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Sample records for vector culex quinquefasciatus

  1. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, in Mexico City

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    Diaz-Perez Alfonso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  3. Vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus say from different regions of Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis

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    Ahid Silvia Maria Mendes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus from five localities in Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis was evaluated experimentally. Females from each locality were fed on an infected dog (~ 6 microfilariae/µl blood. A sample of blood fed mosquitoes were dissected approximately 1 h after blood meal. These results demonstrated that all had ingested microfilariae (mean, 4.8 to 24.6 microfilariae/mosquito. Fifteen days after the infected blood meal, the infection and infective rates were low in all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The mean number of infective larvae detected in the head and proboscis of these mosquitoes was 1-1.5. The vector efficiency, the number of microfilariae ingested/number of infective larvae, was low for all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the survival rate for all populations was high (range 50-75%. The survival rate of Aedes aegypti assayed simultaneously for comparison was low (24.7%, while the vector efficiency was much higher than for Cx. quinquefasciatus. These data suggest that the vector competence of all assayed populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus to D. immitis in Brazil is similar and that this species is a secondary vector due to its low susceptibility. Nevertheless, vector capacity may vary between populations due to differences in biting frequency on dogs that has been reported in Brazil.

  4. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China.

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    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2017-07-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies.

  5. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China

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    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun

    2017-01-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies. PMID:28430562

  6. Adulticidal efficacy of Delonix elata against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the adulticidal activity and toxicity of different solvent crude extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata against filariasis vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol leaf and seed extracts of D. elata were assayed for their toxicity against vector mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus. Bioassay was carried out by WHO method for determination of adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Results: All extracts showed moderate adulticidal effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of D. elata leaf against the adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values at 197.28 and 347.45mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity of D. elata plant extracts against filariasis vector mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  7. Larvicidal potential of Acorus calamus L. essential oil against filarial vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    A Senthilkumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Acorus calamus (A. calamus rhizome essential oil against the filarial vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Essential oil was isolated by hydro-distillation and the chemical composition of the oil was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis. The larvicidal activity of the essential oil was analysed at different concentrations, viz., 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, 100.0 and 200.0 mL/L. Early 4th instar larvae were used for the larvicidal assay. The larval mortality was calculated after 24 h of the exposure. Results: The gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the essential oil extracted from the rhizome of A. calamus contained 20 chemical compounds representing about 99.99% of the total oil. Beta-asarone (33.36%, cis-beta-terpineol (23.44%, limonene (13.08%, carvone (5.64% and amyl isovalerate (4.92% were identified as the major chemical compounds. The essential oil had promising larvicidal effect against the early 4th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus with LC 50 value of 63.43 mL/L and LC90 value of 145.95 mL/L. Conclusions: The essential oil of A. calamus rhizome can be used as a natural larvicidal agent against the larvae of filarial vector mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  8. Larvicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves extract on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    K. Dass

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic and chemical insecticides to control mosquitoes result in environment hazards and development of resistance in vector species. This research work is about an alternative mosquito control method that is considered as safe to environment and non-target species and also bio-degradable. Hence an attempt was made to study the larvicidal effect of the extract of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves on III and IV instar larva and pupa of Culex quinquefasciatus. The LC50 value of Murraya exotica for III and IV instar larvae and pupae is 135.539 ppm, 154.361 ppm and 178.571 ppm respectively. Likewise for Lawsonia inermis it is 139.057 for III instar, 163.630 for IV instar and 188.151 for the pupa. Of these, two plants Murraya exotica plant extract is more effective than the Lawsonia inermis.

  9. Climate Change Influences on the Global Potential Distribution of the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, Vector of West Nile Virus and Lymphatic Filariasis

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    Samy,Abdallah M.; Elaagip, Arwa H.; Kenawy, Mohamed A.; Ayres, Const?ncia F. J.; Peterson, A Townsend; Soliman, Doaa E.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid emergence of most vector-borne diseases (VBDs) may be associated with range expansion of vector populations. Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 is a potential vector of West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and lymphatic filariasis. We estimated the potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus under both current and future climate conditions. The present potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed high suitability across low-latitude parts of the world, reflecting th...

  10. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Vincent, Savariar; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored the effects of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera tested against third instar larvae of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol 8h, using Soxhlet apparatus, and filtered. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The yield of crude extract was 11.4, 12.2, 10.6, and 13.5 g in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol, respectively. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of J. curcas with LC(50) values of 230.32, 212.85, 192.07, and 113.23 ppm; H. suaveolens with LC(50) values of 213.09, 217.64, 167.59, and 86.93 ppm; A. indicum with LC(50) values of 204.18, 155.53, 166.32, and 111.58 ppm; and L. aspera with LC(50) values of 152.18, 118.29, 111.43, and 107.73 ppm, respectively, against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in the control. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P management. The present results suggest that the medicinal plants extract was an excellent potential for controlling filarial vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  11. Seasonal prevalence and blood meal analysis of filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus in coastal areas of Digha, West Bengal, India.

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    Azmi, Syed Afrin; Das, Surajit; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2015-09-01

    Filariasis is one of the major vector-borne diseases causing serious health problem in the tropics and subtropics. The coastal areas of Digha are known to be a filariasis prone region of West Bengal, India. The filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus, the established filarial vector in West Bengal, India. The present work was aimed to determine the abundance of different mosquito species; and the frequency, distribution and blood meal analysis of Cx. quinquefasciatus in coastal areas of Digha. During the present study, a total of 11,537 mosquitoes [Cx. quinquefasciatus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles barbirostris, An. annularis, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, Aedes albopictus, and Cx. vishnui (group)] were collected by hand collection method from human habitations and cattlesheds of 10 villages of Digha, West Bengal, India. The seasonal prevalence of Cx. quinquefasciatus was studied. In each season, blood meals of 300 Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from human habitations were analysed during the study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to be the dominant species (88.44% of the total collection) in the study area. It was most frequently found in and around human habitations than cattlesheds. Total man hour density calculation revealed that this species was most prevalent during the rainy season. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus varied with different seasons. Blood meal analysis showed that the filarial vector preferred human blood than that of other animals. This study suggested Cx. quinquefasciatus as the dominant mosquito species in the study area; and the anthropophilic nature of Cx. quinquefasciatus might be the reason of increase in the intensity of filarial transmission in coastal areas of Digha.

  12. Mosquito repellent properties of Delonix elata (L. gamble (Family: Fabaceae against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Delonix elata (D. elata leaf and seed against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm伊30 cm伊25 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Repellent activity was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of D. elata were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the strength of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided over 150 min and 120 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts of D. elata exhibit the potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of filariasis.

  13. Integrated control measures against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of filariasis in Recife

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    Lêda Regis

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated control measures against Culex quinquefasciastus have been implemented in a pilot urban area in Recife, Brazil. About 3,000 breeding sites found within the operational area were responsible for very high mosquito densities recorded during the pretrial period. Physical control measures have been applied to cess pits before starting a series of 37 treatments of the other sites with Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362, over 27 months. In spite of the difficulties due to environmental conditions, very significant reductions in preimaginal population of C. quinquefasciatus were achieved and, as a consequence, low adult mosquito densities were maintained for a relatively long period of time. Entomological and environmental data gathered in this pilot project can contribute to design an integrated mosquito control program in Recife city.

  14. Baseline Susceptibility of Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Cu-licidae to Five Insecticides with Different Modes of Action in Southeast of Iran

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    Yaser Salim-Abadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae is an important vector for many human diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility level of larval and adult stages of Cu. quinquefasciatus to different groups of WHO recommended insecticides for vector control.Methods: Larval stages of the Culex mosquitoes were collected from their natural habitats in Rafsanjan County at Kerman Province, southeast of Iran in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility status of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus against DDT (4%, deltamethrin (0.05%, malathion 5%, and bendiocarb (0.1% were determined using WHO stand­ard insecticide susceptibility test. Additional test was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to temephos. Bioassay data were analyzed by Probit program.Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus adults showed resistance to all four groups of the tested insecticides according to the WHO criteria for resistance evaluation. The lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (LC50 and 90% mortality (LC90 of temephos against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were 0.18mg/l and 0.78mg/l, respectively. This finding also con­firms resistance to temephos based on the WHO recommended instructions for resistance evaluation.Conclusion: Resistance to all groups of the tested insecticides should be considered for future vector control investi­gations in the study area.

  15. Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model

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    Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.

    2010-09-01

    Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model ( P < 0.0001). Dry environments in southern California produce different mosquito population trends than moist locations in Florida. Florida and California mosquito populations are generally temperature-limited in winter. In California, locations are water-limited through much of the year. Using future climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.

  16. Evaluation of Multi Potential Bioactive Endod, Phytolacca dodecandra (L’ Herit) Berries Extracts Against Immature Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Nagappan Raja; Tigab Temesgen; Mamaye Tesera; Muche Tadele; Shiferaw Moges; Nurie Misganaw

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Phytolacca dodecandra plant extracts against immature filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The powdered berries were extracted with petroleum ether, acetone, benzene, methanol and water. The crude residue obtained from the extraction was used to prepare 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm concentration, respectively. The experiment was conducted by using standard WHO protocol with modifications. The immature mosq...

  17. Larvicidal potentiality, longevity and fecundity inhibitory activities of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV on vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Arjunan Nareshkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervention measures to control the transmission of vector-borne diseases include control of the vector population. In mosquito control, synthetic insecticides used against both the larvae (larvicides and adults (adulticides create numerous problems, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and toxic hazards to humans. In the present study, a bacterial pesticide, Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV, was used to control the dengue and filarial vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV was very effective against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, showing significant larval mortality. Evaluated lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 were age-dependent, with early instars requiring a lower concentration compared with later stages of mosquitoes. Culex quinquefasciatus was more susceptible to Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV than was Aedes aegypti. Fecundity rate was highly reduced after treatment with different concentrations of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV. Larval and pupal longevity both decreased after treatment with Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV, total number of days was lower in the B. sphaericus treatments compared with the control. Our results show the bacterial pesticide Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV to be an effective mosquito control agent that can be used for more integrated pest management programs.

  18. Control of human filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) through bioactive fraction of Cayratia trifolia leaf.

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    Chakraborty, Sumanta; Singha, Someshwar; Bhattacharya, Kuntal; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the mosquito larvicidal activity of Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin (Vitaceae: Vitales) (C. trifolia) which is distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties as vector control is facing threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Young and mature leaves of C. trifolia were investigated for larvicidal activity against 3rd instars larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in different seasons throughout the year. The active fractions were extracted using six different solvents in a non-polar to polar fashion viz petroleum-ether, benzene, chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v), acetone, absolute alcohol and distilled water. Dose dependent mortality was recorded against each solvent extract. Determination of LD50 and LD90 were executed through log-probit analysis using the most bioactive fraction. The fluctuations in mortality were statistically co-related through ANOVA analyses concerning different seasons and types of leaves as random variables. Justification of larvicidal activity was established through student's t-test. Costing effects were evaluated on the non-target water fauna under laboratory conditions. Thin layer chromatographic techniques were performed for phytochemical analysis and categorization of chemical personality of the active fractions using the most effective solvent extract following standard methods. Significant variations in mortality rate were noted with respect to the type of leaves (mature and senescence), concentration of leaf extract and between seasons. The water extract among all the solvent extracts was found to induce cent percent mortality at 50 mg/L in test mosquito species within 24 h with a LD50 and LD90 value of 10.70 mg/L and 27.64 mg/L respectively. No significant mortality was recorded in non-target water population. Chromatographic analyses of the water extract revealed the presence of steroids, triterpene glycosides, essential oil, phenolics and diterpenes as secondary phytochemicals. Water

  19. Larvicidal efficacy of Sphaeranthus indicus, Cleistanthus collinus and Murraya koenigii leaf extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Arivoli, Subramaniam; Maheshwaran, Rajan; Baskar, Kathirvelu; Vincent, Savariar

    2012-09-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus, Cleistanthus collinus and Murraya koenigii leaf extracts were tested against the third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From each plant, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yield of the S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii crude extracts by hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate was 9.16, 11.71 and 10.83 g for S. indicus; 8.17, 10.69 and 9.85 g for C. collinus; and 10.11, 11.92 and 9.87 g for M. koenigii, respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii leaf extracts at 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm caused a significant mortality of C. quinquefasciatus. The LC(50) and LC(90) values of S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii against third instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 h (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) were the following: S. indicus LC(50) values were 544.93, 377.86 and 274.79 ppm and LC(90) values were 1,325.32, 1,572.55 and 1,081.29 ppm at 24 h; C. collinus LC(50) values were 375.34, 318.29 and 226.10 ppm and LC(90) values were 699.65, 1,577.62 and 1,024.92 ppm at 24 h; and M. koenigii LC(50) values were 963.53, 924.85 and 857.62 ppm and LC(90) values were 1,665.12, 1,624.68 and 1,564.37 ppm at 24 h, respectively. However, the highest larval mortality was observed in C. collinus followed by S. indicus and M. koenigii of various concentrations at 24, 48 and 72 h. The study proved that S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii leaf extracts had larvicidal property against species of C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of vector control programmes.

  20. Climate Change Influences on the Global Potential Distribution of the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, Vector of West Nile Virus and Lymphatic Filariasis.

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    Abdallah M Samy

    Full Text Available Rapid emergence of most vector-borne diseases (VBDs may be associated with range expansion of vector populations. Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 is a potential vector of West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and lymphatic filariasis. We estimated the potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus under both current and future climate conditions. The present potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed high suitability across low-latitude parts of the world, reflecting the current distribution of the species. Suitable conditions were identified also in narrow zones of North Africa and Western Europe. Model transfers to future conditions showed a potential distribution similar to that under present-day conditions, although with higher suitability in southern Australia. Highest stability with changing climate was between 30°S and 30°N. The areas present high agreement among diverse climate models as regards distributional potential in the future, but differed in anticipating potential for distribution in North and Central Africa, southern Asia, central USA, and southeastern Europe. Highest disparity in model predictions across representative concentration pathways (RCPs was in Saudi Arabia and Europe. The model predictions allow anticipation of changing distributional potential of the species in coming decades.

  1. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  2. Morphometric studies on Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to investigate possible morphological differences in populations of Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia africana. Six morphological characters namely, wing length, antennal length, proboscis length, foreleg length, mid leg length and hind leg length were measured in the two species. A total of 868 Cx ...

  3. Toxicity of seaweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and its impact on predation efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus.

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    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Ayyappan, Suganya; Dinesh, Devakumar; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-06-01

    Nearly 1.4 billion people in 73 countries worldwide are threatened by lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic infection that leads to a disease commonly known as elephantiasis. Filariasis is vectored by mosquitoes, with special reference to the genus Culex. The main control tool against mosquito larvae is represented by treatments with organophosphates and insect growth regulators, with negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, green-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective larvicidals against mosquito vectors. In this research, we attempted a reply to the following question: do green-synthesized nanoparticles affect predation rates of copepods against mosquito larvae? We proposed a novel method of seaweed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the frond extract of Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The toxicity of the seaweed extract and silver nanoparticles was assessed against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Then, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus against larval instars of C. quinquefasciatus in a nanoparticle-contaminated water environment. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, the LC₅₀ values of the C. scalpelliformis extract against C. quinquefasciatus were 31.38 ppm (I), 46.49 ppm (II), 75.79 ppm (III), 102.26 ppm (IV), and 138.89 ppm (pupa), while LC₅₀ of silver nanoparticles were 3.08 ppm, (I), 3.49 ppm (II), 4.64 ppm (III), 5.86 ppm (IV), and 7.33 ppm (pupa). The predatory efficiency of the copepod M. longisetus in the control treatment was 78 and 59% against I and II instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. In a nanoparticle-contaminated environment, predation efficiency was 84 and 63%, respectively. Predation was higher against first instar larvae over other instars

  4. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

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    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  5. Larvicidal activity of Wrightia tinctoria R. BR. (Apocynaceae fruit and leaf extracts against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Murugesan Sakthivadivel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of crude aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of Wrightia tinctoria fruits and leaves against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The larvicidal activity was evaluated at concentrations of 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 1.00%. Larval mortality was observed for 24 and 48 h. Results: Among the plant parts tested, aqueous fruit extract exhibited highest larvicidal activity followed by aqueous leaf extract with LC50 values of 0.17% and 0.09%; 0.21% and 0.11% after 24 and 48 h respectively. Conclusions: Further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  6. Transmission of West Nile virus by Culex quinquefasciatus say infected with Culex Flavivirus Izabal.

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    Rebekah J Kent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The natural history and potential impact of mosquito-specific flaviviruses on the transmission efficiency of West Nile virus (WNV is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not prior infection with Culex flavivirus (CxFV Izabal altered the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus Say for transmission of a co-circulating strain of West Nile virus (WNV from Guatemala. METHODS AND FINDINGS: CxFV-negative Culex quinquefasciatus and those infected with CxFV Izabal by intrathoracic inoculation were administered WNV-infectious blood meals. Infection, dissemination, and transmission of WNV were measured by plaque titration on Vero cells of individual mosquito bodies, legs, or saliva, respectively, two weeks following WNV exposure. Additional groups of Cx. quinquefasciatus were intrathoracically inoculated with WNV alone or WNV+CxFV Izabal simultaneously, and saliva collected nine days post inoculation. Growth of WNV in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells or Cx. quinquefasciatus was not inhibited by prior infection with CxFV Izabal. There was no significant difference in the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus for WNV between mosquitoes uninfected or infected with CxFV Izabal across multiple WNV blood meal titers and two colonies of Cx. quinquefasciatus (p>0.05. However, significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus from Honduras that were co-inoculated simultaneously with both viruses transmitted WNV than those inoculated with WNV alone (p = 0.0014. Co-inoculated mosquitoes that transmitted WNV also contained CxFV in their saliva, whereas mosquitoes inoculated with CxFV alone did not contain virus in their saliva. CONCLUSIONS: In the sequential infection experiments, prior infection with CxFV Izabal had no significant impact on WNV replication, infection, dissemination, or transmission by Cx. quinquefasciatus, however WNV transmission was enhanced in the Honduras colony when mosquitoes were inoculated simultaneously with

  7. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

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    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  8. Larvicidal activity of Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet and Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob. plant extracts against arboviral and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Samuel, Lallianrawna; Lalrotluanga; Muthukumaran, Rajendra Bose; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Senthilkumar, Nachimuthu

    2014-06-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say, an arboviral and filarial vector, is one of the most widespread mosquitoes in the world, and insecticide-resistant populations have been reported worldwide. Due to the emergence of resistance in C. quinquefasciatus plant based products or plant extracts may be alternative sources in integrated vector management program. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activities of crude solvent extracts prepared from flowers and leaves of Ipomoea cairica and Ageratina adenophora against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus as target species. The plant extracts were prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol solvents using sequential extraction method to determine the best extractant for subsequent isolation and characterization of active ingredient. The total yield of plant extract in the Soxhlet extraction ranged between 0.79% and 19.35%. The qualitative phytochemical study of the plant extracts from different solvents showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, saponins and tannins in different combinations. I. cairica and A. adenophora plant extracts were found to be effective against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus causing 77-100% mortality at 48h. Highest mortality was observed at 500ppm and the order of larvicidal action was observed to be of methanol extract of I. cairica flower>petroleum ether extract of A. adenophora leaf>chloroform extract of I. cairica leaf. High mortality (100%) with low LC50 and LT50 were observed in methanolic flower extract (LC50 - 8.43ppm; LT50 - 2.51h at 48h) of I. cairica, and petroleum ether (LC50 - 133.56ppm; LT50 - 9.45h at 48h) leaf extract of A. adenophora. Lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods, lethal time (LT50 and LT90) decreased with the concentration in bioassay experiment with the crude plant extracts. There was a significant correlation (three-way factorial ANOVA) was noticed

  9. Synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Jasminum nervosum leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against filarial and arboviral vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Lallawmawma, H; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sarathbabu, Subburayan; Ghatak, Souvik; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil

    2015-11-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles of Jasminum nervosum L. had unique optical properties such as broad absorbance band in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Characterization of the nanoparticles using UV spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) ranging between 4-22 and 2-20 nm with an average particles size of 9.4 and 10 nm, respectively. AgNPs and AuNPs of J. nervosum had high larvicidal activity on the filarial and arboviral vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, than the leaf aqueous extract. Observed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) against the third instar larvae were 57.40 and 144.36 μg/ml for AgNPs and 82.62 and 254.68 μg/ml for AuNPs after 24 h treatment, respectively. The lethal time to kill 50% of C. quinquefasciatus larvae were 2.24 and 4.51 h at 150 μg/ml of AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively, while in the case of aqueous leaf extract of J. nervosum it was 9.44 h at 500 μg/ml (F 2,14 = 397.51, P < 0.0001). The principal component analysis plot presented differential clustering of the aqueous leaf extract, AgNP and AuNPs in relation to lethal dose and lethal time. It is concluded from the present findings that the biosynthesised AgNPs and AuNPs using leaf aqueous extract of J. nervosum could be an environmentally safer nanobiopesticide, and provided potential larvicidal effect on C. quinquefasciatus larvae which could be used for prevention of several dreadful diseases.

  10. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC 50 =25.6μL·L -1 ), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC 50 =49.8μL·L -1 ) and A. citriodora (LC 50 =65.6μL·L -1 ), while the other essential oils showed LC 50 values higher than 90μL·L -1 . The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC 50 =18.3μL·L -1 ). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC 50 (72.5μL·L -1 ) higher than the LC 50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito

  11. Larvicidal activity of the methanol extract and fractions of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae against the vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Thamer Matias Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The larvicidal activity of Solanum lycocarpum against Culex quinquefasciatus is unknown. Methods We evaluated the larvicidal activity of extracts of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum against third and fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Results Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions showed the greatest larvicidal effect at 200mg/L (83.3% and 86.7%, respectively. The methanol and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanolic fractions demonstrated larvicidal effects against C. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 126.24, 75.13, 83.15, and 207.05mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Thus, when considering new drugs with larvicidal activity from natural products, S. lycocarpum fruits may be good candidate sources.

  12. Vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 exposed to different densities of microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856 Competência vetorial de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 exposto a diferentes densidades de microfilárias de Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856

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    Gílcia Aparecida de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil is endemic for Dirofilaria immitis and has an environment favorable to the development of Culex quinquefasciatus. The goal of this study was to evaluate the vector competence of the Cx. quinquefasciatus RECIFE population for D. immitis transmission. A total of 2,104 females of Cx. quinquefasciatus RECIFE population were exposed to different densities of D. immitis microfilariae blood meals, ranging from 1,820 to 2,900 mf/ml of blood, in a natural membrane apparatus. The results showed a variation between 92.3% and 98.8% of females fed. The exposure of the Cx. quinquefasciatus RECIFE population to different densities of microfilariae did not influence the mortality of the mosquitoes. Infective larvae from D. immitis were observed in the Malpighian tubules beginning on the 12th day, whereas larvae were observed in the head and proboscis beginning on the 13th day following infection. The vector efficiency index (VEI presented by the mosquitoes ranged from 7.8 to 56.5. The data demonstrates that the Cx. quinquefasciatus RECIFE population has great potential for the transmission of D. immitis, as it allowed the development of the filarid until the infectious stage at the different densities of microfilariae to which it was exposed.A Região Metropolitana do Recife é endêmica para Dirofilaria immitis e possui ambiente favorável para o desenvolvimento de Culex quinquefasciatus. Neste estudo avaliou-se a competência vetorial de Cx. quinquefasciatus população RECIFE para a transmissão de D. immitis. Para tanto, 2.104 fêmeas de Cx. quinquefasciatus população RECIFE foram expostas a diferentes densidades de microfilárias de D. immitis, variando de 1.820 a 2.900 mf/ml de sangue por meio de membrana natural. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram variação de 92,3% a 98,8% de fêmeas ingurgitadas após a alimentação. A exposição de Cx. quinquefasciatus população RECIFE a diferentes densidades de

  13. Bionomics of Culex quinquefasciatus within urban areas of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

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    Mariana Rocha David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate density, parity rates, daily survival and longevity of natural populations of Culex quinquefasciatus in three neighborhoods with distinct socio-economic and infrastructure profiles. METHODS: Mosquito collections of the Culex quinquefasciatus species were performed weekly during two four month periods, from August to November 2008 (spring and March to June 2009 (fall, in a favela (slum, a suburban area and a middle class area of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Collections were performed with backpack aspirators, in 20 randomly selected houses in each area per week, during 15-20 minutes per house. Ovaries were removed from captured females and classified as initial, intermediary or final stage. Furthermore, females were dissected for determination of parity based on the condition of the tracheal system. Mosquito survival rate and longevity were estimated on a per month basis for each neighborhood. RESULTS: We collected a total of 2,062 Culex quinquefasciatus, but monthly vector density was not correlated with temperature and rainfall. We dissected the ovaries of 625 Culex quinquefasciatus, and overall, there was a higher proportion of nulliparous females during the dryer months, while gravid females were more frequent in rainy months. In the middle class neighborhood, the parity rate reached up to 93.75% with survivorship of 0.979. Lower parity and survival rates were obtained in the suburban area (as low as 36.4% parity and 0.711 daily survival. Up to 84.7% of Culex quinquefasciatus females could survive the eight day period needed to complete West Nile Virus incubation. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus varied significantly between the neighborhoods. This suggests that vectorial capacity and disease transmission risk may vary greatly between different urban areas, which is potentially useful information for vector control programs.

  14. Field evaluation of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen 0.5% GR against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of Bancroftian filariasis in Pondicherry, India.

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    Jambulingam, P; Sadanandane, C; Boopathi Doss, P S; Subramanian, S; Zaim, M

    2008-07-01

    Pyriproxyfen, 0.5% granular formulation (GR), an insect growth regulator (IGR) was tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and pupae in disused wells, cesspits and drains at the dosages of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5kg(ai)/ha to determine the most appropriate field dosage. The IGR was found to be effective against C. quinquefasciatus larvae and pupae in all the larval habitats tested. In drains with slow moving water, application of pyriproxyfen 0.5% GR at 0.5kg(ai)/ha resulted in >80% emergence inhibition (EI) of adults for 4 weeks. At 0.1 and 0.25kg(ai)/ha, the EI was always less than 80%. In stagnant drains, the IGR yielded >80% EI for 1-week period at 0.1kg(ai)/ha. At 0.25 and 0.5kg(ai)/ha, the efficacy was 5-10 times higher. In cesspits, the EI was >80% for 6 weeks when pyriproxyfen 0.5% GR was applied at 0.1kg(ai)/ha, for 11 weeks at 0.25kg(ai)/ha and 9 weeks at 0.5kg(ai)/ha. In disused wells treated at the dosage 0.1kg(ai)/ha, there was >80% EI for 15 weeks and at 0.25 and 0.5kg(ai)/ha, the effective duration was about 1.6-1.8 times longer (24-28 weeks). Considering the quantum of IGR required and the cost and also for safety reasons, the low dosage 0.1kg(ai)/ha is recommended as the field dosage to be applied at weekly interval in stagnant drains, 6 weeks interval in cesspits and 15 weeks interval in disused wells. Since pyriproxyfen 0.5% GR has a relatively longer residual effect than the other IGRs the operational cost could be minimized. Pyriproxyfen 0.5% GR could be one of the choices in the chemical control strategy in Integrated Vector Control Programmes.

  15. Sequencing of Culex quinquefasciatus establishes a platform for mosquito comparative genomics

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    Arensburger, Peter; Megy, Karine; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abrudan, Jenica; Amedeo, Paolo; Antelo, Beatriz; Bartholomay, Lyric; Bidwell, Shelby; Caler, Elisabet; Camara, Francisco; Campbell, Corey L.; Campbell, Kathryn S.; Casola, Claudio; Castro, Marta T.; Chandramouliswaran, Ishwar; Chapman, Sinéad B.; Christley, Scott; Costas, Javier; Eisenstadt, Eric; Feshotte, Cedric; Fraser-Liggett, Claire; Guigo, Roderic; Haas, Brian; Hammond, Martin; Hansson, Bill S.; Hemingway, Janet; Hill, Sharon; Howarth, Clint; Ignell, Rickard; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Lobo, Neil F.; Mao, Chunhong; Mayhew, George; Michel, Kristin; Mori, Akio; Liu, Nannan; Naveira, Horacio; Nene, Vishvanath; Nguyen, Nam; Pearson, Matthew D.; Pritham, Ellen J.; Puiu, Daniela; Qi, Yumin; Ranson, Hilary; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Roberston, Hugh M.; Severson, David W.; Shumway, Martin; Stanke, Mario; Strausberg, Robert; Sun, Cheng; Sutton, Granger; Tu, Zhijian (Jake); Tubio, Jose Manuel C.; Unger, Maria F.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Vilella, Albert J.; White, Owen; White, Jared R.; Wondji, Charles S.; Wortman, Jennifer; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Birren, Bruce; Christensen, Bruce M.; Collins, Frank H.; Cornel, Anthony; Dimopoulos, George; Hannick, Linda I.; Higgs, Stephen; Lanzaro, Gregory C.; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Norman H.; Muskavitch, Marc A. T.; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Atkinson, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (the Southern house mosquito) is an important mosquito vector of viruses such as West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus as well of nematodes that cause lymphatic filariasis. It is one species within the Culex pipiens species complex and enjoys a distribution throughout tropical and temperate climates of the world. The ability of C. quinquefasciatus to take blood meals from birds, livestock and humans contributes to its ability to vector pathogens between species. We describe the genomic sequence of C. quinquefasciatus, its repertoire of 18,883 protein-coding genes is 22% larger than Ae. aegypti and 52% larger than An. gambiae with multiple gene family expansions including olfactory and gustatory receptors, salivary gland genes, and genes associated with xenobiotic detoxification. PMID:20929810

  16. Ecology of potential West Nile virus vectors in southeastern Louisiana: enzootic transmission in the relative absence of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, Marvin S.; King, Raymond J.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Delorey, Mark; Colton, Leah; Charnetzky, Dawn; Sutherland, Genevieve; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Wilson, Lawrence A.; Coffey, Michelle; Milheim, Lesley E.; Taylor, Viki G.; Palmisano, Charles; Wesson, Dawn M.; Guptill, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    A study of West Nile virus (WNV) ecology was conducted in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, from 2002 to 2004. Mosquitoes were collected weekly throughout the year using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps placed at 1.5 and 6 m above the ground and gravid traps. A total of 379,466 mosquitoes was collected. WNV was identified in 32 pools of mosquitoes comprising four species; 23 positive pools were from Culex nigripalpus collected during 2003. Significantly more positive pools were obtained from Cx. nigripalpus collected in traps placed at 6 m than 1.5 m that year, but abundance did not differ by trap height. In contrast, Cx. nigripalpus abundance was significantly greater in traps placed at 6 m in 2002 and 2004. Annual temporal variation in Cx. nigripalpus peak seasonal abundance has important implications for WNV transmission in Louisiana. One WNV-positive pool, from Cx. erraticus, was collected during the winter of 2004, showing year-round transmission. The potential roles of additional mosquito species in WNV transmission in southeastern Louisiana are discussed. Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This article has been peer reviewed and approved for publication consistent with U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices (http//pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1367/). Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  17. Efficacy of essential oils of aromatic plants as larvicide for the management of filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae with special reference to Foeniculum vulgare

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    Inder Singh Rana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils derived from ten aromatic plants with special reference to Foeniculum vulgare (F. vulgare against early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from plant materials through hydro distillation and efficacy was determined through bioassay method. Two of the effective oils were evaluated further for the determination of their LC 50 and LT50 values based on Probit analysis.Essential oils of one plant was analyzed through TLC and HPLC. Results: Most of the essential oils caused 100% mortality within 120 min at 250 ppm. Oil of Tagetes patula (T. patula and F. vulgare gave more than 90% mortality within 40 min. LC 50 values calculated after 60 min of treatment were (84.80 暲 7.65 and (24.69 暲 1.24 ppm for T. patula and F. vulgare respectively. At the same exposure period positive control temephos yielded (22.13暲2.39 ppm LC50 value. At 50 ppm T. patula, F. vulgare and temephos exhibited LT 50 values (113.71 暲 10.29, (11.02 暲 3.31 and (38.15 暲 5.90 mins respectively. Presence of high quantity of trans anethole in the essential oils of F. vulgare was confirmed by TLC and HPLC results. Conclusions: Present study indicates that essential oils of spices/aromatic medicinal plants particularly F. vulgare and T. patula carry huge potential as a mosquito larvicide. This potential could be exploited for the development of safer and effective botanical mosquito larvicidal tool for the management of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  18. UJI EFIKASI KELAMBU CELUP INSEKTISIDA BERBAHAN AKTIF ALPHACYPERMETHRIN TERHADAP VEKTOR FILARIASIS CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS

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    Hadi Suwasono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy test of the residual effect of alphacypermethrin on the impregnated bed-net against filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out in Salatiga Bed-nets were made of nylon with the size of 200 x 180 x 200 cm. Four dosages of insecticide were used for bed net impregnation respectively was 0.01 ml/m2; 0.02 ml/m2; 0.03 ml/m2 and 0.04 ml/m2. The impregnated bed-nets were installed in 5 selected houses. Contact bioassay was conducted by weekly until 4 week and furthermore by bi-weekly. The results showed that the residual of four dosages used for bed-net impregnation was ineffective against Cx. quinquefosciatus.   Keywords : impregnated bed-net, alphacypermethrin, Culex quinquefasciatus

  19. A first note on Japanese encephalitis virus isolation from Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Northern West Bengal.

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    V. Thenmozhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is endemic in many parts of India including the state of West Bengal. In West Bengal, the first major outbreaks of JE occurred in the districts of Bankura and Burdwan in 1973. The Culex vishnui subgroup of mosquitoes has been implicated as major vectors of JE. However in India, JE virus (JEV has been isolated from 16 species of mosquitoes. During September 2011, JE cases were reported from four districts -Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Dinajpur and Cooch Behar of West Bengal (North. Adult mosquitoes were collected, identified, pooled and screened for JEV using antigen capture ELISA. Out of 279 mosquito pools tested, one pool of Cx. pseudovishnui and three pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found positive for JEV. The ELISA positive pools were further confirmed as JEV by insect bioassay (Toxo-IFA. Two pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were confirmed as JEV. This represents the first report of JEV isolation from Cx. quinquefasciatus in West Bengal.

  20. Tagetes erecta Linn. and its mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkon, Farjana; Habib, M Rowshanul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Karim, M Rezaul

    2011-06-01

    To investigate mosquitocidal effects of ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta (T. erecta) and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). The fresh flowers of T. erecta were extracted in cold with ethanol (5.0 L) and after concentration, the ethanol extract was fractionated with chloroform and petroleum ether to afford a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extract (50.0 g), petroleum ether soluble fraction (18.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (23.8 g). The larvicidal effect of ethanol extract and their solvent fractions were determined by the standard procedure of WHO against different instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Among the tested samples the chloroform soluble fractions showed the highest toxicity and consequently, the lowest LC50 values (14.14 µg/mL, 17.06 µg/mL, 36.88 µg/mL and 75.48 µg/mL) for all the instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The larvae showed comparative tolerance in the course of increasing age and time. It can be concluded that the flowers of T. erecta are very effective natural larvicide and could be useful against Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  1. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Asymmetrical Competition between Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae Coexisting in Breeding Sites

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    Juan C. Santana-Martínez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are mosquito vectors for several tropical diseases that represent a current public health problem. The ecological requirements for each species are different, however, both species show high biological adaptability, which promotes their coexistence in the same breeding sites. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of larval association between Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus under different laboratory conditions of food supply and temperature, and under field simulated conditions like peridomestic containers. Our findings showed that under field simulated conditions there was no asymmetrical competition in mixed cultures with the different Cx. quinquefasciatus/Ae. aegypti ratios tested. However, under laboratory conditions in which different doses of food supply were evaluated, it was observed that competition between the two species takes place. Larval coexistence under food scarcity conditions (0.95 mg/larva showed that Ae. aegypti had a greater adult emergence than Cx. quinquefasciatus and was capable of depriving Cx. quinquefasciatus of the food needed to complete metamorphosis. In an intermediate dose of food (1.9 mg/larva, the dry weight of Cx. quinquefasciatus adults decreased, and their larval development time increased when Cx. quinquefasciatus/Ae. aegypti ratio was low. Also, a temperature effect was assessed demonstrating that Cx. quinquefasciatus was more vulnerable to changes in temperature. We suggest that Ae. aegypti is more successful in exploiting microhabitats when food is scarce, due to its scrape active feeding habitats and fast larval development times. Therefore, in conditions of food paucity both species will compete, and Ae. aegypti larvae will prevail.

  3. Isolation and sequence analysis of Culex flavivirus from Culex interrogator and Culex quinquefasciatus in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyasombat, Rungrat; Dorman, Karin S.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Loroño-Pino, Maria A.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we reported a high prevalence of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. To determine whether other Culex spp. mosquitoes in this region are susceptible to natural CxFV infection, Cx. bahamensis (Dyar and Knab), Cx. coronator (Dyar and Knab), Cx. interrogator (Dyar and Knab), Cx. nigripalpus (Theobald) and Cx. opisthopus (Komp) in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico were tested for CxFV. Two pools of Cx. interrogator were positive. The envelope protein genes of these isolates and 16 isolates from Cx. quinquefasciatus were sequenced and shown to have ≥99.2% nucleotide identity. These data suggest that there is limited genetic diversity among CxFV isolates in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. PMID:20379749

  4. Enhancing genome investigations in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus via BAC library construction and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saski Christopher A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex quinquefasciatus (Say is a major species in the Culex pipiens complex and an important vector for several human pathogens including West Nile virus and parasitic filarial nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. It is common throughout tropical and subtropical regions and is among the most geographically widespread mosquito species. Although the complete genome sequence is now available, additional genomic tools are needed to improve the sequence assembly. Findings We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library using the pIndigoBAC536 vector and HindIII partially digested DNA isolated from Cx. quinquefasciatus pupae, Johannesburg strain (NDJ. Insert size was estimated by NotI digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 82 randomly selected clones. To estimate genome coverage, each 384-well plate was pooled for screening with 29 simple sequence repeat (SSR and five gene markers. The NDJ library consists of 55,296 clones arrayed in 144 384-well microplates. Fragment insert size ranged from 50 to 190 kb in length (mean = 106 kb. Based on a mean insert size of 106 kb and a genome size of 579 Mbp, the BAC library provides ~10.1-fold coverage of the Cx. quinquefasciatus genome. PCR screening of BAC DNA plate pools for SSR loci from the genetic linkage map and for four genes associated with reproductive diapause in Culex pipiens resulted in a mean of 9.0 positive plate pools per locus. Conclusion The NDJ library represents an excellent resource for genome assembly enhancement and characterization in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes.

  5. Experimental infection of Hawai'i 'Amakihi (hemignathus virens) with West Nile virus and competence of a co-occurring vector, culex quinquefasciatus: potential impacts on endemic Hawaiian avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Atkinson, C.T.; Porter, R.E.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne avian disease is a major limiting factor in the recovery and restoration of native Hawaiian forest birds. Annual epizootics of avian pox (Avipoxvirus) and avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) likely led to the extinction of some species and continue to impact populations of susceptible Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). The introduction of a novel pathogen, such as West Nile virus (WNV), could result in further population declines and extinctions. During September and October 2004, we infected Hawai'i' Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with a North American isolate of WNV by needle inoculation and mosquito bite to observe susceptibility, mortality, and illness in this endemic passerine, and to determine the vector competence of the co-occurring, introduced mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. All experimentally infected Hawai'i ;Amakihi became viremic, with a mean titer >10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml, and they experienced clinical signs ranging from anorexia and lethargy to ataxia. The fatality rate among needle-inoculated Hawai'i' Amakihi (n=16) was 31.3%, but mortality in free-ranging birds is likely to increase due to predation, starvation, thermal stress, and concomitant infections of avian malaria and pox. Surviving Hawai'i' Amakihi seem to clear WNV from the peripheral blood by 7-10 days postinfection (DPI), and neutralizing antibodies were detected from 9 to 46 DPI. In transmission trials, Hawaiian Cx. quinquefasciatus proved to be a competent vector and Hawai'i Amakihi an adequate amplification host of WNV, suggesting that epizootic WNV could readily become an additional limiting factor of some native Hawaiian bird populations.

  6. Culex flavivirus and West Nile virus in Culex quinquefasciatus populations in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rebekah Kent; Burkhalter, Kristen; Mead, Daniel; Kelly, Rosmarie; Brown, Jeffrey; Varnado, Wendy; Roy, Alma; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Miller, Barry; Nasci, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Little is known of the interactions between insect-only flaviviruses and other arboviruses in their mosquito hosts, or the potential public health significance of these associations. The specific aims of this study were to describe the geographic distribution, prevalence, and seasonal infection rates of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the Southeastern United States, investigate the potential association between CxFV and WNV prevalence in Cx. quinquefasciatus and describe the phylogenetic relationship among CxFV and WNV isolates from the Southeastern United States and around the world. Using ArboNET records, 11 locations were selected across Georgia, Mississippi, and Louisiana that represented a range of WNV human case incidence levels. Cx. quinquefasciatus were trapped weekly throughout the summer of 2009 and pools were screened for flavivirus RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Cx. quinquefasciatus from Georgia had significantly higher CxFV infection rates than either Mississippi or Louisiana. CxFV was not detected in Mississippi after July, and no CxFV was detected in Cx. quinquefasciatus in Louisiana. In Georgia, CxFV infection rates were variable between and within counties and over time. WNV infection rates were not significantly different across states or months, and WNV sequences from all three states were identical to each other in the envelope and NS5 gene regions. Phylogenetically, NS5 and E gene sequences from Georgia CxFV isolates clustered with CxFV from Japan, Iowa, and Texas. Multiple CxFV genetic variants were found circulating simultaneously in Georgia. No evidence was found supporting an association between WNV and CxFV infection prevalence in Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  7. Uji Efikasi Kelambu Celup Insektisida Berbahan Aktif Alphacypermethrin Terhadap Vektor Filariasis Culex Quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Suwasono, Hadi; Barodji, Barodji; Boewono, Damar Tri; Sutopo, Sutopo; Suwaryono, Tri; Raharjo, Raharjo

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy test of the residual effect of alphacypermethrin on the impregnated bed-net against filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out in Salatiga Bed-nets were made of nylon with the size of 200 x 180 x 200 cm. Four dosages of insecticide were used for bed net impregnation respectively was 0.01 ml/m2; 0.02 ml/m2; 0.03 ml/m2 and 0.04 ml/m2. The impregnated bed-nets were installed in 5 selected houses. Contact bioassay was conducted by weekly until 4 week and furthermore by ...

  8. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Dodson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  9. Studies on the impact of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarani, Selladurai; Sabhanayakam, Selvi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2013-02-01

    Biosynthesized nanoparticles have been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vinca rosea (L.) (Apocynaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of V. rosea and synthesized AgNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of V. rosea, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 15 min. The results recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the Bragg reflections at 2θ = 29.36, 38.26, 44.51, 63.54, and 77.13° which can be indexed to the (121), (111), (200), (220), and (311) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at the spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 3,406.71 to 3,431.90 cm(-1) double in case of NH(2) group of a primary amine (N-H stretch). The presence of the sharp peak at 2,926.54 to 2,925.80 cm(-1) very broad often looks like distorted baseline (O-H carboxylic acids). The band 1,633.26 to 1,625.81 cm(-1) was assigned to C = C alkenes, aromatic ring stretching vibration, respectively. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 120 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 25 to 47 nm with average size of 34.61 nm

  10. Larvicidal activity of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae flower extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raveen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector responsible for serious disease filariasis among human beings. Plant derived products have received increased attention from scientists as they serve as a rich source for novel natural substances possessing insecticidal properties which are safe to human and ecosystem. During the last decade, various studies on natural plant products against vector mosquito indicate them as possible alternatives to chemical and synthetic insecticides for mosquito control. In the present study, the crude hexane and aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers were reported for larvicidal activity against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Mortality was observed for 24 and 48 hours. Hexane flower extract exhibited highest larvicidal activity with a LC50 value of 102.54 ppm and 61.11ppm after 24 and 48 hours respectively. Further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  11. Stormwater drains and catch basins as sources for production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-06-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1761 stormwater drains - located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city - over dry and wet seasons from March 2012 to March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Larvicidal efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

    2010-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinal plants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plant extracts.

  13. Evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, K; Barik, T K; Bhatt, R M; Srivastava, H C; Sreehari, U; Dash, A P

    2011-04-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a widely distributed mosquito vector species in India and also in other tropical regions of the world. This species is implicated in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in many countries. This species is reported to be widely resistant to insecticides of different classes in current use. In the present study, bio-efficacy of chlorfenapyr, an insecticide of pyrrole class with a novel mode of action was tested for the control of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Studies were performed to determine the diagnostic dosage; residual efficacy on different artificially fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement+distemper; to assess cross-resistance with different insecticides; and synergism/antagonism using piperonyl butoxide (PBO). A dosage of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as diagnostic dosage with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period for assessing the susceptibility of mosquitoes. The residual efficacy was observed up to 34 weeks on wood and mud+lime substrates while on other substrates, it was about 15 weeks at a dosage of 400mg a.i./m(2). Laboratory-reared strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed cross-resistance, whereas field-collected mosquitoes showed absence of cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr. Potentiation bioassays showed antagonistic effect of PBO to chlorfenapyr toxicity owing to the involvement of oxidases in the initial step of a conversion of pro-insecticide chlorfenapyr to toxic form CL 303268. The present study results have shown that chlorfenapyr can be a potential insecticide for the control of multiple insecticide resistant strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, in countries where indoor residual spray (IRS) is not targeted for the control of this species, like in India, chlorfenapyr used in IRS for the control of malaria vectors in rural and peri-urban areas can additionally provide control of Cx. quinquefasciatus also. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera:Culicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gul Zamin Khan Inamullah Khan Imtiaz Ali Khan Alamzeb Muhammad Salman Kalim Ullah

    2016-01-01

    ...) of methoprene, pyriproxyfen 0.5 water dispersible granules(WDG) and pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG were used to assess mortality and inhibition of 3rd instar larvae of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus...

  15. SR450 and Superhawk XP Applications of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis Against Culex Quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SR450 and Superhawk XP Applications of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis...SR450 AND SUPERHAWK XP APPLICATIONS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELENSIS AGAINST CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS1 JAMES C. DUNFORD,2 CRAIG A. STOOPS,3 ALDEN...thermal fogger applications of VectobacH WDG Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Culex quinquefasciatus. Bacillus thuringiensis

  16. Mom Matters: Diapause Characteristics of Culex pipiens-Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Hybrid Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuti, Megan E; Short, Clancy A; Denlinger, David L

    2015-03-01

    Females of the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens L., are capable of entering an adult overwintering diapause characterized by arrested ovarian development, enhanced stress tolerance, and elevated lipid stores. In contrast, the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, lacks this capacity and is therefore unable to survive the harsh winters found in northern regions of North America. These two species are capable of forming fertile hybrids in the United States, yet the diapause characteristics of these hybrids have not been extensively investigated. We crossed Cx. pipiens from Columbus, OH, with Cx. quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, and reared F1 hybrids from all mothers separately under diapause-inducing, short-day conditions (a photoperiod of 8:16 [L:D] h) at 18°C. Egg follicle length and lipid content were used to assess the diapause status of hybrids. Diapause incidence of hybrids varied widely for progeny from different mothers of the same species, but hybrids with Cx. pipiens mothers were consistently more prone to enter diapause than hybrids that had Cx. quinquefasciatus mothers. Our results suggest a strong maternal influence on the diapause phenotype and that a high percentage (45-75%) of Cx. pipiens-Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids are capable of entering diapause. This implies that many hybrids can successfully overwinter, leading to a possible widening of the hybrid zone of these two species in North America. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to infection with bat Japanese encephalitis virus isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Zhang, Qionghua; Zhou, Junhua; Yu, Shouyi; Zheng, Xueli; Chen, Qing

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to oral infection with bat Japanese encephalitis virus isolates (GD1 and HN2 strains). Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were infected orally by GD1 and HN2 strains of bat Japanese encephalitis virus. TaqMan real-time PCR was used to detect the virus and monitor the changes in the viral loads in Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus at a 2-day interval, starting from 4 days till 20 days after the infection. The infected Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were found positive for the Japanese encephalitis virus from day 4 to day 20. Both Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were susceptible to infection by GD1 and HN2 strains, but the latter showed a greater susceptibility. The HN2 strain virus appeared to have a greater virulence than the GD1 strain. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus can carry GD1 and HN2 strains of bat Japanese encephalitis virus isolates.

  18. Susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern Louisiana to Larval Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, N; Ottea, J; Healy, K

    2017-10-06

    Mosquito control districts conduct rigorous insecticide treatments against both larval and adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), the primary vector of West Nile virus in the southern United States. However, the development of resistant populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus in response to extensive larvicide or adulticide applications has been demonstrated repeatedly across the world. Examining changes in insecticide susceptibility in treated field areas can help inform mosquito control districts as to whether or not their treatments remain effective. We hypothesized that frequent insecticide applications for the control of mosquitoes in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, lowered susceptibility of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus to larvicides. Larvicide susceptibility was measured using Lysinibacillus sphaericus, spinosad, and temephos in populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus sampled from sites in three Parishes where frequencies of insecticide applications varied, and frequencies of resistance were measured relative to a susceptible reference colony. Susceptibility to these larvicides was widespread, although fourfold resistance to the organophosphate temephos was detected at one site in East Baton Rouge Parish in the spring of 2016, which increased to eightfold resistance by the end of the mosquito season. Activities of esterases were found to be elevated in wild, temephos-resistant mosquitoes, indicating the potential role of these enzymes as a mechanism of resistance. The results of this study provide a baseline of comparison for future measurements of susceptibility in Cx. quinquefasciatus in Louisiana, and may help inform local mosquito control districts as to the effectiveness and sustainability of their insecticide programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Evaluation of the AtrAedes™ Lure for Collection of Culex quinquefasciatus in Gravid Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, S R; Batengana, B M; Eiras, A E; Cameron, M M

    2015-03-01

    The typical attractant used in gravid trapping of Culex quinquefasciatus is an aged infusion of organic materials, which can change in attractiveness over time. A standardized chemical attractant dispenser derived from grass infusion, the AtrAedes™ lure, has been produced for the surveillance of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A study using this lure in combination with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps was conducted in Tanga, Tanzania. The addition of the lure to traps baited with either grass infusion or tap water did not result in significant increases in trap catch. Grass infusion-baited traps (with and without the AtrAedes lure) collected significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus than traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, or AtrAedes alone. The catches of the traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, and AtrAedes alone were not significantly different from each other. Although the placement of the lure in the base of the trap may have decreased trap catches, it seems that the AtrAedes is not as effective as grass infusion for collecting Cx. quinquefasciatus in Tanzania.

  20. Pterodon emarginatus oleoresin-based nanoemulsion as a promising tool for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anna E M F M; Duarte, Jonatas L; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Souto, Raimundo N P; Ferreira, Ricardo M A; Peniche, Taires; da Conceição, Edemilson C; de Oliveira, Leandra A R; Faustino, Silvia M M; Florentino, Alexandro C; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2017-01-03

    Preparation of nanoformulations using natural products as bioactive substances is considered very promising for innovative larvicidal agents. On this context, oil in water nanoemulsions develop a main role, since they satisfactorily disperse poor-water soluble substances, such as herbal oils, in aqueous media. Pterodon emarginatus, popularly known as sucupira, has a promising bioactive oleoresin. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies were carried out to evaluate its potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, the main vector of the tropical neglected disease called lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis. Thus, we aimed to investigate influence of different pairs of surfactants in nanoemulsion formation and investigate if a sucupira oleoresin-based nanoemulsion has promising larvicidal activity against this C. quinquefasciatus. We also evaluated morphological alteration, possible mechanism of insecticidal action and ecotoxicity of the nanoemulsion against a non-target organism. Among the different pairs of surfactants that were tested, nanoemulsions obtained with polysorbate 80/sorbitan monooleate and polysorbate 80/sorbitan trioleate presented smallest mean droplet size just afterwards preparation, respectively 151.0 ± 2.252 and 160.7 ± 1.493 nm. They presented high negative zeta potential values, low polydispersity index (nanoemulsion prepared with polysorbate 80/sorbitan monooleate was considered more stable and was chosen for biological assays. It presented low LC50 value against larvae (34.75; 7.31-51.86 mg/L) after 48 h of treatment and some morphological alteration was observed. The nanoemulsion did not inhibit acetylcholinesterase of C. quinquefasciatus larvae. It was not toxic to green algae Chlorella vulgaris at low concentration (25 mg/L). Our results suggest that optimal nanoemulsions may be prepared with different surfactants using a low cost and low energy simple method. Moreover, this prototype proved to be effective against C

  1. The Effect of West Nile Virus Infection on the Midgut Gene Expression of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, Chelsea T; Shin, Dongyoung; Anderson, Sheri L

    2016-12-19

    The interaction of the mosquito and the invading virus is complex and can result in physiological and gene expression alterations in the insect. The association of West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; 22 gene products were shown previously to have altered expression. Sequence analysis of one product, CQ G1A1, revealed 100% amino acid identity to gram negative bacteria binding proteins (CPQGBP) in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti (70%) and Anopheles gambiae (63%) that function in pathogen recognition. CQ G1A1 also was differentially expressed following WNV infection in two populations of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus colonized from Florida with known differences in vector competence for WNV and showed spatial and temporal gene expression differences in midgut, thorax, and carcass tissues. These data suggest gene expression of CQ G1A1 is influenced by WNV infection and the WNV infection-controlled expression differs between populations and tissues.

  2. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activity of puffer fish extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidurai, Kaliyaperumal; Mathew, Nisha

    2013-03-01

    The extracts of liver (LE), ovary (OE), skin (SE) and muscle (ME) tissues of four species of puffer fishes viz., Arothron hispidus, Lagocephalus inermis, Lagocephalus scleratus and Chelonodon patoca were evaluated against larvae and eggs of three mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The LC50 values were 1194.26, 1382.73 (LE); 1421.42, 1982.73 (OE); 7116.86, 15038.98 (ME) and 10817.8 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for A. hispidus. In the case of L. inermis, the LC50 values were 1163.83, 1556.1 and 2426.38 (LE); 1653.53, 2734.74 (OE); 6067.47 (ME) and 10283.04 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The LC50 values were 1509.98, 1608.69 (LE) and 1414.9, 2278.69 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for the extracts of L. scleratus. In the case C. patoca extracts the LC50 values were 1182.29, 1543.00, 2441.03 (LE) and 1076.13, 2582.11 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. OE and LE of all puffer fishes exhibited zero percent egg hatchability from 600 to 1000 ppm against eggs of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study shows that puffer toxins are effective in killing the larvae and eggs of mosquitoes.

  3. Ovicidal activity of neem products (azadirachtin) against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, T; Mulla, M S

    1998-06-01

    Bioactive compounds contained in the seed kernel and other parts of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) have been found to show insecticidal activities and other effects in many species of insects. These activities include antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression, male sterility, oviposition repellency, changes in biological fitness such as loss of flying ability, immunodepression, enzyme inhibition, splitting of biological rhythms, and so forth. We investigated the ovicidal effects of various formulations of azadrirachtin (AZ) against the mosquitoes Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The formulations tested were wettable powder Azad WP10, emulsifiable concentrate Azad EC4.5, and technically pure AZ. The ovicidal activity of the test neem products was influenced by concentration of AZ, age of the egg rafts, and age of the neem preparations. Other factors such as formulation and mosquito species were also involved in the degree of ovicidal activity. When the egg rafts were deposited directly in fresh neem suspension and left there for 4 h before transfer to untreated water, 1 ppm of AZ produced almost 100% mortality in eggs. When egg rafts aged for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h were exposed to 10 ppm neem suspensions for 36 h, the ovicidal activity was only attained in the egg rafts deposited directly (0 h old) in the neem suspension, not in those with ages of 4-24 h. On aging, depending on the formulations and mosquito species, the neem suspensions at 1 ppm completely lost ovicidal activity within 7-20 days. The egg rafts of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the test neem products than those of Cx. tarsalis. The formulated neem products were more persistent and effective than the technical AZ. The wettable powder (WP) formulation was slightly more persistent and effective than the emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The ovicidal activity of the neem products against mosquitoes from the current research clearly demonstrated

  4. Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Spondweni Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    albopictus [19,22], and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. F. Junqueira 105 Ayres pers. comm.). 106 107 108 Methods 109 110 Virus strains and virus...has been discussed as a potential vector in Brazil (C. F. 237 Junqueira Ayres pers. comm.). Early work demonstrated that Ae. aegypti was a 238

  5. Suscetibilidade de larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus a diferentes inseticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stênio Nunes Alves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a suscetibilidade de larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus a dois piretróides (Cipermetrina e Deltametrina, dois derivados da Avermectina (ivermectina e abamectina e a um organofosforado (Temefós. MÉTODOS: Larvas de 3º e 4º instares de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a diferentes concentrações destes (onze repetições seguindo o protocolo da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Uma hora após a exposição, as larvas foram lavadas em água desclorada, transferidas para recipientes plásticos contendo água sem cloro, alimentadas e observadas por períodos de 24h, até se transformarem em adultos. Para a determinação das concentrações letais, os valores foram submetidos à análise de regressão usando o modelo probit pelo programa Minitab 15. RESULTADOS: Diferenças entre as estimativas da CL50 e CL90 justificaram que a população de mosquitos testada apresenta heterogeneidade em resposta aos inseticidas, sendo a maior concentração utilizada para a CL50, a partir da análise de probit para o Temefós. Todos os inseticidas avaliados causaram mortalidade mais acentuada nas primeiras 24h exceto quando expostas à ivermectina. CONCLUSÕES: As larvas são suscetíveis a todos os inseticidas testados e há uma necessidade de um monitoramento dos inseticidas utilizados.

  6. Differential Infectivities among Different Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotypes in Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hettenbach, Susan M; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Barrett, Alan D T; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Harbin, Julie N; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-10-01

    During the last 20 years, the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has changed significantly in its endemic regions due to the gradual displacement of the previously dominant genotype III (GIII) with clade b of GI (GI-b). Whilst there is only limited genetic difference distinguishing the two GI clades (GI-a and GI-b), GI-b has shown a significantly wider and more rapid dispersal pattern in several regions in Asia than the GI-a clade, which remains restricted in its geographic distribution since its emergence. Although previously published molecular epidemiological evidence has shown distinct phylodynamic patterns, characterization of the two GI clades has only been limited to in vitro studies. In this study, Culex quinquefasciatus, a known competent JEV mosquito vector species, was orally challenged with three JEV strains each representing GI-a, GI-b, and GIII, respectively. Infection and dissemination were determined based on the detection of infectious viruses in homogenized mosquitoes. Detection of JEV RNA in mosquito saliva at 14 days post infection indicated that Cx. quinquefasciatus can be a competent vector species for both GI and GIII strains. Significantly higher infection rates in mosquitoes exposed to the GI-b and GIII strains than the GI-a strain suggest infectivity in arthropod vectors may lead to the selective advantage of previously and currently dominant genotypes. It could thus play a role in enzootic transmission cycles for the maintenance of JEV if this virus were ever to be introduced into North America.

  7. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  8. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions. Results: The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC 50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  9. Evaluation of a nonanal-trimethylamine lure for collection of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in gravid traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, S R; Moore, S J; Bruce, J; Birkett, M A; Cameron, M M

    2013-05-01

    Gravid traps are useful tools for monitoring vector-borne pathogens in mosquitoes, particularly for those pathogens transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus Say. One of the primary challenges in the use of gravid traps is the necessity of the inclusion of an oviposition attractant, usually an infusion of organic material, which changes in attractiveness over time. However, a standardized lure, using nonanal and trimethylamine (N + TMA), has been developed and is commercially available. The N + TMA lure was tested against grass infusion and tap water in Tanzania, where Cx. quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis. Traps baited with grass infusion collected significantly more mosquitoes than N + TMA-baited traps, which collected significantly more than traps baited with tap water. The advantages and disadvantages of the standardized lure are discussed.

  10. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendon?a Lopes, Magn?lia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also sho...

  11. Development of permethrin resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Norafikah, Othman; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Lee, Han Lim; Zainol-Ariffin, Pawanchee; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The resistance status towards permethrin among the laboratory strain, the permethrin-selected strain and four field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was determined using three standard laboratory methods: WHO larval bioassay, WHO adult bioassay and biochemical microplate assay. Cx. quinquefasciatus permethrin-selected strain larvae were the least susceptible to permethrin with a resistance ratio of 47.28-folds, whereas all field strain larvae of the same s...

  12. Entomopathogenic fungus generated Nanoparticles for enhancement of efficacy in Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SONI, S. PRAKASH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate to efficacy of silver and gold generated larvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungus Chrysosporium tropicum against the Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi larvae. Methods: The silver and gold nanoparticles were quantified and observed by the Micro-scan reader and X-ray diffraction technique. The micrographs of silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained by the Transmission electron microscope and Scanning electron microscope. The larvicidal efficacy was then performed at six different log concentrations by the probit analysis. Results: The characterization study confirmed the spherical shaped and sized (20-50 and 2-15 nm of silver and gold nanoparticles. The all larval stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found more susceptible to the synthesized silver nanoparticles. Whereas, the larvae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible to larvicide synthesized with gold nanoparticles. Conclusions: The results suggested that the silver and gold nanoparticles generated by the entomopathogenic fungus C. tropicum is an environmentally safer and greener approach for mosquito control and new possibility in vector control strategy.

  13. Susceptibility of a North American Culex quinquefasciatus to Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Harbin, Julie N; Hettenbach, Susan M; Maki, Elin; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Barrett, Alan D T; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2015-11-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus that is transmitted by Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhynchus in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia. The endemic transmission cycle involves domestic pigs and avian species that serve as amplification hosts; humans are incidental hosts that cannot develop a high-titer viremia sufficient for mosquito infection. Although vaccination can be an effective strategy for disease prevention and is used extensively in multiple Asian countries, unvaccinated immunologically naïve human populations can suffer from severe neurological sequelae. The potential introduction of JEV into North America would be a major threat to human and animal health. In this study, field-collected Cx. quinquefasciatus from Valdosta, Georgia, were tested for their susceptibility to JEV and their potential to develop a disseminated infection via per os infection. These results demonstrate that North American Cx. quinquefasciatus are susceptible to JEV infection and subsequent dissemination at 14 days post infection (d.p.i.). Detection of viral RNA in saliva from infected mosquitoes also indicates competent vectors for JEV can be found in North America.

  14. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. sichuansis strain MC28 produces a novel crystal protein with activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Peng; Dai, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Jun; Li, Qiao; Li, Shuangcheng; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Ping; Zheng, Aiping

    2014-04-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. sichuansis MC28 strain produces spherical parasporal crystals during sporulation and exhibits remarkable insecticidal activity against dipteran and lepidopteran pests. We characterized a novel cry gene (cry69Aa1), which was found in the pMC95 plasmid of the MC28 strain. The cry69Aa1 gene was inserted into a shuttle vector (pSTK) and expressed in an acrystalliferous mutant B. thuringiensis HD73⁻. In this transformant, a large number of spherical parasporal crystals, which were toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera), were formed.

  16. Differential Infectivities among Different Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotypes in Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jang S Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years, the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV has changed significantly in its endemic regions due to the gradual displacement of the previously dominant genotype III (GIII with clade b of GI (GI-b. Whilst there is only limited genetic difference distinguishing the two GI clades (GI-a and GI-b, GI-b has shown a significantly wider and more rapid dispersal pattern in several regions in Asia than the GI-a clade, which remains restricted in its geographic distribution since its emergence. Although previously published molecular epidemiological evidence has shown distinct phylodynamic patterns, characterization of the two GI clades has only been limited to in vitro studies. In this study, Culex quinquefasciatus, a known competent JEV mosquito vector species, was orally challenged with three JEV strains each representing GI-a, GI-b, and GIII, respectively. Infection and dissemination were determined based on the detection of infectious viruses in homogenized mosquitoes. Detection of JEV RNA in mosquito saliva at 14 days post infection indicated that Cx. quinquefasciatus can be a competent vector species for both GI and GIII strains. Significantly higher infection rates in mosquitoes exposed to the GI-b and GIII strains than the GI-a strain suggest infectivity in arthropod vectors may lead to the selective advantage of previously and currently dominant genotypes. It could thus play a role in enzootic transmission cycles for the maintenance of JEV if this virus were ever to be introduced into North America.

  17. Application site and mosquito age influences malathion- and permethrin-induced mortality in Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of malathion and permethrin typical in droplets generated from ultra-low volume and low volume applications were evaluated for efficacy against multiple-aged Culex quinquefasciatus Say, using a topical bioassay. Although during mosquito control operations insecticide droplets will imp...

  18. Control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with chlorfenapyr in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Guessan, R.; Boko, P.; Odjo, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Akogbeto, M.; Rowland, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of chlorfenapyr applied on mosquito nets and as an indoor residual spray against populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in an area of Benin that shows problematic levels of pyrethroid resistance. Method Eight-week trial conducted in experimental

  19. Permethrin and malathion LD90 values for Culex quinquefasciatus vary with tropical application site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research with multiple insect species has demonstrated variation between the mortality associated with an insecticide and the location of exposure on the insect body. This variation has been demonstrated in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), but it has not been quantified using a...

  20. Impact of topical application site efficacy of permethrin and malathion on Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of permethrin and malathion found in droplets generated from ultra-low volume and low volume sprays used to control adult mosquito populations were evaluated for efficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus Say using a topical application bioassay. Although insecticide droplets will imping...

  1. Ovicidal activity of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae leaf extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Samuel Tennyson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the ovicidal activity of Ageratum houstonianum (A. houstonianum leaf extracts against the eggs of vector mosquitoes and to develop additional tools for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods: The ovicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf extracts of A. houstonianum were assayed for their toxicity against the eggs of three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L of the crude extract. Results: All extracts showed activity. The minimum concentration at which maximum egg mortality rate of 80% and above obtained was 10.0 mg/L in the case of methanol and ethyl acetate against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti respectively and 5.0 mg/L in ethyl acetate extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. One hundred per cent egg mortality was obtained only in ethyl acetate extract at 20.0 mg/L against Aedes aegypti. Conclusions: The crude leaf extracts of A. houstonianum did not exhibit potential ovicidal activity against the vector species studied. Among the crude leaf extracts tested, the activity of ethyl acetate extract was more effective. More research on the screening of phytochemicals as a potential ovicidal agent is warranted to add more tools in the control of mosquitoes.

  2. Repellent activity of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae leaf extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Tennyson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol crude extracts of Ageratum houstonianum (A. houstonianum leaves against adult Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Methods: Bioassay on laboratory reared Swiss albino mice by topical application at a fixed concentration of 0.01 per cent with coconut oil as a base. Results: Crude leaf extracts of A. houstonianum in combination with coconut oil repelled vector mosquitoes. Maximum protection for a period of 11.30 h was obtained against Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi when treated with methanol and hexane extracts followed by 8.30 h against Ae. aegypti in methanol extract. Amongst the three extracts, methanol extract gave the maximum protection of 95.0% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts gave a maximum of 93.4% protection against An. stephensi. Conclusions: The crude extracts of A. houstonianum leaves in combination with coconut oil showed repellent activity with repellent quotient ranging from 0.6 to 0.9.

  3. Different toxicity of the novel Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strain LLP29 against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Tang, Baozhen; Huang, Enjiong; Huang, Zhipeng; Liu, Zhaoxia; Huang, Tianpei; Gelbic, Ivan; Guan, Xiong; Xu, Lei

    2013-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (Berliner) strain LLP29 produces a crystal protein Cyt1Aa6 toxic to mosquito vectors of human diseases. However, the susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in the current study was 8.25 times higher than that of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) with this single protein Cyt1Aa6 purified from LLP29. To understand the mechanism of the novel mosquitocidal protein, the binding characteristic of brush border membrane vesicles from the two tested mosquitoes was investigated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that Cyt1Aa6 bound to the two mosquitoes' brush border membrane vesicles. However, the titer of Ae. albopictus was a little higher than that of Cx. quinquefasciatus, with 3.21 and 2.91, respectively. Ligand Western blot analysis showed Cyt1Aa6 toxin specifically bound to the same three proteins (i.e., 68, 54, and 26 kDa) in the two mosquitoes, but one another protein, approximately to 37 kDa, could just be detected in Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, little difference was found in the test of immunohistochemistry. Cyt1Aa6 was detected in the midguts of both mosquitoes with histopathological changes. It would of great importance to the knowledge of the novel toxin against to Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus.

  4. Synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles from Morinda tinctoria leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Ramesh; Nattuthurai, N; Gopinath, Ponraj; Mariappan, Tirupathi

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis, and they accounted for global mortality and morbidity with increased resistance to common insecticides. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the acetone leaf extracts of Morinda tinctoria and synthesized silver nanoparticles against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have also been tested against the third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The leaf extract and the AgNPs high mortality values were 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) = 8.088 and 1.442 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results recorded from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. These results suggest that the leaf extract of M. tinctoria and synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of C. quinquefasciatus. By this approach, it is suggestive that this rapid synthesis of nanoparticles would be proper for developing a biological process for mosquito control.

  5. Larvicidal activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) (Family: Rubiaceae) leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Shanthakumar, Shanmugam Perumal; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-10-01

    Morinda citrifolia leaf extract was tested for larvicidal activity against three medically important mosquito vectors such as malarial vector Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From the leaf, 1-kg powder was macerated with 3.0 L of hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yield of extracts was hexane (13.56 g), chloroform (15.21 g), acetone (12.85 g), methanol (14.76 g), and water (12.92 g), respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The M. citrifolia leaf extract at 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ppm caused a significant mortality of three mosquito species. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, and water caused moderate considerable mortality; however, the highest larval mortality was methanolic extract, observed in three mosquito vectors. The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The third larvae of Anopheles stephensi had values of LC(50) = 345.10, 324.26, 299.97, 261.96, and 284.59 ppm and LC(90) = 653.00, 626.58, 571.89, 505.06, and 549.51 ppm, respectively. The Aedes aegypti had values of LC(50) = 361.75, 343.22, 315.40, 277.92, and 306.98 ppm and LC(90) = 687.39, 659.02, 611.35, 568.18, and 613.25 ppm, respectively. The Culex quinquefasciatus had values of LC(50) = 382.96, 369.85, 344.34, 330.42, and 324.64 ppm and LC(90) = 726.18, 706.57, 669.28, 619.63, and 644.47 ppm, respectively. The results of the leaf extract of M. citrifolia are promising as good larvicidal activity against the mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. This is a new eco-friendly approach for the control of vector control programs. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal activities against three

  6. Larvicidal activity of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae leaf extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Samuel Tennyson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Ageratum houstonianum (A. houstonianum crude leaf extracts against the immatures of vector mosquitoes. Methods: Bioassays were performed in the laboratory with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol crude leaf extracts of A. houstonianum at concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1 000, 2 000, 4 000 and 8 000 mg/L against the third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Results: Poor larvicidal activity was observed. The lowest LC50 value was noted in ethyl acetate extract against all three vector mosquito species studied and was 3 377.84, 1 952.12 and 3 558.32 mg/L respectively after 24 h. The effect of toxicity was also manifested in a shorter period when compared to the other extracts viz., hexane and methanol. In Anopheles stephensi, more than 80% mortality was however observed at higher concentrations, after 24 h exposure in all the three extracts. In Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, this was observed by 3 and 24 h respectively in ethyl acetate extract. Conclusions: Screening of other parts of A. houstonianum with other solvents from different places for its larvicidal activity is recommended.

  7. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, S; Clarke, S K; Nirmala, M J; Tyagi, B K; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

    2014-06-01

    Filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease that causes lymphedema and the main vector is Culex quinquefasciatus. A simple measure was taken to eradicate the vector using nanoemulsion. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was formulated in various ratios comprising of eucalyptus oil, tween 80 and water by ultrasonication. The stability of nanoemulsion was observed over a period of time and 1:2 ratios of eucalyptus oil (6%) and surfactant (12%) was found to be stable. The formulated eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 9.4 nm and were spherical in shape. The larvicidal activity of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion and bulk emulsion was tested and compared. Our nanoemulsion showed higher activity when compared to bulk emulsion. The histopathology of larvae-treated and untreated nanoemulsion was analyzed. Furthermore, biochemical assays were carried out to examine the effect of nanoemulsion on biochemical characteristics of larvae. The treated larval homogenate showed decrease in total protein content and a significant reduction in the levels of acetylcholinesterase. The levels of acid and alkaline phosphatase also showed reduction as compared to control larval homogenate.

  9. Hexamerin a novel protein associated with Bacillus sphaericus resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Thirugnanasambantham, K; Mani, C; Mary, K Athisaya; Mary, B Ann; Balagangadharan, K

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial insecticides like, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis, have been used for the control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes for more than two decades. For many years, it was assumed that the use of microbial larvicides based on B. sphaericus would not lead to resistance in mosquitoes. However, recent reports have shown that B. sphaericus toxins are not free from this problem. Therefore, the resistance of mosquito populations to be will seriously threaten the sustainability of current mosquito control programme using these microbial insecticides. In the present study, we have characterised a novel protein responsible for resistance development in the filariasis vector of Culex quinquefasciatus. Laboratory selection experiments with B. sphaericus against the larvae were carried out up to 17 generations, and the occurrence of resistance was reported (resistance ratio (RR) at lethal concentration (LC)50 and LC90 = 1,987 and 2,051 folds, respectively). The protein profiles of B. sphaericus-resistant and susceptible population have confirmed with the expression of a new polypeptide (80 kDa) in the resistant strain only. Sequence result revealed that the newly expressed protein was 'hexamerin', and this factor might conceivably be responsible for the inheritance of resistance. This study is therefore valuable for comprehending the underlining factor and management of B. sphaericus resistance problem in mosquito population.

  10. Larvicidal activity of pectolinaringenin from Clerodendrum phlomidis L. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Chellaiah; Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Kingsley, Selvadurai; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2012-09-01

    Larvicidal activity of 12 fractions and a compound of chloroform extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis L. (Lamiaceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say and dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. The fractions were tested at 100-, 50-, 25- and 12.5-ppm concentrations. The compound pectolinaringenin was tested at 5-, 2.5-, 1.0- and 0.5-ppm concentrations. Among the different fractions, fraction 5 recorded the lowest LC(50) and LC(90) values of 5.02, 61.63 ppm and 32.86, 73.62 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti, respectively. The compound pectolinaringenin showed the lowest LC(50) and LC(90) values of 0.62, 2.87 ppm and 0.79, 5.31 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti, respectively. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the isolated compound pectolinaringenin from C. phlomidis. The results of this study show that the chloroform extract of C. phlomidis can be used as a potent source and pectolinaringenin as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent.

  11. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  12. How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Donald A.; Kaufman, Michael G.; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F.

    2015-01-01

    Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar

  13. How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Yee

    Full Text Available Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container

  14. Multiple mutations and mutation combinations in the sodium channel of permethrin resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Lee; Reid, William R.; Xu, Qiang; Dong, Ke; Liu, Nannan

    2012-10-01

    A previous study identified 3 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous mutations in the entire mosquito sodium channel of Culex quinquefasciatus, the prevalence of which were strongly correlated with levels of resistance and increased dramatically following insecticide selection. However, it is unclear whether this is unique to this specific resistant population or is a common mechanism in field mosquito populations in response to insecticide pressure. The current study therefore further characterized these mutations and their combinations in other field and permethrin selected Culex mosquitoes, finding that the co-existence of all 9 mutations was indeed correlated with the high levels of permethrin resistance in mosquitoes. Comparison of mutation combinations revealed several common mutation combinations presented across different field and permethrin selected populations in response to high levels of insecticide resistance, demonstrating that the co-existence of multiple mutations is a common event in response to insecticide resistance across different Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito populations.

  15. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangkamon Sritabutra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: On a volunteer’s forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm伊10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results: Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions: The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  16. Exsheathment of microfilariae of Brugia pahangi in Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C M; Chen, C C

    1987-12-01

    In order to determine whether the exsheathment patterns described in our previous study occurred in other microfilaria-mosquito systems, exsheathment of microfilariae of Brugia pahangi was studied in two species of mosquitoes. The results of the quantitative observation revealed that the microfilariae of Brugia pahangi tend to carry their sheaths into the haemocoel of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Culex quinquefasciatus within 4 hr after infected blood meals. The percentage of the sheathed microfilariae in the haemocoel progressively decreased to 0% at 24 hr post-ingestion. Microfilariae remaining in the midgut of both species of mosquitoes were recorded most frequently casting off their sheaths in the midgut 2 hr post-ingestion. The percentage of microfilariae exsheathed in the midgut progressively increased to about 100% and 40% 24 hr post-ingestion in Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively. These results confirm that exsheathment of microfilariae of Brugia pahangi occurs both in the haemocoel and in the midgut of two species of mosquitoes.

  17. Functional expression and molecular characterization of Culex quinquefasciatus salivary α-glucosidase (MalI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthangkornkul, Rungarun; Sirichaiyakul, Phanthila; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Thepouyporn, Apanchanid; Svasti, Jisnuson; Arthan, Dumrongkiet

    2015-06-01

    Salivary α-glucosidases (MalI) have been much less characterized when compared with midgut α-glucosidases, which have been studied in depth. Few studies have been reported on the partial characterization of MalI, but no clear function has been ascribed. The aim of this study is to purify and characterize the recombinant Culex quinquefasciatus (CQ) α-glucosidase expressed in Pichia pastoris. The cDNA encoding mature Cx. quinquefasciatus α-glucosidase gene with polyhistidine tag (rCQMalIHis) was successfully cloned into the expression vector, pPICZαB, designated as pPICZαB/CQMalIHis. The activity of recombinant rCQMalIHis expressed in P. pastoris could be detected at 3.75U/ml, under optimal culture conditions. The purified rCQMalIHis showed a single band of molecular weight of approximately 92kDa on SDS-PAGE. After Endoglycosidase H digestion, a single band at 69kDa was found on SDS-PAGE analysis, suggesting that rCQMalIHis is a glycoprotein. Additionally, tryptic digestion and LC-MALDI MS/MS analysis suggested that the 69kDa band corresponds to the Cx. quinquefasciatus α-glucosidase. Thus, rCQMalIHis is a glycoprotein. The rCQMalIHis exhibited optimum pH and temperature at 5.5 and 35°C, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the purified rCQMalIHis for maltotriose is higher than those for sucrose, maltotetraose, maltose and p-nitrophenyl-α-glucoside, indicating that the enzyme prefers maltotriose. Additionally, the rCQMalIHis is significantly inhibited by d-gluconic acid δ-lactone, but not by Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and EDTA. The rCQMalIHis is strongly inhibited by acarbose with IC50 67.8±5.6nM, but weakly inhibited by glucose with IC50 115.9±7.3mM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. West Nile virus genetic diversity is maintained during transmission by Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

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    Doug E Brackney

    Full Text Available Due to error-prone replication, RNA viruses exist within hosts as a heterogeneous population of non-identical, but related viral variants. These populations may undergo bottlenecks during transmission that stochastically reduce variability leading to fitness declines. Such bottlenecks have been documented for several single-host RNA viruses, but their role in the population biology of obligate two-host viruses such as arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses in vivo is unclear, but of central importance in understanding arbovirus persistence and emergence. Therefore, we tracked the composition of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus populations during infection of the vector mosquito, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to determine whether WNV populations undergo bottlenecks during transmission by this host. Quantitative, qualitative and phylogenetic analyses of WNV sequences in mosquito midguts, hemolymph and saliva failed to document reductions in genetic diversity during mosquito infection. Further, migration analysis of individual viral variants revealed that while there was some evidence of compartmentalization, anatomical barriers do not impose genetic bottlenecks on WNV populations. Together, these data suggest that the complexity of WNV populations are not significantly diminished during the extrinsic incubation period of mosquitoes.

  19. Morphometric geometric study of wing shape in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae from Tamil Nadu, India

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    K. Manimegalai

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphometric geometric study was carried out in 10 males and 10 females of Culex quinquefasciatus. There are 23 landmarks corresponding to points at which wing veins either branch or intersect the margin of the wing. Relative warp analysis has been proved to be very efficient in distinguishing the variation of shape in male and female wings. The multivariate analysis of co-variance (MANCOVA showed a clear separation of the male and female wings.

  20. Analysis of toxicity on Bacillus sphaericus from amazonian soils to Anopheles darlingi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Eleilza de Castro Litaiff; Wanderli Pedro Tadei; Jorge Ivan Rebelo Porto; Ila Maria de Aguiar Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Bioassays under laboratory conditions aiming to determine the larvicidal activity of Bacillus sphaericus were carried out on Anopheles darlingi and Culex quinquefasciatus. In order to estimate the toxicity through median lethal concentration (LC50) and the relative potency of the strains to B. sphaericus standard strain 2362, probit analysis was performed utilizing the POLO-PC program. The findings of LC50 pointed out high effectiveness on strains IB15 (0.040 ppm), IB19 and S1116 (0.048 ppm),...

  1. Genetic diversity of Wolbachia endosymbionts in Culex quinquefasciatus from Hawai`i, Midway Atoll, and Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Watcher-Weatherwax, William; Lapointe, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Incompatible insect techniques are potential methods for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus and avian disease transmission in Hawai‘i without the use of pesticides or genetically modified organisms. The approach is based on naturally occurring sperm-egg incompatibilities within the Culex pipiens complex that are controlled by different strains of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wPip). Incompatibilities can be unidirectional (crosses between males infected with strain A and females infected with strain B are fertile, while reciprocal crosses are not) or bidirectional (reciprocal crosses between sexes with different wPip strains are infertile). The technique depends on release of sufficient numbers of male mosquitoes infected with an incompatible wPip strain to suppress mosquito populations and reduce transmission of introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and Avipoxvirus in native forest bird habitats. Both diseases are difficult to manage using more traditional methods based on removal and treatment of larval habitats and coordination of multiple approaches may be needed to control this vector. We characterized the diversity of Wolbachia strains in C. quinquefasciatus from Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, Midway Atoll, and American Samoa with a variety of genetic markers to identify compatibility groups and their distribution within and between islands. We confirmed the presence of wPip with multilocus sequence typing, tested for local genetic variability using 16 WO prophage genes, and identified similarities to strains from other parts of the world with a transposable element (tr1). We also tested for genetic differences in ankyrin motifs (ank2 and pk1) which have been used to classify wPip strains into five worldwide groups (wPip1–wPip5) that vary in compatibility with each other based on experimental crosses. We found a mixture of both widely distributed and site specific genotypes based on presence or absence of WO prophage and transposable

  2. Permethrin and malathion LD90values for Culex quinquefasciatus vary with topical application site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, R L; Kaufman, P E; Bloomquist, J R; Gezan, S A; Linthicum, K J

    2017-09-01

    Prior research in multiple insect species has demonstrated that insecticide-induced mortality varies according to the body region exposed on the insect. This variation has been demonstrated in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), but has not been quantified using dose-response curves. Applications of technical permethrin or malathion to one of three body regions on Cx. quinquefasciatus resulted in dose-response curves that were not equivalent to one another. The generated LD 90 values and curves for each body region were compared with previously reported LD values for analogous sites in several mosquito species, specifically the mesothorax. Based on the present results, the permethrin and malathion LD 50 and LD 90 concentrations required for droplets impinging on the abdomen and mesothorax of Cx. quinquefasciatus when applied through ground-based spray systems utilized by mosquito control programmes were calculated. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. The Effect of West Nile Virus Infection on the Midgut Gene Expression of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea T. Smartt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the mosquito and the invading virus is complex and can result in physiological and gene expression alterations in the insect. The association of West Nile virus (WNV and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; 22 gene products were shown previously to have altered expression. Sequence analysis of one product, CQ G1A1, revealed 100% amino acid identity to gram negative bacteria binding proteins (CPQGBP in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti (70% and Anopheles gambiae (63% that function in pathogen recognition. CQ G1A1 also was differentially expressed following WNV infection in two populations of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus colonized from Florida with known differences in vector competence for WNV and showed spatial and temporal gene expression differences in midgut, thorax, and carcass tissues. These data suggest gene expression of CQ G1A1 is influenced by WNV infection and the WNV infection-controlled expression differs between populations and tissues.

  4. Evaluación de la actividad insecticida de un producto granulado a base de Bacillus sphaericus sobre larvas de Anopheles albimanus y Culex quinquefasciatus en condiciones experimentales

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    Estrella Cárdenas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus causa alergias por las picaduras y ha sido asociado con la encefalitis equina, mientras que Anopheles albimanus es vector de malaria. El objetivo fue evaluar la toxicidad de un producto granulado a base de Bacillus sphaericus sobre larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus. El estudio fue realizado sobre larvas de C. quinquefasciatus (Sibaté y Villavicencio y An albimanus (Cartagena y Barranquilla. Las concentraciones ensayadas de B. sphaericus fueron: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 y 500 ppm para larvas de An. albimanus y para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus fueron: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 y 16 ppm. Se utilizaron 20 larvas en tres repeticiones por cada concentración del producto y el tiempo de exposición fue de 48 horas. El producto de B. sphaericus mostró alta mortalidad (entre 80 y 100% a bajas concentraciones (8 y 12 ppm para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus; mientras que para larvas de An. albimanus a concentraciones más altas (entre 40 y 200 ppm la mortalidad no superó el 50%. La CL50 Logit fue 176 ppm y la Probit fue 192 ppm de B. sphaericus para larvas de An. albimanus; mientras que para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus la CL50 Logit fue 1, 9 ppm y la Probit fue 2, 2 ppm. Se concluye que las larvas de C. quinquefasciatus fueron más susceptibles a bajas concentraciones (2 a 12 ppm de B. sphaericus, mientras que las larvas de An. albimanus mostraron alta toxicidad a concentraciones de 500 ppm.

  5. Density and survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus at Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2008-03-01

    Parity rate, gonotrophic cycle length, and density of a Culex quinquefasciatus female population was estimated at the Parque Ecológico do Tietê (PET), São Paulo, Brazil. Adult Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected from vegetation along the edges of a polluted drainage canal with the use of a battery-powered backpack aspirator from September to November 2005 and from February to April 2006. We examined 255 Cx. quinquefasciatus ovaries to establish the parity rate of 0.22 and determined the gonotrophic cycle length under laboratory conditions to be 3 and 4 days. From these data, we calculated the Cx. quinquefasciatus survival rate to be 0.60 and 0.68 per day. Density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female (5.71 females per m2) was estimated based on a population size of 28,810 individuals divided by the sampled area of 5,040 m2. Results of all experiments indicate medium survivorship and high density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female population. This species is epidemiologically relevant in the PET area and should be a target of the vector control program of São Paulo municipality.

  6. Evaluation of water and ethanol extracts of Schinus molle Linn. against immature Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Kidanemariam Girmay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate larvicidal and pupicidal activities of aqueous and ethanol extract of different parts of Schinus molle against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus in the laboratory. Methods: The mortality rate of third, fourth instar larvae and pupal stages were tested at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L of plant extract using WHO standard protocol with modifications. The mortality rate was recorded continuously for 24, 48 and 72 h post exposure period and percentage mortality was calculated. Results: Maximum percentage mortality of third instar was 83.3% in ethanol extract of mature fruit at 100 mg/L after 24 h exposure period. After 48 h exposure period, 93.3% percentage mortality was recorded in ethanol extract of immature fruit at 100 mg/L. After 72 h exposure period, 100% mortality was recorded in water extract of leaf at 100 mg/L. In fourth instar larvae, maximum percentage mortality of 63.3% was recorded in water extract of mature fruit and ethanol extract of immature and mature fruit at 100 mg/L after 24 h exposure period. After 48 h exposure period 86.6% mortality was recorded in ethanol extract of mature fruit at 100 mg/L. After 72 h exposure period, 93.3% mortality was recorded in ethanol extract of mature fruit at 100 mg/L. In general immature Cx. quinquefasciatus, percentage mortality was increased with increase in exposure time and concentration of the plant extracts tested. Conclusions: From this laboratory study, Schinus molle plant parts were proved to have larvicidal and pupicidal activity against immature Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  7. Controle de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 e Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 através de formulados contendo Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis em temperaturas controladas

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    João Zequi

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus and Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say are important pathogen vectors in urban environments. This study was designed to evaluate commercial formulations containing Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis de Barjac for the control of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus and to assess their efficiency as compared to manufacturers´ claims. The tested products were the liquid formulation of Aquabac® XT 1200 ITU/mg, Teknar® 3000AAU/mg, and Vectobac® AS 1200 ITU/mg, and the solid products Vectobac® WDG 3000 ITU/mg, Vectobac® Tablet 2200 ITU/mg, and the trial formulation of Biouel 500 ITU/mg. All products were tested at 25±2°C temperature and the liquid formulations were also tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C, and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.73ºC. The experiments were conducted with 25 larvae at the early 4th stage, in 150 mL of distilled water; the dead larvae were counted 24 hours after product application. Results were analyzed using Probit to calculate CL50. The 25±2°C temperature, Vectobac WDG, and Vectobac Tablet were the most efficient in controlling Ae. aegypti, with CL50 of 0.10 (0.08 – 0.11 mg/L and 0.10 (0.09 – 0.11 mg/L, respectively. The most efficient products for Cx. quinquefasciatus were Vectobac WDG, Vectobac AS, Biouel, and Vectobac T. When the potency claimed by manufacturers was compared to our laboratory results, Biouel had the best performance for both species. Vectobac AS was the most efficient for both species of Culicidae tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.37°C. Lower product concentrations were required at 35±2°C room temperature to control Cx. quinquefasciatus than for Ae. aegypti.

  8. The native Wolbachia endosymbionts of Drosophila melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus increase host resistance to West Nile virus infection.

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    Robert L Glaser

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has been shown to increase host resistance to viral infection in native Drosophila hosts and in the normally Wolbachia-free heterologous host Aedes aegypti when infected by Wolbachia from Drosophila melanogaster or Aedes albopictus. Wolbachia infection has not yet been demonstrated to increase viral resistance in a native Wolbachia-mosquito host system.In this study, we investigated Wolbachia-induced resistance to West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae by measuring infection susceptibility in Wolbachia-infected and Wolbachia-free D. melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus, a natural mosquito vector of WNV. Wolbachia infection of D. melanogaster induces strong resistance to WNV infection. Wolbachia-infected flies had a 500-fold higher ID50 for WNV and produced 100,000-fold lower virus titers compared to flies lacking Wolbachia. The resistance phenotype was transmitted as a maternal, cytoplasmic factor and was fully reverted in flies cured of Wolbachia. Wolbachia infection had much less effect on the susceptibility of D. melanogaster to Chikungunya (Togaviridae and La Crosse (Bunyaviridae viruses. Wolbachia also induces resistance to WNV infection in Cx. quinquefasciatus. While Wolbachia had no effect on the overall rate of peroral infection by WNV, Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes produced lower virus titers and had 2 to 3-fold lower rates of virus transmission compared to mosquitoes lacking Wolbachia.This is the first demonstration that Wolbachia can increase resistance to arbovirus infection resulting in decreased virus transmission in a native Wolbachia-mosquito system. The results suggest that Wolbachia reduces vector competence in Cx. quinquefasciatus, and potentially in other Wolbachia-infected mosquito vectors.

  9. Effect of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions.

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    Belinato, Thiago Affonso; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise

    2013-04-04

    Resistance to traditional insecticides represents a threat to the control of disease vectors. The insect growth regulators (IGR) are a potential alternative to control mosquitoes, including resistant populations. The chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) are IGRs, which interfere with the insect molting process and represent one major class of compounds against Aedes aegypti populations resistant to the larvicide organophosphate temephos. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the CSI triflumuron on Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and against several Ae. aegypti field populations. The efficacy of triflumuron, against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus was evaluated with laboratory strains through dose-response assays. Additionaly, this CSI was tested against seven Ae. aegypti field populations exhibiting distinct resistance levels to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Aedes aegypti populations were exposed to both a dose that inhibits 99% of the adult emergence of mosquitoes from the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, (EI₉₉ = 3.95 μg/L) and the diagnostic dose (DD), corresponding to twice the EI₉₉. Our results indicate that triflumuron was effective in emergence inhibition (EI) of Cx. quinquefasciatus (EI₅₀ = 5.28 μg/L; EI₉₀= 12.47 μg/L) and Ae. albopictus (EI₅₀ = 1.59 μg/L; EI₉₀= 2.63 μg/L). Triflumuron was also effective against seven Ae. aegypti Brazilian populations resistant to both temephos and deltamethrin. Exposure of all the Ae. aegypti populations to the triflumuron EI₉₉ of the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, resulted in complete inhibition of adult emergence, suggesting no cross-resistance among traditional insecticides and this CSI. However, a positive correlation between temephos resistance and tolerance to triflumuron was observed. The results suggest that triflumuron represents a potential tool for the control of disease vectors in public health. Nevertheless, they

  10. Daya Saing Kawin Nyamuk Jantan Steril (Culex quinquefasciatus Skala Laboratorium: Studi Awal Penggunaan Teknik Serangga Mandul dalam Pengendalian Vektor Filariasis Limfatik di Kota Pekalongan

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    Tri Ramadhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of limfatic filariasis in Pekalongan City. Sterile Insect Tehnique could be an alternative vector control efforts to eliminate filariasis. The success of this technique is depend on the ability of laboratory-reared sterile males with the wild-type females. Indicator of SIT Aplication is determined by the value of the mating competitiveness and sterility to Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae. The design of the research is an experimental. Gamma irradiation on the pupae (age . 15 hours with the  doses of 0 Gy, 60 Gy, 65 Gy,70 Gy, 75 Gy and 80 Gy in BATAN Jakarta. Male mosquitoes which emerged from the pupa then matting with a normal female. This research observed the mean  of females laying eggs ,fecundity, fertility and  mating competitiveness. This experimental research was conducted in the laboratory and the data were analyzed by ANOVA.The result showed that irradiation at the trial doses had an effect on fertility of Culex quinquefasciatus, but not  had significant effect on  fecundity and mating competitiveness . A dose of 70 Gy is the optimum dose with a fertility rate of 1.8% (sterility 98.2% and C indexs 0,568 can be recommended for futher  semi field assays. The number of sterile males were six times compared with the wild population to increase the chances of  mating with wild-type females. Culex quinquefasciatus merupakan vektor utama filiriasis limfatik di Kota Pekalongan. Teknik Serangga Mandul dapat menjadi alternatif upaya pengendalian vektor filariasis. Keberhasilan teknik ini tergantung kemampuan jantan mandul untuk kawin dengan betina alam di laboratorium. Indikator aplikasi Teknik Serangga Mandul (TSM ditentukan dengan nilai daya saing kawin dan sterilitas. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimental. Nyamuk Culex quinquefasciatus berasal dari galur lokal kota Pekalongan. Iradiasi gamma pada pupa (umur >15 jam dengan dosis uji 0,60,65,70,75 dan 80 Gy di

  11. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

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    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  12. Influence of resource levels, organic compounds and laboratory colonization on interspecific competition between the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) and the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    Allgood, D W; Yee, D A

    2014-09-01

    The mosquitoes Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) are common inhabitants of tyres and other artificial containers, which constitute important peridomestic mosquito breeding habitats. We tested the hypotheses that interspecific resource competition between the larvae of these species is asymmetrical, that the concentration of chemicals associated with decomposing detritus affects the competitive outcomes of these species, and that wild and colonized strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus are affected differently by competition with Ae. albopictus. We conducted two laboratory competition experiments wherein we measured survivorship and estimated population growth (λ') in both species under multiple mixed-species densities. Under varying resource levels, competition was asymmetrical: Ae. albopictus caused competitive reductions or exclusions of Cx. quinquefasciatus under conditions of limited resources. In a second experiment, which used both wild and colonized strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus, organic chemical compounds associated with decomposing detritus did not affect the competitive outcome. The colonized strain of Cx. quinquefasciatus had greater survivorship and adult mass, and faster development times than the wild strain, but both strains were similarly affected by competition with Ae. albopictus. Competition between these species may have important consequences for vector population dynamics, especially in areas in which tyres and artificial containers constitute the majority of mosquito breeding habitats. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    Raimundo Wagner Souza Aguiar

    Full Text Available This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult and Aedes albopictus (C6/36 cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36 induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

  14. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

  15. Insecticidal properties of phenols on Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2011-12-01

    Thirteen simple phenols and 8 phenolic acids were tested for toxicity to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and Musca domestica adults. It was found that while the phenolic acids (except salicylic acid) showed little or no effect on acute toxicity, all the tested simple phenols caused mortality within 24 h after application. Lethal doses for acute toxicity of C. quinquefasciatus were successfully estimated for 12 substances using probit analysis. Thymol, carvacrol, 2-ethylphenol, and salicylaldehyde showed significantly the highest efficiency, for which the lethal doses LD(50) were estimated as 30, 36, 38, and 43 μg/ml, respectively. Lethal doses for acute toxicity of M. domestica adults were successfully estimated for ten substances. Thymol, carvacrol, and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol showed significantly the highest efficiency, for which the lethal doses LD(50) were estimated 53, 69, and 87 μg/fly, respectively.

  16. Biting Activities of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito at Filariatic Endemic Area Pabean Village Pekalongan Regency East Java Province

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    Tri Ramadhani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pabean villages is a filariasis endemic areas caused by Whuchereria bancrofti parasite with incidence rate is 3.4% on year 2007. To determine biting activity of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes that been confirmed as filariasis’s vector, it been conducted a entomological survey as long as 5 months (from August up to December every 2 weeks that aimed to know mosquito���s peak biting and resting density in each hour catching. A survey was conducted using all night landing collection method from 18.00 am up to 06.00 pm. In each hour survey; indoor and outdoor landing mosquitoes and also resting mosquitoes on inside wall and cattle stable, will be caught using aspirator and put onto paper cup. A study result was showed that indoor peak of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes biting densi-ty is 20.00, 22.00 and 23.00 o’clock, whereas the outside peak one is 21.00, 24.00 and 02.00 o’clock; peak of resting on inside wall is 18.00 o’clock and cattle stable resting is 24.00 o’clock.

  17. Estimation of Genetic Divergence and Gene Flow between Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in Argentina

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    Humeres Silvia G

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Allele frequencies at seven polymorphic loci controlling the synthesis of enzymes were analyzed in six populations of Culex pipiens L. and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say. Sampling sites were situated along a north-south line of about 2,000 km in Argentina. The predominant alleles at Mdh, Idh, Gpdh and Gpi loci presented similar frequencies in all the samples. Frequencies at the Pgm locus were similar for populations pairs sharing the same geographic area. The loci Cat and Hk-1 presented significant geographic variation. The latter showed a marked latitudinal cline, with a frequency for allele b ranging from 0.99 in the northernmost point to 0.04 in the southernmost one, a pattern that may be explained by natural selection (FST = 0.46; p < 0.0001 on heat sensitive alleles. The average value of FST (0.088 and Nm (61.12 indicated a high gene flow between adjacent populations. A high correlation was found between genetic and geographic distance (r = 0.83; p < 0.001. The highest genetic identity (IN = 0.988 corresponded to the geographically closest samples from the central area. In one of these localities Cx. quinquefasciatus was predominant and hybrid individuals were detected, while in the other, almost all the specimens were identified as Cx. pipiens. To verify the fertility between Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus from the northern- and southernmost populations, experimental crosses were performed. Viable egg rafts were obtained from both reciprocal crosses. Hatching ranged from 76.5 to 100%. The hybrid progenies were fertile through two subsequent generations

  18. Toxic Response of Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae to some Agricultural Pesticides (Butachlor and Pertilachlor

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    Aliakbar Hedayati*

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The expansion of herbicide used in aquatic ecosystems as well as in terrestrial if is not properly controlled may produce harmful effects on freshwater fisheries. Residue limits of these agricultural chemicals in tropical fishery waters should be established. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of butachlor and pertilachlor as potential dangerous herbicides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: This study was carried out in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran at summer 2013. Culex samples were exposed to different concentrations of butachlor and pertilachlor (0-200ppm for butachlor and pertilachlor for 96 h. Results: The low toxicity of LC50s obtained for butachlor (23.81±0.04 and pertilachlor (27.97±0.05 indicate that butachlor and pertilachlor were lowly toxic to Mosquito Cu. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Although pretilachlor and butachlor are low toxic but pretilachlor is less toxic in field conditions, these data are useful to potential ecosystem risk assessment.

  19. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Mohamed Yacoob Syed Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods: Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa, Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg. Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results: Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC 50 value (0.055 6依0.010 3 µg/mL, (0.067 5依0.136 0 µg/mL and (0.066 1 依0.007 6 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates entomopathogenic for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    V. Gobatto

    Full Text Available Samples of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt were collected from soil and insects. Eight isolates were selected from rural soil, 15 from urban soil and 11 from insects. These were evaluated for entomopathogenicity against larvae of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The pathogenicity tests showed that a higher percentage of isolates were active against A. gemmatalis (60% compared to C. quinquefasciatus (31%. Probit analysis (LC50 indicated that against A. gemmatalis four of the isolates presented values similar to the reference strain against A. gemmatalis, while against C. quinquefasciatus one isolate showed an LC50 similar to the reference strain (IPS-82. SDS-PAGE characterisation of two isolates showed a 27 kDa protein fraction related to the Bt subspecies israelensis cytolytic toxin (cyt gene. One 130 kDa protein, possibly related to the Bt crystal inclusions (cry1 gene, was identified in the other two isolates, which were more toxic for lepidoptera; another isolate presented a protein of 100 kDa. Some new local Bt isolates had similar LC50 probit values to the reference strains.

  1. Laboratory development of permethrin resistance and cross-resistance pattern of Culex quinquefasciatus to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar S

    2015-07-01

    Resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides is a growing concern in India. Since only a few insecticides are used for public health and limited development of new molecules is expected in the next decade, maintaining the efficacy of control programs mostly relies on resistance management strategies. Developing such strategies requires a deep understanding of factors influencing resistance together with characterizing the mechanisms involved. Among factors likely to influence insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, agriculture and urbanization have been implicated but rarely studied in detail. In the present study, we evaluate the permethrin resistance and cross-resistance pattern of several insecticides in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. After 10 generation of selection with permethrin, the LC50 value for both larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus was increased by 17.3- and 17.1-folds compared with susceptible strain. Detoxification enzyme profiles and native PAGE electrophoresis of esterase isoenzyme further revealed that esterase and CytP450 may be involved in permethrin resistance (PerRes) strain compared with susceptible strain. In addition to cross-resistance, study revealed that high resistance to cypermethrin (RR = 6.3, 8.8-folds). This study provided important information for understanding permethrin resistance and facilitating a better strategy for the management of resistance. These studies conclude that a strong foundation for further study of permethrin resistance mechanisms observed in Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  2. Sampling gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with traps baited with synthetic oviposition pheromone and grass infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Takken, W.; Mdira, K.Y.; Pickett, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of traps baited with (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (the synthetic oviposition pheromone) and grass infusions in sampling a population of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say was conducted in Muheza, Northeast Tanzania. A counterflow geometry (CFG) trap baited with pheromone and

  3. Efficacy of larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Catharanthus roseus aqueous and solvent extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarani, Selladurai; Sabhanayakam, Selvi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Kadir, Mohamed Abdul

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the larvicidal and pupicidal activities of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) against malaria and filariasis vectors. The larvicidal and pupicidal activities of C. roseus leaf extracts were tested against the fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). The mortality was observed after 24 and 48 h post the treatment. The data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) at which 50% and 90% of the treated larvae or pupae of the tested species were killed. The larval and pupal mortality were observed after 24 and 48 h of exposure of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. roseus; no mortality was observed in the control group. The LC50 values against the fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were 68.62 and 72.04 mg/mL for the aqueous extract, 82.47 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract, and 78.80 and 86.64 mg/mL for the methanol extract, while the aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 85.21, 76.84 and 94.20 mg/mL against the fourth-instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 118.08, 182.47 and 143.80 mg/mL against the pupae of An. stephensi and 146.20, 226.84 and 156.62 mg/mL against the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The aqueous and methanol extracts of C. roseus leaves had an excellent potential to control the malarial vector An. stephensi and filariasis vector Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in natural and artificial rural breeding sites in northern Paraná State, Brazil: VIII. The influence of predator larvae (Toxorhynchites sp., Limatus durhamii and Culex bigoti) on the populations of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex eduardoi

    OpenAIRE

    José Lopes

    1999-01-01

    Larvae of Culex eduardoi, Culex bigoti, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites were collected in a tyre that had been placed in a wood by a river bank. These larvae were present coexisting and in an individualized form. It was observed that Toxorhynchites, Culex bigoti and Limatus durhamii were efficient in reducing the other two species's population. Culex bigoti and Toxorhynchites showed preference for Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, while Limatus durhamii preferred Culex eduardoi. The most eff...

  5. Avaliação da sensibilidade de adultos de Culex quinquefasciatus Say a inseticidas químicos de contato Evaluation of the sensitivity of the adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say to chemical insecticides

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    Carlos Fernando S. de Andrade

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de adultos do pernilongo doméstico Culex quinquefasciatus a 5 inseticidas químicos foi avaliada sob condições de laboratório pelo critério de Tempo Letal Mediano (TL50. Foram utilizados o organofosforado Malathion e quatro piretróides: Bifenthrin, Deltamethrin, Esfenvalerate e Alfamethrin. Foi sugerida uma técnica simples e eficiente para se avaliar adultos de um dia de idade incluindo 5 repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados obtidos mostraram ser o método bastante adequado para avaliações rotineiras. Não ocorreu resistência a esses 5 princípios ativos, na população natural de Culex quinquefasciatus estudada.The sensitivity of the adult house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus to 5 chemical insecticides was evaluated under laboratory condictions, based on the Median Lethal Time (LT50 criterion. The organophosphorous Malathion and four pyrethroids: Bifenthrin, Deltamethrin, Esfenvalerate and Alfamethrin were utilized. An easy and efficient technique was suggested for the testing of one-day-old adults, including five repetitions for each treatment. The results revealed the full adequacy of this method for routine use. Further, no resistance to the 5 chemical compounds was detected among this natural population of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  6. UPAYA AWAL PENGEMBANGAN MANAJEMEN VEKTOR MELALUI KAJIAN PEMANFAATAN JENTIK NYAMUK PENGGANGGU PEMUKIMAN DATARAN RENDAH (Culex quinquefasciatus SEBAGAI MAKANAN lKAN

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    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A field trial to create an initial effort of vector management through investigating the benefit of "household disturbance mosquito" larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus as fish fodder was conducted during May, June, July, 2002 in Jakarta. Method of study involves the use of 2 aquariums, each 76 cm long, 41 cm wide and 41 cm height. They were placed in a partially opened room of which its east side was surrounded with ornamental plants providing fresh air and protecting them from heat of the sun. Each aquarium was also equipped with electrical circulating water pump and 2 cm plastic gauge filter. Ten golden fish babies (Cyprinus carpio were filled in each of the aqurium. Those fish babies (10 in each aquarium were grown through different fish fodder, one with conventional fodder and the other with mosquito larvae. Result showed that after 3 months the average weight of fish was significantly different, the ones fed with mosquito larvae were heavier than those of conventional feeder.   Keywords: Culex quinquefasciatus, vector management, larvae

  7. Sampling gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with traps baited with synthetic oviposition pheromone and grass infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboera, L E; Takken, W; Mdira, K Y; Pickett, J A

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of traps baited with (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (the synthetic oviposition pheromone) and grass infusions in sampling a population of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say was conducted in Muheza, Northeast Tanzania. A counterflow geometry (CFG) trap baited with pheromone and set outdoors, adjacent to a pit latrine building, collected more gravid Cx. quinquefasciatus than a CDC trap baited with pheromone and operated without light. Inside pit latrine buildings, significantly more gravid Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected in a CFG trap-baited with pheromone or grass infusion than in traps baited with tap water. CFG traps baited with either grass infusion or pheromone and set outdoors, away from known breeding sites, caught significantly more gravid Cx. quinquefasciatus than traps baited with tap water. CFG traps baited with pheromone + grass infusion caught significantly more gravid Cx. quinquefasciatus than CFG traps baited with either grass infusion or pheromone. In both cases, the proportion of gravid mosquitoes increased as traps were moved away from a natural emergence site. More gravid Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected in a pheromone-baited CFG trap than were egg rafts deposited in a jar with pheromone-treated water. It is concluded that CFG traps baited with oviposition attractants can be used effectively to sample gravid Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  8. Pyriproxyfen for mosquito control: female sterilization or horizontal transfer to oviposition substrates by Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbare, Oscar; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2014-06-21

    The use of gravid mosquitoes as vehicles to auto-disseminate larvicides was recently demonstrated for the transfer of pyriproxyfen (PPF) by container-breeding Aedes mosquitoes and presents an appealing idea to explore for other disease vectors. The success of this approach depends on the female's behaviour, the time of exposure and the amount of PPF that can be carried by an individual. We explore the effect of PPF exposure at seven time points around blood feeding on individual Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus fecundity and ability to transfer in laboratory assays. Mosquitoes were exposed to 2.6 mg PPF per m2 at 48, 24 and 0.5 hours before and after a blood meal and on the day of egg-laying. The proportion of exposed females (N=80-100) laying eggs, the number of eggs laid and hatched was studied. Transfer of PPF to oviposition cups was assessed by introducing 10 late instar insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. larvae into all the cups and monitored for adult emergence inhibition. Exposure to PPF between 24 hours before and after a blood meal had significant sterilizing effects: females of both species were 6 times less likely (Odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.26) to lay eggs than unexposed females. Of the few eggs laid, the odds of an egg hatching was reduced 17 times (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.08) in Anopheles but only 1.2 times (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.93) in Culex. Adult emergence inhibition from larvae introduced in the oviposition cups was observed only from cups in which eggs were laid. When females were exposed to PPF close to egg laying they transferred enough PPF to reduce emergence by 65-71% (95% CI 62-74%). PPF exposure within a day before and after blood feeding affects egg-development in An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus and presents a promising opportunity for integrated control of vectors and nuisance mosquitoes. However, sterilized females are unlikely to visit an oviposition site and therefore do

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a nonanal lure for collection of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, S R; Moore, S J; Bruce, J; Cameron, M M

    2014-03-01

    Gravid traps are important tools for disease monitoring and for research on mosquito ovipositional behavior. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a 2% nonanal lure in gravid mosquito traps in Ifakara, Tanzania. The 1st experiment focused on whether water was needed in the pan below the trap for the nonanal lure to be effective. There was no significant difference between the numbers of gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus collected in traps using a nonanal lure either with or without water. The 2nd experiment compared the lure, without water, to a grass infusion and a blank trap, without water or attractant. Significantly more mosquitoes were collected in traps with grass infusion than in traps with the other attractants, which were not significantly different from each other. Although more mosquitoes were collected in traps with grass infusion, substantial numbers were also collected in traps with the nonanal lure and unbaited traps.

  10. ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr (Pyrrole) and alphacypermethrin (Pyrethroid) for control of pyrethroid resistant Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxborough, Richard M; Kitau, Jovin; Matowo, Johnson; Feston, Emmanuel; Mndeme, Rajab; Mosha, Franklin W; Rowland, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and continued efficacy of pyrethroid ITNs is under threat. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action conferring no cross-resistance to existing public health insecticides. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr (CFP) and alphacypermethrin (alpha) may provide additional benefits over chlorfenapyr or alphacypermethrin used alone. An ITN mixture of CFP 100 mg/m(2)+alpha 25 mg/m(2) was compared with CFP 100 mg/m(2) and alpha 25 mg/m(2) in a small-scale experimental hut trial in an area of wild An. arabiensis. The same treatments were evaluated in tunnel tests against insectary-reared pyrethroid susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Performance was measured in terms of insecticide-induced mortality, and blood-feeding inhibition. Tunnel tests showed that mixtures of CFP 100+ alpha 25 were 1.2 and 1.5 times more effective at killing susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus than either Alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP 100 (P = 0.001) ITNs. Mixtures of CFP100+ alpha 25 were 2.2 and 1.2 times more effective against resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus than either alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP100 (P = 0.003) ITNs. CFP 100+ alpha 25 produced higher levels of blood-feeding inhibition than CFP alone for susceptible (94 vs 46%, P = 0.001) and resistant (84 vs 53%, P = 0.001) strains. In experimental huts the mixture of CFP 100+ Alpha 25 killed 58% of An. arabiensis, compared with 50% for alpha and 49% for CFP, though the differences were not significant. Blood-feeding inhibition was highest in the mixture with a 76% reduction compared to the untreated net (P = 0.001). ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin should restore effective control of resistant populations of An. gambiae malaria vectors, provide protection from blood-feeding, and may have benefits for resistance management, particularly in areas with low or moderate

  11. ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr (Pyrrole and alphacypermethrin (Pyrethroid for control of pyrethroid resistant Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Oxborough

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and continued efficacy of pyrethroid ITNs is under threat. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action conferring no cross-resistance to existing public health insecticides. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr (CFP and alphacypermethrin (alpha may provide additional benefits over chlorfenapyr or alphacypermethrin used alone. An ITN mixture of CFP 100 mg/m(2+alpha 25 mg/m(2 was compared with CFP 100 mg/m(2 and alpha 25 mg/m(2 in a small-scale experimental hut trial in an area of wild An. arabiensis. The same treatments were evaluated in tunnel tests against insectary-reared pyrethroid susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Performance was measured in terms of insecticide-induced mortality, and blood-feeding inhibition. Tunnel tests showed that mixtures of CFP 100+ alpha 25 were 1.2 and 1.5 times more effective at killing susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus than either Alpha 25 (P = 0.001 or CFP 100 (P = 0.001 ITNs. Mixtures of CFP100+ alpha 25 were 2.2 and 1.2 times more effective against resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus than either alpha 25 (P = 0.001 or CFP100 (P = 0.003 ITNs. CFP 100+ alpha 25 produced higher levels of blood-feeding inhibition than CFP alone for susceptible (94 vs 46%, P = 0.001 and resistant (84 vs 53%, P = 0.001 strains. In experimental huts the mixture of CFP 100+ Alpha 25 killed 58% of An. arabiensis, compared with 50% for alpha and 49% for CFP, though the differences were not significant. Blood-feeding inhibition was highest in the mixture with a 76% reduction compared to the untreated net (P = 0.001. ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin should restore effective control of resistant populations of An. gambiae malaria vectors, provide protection from blood-feeding, and may have benefits for resistance management, particularly in areas with low or

  12. Control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with chlorfenapyr in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Raphael; Boko, Pelagie; Odjo, Abiba; Knols, Bart; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2009-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of chlorfenapyr applied on mosquito nets and as an indoor residual spray against populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in an area of Benin that shows problematic levels of pyrethroid resistance. Eight-week trial conducted in experimental huts. Indoor residual spraying killed 82.9% of An. gambiae overall (mean mortality: 79.5%) compared to 53.5% overall (mean mortality: 61.7%) in the hut containing the lower dosed ITN. Analysis of data on a fortnightly basis showed high levels of mosquito mortality and blood-feeding inhibition during the first few weeks after treatment. Control of C. quinquefasciatus by the IRS and ITN interventions showed a similar trend to that of An. gambiae and though the average level of mortality was lower it was still much higher than with pyrethroid treatments against this population. Chlorfenapyr's reputation for being rather slow acting was evident particularly at lower dosages. The treatments showed no evidence of excito-repellent activity in this trial. Chlorfenapyr has the potential to control pyrethroid resistant populations of A. gambiae. There is a need to develop long-lasting formulations of chlorfenapyr to prolong its residual life on nets and sprayed surfaces. On nets it could be combined with a contact irritant pyrethroid to give improved protection against mosquito biting while killing pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes that come into contact with the net.

  13. Host-Feeding Preference of the Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, in Yucatan State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Loroño-Pino, Maria A.; Chi Chim, Wilberth A.; Flores-Flores, Luis F.; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy; Baak-Baak, Carlos; Perez-Mutul, Jose; Suarez-Solis, Victor; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Beaty, Barry J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the host-feeding preference of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to the availability of human and domestic animals in the city of Merida, Yucatan State, Mexico. Mosquitoes were collected in the backyards of houses using resting wooden boxes. Collections were made five times per week from January to December 2005. DNA was extracted from engorged females and tested by PCR using universal avian- and mammalian-specific primers. DNA extracted from avian-derived blood was further analyzed by PCR using primers that differentiate among the birds of three avian orders: Passeriformes, Columbiformes and Galliformes. PCR products obtained from mammalian-derived blood were subjected to restriction enzyme digestion to differentiate between human-, dog-, cat-, pig-, and horse-derived blood meals. Overall, 82% of engorged mosquitoes had fed on birds, and 18% had fed on mammals. The most frequent vertebrate hosts were Galliformes (47.1%), Passeriformes (23.8%), Columbiformes (11.2%) birds, and dogs (8.8%). The overall human blood index was 6.7%. The overall forage ratio for humans was 0.1, indicating that humans were not a preferred host for Cx. quinquefasciatus in Merida. PMID:20578953

  14. Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2013-03-01

    Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control.

  15. Field trial efficacy of two formulations of Permanone against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisch, M V; Meek, C L; Brown, J R; Nunez, R D

    1997-12-01

    Tests were conducted during the summer of 1996 to evaluate the effectiveness of different formulations of permethrin, Permanone 31-66 and Aquareslin, against Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Tests of both formulations were conducted at rates of 2.019 and 3.926 g AI/h with each formulation/rate replicated 3 times. Results indicate significantly greater control of both pest species at the higher application rate for both formulations. The high rate of Permanone 31-66 proved more effective than that of Aquareslin. Exposure at the low rate for both formulations provided inadequate adult control that was particularly pronounced against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Regardless, negligible recovery of exposed adults was observed at any formulations/rate. No significant differences in mortality were noted for any formulation/rate relative to distance downwind. However, volume median diameter and droplets/cm2 were significantly affected by distance downwind. Furthermore, volume median diameter and droplets/cm2 were both determined to significantly affect mortality in both mosquito species (P < or = 0.05). Overall, results indicate that Permanone 31-66 and Aquareslin applied at a rate of 3.926 g AI/h were effective.

  16. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil

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    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyse how basic sanitation conditions, water supply and housing conditions affect the concentration of Culex quinquefasciatus METHODS: Populations of C. quinquefasciatus in 61 houses in the municipality of Olinda, PE, were monitored between October 2009 and October 2010. Observations were carried out in homes without the presence of preferred breeding sites in order to identify characteristics that may be aggravating factors for the development of the mosquito. Five aggravating factors were analysed: vegetation cover surrounding the home, number of residents/home, water storage, sewage drainage and water drainage. These characteristics were analysed in terms of presence or absence and as indicators of the degree of infestation, which was estimated through monitoring the concentration of eggs (oviposition traps - BR-OVT and adults (CDC light traps. RESULTS: Sewage drainage to a rudimentary septic tank or to the open air was the most frequent aggravating factor in the homes (91.8%, although the presence of vegetation was the only characteristic that significantly influenced the increase in the number of egg rafts (p = 0.02. The BR-OVT achieved positive results in 95.1% of the evaluations, with the presence of at least one egg raft per month. A total of 2,366 adults were caught, with a mosquito/room/night ratio of 32.9. No significant difference was found in the number of mosquitoes caught in the homes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sanitation and water supply influence the population density of C. quinquefasciatus, residence features that are not usually considered in control measures can be aggravating factors in sustaining the mosquito population.

  17. Proteolytic profiling and comparative analyses of active trypsin-like serine peptidases in preimaginal stages of Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Borges-Veloso Andre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatu s, a widespread insect in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, is a vector of multiple arboviruses and parasites, and is considered an important risk to human and veterinary health. Proteolytic enzymes play crucial roles in the insect physiology including the modulation of embryonic development and food digestion. Therefore, these enzymes represent important targets for the development of new control strategies. This study presents zymographic characterization and comparative analysis of the proteolytic activity found in eggs, larval instars and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The proteolytic profiles of eggs, larvae and pupa of Cx. quinquefasciatus were characterized by SDS-PAGE co-polymerized with 0.1% gelatin, according to the pH, temperature and peptidase inhibitor sensitivity. In addition, the proteolytic activities were characterized in solution using 100 μM of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. Results Comparison of the proteolytic profiles by substrate-SDS-PAGE from all preimaginal stages of the insect revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the peptidase expression among eggs, larvae and pupae. Use of specific inhibitors revealed that the proteolytic activity from preimaginal stages is mostly due to trypsin-like serine peptidases that display optimal activity at alkaline pH. In-solution, proteolytic assays of the four larval instars using the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC in the presence or absence of a trypsin-like serine peptidase inhibitor confirmed the results obtained by substrate-SDS-PAGE analysis. The trypsin-like serine peptidases of the four larval instars were functional over a wide range of temperatures, showing activities at 25°C and 65°C, with an optimal activity between 37°C and 50°C. Conclusion The combined use of zymography and in-solution assays, as performed in this study, allowed for a more detailed analysis of the

  18. Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of Cleome viscosa L. (Capparaceae aerial extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Murugesan Sakthivadivel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of crude petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and aqueous aerial extracts of Cleome viscosa against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: Standard World Health Organization protocols with minor modifications was adopted for the larvicidal bioassay. Larvicidal activity of exyracts was evaluated at concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/L. Larval mortality was observed after 24 and 48 h. Results: Amongst the solvent extracts tested, petroleum ether exhibited the highest larvicidal activity and LC50 values was 52.62 and 43.16 mg/L followed by acetone, aqueous and chloroform extract with LC 50 values of 328.64 and 280.58; 493.44 and 298.76; 509.27 and 434.40 mg/L after 24 and 48 h respectively. Conclusions: Further investigations are needed to explore the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether aerial extract of this plant against a wide range of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  19. Larvicidal effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna alata on Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Ubulom Peace Mayen; Nyiutaha, Imandeh Godwin; Essien, Akpabio Eno; Nnamdi, Opara Kenneth; Sunday, Ekanem Mfon

    2013-05-01

    Senna alata is locally used in South Eastern Nigeria in the treatment of several infections which include ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases.The larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf and stem extracts of S. alata were evaluated in static bioassays, on fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, at extract concentrations of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% w/v, for 72 hours. Mortality of larvae exposed to the different extracts increased with increase in extract concentration and time of exposure. This study revealed a differential potency of the extracts used and a difference in susceptibility of larvae to the extracts as evident by the 72hLC₅₀ values obtained. The leaf extract proved to be more lethal to the larvae than the stem extract as judged by the 72hLC₅₀ values obtained both for the aqueous as well as the ethanolic extracts assayed. Phytochemical screening of the plant parts investigated revealed the presence of some plant metabolites, which have been reported in separate studies to be lethal to mosquito larvae. Results obtained from this study suggest that the leaf and stem extracts of S. alata possess a promising larvicidal potential which can be exploited in mosquito vector control.

  20. Bioactivity of sea grass against the malarial fever mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Suburamaniyan Vijayakumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seagrass extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus Methods: Seagrass extracts, Halodule pinifolia (H. pinifolia, Cymodocea serrulata (C. serrulata and Thalasia testudinum (T. testudinum were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01 mg-0.1 mg. After 24 h the mortality rate was identified with the formulae [(% of test mortality - % of control mortality/(100 - % of control mortality]伊100. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of dimethylsulfoxide and 199 mL of distilled water only. Results: The root extract of H. pinifolia showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum concentration of extract of LC 50 value of (0.614依0.006 µg/mL with lower confidence limit-upper confidence limit value of (0.052-0.072 and LC90 value of 0.9120 µg/mL followed by leaf extract of C. serrulata LC 50 value of (0.074依0.008 µg/mL and LC90 value of 0.1487 µg/mL. T. testudinum leaf extract showed LC 50 value of (0.082依0.006 µg/mL. The regression equation of root and leaf extract of H. pinifolia for 4 th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were Y=5.229+1.36x (R2=0.993 and Y=2.369+1.21x (R2=0.878 respectively and analysis of variation was significant at P<0.05 level. The result of the preliminary phytochemical constituents showed the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions: From the present study the ethanolic extracts of seagrass of H. pinifolia possess lead compound for development of larvicidal activity.

  1. Morphometric geometric study of wing shape in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) from Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    K. Manimegalai; M. Arunachalam; R. Udayakumari

    2009-01-01

    The morphometric geometric study was carried out in 10 males and 10 females of Culex quinquefasciatus. There are 23 landmarks corresponding to points at which wing veins either branch or intersect the margin of the wing. Relative warp analysis has been proved to be very efficient in distinguishing the variation of shape in male and female wings. The multivariate analysis of co-variance (MANCOVA) showed a clear separation of the male and female wings.

  2. Lack of cross-resistance to Mtx1 from Bacillus sphaericus in B. sphaericus-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Suzhen; Cai, Quanxin; Cai, Yajun; Yuan, Zhiming

    2007-02-01

    The toxicities of Mtx1 toxin against dipteran and lepidopteran species have been evaluated in this study. It was shown that Mtx1 has little or no toxicity to the tested lepidopteran species, but has moderate-level toxicity to Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) and high-level toxicity to both susceptible and binary toxin-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The LC(50) values of Mtx1 against a susceptible C. quinquefasciatus colony SLCq and two resistant colonies RLCq1/C3-41 and RLCq2/IAB59 selected in the laboratory with Bacillus sphaericus (Mayer & Neide) strains C3-41 and IAB59 respectively were 0.508, 0.854 and 0.675 mg L(-1) respectively. The data indicate that Mtx1 has a different mode of action from the binary toxin, and that it could be an alternative toxin to delay or overcome resistance development to binary toxin in C. quinquefasciatus.

  3. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Paraná, Brasil: VIII. Influência das larvas predadoras (Toxorhynchites sp., Limatus durhamiie Culex bigoti sobre a população de larvas de Culex Quinquefasciatus e Culex eduardoi Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in natural and artificial rural breeding sites in northern Paraná State, Brazil: VIII. The influence of predator larvae (Toxorhynchites sp., Limatus durhamii and Culex bigoti on the populations of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex eduardoi

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    José Lopes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Culex eduardoi, Culex bigoti, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites were collected in a tyre that had been placed in a wood by a river bank. These larvae were present coexisting and in an individualized form. It was observed that Toxorhynchites, Culex bigoti and Limatus durhamii were efficient in reducing the other two species's population. Culex bigoti and Toxorhynchites showed preference for Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, while Limatus durhamii preferred Culex eduardoi. The most efficient predator was Toxorhynchites, and the least efficient was Limatus durhamii. The reduction of the preys' population density was statistically meaningful in the face of the three species considered as predators.

  4. A Strain of Bacillus sphaericus Causes Slower Development of Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guofeng; Oliveira, Cláudia M. F.; Yuan, Zhiming; Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena; Yan, Jianpin; Regis, Lêda

    2002-01-01

    Two field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus colonies were subjected to selection pressure by three strains of Bacillus sphaericus, C3-41, 2362, and IAB59, under laboratory conditions. After 13 and 18 generations of exposure to high concentrations of C3-41 and IAB59, a field-collected low-level-resistant colony developed >144,000- and 46.3-fold resistance to strains C3-41 and IAB59, respectively. A field-collected susceptible colony was selected with 2362 and IAB59 for 46 and 12 generations and attained >162,000- and 5.7-fold resistance to the two agents, respectively. The pattern of resistance evolution in mosquitoes depended on continuous selection pressure, and the stronger the selection pressure, the more quickly resistance developed. The resistant colonies obtained after selection with B. sphaericus C3-41 and 2362 showed very high levels of cross-resistance to B. sphaericus 2362 and C3-41, respectively, but they displayed only low-level cross-resistance to IAB59. On the other hand, the IAB59-selected colonies had high cross-resistance to both strains C3-41 and 2362. Additionally, the slower evolution of resistance against strain IAB59 may be explained by the presence of another larvicidal factor. This is in agreement with the nontoxicity of the cloned and purified binary toxin (Bin1) of IAB59 for 2362-resistant larvae. We also verified that all the B. sphaericus-selected colonies showed no cross-resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, suggesting that it would be a promising alternative in managing resistance to B. sphaericus in C. quinquefasciatus larvae. PMID:12039761

  5. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal potential of the crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts of the medicinal plant Impatiens balsamina against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five third instar larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol recommended by WHO. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among extracts tested, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values 98.04, 119.68, 125.06 and 172.93, 210.14, 220.60 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that the larvicidal effect of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  6. Mosquito larvicidal and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa plants extract against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Anjali Rawani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicide and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa (P. tuberosa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi. Methods: Crude and solvent extract [ethyl acetate, chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v, acetone] of fresh, mature, bud of P. tuberosa was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. The repellent activity tested by chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v solvent extract against both mosquito species. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v extract was also studied on non target organisms such as Toxorhynchites larvae, Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus. Results: In a 72 h bioassay experiment, 0.5 % crude extract showed the highest mortality and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v solvent extract showed the highest mortality, the maximum (P < 0.05 mortality was recorded at a concentration of 60 mg/L. The chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v solvent extract provide 4 h protection against Cx. quinquefasciatus and 5 h against An. stephensi from biting. Conclusions: Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v extract showed efficient activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus, so it could be used as a mosquito larvicide agent. There is no change in the activity of non-target organism so, it is safe to use.

  7. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal as culture medium for the control of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Avaliação do bioinseticida de Bacillus sphaericus, produzido com meio de cultivo de farelo branco de soja no controle de Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus

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    André L. A. Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioinsecticides are shown to be useful in control programs to prevent several diseases, based on their specificity and efficiency against insect vectors. In the current study a bioinsecticide based on Bacillus sphaericus was produced using a white soybean culture medium and applied to larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the susceptible species, and Aedes aegypti, the refractory species used as the negative control. Efficacy was compared with that of the product fermented with the Luria Bertani (LB reference medium. The experiments showed that C. quinquefasciatus was highly susceptible to the product prepared with white soybean meal, reaching 100% larval mortality even at 10mg/L, while A. aegypti failed to reach 70% mortality at a concentration of 1g/L. By comparison with the reference medium, the proposed culture medium showed high larvicidal power, reaching a LD90 of 2.26mg/L, while 4.37mg/L was needed for the LB medium to achieve the same mortality rate. Cost comparison between the formulations favored the use of the bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal. After factoring in the LD90 value, the cost ratio favored the new raw material by nearly 1:220.A utilização de bioinseticidas tem se mostrado útil aos programas de prevenção de diversas enfermidades devido a sua especificidade e eficiência contra insetos vetores. No presente trabalho, o bioinseticida de Bacillus sphaericus foi produzido com um meio de cultivo composto de farelo branco de soja e aplicado em larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus, espécie susce-tível, e Aedes aegypti, espécie refratária, usada como controle negativo. O desempenho foi comparado com o do produto fermentado com o meio referência Luria Bertani (LB. Os experimentos constataram que C. quinquefasciatus apresentou uma alta suscetibilidade ao produto produzido com farelo branco de soja, alcançando mortalidade de 100% mesmo na diluição de 10mg/L, enquanto A. aegypti não atingiu 70% na concentração de 1

  8. First report on adulticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex vishnui from a pig farm in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Lau, Koon Weng; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Heo, Chong Chin; Azidah, Abdul Aziz; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Cx. vishnui collected from a pig farm in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, toward 11 insecticides representing the classes of organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. The results of a World Health Organization adult mosquito bioassay revealed that Ae. albopictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. vishnui exhibited different susceptibility toward various insecticides. Overall, pyrethroids were able to induce rapid knockdown for all test mosquito species. The pyrethroids lambdacyhalothrin and etofenprox were able to cause high mortality (> 80%) of all 3 species. The findings of the present study will benefit local authorities in selecting appropriate dosage of insecticides to be used in mosquito control in this area.

  9. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net: an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

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    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen.The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN. Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts.Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01. Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001. The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets.Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and management of pyrethroid resistant vectors by

  10. Establishment and characterisation of a new cell line derived from Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Nidya A Segura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Insect cell cultures are an important biotechnological tool for basic and applied studies. The objective of this work was to establish and characterise a new cell line from Culex quinquefasciatus embryonic tissues. Embryonated eggs were taken as a source of tissue to make explants that were seeded in L-15, Grace's, Grace's/L-15, MM/VP12, Schneider's and DMEM culture media with a pH range from 6.7-6.9 and incubated at 28ºC. The morphological, cytogenetic, biochemical and molecular characteristics of the cell cultures were examined by observing the cell shapes, obtaining the karyotypes, using a cellulose-acetate electrophoretic system and performing random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. The Grace's/L-15 medium provided the optimal nutritional conditions for cell adhesion and proliferation. Approximately 40-60 days following the explant procedure, a confluent monolayer was formed. Cellular morphology in the primary cultures and the subcultures was heterogeneous, but in the monolayer the epithelioid morphology type predominated. A karyotype with a diploid number of six chromosomes (2n = 6 was observed. Isoenzymatic and molecular patterns of the mosquito cell cultures matched those obtained from the immature and adult forms of the same species. Eighteen subcultures were generated. These cell cultures potentially constitute a useful tool for use in biomedical applications.

  11. Effect of quassin on the metabolism of catecholamines in different life cycle stages of Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    Evans, D A; Kaleysa, R R

    1992-08-01

    Quassin, a mosquito larvicide isolated from Quassia amara, inhibits tyrosinase activity in the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Since tyrosinase is directly involved in sclerotisation of the cuticle, it is suggested that quassin, as a larvicide, inhibits development of the cuticle. In presence of quassin phenylalanine, tyrosine and L-dopa levels were increased in larvae. In the larval stages, mosquitoes have a high concentration of phenylalanine and tyrosine with the level of the latter being very high just before pupation and then declines sharply. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme directly involved in the metabolism of catecholamines, remained unaffected by quassin, in fact the level of adrenaline also remained unchanged in larvae during quassin poisoning. MAO showed high variation in its activity between synthetic and natural substrates. Tyramine is not a substrate for MAO. Tyrosinase activity was high in developing stages and negligibly low in adults and showed specificity to L-dopa. Phenylalanine and tyramine are unaffected by tyrosinase. Blood feeding did not influence the activity of both these enzymes.

  12. Control of Culex quinquefasciatus in a storm drain system in Florida using attractive toxic sugar baits.

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    Müller, G C; Junnila, A; Qualls, W; Revay, E E; Kline, D L; Allan, S; Schlein, Y; Xue, R D

    2010-12-01

    Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs) were used to control mosquitoes in the storm drains of a residential area on the outskirts of St Augustine, Florida. The drainage system was newly constructed and no mosquitoes were breeding inside it. The area covered by the storm drains was divided in half; 10 drains served as control drains and 16 drains served as experimental drains. The baits, which consisted of a mixture of brown sugar, fruit juice, green dye marker and boric acid, were presented at the entrances of the treated drains and exit traps were positioned over the drain openings and the connecting tubes leading to retention ponds. Similar baits with orange dye and without toxin were presented at the entrances of control drains. A total of 220 pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were released in each control and toxin-treated drain, and the numbers of recovered mosquitoes were examined to determine the effectiveness of ATSBs in the storm drain system. An average of 178.2 mosquitoes exited each drain in the control area; 87.0% of these had fed on the baits and were stained orange, whereas 13.0% were unstained. In the toxin-treated drains, 83.7% of hatched females and 86.6% of hatched males were controlled by the baits. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Stability of Culex quinquefasciatus resistance to Bacillus sphaericus evaluated by molecular tools.

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    Amorim, Liliane Barbosa; de Barros, Rosineide Arruda; Chalegre, Karlos Diogo de Melo; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Regis, Lêda Narcisa; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin action on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae relies on the binding to Cqm1alpha-glucosidases, which act as midgut receptors. Resistance of two laboratory-selected colonies is associated with the allele cqm1(REC) that prevents Cqm1 expression as membrane-bound molecules. This study evaluated stability of resistance after the interruption of selection pressure and introduction of susceptible individuals in these colonies. Bioassays showed that frequency of resistant larvae did not decrease throughout 11 generations, under these conditions, and it was associated to a similar frequency of larvae lacking the Cqm1alpha-glucosidase receptor, detected by in gel enzymatic assays. Direct screening of the cqm1(REC) allele, by specific PCR, showed that its frequency remained stable throughout 11 generations. Parental resistant colony did not display biological costs regarding fecundity, fertility and pupal weight and data from susceptibility assays, enzymatic assays and PCR screening showed that cqm1(REC) was not disfavored in competition with the susceptible allele and persisted in the progenies, in the lack of selection pressure. Characterization of molecular basis of resistance is essential for developing diagnostic tools and data have relevant implication for the establishment of strategies for resistance management. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Susceptibilidade larval de populações de Aedes aegypti e Culex quinquefasciatus a inseticidas químicos Larval susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus populations to chemical insecticides

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    Jairo Campos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a susceptibilidade a inseticidas químicos de larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus e Aedes aegypti, provenientes de áreas sujeitas ou não a tratamentos de controle. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas larvas de mosquitos em uma área não sujeita a tratamentos com inseticidas (Campinas, SP e em áreas sujeitas a esses tratamentos (Campo Grande, MS e Cuiabá, MT. Foram usados bioensaios com concentrações diagnóstico e concentrações múltipla de inseticidas organofosforados e piretróides, segundo padrão da Organização Mundial de Saúde, para avaliar a susceptibilidade dessas larvas. RESULTADOS: Ensaios com larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus de Campinas, SP, permitiram a suspeita de resistência à cipermetrina e evidenciaram resistência à ciflutrina. Larvas dessa espécie coletadas em Campo Grande, MS, e Campinas, SP, apresentaram resistência ao temephos. Para a colônia campineira desta espécie, foram estabelecidas as razões de resistência: RR50=6,36 e RR95=4,94, com base em linhagem susceptível padrão. Adicionalmente, os testes com Aedes aegypti mostraram susceptibilidade similar ao temephos em uma população de campo (Cuiabá, MT e uma de laboratório. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicam resistência a organofosforado e piretróides em Culex quinquefasciatus, evidenciando a necessidade de avaliações e monitoramento da efetividade dos inseticidas a serem usados nos programas de controle de mosquitos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to chemical insecticides of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypt larvae from areas subjected to control treatments or not. METHODS: Bioassays for diagnostic concentration and multiple concentration were performed for organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides according to World Health Organization parameters. The susceptibility was assessed for mosquito larvae collected from an area not subjected to chemical control (Campinas, State of São Paulo, SP and from other areas (Campo

  15. Chemical properties of essential oil from Rhizophora mucronata mangrove leaf against malarial mosquito Anopheles stephensi and fiarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Nagarajan Yogananth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identity and evaluate mosquito larvicidal and repellent activity against the malarial mosquito Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi and filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus. Methods: The eggs and egg rafts of A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were procured from National Centre for Communicable Diseases, Mettupalayam, Tamilnadu, India. Filter paper attached with eggs was dipped into a plastic tray containing 500 mL of dechlorinated water for 30-40 min, long enough to allow the eggs to hatch into larvae. Results: The larval mortality was observed for late fourth instar after 24-h treatment. The maximum activity of LC50 value was 0.051 mg/mL and 0.0514 mg/mL for A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus respectively in essential oil treated at minimum concentration. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/cm2 concentration of Rhizophora mucronata (R. mucronata gave 100% protection up to 11 h. These results clearly revealed the potent larvicidal and repellent activity of R. mucronata essential oil. The present study was conducted to identify the chemical constituents with the GC-MS analysis in the most effective volatile oil of R. mucronata. Conclusions: The results have clearly demonstrated the possibility of transforming the potential natural products into commercial larval and repellent agent after being tested in different geo-climates and mosquito species.

  16. Aqueous neem extract versus neem powder on Culex quinquefasciatus: implications for control in anthropogenic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A; Botchey, Mary A

    2011-01-01

    Control programs using conventional insecticides to target anthropogenic mosquito habitats are very expensive because these habitats are widespread, particularly in cities of most African countries. Additionally, there are serious environmental concerns regarding large-scale application of most conventional insecticides. Clearly there is a need for alternative methods that are more effective, less expensive, and environmentally friendly. One such method would be the application of preparations made from parts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu (Sapindales: Meliaceae). In this study, aqueous crude extracts and crude powder were prepared from different parts of neem, and the efficacies of the preparations on juvenile stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) were evaluated in the laboratory. When larvae were exposed to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL extract for 24 hours, percent mean mortality (± SE) was 72.7 plusmn; 1.8 for the bark, 68.7 ± 1.6 for fruits and 60 ± 1.6 for leaves. These means were not significantly different (χ(2) = 4.12; df = 2; p = 0.127). At a concentration of 0.01 g/mL, > 95% of the larvae died within 24 hours of exposure to powdered neem leaf, but it took 120 hours to reach the same level of larval mortality in aqueous leaf extract. The crude extract slowly inhibited the growth and development of mosquitoes while the crude powder acted more as a barrier; the mosquitoes probably died from suffocation. However, both types of preparations can be made and used by local people to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats, especially in urbanized areas.

  17. Mosquitocidal activity of a native Bacillus thuringiensis isolate Bt ReX02 from Gunung Jerai Forest, Malaysia against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus.

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    Lakxmy, A Prazanna; Xavier, R; Reenajosephine, C M; Lee, Y W; Marimuthu, K; Kathiresan, S; Sreeramanan, S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal potential of the native Bacillus thuringiensis isolate BtReXO2, which was isolated from a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Malaysia. This study also aimed at determining the phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of the isolate. The phenotypic characterization was carried out by growing the isolate in nutrient broth to observe the colonial morphology, vegetative cells, sporulation, motility and haemolytic activity. The parasporal crystal morphology was determined by Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining of the sporulated cells and then observed under light microscope. The mosquito larvicidal assay was conducted with the second instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus to determine the entomocidal potency of the isolate. The total protein profile was determined by SDS-PAGE. Preliminary phenotypic and biochemical characterization showed that the isolate is motile, an indirect indication of the virulence of the strain and exhibited hemolytic activity, an important feature of antidipteran Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Study on the crystal morphology showed the presence of cuboidal crystals, another characteristic feature of a mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Bioassay with the second instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus established the antidipteran activity of this native Bacillus thuringiensis isolate. Protein profile analysis revealed the unique pattern showing high molecular mass as well as low molecular mass proteins corresponding to the Cry and Cyt proteins respectively. The protein profile is strikingly different from other mosquitocidal strains such as Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.israelensis and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan Periodical introduction of such native strains of Bacillus thuringiensis will add a new weapon in the armoury to manage the vector borne diseases and also in the management of insect resistance.

  18. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal

  19. Monitoring temporal fluctuations of Culex quinquefasciatus using oviposition traps containing attractant and larvicide in an urban environment in Recife, Brazil

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    Rosângela Maria Rodrigues Barbosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of attractants and larvicides in oviposition traps is of practical interest for the surveillance and control of urban mosquitoes. In addition to increasing the safety of the traps, this combination is essential for an attract-and-kill control strategy based on trapping mosquito eggs. The combination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti and grass infusion (GI vs. GI alone were tested for their ability to attract in paired BR-OVT traps in the backyards of 10 houses in Recife, Brazil, for a period of 45 days. Results show that females prefer to oviposit in traps containing Bti (363 compared with 251 egg rafts over 45 days. Results from a one-year trial on the efficacy of BR-OVT traps loaded with GI and Bti as a sampling tool to monitor temporal fluctuations in the population densities of Culex quinquefasciatus in an urban environment are also reported. From December 2006-January 2007, one trap per home was installed and maintained for 348 consecutive days in 134-151 houses located in three urban blocks. Throughout the one-year field trial a total of 43,151 Culex egg rafts were collected in the traps. The data show that BR-OVT loaded with GI and Bti is sensitive enough to demonstrate continuous reproductive activity of Cux. quinquefasciatus in the study area throughout the year and to monitor temporal fluctuations in population density.

  20. Experimental hut evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr on bed nets for the control of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, F W; Lyimo, I N; Oxborough, R M; Malima, R; Tenu, F; Matowo, J; Feston, E; Mndeme, R; Magesa, S M; Rowland, M

    2008-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of chlorfenapyr against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in East Africa and to identify effective dosages for net treatment in comparison with the commonly used pyrethroid deltamethrin. Chlorfenapyr was evaluated on bed nets in experimental huts against A. arabiensis and C. quinquefasciatus in Northern Tanzania, at application rates of 100-500 mg/m(2). In experimental huts, mortality rates in A. arabiensis were high (46.0-63.9%) for all dosages of chlorfenapyr and were similar to that of deltamethrin-treated nets. Mortality rates in C. quinquefasciatus were higher for chlorfenapyr than for deltamethrin. Despite a reputation for being slow acting, >90% of insecticide-induced mortality in laboratory tunnel tests and experimental huts occurred within 24 h, and the speed of killing was no slower than for deltamethrin-treated nets. Chlorfenapyr induced low irritability and knockdown, which explains the relatively small reduction in blood-feeding rate. Combining chlorfenapyr with a more excito-repellent pyrethroid on bed nets for improved personal protection, control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes and pyrethroid resistance management would be advantageous.

  1. Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae to Spondweni Virus.

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    Andrew D Haddow

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has extended its known geographic distribution to the New World and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. While substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for ZIKV, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, Spondweni virus (SPONV. Both ZIKV and SPONV have been known to circulate in Africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. Furthermore, the susceptibility of peridomestic mosquito species incriminated or suspected in the transmission of ZIKV to SPONV was unknown.In this study, two geographically distinct strains of SPONV were genetically characterized and compared to nine genetically and geographically distinct ZIKV strains. Additionally, the susceptibility of both SPONV strains was determined in three mosquito species. The open reading frame (ORF of the SPONV 1952 Nigerian Chuku strain, exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity of 97.8% and 99.2%, respectively, when compared to the SPONV 1954 prototype South African SA Ar 94 strain. The ORF of the SPONV Chuku strain exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity that ranged from 68.3% to 69.0% and 74.6% to 75.0%, respectively, when compared to nine geographically and genetically distinct strains of ZIKV. The ORF of the nine African and Asian lineage ZIKV strains exhibited limited nucleotide divergence. Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus susceptibility and dissemination was low or non-existent following artificial infectious blood feeding of moderate doses of both SPONV strains.SPONV and ZIKV nucleotide and amino acid divergence coupled with differences in geographic distribution, ecology and vector species support previous reports that these viruses are separate species. Furthermore, the low degree of SPONV infection or dissemination in Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus following exposure to two

  2. PENGEMBANGBIAKAN Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 GALUR LOKAL MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA AIR CUCIAN BERAS DAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP JENTIK Culex quinquefasciatus

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    R. A. Yuniarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 telah banyak digunakan dalam pengendalian vektor penyakit, namun memerlukan biaya yang relatif mahal. Penggunaan media air cucian beras dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif untuk mengembangbiakan B. thuringiensis H-14 galur lokal. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangbiakan B. thuringiensis H-14 galur lokal dalam media air cucian beras dan mengevaluasi patogeni si tasnya terhadap jentik nyamuk Culex quinquefasciatus di laboratorium. Penelitian dilakukan dari bulan Maret sampai Desember 2005 di laboratorium Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit, Salatiga. Sampel penelitian adalah jentik Cx. quinquefasciatus instar III akhir, dan media yang digunakan adalah air cucian beras Mentik. Pandanwangi, dan C4 Super. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara completely randomized sampling dengan 10 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Data kematian jentik sebesar 90% (LC90 setelah 24 jam pengamatan, dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis probit dan program SPSS 10.0 menggunakan univariate analysis of variance. Untuk mengetahui perbedaan kemaknaan antar berbagai perlakuan digunakan uji Duncan 5% Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dosis terendah B. thuringiensis H-14 galur lokal pada media air cucian beras C4 Super yang membunuh jentik Cx. quinquefasciatus 90% (LC 90 setelah 24 jam pengamatan adalah sebesar 3,38 ppm. Jumlah sel dan spora hidup B. thuringiensis H-14 galur lokal yang paling banyak adalah media air cucian beras C4 Super (20,5 x 106 sel/ml dan 22,7x 106 spora/ml dan paling sedikit pada media air cucian beras Pandanwangi (6 x 106 sel/ml dan 6.3 x 106 spora/ml. Efek residu B. thuringiensis H-14 galur lokal pada LC90 pada media air cucian beras Mentik, pandanwangi dan C4 Super masing-masing sebesar 5 hari, 3 hari dan 5 hari. Kematian jentik Cx. quinquefasciatus setelah 24 jam pengamatan pada ketiga media pertumbuhan dan berbagai konsentrasi B. thuringiensis H-14 galur lokal menunjukkan adanya perbedaan

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sida acuta (Malvaceae) leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life-threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management, emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and nontarget organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Sida acuta plant leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The synthesized AgNPs from S. acuta leaf were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of S. acuta for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of S. acuta aqueous leaf extract appeared to be most effective

  4. Single nucleotide deletion of cqm1 gene results in the development of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    Guo, Qing-yun; Cai, Quan-xin; Yan, Jian-ping; Hu, Xiao-min; Zheng, Da-sheng; Yuan, Zhi-ming

    2013-09-01

    The entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus is one of the most effective biolarvicides used to control the Culex species of mosquito. The appearance of resistance in mosquitoes to this bacterium, however, remains a threat to its continuous use in integrated mosquito control programs. Previous work showed that the resistance to B. sphaericus in Culex colonies was associated with the absence of the 60-kDa binary toxin receptor (Cpm1/Cqm1), an alpha-glucosidase present in the larval midgut microvilli. In this work, we studied the molecular basis of the resistance developed by Culex quinquefasciatus to B. sphaericus C3-41. The cqm1 genes were cloned from susceptible (CqSL) and resistant (CqRL/C3-41) colonies, respectively. The sequence of the cDNA and genomic DNA derived from CqRL/C3-41 colony differed from that of CqSL one by a one-nucleotide deletion which resulted in a premature stop codon, leading to production of a truncated protein. Recombinant Cqm1S from the CqSL colony expressed in Escherichia coli specifically bound to the Bin toxin and had α-glucosidase activity, whereas the Cqm1R from the CqRL/C3-41 colony, with a deletion of three quarters of the receptor's C-terminal lost its α-glucosidase activity and could not bind to the binary toxin. Immunoblotting experiments showed that Cqm1 was undetectable in CqRL/C3-41 larvae, although the gene was correctly transcribed. Thus, the cqm1R represents a new allele in C. quinquefasciatus that confers resistance to B. sphaericus. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Permethrin induction of multiple cytochrome P450 genes in insecticide resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    Gong, Youhui; Li, Ting; Zhang, Lee; Gao, Xiwu; Liu, Nannan

    2013-01-01

    The expression of some insect P450 genes can be induced by both exogenous and endogenous compounds and there is evidence to suggest that multiple constitutively overexpressed P450 genes are co-responsible for the development of resistance to permethrin in resistant mosquitoes. This study characterized the permethrin induction profiles of P450 genes known to be constitutively overexpressed in resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. The gene expression in 7 of the 19 P450 genes CYP325K3v1, CYP4D42v2, CYP9J45, (CYP) CPIJ000926, CYP325G4, CYP4C38, CYP4H40 in the HAmCqG8 strain, increased more than 2-fold after exposure to permethrin at an LC50 concentration (10 ppm) compared to their acetone treated counterpart; no significant differences in the expression of these P450 genes in susceptible S-Lab mosquitoes were observed after permethrin treatment. Eleven of the fourteen P450 genes overexpressed in the MAmCqG6 strain, CYP9M10, CYP6Z12, CYP9J33, CYP9J43, CYP9J34, CYP306A1, CYP6Z15, CYP9J45, CYPPAL1, CYP4C52v1, CYP9J39, were also induced more than doubled after exposure to an LC50 (0.7 ppm) dose of permethrin. No significant induction in P450 gene expression was observed in the susceptible S-Lab mosquitoes after permethrin treatment except for CYP6Z15 and CYP9J39, suggesting that permethrin induction of these two P450 genes are common to both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes while the induction of the others are specific to insecticide resistant mosquitoes. These results demonstrate that multiple P450 genes are co-up-regulated in insecticide resistant mosquitoes through both constitutive overexpression and induction mechanisms, providing additional support for their involvement in the detoxification of insecticides and the development of insecticide resistance.

  6. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

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    Howard Annabel FV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. Methods The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. Results In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. Conclusions This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new

  7. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net): an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

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    Ngufor, Corine; N'guessan, Raphael; Fagbohoun, Josias; Odjo, Abibatou; Malone, David; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen. The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone) and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN). Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts. Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01). Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, Ppyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and management of pyrethroid resistant vectors by preventing further selection of pyrethroid resistant phenotypes.

  8. Analysis of toxicity on Bacillus sphaericus from amazonian soils to Anopheles darlingi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae Análise da toxicidade em Bacillus sphaericus de solos da Amazônia em larvas de Anopheles darlingi e Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Eleilza de Castro Litaiff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays under laboratory conditions aiming to determine the larvicidal activity of Bacillus sphaericus were carried out on Anopheles darlingi and Culex quinquefasciatus. In order to estimate the toxicity through median lethal concentration (LC50 and the relative potency of the strains to B. sphaericus standard strain 2362, probit analysis was performed utilizing the POLO-PC program. The findings of LC50 pointed out high effectiveness on strains IB15 (0.040 ppm, IB19 and S1116 (0.048 ppm, IB16 (0.052 ppm and S265 (0.057 ppm. Strain IB15 presented nearly 50% more potency than strain 2362 in bioassays conducted on A. darlingi. It was observed that IB16 and S1116 strains were the most powerful against C. quinquefasciatus, showing to be about 300-400% stronger than 2362 strain. The results show that laboratory conditioned evaluation can be an important way to select promising bacteria with entomopathogenic action on biolarvicides production for use on mosquitoes breeding sites.Bioensaios sob condições de laboratório foram realizados em larvas de Anopheles darlingi e Culex quinquefasciatus, visando determinar a atividade larvicida de Bacillus sphaericus. Para estimar a toxicidade através da concentração letal mediana (CL50 e a potência das estirpes em relação à estirpe padrão 2362, foi realizada a análise de probit utilizando o programa POLO-PC. Os resultados da CL50 apontaram alta efetividade para as estirpes IB15 (0,040 ppm, IB19 e S1116 (0,048 ppm, IB16 (0,052 ppm e S265 (0,057 ppm. A estirpe IB15 apresentou potência cerca de 50% maior que a estirpe 2362 nos bioensaios realizados com A. darlingi. Foi observado que as estirpes IB16 e S1116 foram as mais tóxicas para controle de C. quinquefasciatus, mostrando-se cerca de 300-400% mais potente. Os resultados mostram que a avaliação em laboratório é uma importante etapa para selecionar bactérias com ação entomopatogênica a serem usadas na para a produção de biolarvicidas para

  9. Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

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    Elimam, Abdalla M; Elmalik, Khitma H; Ali, Faysal S

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate, the larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent activity of aqueous leaves extract of Calotropis procera against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as natural mosquito larvicide. The larvicidal activity was monitored against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of each mosquito species 24 h post-treatment. Adult emergence inhibition activity was tested by exposing 3rd instar larvae of each mosquito species to different concentrations of extracts (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for An. arabiensis and 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Probit analysis was used to analyze data from bioassay experiments. The oviposition deterrent activity was tested by using three different concentrations of extracts (1000, 500 and 200 for An. arabiensis, and 1000, 500 and 100 for Cx. quinquefasciatus) that caused high, moderate and low larval mortality in the larvicidal experiment against 3rd instar larvae. It was found that, LC50-LC90 values calculated were 273.53-783.43, 366.44-1018.59 and 454.99-1224.62 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of An. arabiensis and 187.93-433.51, 218.27-538.27 and 264.85-769.13 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fifty percent of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) was shown at 277.90 and 183.65 ppm for An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The pupal stage was not affected till a concentration of 5000 ppm. The extract showed oviposition deterrence and effective repellence against both mosquito species at different concentrations, with the observation on that maximal eggs were laid in low concentration of extract. These results suggest that the leaves extract of C. procera possess remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibitor, repellent and oviposition deterrent effect against both An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and might be used as natural biocides for mosquito

  10. Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimam, Abdalla M.; Elmalik, Khitma H.; Ali, Faysal S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate, the larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent activity of aqueous leaves extract of Calotropis procera against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as natural mosquito larvicide. The larvicidal activity was monitored against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of each mosquito species 24 h post-treatment. Adult emergence inhibition activity was tested by exposing 3rd instar larvae of each mosquito species to different concentrations of extracts (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for An. arabiensis and 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Probit analysis was used to analyze data from bioassay experiments. The oviposition deterrent activity was tested by using three different concentrations of extracts (1000, 500 and 200 for An. arabiensis, and 1000, 500 and 100 for Cx. quinquefasciatus) that caused high, moderate and low larval mortality in the larvicidal experiment against 3rd instar larvae. It was found that, LC50–LC90 values calculated were 273.53–783.43, 366.44–1018.59 and 454.99–1224.62 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of An. arabiensis and 187.93–433.51, 218.27–538.27 and 264.85–769.13 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fifty percent of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) was shown at 277.90 and 183.65 ppm for An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The pupal stage was not affected till a concentration of 5000 ppm. The extract showed oviposition deterrence and effective repellence against both mosquito species at different concentrations, with the observation on that maximal eggs were laid in low concentration of extract. These results suggest that the leaves extract of C. procera possess remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibitor, repellent and oviposition deterrent effect against both An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and might be used as natural biocides

  11. Co-expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba and Cyt2Aa2 in Escherichia coli revealed high synergism against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

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    Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Promdonkoy, Patcharee; Panyim, Sakol

    2005-11-01

    Cry4Ba is a delta-endotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Cyt2Aa2 is a cytolytic delta-endotoxin produced by B. thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis. Cry4Ba produced in Escherichia coli was toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae (LC(50)=140 ng ml(-1)) but virtually inactive to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Cyt2Aa2 expressed in E. coli exhibited moderate activity against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus larvae with LC(50) values of 350 and 250 ng ml(-1), respectively. Co-expression of both toxins in E. coli dramatically increased toxicity to both A. aegypti andC. quinquefasciatus larvae (LC(50)=7 and 20 ng ml(-1), respectively). This is the first report to demonstrate that Cry4Ba and Cyt2Aa2 have high synergistic activity against C. quinquefasciatus larvae.

  12. Short report: comparison of oral infectious dose of West Nile virus isolates representing three distinct genotypes in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandingham, Dana L; McGee, Charles E; Klingler, Kimberly A; Galbraith, Sareen E; Barrett, Alan D T; Higgs, Stephen

    2008-12-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus in North America has identified replacement of the originally introduced clade, Eastern United States (NY99), by the North American clade. In addition, the transient emergence of other clades and genetic variants has also been observed. In this study, we investigated the potential role of the mosquito in the selection of these clades and genetic variants. We determined the relative susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus to infection with isolates from the Eastern U.S. clade, the North American clade, and the Southeast coastal Texas clade. Although significant differences were observed in 50% oral infectious dose values between the Eastern U.S. and two attenuated North American genetic variants compared with the North American and Southeast coastal Texas clade viruses, these differences did not correlate with persistence of the genotype in nature. These results indicate that selection of these viral genotypes was independent of viral oral infectivity in the mosquito.

  13. Development of a Bacillus sphaericus tablet formulation and its evaluation as a larvicide in the biological control of Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Flávia P Morais de Medeiros

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the final fermentation culture of Bacillus sphaericus 2362, standardize it and develop an active tablet formulation for use in urban mosquito breeding sites. It was performed in three phases: analysis and standardization of a B. sphaericus fermented culture; physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the active powder (solubility, residual humidity, particle size, resting angle, flowing off time, compacted density, and biological activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae; and the development of fast-disintegrating tablets. Five formulations with differing compositions were developed and a UV protector was added to the selected formulation. The formulation products with or without UV protector, as well as the active powder caused 100% larval mortality from 1 day to 2 months after a single treatment under simulated field conditions. These results show that the UV protector does not affect the initial larvicide activity of B. sphaericus, nor its persistence over a period of two months.

  14. Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus enhance mosquitocidal cry-toxin activity and suppress cry-resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C.; Berry, Colin; Walton, William E.; Federici, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly Bacillus sphaericus) with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins and the influence of such interactions on Cry-resistance were evaluated in susceptible and Cry-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were observed to be active against both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes; however varying levels of cross-resistance toward Mtx toxins were observed in the resistant mosquitoes. A 1:1 mixture of either Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 with different Cry toxins generally showed moderate synergism, but some combinations were highly toxic to resistant larvae and suppressed resistance. Toxin synergy has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for enhancing activity and managing Cry-resistance in mosquitoes, thus Mtx toxins may be useful as components of engineered bacterial larvicides. PMID:24144574

  15. Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus enhance mosquitocidal cry-toxin activity and suppress cry-resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Berry, Colin; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly Bacillus sphaericus) with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins and the influence of such interactions on Cry-resistance were evaluated in susceptible and Cry-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were observed to be active against both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes; however varying levels of cross-resistance toward Mtx toxins were observed in the resistant mosquitoes. A 1:1 mixture of either Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 with different Cry toxins generally showed moderate synergism, but some combinations were highly toxic to resistant larvae and suppressed resistance. Toxin synergy has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for enhancing activity and managing Cry-resistance in mosquitoes, thus Mtx toxins may be useful as components of engineered bacterial larvicides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity of Citrus sinensis orange peel extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subrmaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-10-01

    Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present study explored the effects of orange peel ethanol extract of Citrus sinensis on larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The orange peel material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From orange peel, 300 g powdered was macerated with 1 L of ethanol sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yields of the orange peel ethanol crude extract of C. sinensis 13.86 g, respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4 °C. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. For C. sinensis, the median lethal concentration values (LC(50)) observed for the larvicidal and pupicidal activities against mosquito vector species A. stephensi first to fourth larval instars and pupae were 182.24, 227.93, 291.69, 398.00 and 490.84 ppm; A. aegypti values were 92.27, 106.60, 204.87, 264.26, 342.45, 436.93 and 497.41 ppm; and C. quinquefasciatus values were 244.70, 324.04, 385.32, 452.78 and 530.97 ppm, respectively. The results of maximum repellent activity were observed at 450 ppm in ethanol extracts of C. sinensis and the mean complete protection time ranged from 150 to 180 min was tested. The ethanol extract of C. sinensis showed 100% repellency in 150 min and showed complete protection in 90 min at 350 ppm against A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The adult mortality was found in ethanol extract of C. sinensis with the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 272.19 and 457.14 ppm, A. stephensi; 289.62 and

  17. Bacillus sphaericus in the adults of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes emerged from treated larvae and its effect on development of the filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paily, K P; Geetha, I; Kumar, B A; Balaraman, K

    2012-06-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is a bio-control agent effective against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis. Apart from its larvicidal effect, there are reports of reduced infection of filarial parasites in mosquitoes exposed to it. In the present study, adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus emerged from B. sphaericus treated larvae were fed on blood samples positive for microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and examined at various time intervals to assess the infection level. The rate of infection was reduced from 95% on day 1 post-feeding to 75% on day 13, when fed with blood sample containing 41 mf/20 μl. The mean parasite burden was also reduced from 4.9 per mosquito on day 1 to 2.15 on day 13. When fed with another sample (30 mf/20 μl), the infection was reduced from 100% on day 1 to 80% on day 13. Reduction in parasite burden was 4.0 to 1.75. Abnormally developed second-stage larvae of the parasite were seen in treated mosquitoes. Thus, the results indicated adverse effect of B. sphaericus treatment on infection and development of the filarial parasite in mosquitoes. The possible reason for the parasite regulation was studied through the assessment of the carryover of the bacterium as well as its toxins to the surviving mosquitoes. The presence of B. sphaericus was determined through plating of homogenate of survived mosquitoes on NYSM agar. Toxic protein was detected through immunoblotting. The bacterium as well as its 41.9-kDa toxic protein was found to be transmitted from larvae to adults and affected the parasite development, directly by the toxin or indirectly by eliciting humoral immune response of the mosquito.

  18. Mosquito nets treated with a mixture of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin control pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Raphael; Ngufor, Corine; Kudom, Andreas A; Boko, Pelagie; Odjo, Abibathou; Malone, David; Rowland, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of insecticide treated nets is under threat across Africa south of the Sahara from the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. To maintain progress against malaria it is necessary to identify alternative residual insecticides for mosquito nets. Mixtures of pyrethroid and insecticides with novel mode of action provide scope for both improved control and management of resistance through concurrent exposure to unrelated insecticides. The pyrrole chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alphacypermethrin were tested individually and as a mixture on mosquito nets in an experimental hut trial in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant An gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The nets were deliberately holed to simulate the effect of wear and tear. The nets treated with the mixture of chlorfenapyr 200 mg/m² and alphacypermethrin 25 mg/m² killed a proportion of An gambiae (77%, 95%CI: 66-86%) significantly greater than nets treated with alphacypermethrin 25 mg/m(2) (30%, 95%CI: 21-41%) but not significantly different from nets treated with chlorfenapyr 200 mg/m² (69%, 95%CI: 57-78%). The nets treated with the mixtures procured personal protection against An gambiae biting(58-62%) by a greater margin than the alphacypermethrin treated net (39%), whereas the chlorfenapyr treated net was not protective. A similar trend in mortality and blood feeding inhibition between treatments was observed in Cx quinquefasciatus to that seen in An. gambiae, although the effects were lower. A mixture of alphacypermethrin with chlorfenapyr applied at 100 mg/m² had an effect similar to the mixture with chlorfenapyr at 200 mg/m². The effectiveness of ITNs against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes was restored by the mixture: the alphacypermethrin component reduced human-vector contact while the chlorfenapyr controlled pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. The complementary action of these unrelated insecticides demonstrates that the combination on

  19. Cytonuclear Epistasis Controls the Density of SymbiontWolbachia pipientisin Nongonadal Tissues of MosquitoCulex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kevin J; Glaser, Robert L

    2017-08-07

    Wolbachia pipientis , a bacterial symbiont infecting arthropods and nematodes, is vertically transmitted through the female germline and manipulates its host's reproduction to favor infected females. Wolbachia also infects somatic tissues where it can cause nonreproductive phenotypes in its host, including resistance to viral pathogens. Wolbachia -mediated phenotypes are strongly associated with the density of Wolbachia in host tissues. Little is known, however, about how Wolbachia density is regulated in native or heterologous hosts. Here, we measure the broad-sense heritability of Wolbachia density among families in field populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens , and show that densities in ovary and nongonadal tissues of females in the same family are not correlated, suggesting that Wolbachia density is determined by distinct mechanisms in the two tissues. Using introgression analysis between two different strains of the closely related species C. quinquefasciatus , we show that Wolbachia densities in ovary tissues are determined primarily by cytoplasmic genotype, while densities in nongonadal tissues are determined by both cytoplasmic and nuclear genotypes and their epistatic interactions. Quantitative-trait-locus mapping identified two major-effect quantitative-trait loci in the C. quinquefasciatus genome explaining a combined 23% of variance in Wolbachia density, specifically in nongonadal tissues. A better understanding of how Wolbachia density is regulated will provide insights into how Wolbachia density can vary spatiotemporally in insect populations, leading to changes in Wolbachia -mediated phenotypes such as viral pathogen resistance. Copyright © 2017 Emerson, Glaser.

  20. Mtx toxins synergize Bacillus sphaericus and Cry11Aa against susceptible and insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Yang, Yangkun; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A; Berry, Colin

    2007-10-01

    Two mosquitocidal toxins (Mtx) of Bacillus sphaericus, which are produced during vegetative growth, were investigated for their potential to increase toxicity and reduce the expression of insecticide resistance through their interactions with other mosquitocidal proteins. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were fused with glutathione S-transferase and produced in Escherichia coli, after which lyophilized powders of these fusions were assayed against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Both Mtx proteins showed a high level of activity against susceptible C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, with 50% lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 of 0.246 and 4.13 microg/ml, respectively. The LC(50)s were 0.406 to 0.430 microg/ml when Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 was mixed with B. sphaericus, and synergy improved activity and reduced resistance levels. When the proteins were combined with a recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis strain that produces Cry11Aa, the mixtures were highly active against Cry11A-resistant larvae and resistance was also reduced. The mixture of two Mtx toxins and B. sphaericus was 10 times more active against susceptible mosquitoes than B. sphaericus alone, demonstrating the influence of relatively low concentrations of these toxins. These results show that, similar to Cyt toxins from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, Mtx toxins can increase the toxicity of other mosquitocidal proteins and may be useful for both increasing the activity of commercial bacterial larvicides and managing potential resistance to these substances among mosquito populations.

  1. Effects of co-habitation between Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic stages on life history traits

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    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effective measures for the control of malaria and filariasis vectors can be achieved by targeting immature stages of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in productive habitat. To design this strategy, the mechanisms (like biotic interactions with conspecifc and heterospecific larvae regulating mosquito aquatic stages survivorship, development time and the size of emerging adults should be understood. This study explored the effect of co-habitation between An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus on different life history traits of both species under different densities and constant food supply in the habitats of the same size under semi-natural conditions. Methods Experiments were set up with three combinations; Cx. quinquefasciatus alone (single species treatment, An. gambiae s.s. alone (single species treatment; and An. gambiae s.s. with Cx. quiquefasciatus (co-habitation treatment in different densities in semi field situation. Results The effect of co-habitation of An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to principally affect three parameters. The wing-lengths (a proxy measure of body size of An. gambiae s.s. in co-habitation treatments were significantly shorter in both females and males than in An. gambiae s.s single species treatments. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, no significant differences in wing-length were observed between the single species and co-habitation treatments. Daily survival rates were not significantly different between co-habitation and single species treatments for both An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Developmental time was found to be significantly different with single species treatments developing better than co-habitation treatments. Sex ratio was found to be significantly different from the proportion of 0.5 among single and co-habitation treatments species at different densities. Single species treatments had more males than females emerging while in co

  2. Effects of co-habitation between Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic stages on life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Zhou, Goufa; Beilhe, Leila B; Dixit, Amruta; Afrane, Yaw; Gilbreath, Thomas M; Munga, Stephen; Nyindo, Mramba; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2012-02-09

    The effective measures for the control of malaria and filariasis vectors can be achieved by targeting immature stages of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in productive habitat. To design this strategy, the mechanisms (like biotic interactions with conspecifc and heterospecific larvae) regulating mosquito aquatic stages survivorship, development time and the size of emerging adults should be understood. This study explored the effect of co-habitation between An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus on different life history traits of both species under different densities and constant food supply in the habitats of the same size under semi-natural conditions. Experiments were set up with three combinations; Cx. quinquefasciatus alone (single species treatment), An. gambiae s.s. alone (single species treatment); and An. gambiae s.s. with Cx. quiquefasciatus (co-habitation treatment) in different densities in semi field situation. The effect of co-habitation of An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to principally affect three parameters. The wing-lengths (a proxy measure of body size) of An. gambiae s.s. in co-habitation treatments were significantly shorter in both females and males than in An. gambiae s.s single species treatments. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, no significant differences in wing-length were observed between the single species and co-habitation treatments. Daily survival rates were not significantly different between co-habitation and single species treatments for both An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Developmental time was found to be significantly different with single species treatments developing better than co-habitation treatments. Sex ratio was found to be significantly different from the proportion of 0.5 among single and co-habitation treatments species at different densities. Single species treatments had more males than females emerging while in co-habitation treatments more females emerged than males. In this study

  3. Local selection in the presence of high levels of gene flow: Evidence of heterogeneous insecticide selection pressure across Ugandan Culex quinquefasciatus populations.

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    Walter Fabricio Silva Martins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus collected in Uganda, where no vector control interventions directly targeting this species have been conducted, was used as a model to determine if it is possible to detect heterogeneities in selection pressure driven by insecticide application targeting other insect species.Population genetic structure was assessed through microsatellite analysis, and the impact of insecticide pressure by genotyping two target-site mutations, Vgsc-1014F of the voltage-gated sodium channel target of pyrethroid and DDT insecticides, and Ace1-119S of the acetylcholinesterase gene, target of carbamate and organophosphate insecticides. No significant differences in genetic diversity were observed among populations by microsatellite markers with HE ranging from 0.597 to 0.612 and low, but significant, genetic differentiation among populations (FST = 0.019, P = 0.001. By contrast, the insecticide-resistance markers display heterogeneous allelic distributions with significant differences detected between Central Ugandan (urban populations relative to Eastern and Southwestern (rural populations. In the central region, a frequency of 62% for Vgsc-1014F, and 32% for the Ace1-119S resistant allele were observed. Conversely, in both Eastern and Southwestern regions the Vgsc-1014F alleles were close to fixation, whilst Ace1-119S allele frequency was 12% (although frequencies may be underestimated due to copy number variation at both loci.Taken together, the microsatellite and both insecticide resistance target-site markers provide evidence that in the face of intense gene flow among populations, disjunction in resistance frequencies arise due to intense local selection pressures despite an absence of insecticidal control interventions targeting Culex.

  4. Local selection in the presence of high levels of gene flow: Evidence of heterogeneous insecticide selection pressure across Ugandan Culex quinquefasciatus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Martins, Walter Fabricio; Wilding, Craig Stephen; Steen, Keith; Mawejje, Henry; Antão, Tiago Rodrigues; Donnelly, Martin James

    2017-10-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus collected in Uganda, where no vector control interventions directly targeting this species have been conducted, was used as a model to determine if it is possible to detect heterogeneities in selection pressure driven by insecticide application targeting other insect species. Population genetic structure was assessed through microsatellite analysis, and the impact of insecticide pressure by genotyping two target-site mutations, Vgsc-1014F of the voltage-gated sodium channel target of pyrethroid and DDT insecticides, and Ace1-119S of the acetylcholinesterase gene, target of carbamate and organophosphate insecticides. No significant differences in genetic diversity were observed among populations by microsatellite markers with HE ranging from 0.597 to 0.612 and low, but significant, genetic differentiation among populations (FST = 0.019, P = 0.001). By contrast, the insecticide-resistance markers display heterogeneous allelic distributions with significant differences detected between Central Ugandan (urban) populations relative to Eastern and Southwestern (rural) populations. In the central region, a frequency of 62% for Vgsc-1014F, and 32% for the Ace1-119S resistant allele were observed. Conversely, in both Eastern and Southwestern regions the Vgsc-1014F alleles were close to fixation, whilst Ace1-119S allele frequency was 12% (although frequencies may be underestimated due to copy number variation at both loci). Taken together, the microsatellite and both insecticide resistance target-site markers provide evidence that in the face of intense gene flow among populations, disjunction in resistance frequencies arise due to intense local selection pressures despite an absence of insecticidal control interventions targeting Culex.

  5. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of acridone derivatives to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and non-target aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, Annadurai; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-01-01

    A serious Mosquito borne yellow fever is one of the grave diseases which affect the major population. Since there is no specific treatment for yellow fever, there is a necessity to develop an effective agent. The series of acridinone analogues 3 to 5 were synthesized with help of non-conventional microwave heating and confirmed by respective spectral characterization. 5c and 3b showed highest activity to kill 90% of larvae against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Also the active products were treated to check the mortality of non-target aquatic species. Through the reports of the larvicidal bioassay, compounds 3b against C. quinquefasciatus whereas 5c against A. aegypti were found to be more active. By keeping this as a platform, further extension of the work can be done to find out a valuable drug for controlling disease vectors.

  6. Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. (Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the larvicidal and ovicidal efficacy of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The ovicidal activity was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of A. paniculata was found to be more effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The LC(50) values were 112.19, 137.48, 118.67, 102.05, 91.20 ppm and 119.58, 146.34, 124.24, 110.12, 99.54 ppm respectively. Among five tested solvent, methanol and ethyl acetate crude extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against two mosquito species. The extract of methanol and ethyl acetate exerted 100% mortality at 200 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus and at 250 ppm against Ae. aegypti. From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of A. paniculata was a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil Características agravantes por infestación residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, en una región del Noreste de Brasil Características agravantes por infestação residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, em Olinda, PE

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    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyse how basic sanitation conditions, water supply and housing conditions affect the concentration of Culex quinquefasciatus METHODS: Populations of C. quinquefasciatus in 61 houses in the municipality of Olinda, PE, were monitored between October 2009 and October 2010. Observations were carried out in homes without the presence of preferred breeding sites in order to identify characteristics that may be aggravating factors for the development of the mosquito. Five aggravating factors were analysed: vegetation cover surrounding the home, number of residents/home, water storage, sewage drainage and water drainage. These characteristics were analysed in terms of presence or absence and as indicators of the degree of infestation, which was estimated through monitoring the concentration of eggs (oviposition traps - BR-OVT and adults (CDC light traps. RESULTS: Sewage drainage to a rudimentary septic tank or to the open air was the most frequent aggravating factor in the homes (91.8%, although the presence of vegetation was the only characteristic that significantly influenced the increase in the number of egg rafts (p = 0.02. The BR-OVT achieved positive results in 95.1% of the evaluations, with the presence of at least one egg raft per month. A total of 2,366 adults were caught, with a mosquito/room/night ratio of 32.9. No significant difference was found in the number of mosquitoes caught in the homes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sanitation and water supply influence the population density of C. quinquefasciatus, residence features that are not usually considered in control measures can be aggravating factors in sustaining the mosquito population.OBJETIVO: Analizar como las condiciones de saneamiento básico, abastecimiento de agua y habitaciones afectan la densidad de Culex quinquefasciatus MÉTODOS: se monitoreó la población de C. quinquefasciatus en 61 residencias del municipio de Olinda, PE, Brasil, de octubre de 2009 a octubre de

  8. Investigation of the Larvicidal Potential of Silver Nanoparticles against Culex quinquefasciatus: A Case of a Ubiquitous Weed as a Useful Bioresource

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    Elijah T. Adesuji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Cassia hirsuta aqueous leaf extract were reported in this study. The synthesis was optimized by measuring various parameters such as temperature, time, volume ratio, and concentration. The surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm for 30°C and 420 nm for both 50°C and 70°C measured using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer confirmed the formation of AgNPs synthesized using C. hirsuta (CAgNPs. The functional groups responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the NPs were identified using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. The morphology, size, and elemental composition of the NPs were obtained using scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. X-ray diffractometer was used to identify the phases and crystallinity of CAgNPs. Crystalline spherical NPs with average diameter of 6.9 ± 0.1 nm were successfully synthesized. The thermal analysis of CAgNPs was observed from DSC-TGA. The larvicidal results against the different larva instar stage of Culex quinquefasciatus gave LC50 = 4.43 ppm and LC90 = 8.37 ppm. This is the first study on the synthesis of AgNPs using C. hirsuta and its application against lymphatic filariasis vector. Hence, it is suggested that the C. hirsuta synthesized AgNPs would be environmentally benign in biological control of mosquito.

  9. Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Gul Zamin Khan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: It is thus concluded that IGRs can be utilized as environment friendly control measures for Culex and Aedes spp. of mosquitoes on small and large scale. This will reduce the use of conventional insecticides by the public health authorities and help in reducing selection pressure of insecticides.

  10. Detection of an allele conferring resistance to Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin in Culex quinquefasciatus populations by molecular screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalegre, Karlos Diogo de Melo; Romão, Tatiany Patrícia; Amorim, Liliane Barbosa; Anastacio, Daniela Bandeira; de Barros, Rosineide Arruda; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Regis, Lêda; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2009-02-01

    The activity of the Bacillus sphaericus binary (Bin) toxin on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae depends on its specific binding to the Cqm1 receptor, a midgut membrane-bound alpha-glucosidase. A 19-nucleotide deletion in the cqm1 gene (cqm1(REC)) mediates high-level resistance to Bin toxin. Here, resistance in nontreated and B. sphaericus-treated field populations of C. quinquefasciatus was assessed through bioassays as well as a specific PCR assay designed to detect the cqm1(REC) allele in individual larvae. Resistance ratios at 90% lethal concentration, gathered through bioassays, were close to 1 and indicate that the selected populations had similar levels of susceptibility to B. sphaericus, comparable to that of a laboratory colony. A diagnostic PCR assay detected the cqm1(REC) allele in all populations investigated, and its frequency in two nontreated areas was 0.006 and 0.003, while the frequency in the B. sphaericus-treated population was significantly higher. Values of 0.053 and 0.055 were detected for two distinct sets of samples, and homozygote resistant larvae were found. Evaluation of Cqm1 expression in individual larvae through alpha-glucosidase assays corroborated the allelic frequency revealed by PCR. The data from this study indicate that the cqm1(REC) allele was present at a detectable frequency in nontreated populations, while the higher frequency in samples from the treated area is, perhaps, correlated with the exposure to B. sphaericus. This is the first report of the molecular detection of a biolarvicide resistance allele in mosquito populations, and it confirms that the PCR-based approach is suitable to track such alleles in target populations.

  11. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies.

  12. Effect of ivermectin on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A.; Malongo, Bernard B.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    . Methods: A total of 1800 laboratory reared mosquito larvae of each species were used in the bioassays. Twelve replicates were performed, each testing 6 concentrations of ivermectin (0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 parts per million (ppm)) against third instar larvae of An. gambiae and Cx...... to the different water strata occupied by the two species, with ivermectin adsorbed in food that sediment being more readily available to the bottom feeding Cx. quinquefasciatus than the surface feeding An. gambiae larvae....

  13. Aspectos da distribuição de Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera, Culicidae na região do rio Pinheiros, na cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Aspects of the distribution of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera, Culicidae in the region of the Pinheiros River, in the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sirlei Antunes de Morais

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição de Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say (1823 ao longo das margens do rio Pinheiros e os principais fatores que levam à proliferação da espécie foram estudados efetuando-se coletas semanais de mosquitos adultos, no período de um ano, em três pontos eqüidistantes às margens do rio. Para as coletas de mosquitos utilizou-se aspirador à bateria, por um período de cinco minutos. Os mosquitos foram identificados, diferenciados segundo o sexo e contados. Para verificação do estado fisiológico, as fêmeas foram separadas em vazias, com sangue e com ovos. Foram coletados 35.684 mosquitos, todos identificados como Cx. quinquefasciatus, sendo 39,4% fêmeas e 60,6% machos. As freqüências tomaram proporções diferentes entre os pontos de coletas e, em uma série temporal. O ambiente impactado do rio Pinheiros representa um excelente criadouro de Cx. quinquefasciatus, confirmado pela ocorrência de picos acentuados na freqüência de mosquitos, com desenvolvimento de forma explosiva e sobreposições entre as gerações, após as chuvas e em épocas de verão.The distribution of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say (1823 along of the margins of the Pinheiros river and the main factors that lead to the proliferation of the species were studied doing weekly collections of adult mosquitoes, in the period of one year, in three equidistant points in the margins of the river. For the collections of mosquitoes battery vacuum cleaner was used, for a period of five minutes. The mosquitoes were identified, differentiated according to the sex and counted. For verification of the physiological state, the females were differentiated in empty, with blood or eggs. A total of 35.684 mosquitoes were captured, all of them were identified as Cx. quinquefasciatus, being 39.4% females and 60.6% males. The frequencies took different proportions between the points of collections and in a temporary series. The damaged environment of the Pinheiros river

  14. Juvenile hormone (JH esterase of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is not a target of the JH analog insecticide methoprene.

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    Shizuo G Kamita

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormones (JHs are essential sesquiterpenes that control insect development and reproduction. JH analog (JHA insecticides such as methoprene are compounds that mimic the structure and/or biological activity of JH. In this study we obtained a full-length cDNA, cqjhe, from the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that encodes CqJHE, an esterase that selectively metabolizes JH. Unlike other recombinant esterases that have been identified from dipteran insects, CqJHE hydrolyzed JH with specificity constant (k(cat/K(M ratio and V(max values that are common among JH esterases (JHEs. CqJHE showed picomolar sensitivity to OTFP, a JHE-selective inhibitor, but more than 1000-fold lower sensitivity to DFP, a general esterase inhibitor. To our surprise, CqJHE did not metabolize the isopropyl ester of methoprene even when 25 pmol of methoprene was incubated with an amount of CqJHE that was sufficient to hydrolyze 7,200 pmol of JH to JH acid under the same assay conditions. In competition assays in which both JH and methoprene were available to CqJHE, methoprene did not show any inhibitory effects on the JH hydrolysis rate even when methoprene was present in the assay at a 10-fold higher concentration relative to JH. Our findings indicated that JHE is not a molecular target of methoprene. Our findings also do not support the hypothesis that methoprene functions in part by inhibiting the action of JHE.

  15. Novel mutations associated with resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in a polymorphic region of the Culex quinquefasciatus cqm1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalegre, Karlos Diogo de Melo; Romão, Tatiany Patrícia; Tavares, Daniella Aliny; Santos, Eloína Mendonça; Ferreira, Lígia Maria; Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2012-09-01

    Bin toxin from Bacillus sphaericus acts on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae by binding to Cqm1 midgut-bound receptors, and disruption of the cqm1 gene is the major cause of resistance. The goal of this work was to screen for a laboratory-selected resistance cqm1(REC) allele in field populations in the city of Recife, Brazil, and to describe other resistance-associated polymorphisms in the cqm1 gene. The cqm1(REC) allele was detected in the four nontreated populations surveyed at frequencies from 0.001 to 0.017, and sequence analysis from these samples revealed a novel resistant allele (cqm1(REC-D16)) displaying a 16-nucletotide (nt) deletion which is distinct from the 19-nt deletion associated with cqm1(REC). Yet a third resistant allele (cqm1(REC-D25)), displaying a 25-nt deletion, was identified in samples from a treated area exposed to B. sphaericus. A comparison of the three deletion events revealed that all are located within the same 208-nt region amplified during the screening procedure. They also introduce equivalent frameshifts in the sequence and generate the same premature stop codon, leading to putative transcripts encoding truncated proteins which are unable to locate to the midgut epithelium. The populations analyzed in this study contained a variety of alleles with mutations disrupting the function of the corresponding Bin toxin receptor. Their locations reveal a hot spot that can be exploited to assess the resistance risk through DNA screening.

  16. Larvicidal, Histopathological Efficacy of Penicillium daleae against Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti Plus Biotoxicity on Artemia nauplii a Non-target Aquatic Organism

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    C. Ragavendran

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes can transmit the terrible diseases to human beings. Soil-borne fungal products act as potential source for low-cost chemicals, used for developing eco-friendly control agents against mosquito-vector borne diseases. The prime aim of study was to check the larvicidal potential of fungus mycelia (by ethyl acetate solvent extract from Penicillium daleae (KX387370 against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti and to test the toxicity of brine shrimp Artemia nauplii, by observing the physiological activity. The ethyl acetate extract of P. daleae mycelia (after 15 days from Potato dextrose broth (PDB medium revealed better result with least LC50 and LC90 values of I-IV instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 127.441, 129.087, 108.683, and 93.521; LC90 = 152.758, 158.169, 139.091, and 125.918 μg/ml and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 105.077, 83.943, 97.158, and 76.513; LC90 = 128.035, 106.869, 125.640, and 104.606 μg/ml respectively. At higher concentration (1000 μg/ml of extracts, mortality begins at 18 h of exposure and attained 100% mortality after 48 h exposure. Overall, the activity was depends on the dose and time of exposure to the extracts. The stereomicroscopic and histopathological analysis of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae treated with mycelium ethyl acetate extract showed complete disintegration of abdominal region, particularly the midgut and caeca, loss of cuticular parts and caudal hairs. Morphological characterization of the fungi was performed and taxonomically identified through 5.8s rDNA technique. The phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequence was carried out to find out the taxonomic and the evolutionary sketch of isolate in relation to earlier described genus Penicillium. Behavior and swimming speed alteration was analyzed together with mortality. The results of the experiment indicates that swimming behavior recorder (SBR is a appropriate tool to detect individual swimming speed of the A. nauplii organisms

  17. West Nile virus vector Culex modestus established in southern England

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    Golding Nick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.

  18. Mosquito nets treated with a mixture of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin control pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in West Africa.

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    Raphael N'Guessan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of insecticide treated nets is under threat across Africa south of the Sahara from the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. To maintain progress against malaria it is necessary to identify alternative residual insecticides for mosquito nets. Mixtures of pyrethroid and insecticides with novel mode of action provide scope for both improved control and management of resistance through concurrent exposure to unrelated insecticides. METHODS: The pyrrole chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alphacypermethrin were tested individually and as a mixture on mosquito nets in an experimental hut trial in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant An gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The nets were deliberately holed to simulate the effect of wear and tear. RESULTS: The nets treated with the mixture of chlorfenapyr 200 mg/m² and alphacypermethrin 25 mg/m² killed a proportion of An gambiae (77%, 95%CI: 66-86% significantly greater than nets treated with alphacypermethrin 25 mg/m(2 (30%, 95%CI: 21-41% but not significantly different from nets treated with chlorfenapyr 200 mg/m² (69%, 95%CI: 57-78%. The nets treated with the mixtures procured personal protection against An gambiae biting(58-62% by a greater margin than the alphacypermethrin treated net (39%, whereas the chlorfenapyr treated net was not protective. A similar trend in mortality and blood feeding inhibition between treatments was observed in Cx quinquefasciatus to that seen in An. gambiae, although the effects were lower. A mixture of alphacypermethrin with chlorfenapyr applied at 100 mg/m² had an effect similar to the mixture with chlorfenapyr at 200 mg/m². CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of ITNs against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes was restored by the mixture: the alphacypermethrin component reduced human-vector contact while the chlorfenapyr controlled pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. The complementary action of these

  19. Pengaruh ukuran tubuh ikan Poecilia reticulata pada daya pemangsaannya terhadap larva Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Noer Moehammadi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to know the influence of poecilia reticulata body size, in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The research was experimental method with Complete Random Design., each treatment with 5 replications. The taken body size of Poecilia reticulata were; 1,50 cm; 2.50 cm; and 3.50 cm. the size of fish €™s body was measured from the tip of snout up to the end of fin (cm. The feeding capacity was determined by subtracting the first amount of larvae which was given the rest of larvae after 24 hours. The result showed that the difference of size of Poecilia reticulate body was significantly different in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The fish whose body size was 1.50 cm had the lowest feeding capacity by eating 77.2 larvae for average, and the highest one was the fist which body size was 2.50 cm by eating 113.6 larvae for average, subsequently the feeding capacity decrease to the fish which body size was 3.50 cm because of eating 100,6 larvae for 24 hours.

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Cadaba indica lam leaf extract and its larvicidal and pupicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus

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    K. Kalimuthu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Green nanoparticle synthesis was achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extracts and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. In the present study, activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs synthesized using Cadaba indica lam plant against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. A range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 ppm and crude extract (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ppm were tested against A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. indica lam were much more toxic than crude extract in both mosquito species. The cured extract high mortality values were 50% lethal concentration (LC50=88.22, 90.84 ppm; 90% lethal concentration (LC90=172.94, 178.55 ppm, and the AgNPs high mortality values were LC50=3.90, 4.39 ppm; LC90=19.04, 17.35 ppm against A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results recorded from ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transformed infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. These results suggest that the leaf cured extracts of C. indica lam and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus.

  1. Human Blood Feeding Activity of Female Hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Yoshii, Manabu; Mine, Mariko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Ogawa, Yasunori; Eshita, Yuuki; Uchida, Keikichi

    2007-01-01

    Human blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus during long photoperiod at 25℃. Blood feeding rates of hybrids were lower than in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pallens, and higher than in Culex pipiens pipiens, because no females fed on human blood in Culex pipiens pipiens.

  2. Ciclo de vida de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae bajo condiciones no controladas en Bogotá.

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    Myriam Janeth Salazar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar varios aspectos del crecimiento y el desarrollo de los estadios inmaduros de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae, especie antropofílica frecuentemente encontrada en Bogotá. Con este fin, se realizaron dos experimentos en diferentes épocas del año 2001 (enero-febrero y septiembre-octubre, bajo condiciones no controladas (luz, temperatura y humedad relativa. Se colocaron recipientes plásticos transparentes con agua de charca a la que se le adicionó concentrado para perro; se tomaron cuatro balsas al azar para estudiar el ciclo de vida utilizando los parámetros de la tabla de vida: mortalidad y supervivencia. Las hembras ovipositaron entre cinco y ocho días después de la ingestión de sangre. El número de huevos por balsa varió entre 152 y 203. La eclosión de larvas L1 fue de 50% en el primer experimento y de 75% en el segundo. Se destacó la naturaleza no sincrónica de la eclosión de las L1, la menor duración proporcional del estadio de pupa (11% del tiempo del desarrollo total y la eficiencia del cambio pupa-adulto (98,61%. Se reporta una menor duración del ciclo de lo informado previamente. Además, los altos porcentajes de eclosión (83,58%, pupación (86,63% y emergencia (98,61% con las condiciones presentes para estos experimentos (temperatura media 14,8°C y 15,1°C y humedad relativa del 72,5% y 74,1%, respectivamente indican el alto grado de adaptación de C. quinquefasciatus al ambiente bogotano. Estas características, más la capacidad vectorial y la resistencia a los insecticidas, hacen de esta especie un problema de salud pública.

  3. Evaluation of Pioneer eco-backpack sprayer and Twister XL backpack sprayer using Aqualuer against caged adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Smith, Mike L; Zhao, Tong-Yan; Brown, James R

    2012-12-01

    A Pioneer Eco-Backpack electric cold ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer and a gas-powered Twister XL 3950 series 2 motorized knapsack ULV sprayer with Aqualuer (20.6% permethrin AI) were evaluated against caged adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus in St. Augustine, FL. The Pioneer Eco-Backpack sprayer provided 100% knockdown of both species of mosquitoes at 15 min; the Twister XL backpack sprayer resulted in 17-23% knockdown at 15 min. Both backpack sprayers with Aqualuer resulted in 100% mortality of both species at 24 h. The new Pioneer Eco-Backpack sprayer powered by electricity could be a potential tool for mosquito control.

  4. Multiple Cytochrome P450 Genes: Their Constitutive Overexpression and Permethrin Induction in Insecticide Resistant Mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William R.; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Four cytochrome P450 cDNAs, CYP6AA7, CYP9J40, CYP9J34, and CYP9M10, were isolated from mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. The P450 gene expression and induction by permethrin were compared for three different mosquito populations bearing different resistance phenotypes, ranging from susceptible (S-Lab), through intermediate (HAmCqG0, the field parental population) to highly resistant (HAmCqG8, the 8th generation of permethrin selected offspring of HAmCqG0). A strong correlation was found for P450 gene expression with the levels of resistance and following permethrin selection at the larval stage of mosquitoes, with the highest expression levels identified in HAmCqG8, suggesting the importance of CYP6AA7, CYP9J40, CYP9J34, and CYP9M10 in the permethrin resistance of larva mosquitoes. Only CYP6AA7 showed a significant overexpression in HAmCqG8 adult mosquitoes. Other P450 genes had similar expression levels among the mosquito populations tested, suggesting different P450 genes may be involved in the response to insecticide pressure in different developmental stages. The expression of CYP6AA7, CYP9J34, and CYP9M10 was further induced by permethrin in resistant mosquitoes. Taken together, these results indicate that multiple P450 genes are up-regulated in insecticide resistant mosquitoes through both constitutive overexpression and induction mechanisms, thus increasing the overall expression levels of P450 genes. PMID:21858101

  5. Permethrin resistance variation and susceptible reference line isolation in a field population of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Liu, Nannan

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the genetic variations and mechanisms involved in the development of permethrin resistance in individual mosquitoes from a field population of Culex quinquefasciatus, HAmCq(G0) , and characterizes susceptible reference lines of mosquitoes with a similar genetic background to the field HAmCq(G0) strain. Six upregulated cytochrome P450 genes, CYP9M10, CYP9J34, CYP6P14, CYP9J40, CYP6AA7, and CYP4C52v1, previously identified as being upregulated in the larvae of resistant HAmCq(G8) mosquitoes were examined in the larvae of 3 strains (susceptible S-Lab, parental HAmCq(G0) and permethrin-selected highly resistant HAmCq(G8) ) and 8 HAmCq(G0) single-egg raft colonies, covering a range of levels of susceptibility/resistance to permethrin and exhibiting different variations in the expression of A and/or T alleles at the L-to-F kdr locus of the sodium channel. The 2 lines with the lowest tolerance to permethrin and bearing solely the susceptible A allele at the L-to-F kdr locus of the sodium channels, from colonies Cx_SERC5 and Cx_SERC8, showed lower or similar levels of all 6 of the P450 genes tested compared with the S-Lab strain, suggesting that these 2 lines could be used as the reference mosquitoes in future studies characterizing insecticide resistance in HAmCq mosquitoes. This study also provides a detailed investigation of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in individuals within a population: individuals with elevated levels of resistance to permethrin all displayed one or more potential resistance mechanisms-either elevated levels of P450 gene expression, or L-to-F mutations in the sodium channel, or both. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Larvicidal efficacy of various formulations of Bacillus sphaericus against the resistant strain of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, P; Ramesh, N; Sundaravadivelu, K; Samuel, P; Tyagi, B K

    2009-04-01

    Use of Bacillus sphaericus Neide (Bs) as potential biolarvicide in developing countries is limited due to development of resistance by target mosquitoes. Efforts are taken to look for appropriate formulations or combination of Bs to prevent or delay resistance problem. Here, we report the efficacy of a formulated Bs product to kill Bs resistant Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae. The laboratory reared resistance colony was maintained by subjecting selection pressure with Bs (2362) toxin. Bioassays were conducted with lyophilized, standard formulated and Bs formulated by us (all belong to strain 2362, serotype H5a5b) against Bs resistant and susceptible colonies. The Bs resistant larvae showed a high level of resistance against lyophilized toxin with resistance ratio (RR) of 8375.2, 1055.6 and 11422.3 folds at LC(50), LC(90) and LC(95) levels, respectively, when compared with Bs susceptible larvae. With formulation of standard powder, the RR between Bs resistant and susceptible larvae were 1.01, 1.13 and 1.19 folds only at LC(50), LC(90) and LC(95) levels, respectively. This observation was comparable with our formulation prepared by a ground mixture of lyophilized Bs and a placebo (plaster of Paris). It is evident from our study, that the placebo present in our Bs 2362 formulation was responsible for increasing the efficacy of Bs lyophilized toxin against resistant larvae. The putative mechanism behind this toxicity phenomenon remains to be investigated to evolve new mosquito control strategies. A cross resistance to indigenous strain of Bs B42 (H5a5b) against Bs resistant larvae was also reported in this study.

  7. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

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    Marta Grech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

  8. Mammalophilic feeding behaviour of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in the cities of Chetumal and Cancun, Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Nele; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Díaz González, Esteban Eduardo; Gaytan-Burns, Alejandro; Medina-de la Garza, Carlos E; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa María; Börstler, Jessica; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jöst, Hanna

    2015-11-01

    The studie describes the blood-feeding behaviour of mosquitoes in Mexico, to understand host-vector relationships and dynamics of disease transmission. From September 2012 to November 2012 and in November 2013, 911 blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected with aspirators inside houses in Chetumal and Cancun. Blood meals were analysed by PCR and subsequent Sanger sequencing of the cytochrome b gene. 93.3% of mosquitoes fed on mammals, 6.5% on birds and 0.2% on reptiles. The most frequent vertebrate hosts were humans (65.4%), dogs (23.2%), chicken (5.4%), cattle (2.2%) and cats (1.8%). Cx. quinquefasciatus most frequently fed on humans and dogs in both studied cities, which is in contrast to a previous study that demonstrated lower prevalence of mammalian blood in engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genome analysis of cytochrome P450s and their expression profiles in insecticide resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available Here we report a study of the 204 P450 genes in the whole genome sequence of larvae and adult Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The expression profiles of the P450 genes were compared for susceptible (S-Lab and resistant mosquito populations, two different field populations of mosquitoes (HAmCq and MAmCq, and field parental mosquitoes (HAmCq(G0 and MAmCq(G0 and their permethrin selected offspring (HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6. While the majority of the P450 genes were expressed at a similar level between the field parental strains and their permethrin selected offspring, an up- or down-regulation feature in the P450 gene expression was observed following permethrin selection. Compared to their parental strains and the susceptible S-Lab strain, HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6 were found to up-regulate 11 and 6% of total P450 genes in larvae and 7 and 4% in adults, respectively, while 5 and 11% were down-regulated in larvae and 4 and 2% in adults. Although the majority of these up- and down-regulated P450 genes appeared to be developmentally controlled, a few were either up- or down-regulated in both the larvae and adult stages. Interestingly, a different gene set was found to be up- or down-regulated in the HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6 mosquito populations in response to insecticide selection. Several genes were identified as being up- or down-regulated in either the larvae or adults for both HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6; of these, CYP6AA7 and CYP4C52v1 were up-regulated and CYP6BY3 was down-regulated across the life stages and populations of mosquitoes, suggesting a link with the permethrin selection in these mosquitoes. Taken together, the findings from this study indicate that not only are multiple P450 genes involved in insecticide resistance but up- or down-regulation of P450 genes may also be co-responsible for detoxification of insecticides, insecticide selection, and the homeostatic response of mosquitoes to changes in cellular environment.

  10. Acute toxicity and synergistic and antagonistic effects of the aromatic compounds of some essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of 30 aromatic compounds and their mutual binary combinations was assessed for acute toxicity against the larvae Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on comparison of the lethal doses, thymol and p-cymene were selected as the most effective (LD50 = 18 and 21 mg L(-1), respectively, and LD90 = 25 and 30 mg L(-1), respectively). Although the LD50 for terpinolene and trans-anethole was also estimated at 21 mg L(-1), their LD90 was significantly higher compared to the substances above (245 and 34 mg L(-1), respectively). In total, 435 binary combinations were tested, of which 249 combinations showed a significant synergistic effect, while 74 combinations showed a significant antagonistic effect on mortality. Only nine substances were identified as being able to create a synergistic effect with more than 20 substances: limonene, trans-anethole, 4-allylanisole, carvacrol, isoeugenol, menthone, carvone, borneol, and camphor. The highest synergistic effect on larval mortality was achieved for the combinations: eugenol and isoeugenol, carvone and carvacrol, carvone and 4-allylanisole, carvone and α-terpineol, carvone and menthone, limonene and trans-anethole, limonene and menthone, α-pinene and menthone, β-citronellol and menthone, carvacrol and 4-allylanisole, carvacrol and terpineol, α-terpinene and trans-anethole, camphor and menthone, camphene and menthone, and 4-allylanisole and menthone. Significant differences between achieved mortality and the mutual mixing ratio were found for the five selected binary mixtures that had shown the most significant synergistic effect in the previous tests. The mixture of limonene and trans-anethole showed the highest mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:1; the mixture of eugenol and isoeugenol caused 90.2% mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:3. One hundred percent mortality was achieved if carvacrol was contained in a mixture with carvone in a ratio >2. After a comparison of all our results, based on our experiments, we

  11. Mosquito control in Dar es Salaam. II. Impact of expanded polystyrene beads and pyriproxyfen treatment of breeding sites on Culex quinquefasciatus densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasse, D C; Lines, J D; Ichimori, K; Majala, A R; Minjas, J N; Marijani, J

    1995-04-01

    In two contrasting areas of Dar es Salaam (Ilala and Mikocheni) all enclosed breeding sites of Culex quinquefasciatus, such as latrines and septic tanks, were treated with a floating layer of expanded polystyrene beads. 7 months later checks in both study areas revealed only one site (from which the polystyrene had been removed during emptying) containing immature stages of Cx quinquefasciatus. Open breeding sites such as areas of flooded land and blocked drains were treated with pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator) at a concentration of 0.1 ppm. Emergence of Cx quinquefasciatus adults from these sites was inhibited for 4 weeks during the rainy season and for up to 11 weeks during the dry season. The problem of mosquito breeding sites caused by bathroom sullage water was addressed through a combination of health education and indirect pressure from the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP) via local community leaders. Households responsible for these sites were encouraged to eliminate them by diverting the water into an enclosed drainage structure, usually a pit latrine. After two weekly visits 64.7% of households had complied and 93.4% had complied after five visits. 5 months later, only 15.7% had reverted to allowing sullage water to collect into puddles. Densities of Cx quinquefasciatus adults dropped by 76.7% in Mikocheni and by 46.2% in Ilala following intervention, but increased by 84.9% and 25.6% in two untreated comparison areas. The reasons for differential success of the combined interventions in the two treated areas are discussed.

  12. Culex Species Mosquitoes and Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Ayers, Victoria B; Lyons, Amy C; Unlu, Isik; Alto, Barry W; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-10-01

    Recent reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) isolates from Culex species mosquitoes have resulted in concern regarding a lack of knowledge on the number of competent vector species for ZIKV transmission in the new world. Although observations in the field have demonstrated that ZIKV isolation can be made from Culex species mosquitoes, the detection of ZIKV in these mosquitoes is not proof of their involvement in a ZIKV transmission cycle. Detection may be due to recent feeding on a viremic vertebrate, and is not indicative of replication in the mosquito. In this study, susceptibility of recently colonized Culex species mosquitoes was investigated. The results showed a high degree of refractoriness among members of Culex pipiens complex to ZIKV even when exposed to high-titer bloodmeals. Our finding suggests that the likelihood of Culex species mosquitoes serving as secondary vectors for ZIKV is very low, therefore vector control strategies for ZIKV should remain focused on Aedes species mosquitoes. Our demonstration that Culex quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, is refractory to infection with ZIKV is especially important and timely. Based on our data, we would conclude that the autochthonous cases of Zika in Florida are not due to transmission by C. quinquefasciatus, and so control efforts should focus on other species, logically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

  13. Effect of temperature on life history traits during immature development of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Marta G; Sartor, Paolo D; Almirón, Walter R; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated how ambient temperature under fluctuating conditions affects the larval-pupal immature traits of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Córdoba city, Argentina, and established each species development threshold and physiological time. Based on life tables, three cohorts of each mosquito species were reared in the laboratory under small fluctuating temperatures conditions of 15.2±1.7°C, 17.9±1.6°C, 21.6±0.7°C and 25.3±0.4°C for Ae. aegypti, and 16.6±1.7°C, 18.7±1.7°C and 25.2±0.3°C for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Immature development time and survival values, and also thermal development threshold and physiological time were estimated. Development times of all larval and pupal stages of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly affected by the rearing temperatures, decreasing when temperature increased. Mean Ae. aegypti total (larva+pupa) development time ranged from 21.9 to 8.6 days, at 15.2 and 25.3°C, whereas, for Cx. quinquefasciatus varied between 23.5 to 9.2 days at 16.6 and 25.2°C, respectively. Larval and pupal survival of both species was affected by different rearing temperatures, increasing in general as temperature increased. For Ae. aegypti the total immature survival ranged from 26% at 15.2°C to 92% at 21.6°C; however, temperature did not have significant effect on this variable. The total immature survival of Cx. quinquefasciatus was significantly and positively affected by temperatures, ranging from 32 to 88%, at 16.6 and 25.2°C. The temperature development threshold and the physiological time estimated for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 11.11°C and 93.74 degree-days, and 10.96°C and 136.87 degree-days, respectively. The results of the present study showed that temperature significantly affects the larval-pupal immature traits of these mosquito species of sanitary importance, from the central region of Argentina. All the parameters recorded are useful for the development of

  14. Larvicidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized using Morinda citrifolia root extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and its other effect on non-target fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thodhal Yoganandham Suman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2NPS synthesized from the root aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: The M. citrifolia broth solution was prepared by taking 8 g of the powdered root of M. citrifolia in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask along with 100 mL of distilled water and boiled for 5 min. About 20 mL of M. citrifolia root extract was added into the 80 mL of an aqueous solution of 5 mmol/L TiO(OH2 for the reduction under continuous stirring for 4 h at 50 °C. Synthesized TiO2NPS were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Toxicity studies were carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results: The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for TiO2NPS synthesized by M. citrifolia root extract showed band at 3 426 cm-1, 1 637 cm-1 and 714 cm-1. The 3 426 cm-1 showed O-H stretching due to alcoholic group; 1 637 cm-1 showed N-H bend due to alcoholic group. In particular, the 1 637 cm-1 indicated the presence of H bend bond for 1° for proteins. A peak was observed around 714 cm-1 due to Ti-O-O bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed the spherical nature of the nanoparticles with a size of 20.46-39.20 nm. The biosynthesized TiO2NPS showed maximum activity against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the aqueous extract of M. citrifolia. Toxicity studies revealed no toxicity towards Poecilia reticulata at LC50 and LC90 doses of TiO 2NPS

  15. Larvicidal Activity of The Mixture of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL and Aqueous Extract of Sapindus rarak DC Against Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Rahmi Safarina Fauziah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL against the Culex quinque fasciatus in larval stage. The CNSL was diluted in water by addition of aqueous extract of Sapindus rarak DC to increase its solubility. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of that mixture. The larvae mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. LC50 and LC90 value by extrapolation were 20,52 ppm and 55,41 ppm respectively. CNSL were specified by characterizing its physico-chemical properties and  anacardic acid as marker compound by High Performance Chromatography (HPLC. The results were the mixture of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL and Aquous extract of Sapindus rarak DC had larvicidal activity against Cx. Quinque-fasciatus and further investigations were needed to identify the fatty acid derivative as active compound of CNSL which  responsible for larvicidal activity.

  16. Impact of inorganic pollutants perchlorate and hexavalent chromium on efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Sorensen, Mary A; Walton, William E; Trumble, John T

    2007-09-01

    The effects of two widespread environmental pollutants, perchlorate and hexavalent chromium, were assessed on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bsph) against fourth instars of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in 24-h laboratory bioassays. Although 250 mg/liter perchlorate, a level somewhat higher than would be considered ecologically relevant, did not affect the control provided by either larvicide, presence of 1.04 mg/liter hexavalent chromium, an ecologically relevant concentration, increased the efficacy of both Bti and Bsph by 21 and 80%, respectively. In the presence of hexavalent chromium, improved suppression could be expected from Bacillus applications at the current label rates. However, because hexavalent chromium has been shown to affect many taxa, we propose that the potential exists for increased susceptibility of nontarget organisms to Bacillus products in polluted habitats.

  17. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

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    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of 18 repellent compounds as oviposition deterrents of Aedes albopictus and as larvicides of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    Xue, Rui-De; Barnard, Donald R; Ali, Arshad

    2003-12-01

    Among 18 experimental skin repellent compounds tested at five concentrations in the laboratory as oviposition deterrents against Aedes albopictus. 12 compounds showed significant activity, with median effective dose values ranging from 0.005 to 0.052%. The test compounds also were evaluated in the laboratory as larvicides against laboratory-reared 4th instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the same concentrations employed for the oviposition deterrency tests against Ae. albopictus. Larval mortality data at 24 and 48 h after treatment indicated that 12 test repellents caused larval mortalities in the range of 67 to 100% against An. quadrimaculatus, 10 compounds induced 55-100% larval mortalities of Ae. aegypti, whereas larval mortality caused by 9 compounds ranged from 74 to 100% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. These mortality data did not fit the linear model of the statistical analysis. However, multiway analysis of variance of these data showed that the repellent compounds, concentrations used, species of mosquitoes, and exposure times affect the degree of larval mortalities.

  19. Cyt1Ab1 and Cyt2Ba1 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Synergize Bacillus sphaericus against Aedes aegypti and Resistant Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Wirth, Margaret C.; Delécluse, Armelle; Walton, William E.

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of two cytolytic toxins, Cyt1Ab from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin and Cyt2Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, with Bacillus sphaericus was evaluated against susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus and the nonsensitive species Aedes aegypti. Mixtures of B. sphaericus with either cytolytic toxin were synergistic, and B. sphaericus resistance in C. quinquefasciatus was suppressed from >17,000- to 2-fold with a 3:1 mixture of B. sphaericus and Cyt1Ab. This trait may prove useful for combating insecticide resistance and for improving the activity of microbial insecticides. PMID:11425753

  20. Evaluation of indoor residual spraying with the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr against pyrethroid-susceptible Anopheles arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

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    Oxborough, R M; Kitau, J; Matowo, J; Mndeme, R; Feston, E; Boko, P; Odjo, A; Metonnou, C G; Irish, S; N'guessan, R; Mosha, F W; Rowland, M W

    2010-10-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide with a unique non-neurological mode of action. Laboratory bioassays of chlorfenapyr comparing the mortality of pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes indicated that operational cross-resistance is unlikely to occur (resistance ratio ranged between 0 and 2.1). Three trials of chlorfenapyr indoor residual spraying were undertaken in experimental huts in an area of rice irrigation in northern Tanzania that supports breeding of A. arabiensis. Daily mosquito collections were undertaken to assess product performance primarily in terms of mortality. In the second trial, 250mg/m(2) and 500mg/m(2) chlorfenapyr were tested for residual efficacy over 6 months. Both dosages killed 54% of C. quinquefasciatus, whilst for A. arabiensis 250mg/m(2) killed 48% compared with 41% for 500mg/m(2); mortality was as high at the end of the trial as at the beginning. In the third trial, 250mg/m(2) chlorfenapyr was compared with the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin dosed at 30mg/m(2). Chlorfenapyr performance was equivalent to the pyrethroid against A. arabiensis, with both insecticides killing 50% of mosquitoes. Chlorfenapyr killed a significantly higher proportion of pyrethroid-resistant C. quinquefasciatus (56%) compared with alpha-cypermethrin (17%). Chlorfenapyr has the potential to be an important addition to the limited arsenal of public health insecticides for indoor residual control of A. arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant species of mosquito. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Predatory efficiency of the sewage drain inhabiting larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann on Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) larvae.

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    Aditya, Gautam; Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Kundu, Niloy; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2007-09-01

    The rate of predation by stage IV instar Toxorhynchites splendens larvae on the equivalent instar stage larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus, co-occurring in sewage drains, were noted for a period of three consecutive days in the laboratory using different prey densities and combinations. The rate of predation varied by age of the predator, density of prey, and prey type. The number of Ar. subalbatus larvae consumed by a single Tx. splendens larva ranged between 0.50 +/- 0.71 and 16.40 +/- 2.01; while for Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, the number consumed ranged from 0.20 +/- 0.42 to 20.40 +/- 1.43 per day. The pupation rates of the prey species varied in respect to control, with a minimum of 0.20 +/- 0.42 pupa/day to a maximum of 12.20 +/- 2.30 pupa/day in the presence of Tx. splendens. The values for the controls were 1.00 +/- 0.87 and 14.44 +/- 2.83 pupa/day, respectively. Irrespective of prey densities and combinations, a single Tx. splendens fourth instar larvae was found to consume on average 10.07 larvae on the first day 16.57 larvae on the second day and 4.38 larvae on the third day, killing a total of 17.70 to 45.10 larvae, in three days. In the presence of Tx. splendens, the cumulative pupation, irrespective of prey, remained between 12.20 and 45.10, and differed significantly from control where the values were between 13.90 and 54.70. The results indicate that Tx. splendens can significantly reduce immature numbers and lower the rate of pupation of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ar. subalbatus. Tx. splendens may be a potential biological resource in the control of mosquitoes inhabiting sewage drains.

  2. Cytopathological effects of Bacillus sphaericus Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa toxin on binary toxin-susceptible and -resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Janaina Viana; Jones, Gareth Wyn; Berry, Colin; Vasconcelos, Romero Henrique Teixeira; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Furtado, André Freire; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2009-07-01

    The Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa mosquitocidal two-component toxin was recently characterized from Bacillus sphaericus strain IAB59 and is uniquely composed of a three-domain Cry protein toxin (Cry48Aa) and a binary (Bin) toxin-like protein (Cry49Aa). Its mode of action has not been elucidated, but a remarkable feature of this protein is the high toxicity against species from the Culex complex, besides its capacity to overcome Culex resistance to the Bin toxin, the major insecticidal factor in B. sphaericus-based larvicides. The goal of this work was to investigate the ultrastructural effects of Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa on midgut cells of Bin-toxin-susceptible and -resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major cytopathological effects observed after Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa treatment were intense mitochondrial vacuolation, breakdown of endoplasmic reticulum, production of cytoplasmic vacuoles, and microvillus disruption. These effects were similar in Bin-toxin-susceptible and -resistant larvae and demonstrated that Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa toxin interacts with and displays toxic effects on cells lacking receptors for the Bin toxin, while B. sphaericus IAB59-resistant larvae did not show mortality after treatment with Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa toxin. The cytopathological alterations in Bin-toxin-resistant larvae provoked by Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa treatment were similar to those observed when larvae were exposed to a synergistic mixture of Bin/Cry11Aa toxins. Such effects seemed to result from a combined action of Cry-like and Bin-like toxins. The complex effects caused by Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa provide evidence for the potential of these toxins as active ingredients of a new generation of biolarvicides that conjugate insecticidal factors with distinct sites of action, in order to manage mosquito resistance.

  3. Analysis of the interspecific association between larvae of Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus, the common and medically important mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae in Hail Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed Amin Kenawy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the extent of the interspecific association between Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus in Hail Region, Saudi Arabia with an aim of further understanding the ecology of such mosquito larvae mainly in respect to similarity in their breeding requirements. Methods: Larvae were collected by dipping over one year from breeding sites in nine localities in Hail Region. The degree of the interspecific association between larvae of the two mosquito species was measured on the basis of presence-absence data (Coefficient of Interspecific Association, CAB ± SD and on their relative numbers (Index of Association or Sorensen's coefficient, I. Results: The two species had a significantly moderate association (CAB = 0.21, P < 0.05 and I = 0.39. The Sorensen’s coefficient (I showed monthly variation and was directly related to the separate/compiled abundance of the two species (b = 0.01–0.02. Conclusions: The obtained results may indicate that the habitat requirements and preference of the two species are similar and that their abundance influencing the degree of their interspecific association.

  4. Biological control of container-breeding mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, in a Japanese island by release of Toxorhynchites splendens adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, I; Toma, T; Mogi, M

    1992-07-01

    To control container-breeding mosquitoes in the small island of Minnajima (0.56 km2), northern Okinawa, Japan, laboratory-reared adults (aged 7-10 days) of Toxorhynchites splendens (Palawan strain), a mosquito with predatory larvae, were released repeatedly during 1984, 1986 and 1987. Thirteen species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) occurred in artificial containers, ground pools or crab-holes on the island, the predominant species being Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus and Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus. Predatory mosquito larvae of Culex (Lutzia) fuscanus and Cx (Lt.) halifaxii were found commonly in wet containers. In the first year of study, during a period of 54 days from 13 May to 5 July 1984, totals of 879 female and 806 male adults of Tx.splendens were released on six occasions. Similarly, between 29 April and 30 August 1986, totals of 2920 female and 2878 male adult Tx.splendens were released. In the third study year, totals of 2041 female and 1783 male Tx.splendens were released on eight occasions during 199 days from 23 April to 7 November 1987. After adult releases at two sites, the immature stages of Tx.splendens were found in 164 out of 502 traps in 1984, 421 out of 933 traps in 1986, and 151 out of 502 traps in 1987. The number of immatures of Tx.splendens present in each trap varied from 1 to 40 in 1984, 1 to 29 in 1986 and 1 to 9 in 1987. Numbers of immatures of the target species found in the traps during August-September averaged 71.9/trap/month in 1984, 114.7/trap/month in 1986 and 36.0/trap/month in 1987, significantly less in the traps with Tx.splendens than in those without them. The present field studies indicated that, in this small island, approximately 250 adult female and 200 male Tx.splendens per month should be released from April to November, and the releases should be carried out every year, in order to control effectively the target mosquitoes Ae.albopictus and Cx quinquefasciatus breeding in artificial containers in Minnajima.

  5. Evolution of Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) Selected With a Recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis Strain-Producing Cyt1Aa and Cry11Ba, and the Binary Toxin, Bin, From Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

    2015-09-01

    Fourth instars of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were selected with a recombinant bacterial strain synthesizing the mosquitocidal proteins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Bin) and Cry11Ba and Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis. Selection was initiated in Generation 1 with a concentration of 0.04 μg/ml, which rose to a maximum selection concentration of 8.0 μg/ml in Generation 14, followed by an unexpected, rapid increase in mortality in Generation 15. Subsequently, a selection concentration of 0.8 μg/ml was determined to be survivable. During this same period, resistance rose to nearly 1,000-fold (by Generation 12) and declined to 18.8-fold in Generation 19. Resistance remained low and fluctuated between 5.3 and 7.3 up to Generation 66. The cross-resistance patterns and interactions among the component proteins were analyzed to identify possible causes of this unusual pattern of evolution. Poor activity in the mid-range concentrations and lower-than-expected synergistic interactions were identified as potential sources of the early resistance. These findings should be considered in the development of genetically engineered strains intended to control nuisance and vector mosquitoes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Atividade predatória de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre formas imaturas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae em laboratório Predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on immature forms of Aedes ftuviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory

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    Rotraut Anna Gertrud Bohlmann Cônsoli

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade predatória, em laboratório, de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre ovos, larvas e pupas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, bem como a influência da presença desses hirudíneos sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas das duas espécies de mosquitos. Experimentos adicionais foram feitos testando a influência da profundidade da água e da sua salinidade sobre a capacidade predatória dos hirudíneos. Nas condições do experimento, foi observada predação de larvas e pupas, porém não de ovos das duas espécies de dípteros. Número estatisticamente menor de desovas foi depositado por fêmeas de Cx. quinquefasciatus em recipientes que continham hirudíneos, não ocorrendo o mesmo com fêmeas de Ae. fluviatilis. As diferentes profundidades de água testadas não interferiram na atividade predatória de H. t. lineata e somente em concentrações acima de 3% de NaCl essa atividade mostrou-se bastante diminuída.Experiments were conducted to determine the predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on eggs, larvae and pupae of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory, The influence of the leeches on selection, of ovipositing sites by the females of both species of mosquitoes, as well as the role of salinity and water depth in relation to predation were investigated. Larvae and pupae of both species of mosquitoes were efficiently predated, but eggs were not touched. A significantly lower number of eggmasses of Cx. quinquefasciatus were deposited on water containing leeches, but the same did not occur with Ae. fluviatilis. The different depths of water investigated did not interfere with predation and only at concentrations above 3% NaCl was predation considerably diminished.

  7. Evaluation of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi for Control of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Underground Storm Drains in the Coachella Valley, California, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, David A; Henke, Jennifer A; Mullens, Bradley A; Walton, William E

    2017-12-22

    Commercially available formulations of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), were assessed for control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in underground storm drain systems (USDS) in the Coachella Valley of southern California. Each of three treatments, the two fungi or a water control, was applied to 1 m2 of vertical wall at eight USDS sites in spring and autumn of 2015. Fungal infectivity and lethality were assessed at 1 d and 1, 2, and 4 wk post-application. Overnight bioassays using adult lab-reared female mosquitoes were carried out on the treated USDS wall areas and then mosquitoes were held in the laboratory for up to 21 d to allow fungal infections to be expressed. Postmortem fungal sporulation was assessed up to 2 wk at 100% humidity. Mosquito-fungal interactions also were assessed in bioassays of the three treatments on filter paper exposed to USDS conditions during autumn. Metarhizium anisopliae killed mosquitoes faster than B. bassiana; nevertheless, both freshly applied formulations caused greater than 80% mortality. Fungal persistence declined significantly after 1 wk under USDS conditions, but some infectivity persisted for more than 4 wk. Beauveria bassiana was more effective against Cx. qinquefasciatus in the spring, while M. anisopliae was more effective in the cooler conditions during autumn. USDS environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, standing water) influenced fungal-related mortality and infection of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The utility of these fungal formulations for mosquito abatement in the Coachella Valley and implications for fungal control agents in USDS environments are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Polymeric nanoencapsulation of insect repellent: Evaluation of its bioefficacy on Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito population and effective impregnation onto cotton fabrics for insect repellent clothing

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    A.P.B. Balaji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diethylphenylacetamide (Bulk-DEPA, an organic insect repellent was subjected to Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG polymerization followed by Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT emulsification method to yield the polymeric nanodroplets of DEPA (Nano-DEPA. The mean hydrodynamic diameter was found to be 149 ± 1.06 nm. The efficacy of Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA was comparatively investigated on the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito population. The larvicidal bioassay was performed on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and the median lethal indices (LC50 of was found to be 0.055, 0.208, 1.397 mg/L and 0.023, 0.144, 0.260 mg/L for Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA respectively. The histopathological studies were found to be corroborative with the larvicidal bioassay. The median knockdown indices (KD50 on 2–3 day old sucrose fed adult mosquitoes determined by WHO cone bioassay and was found to be 55.168 and 33.277 mg/L for Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA. The obtained results indicate the improved efficacy possessed by the Nano-DEPA as comparative to Bulk-DEPA even at lower concentrations. Further, the Nano-DEPA was impregnated onto the alginate cross-linked (ACL and Plain (PL cotton fabrics, and the Washing resistance index (WRI was determined. The obtained results indicate the higher WRI possessed by the ACL cotton fabric than the PL cotton fabric. This was owing to the effective physical entrapment of Nano-DEPA onto the alginate matrices, which was further substantiated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopic (HR-SEM studies. Overall, the present study has emphasized the benefit of formulating Bulk-DEPA into Nano-DEPA to exert higher efficacy on the mosquito population. In addition, study has provided the methodology for the effective impregnation of Nano-DEPA onto the cotton fabrics for the reliable application in long lasting insect repellent clothing.

  9. EFICACIA DEL BACILLUS SPHAERICUS 2362 EN EL CONTROL DE LARVAS DE ANOPHELES PSUDOPUNCTIPENNIS (THEOBALD, 1901 Y CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS (SAY, 1823 EN BIOENSAYO DE LABORATORIO

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    Diana Nongrados

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se probó la actividad del Bacillus sphaericus 2362 en formulación líquida contra larvas de Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Theobald, 1901 y Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823 en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se utilizó agua destilada y agua de criadero, con concentraciones de 1 x 10 11, 1,5 x 10 11, 2,5 x 10 11, 3,9 x 10 11 esporas/mL. La población blanco se mantuvo en condiciones de laboratorio, usándose agua y flora nativa de criadero. Se vertieron dosis de 1 mL en vasos de prueba que contenían 25 larvas del II y III estadio y 150 mL de agua de criadero o agua destilada respectivamente; se usaron vasos con igual cantidad de agua y larvas como controles para cada concentración, tipo de agua y especie de larva probada. Las pruebas fueron realizadas tres veces para cada concentración, en condiciones de laboratorio. Se realizaron 12 réplicas divididas en 6 para cada especie, usándose un total de 4,800 larvas por especie. Las lecturas de la mortalidad de larvas fueron a las 12, 24, 48 y 72 h después de añadido Bacillus sphaericus. Se observó la elevada susceptibilidad de Culex quinquefasciatus a Bacillus sphaericus 2362, con una mortalidad mayor al 90% cuando se compararon los grupos tratados y controles (valor de p = 0,031 y 0,012 para cada tipo de agua respectivamente a las 48 h y con una concentración de 1,5 x 10 11 esporas/mL. Se demostró ampliamente que Anopheles pseudopunctipennis no es susceptible a Bacillus sphaericus 2362 en bioensayos de laboratorio y no se encontraron diferencias significativas en los tratamientos con diferentes tipos de agua (valor de p > 0,05.

  10. Efficacy of several commercially formulated essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus when operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilek, J E; Hallmon, C F; Johnson, R

    2011-09-01

    The effectiveness of several commercially available products containing plant essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus was studied. Products operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system (MistAway) at maximum label rates were EcoExempt MC (9.0 ml/liter, rosemary oil [18% AI], cinnamon oil [2% AI], lemongrass oil [2% AI], plus 78% "other ingredients" in wintergreen oil). Misting System Concentrate (4 ml/liter, oil of Juniperus virginiana [85% AI]), Mosquito Barrier (31.1 ml/liter, garlic oil [99.3% AI], and citric acid [0.5% AI]), and No-See-Um Organic Repellent (99.5 ml/liter, lemongrass [4% AI], citronella [3% AI], castor oil [3% AI], sodium laurate [3%], and garlic oil [1% AI] in an 86% [AI] mixture of wintergreen oil, lecithin, and water). All products were compared with a commercial formulation of synergized pyrethrins, Riptide (9.0 ml/liter, pyrethrins [5% AI], piperonyl butoxide [25% AI]), as a standard. Mortality was the greatest for Riptide to both mosquito species with effectiveness influenced by distance from the nozzle (ranging from > 80% at 3 m to > 10% at 20 m). The essential oil products resulted in < 10% mortality for each species regardless of application exposure distance with the exception of EcoExempt, which gave approximately 13% mortality of caged female Ae. albopictus 6 m from the nozzles.

  11. The N-terminal third of the BinB subunit from the Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin is sufficient for its interaction with midgut receptors in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Tatiany Patrícia; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2011-08-01

    Heterodimeric binary (Bin) toxin, the major insecticidal protein from Bacillus sphaericus, acts on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae through specific binding to the midgut receptor Cqm1, a role mediated by its 448-amino-acid-long BinB subunit. The molecular basis for receptor recognition is not well understood and this study attempted to identify protein segments and amino acid motifs within BinB that are required for this event. First, N- and C-terminally truncated constructs were evaluated for their capacity to bind to native Cqm1 through pull-down assays. These showed that residues N33 to L158 of the subunit are required for Cqm1 binding. Nine different full-length mutants were then generated in which selected blocks of three amino acids were replaced by alanines. In new pull-down assays, two mutants, in which residues (85) IRF(87) and (147) FQF(149) were targeted, failed to bind the receptor. Competition binding assays confirmed the requirements for the N-terminal 158 residues, and the (147) FQF(149) epitope, for the mutant proteins to compete with native Bin toxin when binding to membrane fractions from the insect midgut. The data from this work rule out the involvement of C-terminal segments in receptor binding, highlighting the need for multiple elements within the protein's N-terminal third for it to occur. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  13. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad El-Akhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens.

  14. A G-protein-coupled receptor regulation pathway in cytochrome P450-mediated permethrin-resistance in mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Cao, Chuanwang; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Lee; He, Lin; Xi, Zhiyong; Bian, Guowu; Liu, Nannan

    2015-12-10

    Rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to be involved in the GPCR signal transduction system and regulate many essential physiological processes in organisms. This study, for the first time, revealed that knockdown of the rhodopsin-like GPCR gene in resistant mosquitoes resulted in a reduction of mosquitoes' resistance to permethrin, simultaneously reducing the expression of two cAMP-dependent protein kinase A genes (PKAs) and four resistance related cytochrome P450 genes. The function of rhodopsin-like GPCR was further confirmed using transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster, in which the tolerance to permethrin and the expression of Drosophila resistance P450 genes were both increased. The roles of GPCR signaling pathway second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and downstream effectors PKAs in resistance were investigated using cAMP production inhibitor Bupivacaine HCl and the RNAi technique. Inhibition of cAMP production led to significant decreases in both the expression of four resistance P450 genes and two PKA genes and mosquito resistance to permethrin. Knockdown of the PKA genes had shown the similar effects on permethrin resistance and P450 gene expression. Taken together, our studies revealed, for the first time, the role of the GPCR/cAMP/PKA-mediated regulatory pathway governing P450 gene expression and P450-mediated resistance in Culex mosquitoes.

  15. Efficacy of essential oil from Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) against three mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2015-12-01

    The essential oil of Cananga odorata flowers was evaluated for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities toward three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females using oviposition deterrence bioassay. The results showed that 10 % Ca. odorata exhibited high percent effective repellency against oviposition at 99.4 % to Ae. aegypti, 97.1 % to An. dirus, and 100 % to Cx. quinquefasciatus. Ca. odorata oil was tested for ovicidal activity. Regression equations revealed that the ovicidal rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the essential oil. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1, 5, and up to 10 % concentration, the ovicidal rate increased accordingly. Larvicidal activity of the oils was used on immature stages (third and fourth instar lavae and pupae). The maximum larval mortality was found with 10 % Ca. odorata against immature stages, and there were LC50 values ranged from 10.4 to 10.5 % (for Ae. aegypti), <1 % (for An. dirus), and <1 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Adulticidal properties were evaluated with unfed females. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil had high knockdown rates against the three mosquito species at 96 % (for Ae. aegypti), 98.4 % (for An. dirus), and 100 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus), with EC50 values of 6.2, 4.7, and 5.4 %, respectively. It gave moderate mortality rates after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Ca. odorata oil was assessed for repellency to females by using the modified K&D module. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil gave the strongest value against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with percentage repellency of 66, 92, and 90 %, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of Ca. odorata essential oil to be used as a botanical insecticide against three mosquito species.

  16. Mortalidad en larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus (díptera: culicidae, causada con un producto de Bacillus sphaericus (bacteria: bacillaceae en presentación granulada en condiciones experimentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cárdenas Castro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue ensayar una serie de concentraciones de un producto granulado preparado con Bacillus sphaericus, sobre larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus en condiciones de laboratorio. Se utilizaron once concentraciones (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 y 500 ppm sobre larvas de An. albimanus, y ocho concentraciones diez veces menores (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 y 16 ppm sobre larvas de Cx. quinquefasciatus. Se utilizaron 60 larvas y un control con 20 larvas por concentración. El tiempo de exposición fue de 48 h, a una temperatura de 28 ± 2 ºC. Para estimar las concentraciones letales 50 y 95 se utilizó la prueba Probit. Se encontró una CL95 de B. sphaericus entre 6,45 y 7,28 ppm para larvas de Cx. quinquefasciatus; mientras que en larvas de An. albimanus se observó una CL95 entre 450,56 y 466,76 ppm.

  17. Ecological Niche Modeling and Land Cover Risk Areas for Rift Valley Fever Vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sallam, Mohamed F.; Al Ahmed, Azzam M.; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Mohamed A R Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles is a prevalent and confirmed Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) vector. This vector, in association with Aedimorphus arabiensis (Patton), was responsible for causing the outbreak of 2000 in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Larval occurrence records and a total of 19 bioclimatic and three topographic layers imported from Worldclim Database were used to predict the larval suitable breeding habitats for this vector ...

  18. Bionomics and Vector Potential of Culex thriambus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Lake County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Brittany M; Thiemann, Tara C; Bridges, Danielle N; Williams, Alan E; Koschik, Michelle L; Ryan, Bonnie M; Scott, Jamesina J

    2016-11-01

    California statewide West Nile virus (WNV) minimum infection rates in Culex thriambus Dyar mosquitoes are high; however, few specimens are submitted and tested each year, as their distribution seems limited to larval habitats along riparian systems. To evaluate the role of Cx. thriambus in the amplification, maintenance, and overwintering of WNV in Lake County, CA, the bionomics and vector potential of the species was investigated during 2014 and 2015. Culex thriambus was the most abundant mosquito species, with 1,153 adults and 7,624 immatures collected by vacuum aspiration and dip sampling, respectively, at the primary study site. Detection of WNV in four mosquito pools during September through November coincided with peak seasonality. Females entered and maintained a reproductive diapause during winter under field and seminatural conditions. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. thriambus females by October and was terminated by 30 March. Some parous females (7.1%) and those in host-seeking arrest (7.1%) were collected throughout the winter period. An accrual of 679.51 degree-days (°D) was necessary for diapause termination under seminatural conditions. Culex thriambus females fed on 16 different avian species during spring and summer, and no mammalian feeds were detected. West Nile viral RNA was detected in four of 42 Cx. thriambus pools tested during June through November and infection rates ranged from 3.53-28.15/1,000 tested. In summary, WNV transmission may be increased along riparian corridors throughout California where Cx. thriambus mosquitoes remain relatively abundant. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  19. Vector competence of northern European Culex pipiens biotypes and hybrids for West Nile virus is differentially affected by temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, Chantal B.F.; Fros, Jelke J.; Goertz, Giel; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Koenraadt, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV) have not occurred in northern Europe despite nearby circulation of WNV in the southern part of the continent. The main vector for WNV, the mosquito Culex (Cx.) pipiens, consists of two behaviorally distinct biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can

  20. Winter Activity and Aboveground Hybridization Between the Two Biotypes of the West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, C.B.F.; Peppel, van de L.J.J.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Westenberg, M.; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Stroo, A.; Buijs, J.A.; Visser, T.M.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Culex (Cx.) pipiens mosquitoes are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). In Europe, the species Cx. pipiens consists of two biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which are morphologically identical, but differ in behavior. Typical behavior of the molestus biotype is the ability to remain active

  1. Mosquito carboxylesterase Est alpha 2(1) (A2). Cloning and sequence of the full-length cDNA for a major insecticide resistance gene worldwide in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, A; Hemingway, J

    1995-07-14

    Organophosphorus insecticide resistance in Culex mosquitoes is commonly caused by increased activity of one or more esterases. The commonest phenotype involves elevation of the esterases Est alpha 2 (A2) and Est beta 2 (B2). A cDNA encoding the Est alpha 2 esterase has now been isolated from a Sri Lankan insecticide-resistant mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus, Say) expression library. In line with a recently suggested nomenclature system (Karunaratne, S. H. P. P. (1994) Characterization of Multiple Variants of Carboxylesterases Which Are Involved in Insecticide Resistance in the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Ph.D. thesis, University of London), as the first sequenced variant of this esterase, it is now referred to as Est alpha 2(1). The full-length cDNA of est alpha 2(1) codes for a 540-amino acid protein, which has high homology with other esterases and lipases and belongs to the serine or B-esterase enzyme family. The predicted secondary structure of Est alpha 2(1) is similar to the consensus secondary structure of proteins within the esterase/lipase family where the secondary and tertiary structures have been resolved. The level of identity (approximately 47% at the amino acid level) between the est alpha 2(1) and the various Culex est beta (B1 and B2) cDNA alleles that have been cloned and sequenced suggests that the two esterase loci are closely related and arose originally from duplication of a common ancestral gene. The lack of a distinct hydrophobic signal sequence for Est alpha 2(1) and two possible N-linked glycosylation sites, both situated close to the active site serine, suggest that it is a nonglycosylated protein that is not exported from the cell. Southern and dot blot analysis of genomic DNA from various insecticide-resistant and susceptible mosquito strains show that the est alpha 2(1) gene, like est beta 2(1), is amplified in resistant strains. The restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns, after probing Southern blots of Eco

  2. Bancroftian filariasis in Belém, Pará State: possibilities for eradication by introducing modern methods of control for Culex quinquefasciatus A filariose bancroftiana em Belém, Pará: possibilidades atuais de erradicação mediante a integração à campanha de novos métodos de controle da população de Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Fraiha Neto

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past four decades, Belém has been considered to be the largest focus of Bancroftian filariasis in the Amazon region and one of the most important ones in Brazil. In 1952, practically one-fifth of the population was infected and it was estimated that there were 2,500 cases of Bancroftian elephantiasis. The major factor considered to be responsible for this situation was the high density of the main vector species: it was calculated that in April 1943 there was a mean of 67 infected mosquitoes per house. A control campaign was initiated in 1952, involving treatment of patients with diethylcarbamazine, as well as control of the vector. In 1956, vector control was discontinued because of a lack of efficient insecticides and financial limitations. Even so, the campaign was very successful and the incidence was reduced from 19.9% to 0.03%. Total eradication could be achieved if new methods of vector control were introduced, such as the use of Reiter's expanded polystyrene balls in cesspits and pit latrines, biological control using pathogenic bacteria, and improvement of basic sanitation.Há mais de quatro décadas Belém é considerada o maior foco de bancroftose da região amazônica e um dos mais importantes do Brasil. Em 1952, praticamente um quinto de sua população apresentava microfilárias no sangue, estimando-se em 2.500 os casos de elefantíase. O fator considerado o maior condicionante de tão extraordinária freqüência era a alta densidade local do principal vetor, Culex quinquefasciatus. Em abril de 1943 calculava-se uma média de 67 fêmeas da espécie infectadas por domicílio. Uma campanha de controle foi deflagrada em 1952, incluindo busca ativa e tratamento dos casos com dietilcarbamazina, além medidas de combate ao vetor. Estas foram abandonadas em 1956, por força da ineficácia ou do alto custo dos inseticidas. Ainda assim, a campanha foi muito bem sucedida, reduzindo a incidência de 19,9 para 0,03%. Hoje, a erradica

  3. [Evaluation of the triflumuron and the mixture of Bacillus thuringiensis plus Bacillus sphaericus for control of the immature stages of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in catch basins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; Pérez, Mauricio; Morales, Carlos A; Ocampo, Clara B

    2008-06-01

    In Cali, Colombia, catch basins (streetside storm drains) are one of the main larval habitats of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Since 1999, these mosquitoes have been controlled by the Secretaría de Salud Municipal (Secretary of Municipal Public Health) using the larvicide triflumuron. Because of high densities of these mosquitoes that remain in the city, treatment failure was suspected -possibly insecticide resistance of the target species. The efficacy of triflumuron and VectoMax (biorational mixture of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis plus Bacillus sphaericus) were evaluated in the control of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in catch basins. The residual effect of a single application of the biorational formulation was determined in catch basins during periods of high and low rainfall. The efficacy of the products was measured in 60 catch basins located in a residential neighborhood of Cali for a period of 90 days. The mean number of immature instars (A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus larvae and pupae of both species) was determined biweekly from 40 catch basins with insecticide intervention (20 treated with triflumuron, 20 with VectoMax) and 20 untreated (control group). The residual effect of the biorational larvicide was evaluated biweekly in 10 catch basins during each of the 2 climatic periods. Results. The catch basins treated with VectoMax presented a significantly lower mean number of immature instars of both species compared with the control ( p<0.01). In contrast, the triflumuron treatment significantly reduced only immature instars of A. aegypti compared with the control ( p<0.001). The residual effect of VectoMax was higher during low rainfall compared to the control ( p<0.001). Conclusion. The biorational formulation was the more effective treatment for the control of both species during the period of evaluation (15 days).

  4. Darker eggs of mosquitoes resist more to dry conditions: Melanin enhances serosal cuticle contribution in egg resistance to desiccation in Aedes, Anopheles and Culex vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana C Farnesi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito vectors lay their white eggs in the aquatic milieu. During early embryogenesis water passes freely through the transparent eggshell, which at this moment is composed of exochorion and endochorion. Within two hours the endochorion darkens via melanization but even so eggs shrink and perish if removed from moisture. However, during mid-embryogenesis, cells of the extraembryonic serosa secrete the serosal cuticle, localized right below the endochorion, becoming the third and innermost eggshell layer. Serosal cuticle formation greatly reduces water flow and allows egg survival outside the water. The degree of egg resistance to desiccation (ERD at late embryogenesis varies among different species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles aquasalis and Culex quinquefasciatus eggs can survive in a dry environment for ≥ 72, 24 and 5 hours, respectively. In some adult insects, darker-body individuals show greater resistance to desiccation than lighter ones. We asked if egg melanization enhances mosquito serosal cuticle-dependent ERD. Species with higher ERD at late embryogenesis exhibit more melanized eggshells. The melanization-ERD hypothesis was confirmed employing two Anopheles quadrimaculatus strains, the wild type and the mutant GORO, with a dark-brown and a golden eggshell, respectively. In all cases, serosal cuticle formation is fundamental for the establishment of an efficient ERD but egg viability outside the water is much higher in mosquitoes with darker eggshells than in those with lighter ones. The finding that pigmentation influences egg water balance is relevant to understand the evolutionary history of insect egg coloration. Since eggshell and adult cuticle pigmentation ensure insect survivorship in some cases, they should be considered regarding species fitness and novel approaches for vector or pest insects control.

  5. Darker eggs of mosquitoes resist more to dry conditions: Melanin enhances serosal cuticle contribution in egg resistance to desiccation in Aedes, Anopheles and Culex vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnesi, Luana C; Vargas, Helena C M; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L

    2017-10-01

    Mosquito vectors lay their white eggs in the aquatic milieu. During early embryogenesis water passes freely through the transparent eggshell, which at this moment is composed of exochorion and endochorion. Within two hours the endochorion darkens via melanization but even so eggs shrink and perish if removed from moisture. However, during mid-embryogenesis, cells of the extraembryonic serosa secrete the serosal cuticle, localized right below the endochorion, becoming the third and innermost eggshell layer. Serosal cuticle formation greatly reduces water flow and allows egg survival outside the water. The degree of egg resistance to desiccation (ERD) at late embryogenesis varies among different species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles aquasalis and Culex quinquefasciatus eggs can survive in a dry environment for ≥ 72, 24 and 5 hours, respectively. In some adult insects, darker-body individuals show greater resistance to desiccation than lighter ones. We asked if egg melanization enhances mosquito serosal cuticle-dependent ERD. Species with higher ERD at late embryogenesis exhibit more melanized eggshells. The melanization-ERD hypothesis was confirmed employing two Anopheles quadrimaculatus strains, the wild type and the mutant GORO, with a dark-brown and a golden eggshell, respectively. In all cases, serosal cuticle formation is fundamental for the establishment of an efficient ERD but egg viability outside the water is much higher in mosquitoes with darker eggshells than in those with lighter ones. The finding that pigmentation influences egg water balance is relevant to understand the evolutionary history of insect egg coloration. Since eggshell and adult cuticle pigmentation ensure insect survivorship in some cases, they should be considered regarding species fitness and novel approaches for vector or pest insects control.

  6. European Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens Are Competent Vectors for Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélissanne de Wispelaere

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. JEV transmission cycle involves mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. The detection of JEV RNA in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in 2010 in Italy raised the concern of a putative emergence of the virus in Europe. We aimed to study the vector competence of European mosquito populations, such as Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus for JEV genotypes 3 and 5.After oral feeding on an infectious blood meal, mosquitoes were dissected at various times post-virus exposure. We found that the peak for JEV infection and transmission was between 11 and 13 days post-virus exposure. We observed a faster dissemination of both JEV genotypes in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, when compared with Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. We also dissected salivary glands and collected saliva from infected mosquitoes and showed that Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmitted JEV earlier than Cx. pipiens. The virus collected from Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens saliva was competent at causing pathogenesis in a mouse model for JEV infection. Using this model, we found that mosquito saliva or salivary glands did not enhance the severity of the disease.In this study, we demonstrated that European populations of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens were efficient vectors for JEV transmission. Susceptible vertebrate species that develop high viremia are an obligatory part of the JEV transmission cycle. This study highlights the need to investigate the susceptibility of potential JEV reservoir hosts in Europe, notably amongst swine populations and local water birds.

  7. European Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens Are Competent Vectors for Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wispelaere, Mélissanne; Desprès, Philippe; Choumet, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. JEV transmission cycle involves mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. The detection of JEV RNA in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in 2010 in Italy raised the concern of a putative emergence of the virus in Europe. We aimed to study the vector competence of European mosquito populations, such as Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus for JEV genotypes 3 and 5. After oral feeding on an infectious blood meal, mosquitoes were dissected at various times post-virus exposure. We found that the peak for JEV infection and transmission was between 11 and 13 days post-virus exposure. We observed a faster dissemination of both JEV genotypes in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, when compared with Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. We also dissected salivary glands and collected saliva from infected mosquitoes and showed that Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmitted JEV earlier than Cx. pipiens. The virus collected from Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens saliva was competent at causing pathogenesis in a mouse model for JEV infection. Using this model, we found that mosquito saliva or salivary glands did not enhance the severity of the disease. In this study, we demonstrated that European populations of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens were efficient vectors for JEV transmission. Susceptible vertebrate species that develop high viremia are an obligatory part of the JEV transmission cycle. This study highlights the need to investigate the susceptibility of potential JEV reservoir hosts in Europe, notably amongst swine populations and local water birds.

  8. Differential effect of human ivermectin treatment on blood feeding Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.; Simonsen, Paul Erik

    2015-01-01

    % glucose solution for 12 days and observed for survival and fecundity. The experiment was repeated 15 times. RESULTS: Two days after the blood meals, nearly half (average 47.7% for the 15 experiments) of the blood fed An. gambiae in the ivermectin group had died while almost all in the placebo group were...... as on the following days. Ivermectin completely inhibited egg laying in An. gambiae, while egg laying and subsequent development of immature stages appeared normal in the other three groups. CONCLUSION: Blood meals taken on ivermectin treated volunteers significantly reduced survival and halted fecundity of An...... to receive either ivermectin or placebo. Twenty four hours after treatment, one volunteer from each group was concurrently exposed to 50 laboratory reared An. gambiae on one arm and 50 laboratory reared Cx. quinquefasciatus on the other arm for 15-30 minutes. Engorged mosquitoes were maintained on 10...

  9. The impact of CO2 on collection of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say by BG-Sentinel(r) traps in Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Degener, Carolin Marlen; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important component for activating and attracting host-seeking mosquitoes. The BG-Sentinel(r) trap is a well-established monitoring tool for capturing Culicidae, but CO2 role for the trap effectiveness has not been evaluated in highly urbanised areas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of BG-Sentinel traps baited with and without CO2 for capturing urban mosquitoes. Fifteen areas were selected within the city of Manaus, Brazil, where four BG-Sentinels were operated for 24 h, two of them with CO2 and two without CO2. Captured Aedes aegypti females were dissected for the determination of their parity status. A significantly higher proportion of traps (from 32-79%) were positive for female Ae. aegypti when using the BG-Sentinel with CO2 (χ2 = 11.0271, p ≤ 0.001). Catches of female Culex spp were six times higher in CO2 traps (Mann-Whitney U test = 190.5; p = 0.001). Parity rates were similar for both traps. This study showed that CO2 has primarily an enhancing effect on the efficacy of BG-Sentinel for capturing Culex spp in Manaus. For Ae. aegypti, the positivity rate of the trap was increased, when CO2 was added. PMID:23579804

  10. The impact of CO2 on collection of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say by BG-Sentinel® traps in Manaus, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Degener, Carolin Marlen; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important component for activating and attracting host-seeking mosquitoes. The BG-Sentinel® trap is a well-established monitoring tool for capturing Culicidae, but CO2 role for the trap effectiveness has not been evaluated in highly urbanised areas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of BG-Sentinel traps baited with and without CO2 for capturing urban mosquitoes. Fifteen areas were selected within the city of Manaus, Brazil, where four BG-Sentinels were operated for 24 h, two of them with CO2 and two without CO2. Captured Aedes aegypti females were dissected for the determination of their parity status. A significantly higher proportion of traps (from 32-79%) were positive for female Ae. aegypti when using the BG-Sentinel with CO2 (χ2 = 11.0271, p ≤ 0.001). Catches of female Culex spp were six times higher in CO2 traps (Mann-Whitney U test = 190.5; p = 0.001). Parity rates were similar for both traps. This study showed that CO2 has primarily an enhancing effect on the efficacy of BG-Sentinel for capturing Culex spp in Manaus. For Ae. aegypti, the positivity rate of the trap was increased, when CO2 was added.

  11. The impact of CO2 on collection of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say by BG-Sentinel(r traps in Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mingote Ferreira de Ázara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is an important component for activating and attracting host-seeking mosquitoes. The BG-Sentinel(r trap is a well-established monitoring tool for capturing Culicidae, but CO2 role for the trap effectiveness has not been evaluated in highly urbanised areas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of BG-Sentinel traps baited with and without CO2 for capturing urban mosquitoes. Fifteen areas were selected within the city of Manaus, Brazil, where four BG-Sentinels were operated for 24 h, two of them with CO2 and two without CO2. Captured Aedes aegypti females were dissected for the determination of their parity status. A significantly higher proportion of traps (from 32-79% were positive for female Ae. aegypti when using the BG-Sentinel with CO2 (χ2 = 11.0271, p ≤ 0.001. Catches of female Culex spp were six times higher in CO2 traps (Mann-Whitney U test = 190.5; p = 0.001. Parity rates were similar for both traps. This study showed that CO2 has primarily an enhancing effect on the efficacy of BG-Sentinel for capturing Culex spp in Manaus. For Ae. aegypti, the positivity rate of the trap was increased, when CO2 was added.

  12. Experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin alone and in combination against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel Vincent

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethroids for use on treated nets. Certain compounds of an earlier generation of insecticides, the organophosphates may have potential as net treatments. Methods Comparative studies of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM, an organophosphate with low mammalian toxicity, and lambdacyhalothrin (L, a pyrethroid, were conducted in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from the area are resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates (kdr and insensitive acetylcholinesterase Ace.1R. Several treatments and application rates on intact or holed nets were evaluated, including single treatments, mixtures, and differential wall/ceiling treatments. Results and Conclusion All of the treatments were effective in reducing blood feeding from sleepers under the nets and in killing both species of mosquito, despite the presence of the kdr and Ace.1R genes at high frequency. In most cases, the effects of the various treatments did not differ significantly. Five washes of the nets in soap solution did not reduce the impact of the insecticides on A. gambiae mortality, but did lead to an increase in blood feeding. The three combinations performed no differently from the single insecticide treatments, but the low dose mixture performed encouragingly well indicating that such combinations might be used for controlling insecticide resistant mosquitoes. Mortality of mosquitoes that carried both Ace.1R and Ace.1S genes did not differ significantly from mosquitoes that carried only Ace.1S genes on any of the treated nets, indicating that the Ace.1R allele does not confer effective resistance to chlorpyrifos-methyl under the realistic conditions of an experimental hut.

  13. Larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities of non-polar solvent extract of Cymbopogon nardus (Linn.) whole plant against a mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilahi, Ikram; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    The present research is aimed to investigate the susceptibility of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (2nd and 4th instars), pupae and adults during exposure to various concentrations of C. nardus n-hexane extract. Increase in mortality of larvae and pupae was observed with increase in concentration of the extract solution (R2>0.90). LC50 values of extract for 2nd and 4th instar larvae were 451.8 and 599.6 ppm, respectively. The LC90 values of extract for 2nd and 4th instar larvae were 2519.6 and 3017.7 ppm, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 values of extract during pupicidal activity were 1307.7 and 2257.9 ppm, respectively. During CDC bottle bioassay, mosquito adult knockdown was observed after exposure to various concentrations (0.15% to 1.25%) of C. nardus n-hexane extract. The KDT50 values at highest (1.25%) and lowest (0.15%) concentrations were 100.9 and 184.2 minutes, respectively. After 24 hours exposure period, the highest extract concentration (1.25%) caused 62.5±6.5% mortality. During filter paper impregnation bioassay, the KDT50 value at highest concentration (0.13 mg/cm2) was 94.4 minutes and at lowest concentration (0.017 mg/cm2) was 178.9 minutes. KDT90 values at these concentrations were 176.7 and 290.1 minutes, respectively. After 24 hours of recovery period, the filter papers impregnated with highest extract concentration (0.13mg/cm2) caused 60±8.2% mortality.

  14. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae

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    Lala Harivelo Raveloson Ravaomanarivo

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  15. Olyset Duo® (a Pyriproxyfen and Permethrin Mixture Net): An Experimental Hut Trial against Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngufor, C; N'Guessan, R; Fagbohoun, J; Odjo, A; Malone, D.; Akogbeto, M.; Rowland, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect...

  16. Role of Culex and Anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in Sudan outbreak, 2007

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    Galal Fatma H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rift Valley fever (RVF is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Methods Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. Results A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7% in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2% in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by ≥ 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between

  17. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; N'Guessan, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Asidi, A.; Farenhorst, M.; Akogbeto, M.; Thomas, M.B.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show

  18. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Annabel Fv; N'Guessan, Raphael; Koenraadt, Constantianus Jm; Asidi, Alex; Farenhorst, Marit; Akogbéto, Martin; Thomas, Matthew B.; Knols, Bart Gj; Takken, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that

  19. CULEX QUINQUIFASCL4TUS SEBAGAI VEKTOR UTAMA FILARIASIS LIMFATIK YANG DISEBABKAN WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI DI KELURAHAN PABEAN KOTA PEKALONGAN

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    Tri Ramadhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis was still being a public health problem in Indonesia, and one ofcommunicable disease which is caused by infestation of Filaria worm. The disease is transmitted by manyvarious mosquitoes. Pabean village was an endemic area of the filariasis bancrofti in Pekalongan City withmicrofilaria rate was 3,4% in 2007. The aim of this study was to know all the mosquitoes collected, thecurrent transmission of filariasis and its main vector spesies of filariasis bancrofti in Pabean village.The research was an observational study which used cross sectional design. The samples were adultmosquitoes found at three houses of filariasis patient.To collect the adult mosquitoes using landingcollection at night, light trap with dry ice and resting habit in the morning. The mosquitoes were killed,identified and dissected to find filarial larvae. The result showed the total of collected mosquitoes of19.306, consist of 4 genus. They were 19.229 Culex, 51 Anopheles, 24 Aedes and 2 Malaya. The infectivelarvae (L3 found in Cx.quinquefasciatus, which collected in door and out door. The dissection of restingmosquitoes found infection rate 38,40 % and infective rate 34,40%. Transmission of filariasis was detectedcurrently occured in the area with the main vector of Cx.quinquefasciatus. The conclussion is thatCx.quinquefasciatus as the main vector of filariasis bancrofti in Pabean village.Keywords: Culex quinquifasciatus, fdariasis, Wuchereria bancrofti,Vektor

  20. Ecological niche modeling and land cover risk areas for rift valley fever vector, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mohamed F; Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S; Abdullah, Mohamed A R

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles is a prevalent and confirmed Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) vector. This vector, in association with Aedimorphus arabiensis (Patton), was responsible for causing the outbreak of 2000 in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Larval occurrence records and a total of 19 bioclimatic and three topographic layers imported from Worldclim Database were used to predict the larval suitable breeding habitats for this vector in Jazan Province using ArcGIS ver.10 and MaxEnt modeling program. Also, a supervised land cover classification from SPOT5 imagery was developed to assess the land cover distribution within the suitable predicted habitats. Eleven bioclimatic and slope attributes were found to be the significant predictors for this larval suitable breeding habitat. Precipitation and temperature were strong predictors of mosquito distribution. Among six land cover classes, the linear regression model (LM) indicated wet muddy substrate is significantly associated with high-very high suitable predicted habitats (R(2) = 73.7%, Pplanning effective mosquito surveillance and control programs by public health personnel and researchers.

  1. Ecological niche modeling and land cover risk areas for rift valley fever vector, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F Sallam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles is a prevalent and confirmed Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV vector. This vector, in association with Aedimorphus arabiensis (Patton, was responsible for causing the outbreak of 2000 in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Larval occurrence records and a total of 19 bioclimatic and three topographic layers imported from Worldclim Database were used to predict the larval suitable breeding habitats for this vector in Jazan Province using ArcGIS ver.10 and MaxEnt modeling program. Also, a supervised land cover classification from SPOT5 imagery was developed to assess the land cover distribution within the suitable predicted habitats. Eleven bioclimatic and slope attributes were found to be the significant predictors for this larval suitable breeding habitat. Precipitation and temperature were strong predictors of mosquito distribution. Among six land cover classes, the linear regression model (LM indicated wet muddy substrate is significantly associated with high-very high suitable predicted habitats (R(2 = 73.7%, P<0.05. Also, LM indicated that total dissolved salts (TDS was a significant contributor (R(2 = 23.9%, P<0.01 in determining mosquito larval abundance. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This model is a first step in understanding the spatial distribution of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and consequently the risk of RVFV in Saudi Arabia and to assist in planning effective mosquito surveillance and control programs by public health personnel and researchers.

  2. Culex pipiens as a potential vector for transmission of Dirofilaria immitis and other unclassified Filarioidea in Southwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Barriga, Daniel; Parreira, Ricardo; Almeida, António P G; Calado, Manuela; Blanco-Ciudad, Juan; Serrano-Aguilera, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Sánchez-Peinado, Joaquín; Pinto, João; Reina, David; Frontera, Eva

    2016-06-15

    Dirofilaria immitis is one of the most frequently detected mosquito-transmitted zoonotic filarioid nematode in mammals in Europe, being canine dirofilariosis a major animal health problem, endemic in the Mediterranean area. This study, focused on Southwest Spain, in order to bring new insights into (i) the epidemiology of Dirofilaria spp., (ii) the species of Culicid vectors possibly involved in their transmission and (iii) the genetic variability of those potential vectors. A total of 881 adult female mosquitoes from 11 different species, were captured during 2012-2013, and detection of filarioid DNA was attempted by PCR using specific primers (ITS-2 and COI), followed by DNA sequencing. In a single Culex pipiens specimen D. immitis DNA was detected both in the head-thorax and abdomen sections. Filarioid nematode DNA was also detected in eight additional Cx. pipiens specimens also in both the thorax and the abdomen, but analysis of sequence data did not allow unambiguous assignment of any of the obtained sequences to a previously defined species. All Cx. pipiens with filarioid DNA were individually analysed by CQ11 to discriminate between pipiens, molestus, and hybrid forms. Besides, rDNA ITS-2 sequence analysis revealed the presence of haplotype H1 and H2 of Cx. pipiens. To our knowledge this study revealed, for the first time in Spain, the occurrence of likely mature infection of D. immitis in Cx. pipiens, as well as with other yet uncharacterized nematodes, supporting its role as a potential vector of these filarids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal abundance & role of predominant Japanese encephalitis vectors Culex tritaeniorhynchus & Cx. gelidus Theobald in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, D; Muniaraj, M; Samuel, P Philip; Thenmozhi, V; Venkatesh, A; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-12-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. The first major JE outbreak occurred in 1978 and since 1981 several outbreaks had been reported in the Cuddalore district (erstwhile South Arcot), Tamil Nadu, India. Entomological monitoring was carried out during January 2010 - March 2013, to determine the seasonal abundance and transmission dynamics of the vectors of JE virus, with emphasis on the role of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. Mosquito collections were carried out fortnightly during dusk hours in three villages viz. Soundara Solapuram, Pennadam, Erappavur of Cuddalore district. Mosquitoes were collected during dusk for a period of one hour in and around the cattle sheds using oral aspirator and torch light. The collected mosquitoes were later identified and pooled to detect JE virus (JEV) infection by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 46,343 mosquitoes comprising of 25 species and six genera were collected. Species composition included viz, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (46.26%), Cx. gelidus (43.12%) and other species (10.62%). A total of 17,678 specimens (403 pools) of Cx. gelidus and 14,358 specimens (309 pools) of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were tested, of which 12 pools of Cx. gelidus and 14 pools of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were positive for JE virus antigen. The climatic factors were negatively correlated with minimum infection rate (MIR) for both the species, except mean temperature (P<0.05) for Cx. gelidus. High abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus was observed compared to other mosquito species in the study area. Detection of JEV antigen in the two species confirmed the maintenance of virus. Appropriate vector control measures need to be taken to reduce the vector abundance.

  4. Morphometric studies on Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological variation in Glossina pal- lidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) over its geographical range. Nigerian Journal of. Entomology 15, 122-135. Amusan, A.A.S. (2004) Distribution of mosquitoes. (Diptera:Culicidae) and disease transmis- sion patterns in Ogun State., Ph D Thesis,. University of Agriculture, Abeokuta ...

  5. Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Allison M; Allan, Brian F; Frisbie, Lauren A; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-06-16

    Exotic invasive plants alter the structure and function of native ecosystems and may influence the distribution and abundance of arthropod disease vectors by modifying habitat quality. This study investigated how invasive plants alter the ecology of Culex pipiens, an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that three native leaf species (Rubus allegheniensis, blackberry; Sambucus canadensis, elderberry; and Amelanchier laevis, serviceberry), and three exotic invasive leaf species (Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle; Elaeagnus umbellata, autumn olive; and Rosa multiflora, multiflora rose) alter Cx. pipiens oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, and adult body size. The relative abundance of seven bacterial phyla in infusions of the six leaf species also was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to test the hypothesis that variation in emergence, development, and oviposition site selection is correlated to differences in the diversity and abundance of bacteria associated with different leaf species, important determinants of nutrient quality and availability for mosquito larvae. Leaf detritus from invasive honeysuckle and autumn olive yielded significantly higher adult emergence rates compared to detritus from the remaining leaf species and honeysuckle alleviated the negative effects of intraspecific competition on adult emergence. Conversely, leaves of native blackberry acted as an ecological trap, generating high oviposition but low emergence rates. Variation in bacterial flora associated with different leaf species may explain this asymmetrical production of mosquitoes: emergence rates and oviposition rates were positively correlated to bacterial abundance and diversity, respectively. We conclude that the displacement of native understory plant species by certain invasive shrubs

  6. Introduction of Culex Toxicity into Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba by Protein Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Alzate, Oscar; Mohammad, Marwan; McNall, Rebecca J.; Adang, Michael J.; Dean, Donald H.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis mosquitocidal toxin Cry4Ba has no significant natural activity against Culex quinquefasciatus or Culex pipiens (50% lethal concentrations [LC50], >80,000 and >20,000 ng/ml, respectively). We introduced amino acid substitutions in three putative loops of domain II of Cry4Ba. The mutant proteins were tested on four different species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, C. quinquefasciatus, and C. pipiens. Putative loop 1 and 2 exchanges eliminated acti...

  7. Culex pipiens, an experimental efficient vector of West Nile and Rift Valley fever viruses in the Maghreb region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, Fadila; Krida, Ghazi; Bouattour, Ali; Rhim, Adel; Daaboub, Jabeur; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said-Chawki; Tijane, Mhamed; Sarih, Mhammed; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 10(7.8) and 10(8.5) plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14-21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology.

  8. Culex pipiens, an experimental efficient vector of West Nile and Rift Valley fever viruses in the Maghreb region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Amraoui

    Full Text Available West Nile fever (WNF and Rift Valley fever (RVF are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 10(7.8 and 10(8.5 plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14-21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology.

  9. KOMPOSISI SPESIES DAN DOMINASI NYAMUK CULEX DI DAERAH ENDEMIS FILARIASIS LIMFATIK DI KELURAHAN PABEAN KOTA PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is one of the communicable disease which is caused by infestation of Filaria wonn. The disease is transmitted by various mosquitoes. Pabean village was one of the endemic area in Pekalongan city with lymphatic filariasis problem (microfilariae rate >1 %. The research aimed to get species and dominan potencial vector filariasis and breeding place.The reseach was an observational study which used cross sectional design. The activity were mosquitoes, larve dipper and pupa collection from August until December 2007. The mosquitoes collection was done twice a week by landing collection and light trap with dry ice.The result showed that the species culex mosquitoes found 19.229, consisted of four species that is Cx.quinquefasciatus, Cx.bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, and Cx. vishnui. Mosquito of Cx.quinquefasciatus most dominantly found at all of way of arrest and known as mosquito of vector potential of lymphatic filariasis in Pabean village. Especial breeding place of Cx.quinquefasciatus is water polution and very bad sanitation. The larval density was more than 100 of dipper.

  10. Molecular detection of Wolbachia pipientis in natural populations of mosquito vectors of Dirofilaria immitis from continental Portugal: first detection in Culex theileri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Pinho Mixão, V; Mendes, A M; Maurício, I L; Calado, M M; Novo, M T; Belo, S; Almeida, A P G

    2016-09-01

    Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) protects mosquitoes from infections with arboviruses and parasites. However, the effect of its co-infection on vector competence for Dirofilaria immitis (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in the wild has not been investigated. This study aimed to screen vectors of D. immitis for wPip, to characterize these, and to investigate a possible association between the occurrence of W. pipientis and that of the nematode. The presence of W. pipientis was assessed in the five mosquito potential vectors of D. immitis in Portugal. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were sequenced, and wPip haplotypes were determined by PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results showed that wPip was detected in 61.5% of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) pools and 6.3% of Culex theileri pools. wPip 16s rRNA sequences found in Cx. theileri exactly match those from Cx. pipiens, confirming a mosquito origin, rather than a nematode origin, as some specimens were infected with D. immitis. Only wPip haplotype I was found. No association was found between the presence of wPip and D. immitis in mosquitoes and hence a role for this endosymbiont in influencing vectorial competence is yet to be identified. This study contributes to understanding of wPip distribution in mosquito populations and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, is the first report of natural infections by wPip in Cx. theileri. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Vector competence of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) from two regions of Chicago with low and high prevalence of West Nile virus human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, J P; Swope, B N; Doyle, M S; Biggerstaff, B J

    2012-05-01

    Vector competence studies for West Nile virus (WNV) were conducted for two Culex (Culex) restuans Theobald populations Edison Park (EP) and Illinois Medical District (IMD), in Chicago, IL. The aim was to determine if there were differences between mosquito populations that contributed to the observed differences in the prevalence of WNV. Percentages of orally infected, disseminated, and transmitting mosquitoes were estimated using a generalized linear mixed effects model including a random effect for family to account for anticipated within-family correlation. Analysis indicated that percentages of infected, disseminated, and transmitting mosquitoes were not significantly different between EP and IMD. The within-family correlation was 0.46 (95% CI 0.28, 0.67), indicating reasonably strong tendency for WNV titers of bodies, saliva, and legs within families to be similar. Overall, our results show that vector competence of Cx. restuans for WNV is not a contributing factor to the observed differences in WNV human cases between the EP and IMD areas of Chicago.

  12. [Mosquitoes potential vectors of canine heartworm in the Northeast Region from Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahid, S M; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R

    1999-12-01

    In some coastal districts of São Luís, capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil, the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis is more than 40% in house dogs. Natural potential vectors, as found in other areas of Northeastern Brazil, are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify probable vectors of the disease. Mosquito catches were performed at a coastal, district Olho d'Agua, in S. Luís, to look for local potential vectors. Captures were carried out monthly, from March 1996 to May 1997, outdoors, having a man and a dog as baits. Mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae. A total of 1,738 mosquitoes belonging to 11 species were collected. Culex quinquefasciatus, the only species collected every month, was more frequently in the dry season. It accounted for 54.5% of the total, followed by Aedes albopictus (20. 3%), Ae. scapularis (11%) and Ae. taeniorhynchus (11%). D. immitis larvae were detected in 0.1% of the Cx. quinquefasciatus dissected (L3 in the Malpighian tubules) and 0.5% of the Ae. taeniorhynchus (L2 in the Malpighian tubules). Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus are considered natural potential vectors of the canine heartworm in São Luís. The role of Cx. quinquefasciatus as primary vector of D. immitis, however, needs further evaluation.

  13. Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    Since ancient times, plant products were used in various aspects. However, their use against pests decreased when chemical products became developed. Recently, concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insect pests. In this study, 41 plant extracts and 11 oil mixtures were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and the filariasis and encephalitis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) using the skin of human volunteers to find out the protection time and repellency. The five most effective oils were those of Litsea (Litsea cubeba), Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron), Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia), Violet (Viola odorata), and Catnip (Nepeta cataria), which induced a protection time of 8 h at the maximum and a 100% repellency against all three species. This effect needs, however, a peculiar formulation to fix them on the human skin.

  14. Inhibition and Larvicidal Activity of Phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum on Acetylcholinesterase against Mosquito Vectors and Their Binding Mode of Interaction.

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    Arshia Hematpoor

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. A bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of Piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoids; asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3. The current study involved evaluation of the toxicity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition of these compounds against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were highly potent against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae causing up to 100% mortality at ≤ 15 μg/mL concentration. The ovicidal activity of asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3 were evaluated through egg hatching. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed potent ovicidal activity. Ovicidal activity for both compounds was up to 95% at 25μg/mL. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed strong inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with relative IC50 values of 0.73 to 1.87 μg/mL respectively. These findings coupled with the high AChE inhibition may suggest that asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 are neuron toxic compounds toward Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Further computational docking with Autodock Vina elaborates the possible interaction of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 with three possible binding sites of AChE which includes catalytic triads (CAS: S238, E367, H480, the peripheral sites (PAS: E72, W271 and anionic binding site (W83. The binding affinity of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were relatively strong with asaricin 1 showed a higher binding affinity in the anionic pocket.

  15. Inhibition and Larvicidal Activity of Phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum on Acetylcholinesterase against Mosquito Vectors and Their Binding Mode of Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematpoor, Arshia; Liew, Sook Yee; Chong, Wei Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. A bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of Piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoids; asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3. The current study involved evaluation of the toxicity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of these compounds against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were highly potent against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae causing up to 100% mortality at ≤ 15 μg/mL concentration. The ovicidal activity of asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3 were evaluated through egg hatching. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed potent ovicidal activity. Ovicidal activity for both compounds was up to 95% at 25μg/mL. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed strong inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with relative IC50 values of 0.73 to 1.87 μg/mL respectively. These findings coupled with the high AChE inhibition may suggest that asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 are neuron toxic compounds toward Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Further computational docking with Autodock Vina elaborates the possible interaction of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 with three possible binding sites of AChE which includes catalytic triads (CAS: S238, E367, H480), the peripheral sites (PAS: E72, W271) and anionic binding site (W83). The binding affinity of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were relatively strong with asaricin 1 showed a higher binding affinity in the anionic pocket.

  16. Mapping of zones potentially occupied by Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes, the main vectors of Rift Valley fever in Senegal

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    Yves M. Tourre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition for Rift Valley fever (RVF emergence is the presence of Aedes (Aedimorphus vexans and Culex (Culex poicilipes mosquitoes carrying the arbovirus and responsible for the infection. This paper presents a detailed mapping in the Sahelian region of Senegal of zones potentially occupied by these mosquitoes (ZPOMs whose population density is directly linked to ecozones in the vicinity of small ponds. The vectors habitats and breeding sites have been characterized through an integrated approach combining remote sensing technology, geographical information systems, geographical positioning systems and field observations for proper geo-referencing. From five SPOT-5 images (~10 m spatial resolution with appropriate channels, a meridional composite transect of 290 x 60 km was first constructed at the height of the summer monsoon. Subsequent ZPOMs covered major ecozones from north to south with different hydrological environments and different patterns pond distributions. It was found that an overall area of 12,817 ha ± 10% (about 0.8% of the transect is occupied by ponds with an average ZPOM 17 times larger than this (212,813 ha ± 10% or about 14% of the transect. By comparing the very humid year of 2003 with 2006 which had just below normal rainfall, the ZPOMs inter-annual variability was analyzed in a sandy-clayey ecozone with an important hydrofossil riverbed within the Ferlo region of Senegal. Very probably contributing to an increased abundance of vectors by the end of August 2003, it was shown that the aggregate pond area was already about 22 times larger than in August 2006, corresponding to an approximately five times larger total ZPOM. The results show the importance of pin-pointing small ponds (sizes down to 0.1 ha and their geographical distribution in order to assess animal exposure to the RVF vectors.

  17. Evaluation of organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against six vector mosquitoe species

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    Domingo Montada Dorta

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Three organophosphorus compounds- malathion, folithion and temephos- and two synthetic pyrethroids- alphamethrin and deltamethrin- were used for monitoring the susceptibility status of larvae and adults of six vector mosquitoe species: Culex quinquefasciatus (Filariasis and Aedes albopictus (Dengue (both laboratory and field strains; laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles slephensi and Anopheles culicifacies (Malaria, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis in India. From the LC50 values obtained for these insecticides, it was found that all mosquito species including the field strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus were highly susceptible Except for Cx. quinquefasciatus (field strain against malathion, 100% mortality was observed at the discriminating dosages recommended by World Health Organization. The residual effect of alphamethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and folithion at 25 mg (ai/m² on different surfaces against six species of vector mosquitoes showed that alphamethrin was the most effective on all four treated surfaces (mud, plywood, cement and thatch. Nevertheless, residual efficacy lasted longer on thatch than on the other surfaces. Therefore, synthetic pyrethroids such as alphamethrin can be effectively employed in integrated vector control operations.

  18. Evaluation of organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against six vector mosquitoe species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montada Dorta Domingo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Three organophosphorus compounds- malathion, folithion and temephos- and two synthetic pyrethroids- alphamethrin and deltamethrin- were used for monitoring the susceptibility status of larvae and adults of six vector mosquitoe species: Culex quinquefasciatus (Filariasis and Aedes albopictus (Dengue (both laboratory and field strains; laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles slephensi and Anopheles culicifacies (Malaria, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis in India. From the LC50 values obtained for these insecticides, it was found that all mosquito species including the field strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus were highly susceptible Except for Cx. quinquefasciatus (field strain against malathion, 100% mortality was observed at the discriminating dosages recommended by World Health Organization. The residual effect of alphamethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and folithion at 25 mg (ai/m² on different surfaces against six species of vector mosquitoes showed that alphamethrin was the most effective on all four treated surfaces (mud, plywood, cement and thatch. Nevertheless, residual efficacy lasted longer on thatch than on the other surfaces. Therefore, synthetic pyrethroids such as alphamethrin can be effectively employed in integrated vector control operations.

  19. Ecological niche modelling of Rift Valley fever virus vectors in Baringo, Kenya

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    Alfred O. Ochieng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has an impact on human health and animal productivity. Here, we explore the use of vector presence modelling to predict the distribution of RVF vector species under climate change scenario to demonstrate the potential for geographic spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of climate change on RVF vector distribution in Baringo County, Kenya, with an aim of developing a risk map for spatial prediction of RVF outbreaks. Methodology: The study used data on vector presence and ecological niche modelling (MaxEnt algorithm to predict the effect of climatic change on habitat suitability and the spatial distribution of RVF vectors in Baringo County. Data on species occurrence were obtained from longitudinal sampling of adult mosquitoes and larvae in the study area. We used present (2000 and future (2050 Bioclim climate databases to model the vector distribution. Results: Model results predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates for Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univitattus, Mansonia africana, and Mansonia uniformis. Under the present climatic conditions, the lowlands were found to be highly suitable for all the species. Future climatic conditions indicate an increase in the spatial distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus and M. africana. Model performance was statistically significant. Conclusion: Soil types, precipitation in the driest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and isothermality showed the highest predictive potential for the four species.

  20. Role of the repartition of wetland breeding sites on the spatial distribution of Anopheles and Culex, human disease vectors in Southern France

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    Fontenille Didier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, carried out in the Camargue region (France, we combined entomological data with geomatic and modelling tools to assess whether the location of breeding sites may explain the spatial distribution of adult mosquitoes. The species studied are important and competent disease vectors in Europe: Culex modestus Ficalbi and Cx. pipiens Linnaeus (West Nile virus, Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, a former Plasmodium vector, and An. melanoon Hackett, competent to transmit Plasmodium. Using a logistic regression model, we first evaluated which land cover variables determined the presence of Culex and Anopheles larva. The resulting probability map of larval presence then was used to project the average probability of finding adults in a buffer area. This was compared to the actual number of adults collected, providing a quantitative assessment of adult dispersal ability for each species. Results The distribution of Cx. modestus and An. melanoon is mainly driven by the repartition of irrigated farm fields and reed beds, their specific breeding habitats. The presence of breeding sites explained the distribution of adults of both species. The buffer size, reflecting the adult dispersal ability, was 700 m for Cx. modestus and 1000 m for An. melanoon. The comparatively stronger correlation observed for Cx. modestus suggested that other factors may affect the distribution of adult An. melanoon. We did not find any association between Cx. pipiens larval presence and the biotope due to the species' ubiquist character. Conclusion By applying the same method to different species, we highlighted different strengths of association between land cover (irrigated farm fields and reed beds, larval presence and adult population distribution. This paper demonstrates the power of geomatic tools to quantify the spatial organization of mosquito populations, and allows a better understanding of links between landcover, breeding habitats, presence

  1. Data-driven identification of potential Zika virus vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michelle V; Dallas, Tad A; Han, Barbara A; Murdock, Courtney C; Drake, John M

    2017-01-01

    Zika is an emerging virus whose rapid spread is of great public health concern. Knowledge about transmission remains incomplete, especially concerning potential transmission in geographic areas in which it has not yet been introduced. To identify unknown vectors of Zika, we developed a data-driven model linking vector species and the Zika virus via vector-virus trait combinations that confer a propensity toward associations in an ecological network connecting flaviviruses and their mosquito vectors. Our model predicts that thirty-five species may be able to transmit the virus, seven of which are found in the continental United States, including Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. We suggest that empirical studies prioritize these species to confirm predictions of vector competence, enabling the correct identification of populations at risk for transmission within the United States. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22053.001 PMID:28244371

  2. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp. from the Sonoran Desert of North America

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    Edward Pfeiler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Flores-López, Carlos A.; Mada-Vélez, Jesús Gerardo; Escalante-Verdugo, Juan; Markow, Therese A.

    2013-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented. PMID:24302868

  4. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis to control filarial vector Culex pipiens pallens and its antimicrobial activity.

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    Fouad, Hatem; Hongjie, Li; Yanmei, Ding; Baoting, Yu; El-Shakh, Ahmed; Abbas, Ghulam; Jianchu, Mo

    2017-11-01

    Culex pipiens pallens are the most common mosquito's vector in Asia. In order to protect the people from diseases, the anti-mosquito population is necessary that uses safe and new bio-pesticides such as bacteria-AgNPs. In our report, we used two kinds of bacteria to synthesize silver nanoparticles to examine the toxic effect on the larvae and pupae of Cx. pipiens pallens and also used as antimicrobial activity. The biosynthesis of AgNPs and its characterization was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, TEM, SEM, and EDX. The larvicidal and pupicidal assays revealed that the lethal concentration LC50 values of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-AgNPs were 0.72 ppm (I), 0.73 ppm (II), 0.69 ppm (III), 1.16 ppm (IV), and 4.18 (Pupae), while LC50 values of Bacillus subtilis-AgNPs were 0.60 ppm (I), 0.62 ppm (II), 0.21 ppm (III), 0.28 ppm (IV), and 3.46 ppm (Pupae) after 72 h of exposure. Antibacterial activity test of AgNPs reveals better results against rice pathogenic bacteria than bacteria alone. Thus, bacteria-mediated silver nanoparticles have a rapid effect on vector mosquito and microbial pathogen suggesting savings of energy and resources. Hence, bacteria-AgNPs may be used in the future as an effective weapon to control vector mosquito and harmful bacteria.

  6. Evaluation of Some Plant Fruit Extracts for the Control of West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Evren, Ozay Hasan; Cetin, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The extracts of different parts of plants were found very effective against various pests. The aim of this research was to determine the insecticidal activity of fruit methanol extracts obtained from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), Phoenix theophrasti (Arecaceae), Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) and Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) against the larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The fruits of test plants were collected from the Campus of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey in 2013. A series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 62.5–1000 ppm were tested against second instar larvae. Results: Only the extracts of Me. azedarach and Ph. theoprasti showed significant larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens and the LC50 values of these extracts were found to be 169.48 and 220.60 ppm, respectively. This is the first research investigating the insecticidal or larvicidal activity of Ph. theophrasti, St. japonicum and Py. coccinea extracts on mosquitoes. Conclusion: The methanol extract of fruits of Me. azedarach and Ph. theophrasti showed significantly higher larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens. PMID:28032112

  7. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  8. Whole transcriptome responses among females of the filariasis and arbovirus vector mosquito Culex pipiens implicate TGF-β signaling and chromatin modification as key drivers of diapause induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickner, Paul V; Mori, Akio; Zeng, Erliang; Tan, John C; Severson, David W

    2015-07-01

    Culex pipiens mosquitoes are important disease vectors inhabiting temperate zones, worldwide. The seasonal reduction in temperature and photoperiod accompanying late summer and early fall prompts female mosquitoes to enter diapause, a stage of developmental arrest and physiological conditioning that enhances survival during the winter months. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying diapause induction, we used custom whole transcriptome microarrays to identify differences in gene expression following exposure to nondiapause (long days, 25 °C) and diapause-inducing (short days, 18 °C) environmental conditions. Using a two-way ANOVA, we identified 1130 genes that were differentially expressed. We used the expression of these genes across three time points to construct a gene co-expression network comprising five modules. Genes in modules 1, 2, and 3 were largely up-regulated, while genes in modules 4 and 5 were down-regulated when compared to nondiapause conditions. Pathway enrichment analysis of the network modules revealed some potential regulatory mechanisms driving diapause induction. Module 1 was enriched for genes in the TGF-ß and Wnt signaling pathways; module 2 was enriched for genes involved in insect hormone biosynthesis, specifically, ecdysone synthesis; module 3 was enriched for genes involved in chromatin modification; and module 5 was enriched for genes in the circadian rhythm pathway. Our results suggest that TGF-β signaling and chromatin modification are key drivers for the integration of environmental signals into the diapause induction phase in C. pipiens mosquitoes.

  9. Larvicidal Activities of Indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates and Nematode Symbiotic Bacterial Toxins against the Mosquito Vector, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Ashraf M Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have recently caused a panic to the authorities in the endemic countries. This study was conducted to identify native larvicidal biopesticides against Culex pipiens for utilization in the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.Methods: Larvicidal activities of new indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and crude toxin complexes (TCs of two nematode bacterial-symbionts, Photorhabdus luminescens akhurstii (HRM1 and Ph. luminescens akhurstii (HS1 that tested against Cx. pipiens. B. thuringiensis isolates were recovered from different environmental samples in Saudi Arabia, and the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica (HRM1 and He. sp (HS1 were iso­lated from Egypt. Larvicidal activities (LC50 and LC95 of the potentially active B. thuringiensis strains or TCs were then evaluated at 24 and 48h post-treatment.Results: Three B. thuringiensis isolates were almost as active as the reference B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti-H14, and seven isolates were 1.6–5.4 times more toxic than Bti-H14. On the other hand, the TCs of the bacterial sym­bionts, HRM1 and HS1, showed promising larvicidal activities. HS1 showed LC50 of 2.54 folds that of HRM1 at 24h post-treatment. Moreover, histopathological examinations of the HS1-treated larvae showed deformations in midgut epithelial cells at 24h post-treatment.Conclusion: Synergistic activity and molecular characterization of these potentially active biocontrol agents are currently being investigated. These results may lead to the identification of eco-friend mosquito larvicidal product(s that could contribute to the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.

  10. Vector Competence of Mosquitoes for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-30

    encephalomyelitis (VEE), Sindbis (SIN) and vesicular stomatitis (VS) viruses with an without the addition of the eucaryotic DNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor a...refractory compared to susceptible strains differs by as much as 10,000-fold. It has been firmly established, through the use of DNA dependent RNA...peus Grasshopper Slough Culex pipiens Poldervaart Culex quinquefasciatus Kern Culex tarsalis Chico; Ft. Collins; Knights Landing; Poso Creek; Manitoba

  11. Evidence for regular ongoing introductions of mosquito disease vectors into the Galapagos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cedeño, Virna; Cruz, Marilyn; Eastwood, Gillian; Fonseca, Dina M; Causton, Charlotte E; Azuero, Ronal; Loayza, Jose; Martinez, Jose D Cruz; Goodman, Simon J

    2009-11-07

    Wildlife on isolated oceanic islands is highly susceptible to the introduction of pathogens. The recent establishment in the Galápagos Islands of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for diseases such as avian malaria and West Nile fever, is considered a serious risk factor for the archipelago's endemic fauna. Here we present evidence from the monitoring of aeroplanes and genetic analysis that C. quinquefasciatus is regularly introduced via aircraft into the Galápagos Archipelago. Genetic population structure and admixture analysis demonstrates that these mosquitoes breed with, and integrate successfully into, already-established populations of C. quinquefasciatus in the Galápagos, and that there is ongoing movement of mosquitoes between islands. Tourist cruise boats and inter-island boat services are the most likely mechanism for transporting Culex mosquitoes between islands. Such anthropogenic mosquito movements increase the risk of the introduction of mosquito-borne diseases novel to Galápagos and their subsequent widespread dissemination across the archipelago. Failure to implement and maintain measures to prevent the human-assisted transport of mosquitoes to and among the islands could have catastrophic consequences for the endemic wildlife of Galápagos.

  12. Evaluation of organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against six vector mosquitoe species Avaliação de inseticidas organofosforados e piretroides sintéticos contra seis mosquitos vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Montada Dorta

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Three organophosphorus compounds- malathion, folithion and temephos- and two synthetic pyrethroids- alphamethrin and deltamethrin- were used for monitoring the susceptibility status of larvae and adults of six vector mosquitoe species: Culex quinquefasciatus (Filariasis and Aedes albopictus (Dengue (both laboratory and field strains; laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles slephensi and Anopheles culicifacies (Malaria, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis in India. From the LC50 values obtained for these insecticides, it was found that all mosquito species including the field strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus were highly susceptible Except for Cx. quinquefasciatus (field strain against malathion, 100% mortality was observed at the discriminating dosages recommended by World Health Organization. The residual effect of alphamethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and folithion at 25 mg (ai/m² on different surfaces against six species of vector mosquitoes showed that alphamethrin was the most effective on all four treated surfaces (mud, plywood, cement and thatch. Nevertheless, residual efficacy lasted longer on thatch than on the other surfaces. Therefore, synthetic pyrethroids such as alphamethrin can be effectively employed in integrated vector control operations.Três compostos organo-fosforados - malation, folition e temefos -e dois piretroides sintéticos - alfametrina e deltametrina - foram usados para controlar o estado da susceptibilidade das larvas e adultos de seis mosquitos vetores na Índia. Foram utilizadas cepas de laboratório e área de Culex quinquefasciatus (filariasis e Aedes albopictus (Dengue e cepas de laboratório de Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles stephensi e Anopheles culicifacies (Malária e Culex tritaenorhynchus (encefalite japonesa. Os valores de C1(50 obtidos para esses inseticidas mostram que todas as espécies incluindo as cepas de área foram muito susceptíveis. Nos

  13. Development of a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay to identify common members of the Subgenera Culex (Culex) and Culex (Phenacomyia) in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Rebekah J; Deus, Stephen; Williams, Martin; Savage, Harry M

    2010-08-01

    Morphological differentiation of mosquitoes in the subgenera Culex (Culex) and Culex (Phenacomyia) in Guatemala is difficult, with reliable identification ensured only through examination of larval skins from individually reared specimens and associated male genitalia. We developed a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay to identify common Cx. (Cux.) and Cx. (Phc.). Culex (Cux.) chidesteri, Cx. (Cux.) coronator, Cx. (Cux.) interrogator, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) nigripalpus/Cx. (Cux.) thriambus, and Cx. (Phc.) lactator were identified directly with a multiplexed primer cocktail comprising a conserved forward primer and specific reverse primers targeting ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Culex nigripalpus and Cx. thriambus were differentiated by restriction digest of homologous amplicons. The assay was developed and optimized using well-characterized specimens from Guatemala and the United States and field tested with unknown material from Guatemala. This assay will be a valuable tool for mosquito identification in entomological and arbovirus ecology studies in Guatemala.

  14. Enhanced vector borne disease surveillance of California Culex mosquito populations reveals spatial and species-specific barriers of infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Curtis, Deanna Joy; Koh, Chung-Yan; Brodsky, Benjamin H; Lane, Todd

    2014-08-01

    terium and c am p y l o bacter bac t er i al spec i e s . W e utilized the s e mic r obial transcri p tomes pre s e nt in g e ogra p hical l y defined Cul e x po p ul a tions to defi n e spatial and m osqui t o specie s -spec i fic ba r r iers of i n fecti o n. T he v i r ome and microbi o me c o mpos i tion id e ntified in e ach mosqui t o p o ol pr o v i ded suf f icient resolut i on to dete r m i ne both the mosq u ito species and the g e o graphic regi o n in Californ i a w h e re t h e mosqui t o po o l orig i n ated. T his d a ta pr o v i des ins i ght in t o the compl e x i t y of microb i al spec i es cir c ulati n g in med i cal l y i mport a nt Culex mosqui t oes a nd t h eir potent i al im p act o n t he tran s missi o n of v ector-b o rne human / veter i na r y p a t hogens in C a liforn i a.

  15. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the groCulex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neem tree Azadirachta indica Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most studied plant species for pest control, including mosquitoes. However, the effect of aqueous neem seed extracts (ANSE) on each of the 4 instars of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is unknown. In order to determine the effect of ...

  16. Sequence analysis of mtDNA COI barcode region revealed three haplotypes within Culex pipiens assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosha, Mona; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Vatandoost, Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Mohtarami, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    Members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens assemblage are known vectors of deadly encephalitides, periodic filariasis, and West Nile virus throughout the world. However, members of this assemblage are morphologically indistinguishable or hard to distinguish and play distinct roles in transmission of the diseases. The current study aimed to provide further evidence on utility of the two most popular nuclear (ITS2-rDNA) and mitochondrial (COI barcode region) genetic markers to identify members of the assemblage. Culex pipiens assemblage specimens from different climate zones of Iran were collected and identified to species level based on morphological characteristics. Nucleotide sequences of the loci for the specimens plus available data in the GenBank were analyzed to find species specific genetic structures useful for diagnosis purposes. ITS2 region was highly divergent within species or populations suggesting lack of consistency as a reliable molecular marker. In contrast, sequence analysis of 710 bp of COI gene revealed three fixed haplotypes named here "C, T, H" within the assemblage which can be distinguished by HaeIII and AluI enzymes. There were a correlation between the haplotypes and the world climate regions, where the haplotypes H/T and C are present mainly in temperate and tropical regions of the world, respectively. In the New world, Australia, and Japan only haplotype H is found. In conjunction between tropical and temperate regions such Iran, China, and Turkey, a mix of C/H or C/H/T are present. Although, the haplotypes are not strictly species-specific, however, Cx. quinquefasciatus was mainly of haplotype C. Due to the lack of mating barrier and questionable taxonomic situation of the complex members, the mentioned haplotypes in combination with other morphological and molecular characters might be used to address the genetic structure of the studied populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early warning of West Nile virus mosquito vector: climate and land use models successfully explain phenology and abundance of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in north-western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Bolzoni, Luca; Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Delucchi, Luca; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Balbo, Luca; Mosca, Andrea; Giacobini, Mario; Bertolotti, Luigi; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2014-06-12

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging global health threat. Transmission risk is strongly related to the abundance of mosquito vectors, typically Culex pipiens in Europe. Early-warning predictors of mosquito population dynamics would therefore help guide entomological surveillance and thereby facilitate early warnings of transmission risk. We analysed an 11-year time series (2001 to 2011) of Cx. pipiens mosquito captures from the Piedmont region of north-western Italy to determine the principal drivers of mosquito population dynamics. Linear mixed models were implemented to examine the relationship between Cx. pipiens population dynamics and environmental predictors including temperature, precipitation, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the proximity of mosquito traps to urban areas and rice fields. Warm temperatures early in the year were associated with an earlier start to the mosquito season and increased season length, and later in the year, with decreased abundance. Early precipitation delayed the start and shortened the length of the mosquito season, but increased total abundance. Conversely, precipitation later in the year was associated with a longer season. Finally, higher NDWI early in the year was associated with an earlier start to the season and increased season length, but was not associated with abundance. Proximity to rice fields predicted higher total abundance when included in some models, but was not a significant predictor of phenology. Proximity to urban areas was not a significant predictor in any of our models. Predicted variations in start of the season and season length ranged from one to three weeks, across the measured range of variables. Predicted mosquito abundance was highly variable, with numbers in excess of 1000 per trap per year when late season temperatures were low (average 21°C) to only 150 when late season temperatures were high (average 30°C). Climate data collected early in the year, in conjunction with local land

  18. leaf extract on Culex quinquefasciatus in Morogoro, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2,S'okoine University ongriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Abstract: Tephrosia vogelii, a local plant, was tested for its potential effects on Cnlex quinquefasciams larvae. Two sets of experiments, one using distilled water and the other using septic tank water as diluents and control were carried out. In the first set of experiments, ...

  19. Evaluation of resting sites of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The city of Jos, Nigeria, has been expanding with a consequent increase in the contact between humans and wild monkeys inhabiting the surrounding hills. Such a situation could increase the danger of the spread of zoonoses as well as arboviruses. Objective: To determine the relative monthly abundance of ...

  20. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, S; Murugananthan, G; Ghosh, S K

    2010-10-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%).

  1. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Dengue and Lymphatic Filariasis Vectors along an Altitudinal Transect in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Kreß, Aljoscha; Müller, Ruth; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapidly increasing temperatures in the mountain region of Nepal and recent reports of dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases from mountainous areas of central Nepal prompted us to study the spatio-temporal distribution of the vectors of these two diseases along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a longitudinal study in four distinct physiographical regions of central Nepal from September 2011 to February 2012. We used BG-Sentinel and CDC light traps to capture adult mosquitoes. We found the geographical distribution of the dengue virus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus along our study transect to extend up to 1,310 m altitude in the Middle Mountain region (Kathmandu). The distribution of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus extended up to at least 2,100 m in the High Mountain region (Dhunche). Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the physiographical region and month of collection on the abundance of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus only. BG-Sentinel traps captured significantly higher numbers of A. aegypti than CDC light traps. The meteorological factors temperature, rainfall and relative humidity had significant effects on the mean number of A. aegypti per BG-Sentinel trap. Temperature and relative humidity were significant predictors of the number of C. quinquefasciatus per CDC light trap. Dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases had previously been reported from all vector positive areas except Dhunche which was free of known lymphatic filariasis cases. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that dengue virus vectors have already established stable populations up to the Middle Mountains of Nepal, supporting previous studies, and report for the first time the distribution of lymphatic filariasis vectors up to the High Mountain region of this country. The findings of our study should contribute to a better planning and scaling-up of mosquito

  2. ISOLATION OF BACILLUS SPHAERICUS AND RELATED FORMS PATHOGENIC TO CULEX QUINQUEFASC1ATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Situmorang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and forty nine isolates of Bacillus spp. sporeforming bacteria were obtained from soil, water, and mosquito larval samples collected in various localities of Yogyakarta Special Territory, Central Java and East Java. Four isolates were toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus; they belong to the species of Bacillus sphaericus (ascession number 23A and 51C, Bacillus cereus (ascession number 142A, and Bacillus pumilus (ascession number 25C.

  3. Plant-borne ovicides in the fight against mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a huge threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Culicidae control is of crucial importance. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment, and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including botanical insecticides. The majority of researches focused on larvicides (745 SCOPUS results, July 2015) and adult repellents (434 SCOPUS results), while limited efforts were conducted to identify effective ovicides of botanical origin (59 SCOPUS results). Here, I review current knowledge on the effectiveness of plant-borne ovicides against major mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The majority of researches focused on the toxicity of crude extracts, their fractions, or essential oils against three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. As a general trend, C. quinquefasciatus eggs were the most resistant to botanical ovicides. Five studies proposed selected compounds from plant extracts and essential oils as ovicides effective at few parts per million. However, no efforts were conducted to shed light on possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity of plant-borne ovicides. In the final section, a number of hot issues needing further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and researchers working in natural product chemistry are outlined.

  4. Boswellia ovalifoliolata (Burseraceae) essential oil as an eco-friendly larvicide? Toxicity against six mosquito vectors of public health importance, non-target mosquito fishes, backswimmers, and water bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Rajeswary, Mohan; Vijayan, Periasamy; Senthilmurugan, Sengamalai; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2017-03-22

    The use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. Plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS revealed that the B. ovalifoliolata EO contained at least 20 compounds. The main constituents were β-pinene, α-terpineol, and caryophyllene. In acute toxicity assays, the EO was toxic to larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 61.84, 66.24, 72.47, 82.26, 89.80, and 97.95 μg/ml, respectively. B. ovalifoliolata EO was scarcely toxic to mosquito fishes, backswimmers, and water bugs predating mosquito larvae with LC50 from 4186 to 14,783 μg/ml. Overall, these results contribute to develop effective and affordable instruments to magnify the reliability of Culicidae control programs.

  5. First Nationwide Surveillance of Culex pipiens Complex and Culex torrentium Mosquitoes Demonstrated the Presence of Culex pipiens Biotype pipiens/molestus Hybrids in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Melaun, Christian; Jöst, Hanna; von Thien, Heidrun; Badusche, Marlis; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Krüger, Andreas; Tannich, Egbert; Becker, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes and other arthropods may transmit medically important pathogens, in particular viruses such as West Nile virus. The presence of suitable hosts and competent vectors for those zoonotic viruses is essential for an enzootic transmission, which is a prerequisite for epidemics. To establish reliable risk projections, it is an urgent need for an exact identification of mosquito species, which is especially challenging in the case of sibling species, such as Culex. pipiens pipiens biotypes pipiens and molestus. To facilitate detection of different Culex pipiens forms and their hybrids we established a multiplex real-time PCR. Culex pipiens samples were obtained by egg raft collection and rearing until imago stage or adult sampling using CO2 baited traps and gravid traps. In total, we tested more than 16,500 samples collected all over Germany in the years 2011 and 2012. The predominant species in Germany are Culex pipiens pipiens biotype pipiens and Culex. torrentium, but we also detected Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus and hybrids of the two pipiens biotypes at sites where both species occur sympatrically. This report of a potentially important bridge vector for West Nile virus might have major impact in the risk projections for West Nile virus in Germany. PMID:24039724

  6. Effectivity of Sugar-Apple (Annona squamosa Seed Extract with a Different Length of Storage against Culec quinquefasciatus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a randomized controlled trial group design approach. The test material was an extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been kept for 0, 1, 2, and 3 week with LC50 (0,47 ppm was used. Each treatment used 25 C. quinquefasciatus larvae from third instar larvae stage and replicated five times. After exposed for 24 hours, dead larvae counted. The result confirmed that the extract of sugar apple’s seeds which has been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week did not showed any significant different on larvae mortality. Extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week have an equal activity as Culex quinquefasciatus larvicide.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of ethyl acetate and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v extract of Swietenia mahagoni leaf against Japanese Encephalitis vector Culex vishuni group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Adhikari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the larvicidal activity of a furniture tree Swietenia mahagoni L. (S. mahagoni against mosquito Culex Vishnui group. Methods: Different concentrations of crude, chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v and ethyl acetate solvent extracts of S. mahagoni mature leaves were treated against Cx. vishnui group larvae. Results: Five graded concentrations (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30% and 0.40% of crude extract of mature leaves and five graded concentrations (10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm, 40 ppm and 50 ppm of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v and ethyl acetate solvent extracts showed significant (P<0.05 larval mortalities. LC50, LC90 values were calculated at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of exposures. Adult Cx. vishnui group mosquitoes exposed to burning coils prepared from S. mahagoni mature leaves showed smoke repellency and toxicity up to 4 h. Conclusions: This study was a pioneer attempt to establish S. mahagoni as an effective mosquito larvicide.

  8. Evaluation of larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni (Family: Rubiaceae against three mosquito vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovendan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity against three important medically mosquito vector such as malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi, dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia leaf was collected in and around Alleppy districts, Kerala, India. M. citrifolia leaf was washed with tap water and shade dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves. From the leaf, 1 kg powdered was macerated with 3.0 L of methanol sequentially for a period 72 h and filtered. The crude plant extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed at various concentrations ranging from (100-500 ppm under the laboratory as well as field conditions. The LC50 and LC90 value of the M. citrifolia leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis. Results: The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 and 48 hrs of exposure; All larval instars and pupae have considerably moderate mortality; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was methanolic extract of M. citrifolia observed in three mosquito vectors at 48 h. The LC50 and LC90 of M. citrifolia against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae against mosquito vectors. An. stephensi had values of LC 50=146.08, 159.07, 172.16, 185.08 and 202.68 ppm and LC90=322.12, 363.48, 388.56, 436.51 and 513.56 ppm, respectively. The Ae. aegypti had values of LC50=181.27, 210.40, 229.80, 256.73 and 292.01 ppm and LC 90=407.99, 485.65, 534.14, 624.16 and 756.79 ppm, respectively. The Cx. quinquefasciatus had values of LC 50=226.70, 256.97, 290.05, 316.33 and 358.11 ppm and LC90=560.35, 652.07, 733.03, 797.09 and 875.25 ppm, respectively at 24 h. Conclusions: The results of the leaf extract of M. citrifolia are promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal

  9. VectorBase: improvements to a bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vector genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megy, Karine; Emrich, Scott J; Lawson, Daniel; Campbell, David; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Hughes, Daniel S T; Koscielny, Gautier; Louis, Christos; Maccallum, Robert M; Redmond, Seth N; Sheehan, Andrew; Topalis, Pantelis; Wilson, Derek

    2012-01-01

    VectorBase (http://www.vectorbase.org) is a NIAID-supported bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. It hosts data for nine genomes: mosquitoes (three Anopheles gambiae genomes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus), tick (Ixodes scapularis), body louse (Pediculus humanus), kissing bug (Rhodnius prolixus) and tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans). Hosted data range from genomic features and expression data to population genetics and ontologies. We describe improvements and integration of new data that expand our taxonomic coverage. Releases are bi-monthly and include the delivery of preliminary data for emerging genomes. Frequent updates of the genome browser provide VectorBase users with increasing options for visualizing their own high-throughput data. One major development is a new population biology resource for storing genomic variations, insecticide resistance data and their associated metadata. It takes advantage of improved ontologies and controlled vocabularies. Combined, these new features ensure timely release of multiple types of data in the public domain while helping overcome the bottlenecks of bioinformatics and annotation by engaging with our user community.

  10. COI barcode versus morphological identification of Culex (Culex) (Diptera: Culicidae) species: a case study using samples from Argentina and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurito, Magdalena; Oliveira, Tatiane M P de; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2013-01-01

    Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene from adults of 22 Culex (Culex) species from Argentina and Brazil were employed to assess species identification and to test the usefulness of COI for barcoding using the best close match (BCM) algorithm. A pairwise Kimura two-parameter distance matrix including the mean intra and interspecific distances for 71 COI barcode sequences was constructed. Of the 12 COI lineages recovered in the Neighbour-joining topology, five confirmed recognised morphological species (Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. dolosus, Cx. lygrus and Cx. saltanensis) with intraspecific divergences lower than 1.75%. Cx. bilineatus is formally resurrected from the synonymy of Cx. dolosus. Cx. maxi , Cx. surinamensis and the Coronator group species included were clustered into an unresolved lineage. The intraspecific distance of Cx. pipiens (3%) was almost twice the interspecific between it and Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.6%). Regarding the BCM criteria, the COI barcode successfully identified 69% of all species. The rest of the sequences, approximately 10%, 18% and 3%, remained as ambiguously, mis and unidentified, respectively. The COI barcode does not contain enough information to distinguish Culex (Cux.) species.

  11. Insecticide Susceptibility Screening Against Culex and Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes From the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Balanay, Jo Anne G; White, Avian V; Hope, Joe; Vandock, Kurt; Byrd, Brian D; Reiskind, Michael H

    2017-11-23

    Mosquitoes exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides may be selected for resistance to insecticide active ingredients (AIs). Mosquitoes are exposed to AIs through agricultural, public/private mosquito control programs, homeowners, and other sources. Hence, mosquito control programs should routinely measure the resistance/susceptibility status of mosquito populations of public health concern. The objectives here were to determine resistance status for six AIs used in adult mosquito control in the United States to assess how resistance/susceptibility differs between AI, mosquito species (states where > 1 species collected), and between years (some populations sampled for 2 yr). Field-collected eggs from 21 mosquito populations of six different species or hybrid species (Aedes albopictus Skuse [Diptera: Culicidae], Aedes aegypti L. [Diptera: Culicidae], Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex pipiens L. [Diptera: Culicidae], Culex quinquefasciatus Say [Diptera: Culicidae], Cx. pipiens/quinquefasciatus) were obtained. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays were used to assess the resistance/susceptibility status for six AIs (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox, malathion, permethrin, and phenothrin). World Health Organization guidelines were used to classify mosquitoes as susceptible (98-100% mortality at diagnostic time [DT]), possibly resistant (80-97% mortality at DT), or resistant (susceptibility/resistance between species and AIs. In states where both Aedes and Culex were collected, the odds of exhibiting resistance in Culex were 68-69 times higher than Aedes (Texas odds ratio: 69.30; 95% confidence interval: 5.86, 819.44; P = 0.001; North Carolina odds ratio: 67.99; 95% confidence interval: 15.21, 303.94; P < 0.0001). Some level of resistance was detected against all tested AIs in several mosquito populations and some varied between 2015 and 2016. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of

  12. Utility of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads in the control of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnaname, N; Amalraj, D Dominic; Mariappan, T

    2005-10-01

    The use of chemicals or bio-larvicides for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi breeding in pit latrines and overhead tanks (OHT) respectively is discouraged owing to many undesirable impacts in the environment. Due to faecal contamination and poor survival, use of predatory fish in OHTs is not feasible. The use of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads is a potential alternative in these habitats. EPS beads not only prevent oviposition but also kill the immature by forming a thick blanket on the water surface. A thick layer of 2 cm with beads of 2 mm is sufficient to suppress and prevent mosquito breeding. These are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need frequent application since they remain on the surface for quiet a long time. Successful trials against C. quinquefasciatus breeding in pit latrines, soakage pits, septic tanks, etc., have been carried out in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. Certain trials with EPS indicated reduction in microfilaria (mf) rate besides decline in biting density. In India, EPS beads have also been used on small scale for the control of A. stephensi and A. culicifacies breeding in OHTs and unused wells respectively. The polystyrene beads have also been reported to be effective in the control of mosquito breeding in biogas plants and other industrial situations. The practical utility of EPS beads in the control of vector-borne diseases has been discussed in the present review.

  13. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  14. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  15. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  16. A list of mosquito species of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, including the first report of Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae, yellow fever vector and 14 other species (Diptera: Culicidae Lista de espécies de mosquitos do Estado de Pernambuco e primeiro relato de Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae vetor de febre amarela silvestre e outras 14 espécies (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Consuelo Aragão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Besides mosquito species adapted to urban environments (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, only 15 species of Anopheles had been recorded in the State of Pernambuco. METHODS: Human-landing mosquitoes were collected in Dois Irmãos Park, in Recife. RESULTS: The first report for the state of Haemagogus janthinomys, an important vector of yellow fever virus, and 14 other species, including Trichoprosopon lampropus, a first reported for Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The mosquito fauna in the area is diversified and has potential medical and veterinary importance.INTRODUÇÃO: Além de mosquitos adaptados ao ambiente urbano (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus, apenas 15 espécies de Anopheles haviam sido relatadas no Estado de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Mosquitos que pousavam em humanos no Parque Dois Irmãos, em Recife foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Haemagogus janthinomys, importante vetor de vírus de febre amarela, e outras 14 espécies são relatadas pela primeira vez no estado, incluindo Trichoprosopon lampropus, relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: A fauna de mosquitos na área é muito diversificada e tem potencial importância médica e veterinária.

  17. Identification of the temperature- induced larvicidal efficacy of Agave angustifolia against Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae

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    Mithilesh eKajla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticides are generally employed to control the mosquito population. However, their injudicious over usage and non-biodegradability are associated with many adverse effects on the environment and mosquitoes. The application of environment-friendly mosquitocidals might be an alternate to overcome these issues. In this study, we found that organic or aqueous extracts of Agave angustifolia leaves exhibited a strong larvicidal activity (LD50 28.27 µg/ml against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi larvae within a short exposure of 12h. The larvicidal activity of Agave angustifolia is inherited and independent of the plants vegetative growth. Interestingly, the plant larvicidal activity was observed exclusively during the summer season (April-August, when outside temperature is between 30oC to 50oC and it was significantly reduced during winter season (December-February, when the outside temperature falls to ~4oC or lower. Thus, we hypothesized that the larvicidal components of Agave angustifolia might be induced by the manipulation of environmental temperature and should be resistant to the hot conditions. We found that the larvicidal activity of Agave angustifolia was induced when plants were maintained at 37oC in a semi-natural environment against the controls that were growing outside in cold weather. Pre-incubation of Agave angustifolia extract at 100oC for 1h killed 60% larvae in 12h, which gradually increased to 100% mortality after 24h. In addition, the dry powder formulation of Agave angustifolia, also displayed a strong larvicidal activity after a long shelf life. Together, these findings revealed that Agave angustifolia is an excellent source of temperature induced bioactive metabolites that may assist the preparedness for vector control programs competently.

  18. Associative learning in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti: avoidance of a previously attractive odor or surface color that is paired with an aversive stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menda, Gil; Uhr, Joshua H; Wyttenbach, Robert A; Vermeylen, Françoise M; Smith, David M; Harrington, Laura C; Hoy, Ronald R

    2013-01-15

    Associative learning has been shown in a variety of insects, including the mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae. This study demonstrates associative learning for the first time in Aedes aegypti, an important vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. This species prefers to rest on dark surfaces and is attracted to the odor of 1-octen-3-ol. After training in which a dark surface alone or a dark surface with odor was paired with electric shock, mosquitoes avoided the previously attractive area. The association was stronger when odor was included in training, was retained for at least 60 min but not for 24 h, and was equal for males and females. These results demonstrate the utility of a bulk-training paradigm for mosquitoes similar to that used with Drosophila melanogaster.

  19. Combining Attractants and Larvicides in Biodegradable Matrices for Sustainable Mosquito Vector Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Louis P Schorkopf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a global need for cost-effective and environmentally friendly tools for control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. One potential way to achieve this is to combine already available tools to gain synergistic effects to reduce vector mosquito populations. Another possible way to improve mosquito control is to extend the active period of a given control agent, enabling less frequent applications and consequently, more efficient and longer lasting vector population suppression.We investigated the potential of biodegradable wax emulsions to improve the performance of semiochemical attractants for gravid female culicine vectors of disease, as well as to achieve more effective control of their aquatic larval offspring. As an attractant for gravid females, we selected acetoxy hexadecanolide (AHD, the Culex oviposition pheromone. As toxicant for mosquito larvae, we chose the biological larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs. These attractant and larvicidal agents were incorporated, separately and in combination, into a biodegradable wax emulsion, a commercially available product called SPLAT (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology and SPLATbac, which contains 8.33% Bti and 8.33% Bs. Wax emulsions were applied to water surfaces as buoyant pellets of 20 mg each. Dose-mortality analyses of Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae demonstrated that a single 20 mg pellet of a 10-1 dilution of SPLATbac in a larval tray containing 1 L of water caused 100% mortality of neonate (1st instar larvae for at least five weeks after application. Mortality of 3rd instar larvae remained equally high with SPLATbac dilutions down to 10-2 for over two weeks post application. Subsequently, AHD was added to SPLAT (emulsion only, without Bs or Bti to attract gravid females (SPLATahd, or together with biological larvicides to attract ovipositing females and kill emerging larvae (SPLATbacAHD, 10-1 dilution in both

  20. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex in South-Eastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of adult behaviour of Culex (Culex species was carried out from August 1992 through December 1993 in a human modified (anthropic environment in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil. Culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. Nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. So it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. Nonetheless, Cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially St. Louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.São relatados os resultados obtidos mediante coletas regulares de adultos de Culex (Culex em ambientes antrópico do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1992 a dezembro de 1993. Pôde-se evidenciar a dominancia de Culex nigripalpus nas várias coletas efetuadas. Revelou-se claramente a preferência por parte desse mosquito em aumentar sua densidade no ambiente antrópico. Todavia, sua freqüência ao domicílio mostrou-se baixa, revelando fraco grau de sinantropia. Assim sendo, seu papel vetor de arbovirus parece restringir-se à participação no ciclo natural desses agentes infecciosos. Contudo, pode-se considerá-lo como vetor potencial no meio extradomiciliar. Nesse particular, seu papel pode não ser negligenciável, especialmente no que tange à possibilidade de transmissão de encefalite de S.Luís, cujo agente já foi assinalado na região.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquito developmental genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta K Behura

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing projects have presented the opportunity for analysis of developmental genes in three vector mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae. A comparative genomic analysis of developmental genes in Drosophila melanogaster and these three important vectors of human disease was performed in this investigation. While the study was comprehensive, special emphasis centered on genes that 1 are components of developmental signaling pathways, 2 regulate fundamental developmental processes, 3 are critical for the development of tissues of vector importance, 4 function in developmental processes known to have diverged within insects, and 5 encode microRNAs (miRNAs that regulate developmental transcripts in Drosophila. While most fruit fly developmental genes are conserved in the three vector mosquito species, several genes known to be critical for Drosophila development were not identified in one or more mosquito genomes. In other cases, mosquito lineage-specific gene gains with respect to D. melanogaster were noted. Sequence analyses also revealed that numerous repetitive sequences are a common structural feature of Drosophila and mosquito developmental genes. Finally, analysis of predicted miRNA binding sites in fruit fly and mosquito developmental genes suggests that the repertoire of developmental genes targeted by miRNAs is species-specific. The results of this study provide insight into the evolution of developmental genes and processes in dipterans and other arthropods, serve as a resource for those pursuing analysis of mosquito development, and will promote the design and refinement of functional analysis experiments.

  2. Species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-11-28

    It is increasingly recognized that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) with shifts of disease vectors to higher altitudes and latitudes. In particular, an increasing risk of malaria and dengue fever epidemics in tropical highlands and temperate regions has been predicted in different climate change scenarios. The aim of this paper is to expand the current knowledge on the seasonal occurrence and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern Nepal. Adult mosquitoes resting indoors and outdoors were collected using CDC light trap and aspirators with the support of flash light. Mosquito larvae were collected using locally constructed dippers. We assessed the local residents' perceptions of the distribution and occurrence of mosquitoes using key informant interview techniques. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess the effect of season, resting site and topography on the abundance of malaria vectors. The known malaria vectors in Nepal, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles annularis and Anopheles maculatus complex members were recorded from 70 to 1,820 m above sea level (asl). The vectors of chikungunya and dengue virus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex quinquefasciatus, and that of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, were found from 70 to 2,000 m asl in eastern Nepal. Larvae of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes species were recorded up to 2,310 m asl. Only season had a significant effect on the abundance of An. fluviatilis, season and resting site on the abundance of An. maculatus complex members, and season, resting site and topography on the abundance of An. annularis. The perceptions of people on mosquito occurrence are consistent with entomological findings. This study provides the first vertical distribution records of vector mosquitoes in eastern Nepal and suggests that the vectors of malaria and other diseases have already

  3. Controle integrado do vetor da filariose com participação comunitária, em uma área urbana do Recife, Brasil Integrated control of the filariasis vector with community participation in an urban area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda Regis

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto piloto para o controle da filariose bancroftiana foi desenvolvido em duas áreas do Recife, com índices iniciais de prevalência de microfilaremia de 10%. Nas duas áreas, foi aplicado tratamento em massa com doses baixas de dietilcarbamazina. Em uma das áreas, esse tratamento foi associado ao controle do vetor, integrando medidas físicas, como o uso de camadas flutuantes de esferas de poliestireno, ao tratamento periódico dos criadouros com a bactéria entomopatógena Bacillus sphaericus. Como resultado, a densidade populacional do vetor, da ordem de sessenta a 120 Culex/quarto/noite antes das intervenções, foi drasticamente reduzida, mantendo-se, durante dois anos, em valores entre quatro e 16 Culex/quarto/noite. Neste contexto, as ações para envolver a comunidade escolar local no controle do vetor resultaram na realização de atividades curriculares e extraclasses, culminando com a participação efetiva de grupos de alunos ("Vigilantes de Vetores" na aplicação das medidas de controle e na divulgação de conhecimentos básicos sobre a biologia do Culex quinquefasciatus. O entusiástico envolvimento de professores e alunos mostrou ser a escola um espaço aberto à participação em programas desta natureza.A pilot study for the control of Bancroftian filariasis transmission was developed in two areas of Recife, Brazil, where microfilaraemic prevalence was 10% in 1991. Mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine (DEC using low and spaced doses was employed in both areas. In one such instance, DEC therapy was associated with vector control using physical measures and periodic treatment of Culex breeding sites with the entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus. The vector population density, reaching 60 ­ 120 Culex/room /night before the intervention, was drastically reduced to 4 ­ 16 Culex/room/night, and maintained at this level for more than two years. Actions to engage the local school community in the vector control process were

  4. Do vegetated rooftops attract more mosquitoes? Monitoring disease vector abundance on urban green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gwendolyn K L; Jim, C Y

    2016-12-15

    Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting. Seven sites in a university campus were selected to represent three experimental treatments: green roofs (GR), ground-level blue-green spaces as positive controls (PC), and bare roofs as negative controls (NC). Mosquito-trapping devices were deployed for a year from March 2015 to 2016. Human-biting mosquito species known to transmit infectious diseases in the region were identified and recorded as target species. Generalized linear models evaluated the effects of site type, season, and weather on vector-mosquito abundance. Our model revealed site type as a significant predictor of vector mosquito abundance, with considerably more vector mosquitoes captured in PC than in GR and NC. Vector abundance was higher in NC than in GR, attributed to the occasional presence of water pools in depressions of roofing membrane after rainfall. Our data also demonstrated seasonal differences in abundance. Weather variables were evaluated to assess human-vector contact risks under different weather conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus, a competent vector of diseases including lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever, could be the most adaptable species. Our analysis demonstrates that green roofs are not particularly preferred by local vector mosquitoes compared to bare roofs and other urban spaces in a humid subtropical setting. The findings call for a better understanding of vector ecology in diverse urban landscapes

  5. Novel Tests for Rapid Detection of Insecticide Resistance in Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-25

    resistance to chlorpyrifos in the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. M.S. thesis , Univ. of Calif., Riverside, 143 pp. 3. Raymond, M. 1986...Coachetta-1 Thermal CA 08.04.88 C. tarsaLis Oil Okra field Coachetla-2 Indio CA 07.26.88 C. pipiens Oil drainage ditch Coachetla-3 Palm Desert CA 07.20.88 C

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were tested as larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous AgNO3 to stable silver nanoparticles with average particle siz...

  7. Artemisia absinthium-borne compounds as novel larvicides: effectiveness against six mosquito vectors and acute toxicity on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    The eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors is a crucial challenge of public health importance. Here we evaluated the larvicidal potential of Artemisia absinthium essential oil (EO) and its three major chemical constituents against six mosquito vectors: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The EO was obtained by leaf hydro-distillation. Its chemical composition was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Major components were (E)-β-farnesene (31.6 %), (Z)-en-yn-dicycloether (11.12 %), and (Z)-β-ocimene (27.8 %). The EO was toxic effect against larval populations of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 41.85, 52.02, 46.33, 57.57, 50.57, and 62.16 μg/ml. (E)-β-farnesene, (Z)-en-yn-dicycloether, and (Z)-β-ocimene were highly effective on An. stephensi (LC50 = 8.13, 16.24 and 25.84 μg/ml) followed by An. subpictus (LC50 = 10.18, 20.99, and 30.86 μg/ml), Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 8.83,17.66, and 28.35 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 11.38,23.47, and 33.72 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 9.66, 19.76, and 31.52 μg/ml), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 12.51,25.88, and 37.13 μg/ml). Notably, the EO and its major compounds were safer to the non-target organisms Chironomous circumdatus, Anisops bouvieri and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 207.22 to 4385 μg/ml. Overall, our results highlight that (E)-β-farnesene, (Z)-en-yn-dicycloether, and (Z)-β-ocimene from the A. absinthium EO represent promising eco-friendly larvicides against six key mosquito vectors with moderate toxicity against non-target organisms.

  8. Baseline Insecticide Susceptibility Screening Against Six Active Ingredients for Culex and Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Fields, Melinda; Vandock, Kurt

    2017-05-01

    Mosquitoes may develop resistance to insecticide active ingredients (AI). Thus, mosquitoes should be tested for resistance to confirm efficacy of insecticide-based control, inform management decisions, and protect public and environmental health. Our objectives were to determine a baseline of resistance for six AIs used in mosquito control in the United States to assess how resistance differs between mosquito collection location, AI, and mosquito species (container-ovipositing Aedes and Culex that may oviposit in containers or other sources). Field-collected eggs from 26 mosquito populations of five different species or hybrid species (Aedes albopictus Say, Aedes triseriatus Say, Culex pipiens L., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex pipiens/quinquefasciatus) were obtained from four regions across the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays were used to determine baseline resistance and susceptibility status for six AIs (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox, malathion, permethrin, and phenothrin). World Health Organization guidelines were used to classify mosquitoes as susceptible (98-100% mortality at diagnostic time [DT]), possibly resistant (80-97% mortality at DT), or resistant (Aedes spp. mosquitoes were less likely to exhibit resistance, compared with Culex spp. mosquitoes. A high degree of resistance to etofenprox and malathion was observed (4-26-fold greater resistance to these two AIs compared with the other examined AIs). Baseline data on resistance and susceptibility for mosquitoes exposed to commonly used insecticides may help us evaluate resistance trends and highlight the importance of assessing local resistance trends before insecticide-based control measures are implemented. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. oviposition and ovicidal activities of alkaloidal extract from murraya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1000 ppm concentration and ovicidal activity at 25-100 ppm concentration against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Water treated with alkaloidal extract at 1000ppm received significantly more egg rafts of vector mosquitoes ...

  10. Bottlenecks and multiple introductions: Population genetics of the vector of avian malaria in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Avian malaria has had a profound impact on the demographics and behaviour of Hawaiian forest birds since its vector, Culex quinquefasciatusthe southern house mosquito, was first introduced to Hawaii around 1830. In order to understand the dynamics of the disease in Hawaii and gain insights into the evolution of vector-mediated parasite–host interactions in general we studied the population genetics of Cx. quinquefasciatus in the Hawaiian Islands. We used both microsatellite and mitochondrial loci. Not surprisingly we found that mosquitoes in Midway, a small island in the Western group, are quite distinct from the populations in the main Hawaiian Islands. However, we also found that in general mosquito populations are relatively isolated even among the main islands, in particular between Hawaii (the Big Island) and the remaining Hawaiian Islands. We found evidence of bottlenecks among populations within the Big Island and an excess of alleles in Maui, the site of the original introduction. The mitochondrial diversity was typically low but higher than expected. The current distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes combined with the microsatellite information lead us to conclude that there have been several introductions and to speculate on some processes that may be responsible for the current population genetics of vectors of avian malaria in Hawaii.

  11. A Pictorial Key for Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae In Iran

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    Hossein Dehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to design pictorial key and taxonomic literature of Culex pipiens complex in Iran.Methods: Larvae were collected using standard dipping methods in 13 randomly selected areas of Bushehr, Hame­dan, Kerman, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Khuzistan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Sistan and Baluchistan and Yazd Provinces from April 2009 to October 2010. The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5.Results: Culex pipiens larvae were identified based on the Seta 1 of the abdominal segments III–IV in north and central parts of Iran. This diagnostic character had some variation among the Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from south of the country. The identification value of intersection of costa, subcosta and bifurcation of R2+3 of female veins, was calculated as 90–100 % for Cx. pipiens. This diagnostic character was varied among the Cx. quinquefas­ciatus specimens. The male genitalia found as the main characters to distinguish of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Cx. pipiens.Conclusion: It is necessary more studies on the behavior and genetic variations of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran.

  12. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  13. Expression Profiles and RNAi Silencing of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Transcripts in Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglise, Jason M; Estep, Alden S; Becnel, James J

    2016-03-01

    Effective mosquito control is vital to curtail the devastating health effects of many vectored diseases. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated control of mosquitoes is an attractive alternative to conventional chemical pesticides. Previous studies have suggested that transcripts for inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) may be good RNAi targets. To revisit and extend previous reports, we examined the expression of Aedes aegypti (L.) IAPs (AaeIAPs) 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, and a viral IAP-associated factor (vIAF) as well as Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Culex quinquefasciatus Say IAP1 homologs (AquIAP1 and CquIAP1) in adult females. Expression profiles of IAPs suggested that some older female mosquitoes had significantly higher IAP mRNA levels when compared to the youngest ones. Minor differences in expression of AaeIAPs were observed in mosquitoes that imbibed a bloodmeal, but the majority of the time points (up to 48 h) were not significantly different. Although in vitro experiments with the Ae. aegypti Aag-2 cell line demonstrated that the various AaeIAPs could be effectively knocked down within one day after dsRNA treatment, only Aag-2 cells treated with dsIAP1 displayed apoptotic morphology. Gene silencing and mortality were also evaluated after topical application and microinjection of the same dsRNAs into female Ae. aegypti. In contrast to previous reports, topical administration of dsRNA against AaeIAP1 did not yield a significant reduction in gene expression or increased mortality. Knockdown of IAP1 and other IAPs by microinjection did not result in significant mortality. In toto, our findings suggest that IAPs may not be suitable RNAi targets for controlling adult mosquito populations.

  14. Sex-specific gene expression in the mosquito Culex pipiens f. molestus in response to artificial light at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnen, Ann-Christin; Johnston, Paul R; Monaghan, Michael T

    2016-01-05

    Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a typical feature of urban areas and most organisms living in urban or suburban habitats are exposed to low levels of ALAN. Light is one of the most important environmental cues that organisms use to regulate their activities. Studies have begun to quantify the influence of ALAN on the behavior and ecology of organisms, but research on the effects at the molecular level remains limited. Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera, Culicidae) are widespread and abundant in urban areas where they are potential disease vectors. It is thus of particular interest to understand how ALAN may influence biologically and ecologically relevant traits. We used RNAseq to evaluate the transcriptome response in a Cx. pipiens f. molestus laboratory population that was exposed to near-natural light conditions (light:dark L16:D8 hours, "control") and ALAN conditions with 3 h of constant low-level light at night (L16 + Llow3:D5 hours, "low-light"). The resulting transcripts were mapped to the reference genome of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Female expression patterns differed significantly between control and treatment conditions at five genes although none showed an absolute fold change greater than two (FC > 2). In contrast, male expression differed at 230 genes (74 with FC > 2). Of these, 216 genes (72 with FC > 2) showed reduced expression in the low-light treatment, most of which were related to gametogenesis, lipid metabolism, and immunity. Of the 14 genes (two with FC > 2) with increased expression, only five had any functional annotation. There was a pronounced sex-bias in gene expression regardless of treatment, with 11,660 genes (51 % of annotated genes; 8694 with FC > 2; 48 % of annotated genes) differentially expressed between males and females, including 14 genes of the circadian clock. Our data suggest a stronger response to artificial light by males of Cx. pipiens f. molestus than by

  15. Pupicidal and repellent activities of Pogostemon cablin essential oil chemical compounds against medically important human vector mosquitoes

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    Gokulakrishnan J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent and pupicidal activities of Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin chemical compositions were assayed for their toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: The plants dry aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC and GC mass spectrophotometry. Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm ×30 cm ×45 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2010. The repellent activity of P. cablin chemical compositions at concentration of 2mg/cm2were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. The pupicidal activity was determined against selected important vector mosquitoes to concentration of 100 mg/L and mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the compounds. Results: Chemical constituents of 15 compounds were identified in the oil of P.cablin compounds representing to 98.96%. The major components in essential oil were â-patchoulene, á-guaiene, ã-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. The repellent activity of patchouli alcohol compound was found to be most effective for repellent activity and 2 mg/cm2 concentration provided 100% protection up to 280 min against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, pupae exposed to 100 mg/L concentrations of P. cablin chemical compositions. Among five compounds tested patchouli alcoholwas found to be most effective for pupicidal activity provided 28.44, 26.28 and 25.36 against Ae.aegypti, An.stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The percent adult emergence was inversely proportional to the concentration of

  16. Identification of wild collected mosquito vectors of diseases using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine; Al Othman, Zeid A; Sallam, Mohamed F

    2013-11-01

    Thirty-three species of mosquitoes have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several of these mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l., Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedimorphus vexans arabiensis (Patton) are known vectors of human and animal diseases. In this study, the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of eight mosquito species using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were analyzed. Wild collected fourth-instar larvae were reared, and single, newly emerged, unfed adult females were used for the analysis. A total of 146-160 peaks were detected from the cuticular extracts by gas chromatography. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD Post Hoc test was used to test for quantitative differences in relative hydrocarbon quantity. In addition, a linear regression model was applied using Enter method to determine the diagnostic peaks for the eight mosquito specimens. The ANOVA test indicated that relative peaks were significant (P alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, trimethylalkanes, alkenes, branched aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and esters. These compounds have a carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 18 carbons. The most abundant compound in all adult mosquito specimens was n-hexylacrylate [retention time (RT) 6.73 min], which was not detected in Cx. pipiens. In Cx. pipiens, the most abundant peak was benzaldehyde (RT 2.98 min). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a suitable method to identify adult mosquitoes, especially from focal areas of public health concern such as Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. This method allows a wide range of adult collected material to be identified with high accuracy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Toxicity of insecticides to Toxorhynchites splendens and three vector mosquitos and their sublethal effect on biocontrol potential of the predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, D D; Das, P K

    1996-03-01

    Toxicity of six larvicides ie fenthion, temephos, malathion, deltamethrin, alphamethrin (Fendona), OMS 3031 and five adulticides ie malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, deltamethrin, permethrin to Aedes aegypti, Culex quiquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and the predator, Toxorhynchites splendens was studied for evaluating safety margin. Concentrations of alphamethrin that killed 50% larvae of T. splendens were 53 and 12 times more than that which killed Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. In case of deltamethrin, concentrations required to kill 50% larvae of T. splendens were 14 and 5 times more than that required against other two species. Other larvicides tested were equally toxic to both T. splendens and vector mosquitos. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of larvicides to T. splendens and An. stephensi. Deltamethrin was 25-132 times less toxic to adults of T. splendens in comparison to vector mosquitos. For other adulticides the range was 1-10. Immature developmental time of T. splendens was not affected by any of the insecticides tested. However, predation rate was lowered when larvae of Ae. aegypti previously exposed to fenthion and temephos were offered. Whereas, alphamethrin and OMS 3031 did not affect the feeding rate of the predator. There was a significant reduction in the pupal weight and pupation as a result of the predator feeding on the insecticide treated prey. There was a significant negative relationship between rate of pupation and dosage. The present study indicates that synthetic pyrethroids owing to their higher safety margin can be used in an integrated vector management program.

  18. Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Farooq; Haddow, Andrew D; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2014-12-17

    Most alphaviruses are arthropod-borne and utilize mosquitoes as vectors for transmission to susceptible vertebrate hosts. This ability to infect both mosquitoes and vertebrates is essential for maintenance of most alphaviruses in nature. A recently characterized alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani s.I. is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. The EILV host range restriction occurs at both attachment/entry as well as genomic RNA replication levels. Here we investigated the mosquito vector range of EILV in species encompassing three genera that are responsible for maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature. Susceptibility studies were performed in four mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, A. aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus via intrathoracic and oral routes utilizing EILV and EILV expressing red fluorescent protein (-eRFP) clones. EILV-eRFP was injected at 10(7) PFU/mL to visualize replication in various mosquito organs at 7 days post-infection. Mosquitoes were also injected with EILV at 10(4)-10(1) PFU/mosquito and virus replication was measured via plaque assays at day 7 post-infection. Lastly, mosquitoes were provided bloodmeals containing EILV-eRFP at doses of 10(9), 10(7), 10(5) PFU/mL, and infection and dissemination rates were determined at 14 days post-infection. All four species were susceptible via the intrathoracic route; however, replication was 10-100 fold less than typical for most alphaviruses, and infection was limited to midgut-associated muscle tissue and salivary glands. A. albopictus was refractory to oral infection, while A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus were susceptible only at 10(9) PFU/mL dose. In contrast, A. aegypti was susceptible at both 10(9) and 10(7) PFU/mL doses, with body infection rates of 78% and 63%, and dissemination rates of 26% and 8%, respectively. The exclusion of vertebrates in its maintenance cycle may have facilitated the adaptation of EILV to a single

  19. Larvicidal and phytochemical properties of Callistemon rigidus R. Br. (Myrtaceae) leaf solvent extracts against three vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Okechukwu, Esimone Charles; Nchiwan, Nukenine Elias

    2014-09-01

    Due to ever-growing insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors and environmental contamination by synthetic insecticides, plants may be a source of alternative agents for mosquito control. Therefore, the present investigation involved the determination of larvicidal and phytochemical properties of Callistemon rigidus leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The standard protocol of WHO was used for larval tests. Twenty five IV instar larvae were exposed to various concentrations from 125-1000 ppm for methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and methanol (MF) fractions, from 250-2000 ppm for aqueous extract (AE) and 2500 ppm for Diclorvos. The mortality was observed 24 h post-exposure. The LC50 and LC90 values were determined by Probit analysis. The phytochemical analysis revealed that the presence of alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, lipids, fats and fixed oils in MCE; terpenoids, steroids, lipids, fats and fixed oils in HF; terpenoids in CF; tannins and phenolic compounds in EAF and alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenolic compounds in MF. Against Ae. aegypti, HF was the most active fraction with LC50 of 56.25 ppm. Against An. gambiae, HF demonstrated its potential mosquito larvicide killing relatively all exposed larvae at all concentrations with LC50 of 17.11 ppm. Against Cx. quinquefasciatus, only MCE and HF exhibited larvicidal activity with LC50 of 447.38 and 721.95 ppm, respectively. Callistemon rigidus exhibited some promising larvicidal activity against medically important vector mosquitoes. Studies are indicated to identify the active compounds from this plant for developing mosquito larvicides.

  20. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

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    Natali Ortiz Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more

  1. Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2015-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to

  2. Mosquitocidal properties of Solanum trilobatum L. (Solanaceae) leaf extracts against three important human vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, Selvaraj; Elumalai, Kuppusamy; Jeyasankar, Alagarmalai

    2013-11-01

    To determine the larvicidal and pupicidal activites of Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). The larvicidal and pupucidal was determined at five different concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm. Percentage of larval mortality was assessed after 48 h. Methanol extracts of S. trilobatum was found to be more susceptible against the larvae of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi at 250 ppm with a LC50 value of 125.43, 127.77 and 116.64 ppm respectively. Leaf methanol extracts of S. trilobatum also exhibited pupicidal and adult emergence properties. These results suggested that the leaf extracts of S. trilobatum showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Ae. Aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Autogeny induced by a nonsteroidal ecdysone agonist tebufenozide in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gelbič, Ivan; Rozsypalová, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2012), s. 119-126 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : autogeny * histology * RH-5992 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3032.2011.00817.x/pdf

  4. Mosquitocidal activities of thyme oils (Thymus vulgaris L.) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Vrchotová, Nadezda; Tríska, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Oil samples from four chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris were tested for mosquitocidal activity. Oil compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The different compositions of the oils varied in their biological activity as well. Larvicidal efficiency was determined for the most significant oil thymol type (T), namely the lowest doses LD(50) 32.9 and 14.2 mg/l for the third and fourth instars, respectively. The oils also showed very good efficiency with respect to mortality and to the percentage of adult emergence upon short-term exposure in water treated by lethal doses of individual oils. Although the larvae were left in treated water for only 5 h, mortality corresponding to LD(50) was determined after 24 h, i.e., between 49% and 63%. Furthermore, mortality increased significantly in relation to time of exposure, and total mortality of the larvae at the end of their development was about 90%. Such significant mortality was also naturally reflected in the total emergence of adults. In the control sample, there was 77% adult emergence from the larvae, whereas in oils, there was only from 5.3% to 16% emergence. The greatest fumigate efficiency was found for T and linalool chemotypes, with an LC(50) for 24 h of exposure being 1.1 and 1.8 mg/l, respectively. Essence T was also most efficient in the tarsal test, with LD(50) of 44 microg/cm(2) and LD(90) of 63 microg/cm(2). High antioviposition efficiency was found in all tested oils.

  5. The Morphological Variations of Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Yazd Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dehghan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: Culex pipiens complex shows variations in morphological and biological characters including differ­ent biological forms and has medical and veterinary importance. Because of having morphological variations, some­times it is not easy to separate this species from Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. torrentium. The aim of this study was to  identify the  Culex pipiens complex species in order to use in control programs in the future. "nMethods: This study was carried out in two randomly selected rural villages in Yazd County, eastern Iran using dip­ping technique from April to October 2009. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. "nResults: Average of siphon index in fourth-instrar larvae was 3.86±0.03, the minimum and maximum were calculated 2.43 and 5.14, respectively. Siphon/Saddle index was measured as average, minimum and maximum 3.2±0.2, 2.78, and 4.42 respectively. In our study, only 4 specimens had single seta 1 on segments III and VI (2.5% and the remaining beard double seta (97.5%. The maximum 3-6 branches seta 1a-S and 1b-S (95% were observed on siphon. "nConclusion: More populations of Culex pipiens from different areas of Iran need to be studied to gain complete informa­tion about the taxonomy and ecology of the species in the country. "n  "nKeywords: Culex pipiens complex, larvae, taxonomy, Iran

  6. Comparative analysis of gut microbiota of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) females from different parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gut microbiota to impede or enhance pathogen transmission is well-documented but the factors that shape this microbiota in mosquito vectors are poorly understood. We characterized and compared the gut microbiota of adult females of Culex restuans Theobald from different parents. Cu...

  7. Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to

  8. Field trial of Bacillus sphaericus strain B-101 (serotype H5a, 5b) against filariasis and Japanese encephalitis vectors in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R S; Sharma, V P; Upadhyay, A K

    1997-06-01

    A large-scale operational field trial was conducted from June 1993 to October 1994 to evaluate the efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus (strain B-101, serotype H5a,5b) for control of the vectors of filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus) and Japanese encephalitis (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui) in Rourkela city. Application of B. sphaericus, when sprayed at 1 g/m2 in storm drains, wastewater pools, abandoned masonry tanks, peripheral paddy fields, ditches, and other small water collections and at 4 g/m2 in domestic septic tanks, significantly reduced larval and pupal counts (P < 0.0001) and significantly reduced the percentage of habitats containing larvae (3rd-4th instars) (P < 0.0001) as compared with routine antilarval measures. This in turn resulted in a reduction in the indoor density of disease vectors in particular and a reduction in mosquito nuisance in general. The trial demonstrated that B. sphaericus has good potential for use against disease vectors and mosquito breeding in polluted as well as clean waters.

  9. Zika vector transmission risk in temperate Australia: a vector competence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Mee, Peter T; Lynch, Stacey E; Vedururu, Ravikiran; Trinidad, Lee; Paradkar, Prasad

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus is an emerging pathogen of global importance. It has been responsible for recent outbreaks in the Americas and in the Pacific region. This study assessed five different mosquito species from the temperate climatic zone in Australia and included Aedes albopictus as a potentially invasive species. Mosquitoes were orally challenged by membrane feeding with Zika virus strain of Cambodia 2010 origin, belonging to the Asian clade. Virus infection and dissemination were assessed by quantitative PCR on midgut and carcass after dissection. Transmission was assessed by determination of cytopathogenic effect of saliva (CPE) on Vero cells, followed by determination of 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) for CPE positive samples. Additionally, the presence of Wolbachia endosymbiont infection was assessed by qPCR and standard PCR. Culex mosquitoes were found unable to present Zika virus in saliva, as demonstrated by molecular as well as virological methods. Aedes aegypti, was used as a positive control for Zika infection and showed a high level of virus infection, dissemination and transmission. Local Aedes species, Ae. notoscriptus and, to a lesser degree, Ae. camptorhynchus were found to expel virus in their saliva and contained viral nucleic acid within the midgut. Molecular assessment identified low or no dissemination for these species, possibly due to low virus loads. Ae. albopictus from Torres Strait islands origin was shown as an efficient vector. Cx quinquefasciatus was shown to harbour Wolbachia endosymbionts at high prevalence, whilst no Wolbachia was found in Cx annulirostris. The Australian Ae. albopictus population was shown to harbour Wolbachia at high frequency. The risk of local Aedes species triggering large Zika epidemics in the southern parts of Australia is low. The potentially invasive Ae. albopictus showed high prevalence of virus in the saliva and constitutes a potential threat if this mosquito species becomes established in mainland

  10. Merida virus, a putative novel rhabdovirus discovered in Culex and Ochlerotatus spp. mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jermilia; Firth, Andrew E; Loroño-Pino, Maria A; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Lipkin, W Ian; Blitvich, Bradley J; Briese, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Sequences corresponding to a putative, novel rhabdovirus [designated Merida virus (MERDV)] were initially detected in a pool of Culex quinquefasciatus collected in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. The entire genome was sequenced, revealing 11 798 nt and five major ORFs, which encode the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). The deduced amino acid sequences of the N, G and L proteins have no more than 24, 38 and 43 % identity, respectively, to the corresponding sequences of all other known rhabdoviruses, whereas those of the P and M proteins have no significant identity with any sequences in GenBank and their identity is only suggested based on their genome position. Using specific reverse transcription-PCR assays established from the genome sequence, 27 571 C. quinquefasciatus which had been sorted in 728 pools were screened to assess the prevalence of MERDV in nature and 25 pools were found positive. The minimal infection rate (calculated as the number of positive mosquito pools per 1000 mosquitoes tested) was 0.9, and similar for both females and males. Screening another 140 pools of 5484 mosquitoes belonging to four other genera identified positive pools of Ochlerotatus spp. mosquitoes, indicating that the host range is not restricted to C. quinquefasciatus. Attempts to isolate MERDV in C6/36 and Vero cells were unsuccessful. In summary, we provide evidence that a previously undescribed rhabdovirus occurs in mosquitoes in Mexico.

  11. Toksisitas Bacillus sphaericus H-5a5b (VCRC B42 terhadap larva Culex quiquefascitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamun Salamun

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus sphaericus H-5a5b is an entomoathogenic agent which showing high potency for vector control, highly specific to insect target, and do not produce any adverse environmental impact. Such agent would be promising for vector control in Indonesia. The present studies is aimed to observing the toxicity status of Bacillus sphaericus H-5a5b (VCRC B42 against Culex quiquefascitus larvae. The larvae of Culex quiquefascitus were reared under the laboratory conditions. The powder of VCRC B42 were prepared by Vector Control Research Centre (VCRC, India. Bioassays on VCRC B42 agains larvae of Culex quiquefascitus were also carried out under the laboratory conditions. The value of LD50 and LT50 for VCRC B42 were decided using probit analysis. The toxicity status was compared with standart of VCRC India. The result of the bioassays showed that the VCRC B42 was moderately toxic agains larvae of the Culex quiquefascitus. The value of LD50 for VCRC B42 was 0.058 mg/l and LT50 about 27 hours.

  12. Redescription of Cx. corniger Theobald and elevation of Culex (Culex) lactator Dyar and Knab from synonymy based on specimens from Central America (Diptera: Culicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strickman, D; Pratt, J

    1989-01-01

    Culex (Culex) lactator Dyar and Knab is resurrected from synonymy with Culex (Culex) corniger Theobald on the basis of morphological differences in the adult, male genitalia, and fourth-instar larva...

  13. Efficacy of an insecticide paint against malaria vectors and nuisance in West Africa - Part 2: Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Widespread resistance of the main malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroids reported in many African countries and operational drawbacks to current IRS methods suggest the convenience of exploring new products and approaches for vector control. Insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, containing two organophosphates (OPs), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and one insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen, was tested in Benin, West Africa, for 12 months. Methods Field trials were conducted in six experimental huts that were randomly allocated to one or two layers of insecticide at 1 Kg/6 m2 or control. Evaluations included: (i) early mosquito collection, (ii) mosquito release experiments, (iii) residual efficacy tests and (iv) distance tests. Early mosquito collections were performed on local populations of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. As per WHOPES phase II procedures, four entomological criteria were evaluated: deterrence, excito-repellence, blood-feeding inhibition and mortality. Mosquito release experiments were done using local malaria-free An. gambiae females reared at the CREC insectarium. Residual efficacy tests and distance tests were performed using reference susceptible strains of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results Six months after treatment, mortality rates were still 90-100% against pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations in experimental huts. At nine months, mortality rates in huts treated with two layers was still about 90-93% against An. gambiae and 55% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Malaria-free local mosquito release experiments yielded a 90% blood-feeding inhibition in the absence of a physical barrier. A long-term residual efficacy of 12 months was observed by WHO-bioassays in huts treated with two layers (60-80%). Mortality after an overnight exposition at distances of 1 meter was 96-100% for up to 12 months. Conclusion The encouraging results obtained on the insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR

  14. Efficacy of an insecticide paint against malaria vectors and nuisance in West Africa - Part 2: Field evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hougard Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread resistance of the main malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroids reported in many African countries and operational drawbacks to current IRS methods suggest the convenience of exploring new products and approaches for vector control. Insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, containing two organophosphates (OPs, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and one insect growth regulator (IGR, pyriproxyfen, was tested in Benin, West Africa, for 12 months. Methods Field trials were conducted in six experimental huts that were randomly allocated to one or two layers of insecticide at 1 Kg/6 m2 or control. Evaluations included: (i early mosquito collection, (ii mosquito release experiments, (iii residual efficacy tests and (iv distance tests. Early mosquito collections were performed on local populations of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. As per WHOPES phase II procedures, four entomological criteria were evaluated: deterrence, excito-repellence, blood-feeding inhibition and mortality. Mosquito release experiments were done using local malaria-free An. gambiae females reared at the CREC insectarium. Residual efficacy tests and distance tests were performed using reference susceptible strains of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results Six months after treatment, mortality rates were still 90-100% against pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations in experimental huts. At nine months, mortality rates in huts treated with two layers was still about 90-93% against An. gambiae and 55% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Malaria-free local mosquito release experiments yielded a 90% blood-feeding inhibition in the absence of a physical barrier. A long-term residual efficacy of 12 months was observed by WHO-bioassays in huts treated with two layers (60-80%. Mortality after an overnight exposition at distances of 1 meter was 96-100% for up to 12 months. Conclusion The encouraging results obtained on the insecticide

  15. Lymphatic filariasis transmission on Mafia Islands, Tanzania: Evidence from xenomonitoring in mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derua, Yahya A; Rumisha, Susan F; Batengana, Bernard M; Max, Demetrius A; Stanley, Grades; Kisinza, William N; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2017-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic nematode infection transmitted by mosquitoes and in sub-Saharan Africa it is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. The disease was targeted for global elimination by 2020 using repeated community-wide mass drug administration (MDA) distributed in endemic areas. However, recently, there has been a growing recognition of the potential role of including vector control as a supplement to MDA to achieve elimination goal. This study was carried out to determine mosquito abundance and transmission of bancroftian filariasis on Mafia Islands in Tanzania as a prerequisite for a search for appropriate vector control methods to complement the ongoing MDA campaign. Mosquitoes were collected indoor and outdoor using Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light and gravid traps, respectively. Collected mosquitoes were identified based on their differential morphological features and Anopheles gambiae complex and An. funestus group were further identified to their respective sibling species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Filarial mosquito vectors were then examined for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti by microscopy and PCR technique. Overall, a total of 35,534 filarial mosquito vectors were collected, of which Anopheles gambiae complex, An. funestus group and Culex quinquefasciatus Say accounted for 1.3, 0.5 and 98.2%, respectively. Based on PCR identification, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s) and An. funestus s.s sibling species accounted for 88.3% and 99.1% of the identified members of the An. gambiae complex and An. funestus group, respectively. A total of 7,936 mosquitoes were examined for infection with W. bancrofti by microscopy. The infection and infectivity rates were 0.25% and 0.08%, respectively. Using pool screen PCR technique, analysis of 324 mosquito pools (each with 25 mosquitoes) resulted to an estimated infection rate of 1.7%. The study has shown that Cx. quinquefasciatus is the dominant mosquito on Mafia Islands. By using mosquito

  16. Culex Flavivirus During West Nile Virus Epidemic and Interepidemic Years in Chicago, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christina M; Krebs, Bethany L; Anderson, Tavis K; Hamer, Gabriel L; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Brown, William M; Kitron, Uriel D; Goldberg, Tony L

    2017-08-01

    Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus infecting Culex mosquitoes, which are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). CxFV and WNV cocirculate in nature and coinfect Culex mosquitoes, including in a WNV "hotspot" in suburban Chicago. We previously identified a positive association between CxFV and WNV in mosquito pools collected from suburban Chicago in 2006. To further investigate this phenomenon, we compared the spatial and temporal distribution of CxFV during an interepidemic year (2011) and an epidemic year (2012) for WNV. Both viruses were more prevalent in mosquito pools in 2012 compared to 2011. During both years, the CxFV infection status of mosquito pools was associated with environmental factors such as habitat type and precipitation frequency rather than coinfection with WNV. These results support the idea that WNV and CxFV are ecologically associated, perhaps because both viruses respond to similar environmental drivers of mosquito populations.

  17. Tolerance to individual and joint effects of arsenic and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis or Lysinibacillus sphaericus in Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L; Walton, William E; Trumble, John T

    2014-08-01

    Arsenic contamination of global water supplies has come to the forefront in policy decisions in recent decades. However, the effects of arsenic on lower trophic levels of insects inhabiting contaminated ecosystems are not well understood. One approach to document both acute and sublethal effects of toxicants like arsenic is to assay them in combination with microbial pathogens to evaluate shifts in survival curves of the test organisms. Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis were reared in water containing 0 or 1 000 μg/L of arsenate or arsenite. Fourth instars were then exposed to a range of doses of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) or Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Ls), with shifts in lethal concentrations determined. Arsenic accumulation in 4th instars was also quantified, and a relative growth index (RGI) calculated for the treatments and compared to controls. Larvae of both species accumulated between 4 447 ± 169 ng As/g and 6 983 ± 367 ng As/g, though RGI values indicated accumulation did not affect growth and development. In all cases, the LC50 's and LC90 's of Cx. quinquefasciatus exposed jointly with arsenic and Bti/Ls were higher than Cx. tarsalis. Cx. tarsalis reared in arsenite showed a significant reduction in their Bti LC90 values compared to the control, indicating a sublethal effect of Bti. When exposed jointly with Ls, arsenite was more toxic than arsenate in Cx. tarsalis. Overall, these results indicate tolerance of these Culex species to arsenic exposures, and why this may occur is discussed. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC₅₀) = 22.44 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 40.65 μg/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC₅₀ = 25.77 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 45.98 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC₅₀ = 27.83 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 48.92 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.

  19. VECTORS OF MALARIA AND FILARIASIS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoedojo Hoedojo

    2012-09-01

    is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus, whereas the rural type is transmitted mosdy by Anopheles spp., such as An.aconitus and An.punctulatus complex. The periodic species of Mansonia transmit the subperiodic noctural B.malayi. B.timori which is distributed in the Eastern part of Indonesia (East Nusa Tenggara, is transmitted by An.barbirostris. Some filariasis vectors such as An.aconitus and the An.puctulatus complex may function both as filariasis vector and malaria vector as well.An.barbirostris with is confirmed as a vector of malaria in South Sulawesi, a vector of periodic nocturnal malayan filariasis in Central Sulawesi and as the only vector of timorian filariasis in Timor and Flores, has to be studied further as it has two types of behaviouristic appearance, namely : 1. Anbarbirostris in Java This mosquito is an anthropozophilic species, feeds indoors and outdoors, and rest outdoors. None is found to transmit mosquitoborne disease. 2. Anbarbirostris in Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara (outside Java. This mosquito is a zooanthropophilic form, endo and exophagic, and rests outdoors. It is confirmed as a vector of malaria, periodic noctural malayan filariasis and the only vector of timorian filariasis. 

  20. One-pot biogenic fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Quisqualis indica: Effectiveness on malaria and Zika virus mosquito vectors, and impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Vijayan, Periasamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since AgNPs are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environment. However, their biophysical features showed wide variations according to the botanical agent using for the green synthesis, outlining the importance of screening local floral resources used as reducing and stabilizing agents. In this study, we focused on the biophysical properties and the mosquitocidal action of Quisqualis indica-fabricated AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized using spectroscopic (UV, FTIR, XRD) and microscopic (AFM, SEM, TEM and EDX) techniques. AFM, SEM and TEM confirmed the synthesis of poly-dispersed AgNPs with spherical shape and size ranging from 1 to 30nm. XRD shed light on the crystalline structure of these AgNPs. The acute toxicity of Quisqualis indica extract and AgNPs was evaluated against malaria, arbovirus, and filariasis vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as on three important non-target aquatic organisms. The Q. indica leaf extract showed moderate larvicidal effectiveness on Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=220.42), Ae. aegypti (LC50=203.63) and An. stephensi (LC50=185.98). Q. indica-fabricated AgNPs showed high toxicity against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.63), Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.55) and An. stephensi (LC50=12.52), respectively. Notably, Q. indica-synthesized AgNPs were moderately toxic to non-target aquatic mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri (LC50=653.05μg/mL), Diplonychus indicus (LC50=860.94μg/mL) and Gambusia affinis (LC50=2183.16μg/mL), if compared to the targeted mosquitoes. Overall, the

  1. Temperature and water quality effects in simulated woodland pools on the infection of Culex mosquito larvae by Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, D.R.; Axtell, R.C.

    1987-06-01

    Asexual stages of the California (CA) isolate of Lagenidium giganteum cultured on sunflower seed extract (SFE)-agar, were applied to outdoor pools containing Culex larvae near Raleigh, NC in August and September 1984. Infection rates among the larvae ranged from 19 to 74% at 2-4 days posttreatment and subsequent epizootics eliminated most of the newly hatched larvae for at least 10 days posttreatment. Substantial reductions in numbers of larvae and adult emergence were achieved from a single application of the fungus. Water quality and temperature data are presented. From laboratory assays of organically polluted water, the percent infection of Culex quinquefasciatus by the fungus was correlated with water quality and temperature. A logistic model of water quality (COD and NH/sub 3/-N) effects on infectivity rates by the CA isolate is described.

  2. Laboratory and field evaluations of novaluron, a new insect growth regulator (IGR), against Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S; Zaim, Morteza

    2003-12-01

    Limited laboratory and field studies have indicated that the insect growth regulator (IGR) novaluron exhibits good activity against larvae of pest species in the orders Coleoptera, Hemiptera (suborder Heteroptera), and Lepidoptera by both ingestion and contact. We completed laboratory and field studies to evaluate activity and efficacy of novaluron against Culex mosquitoes. In laboratory studies, novaluron was highly active against Cx. quinquefasciatus, as indicated by low levels of inhibition of emergency (IE), at the 50% level, IE50 (0.159 ppb for 2nd-stage larvae and 0.118 ppb for 4th-stage larvae) and IE90, at the 90% level, (0.604 ppb for 2nd-stage larvae and 0.595 ppb for 4th-stage larvae). In outdoor microcosm and mesocosm studies against natural populations, novaluron yielded excellent control of immature Culex mosquitoes for up to 14 days at 1.25, 2.5, and 5 ppb in microcosms, and for up to 7 days at the dosages of 1, 5, and 10 mg/m2 in mesocosms. Based on qualitative observations, novaluron seemed to have a favorable margin of safety for nontarget aquatic invertebrates cohabiting with mosquito larvae. Further large-scale field studies are warranted to evaluate initial efficacy and longevity of novaluron against various mosquito species, as well as its safety for nontarget biota.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of spinosad formulation Natular T30 against immature Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Cheng, Min-Lee; Thieme, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    Spinosad consisting of spinosyn A and D is derived from a naturally occurring, soil-dwelling bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosyns are neurotoxins that activate postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and cause rapid excitation of the insect nervous system and ultimately exhaustion and death of the targets. During the past 30 yr, numerous spinosad-based formulations have been developed and applied to control various arthropod pests of agricultural importance. Natular T-30 is a new slow-release formulation containing 8.33% spinosad for use in mosquito larval control programs. High-level larvicidal activity, as indicated by low LC50 and LC90 levels, was demonstrated against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Larvicidal efficacy was evaluated in semifield microcosms, field mesocosms, and underground storm drains. Fair performance against larval populations of Culex spp. and other mosquito species was achieved, although low efficacy during the initial few days posttreatment was encountered. This slow-release formulation will play an important role in controlling mosquitoes in persistent breeding sources.

  4. Antimosquito activity of aqueous kernel extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus: impact on various developmental stages of three vector mosquito species and nontarget aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy

    2009-10-01

    Aqueous (physiological saline) extracts of seed kernel from seven indigenous plants were initially screened for their antimosquito activity against eggs, larvae of all instars, and pupae of Aedes aegypti. Among various seed kernels tested, the soapnut Sapindus emarginatus (Sapindaceae) extract was found to exhibit, for the first time, a strong antimosquito activity as evident from its ability to inflict 100% mortality of all the developmental stages of A. aegypti. Furthermore, the kernel extract of S. emarginatus also exerted ovicidal, larvicidal, and pupicidal activity against two other important vector mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Differential susceptibility of the various developmental stages of the three mosquito species exposed to soapnut extract was also noticed. The kernel extract was found to be safe for two nontarget aquatic insects tested: the larvae of Chironomus costatus and the nymphs of Diplonychus rusticus. Lethal concentration values of soapnut extract to these nontarget insects were always threefold or fivefold higher than those that produced 100% mortality of the larvae of the three mosquito species examined. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that the aqueous kernel extract of S. emarginatus has potent antimosquito activity detectable against all the developmental stages of three important vector mosquito species as well as it is safe for nontarget aquatic organisms, and thus this new botanical resource could be used as an eco-friendly alternative biocidal agent in control of mosquitoes.

  5. Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus against larvae of malaria and filarial vectors: an analysis of early resistance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam

    2009-03-01

    We are reporting in this paper the control of Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say using Bacillus sphaericus. These have been now considered with a practical solution because of its specific and prolonged killing action against mosquito larvae. The efficacy of B. sphaericus were assessed against all instars of A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus separately. During the experiments, the mortalities were not found highly effective in dose concentration of LC(90) 0.01 mg/l. It is recommended by the World Health Organizations in all instars of larvae of A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. Thereafter, six different concentrations were used in laboratory bioassays (05, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/l) for A. stephensi. Similarly, in the case of C. quinquefasciatus, six statistically significant different concentrations were used (0.01, 0.04, 0.05, 0.10, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/l) of B. sphaericus. It was recorded after exposure of 24 h. The percentages of mortalities were different for the different instars of C. quinquefasciatus and A. stephensi. The probit equations were drawn by the probit method. The result of the study distinctly showed that B. sphaericus is not effective on selected defined doses against A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. This probably indicates an initiation of resistance. This efficacy study can be useful while detecting early resistance phenomena in environment specific zones.

  6. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi against African malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosha Franklin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative insecticides for the control of malaria and filarial vectors are of paramount need as resistance is increasing among classes of insecticides currently in use in the public health sector. In this study, mosquitocidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolia essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed in laboratory, semi- field and full- field conditions Method Twenty third instar larvae of both Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to different dosages of plant extract in both laboratory and semi- field environments. Observation of the mortality response was assessed at intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Adult semi- gravid female mosquitoes were exposed to papers treated with S. terebinthifolia and compared with WHO standard paper treated with alphacypermethrin (0.05%. Results Gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry, identified 15 compounds from S. terebinthifolia extracts, the most abundant identified compound was δ-3-carene (55.36% and the least was γ-elemene (0.41%. The density of the oil was found to be 0.8086 g/ml. The effective dosages in the insectary ranged from 202.15 to 2625.20 ppm and were further evaluated in the semi- field situation. In the laboratory, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus ranged from 0.5 to 96.75% while for An. gambiae s.s it was from 13.75 to 97.91%. In the semi- field experiments, the mortality rates observed varied for both species with time and concentrations. The LC50 and LC95 value in the laboratory was similar for both species while in the semi- field they were different for each. In wild, adult mosquitoes, the KT50 for S. terebinthifolia was 11.29 minutes while for alphacypermethrin was 19.34 minutes. The 24 hour mortality was found to be 100.0% for S. terebinthifolia and 75.0% for alphacypermethrin which was statistically significant (P Conclusion The efficacy shown by essential oils of

  7. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi against African malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nyindo, Mramba; Mosha, Franklin; Silva, Ary G

    2011-07-05

    Alternative insecticides for the control of malaria and filarial vectors are of paramount need as resistance is increasing among classes of insecticides currently in use in the public health sector. In this study, mosquitocidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolia essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed in laboratory, semi- field and full- field conditions Twenty third instar larvae of both Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to different dosages of plant extract in both laboratory and semi- field environments. Observation of the mortality response was assessed at intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Adult semi- gravid female mosquitoes were exposed to papers treated with S. terebinthifolia and compared with WHO standard paper treated with alphacypermethrin (0.05%). Gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry, identified 15 compounds from S. terebinthifolia extracts, the most abundant identified compound was δ-3-carene (55.36%) and the least was γ-elemene (0.41%). The density of the oil was found to be 0.8086 g/ml. The effective dosages in the insectary ranged from 202.15 to 2625.20 ppm and were further evaluated in the semi- field situation. In the laboratory, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus ranged from 0.5 to 96.75% while for An. gambiae s.s it was from 13.75 to 97.91%. In the semi- field experiments, the mortality rates observed varied for both species with time and concentrations. The LC50 and LC95 value in the laboratory was similar for both species while in the semi- field they were different for each. In wild, adult mosquitoes, the KT50 for S. terebinthifolia was 11.29 minutes while for alphacypermethrin was 19.34 minutes. The 24 hour mortality was found to be 100.0% for S. terebinthifolia and 75.0% for alphacypermethrin which was statistically significant (P oils of fruits and seeds of S. terebinthifolia has given an opportunity for further investigation of

  8. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrias Araceli Q

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently

  9. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence

  10. Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)—barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A.; Müller, Günter C.; Revay, Edita E.; Allan, Sandra A.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Beier, John C.; Smith, Michal L.; Scott, Jodi M.; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D.; Hausmann, Axel; Yefremova, Zoya A.; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: > 70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Ae. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and > 50% reduction for An. crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Cx. erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin American countries. PMID:24361724

  11. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Koosha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens.Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups. Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+ glucose, D (+ galactose, D (+ mannose, D (- fructose, D (- arabinose, L (- fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin.The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose.The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins.

  12. Distribution and abundance of host-seeking Culex species at three proximate locations with different levels of West Nile virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, I.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Campbell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Culex species were monitored at three proximate sites with historically different West Nile virus (WNV) activities. The site with human WNV transmission (epidemic) had the lowest abundance of the putative bridge vectors, Culex pipiens and Cx. salinarius. The site with horse cases but not human cases (epizootic) had the highest percent composition of Cx. salinarius, whereas the site with WNV-positive birds only (enzootic) had the highest Cx. pipiens abundance and percent composition. A total of 29 WNV-positive Culex pools were collected at the enzootic site, 17 at the epidemic site, and 14 at the epizootic site. Published models of human risk using Cx. pipiens and Cx. salinarius as the primary bridge vectors did not explain WNV activity at our sites. Other variables, such as additional vector species, environmental components, and socioeconomic factors, need to be examined to explain the observed patterns of WNV epidemic activity.

  13. Species composition of mosquito and public perception about Dengue vector of hemorrhagic fever in Bareng Tenes Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Zulfaidah Penata; Pratiwi, Jenvia Rista

    2017-11-01

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the mosquito vectors of DHF. Malang city was an endemic region of dengue disease in East Java. One of the villages that had a high number of DHF cases was Bareng Tenes. The Case Fatality Rate (CFR) in Malang city totaled 5 patients out of 879 cases (Health Department of Malang city, 2010). Bareng Tenes RW 02 was one of the densely populated regions of Malang city. The objectives of this research were to identify mosquito composition and to analyze the public perception about the DHF vectors in Bareng Tenes RW 02 Malang. This research used two kinds of survey methods of mosquitoes. The first method for collecting larvae was used by direct capture using pipettes from artificial containers and the second method was collecting egg of mosquitoes by using an ovitrap. Public perception was calculated using the questionnaire technique. The accidental sampling technique in this research was Likert scale. The composition of mosquitoes found in Bareng Tenes RW 02 was Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The mosquito survey showed that Aedes aegypti was the dominant species and the IVI value for the ovitrap survey was 118.06% while the value of IVI for the larval survey was 103.51%. Based on the public perception data, it showed that the community has a very good understanding of DHF knowledge, DHF vectors and ways of DHF prevention, but the undertaken activities by the community have not yet appeared to control the mosquito population especially for their larvae.

  14. Efeito da indometacina e tamanho da fêmea sobre a resposta de encapsulamento de Culez quinquefasciatus infectadas com Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    SANTANA, Sandra Cadengue de

    2003-01-01

    A formação de cápsulas é a primeira e qualitativamente, a mais intensa reação de defesa celular dos insetos contra infecções por microorganismos. Neste trabalho, foram testadas as hipóteses de que os eicosanóides e o tamanho dos indivíduos influenciam o número de cápsulas formadas em resposta à infecção fúngica no mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Injetando-se o inibidor da biossíntese dos eicosanóides, indometacina em fêmeas do mosquito infectadas com Candida albicans, obteve-s...

  15. Towards green oviposition deterrents? Effectiveness of Syzygium lanceolatum (Myrtaceae) essential oil against six mosquito vectors and impact on four aquatic biological control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Rajeswary, Mohan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2016-12-05

    Essential oils (EOs) from plants may be alternative sources of molecules toxic against mosquito vectors of public health relevance. Most of researches in this field focused on EOs as larvicides or ovicides, while limited efforts focused on the exploitation of EOs as oviposition deterrents. In the present study, the larvicidal and oviposition deterrent activity of Syzygium lanceolatum leaf EO was evaluated against six mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi, An. subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the S. lanceolatum EO was analyzed by GC-MS analysis, showing the presence of phenyl propanal, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide as major constituents. S. lanceolatum EO showed high acute toxicity on An. stephensi (LC50 = 51.20 μg/ml), Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 55.11 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 60.01 μg/ml), An. subpictus (LC50 = 61.34 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 66.71 μg/ml), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 72.24 μg/ml) larvae. Furthermore, the EO was effective as oviposition deterrent against the six tested mosquito species, with OAI on An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus reaching -0.83, -0.81, -0.84, -0.83, -0.84, and -0.86, respectively. The toxicity of S. lanceolatum EO against several biological control agents of mosquitoes, including water bugs (Anisops bouvieri and Diplonychus indicus) and fishes (Gambusia affinis and Poecilia reticulata), was extremely low, with LC50 ranging between 4148 and 15,762 μg/ml. Overall, our results pointed out the promising potential of the S. lanceolatum leaf EO as a source of environmental-friendly oviposition deterrents and larvicides effective against a wide number of mosquito species of importance for parasitology.

  16. Cost of integrated vector control with improved sanitation and road infrastructure coupled with the use of slow-release Bacillus sphaericus granules in a tropical urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovmand, Ole; Ouedraogo, Thierry D A; Sanogo, Edith; Samuelsen, Helle; Toé, Lea Paré; Bosselmann, Rune; Czajkowski, Tonny; Baldet, Thierry

    2011-07-01

    A field test of integrated vector control was conducted in a tropical urban setting with a combination of a floating, slow-release, granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus and environmental engineering measures (renovation of roads, collective water pumps, and cesspool lids). The targets were Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae in the two biggest towns of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Within the intervention zone, water pumping stations were improved and the surroundings drained to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water. Roads were leveled and given either simple gutters on each side or a concrete channel on one side to drain runoff water. Garbage containers were installed to provide an alternative to the drainage channels for waste disposal. Septic tanks were modified so that they could be emptied without destroying their lid. This study showed that it is possible to implement mosquito control in a tropical urban environment with teams of young people rapidly trained to apply a biological larvicide without any tools other than an iron bar to lift cesspool lids. Environmental improvements were initially costly, but demanded little subsequent expenditure. Local inhabitants' committees were mobilized to provide people with information and monitor the efficacy of the measures. Compared with what people spent individually on mosquito prevention and malaria medicine, these measures were not expensive, but many expected the community to pay for them from existing taxes, e.g., for water treatment and disposal. The necessary funding and logistics require a municipal organization with neighborhood support, if the measures are to be effective.

  17. Tridentate Schiff base (ONO) transition metal complexes: Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tetramethylethylene-1,2-diamine (tmen) were designed, synthesized and tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the southern house mosquito, which is the primary vector of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus.

  18. Statistical Survey of Mosquito Vectors in the Vicinity of Waldhuni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology ... Mosquitoes are one of the most medically significant vectors, and they transmit parasites and pathogens, which have major impact on the human population. The vector borne ... Similarly, the significant relationship among malarial cases and Culex population was observed.

  19. Acute toxicity and repellent activity of the Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against four mosquito vectors of public health importance and its biosafety on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    The recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. However, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in Culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on Aedes mosquitoes. In this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mosquitoes. In the present study, the essential oil (EO) obtained from the medicinal plant Origanum scabrum was analyzed by GC-MS and evaluated for its mosquitocidal and repellent activities towards Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS analysis showed a total of 28 compounds, representing 97.1 % of the EO. The major constituents were carvacrol (48.2 %) and thymol (16.6 %). The EO was toxic effect to the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, C. quinquefasciatus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus larvae, with LC50 of 61.65, 67.13, 72.45, and 78.87 μg/ml, respectively. Complete ovicidal activity was observed at 160, 200, 240, and 280 μg/ml, respectively. Against adult mosquitoes, LD50 were 122.38, 134.39, 144.53, and 158.87 μg/ml, respectively. In repellency assays, the EOs tested at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 concentration of O. scabrum gave 100 % protection from mosquito bites up to 210, 180, 150, and 120 min, respectively. From an eco-toxicological point of view, the EO was tested on three non-target mosquito predators, Gambusia affinis, Diplonychus indicus, and Anisops bouvieri, with LC50 ranging from 4162 to 12,425 μg/ml. Overall, the EO from O. scabrum may be considered as a low-cost and eco-friendly source of phytochemicals to develop novel repellents against Culicidae.

  20. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex Pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Koosha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Methods: Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and un­fed were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups. Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+ glucose, D (+ galactose, D (+ mannose, D (- fructose, D (- arabinose, L (- fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin.Results: The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose.Conclusion: The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins.

  1. [Malaria vector control in Cameroon: past, present, future. Reflections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, P; Mouchet, J

    2001-07-01

    promoted and malaria control shifted from vector to parasite control, vector control remaining as a prevention method. But chemioresistance of Plasmodium falciparum appeared and. quickly spread, at different levels, across the country. A new emphasis was therefore given to vector control thank to the newly developed technique of insecticide impregnated mosquito nets. Two kinds of studies were undertaken: - what people were actually doing in term of mosquito control at family level, the main reason and the costs as well as current use of mosquito nets - the efficacy of pyrethroid treated mosquito nets (IMN) in different areas of southern forested area against different malaria vectors: An. gambiae, An. nili, An. moucheti. It thus clearly appeared that IMN were very successful in sharply reducing malaria transmission aAd morbidity. But its promotion is limited by the current poor use of mosquito nets in Yaoundé (1 mosquito net for 27 "beds") while in Douala, where IMN are largely used against the bite of the huge population of Culex. quinquefasciatus, the implementation of the first riational centre for impregnation of mosquito net was a great success, as long as it was headed by a motivated and skill manager Impregnated mosquito nets appear thus as a tool of great efficacy but their sustainability is still matter of concern and promotional campaigns must be developed involving private and public, political and scientific spheres as well as the general population who should be encouraged to become partners and even actors of vector and malaria control at their household level.

  2. West Nile Virus lineage-2 in Culex specimens from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Nariman; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Lühken, Renke; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    Screening of mosquitoes for viruses is an important forecasting tool for emerging and re-emerging arboviruses. Iran has been known to harbour medically important arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) based on seroepidemiological data. However, there are no data about the potential mosquito vectors for arboviruses in Iran. This study was performed to provide mosquito and arbovirus data from Iran. A total of 32 317 mosquitos were collected at 16 sites in five provinces of Iran in 2015 and 2016. RT-PCR for detection of flaviviruses was performed. The PCR amplicons were sequenced, and 109 WNV sequences, including one obtained in this study, were used for phylogenetic analyses. The 32 317 mosquito specimens belonging to 25 species were morphologically distinguished and distributed into 1222 pools. Culex pipiens s.l. comprised 56.429%. One mosquito pool (0.08%), containing 46 unfed Cx. pipiens pipiens form pipiens (Cpp) captured in August 2015, was positive for flavivirus RNA. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the detected Iranian WNV strain belongs to lineage 2 and clusters with a strain recently detected in humans. No flaviviruses other than WNV were detected in the mosquito pools. Cpp could be a vector for WNV in Iran. Our findings indicate recent circulation of WNV lineage-2 strain in Iran and provide a solid base for more targeted arbovirus surveillance programs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cold storage of Culex pipiens in the absence of diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, George D; Leopold, Roger A; Robich, Rebecca M

    2010-11-01

    A major expenditure in vector biology laboratories is the rearing of mosquitoes. Most mosquito colonies require substantial effort to maintain, including frequent bloodmeals for optimal performance. Successful cryopreservation of mosquitoes continues to be elusive. Although using diapause as a storage mechanism is an option for mosquito preservation, several obstacles include the lack of a well-characterized diapause or the inability of some species to enter diapause. Thus, other options for preservation are needed. To address this issue, we investigated the use of long-term low-temperature storage in the absence of diapause for adults of the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens L. Our results indicate that although male longevity is not substantially increased by cold storage, female longevity is dramatically increased by storage at lower temperatures. When mated before storage, females remain reproductively viable after at least 10 wk of storage, although at reduced levels. These results indicate that cold storage without diapause induction is a viable option for colony maintenance in vector biology laboratories.

  4. Effects of Different Pyrethroids on Landing Behavior of Female Aedes aegypti, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    that act on nerve axon sodium channels in a way similar to DDT (Vijverberg et al. 1982). Permethrin -treated bed nets and uniforms rely on the human...seeking female mosquitoes were lured toward the experimenter into a pint-sized paper food container (Neptune, Newark, NJ) with a screen bottom. They... permethrin -treated nets on the be- haviour of Anopheles gambiae and the selection of pyrethroid resistance. Malaria J. 3: 22. Dethier, V. G., L. B

  5. Evaluation of several novel alkynols, alkenols, and selected host odor blends as attractants to female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compound 1-octen-3-ol is a strong attractant for some mosquito species. Based on chemical structure, this may be due to a terminal site of unsaturation or high electron density, a structural capability for hydrogen bonding e.g. -OH, -NH2, NHR, NR2 etc., a saturated hydrocarbon chain of a cer...

  6. Toxic effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Sch &Wendle against Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Kathirvelu; Ananthi, Jeevanantham; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2018-01-01

    Many commercially available agro and household chemicals are used as pesticides, repellents, and growth inhibitors against insect pests. The repeated uses of these chemicals against insect pests have caused the development of resistance in them; they also cause ill effects on nontarget organisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal, and biochemical effects of the solvent extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum against third instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera. Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis. The results revealed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoid, and quinone. Maximum antifeedant activity of 72.30% was recorded in chloroform extract followed by hexane (69.02%) and ethyl acetate (57.40%) extracts against H. armigera. Chloroform extracts of S. xanthocarpum showed more than 60% larvicidal and pupicidal activity against H. armigera. The effective chloroform extract was fractionated with increasing polarity of solvent system (hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts). Based on the TLC profile, nine major fractions were isolated. The fourth fraction showed higher antifeedant, larvicidal, and pupicidal activity against H. armigera. The effective fraction reduced the hemolymph and gut protein concentration in a concentration-dependent manner (r 2 0.99). The effective fraction 4 showed 100% larvicidal activity at 500 ppm concentration with LC 50 value of 227.95 ppm. The fourth fraction did not show any toxic symptom or mortality of earthworm. Based on these results, this effective fraction could be used in the development of a pesticide formulation to control insect.

  7. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say to 19 Pesticides with Different Modes of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    amitraz, an insecticide and acaricide to control red spider mites and control boll- worms acting as an octopaminergic agonist (LD50 0.41g/mg...dinitro-o-cresol), a pesticide regis- tered for killing locusts and spider mites acting as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation through disruption...ac- ramite to control mites on a variety of fruit crops. The LD50 values of bifenzate against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quin- quefasciatus, and An

  8. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  9. A method to preserve low parasitaemia Plasmodium-infected avian blood for host and vector infectivity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenny S; Giannitti, Federico; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Tell, Lisa A; Snipes, Joy; Wright, Stan; Cornel, Anthony J

    2016-03-11

    Avian malaria vector competence studies are needed to understand more succinctly complex avian parasite-vector-relations. The lack of vector competence trials may be attributed to the difficulty of obtaining gametocytes for the majority of Plasmodium species and lineages. To conduct avian malaria infectivity assays for those Plasmodium spp. and lineages that are refractory to in vitro cultivation, it is necessary to obtain and preserve for short periods sufficient viable merozoites to infect naïve donor birds to be used as gametocyte donors to infect mosquitoes. Currently, there is only one described method for long-term storage of Plasmodium spp.-infected wild avian blood and it is reliable at a parasitaemia of at least 1%. However, most naturally infected wild-caught birds have a parasitaemia of much less that 1%. To address this problem, a method for short-term storage of infected wild avian blood with low parasitaemia (even ≤ 0.0005%) has been explored and validated. To obtain viable infective merozoites, blood was collected from wild birds using a syringe containing the anticoagulant and the red blood cell preservative citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution (CPDA). Each blood sample was stored at 4 °C for up to 48 h providing sufficient time to determine the species and parasitaemia of Plasmodium spp. in the blood by morphological examination before injecting into donor canaries. Plasmodium spp.--infected blood was inoculated intravenously into canaries and once infection was established, Culex stigmatosoma, Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were then allowed to feed on the infected canaries to validate the efficacy of this method for mosquito vector competence assays. Storage of Plasmodium spp.--infected donor blood at 4 °C yielded viable parasites for 48 h. All five experimentally-infected canaries developed clinical signs and were infectious. Pathologic examination of three canaries that later died revealed splenic lesions typical of

  10. Avian Plasmodium in Culex and Ochlerotatus Mosquitoes from Southern Spain: Effects of Season and Host-Feeding Source on Parasite Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ferraguti

    Full Text Available Haemosporidians, a group of vector-borne parasites that include Plasmodium, infect vertebrates including birds. Although mosquitoes are crucial elements in the transmission of avian malaria parasites, little is known of their ecology as vectors. We examined the presence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus lineages in five mosquito species belonging to the genera Culex and Ochlerotatus to test for the effect of vector species, season and host-feeding source on the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. We analyzed 166 blood-fed individually and 5,579 unfed mosquitoes (grouped in 197 pools from a locality in southern Spain. In all, 15 Plasmodium and two Haemoproteus lineages were identified on the basis of a fragment of 478 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Infection prevalence of blood parasites in unfed mosquitoes varied between species (range: 0-3.2% and seasons. The feeding source was identified in 91 mosquitoes where 78% were identified as bird. We found that i several Plasmodium lineages are shared among different Culex species and one Plasmodium lineage is shared between Culex and Ochlerotatus genera; ii mosquitoes harboured Haemoproteus parasites; iii pools of unfed females of mostly ornithophilic Culex species had a higher Plasmodium prevalence than the only mammophylic Culex species studied. However, the mammophylic Ochlerotatus caspius had in pool samples the greatest Plasmodium prevalence. This relative high prevalence may be determined by inter-specific differences in vector survival, susceptibility to infection but also the possibility that this species feeds on birds more frequently than previously thought. Finally, iv infection rate of mosquitoes varies between seasons and reaches its maximum prevalence during autumn and minimum prevalence in spring.

  11. Avian host-selection by Culex pipiens in experimental trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Simpson

    Full Text Available Evidence from field studies suggests that Culex pipiens, the primary mosquito vector of West Nile virus (WNV in the northeastern and north central United States, feeds preferentially on American robins (Turdus migratorius. To determine the contribution of innate preferences to observed preference patterns in the field, we conducted host preference trials with a known number of adult female C. pipiens in outdoor cages comparing the relative attractiveness of American robins with two common sympatric bird species, European starling, Sternus vulgaris and house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Host seeking C. pipiens were three times more likely to enter robin-baited traps when with the alternate host was a European starling (n = 4 trials; OR = 3.06; CI [1.42-6.46] and almost twice more likely when the alternative was a house sparrow (n = 8 trials; OR = 1.80; CI = [1.22-2.90]. There was no difference in the probability of trap entry when two robins were offered (n = 8 trials. Logistic regression analysis determined that the age, sex and weight of the birds, the date of the trial, starting-time, temperature, humidity, wind-speed and age of the mosquitoes had no effect on the probability of a choosing a robin over an alternate bird. Findings indicate that preferential feeding by C. pipiens mosquitoes on certain avian hosts is likely to be inherent, and we discuss the implications innate host preferences may have on enzootic WNV transmission.

  12. ANCAMAN DARI NYAMUK Culex sp YANG TERABAIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrotus Sholichah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nyamuk Culex sp lebih menyukai meletakkan telurnya pada genangan air berpolutan tinggi, berkembang biak di air keruh dan lebih menyukai genangan air yang sudah lama daripada genangan air yang baru. Aktif menggigit pada malam hari. Tempat yang gelap, sejuk dan lembab merupakan tempat yang disukai untuk beristirahat. Nyamuk betina dewasa menggigit dengan abdomen terletak sejajar dengan permukaan induk semang yang sedang digigit.Gangguan yang ditimbulkan oleh nyamuk selain dapat menularkan penyakit juga dapat sangat mengganggu dengan dengungan dan gigitannya sehingga bagi orang-orang tertentu dapat menimbulkan phobi (entomopobhia serta dapat menyebabkan dermatitis dan urticaria.

  13. Editorial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in obese hepatitis B patients.17 West Nile virus remains endemic in many parts of the world. Nigerian authors report on seasonal abundance and molecular identifica- tion of West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipens and Culex quinquefasciatus in ... afflicting this world: Ebola; Zika; heart disease; diabetes and its twin sister ...

  14. Development of a Multiplexed Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Assay to Identify Common Members of the Subgenera Culex (Culex) and Culex (Phenacomyia) in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Rebekah J.; Deus, Stephen; Williams, Martin; Savage, Harry M.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological differentiation of mosquitoes in the subgenera Culex (Culex) and Culex (Phenacomyia) in Guatemala is difficult, with reliable identification ensured only through examination of larval skins from individually reared specimens and associated male genitalia. We developed a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay to identify common Cx. (Cux.) and Cx. (Phc.). Culex (Cux.) chidesteri, Cx. (Cux.) coronator, Cx. (Cux.) interrogator...

  15. Production of Cry11A and Cry11Ba Toxins in Bacillus sphaericus Confers Toxicity towards Aedes aegypti and Resistant Culex Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Pascale; Rosso, Marie-Laure; Hamon, Sylviane; Poncet, Sandrine; Delécluse, Armelle; Rapoport, Georges

    1999-01-01

    Cry11A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Cry11Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan were introduced, separately and in combination, into the chromosome of Bacillus sphaericus 2297 by in vivo recombination. Two loci on the B. sphaericus chromosome were chosen as target sites for recombination: the binary toxin locus and the gene encoding the 36-kDa protease that may be responsible for the cleavage of the Mtx protein. Disruption of the protease gene did not increase the larvicidal activity of the recombinant strain against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Synthesis of the Cry11A and Cry11Ba toxins made the recombinant strains toxic to A. aegypti larvae to which the parental strain was not toxic. The strain containing Cry11Ba was more toxic than strains containing the added Cry11A or both Cry11A and Cry11Ba. The production of the two toxins together with the binary toxin did not significantly increase the toxicity of the recombinant strain to susceptible C. pipiens larvae. However, the production of Cry11A and/or Cry11Ba partially overcame the resistance of C. pipiens SPHAE and Culex quinquefasciatus GeoR to B. sphaericus strain 2297. PMID:10388698

  16. Hydrological modeling of geophysical parameters of arboviral and protozoan disease vectors in Internally Displaced People camps in Gulu, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githure John I

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine if remotely sensed data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM can test relationships between Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval habitats and environmental parameters within Internally Displaced People (IDP campgrounds in Gulu, Uganda. A total of 65 georeferenced aquatic habitats in various IDP camps were studied to compare the larval abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. The aquatic habitat dataset were overlaid onto Land Use Land Cover (LULC maps retrieved from Landsat imagery with 150 m × 150 m grid cells stratified by levels of drainage. The LULC change was estimated over a period of 14 years. Poisson regression analyses and Moran's I statistics were used to model relationships between larval abundance and environmental predictors. Individual larval habitat data were further evaluated in terms of their covariations with spatial autocorrelation by regressing them on candidate spatial filter eigenvectors. Multispectral QuickBird imagery classification and DEM-based GIS methods were generated to evaluate stream flow direction and accumulation for identification of immature Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. and abundance. Results The main LULC change in urban Gulu IDP camps was non-urban to urban, which included about 71.5 % of the land cover. The regression models indicate that counts of An. gambiae s.l. larvae were associated with shade while Cx. quinquefasciatus were associated with floating vegetation. Moran's I and the General G statistics for mosquito density by species and instars, identified significant clusters of high densities of Anopheles; larvae, however, Culex are not consistently clustered. A stepwise negative binomial regression decomposed the immature An. gambiae s.l. data into empirical orthogonal bases. The data suggest the presence of roughly 11% to 28 % redundant information in the larval count samples. The DEM suggest a

  17. Mitochondrial COI gene as a tool in the taxonomy of mosquitoes Culex subgenus Melanoconion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino; Emerson, Kevin J; de Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Greni, Susan; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2016-12-01

    The subgenus Melanoconion is the second largest subgenus within the genus Culex, with 160 described species. Several of the species are proven vectors of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Species of Melanoconion are well distributed from southern North America to most countries of South America and display the highest species diversity in tropical regions. Taxonomical identification within this group has been primarily based on morphological characters, with the male genitalia as the source of the most solid diagnostic features. The difficulty in reaching accurate species determinations when studying specimens of Culex (Melanoconion) has been extensively documented as a real limitation to expand knowledge of these insects. We tested the utility of the mitochondrial gene COI as a complementary tool in the taxonomy of Melanoconion. Using a data set of 120 COI sequences from Culex specimen captured in several localities in Brazil, the utility of COI barcodes for species delimitation is discussed through the evaluation of genetic divergences among specimens and the clustering patterns of species in three topologies obtained with Neighbor Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. For all specimens included in this study a previous morphological examination was performed, and most of the taxonomical determinations were corroborated using the COI barcode. We generated COI sequences that belong to 48 species of Melanoconion, with a mean intraspecific K2P genetic divergence of 3%; and all interspecific divergence values higher than the intraspecific divergence values. This is the first comprehensive study of subgenus Melanoconion, with evidence of COI as a useful and accessible DNA barcode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing operational algorithms using linear and non-linear squares estimation in Python for the identification of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in a mosquito abatement district (Cook County, Illinois, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Benjamin J; Gu, Weidong; Caamano, Erik X; Novak, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    In this research, community level spatial models were developed for determining mosquito abundance and environmental factors that could aid in the risk prediction of West Nile virus (WNv) outbreaks. Adult Culex pipiens and Culex restuan mosquitoes and multiple habitat covariates were collected from nine sites within Cook County, Illinois, USA, to provide spatio-temporal information on the abundance of WNv vectors from 2002 to 2005. Regression analyses of the sampled covariates revealed that the adult Culex population was positively associated with temperature throughout the sampling frame. The model output also indicated that precipitation was negatively associated to mosquito abundance in 2002, 2003 and 2005 (P forest composition. A set of propagation equations were then designed to model the calibration uncertainties, which revealed that normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and two NDVI variants, were informative markers for the sampled mosquito data. Spatial dependence of the covariates of Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens oviposition sites were indexed using semivariograms, which suggested that all main effects of the explanatory variables were statistically significant in the model. Additionally, a multispectral classification and digital elevation model-based geographical information system method were able to evaluate stream flow direction and accumulation for identification of terrain covariates associated with the sampled habitat data. These results demonstrate that remotely sensed operational indices can be used to identify parameters associated with field-sampled Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans aquatic habitats.

  19. Developing operational algorithms using linear and non-linear squares estimation in Python® for the identification of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in a mosquito abatement district (Cook County, Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G. Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, community level spatial models were developed for determining mosquito abundance and environmental factors that could aid in the risk prediction of West Nile virus (WNv outbreaks. Adult Culex pipiens and Culex restuan mosquitoes and multiple habitat covariates were collected from nine sites within Cook County, Illinois, USA, to provide spatio-temporal information on the abundance of WNv vectors from 2002 to 2005. Regression analyses of the sampled covariates revealed that the adult Culex population was positively associated with temperature throughout the sampling frame. The model output also indicated that precipitation was negatively associated to mosquito abundance in 2002, 2003 and 2005 (P <0.05, but positively associated in 2004 (P <0.05. A land use land cover classification, based on QuickBird visible and near infra-red data, acquired at 0.61 m resolution, was used to investigate possible associations between geographical features and the abundance of sampled Culex oviposition surveillance sites. A maximum likelihood unsupervised classification in ArcInfo 9.2® revealed that the highest overall mosquito abundance was found in sites having a low-to-moderate range of built environment (40% and high forest composition. A set of propagation equations were then designed to model the calibration uncertainties, which revealed that normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, and two NDVI variants, were informative markers for the sampled mosquito data. Spatial dependence of the covariates of Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens oviposition sites were indexed using semivariograms, which suggested that all main effects of the explanatory variables were statistically significant in the model. Additionally, a multispectral classification and digital elevation model-based geographical information system method were able to evaluate stream flow direction and accumulation for identification of terrain covariates associated with the sampled

  20. Avian phenotypic traits related to feeding preferences in two Culex mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiayue; Gangoso, Laura; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2017-10-01

    Host choice by mosquitoes affects the transmission dynamics of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although asymmetries in mosquito attraction to vertebrate species have been reported, the relative importance of host characteristics in mosquito blood-feeding behavior is still poorly studied. Here, we investigate the relationship between avian phenotypic traits—in particular, morphometry, plumage coloration, and nesting and roosting behavior—and the blood-feeding patterns in two common Culex mosquito species on a North American avian community. Forage ratios of the mosquito species were unrelated to the phylogenetic relationships among bird species. Culex pipiens fed preferably on birds with lighter-colored plumage and longer tarsi; furthermore, solitary roosting avian species were both bitten by Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans more often than expected. These associations may be explained by greater mosquito attraction towards larger birds with a greater color contrast against the background. Although communally roosting birds may release more cues and attract more mosquitoes, individuals may in fact receive fewer bites due to the encounter-dilution effect. Mosquito feeding behavior is a highly complex phenomenon, and our results may improve understanding of the non-random interaction between birds and mosquitoes in natural communities.

  1. Culex tarsalis vitellogenin gene promoters investigated in silico and in vivo using transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    Full Text Available Genetic modification, or transgenesis, is a powerful technique to investigate the molecular interactions between vector-borne pathogens and their arthropod hosts, as well as a potential novel approach for vector-borne disease control. Transgenesis requires the use of specific regulatory regions, or promoters, to drive expression of genes of interest in desired target tissues. In mosquitoes, the vast majority of described promoters are from Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes.Culex tarsalis is one of the most important vectors of arboviruses (including West Nile virus in North America, yet it has not been the subject of molecular genetic study. In order to facilitate molecular genetic work in this important vector species, we isolated four fat body-specific promoter sequences located upstream of the Cx. tarsalis vitellogenin genes (Vg1a, Vg1b, Vg2a and Vg2b. Sequences were analyzed in silico to identify requisite cis-acting elements. The ability for promoter sequences to drive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP in vivo was investigated using transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. All four promoters were able to drive GFP expression but there was dramatic variation between promoters and between individual Drosophila lines, indicating significant position effects. The highest expression was observed in line Vg2bL3, which was >300-fold higher than the lowest line Vg1aL2.These new promoters will be useful for driving expression of genes of interest in transgenic Cx. tarsalis and perhaps other insects.

  2. Effects of extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus on esterases and phosphatases of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy

    2011-04-01

    Our earlier investigations with kernels from the soapnut Sapindus emarginatus revealed it as a new source of botanical biocide with potent antimosquito activity, as evident from the proven unique ability of the aqueous kernel extract to kill all the developmental stages of three important vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. This extract was also found to be safe for two non-target aquatic insects. As a sequel to these findings, we have further examined quantitative and qualitative changes in total proteins, esterases, and phosphatases in whole body homogenates of fourth instar larvae and pupae of A. aegypti exposed to this extract at an appropriate threshold time for its lethal effect to gain insights into the impact of the botanical biocide on biochemical characteristics of the target vector mosquito at two distinct developmental stages. The profiles of proteins, esterases (acetylcholinesterse, α- and β-carboxylesterases), and phosphatases (acid and alkaline) exhibited distinct patterns of variation during normal development of fourth instar larvae and pupae, indicating intrinsic difference in biochemical features between these two developmental stages of A. aegypti. Upon exposure of the larvae to the extract, significant reduction in the activities of acetylcholinesterse, β-carboxylesterase, and acid phosphatases were recorded, whereas the total proteins, α-carboxylesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities were unaffected. By contrast, only alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly affected in pupae exposed to the extract. Analysis of these enzymes in native PAGE revealed that they exist in isoforms in both the larvae and pupae. The alterations in the levels of enzymatic activities observed from the quantitative assays of various enzymes were reflected by the respective zymograms with perceptible differences in the intensity and the number of bands detected especially with β-carboxylesterase, acid

  3. Regulation of P450-mediated permethrin resistance inCulex quinquefasciatusby the GPCR/Gαs/AC/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Liu, Nannan

    2017-12-01

    This study explores the role of G-protein-coupled receptor-intracellular signaling in the development of P450-mediated insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus , focusing on the essential function of the GPCRs and their downstream effectors of Gs alpha subunit protein (Gαs) and adenylyl cyclase (ACs) in P450-mediated insecticide resistance of Culex mosquitoes. Our RNAi-mediated functional study showed that knockdown of Gαs caused the decreased expression of the downstream effectors of ACs and PKAs in the GPCR signaling pathway and resistance P450 genes, whereas knockdown of ACs decreased the expression of PKAs and resistance P450 genes. Knockdown of either Gαs or ACs resulted in an increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to permethrin. These results add significantly to our understanding of the molecular basis of resistance P450 gene regulation through GPCR/Gαs/AC/cAMP-PKA signaling pathways in the insecticide resistance of mosquitoes. The temporal and spatial dynamic analyses of GPCRs, Gαs, ACs, PKAs, and P450s in two insecticide resistant mosquito strains revealed that all the GPCR signaling pathway components tested, namely GPCRs, Gαs, ACs and PKAs, were most highly expressed in the brain for both resistant strains, suggesting the role played by these genes in signaling transduction and regulation. The resistance P450 genes were mainly expressed in the brain, midgut and malpighian tubules (MTs), suggesting their critical function in the central nervous system and importance for detoxification. The temporal dynamics analysis for the gene expression showed a diverse expression profile during mosquito development, indicating their initially functional importance in response to exposure to insecticides during their life stages.

  4. ( Euphorbiaceae ) leaf and seed aqueous extracts against Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this context, the purpose of the present search was to explore the larvicidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. leaf and seed extracts against Culex pipiens L. The larvicidal activity was evaluated in eight different provenances recently introduced in Tunisia (Tanzania (ARU), Mozambique (MOZ), Surinam (SUR) and Brazil ...

  5. Partial cloning and estimation of the Culex pipiens (SELAX strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of resistance towards organophosphate insecticides in Culex complex mosquitoes has been shown to be associated with amplification of the structural esterase gene. The cloned portion of the SELAX strain A2-B2 amplicon was compared to that of the B1 amplicon which had been partially characterized.

  6. Species\\' identification of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indoor and outdoor bites' collections of gravid Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes were made with plastic aspirator from residential areas within Jimeta-Yola metropolis for three years (between March and May; August and October 2003 to 2005). They were identified using standard morphological keys and polymerase chain ...

  7. Yeasts Associated with Culex pipiens and Culex theileri Mosquito Larvae and the Effect of Selected Yeast Strains on the Ontogeny of Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, A; Roets, F; Botha, A

    2016-04-01

    The success of mosquitoes in nature has been linked to their microbiota and bacteria in particular. Yet, knowledge on their symbioses with yeasts is lacking. To explore possible associations, culturable yeasts were isolated from wild larvae of Culex pipiens and Culex theileri. These yeasts were classified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses and identified by sequencing the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. Representative strains of Candida, Cryptococcus, Galactomyces, Hannaella, Meyerozyma, Pichia, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Wickerhamomyces were isolated. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first records of the yeast microbiota from wild mosquito larvae and show that they may harbour potential clinically relevant yeast species, including the well-known opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans. Also, diminished numbers of yeast isolates originating from adults, compared to larvae, support the hypothesis of microbial reduction/elimination during adult emergence and extend it to include yeasts. In addition, strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida pseudolambica, Cryptococcus gattii, Metschnikowia bicuspidata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were tested as sole feed during a 21-day feeding experiment wherein cumulative larval growth, survival and pupation of Cx. pipiens were recorded. Although most yeasts supported larval growth in a similar manner to the positive control S. cerevisiae strain, the different yeast strains impacted differently on Culex pipiens ontogeny. Notably, survival and pupation of larvae were negatively impacted by a representative strain of the primary pathogen C. gattii - signifying some yeasts to be natural antagonists of mosquitoes.

  8. Monthly prevalence and diversity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Keshavarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To get new data about the ecology of mosquitoes, which would be valuable to develop programs for future provision of mosquito controls in the study area. Methods: During April to September 2012, larvae of mosquitoes were collected from six counties in south of Fars Province using dipping method. Characteristics of larval breeding places were considered based on water conditions. Species diversity was examined in terms of alpha and beta measures, with the intent of comparing mosquito diversity according to the typology of regions. Results: During this investigation, totally, 5 057 larvae of mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 17 different mosquito species were recognized, namely, Anopheles dthali, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles superpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex mimeticus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex theileri (Cx. theileri, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex sinaiticus, Culex torrentium, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Aedes vexans (Ae. vexans. This is the first record of Ae. vexans, Culex perexiguus and Culex modestus in the Province. Cx. pipiens (27.3%, Cx. theileri (15.9% and Cx. quinquefasciatus (9.4% were the most abundant species found respectively. Cx. pipiens reached the highest density in August and July, while Cx. theileri, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. vexans were found in high numbers in June. Diversity analysis indicated the highest species diversity in the Mohr County (Margalef index of 1.41 and Shannon index of 1.7 and the lowest species diversity in the Lamerd County (Margalef index of 0.33 and Shannon index of 0.38. Conclusions: Regarding to this research, there are some potential vectors of medical and veterinary importance in Fars Province. Results of the present study may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  9. Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... The hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of mature fruits and leaves from Toddalia asiatica was investigated to establish its bio-control potentiality under laboratory condition against fourth instars larvae of Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Hexane extract of.

  10. Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of mature fruits and leaves from Toddalia asiatica was investigated to establish its bio-control potentiality under laboratory condition against fourth instars larvae of Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Hexane extract of fruits of T. asiatica ...

  11. Correlation between carboxylesterase alleles and insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens complex from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yangyang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, large amounts of chemical insecticides are applied in fields or indoors every year, directly or indirectly bringing selection pressure on vector mosquitoes. Culex pipiens complex has evolved to be resistant to all types of chemical insecticides, especially organophosphates, through carboxylesterases. Six resistant carboxylesterase alleles (Ester were recorded previously and sometimes co-existed in one field population, representing a complex situation for the evolution of Ester genes. Results In order to explore the evolutionary scenario, we analyzed the data from an historical record in 2003 and a recent investigation on five Culex pipiens pallens populations sampled from north China in 2010. Insecticide bioassays showed that these five populations had high resistance to pyrethroids, medium resistance to organophosphates, and low resistance to carbamates. Six types of Ester alleles, EsterB1, Ester2, Ester8, Ester9, EsterB10, and Ester11 were identified, and the overall pattern of their frequencies in geographic distribution was consistent with the report seven years prior to this study. Statistical correlation analysis indicated that Ester8 and Ester9 positively correlated with resistance to four insecticides, and EsterB10 to one insecticide. The occurrences of these three alleles were positively correlated, while the occurrence of EsterB1 was negatively correlated with Ester8, indicating an allelic competition. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that one insecticide can select multiple Ester alleles and one Ester allele can work on multiple insecticides. The evolutionary scenario of carboxylesterases under insecticide selection is possibly "one to many".

  12. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) infection in Aedes, Culex, and Culiseta mosquitoes from north San Joaquin Valley, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming; Smith, David J; Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G; Larsen, Sasha E; Lucchesi, Eddie F

    2013-11-01

    Canine heartworm is one of the most serious infections primarily affecting domestic dogs but will also infect cats and wild canids. To evaluate the potential of mosquitoes as vectors of dog heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) in San Joaquin County, CA, we collected mosquitoes in 2011 and analyzed for infection with heartworm by using polymerase chain reaction. Of 3,000 mosquito pools (total number of specimens = 36,554), D. immitis DNA was detected in 97 pools of seven species, and the overall minimum infection rate (MIR) for all mosquito species was 2.69: Culex pipiens L. (n = 40; MIR = 3.66), Culex tarsalis Coquillett (n = 25; MIR = 1.89), Culiseta incidens (Thomson) (n = 11; MIR = 2.81), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (n = 7; MIR = 2.18), Aedes melanimon Dyar (n = 5; MIR = 4.64), Culex erythrothorax Dyar (n = 5; MIR = 3.96), and Culiseta inornata (Williston) (n = 4; MIR = 2.65). Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis had the highest number of D. immitis infections and collectively accounted for 67% of all positive pools. Ae. melanimon, Ae. vexans, and Cx. erythrothorax were found to be infected with D. immitis only in rural and agriculture areas, whereas infections in other species were identified in rural and agriculture areas, and urban and residential settings. The majority of positive pools were identified from June through November and peaked during August through October. This is the first report of D. immitis infection in Ae. melanimon, Cx. erythrothorax, Cx. tarsalis, Cs. incidens, and Cs. inornata. The frequent detection of D. immitis in field-collected Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis in concert with their seasonal abundance and widespread distribution suggest a central role for these species in dog heartworm transmission. Other species, including Ae. vexans, Ae. melanimon, Cs. incidens, Cs. inornata, and Cx. erythrothorax, may play a secondary role in transmission.

  13. Experimental host preference of diapause and non-diapause induced Culex pipiens pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Ary; Gaugler, Randy

    2015-07-24

    Culex pipiens pipiens plays an important role in the transmission of several vector-borne pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV) in North America. Laboratory and field studies suggest that this species is ornithophilic but because of genetic hybridization with sibling species during the active mosquito season, it may occasionally feed on mammals. Adult female Cx. p. pipiens undergo a facultative diapause and may serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. To determine the effect of diapause on the innate host preference of Cx. p. pipiens emerging from winter hibernation, we conducted host-choice experiments using bird and mammal hosts. Mosquitoes were reared under non-diapause induced (NDI), diapause induced (DI), and field collected from overwintering (OW) hibernaculae. They were released into a large mesh enclosure housing two lard can traps, and given a choice between feeding on a dove or a rat. Host seeking Cx. p. pipiens were four times more likely to feed on the dove than the rat, regardless of experimental conditions. Under NDI conditions, Cx. p. pipiens were (p diapause in temperate habitats where winter survival is crucial for disease transmission cycles. Although we showed that Cx. p. pipiens prefers an avian to a mammalian host, nearly 20% of emerging mosquitoes in the spring could feed on mammals. Changes in host preferences may also contain valuable clues about transmission dynamics and subsequent timely interventions by vector control and public health practitioners.

  14. Salt marsh as Culex salinarius larval habitat in coastal New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Campbell, Scott R; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2008-09-01

    Culex salinarius is considered one of the most likely bridge vectors involved in the human transmission cycle of West Nile virus (WNV) and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in the northeastern USA. The larval habitats of this species in the coastal region of New York State are currently poorly known. Between 2005 and 2007, a larval survey was carried out to identify and characterize possible larval habitats in Suffolk County, encompassing natural and man-made freshwater wetlands, artificial containers, and salt marshes. Only relatively undisturbed salt marsh yielded Cx. salinarius larvae in considerable numbers from several sites over a period of 2 years. The immature stages of this species were found associated with Spartina patens and S. alterniflora of the upper marsh at salinities ranging from 4.3 to 18.8 parts per thousand. Both heavily impacted and relatively undisturbed salt marshes produced several hundreds of adult Cx. salinarius per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap per night, an order of magnitude higher than CDC light traps deployed at upland sites. The ability of Cx. salinarius to use both heavily impacted and relatively undisturbed salt marshes for reproduction has significant repercussions for marsh restoration and vector control practices.

  15. Vector species composition and malaria infectivity rates in Mkuzi, Muheza District, north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, E J; Mahande, A M; Nkya, W M M

    2008-01-01

    Entomological surveys were conducted in Mkuzi village in Muheza District, north-east Tanzania from April to September 2003. The objectives were to determine the species composition and infectivity rates of mosquitoes in Mkuzi village. Mosquito collection was done using CDC light trap and pyrethrum...... spray catch (PSC) techniques. The light trap: spray catch ratio was 2.2:1. A total of 2157 mosquitoes were collected (light trap = 1483; PSC = 674). Anopheles gambiae s.s. accounted for 56.7% (N = 1224) of all mosquitoes collected. Other species were An. funestus complex (19.2%) and Culex...... quinquefasciatus (24.1%).The mosquito density per room was 74.15 and 33.7 for light trap and PSC techniques, respectively. A total of 1637 Anopheles mosquitoes were tested for circumsporozoite protein by Enzyme linked Immunosobent Assay (ELISA). The overall infectivity rate for circumsporozoite protein for P...

  16. Evidence for a lectin specific for sulfated glycans in the salivary gland of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo M B Francischetti

    Full Text Available Salivary gland homogenate (SGH from the female mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi, An. freeborni, An. dirus and An. albimanus were found to exhibit hemagglutinating (lectin activity. Lectin activity was not found for male An. gambiae, or female Ae aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Phlebotomus duboscqi, and Lutzomyia longipalpis. With respect to species-specificity, An. gambiae SGH agglutinates red blood cells (RBC from humans, horse, sheep, goat, pig, and cow; it is less active for rats RBC, and not detectable for guinea-pigs or chicken RBC. Notably, lectin activity was inhibited by low concentrations of dextran sulfate 50-500 K, fucoidan, heparin, laminin, heparin sulfate proteoglycan, sialyl-containing glycans (e.g. 3'-sialyl Lewis X, and 6'-sialyl lactose, and gangliosides (e.g. GM3, GD1, GD1b, GTB1, GM1, GQ1B, but not by simple sugars. These results imply that molecule(s in the salivary gland target sulfated glycans. SGH from An. gambiae was also found to promote agglutination of HL-60 cells which are rich in sialyl Lewis X, a glycan that decorates PSGL-1, the neutrophils receptor that interacts with endothelial cell P-selectin. Accordingly, SGH interferes with HL-60 cells adhesion to immobilized P-selectin. Because An. gambiae SGH expresses galectins, one member of this family (herein named Agalectin was expressed in E. coli. Recombinant Agalectin behaves as a non-covalent homodimer. It does not display lectin activity, and does not interact with 500 candidates tested in a Glycan microarray. Gel-filtration chromatography of the SGH of An. gambiae identified a fraction with hemagglutinating activity, which was analyzed by 1D PAGE followed by in-gel tryptic digestion, and nano-LC MS/MS. This approach identified several genes which emerge as candidates for a lectin targeting sulfated glycans, the first with this selectivity to be reported in the SGH of a blood-sucking arthropod. The role of salivary molecules (sialogenins with lectin

  17. Evidence for a lectin specific for sulfated glycans in the salivary gland of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Ma, Dongying; Andersen, John F; Ribeiro, José M C

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland homogenate (SGH) from the female mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi, An. freeborni, An. dirus and An. albimanus were found to exhibit hemagglutinating (lectin) activity. Lectin activity was not found for male An. gambiae, or female Ae aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Phlebotomus duboscqi, and Lutzomyia longipalpis. With respect to species-specificity, An. gambiae SGH agglutinates red blood cells (RBC) from humans, horse, sheep, goat, pig, and cow; it is less active for rats RBC, and not detectable for guinea-pigs or chicken RBC. Notably, lectin activity was inhibited by low concentrations of dextran sulfate 50-500 K, fucoidan, heparin, laminin, heparin sulfate proteoglycan, sialyl-containing glycans (e.g. 3'-sialyl Lewis X, and 6'-sialyl lactose), and gangliosides (e.g. GM3, GD1, GD1b, GTB1, GM1, GQ1B), but not by simple sugars. These results imply that molecule(s) in the salivary gland target sulfated glycans. SGH from An. gambiae was also found to promote agglutination of HL-60 cells which are rich in sialyl Lewis X, a glycan that decorates PSGL-1, the neutrophils receptor that interacts with endothelial cell P-selectin. Accordingly, SGH interferes with HL-60 cells adhesion to immobilized P-selectin. Because An. gambiae SGH expresses galectins, one member of this family (herein named Agalectin) was expressed in E. coli. Recombinant Agalectin behaves as a non-covalent homodimer. It does not display lectin activity, and does not interact with 500 candidates tested in a Glycan microarray. Gel-filtration chromatography of the SGH of An. gambiae identified a fraction with hemagglutinating activity, which was analyzed by 1D PAGE followed by in-gel tryptic digestion, and nano-LC MS/MS. This approach identified several genes which emerge as candidates for a lectin targeting sulfated glycans, the first with this selectivity to be reported in the SGH of a blood-sucking arthropod. The role of salivary molecules (sialogenins) with lectin activity is

  18. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net): an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngufor, Corine; N'guessan, Raphael; Fagbohoun, Josias; Odjo, Abibatou; Malone, David; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2014-01-01

    ... effect of pyriproxyfen. The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae...

  19. Semi-field evaluation of several novel alkenol analogs of 1-octen-3-ol as attractants to adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compound 1-octen-3-ol is a known attractant of some mosquito species which has led to the hypothesis that olfactory stimulation by this alkenol may be associated with the following structural elements: a terminal site of unsaturation or high electron density, a structural capability for hydroge...

  20. Mosquito Nets Treated with a Mixture of Chlorfenapyr and Alphacypermethrin Control Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes in West Africa: e87710

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corine Ngufor; Andreas A Kudom; Pelagie Boko; Abibathou Odjo; David Malone; Mark Rowland

    2014-01-01

    .... Methods The pyrrole chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alphacypermethrin were tested individually and as a mixture on mosquito nets in an experimental hut trial in southern Benin against pyrethroid...

  1. Mosquito nets treated with a mixture of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin control pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in West Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N'Guessan, Raphael; Ngufor, Corine; Kudom, Andreas A; Boko, Pelagie; Odjo, Abibathou; Malone, David; Rowland, Mark

    2014-01-01

    .... The pyrrole chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alphacypermethrin were tested individually and as a mixture on mosquito nets in an experimental hut trial in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant...

  2. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haramis Linn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid and temporal (weekly patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Results Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model. Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Conclusion Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito

  3. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  4. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  5. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  6. Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus from European-breed lambs to Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianka P M Vloet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus of the genus Phlebovirus that is highly pathogenic to ruminants and humans. The disease is currently confined to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but globalization and climate change may facilitate introductions of the virus into currently unaffected areas via infected animals or mosquitoes. The consequences of such an introduction will depend on environmental factors, the availability of susceptible ruminants and the capacity of local mosquitoes to transmit the virus. We have previously demonstrated that lambs native to the Netherlands are highly susceptible to RVFV and we here report the vector competence of Culex (Cx. pipiens, the most abundant and widespread mosquito species in the country. Vector competence was first determined after artificial blood feeding of laboratory-reared mosquitoes using the attenuated Clone 13 strain. Subsequently, experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs were performed. Finally, the transmission of RVFV from viremic lambs to mosquitoes was studied.Artificial feeding experiments using Clone 13 demonstrated that indigenous, laboratory-reared Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are susceptible to RVFV and that the virus can be transmitted via their saliva. Experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs confirmed the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands. To subsequently investigate transmission of the virus under more natural conditions, mosquitoes were allowed to feed on RVFV-infected lambs during the viremic period. We found that RVFV is efficiently transmitted from lambs to mosquitoes, although transmission was restricted to peak viremia. Interestingly, in the mosquito-exposed skin samples, replication of RVFV was detected in previously unrecognized target cells.We here report the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands for RVFV. Both

  7. Distribuição sazonal de Culex (Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros antrópicos introduzidos em mata residual degradada, área urbana de Curitiba, Paraná,Brasil Seazonal distribution of Culex (Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia (Diptera, Culicidae in artificial receptacles in disturbed patch of forest degraded inurban area of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Clara Vieira da Costa Ribeiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of artificial receptacles to oviposition by mosquitoes in forest environment may indicate a sinantropic tendency or behaviour. Our data revealed that tires were as the most acceptable breeding for Culex (Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia 1968.The population density of this species was higher and summer seasons.

  8. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  9. The Role of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae in Virus Transmission in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Brugman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, a range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public and veterinary health have emerged or re-emerged in Europe. Mosquito surveillance activities have highlighted the Culex pipiens species complex as being critical for the maintenance of a number of these viruses. This species complex contains morphologically similar forms that exhibit variation in phenotypes that can influence the probability of virus transmission. Critical amongst these is the choice of host on which to feed, with different forms showing different feeding preferences. This influences the ability of the mosquito to vector viruses and facilitate transmission of viruses to humans and domestic animals. Biases towards blood-feeding on avian or mammalian hosts have been demonstrated for different Cx. pipiens ecoforms and emerging evidence of hybrid populations across Europe adds another level of complexity to virus transmission. A range of molecular methods based on DNA have been developed to enable discrimination between morphologically indistinguishable forms, although this remains an active area of research. This review provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the understanding of the ecology, behaviour and genetics of Cx. pipiens in Europe, and how this influences arbovirus transmission.

  10. Modeling the distribution of Culex tritaeniorhynchus to predict Japanese encephalitis distribution in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, Penny; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Claborn, David M; Achee, Nicole; Andre, Richard; Chamberlin, Judith; Small, Jennifer; Anyamba, Assaf; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Yi, Suk H; Sardelis, Michael; Ju, Young-Ran; Grieco, John

    2010-11-01

    Over 35,000 cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) are reported worldwide each year. Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the primary vector of the JE virus, while wading birds are natural reservoirs and swine amplifying hosts. As part of a JE risk analysis, the ecological niche modeling programme, Maxent, was used to develop a predictive model for the distribution of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in the Republic of Korea, using mosquito collection data, temperature, precipitation, elevation, land cover and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The resulting probability maps from the model were consistent with the known environmental limitations of the mosquito with low probabilities predicted for forest covered mountains. July minimum temperature and land cover were the most important variables in the model. Elevation, summer NDVI (July-September), precipitation in July, summer minimum temperature (May-August) and maximum temperature for fall and winter months also contributed to the model. Comparison of the Cx. tritaeniorhynchus model to the distribution of JE cases in the Republic of Korea from 2001 to 2009 showed that cases among a highly vaccinated Korean population were located in high-probability areas for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. No recent JE cases were reported from the eastern coastline, where higher probabilities of mosquitoes were predicted, but where only small numbers of pigs are raised. The geographical distribution of reported JE cases corresponded closely with the predicted high-probability areas for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, making the map a useful tool for health risk analysis that could be used for planning preventive public health measures.

  11. Dicer-2-dependent activation of Culex Vago occurs via the TRAF-Rel2 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad N Paradkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite their importance as vectors of human and livestock diseases, relatively little is known about innate antiviral immune pathways in mosquitoes and other insects. Previous work has shown that Culex Vago (CxVago, which is induced and secreted from West Nile virus (WNV-infected mosquito cells, acts as a functional homolog of interferon, by activating Jak-STAT pathway and limiting virus replication in neighbouring cells. Here we describe the Dicer-2-dependent pathway leading to WNV-induced CxVago activation. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we show that a NF-κB-like binding site in CxVago promoter region is conserved in mosquito species and is responsible for induction of CxVago expression following WNV infection. Using dsRNA-based gene knockdown, we show that the NF-κB ortholog, Rel2, plays significant role in the signaling pathway that activates CxVago in mosquito cells in vitro and in vivo. Using similar approaches, we also show that TRAF, but not TRAF-3, is involved in activation of Rel2 after viral infection. Overall the study shows that a conserved signaling pathway, which is similar to mammalian interferon activation pathway, is responsible for the induction and antiviral activity of CxVago.

  12. Modeling the distribution of Culex tritaeniorhynchus to predict Japanese encephalitis distribution in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Masuoka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Over 35,000 cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE are reported worldwide each year. Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the primary vector of the JE virus, while wading birds are natural reservoirs and swine amplifying hosts. As part of a JE risk analysis, the ecological niche modeling programme, Maxent, was used to develop a predictive model for the distribution of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in the Republic of Korea, using mosquito collection data, temperature, precipitation, elevation, land cover and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. The resulting probability maps from the model were consistent with the known environmental limitations of the mosquito with low probabilities predicted for forest covered mountains. July minimum temperature and land cover were the most important variables in the model. Elevation, summer NDVI (July-September, precipitation in July, summer minimum temperature (May-August and maximum temperature for fall and winter months also contributed to the model. Comparison of the Cx. tritaeniorhynchus model to the distribution of JE cases in the Republic of Korea from 2001 to 2009 showed that cases among a highly vaccinated Korean population were located in high-probability areas for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. No recent JE cases were reported from the eastern coastline, where higher probabilities of mosquitoes were predicted, but where only small numbers of pigs are raised. The geographical distribution of reported JE cases corresponded closely with the predicted high-probability areas for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, making the map a useful tool for health risk analysis that could be used for planning preventive public health measures.

  13. High Insecticides Resistance in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae from Tehran, Capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Salim-Abadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years transmission of Dirofilaria immitis (dog heart worm by Culex pipiens and West Nile virus have been reported from Iran. The present study was preformed for evaluating the susceptibility status of Cx. pipiens collected from capital city of Tehran, Iran.Methods: Four Insecticides including: DDT 4%, Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%, Deltamethrin 0.05% and Cyfluthrin 0.15 % according to WHO standard  methods were used for evaluating the susceptibility status of Cx. pipiens from Tehran moreover  For comparison susceptibility status a Laboratory strain also was used.  Bioassay data were ana­lyzed using Probit program. The lethal time for 50% and 90% mortality (LT50 and LT90 values were calculated from regression line.Results: The susceptibility status of lab strain of Cx. pipiens revealed that it is susceptible to Lambdacyhalothrin, Deltamethrin, Cyfluthrin and resistant to DDT. Moreover cyfluthrin with LT50=36 seconds and DDT with LT50=3005 seconds had the least and most LT50s. Field population was resistance to all tested insecticides and DDT yielded no mortality.Conclusion: Highly resistance level against all WHO recommended imagicides were detected in field populations. We suggest more biochemical and molecular investigations to detect resistance mechanisms in the field population for further decision of vector control.

  14. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  15. Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C; Bagavan, A; Rahuman, A Abdul; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

    2009-04-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, flower methanol extracts of L. aspera and R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 44.21, 44.69, 53.16, 41.07, 35.32, 28.90 and 44.40 ppm; LC(90) = 187.31, 188.29, 233.18, 142.66, 151.60, 121.05 and 192.11 ppm, respectively) and against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50) = 69.83, 51.29, 81.24, 71.79, 44.42, 84.47 and 65.35 ppm; LC(90) = 335.26, 245.63, 300.45, 361.83, 185.09, 351.41 and 302.42 ppm, respectively). These results suggest that the leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. tritaeniorhynchus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the medicinal plant extracts.

  16. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 17 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Borah, MC Kalita, A Kar, AK Talukdar, 2527-2530 ...

  17. Blood meal induced regulation of the chemosensory gene repertoire in the southern house mosquito

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taparia, Tanvi; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon Rose

    2017-01-01

    Background: The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is one of the most prevalent vectors of lymphatic filariasis and flavivirus-induced encephalitis. Its vectorial capacity is directly affected by its reproductive feeding behaviors, such as host seeking, blood feeding, resting, and

  18. Host choice and West Nile virus infection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the Culex pipiens complex, from Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Harry M; Aggarwal, Deepak; Apperson, Charles S; Katholi, Charles R; Gordon, Emily; Hassan, Hassan K; Anderson, Michael; Charnetzky, Dawn; McMillen, Larry; Unnasch, Emily A; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    The source of bloodmeals in 2,082 blood-fed mosquitoes collected from February 2002 through December 2003 in Memphis and surrounding areas of Shelby County, Tennessee were determined. Members of the genus Culex and Anopheles quadrimaculatus predominated in the collections. Members of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. restuans were found to feed predominately upon avian hosts, though mammalian hosts made up a substantial proportion of the bloodmeals in these species. No significant difference was seen in the host class of bloodmeals in mosquitoes identified as Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, or hybrids between these two taxa. Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Cx. erraticus fed primarily upon mammalian hosts. Three avian species (the American Robin, the Common Grackle, and the Northern Cardinal) made up the majority of avian-derived bloodmeals, with the American Robin representing the most frequently fed upon avian host. An analysis of these host feeding data using a modification of a transmission model for Eastern Equine encephalitis virus suggested that the American Robin and Common Grackle represented the most important reservoir hosts for West Nile virus. A temporal analysis of the feeding patterns of the dominant Culex species did not support a shift in feeding behavior away from robins to mammals late in the summer. However, a significant degree of temporal variation was noted in the proportion of robin-derived bloodmeals when the data were analyzed by semi-monthly periods throughout the summers of 2002 and 2003. This pattern was consistent with the hypothesis that the mosquitoes were preferentially feeding upon nesting birds.

  19. Impact of urban agriculture on malaria vectors in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Eveline; McCall, Pj; Wilson, Michael D; Amerasinghe, Felix P; Donnelly, Martin J

    2008-08-04

    To investigate the impact of urban agriculture on malaria transmission risk in urban Accra larval and adult stage mosquito surveys, were performed. Local transmission was implicated as Anopheles spp. were found breeding and infected Anopheles mosquitoes were found resting in houses in the study sites. The predominant Anopheles species was Anopheles gambiae s.s.. The relative proportion of molecular forms within a subset of specimens was 86% S-form and 14% M-form. Anopheles spp. and Culex quinquefasciatus outdoor biting rates were respectively three and four times higher in areas around agricultural sites (UA) than in areas far from agriculture (U). The annual Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR), the number of infectious bites received per individual per year, was 19.2 and 6.6 in UA and U sites, respectively. Breeding sites were highly transitory in nature, which poses a challenge for larval control in this setting. The data also suggest that the epidemiological importance of urban agricultural areas may be the provision of resting sites for adults rather than an increased number of larval habitats. Host-seeking activity peaked between 2-3 am, indicating that insecticide-treated bednets should be an effective control method.

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-1048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-1048 ref|XP_001842288.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefas...ciatus] ref|XP_001842289.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41356.1| seroreactive... antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41357.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] XP_001842288.1 4e-18 39% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1431 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1431 ref|XP_001842288.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefas...ciatus] ref|XP_001842289.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41356.1| seroreactive... antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41357.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] XP_001842288.1 3e-07 28% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0271 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0271 ref|XP_001842288.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefascia...tus] ref|XP_001842289.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41356.1| seroreactive... antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41357.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] XP_001842288.1 2e-05 28% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0587 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0587 ref|XP_001842288.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefascia...tus] ref|XP_001842289.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41356.1| seroreactive... antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41357.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] XP_001842288.1 1e-14 37% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0243 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0243 ref|XP_001842288.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefascia...tus] ref|XP_001842289.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41356.1| seroreactive... antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS41357.1| seroreactive antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] XP_001842288.1 2e-22 36% ...

  5. Gene : CBRC-GGOR-01-0243 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antigen BMN1-5 [Culex quinquefasciatus] 2e-22 36% MGCLAGWLAWPSWLAGCLCWLGWLVWRSCL...GWLAGWAVWLVGWLGWLCWVAALLAWLTCLAGLSSFAGWLGSLGWLGWVAGFAGWLASLAGGLVWLADWLGWLGSLAGLAGWLGQLGWLAGWLGLLGWLAWLTWPAGWLAWLAW...LAGLSRLAGWLGCLVLLAGLAGLAGWLAGLACLAGWLGSLGRLAWLSWLAGWLGWLGWLAGWLGLLGWLAWLTWPAGLAALSCWLAWLAWLAGWLGWLGCLAGWADLAGLADLPG ...

  6. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC(90) = 28.65, 36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC(90) = 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of N. nucifera, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.

  7. Spread of the West Nile virus vector Culex modestus and the potential malaria vector Anopheles hyrcanus in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Šeblová, V.; Rádrová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2008), s. 269-277 ISSN 1081-1710 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P045; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : mosquitoes * WNV * Czech Republic * climate change Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2008

  8. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  9. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  10. Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection Rate and Detection of Genotype I From Culex tritaeniorhynchus Collected From Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongliang; Wu, Zhiming; Chen, Hongna; Li, Chunxiao; Guo, Xiaoxia; Liu, Ran; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Minghao; Zhao, Tongyan

    2017-07-01

    Information regarding the infection rate and genotype shifts for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are important for JE vaccine application. In Jiangsu province, China, which is one of the provinces with a high prevalence of JE, JEV infection in swine and mosquitoes in certain cities has only been investigated in 2008-2009. Lianyungang City has one of the highest numbers of JE cases in Jiangsu province, and it has a high risk of JEV invasion via migrant birds. JEV infection in vectors in Lianyungang City, which has urban and rural parts, has not been investigated. In 2015-2016, we collected mosquitoes in cowsheds with ultraviolet light traps and detected JEV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method in Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Xintan village, Xuzhuang village, and Xiaogaozhuang village in Lianyungang City, China. The proportion of positive pools, which is calculated by the number of infected pools to the total number of pools tested in these villages, were 16.67%, 20.00%, and 4.17%, respectively, and the minimum infection rates, which is calculated as the ratio of the number of positive pools to the total number of mosquitoes tested, were 3.33‰, 4.00‰, and 0.83‰, respectively. Four JEV strains from positive samples were coded as LYG-1, LYG-2, LYG-3, and LYG-4, and the complete E genes were sequenced. Furthermore, the complete genome of LYG-3 was sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the four JEV strains belonged to genotype I-b. This is the first report of genotype I JEV strain in Jiangsu province. The high JEV infection rate in Culex tritaeniorhynchus indicated a high risk of JE reemergence in Lianyungang. The detected JEV strains may have similar antigenicity to that of SA14-14-2 according to molecular characters. These findings suggest that the vaccine can still be effective in Lianyungang.

  11. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Oviedo MV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marco V Neira Oviedo1,2, William S Romoser1, Calvin BL James1, Farida Mahmood3, William K Reisen31Tropical Disease Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; 2Oxitec Inc, Oxford, England; 3Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USABackground: Vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. For arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. For transmission to occur, the virus must overcome several "barriers", including barriers to midgut infection and/or escape and salivary infection and/or escape. By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV, we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion.Methods: Using immuno-stained paraffin sections, WEEV antigens were tracked in four Cx. tarsalis strains: two recently colonized California field strains – Coachella Valley, Riverside County (COAV and Kern National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR; and two laboratory strains selected for WEEV susceptibility (high viremia producer, HVP, and WEEV resistance (WR.Results and conclusions: Tissues susceptible to WEEV infection included midgut epithelium, neural ganglia, trachea, chorionated eggs, and salivary glands. Neuroendocrine cells in the retrocerebral complex were occasionally infected, indicating the potential for behavioral effects. The HVP and COAV strains vigorously supported viral growth

  12. Phytochemical composition, mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activity of Calotropis procera against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this study was to determine the phytochemical composition and mosquito controlling potential of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera (Ait. R.Br. leaves using in vitro methods. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and phytosterols as major phytochemical groups. Aqueous extract of C. procera leaves (1,000 ppm exhibited 100% larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. Extract treatment (1,000 ppm of both mosquitoes’ eggs resulted in to 100% ovicidal activity. At 1,000 ppm, extract provided complete protection from mosquito bite for 240 min against both mosquitoes; however at lower doses the protection time was less. The findings of the current study emphasise the potentiality of C. procera leaves for controlling the mosquito population and their possible way in the developing the natural insecticide for the control of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus mosquitoes.

  13. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,