    We propose and demonstrate a multiwavelength mode-locked fiber laser with cylindrical vector beam generation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The mode-locking mechanism is based on a nonlinear polarization rotation effect in fiber, and the multiwavelength operation is contributed to by an in-line birefringence fiber filter with periodic multiple passbands, formed by incorporating a section of polarization maintaining fiber into the laser cavity with a fiber polarizer. Furthermore, by using a home-made mode selective coupler, which acts as both a mode converter from fundamental mode to higher-order mode and an output coupler, multiwavelength mode-locked cylindrical vector beams have been obtained. This may have potential applications in mode-division multiplexing optical fiber communication and material processing.

  20. Improved Diagnostics Using Polarization Imaging and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xuan


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying the propagation of polarized light in biological cells and tissues. This paper presents a novel approach to cell or tissue imaging using a full Stokes imaging system with advanced polarization image analysis algorithms for improved diagnostics. The key component of the Stokes imaging system is the electrically tunable retarder, enabling high-speed operation of the system to acquire four intensity images sequentially. From the acquired intensity images, four Stokes vector images can be computed to obtain complete polarization information. Polarization image analysis algorithms are then developed to analyze Stokes polarization images for cell or tissue classification. Specifically, wavelet transforms are first applied to the Stokes components for initial feature analysis and extraction. Artificial neural networks (ANNs are then used to extract diagnostic features for improved classification and prediction. In this study, phantom experiments have been conducted using a prototyped Stokes polarization imaging device. In particular, several types of phantoms, consisting of polystyrene latex spheres in various diameters, were prepared to simulate different conditions of epidermal layer of skin. The experimental results from phantom studies and a plant cell study show that the classification performance using Stokes images is significantly improved over that using the intensity image only.

  1. Magnetic and Electric Field Polarizations of Oblique Magnetospheric Chorus Waves (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.


    A theory was developed to explain the properties of the chorus magnetic and electric field components in the case of an arbitrary propagation angle. The new theory shows that a whistler wave has circularly polarized magnetic fields for oblique propagation. This theoretical result is verified by GEOTAIL observations. The wave electric field polarization plane is not orthogonal to the wave vector, and in general is highly elliptically polarized. A special case of the whistler wave called the Gendrin mode is also discussed. This will help to construct a detailed and realistic picture of wave interaction with magnetosphere electrons. It is the purpose of this innovation to study the magnetic and electric polarization properties of chorus at all frequencies, and at all angles of propagation. Even though general expressions for electromagnetic wave polarization in anisotropic plasma are derived in many textbooks, to the knowledge of the innovators, a detailed analysis for oblique whistler wave mode is lacking. Knowledge of the polarization properties is critical for theoretical calculations of resonant wave-particle interactions.

  2. Modeling Gravitational Waves to Test GR Dispersion and Polarization (United States)

    Tso, Rhondale; Chen, Yanbei; Isi, Maximilliano


    Given continued observation runs from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory Scientific Collaboration, further gravitational wave (GW) events will provide added constraints on beyond-general relativity (b-GR) theories. One approach, independent of the GW generation mechanism at the source, is to look at modification to the GW dispersion and propagation, which can accumulate over vast distances. Generic modification of GW propagation can also, in certain b-GR theories, impact the polarization content of GWs. To this end, a comprehensive approach to testing the dispersion and polarization content is developed by modeling anisotropic deformations to the waveforms' phase, along with birefringence effects and corollary consequences for b-GR polarizations, i.e., breathing, vector, and longitudinal modes. Such an approach can be mapped to specific theories like Lorentz violation, amplitude birefringence in Chern-Simons, and provide hints at additional theories to be included. An overview of data analysis routines to be implemented will also be discussed.

  3. Electronic polarization-division demultiplexing based on digital signal processing in intensity-modulation direct-detection optical communication systems. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kazuro


    We propose a novel configuration of optical receivers for intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM · DD) systems, which can cope with dual-polarization (DP) optical signals electrically. Using a Stokes analyzer and a newly-developed digital signal-processing (DSP) algorithm, we can achieve polarization tracking and demultiplexing in the digital domain after direct detection. Simulation results show that the power penalty stemming from digital polarization manipulations is negligibly small.

  4. Implications of vector boson scattering unitarity in composite Higgs models (United States)

    Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Ferrarese, Piero


    The strong nature of composite Higgs models manifests at high energies through the growing behavior of the scattering amplitudes of longitudinally polarized weak bosons that leads to the formation of composite resonances as well as nonresonant strong effects. In this work the unitarity of these scattering amplitudes is used as a tool to assess the profile of the composite spectrum of the theory, including nonresonant enhancements, vector resonances and the C P -even scalar excitation. These three signatures are then studied in realistic scattering processes at hadron colliders, aiming to estimate the potential to exclude dynamically motivated scenarios of composite Higgs models.

  5. Stokes-vector and Mueller-matrix polarimetry [Invited]. (United States)

    Azzam, R M A


    This paper reviews the current status of instruments for measuring the full 4×1 Stokes vector S, which describes the state of polarization (SOP) of totally or partially polarized light, and the 4×4 Mueller matrix M, which determines how the SOP is transformed as light interacts with a material sample or an optical element or system. The principle of operation of each instrument is briefly explained by using the Stokes-Mueller calculus. The development of fast, automated, imaging, and spectroscopic instruments over the last 50 years has greatly expanded the range of applications of optical polarimetry and ellipsometry in almost every branch of science and technology. Current challenges and future directions of this important branch of optics are also discussed.

  6. Attitude and position tracking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Candy, LP


    Full Text Available velocity data separately in a suitable frame. In this chapter we make the case for using bivectors as the attitude tracking method of choice since several features make their performance and flexibility superior to that of DCMs, Euler angles or even rotors...

  7. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  8. Energy Tracking Diagrams (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis


    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  9. Tracking Politics with POWER (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.


    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  10. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  11. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition (United States)

    Powell, Thomas W.


    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  12. Tracking in Uncertain Environments (United States)


    Fig 6.6 where the percentage of tracks maintained by each filter is plotted against p 95% confidence limites, derived from a binomial distribution...or PT high), the incorporation of the extra data reduces the average computacion time for the CAF: the extra information enables the filter to reduce

  13. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas


    With the continued advances in wireless communications, geo-location technologies, and consumer electronics, it is becoming possible to accurately track the time-varying location of each vehicle in a population of vehicles. This paper reports on ongoing research that has as it objective to develo...

  14. Second sound tracking system (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan


    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  15. Enhanced polarization by the coherent heterophase interface between polar and non-polar phases. (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Yeop; Sung, Kil-Dong; Rhyim, Youngmok; Yoon, Seog-Young; Kim, Min-Soo; Jeong, Soon-Jong; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Ryu, Jungho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Choi, Si-Young


    A piezoelectric composite containing the ferroelectric polar (Bi(Na0.8K0.2)0.5TiO3: f-BNKT) and the non-polar (0.94Bi(Na0.75K0.25)0.5TiO3-0.06BiAlO3: BNKT-BA) phases exhibits synergetic properties which combine the beneficial aspects of each phase, i.e., the high saturated polarization (Ps) of the polar phase and the low coercive field (Ec) of the non-polar phase. To understand the origin of such a fruitful outcome from this type of polar/non-polar heterophase structure, comprehensive studies are conducted, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finite element method (FEM) analyses. The TEM results show that the polar/non-polar composite has a core/shell structure in which the polar phase (core) is surrounded by a non-polar phase (shell). In situ electrical biasing TEM experiments visualize that the ferroelectric domains in the polar core are aligned even under an electric field of ∼1 kV mm(-1), which is much lower than its intrinsic coercive field (∼3 kV mm(-1)). From the FEM analyses, we can find that the enhanced polarization of the polar phase is promoted by an additional internal field at the phase boundary which originates from the preferential polarization of the relaxor-like non-polar phase. From the present study, we conclude that the coherent interface between polar and non-polar phases is a key factor for understanding the enhanced piezoelectric properties of the composite.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  17. VectorBase: a home for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens (United States)

    Lawson, Daniel; Arensburger, Peter; Atkinson, Peter; Besansky, Nora J.; Bruggner, Robert V.; Butler, Ryan; Campbell, Kathryn S.; Christophides, George K.; Christley, Scott; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Emmert, David; Hammond, Martin; Hill, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Lobo, Neil F.; MacCallum, M. Robert; Madey, Greg; Megy, Karine; Redmond, Seth; Russo, Susan; Severson, David W.; Stinson, Eric O.; Topalis, Pantelis; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Birney, Ewan; Gelbart, William M.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Louis, Christos; Collins, Frank H.


    VectorBase () is a web-accessible data repository for information about invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. VectorBase annotates and maintains vector genomes providing an integrated resource for the research community. Currently, VectorBase contains genome information for two organisms: Anopheles gambiae, a vector for the Plasmodium protozoan agent causing malaria, and Aedes aegypti, a vector for the flaviviral agents causing Yellow fever and Dengue fever. PMID:17145709

  18. Geomagnetic polarity transitions (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.


    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  19. GPS Metric Tracking Unit (United States)


    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  20. Tracking Virtual Trajectories (United States)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Lorenceau, Jean D.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)


    Current models of smooth pursuit eye movements assume that it is largely driven by retinal image motion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pursuit of elliptical motion (3.2s, 0.9 Hz, 1.4 deg x 1.6 deg, 4 randomly interleaved phases) of either a small spot ("real" motion) or of a line-figure diamond viewed through apertures such that only the motion of four isolated oblique line segments was visible ("virtual" motion). Each segment moved sinusoidally along a linear trajectory yet subjects perceived a diamond moving along an elliptical path behind the aperture. We found, as expected, that real motion produced accurate tracking (N = 2) with mean gain (over horizontal and vertical) of 0.9, mean phase of -6 deg (lag), mean relative phase (H vs V) of 90 +/- 8 deg (RMS error). Virtual motion behind an X-shaped aperture (N= 4 with one naive) yielded a mean gain of 0.7, mean phase of -11 deg, mean relative phase of 87 +/- 15 deg. We also measured pursuit with the X-shaped aperture using a higher segment luminance which prevents the segments from being grouped into a coherently moving diamond while keeping the motion otherwise identical. In this incoherent case, the same four subjects no longer showed consistent elliptical tracking (RMS error in relative phase rose to 60 deg) suggesting that perceptual coherence is critical. Furthermore, to rule out tracking of the centroid, we also used vertical apertures so that all segment motion was vertical (N = 3). This stimulus still produced elliptical tracking (mean relative phase of 84 +/- 19 deg), albeit with a lower gain (0.6). These data show that humans can track moving objects reasonably accurately even when the trajectory can only be derived by spatial integration of motion signals. Models that merely seek to minimize retinal or local stimulus motion cannot explain these results.

  1. Receptive fields of locust brain neurons are matched to polarization patterns of the sky. (United States)

    Bech, Miklós; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram


    Many animals, including insects, are able to use celestial cues as a reference for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation [1]. In addition to direct sunlight, the chromatic gradient of the sky and its polarization pattern are suited to serve as orientation cues [2-5]. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight causes a regular pattern of E vectors in the sky, which are arranged along concentric circles around the sun [5, 6]. Although certain insects rely predominantly on sky polarization for spatial orientation [7], it has been argued that detection of celestial E vector orientation may not suffice to differentiate between solar and antisolar directions [8, 9]. We show here that polarization-sensitive (POL) neurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria can overcome this ambiguity. Extracellular recordings from POL units in the central complex and lateral accessory lobes revealed E vector tunings arranged in concentric circles within large receptive fields, matching the sky polarization pattern at certain solar positions. Modeling of neuronal responses under an idealized sky polarization pattern (Rayleigh sky) suggests that these "matched filter" properties allow locusts to unambiguously determine the solar azimuth by relying solely on the sky polarization pattern for compass navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffraction of convergent spherical waves with all possible polarization states using the Luneburg integral method. (United States)

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador


    We present a complete electromagnetic study, which includes electric, magnetic, and Poynting vector fields of diffracted convergent spherical waves under all possible polarization states compatible with Maxwell's equations. Exit pupil boundary conditions for these polarizations were obtained by means of Hertz potentials. Using these boundary conditions, two-dimensional Luneburg diffraction integrals for the three components of electric and magnetic fields were formulated, and after some approximations, we showed that the complete electromagnetic description of the inhomogeneous polarization states of spherical waves is reduced to the knowledge of seven one-dimensional integrals. The consistency of the method was tested by comparison with other previously reported methods for linearly polarized (LP), TE, and TM polarizations, while the versatility of the method was showed with the study of nonstandard polarization states, for example, that resulting from the superposition of TE and TM dephased spherical waves, which shows a helicoidal behavior of the Poynting vector at the focalization region, or the inhomogeneous LP state that exhibits a ring structure for the Poynting vector at the focal plane.

  3. Extremely high polarization in the 2010 outburst of blazar 3C 454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasada, Mahito; Kino, Masaru [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yasuda, Hajimu; Itoh, Ryosuke; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Ikejiri, Yuki; Ohsugi, Takashi; Komatsu, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Nagae, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, Masayuki [Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, 17-1 Kitakazan-ohmine-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Nakaya, Hidehiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sato, Shuji, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    The gamma-ray-detected blazar 3C 454.3 exhibits dramatic flux and polarization variations in the optical and near-infrared bands. In 2010 December, the object emitted a very bright outburst. We monitored it for approximately four years (including the 2010 outburst) by optical and near-infrared photopolarimetry. During the 2010 outburst, the object emitted two rapid, redder brightenings, at which the polarization degrees (PDs) in both bands increased significantly and the bands exhibited a frequency-dependent polarization. The observed frequency-dependent polarization leads us to propose that the polarization vector is composed of two vectors. Therefore, we separate the observed polarization vectors into short- and long-term components that we attribute to the emissions of the rapid brightenings and the outburst that varied the timescale of days and months, respectively. The estimated PD of the short-term component is greater than the maximum observed PD and is close to the theoretical maximum PD. We constrain the bulk Lorentz factors and inclination angles between the jet axis and the line of sight from the estimated PDs. In this case, the inclination angle of the emitting region of short-term component from the first rapid brightening should be equal to 90°, because the estimated PD of the short-term component was approximately equal to the theoretical maximum PD. Thus, the Doppler factor at the emitting region of the first rapid brightening should be equal to the bulk Lorentz factor.

  4. Decays of the vector glueball (United States)

    Giacosa, Francesco; Sammet, Julia; Janowski, Stanislaus


    We calculate two- and three-body decays of the (lightest) vector glueball into (pseudo)scalar, (axial-)vector, as well as pseudovector and excited vector mesons in the framework of a model of QCD. While absolute values of widths cannot be predicted because the corresponding coupling constants are unknown, some interesting branching ratios can be evaluated by setting the mass of the yet hypothetical vector glueball to 3.8 GeV as predicted by quenched lattice QCD. We find that the decay mode ω π π should be one of the largest (both through the decay chain O →b1π →ω π π and through the direct coupling O →ω π π ). Similarly, the (direct and indirect) decay into π K K*(892 ) is sizable. Moreover, the decays into ρ π and K*(892 )K are, although subleading, possible and could play a role in explaining the ρ π puzzle of the charmonium state ψ (2 S ) thanks to a (small) mixing with the vector glueball. The vector glueball can be directly formed at the ongoing BESIII experiment as well as at the future PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. If the width is sufficiently small (≲100 MeV ) it should not escape future detection. It should be stressed that the employed model is based on some inputs and simplifying assumptions: the value of glueball mass (at present, the quenched lattice value is used), the lack of mixing of the glueball with other quarkonium states, and the use of few interaction terms. It then represents a first step toward the identification of the main decay channels of the vector glueball, but shall be improved when corresponding experimental candidates and/or new lattice results will be available.

  5. Defining the Polar Field Reversal (United States)

    Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H.


    The polar fields on the Sun are directly related to solar cycle variability. Recently there has been interest in studying an important characteristic of the polar fields: the timing of the polar field reversals. However this characteristic has been poorly defined, mostly due to the limitations of early observations. In the past, the reversals have been calculated by averaging the flux above some latitude (i.e. 55deg or 75deg). Alternatively, the reversal could be defined by the time in which the previous polarity is completely canceled and replaced by the new polarity at 90de, precisely at the pole. We will use a surface flux transport model to illustrate the differences in the timing of the polar field reversal based on each of these definitions and propose standardization in the definition of the polar field reversal. The ability to predict the timing of the polar field reversal using a surface flux transport model will also be discussed.

  6. PD-SVM Integrated Controller for Robotic Manipulator Tracking Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Kapoor


    Full Text Available Highly precise tracking of a robotic manipulator in presence of uncertainties like noise, disturbances, and friction has been addressed in this particular paper. An integrated proportional derivative and support vector machine (SVMPD controller has been proposed for manipulator tracking. To illustrate the efficiency of the proposed controller, simulations have been done on a 2-DOF manipulator system. Performance of the proposed controller has been checked and verified with respect to to a simple PID controller and the radial bias neural network proportional integral derivative (RBNNPD controller. It has been proved that the proposed controller can achieve better tracking performance as compared to other controllers as the range of errors is less and the time taken by the controller has reduced up to 14 times as compared to RBNN.

  7. Efficient sample tracking with OpenLabFramework. (United States)

    List, Markus; Schmidt, Steffen; Trojnar, Jakub; Thomas, Jochen; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Tan, Qihua; Baumbach, Jan; Mollenhauer, Jan


    The advance of new technologies in biomedical research has led to a dramatic growth in experimental throughput. Projects therefore steadily grow in size and involve a larger number of researchers. Spreadsheets traditionally used are thus no longer suitable for keeping track of the vast amounts of samples created and need to be replaced with state-of-the-art laboratory information management systems. Such systems have been developed in large numbers, but they are often limited to specific research domains and types of data. One domain so far neglected is the management of libraries of vector clones and genetically engineered cell lines. OpenLabFramework is a newly developed web-application for sample tracking, particularly laid out to fill this gap, but with an open architecture allowing it to be extended for other biological materials and functional data. Its sample tracking mechanism is fully customizable and aids productivity further through support for mobile devices and barcoded labels.

  8. Retrieving current and wind vectors from ATI SAR data: airborne evidence and inversion strategy (United States)

    Martin, Adrien; Gommenginger, Christine; Chapron, Bertrand; Marquez, José; Doody, Sam


    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sense the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Together with the water displacement associated with ocean currents, the SAR measurements are also affected by a Wind-wave induced Artefact Surface Velocity (WASV) caused by the velocity of Bragg scatterers and the orbital velocity of ocean surface gravity waves. The WASV has been modelled theoretically in past studies but has been estimated empirically only once using Envisat ASAR. Here we propose, firstly, to evaluate this WASV from airborne ATI SAR data, secondly, to validate the airborne retrieved surface current after correction of the WASV against HF radar measurements and thirdly to examine the best inversion strategy for a an Ocean Surface Current (OSC) satellite mission to retrieve accurately both the ocean surface current vector (OSCV) and the wind vector in the frame of an OSC satellite mission. The airborne ATI SAR data were acquired in the tidally dominated Irish Sea using a Wavemill-type dual-beam SAR interferometer. A comprehensive collection of airborne Wavemill data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented site made it possible to estimate the magnitude and dependence on azimuth and incidence angle of the WASV. The airborne results compare favourably with those reported for Envisat ASAR, empirical model, which has been used to correct for it. Validation of the current retrieval capabilities of the proof-of-concept has been conducted against HF radar giving a precisions typically better than 0.1 m/s for surface current speed and 7° for direction. Comparisons with POLCOMS (1.8 km) indicate that the model reproduces well the overall temporal evolution but does not capture the high spatial variability of ocean surface currents at the maximum ebb flow. Airborne retrieved currents highlight a short-scale spatial variability up to 100m related to bathymetry channels, which

  9. Experimental polarization encoded quantum key distribution over optical fibres with real-time continuous birefringence compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, G B; Vilela de Faria, G; Temporao, G P; Von der Weid, J P [Centre for Telecommunication Studies, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro-R Marques de Sao Vicente 225 Gavea, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Walenta, N; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H [GAP-Optique, University of Geneva, rue de l' Ecole-de-Medecine 20, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail:


    In this paper we demonstrate an active polarization drift compensation scheme for optical fibres employed in a quantum key distribution experiment with polarization encoded qubits. The quantum signals are wavelength multiplexed in one fibre along with two classical optical side channels that provide the control information for the polarization compensation scheme. This set-up allows us to continuously track any polarization change without the need to interrupt the key exchange. The results obtained show that fast polarization rotations of the order of 40{pi} rad s{sup -1} are effectively compensated for. We demonstrate that our set-up allows continuous quantum key distribution even in a fibre stressed by random polarization fluctuations. Our results pave the way for Bell-state measurements using only linear optics with parties separated by long-distance optical fibres.

  10. The biological control of disease vectors. (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga


    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Polarization of a Helium-Neon Laser. (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R.


    Describes an experiment that involves measuring the intensity of laser light passed by a linear polarizer. Discusses polarization effects, orthogonal polarizations, instrumentation, and further experiments. (JRH)

  12. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Polar) (United States)


    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  13. Optically pumped polarized ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A.N.


    Polarization transfer collisions between protons, atomic hydrogen, or deuterium and optically pumped alkali-metal vapour are implemented in the high current optically pumped polarized ion source (OPPIS) and the laser driven source (LDS) of nuclear polarized atoms for target applications. The OPPIS technique overcomes the limitations on intensity of the conventional atomic beam source technique and meets the requirements of the new generation of polarization experiments at multi-GeV accelerators and colliders. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin


    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how polar...... of the consequences of elite polarization—and how polarization is communicated—for public opinion and political behavior in democratic politics....

  15. Zika Virus Mosquito Vectors: Competence, Biology, and Vector Control. (United States)

    Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Kramer, Laura D


    Zika virus (ZIKV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) has become one of the most medically important mosquito-borne viruses because of its ability to cause microcephaly in utero and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. This virus emerged from its sylvatic cycle in Africa to cause an outbreak in Yap, Federated States of Micronesia in 2007, French Polynesia in 2014, and most recently South America in 2015. The rapid expansion of ZIKV in the Americas largely has been due to the biology and behavior of its vector, Aedes aegypti. Other arboviruses transmitted by Ae. aegypti include the 2 flaviviruses dengue virus and yellow fever virus and the alphavirus chikungunya virus, which are also (re)emerging viruses in the Americas. This mosquito vector is highly domesticated, living in close association with humans in urban households. Its eggs are desiccation resistant, and the larvae develop rapidly in subtropical and tropical environments. Climate warming is facilitating range expansion of Ae. aegypti, adding to the threat this mosquito poses to human health, especially in light of the difficulty controlling it. Aedes albopictus, another highly invasive arbovirus vector that has only been implicated in one country (Gabon), is an important vector of ZIKV, but because of its wide geographic distribution may become a more important vector in the future. This article discusses the historical background of ZIKV and the biology and ecology of these 2 vectors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail:

  16. Design and Status of Solar Vector Magnetograph (SVM-I) at Udaipur ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... The integrated performance of the system on a tracking mount and its control software is being tested. Some test observations of sunspots has been carried out. In this paper we give a technical description of the hardware and software elements of the instrument and present the polarized images obtained ...

  17. Polarized and non-polarized leaf reflectances of Coleus blumei (United States)

    Grant, Lois; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.


    A polarization photometer has been used to measure the reflectance of three variegated portions of Coleus blumei, Benth. in five wavelength bands of the visible and near-infrared spectrum. The polarized component of the reflectance factor was found to be independent of wavelength, indicating that the polarized reflectance arises from the leaf surface. It is suggested that differences in the polarized component result from variations in surface features. The nonpolarized component of the reflectance factor is shown to be related to the internal leaf structure. The variation of the degree of polarization with wavelength was found to be greatest in the regions of the spectrum where absorption occurs.

  18. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  19. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max


    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  20. Polarization Perception Device (United States)

    Whitehead, Victor S. (Inventor); Coulson, Kinsell L. (Inventor)


    A polarization perception device comprises a base and a polarizing filter having opposite broad sides and a centerline perpendicular thereto. The filter is mounted on the base for relative rotation and with a major portion of the area of the filter substantially unobstructed on either side. A motor on the base automatically moves the filter angularly about its centerline at a speed slow enough to permit changes in light transmission by virtue of such movement to be perceived as light-dark pulses by a human observer, but fast enough so that the light phase of each such pulse occurs prior to fading of the light phase image of the preceding pulse from the observer's retina. In addition to an observer viewing a scene in real time through the filter while it is so angularly moved, or instead of such observation, the scene can be photographed, filmed or taped by a camera whose lens is positioned behind the filter.