WorldWideScience

Sample records for vcn coatings deposited

  1. Deposition and Investigation of Hydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safonov Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluoropolymer coatings of different morphologies are deposited by the HWCVD (Hot Wire CVD method. The effect of activator filament temperature on the structure of fluoropolymer coating is shown. The results of studying the hydrophobic fluoropolymer coatings with different structures, deposited by the HWCVD method, are presented.

  2. Spray-Deposited Superconductor/Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Tran, Sang Q.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1993-01-01

    Coatings that exhibit the Meissner effect formed at relatively low temperature. High-temperature-superconductor/polymer coatings that exhibit Meissner effect deposited onto components in variety of shapes and materials. Simple, readily available equipment needed in coating process, mean coatings produced economically. Coatings used to keep magnetic fields away from electronic circuits in such cryogenic applications as magnetic resonance imaging and detection of infrared, and in magnetic suspensions to provide levitation and/or damping of vibrations.

  3. Functional Plasma-Deposited Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Pashechko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of low adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate. The subsequent laser treatment modes and their influence on the coating-substrate interface were studied. This allows to decrease the level of metstability of the coating, thus decreasing its hardness down to 11-12 GPa on the surface and to about 9 GPa on depth of 400 µm. The redistribution of alloying elements through solid and liquid diffusion improves mechanical properties and rises the adhesion up to 450 MPa after remelting and up to 90-110 MPa after laser-aided thermal cycling. At he same time, remelting of coating helps to decrease its porosity down to 1%. Obtained complex of properties also allows to improve wear resistance of coatings and to decrease friction factor.

  4. Chemical vapor deposition coating for micromachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANI,SEETHAMBAL S.; FLEMING,JAMES G.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; IRWIN,LAWRENCE W.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; TANNER,DANELLE M.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.

    2000-04-21

    Two major problems associated with Si-based MEMS devices are stiction and wear. Surface modifications are needed to reduce both adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures to solve these problems. In this paper, the authors will present a process used to selectively coat MEMS devices with tungsten using a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process. The selective W deposition process results in a very conformal coating and can potentially solve both stiction and wear problems confronting MEMS processing. The selective deposition of tungsten is accomplished through silicon reduction of WF{sub 6}, which results in a self-limiting reaction. The selective deposition of W only on polysilicon surfaces prevents electrical shorts. Further, the self-limiting nature of this selective W deposition process ensures the consistency necessary for process control. Selective tungsten is deposited after the removal of the sacrificial oxides to minimize process integration problems. This tungsten coating adheres well and is hard and conducting, requirements for device performance. Furthermore, since the deposited tungsten infiltrates under adhered silicon parts and the volume of W deposited is less than the amount of Si consumed, it appears to be possible to release stuck parts that are contacted over small areas such as dimples. Results from tungsten deposition on MEMS structures with dimples will be presented. The effect of wet and vapor phase cleanings prior to the deposition will be discussed along with other process details. The W coating improved wear by orders of magnitude compared to uncoated parts. Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this approach manufacturable.

  5. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, Kendall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pena, Maria I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  6. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Victor E.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings extend the operating temperature range of actively cooled gas turbine components, therefore increasing thermal efficiency. Performance and lifetime of existing ceram ic coatings are limited by spallation during heating and cooling cycles. Spallation of the ceramic is a function of its microstructure, which is determined by the deposition method. This research is investigating metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of yttria stabilized zirconia to improve performance and reduce costs relative to electron beam physical vapor deposition. Coatings are deposited in an induction-heated, low-pressure reactor at 10 microns per hour. The coating's composition, structure, and response to the turbine environment will be characterized.

  7. Characterization of the Antiglioma Effect of the Oncolytic Adenovirus VCN-01.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vera

    Full Text Available Despite the recent advances in the development of antitumor therapies, the prognosis for patients with malignant gliomas remains dismal. Therapy with tumor-selective viruses is emerging as a treatment option for this devastating disease. In this study we characterize the anti-glioma effect of VCN-01, an improved hyaluronidase-armed pRB-pathway-selective oncolytic adenovirus that has proven safe and effective in the treatment of several solid tumors. VCN-01 displayed a significant cytotoxic effect on glioma cells in vitro. In vivo, in two different orthotopic glioma models, a single intra-tumoral administration of VCN-01 increased overall survival significantly and led to long-term survivors free of disease.

  8. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hayashi

    Full Text Available Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface treatment is clinically evaluated by peeling and flex tests. However, these testing methods are not ideal for deposition coating strength measurement of electroformed metals. There have been no studies on the deposition coating strength and methods to test electroformed metals. We developed a new deposition coating strength test for electroformed metals. The influence of the negative electrolytic method, which is one of the electrochemical surface treatments, on the strength of the deposition coating of electroformed metals was investigated, and the following conclusions were drawn: 1. This process makes it possible to remove residual deposits on the electrodeposited metal surface layer. 2. Cathode electrolysis is a simple and safe method that is capable of improving the surface treatment by adjustments to the current supply method and current intensity. 3. Electrochemical treatment can improve the deposition coating strength compared to the physical or chemical treatment methods. 4. Electro-deposition coating is an innovative technique for the deposition coating of electroformed metal.

  9. Electrochemical deposition of mineralized BSA/collagen coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Junjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Jun; Li, Juan; Wang, Huiming [The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Cheng, Kui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-09-01

    In this work, mineralized collagen coatings with different loading quantity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were prepared via in situ electrochemical deposition on titanium substrate. The microstructure and BSA loading quantity of the coatings could be controlled by the electrochemical deposition parameters, such as deposition potential, BSA concentration and its adding sequence in the electrolyte. The BSA loading quantity in the coatings was obtained in the range of 0.0170–0.173 mg/cm{sup 2}, enhancing the cell adhesion and proliferation of the coatings with the simultaneous release. The distinct release behaviors of BSA were attributed to their gradient distribution with different mineralization degrees, which could be adjusted by the deposition process. These results suggest that in situ electrochemical deposition is a promising way to incorporate functional molecules into the mineralized collagen coatings and the mineralized BSA/collagen coatings are highly promising for improving the rhBMP-2 loading capability (1.8-fold). - Highlights: • BSA is incorporated into mineralized collagen coating by electrochemical deposition. • The loading amount of BSA in coatings can be adjusted in the range of 0-173 ng. • The BSA/collagen coating shows good cytocompatibility with free-albumin culture. • The incorporation process is put forward for some other molecules deposition.

  10. Electrolytic deposition and corrosion resistance of Zn–Ni coatings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn–Ni coatings were deposited under galvanostatic conditions on steel substrate (OH18N9). The influence of current density of deposition on the surface morphology, chemical and phase composition was investigated. The corrosion resistance of Zn–Ni coatings obtained at current density 10–25 mA cm-2 are measured, ...

  11. Microstructure of vapor deposited coatings on curved substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Thermal barrier coating systems consisting of a metallic bond coat and ceramic over layer are widely used to extend the life of gas turbine engine components. They are applied using either high-vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques in which vapor atoms rarely experience scattering collisions during propagation to a substrate, or by gas jet assisted (low-vacuum) vapor deposition techniques that utilize scattering from streamlines to enable non-line-of-sight deposition. Both approaches require substrate motion to coat a substrate of complex shape. Here, direct simulation Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods are combined to simulate the deposition of a nickel coating over the concave and convex surfaces of a model airfoil, and the simulation results are compared with those from experimental depositions. The simulation method successfully predicted variations in coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and porosity during both stationary and substrate rotated deposition. It was then used to investigate a wide range of vapor deposition conditions spanning high-vacuum physical vapor deposition to low-vacuum gas jet assisted vapor deposition. The average coating thickness was found to increase initially with gas pressure reaching a maximum at a chamber pressure of 8–10 Pa, but the best coating thickness uniformity was achieved under high vacuum deposition conditions. However, high vacuum conditions increased the variation in the coatings pore volume fraction over the surface of the airfoil. The simulation approach was combined with an optimization algorithm and used to investigate novel deposition concepts to tailor the local coating thickness.

  12. Chemical Vapor Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition of Coatings for Mechanical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, G. L.; Mensah, B. A.; Mohseni, H.; Scharf, T. W.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of films and coatings involves the chemical reaction of gases on or near a substrate surface. This deposition method can produce coatings with tightly controlled dimensions and novel structures. Furthermore, the non-line-of-sight-deposition capability of CVD facilitates the coating of complex-shaped mechanical components. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is also a chemical gas phase thin film deposition technique, but unlike CVD, it utilizes “self-limiting” surface adsorption reactions (chemisorption) to control the thickness of deposited films. This article provides an overview of CVD and ALD, discusses some of their fundamental and practical aspects, and examines their advantages and limitations versus other vapor processing techniques such as physical vapor deposition in regard to coatings for mechanical applications. Finally, site-specific cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy inside the wear track of an ALD ZnO/ZrO2 8 bilayers nanolaminate coating determined the mechanisms that control the friction and wear.

  13. Oxygen Barrier Coating Deposited by Novel Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Juan; Benter, M.; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef

    2010-01-01

    . This configuration enables a gentle treatment of sensitive materials like low-density polyethylene foils and biodegradable materials. SiOx coatings deposited in the novel setup were compared with other state of the art plasma coatings and were found to possess equally good or better barrier properties. The barrier...... effect of single-layer coatings deposited under different reaction conditions was studied. The coating thickness and the carbon content in the coatings were found to be the critical parameters for the barrier property. The novel barrier coating was applied on different polymeric materials...

  14. Microstructure of WC/C coatings deposited on steel substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; Carvalho, N.J.M.; Brebbia, CA

    2001-01-01

    Electron microscopy, including scanning (SEM), transmission (TEM) and high-resolution (HRTEM) were employed to characterise slightly different tungsten carbide/carbon coatings deposited onto steel substrates. Complementary techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy

  15. Electrolytic deposition and corrosion resistance of Zn–Ni coatings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    are meas- ured, and are compared with that of metallic cadmium coating. Structural investigations were performed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The surface morphology and chemical composition of deposited coatings were studied using a scanning electron microscope (JEOL JSM-6480) with EDS attachment.

  16. Electrochemical deposition of Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrochemical deposition of Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings and the effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate surfactant on the coating properties ... Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9466, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Color Science and Technology, P.O. Box ...

  17. Structure And Properties Of PVD Coatings Deposited On Cermets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żukowska L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is the investigation of the structure and properties of single-layer and gradient coatings of the type (Ti,AlN and Ti(C,N deposited by physical vapour deposition technology (PVD on the cermets substrate.

  18. Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    promotion of organic reactions, etching of polymers to improve bonding of the other materials etc. With a 2.45 GHz, 700 W, microwave induced plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system set up in our laboratory we have deposited diamond like carbon coatings. The microwave plasma generation was effected using a ...

  19. Electro-spark deposited coatings for protection of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The coating is fused (metallurgically bonded) to the substrate with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperature. Rapid solidification of the deposit typically results in an extremely fine-grained deposit that may be amorphous for some materials. Nearly any electrically conductive metal, alloy or cermet can be applied to metallic substrates. The ESD process allows multi-layer coatings to be built-up using different materials to create graded structures or surface compositions that would be difficult to achieve by other means. A series of iron-aluminide coatings based on Fe{sub 3}Al and FeAl in combination with refractory metal diffusion-barrier coatings and supplementary additions of other elements are in corrosion testing at ANL. The most recent FeAl coatings are showing a factor of three better corrosion performance than the best previous coatings. Technology transfer activities are a significant portion of the ESD program effort. Notable successes now include the start-up of a new business to commercialize the ESD technology, major new applications in gas turbine engines and steam turbine blade coatings, and in military, medical, metal-working, and recreational equipment applications.

  20. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 4 ... The plasma polymerization process is more economical than ion-assisted physical vapour deposition processes as regards equipment and source materials and is more cost-effective, enabling the surface treatment and deposition of the ARC in the same ...

  1. Collimated Magnetron Sputter Deposition for Mirror Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickery, A.; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2008-01-01

    At the Danish National Space Center (DNSC), a planar magnetron sputtering chamber has been established as a research and production coating facility for curved X-ray mirrors for hard X-ray optics for astronomical X-ray telescopes. In the following, we present experimental evidence that a collimat......At the Danish National Space Center (DNSC), a planar magnetron sputtering chamber has been established as a research and production coating facility for curved X-ray mirrors for hard X-ray optics for astronomical X-ray telescopes. In the following, we present experimental evidence...

  2. Osteogenic Responses to Zirconia with Hydroxyapatite Coating by Aerosol Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.; Hong, J.; Ryoo, H.; Kim, D.; Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we found that osteogenic responses to zirconia co-doped with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) or tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) are comparable with responses to titanium, which is widely used as a dental implant material. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated zirconia by an aerosol deposition method for improved osseointegration. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction proved that a thin as-deposited HA film on zirconia showed a shallow, regular, crater-like surface. Deposition of dense and uniform HA films was measured by SEM, and the contact angle test demonstrated improved wettability of the HA-coated surface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast attachment did not differ notably between the titanium and zirconia surfaces; however, cells on the HA-coated zirconia exhibited a lower proliferation than those on the uncoated zirconia late in the culture. Nevertheless, ALP, alizarin red S staining, and bone marker gene expression analysis indicated good osteogenic responses on HA-coated zirconia. Our results suggest that HA-coating by aerosol deposition improves the quality of surface modification and is favorable to osteogenesis. PMID:25586588

  3. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, N.; Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    Electrochromic devices have increasing application in display devices, switchable mirrors and smart windows. A variety of vacuum deposition technologies have been used to make electrochromic devices. The sol- gel process offers an alternative approach to the synthesis of optical quality and low cost electrochromic device layers. This study summarizes the developments in sol-gel deposited electrochromic films. The sol-gel process involves the formation of oxide networks upon hydrolysis-condensation of alkoxide precursors. In this study we cover the sol-gel deposited oxides of WO[sub 3], V[sub 2]O[sub 5], TiO[sub 2], Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5], and NiO[sub x].

  4. Deposition characteristics of titanium coating deposited on SiC fiber by cold-wall chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian, E-mail: luo_shenfan@hotmail.com; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Yan-qing; Jin, Na; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    The deposition characteristics of titanium coating on SiC fiber using TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar gas mixture in a cold-wall chemical vapor deposition were studied by the combination of thermodynamic analysis and experimental studies. The thermodynamic analysis of the reactions in the TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system indicates that TiCl{sub 4} transforms to titanium as the following paths: TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → Ti, or TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → TiCl{sub 2} → Ti. The experimental results show that typical deposited coating contains two distinct layers: a TiC reaction layer close to SiC fiber and titanium coating which has an atomic percentage of titanium more than 70% and that of carbon lower than 30%. The results illustrate that a carbon diffusion barrier coating needs to be deposited if pure titanium is to be prepared. The deposition rate increases with the increase of temperature, but higher temperature has a negative effect on the surface uniformity of titanium coating. In addition, appropriate argon gas flow rate has a positive effect on smoothing the surface morphology of the coating. - Highlights: • Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental studies were adopted in this work. • The transformation paths of TiCl{sub 4} to Ti is: TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → Ti, or TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → TiCl{sub 2} → Ti. • Typical deposited Ti coating on SiC fiber contained two distinct layers. • Deposition temperature is important on deposition rate and morphologies. • Appropriate argon gas flow rate has a positive effect on smoothing of the coating.

  5. CMAS Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited via Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, B. J.; Wiesner, V. L.; Zhu, D.; Johnson, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Materials for advanced turbine engines are expected to have temperature capabilities in the range of 1370-1500C. At these temperatures the ingestion of sand and dust particulate can result in the formation of corrosive glass deposits referred to as CMAS. The presence of this glass can both thermomechanically and thermochemically significantly degrade protective coatings on metallic and ceramic components. Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) was used to deposit advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for investigation on their interaction with CMAS compositions. Coatings were exposed to CMAS and furnace tested in air from 1 to 50 hours at temperatures ranging from 1200-1500C. Coating composition and crystal structure were tracked with X-ray diffraction and microstructure with electron microscopy.

  6. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    software (FTG 1997). It was found that a thickness of. 150 nm, and a chosen refractive index of 1⋅50, for the carbonyl SiO2 layer yielded best results for the composite. ARC deposited on the carbonyl SiO2 layer, and so these values have been chosen for the carbonyl SiO2 layer in the design process. The refractive indices ...

  8. Electrochemical deposition of Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    porated reinforcing particles are determined by the relative magnitudes of the rates at which the particles and cations reached to the growing film surface. Increasing deposition current density can enhance both rates [1]. The value of. TiN nanoparticles in the coating is enhanced by increasing the current density up to 0.04 A ...

  9. Development of titanium diboride coatings deposited by PACVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfohl, C.; Bulak, A.; Rie, K.-T. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oberflaechentechnik und Plasmatechnische Werkstoffentwicklung

    2000-09-01

    TiB{sub 2} appears to be a promising material for the wear protection in various tribological systems, e.g. the diecasting of Al. This study focuses on the development of titanium boride coatings deposited by PACVD, a deposition method which is most suitable for the coating of substrates with complex shapes. All layers analysed are very smooth and exhibit a quasi-amorphous fracture surface. XRD and TEM analysis indicate a nanocrystalline structure with grain sizes in the order of 2 nm. The diffraction patterns can well be correlated to titanium diboride. WDS reveals an over stoichiometric B/Ti ratio. The layer hardness reaches the value of 33 GPa and the critical load in scratch tests rises to 35 N. Neither 100Cr6 nor Al as a counterpart in pin-on-disk tests leads to wear of the coating. (orig.)

  10. Deposition of antimicrobial coatings on microstereolithography-fabricated microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D.; Miller, Philip R.; Jin, Chunming; Martin, Timothy N.; Boehm, Ryan D.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Stafslien, Shane J.; Daniels, Justin W.; Cilz, Nicholas; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Nasir, Adnan; Narayan, Roger J.

    2011-06-01

    Microneedles are small-scale needle-like projections that may be used for transdermal delivery of pharmacologic agents, including protein-containing and nucleic acid-containing agents. Commercial translation of polymeric microneedles would benefit from the use of facile and cost effective fabrication methods. In this study, visible light dynamic mask microstereolithography, a rapid prototyping technique that utilizes digital light projection for selective polymerization of a liquid resin, was used for fabrication of solid microneedle array structures out of an acrylate-based polymer. Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit silver and zinc oxide coatings on the surfaces of the visible light dynamic mask microstereolithography-fabricated microneedle array structures. Agar diffusion studies were used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of the coated microneedle array structures. This study indicates that light-based technologies, including visible light dynamic mask microstereolithography and pulsed laser deposition, may be used to fabricate microneedles with antimicrobial properties for treatment of local skin infections.

  11. Deposition of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veligdan, James; Branch, D.; Vanier, P. E.; Barietta, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000 C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing involved the use of a CO2 laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl5 gas near the substrate. The results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  12. Graphene Coating on Copper by Electrophoretic Deposition for Corrosion Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Usha Kiran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the use of a simple and inexpensive electrophoretic deposition (EPD technique to develop thin, uniform, and transparent graphene oxide (GO coating on copper (Cu substrate on application of 10 V for 1 s from an aqueous suspension containing 0.03 wt % graphene oxide. GO was partially reduced during the EPD process itself. The GO coated on Cu was completely reduced chemically by using sodium borohydride (NaBH4 solution. The coatings were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, XRD, and UV/VIS spectrophotometry. Corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by electrochemical measurements under accelerated corrosion condition in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. The GO coated on Cu and chemically reduced by NaBH4 showed more positive corrosion potential (Ecorr (−145.4 mV compared to GO coated on Cu (−182.2 mV and bare Cu (−235.3 mV, and much lower corrosion current (Icorr (7.01 µA/cm2 when compared to 15.375 µA/cm2 for bare Cu indicating that reduced GO film on copper exhibit enhanced corrosion resistance. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of chemically reduced GO coated Cu was 54.40%, and its corrosion rate was 0.08 mm/year as compared to 0.18 mm/year for bare copper.

  13. Conversion Coatings for Aluminum Alloys by Chemical Vapor Deposition Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye, John T.; McFadden, Lisa S.; Gatica, Jorge E.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    With the rise of environmental awareness and the renewed importance of environmentally friendly processes, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has targeted surface pre-treatment processes based on chromates. Indeed, this process has been subject to regulations under the Clean Water Act as well as other environmental initiatives, and there is today a marked movement to phase the process out in the near future. Therefore, there is a clear need for new advances in coating technology that could provide practical options for replacing present industrial practices. Depending on the final application, such coatings might be required to be resistant to corrosion, act as chemically resistant coatings, or both. This research examined a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) mechanism to deposit uniform conversion coatings onto aluminum alloy substrates. Robust protocols based on solutions of aryl phosphate ester and multi-oxide conversion coating (submicron) films were successfully grown onto the aluminum alloy samples. These films were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Preliminary results indicate the potential of this technology to replace aqueous-based chromate processes.

  14. Laser deposition of coatings for aeronautical and industrials turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teleginski, V. [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil); Silva, S.A.; Riva, R.; Vasconcelos, G. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva Pita, G.R. [Universidade Braz Cubas, Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil); Yamin, L.S. [Escola Tecnica Everardo Passos (ETEP), Sao Jose dos Campos, DP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Zirconium-based ceramic materials are widely employed as Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC), due to its excellent wear and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. The application of TBC includes aeronautical and industrials turbine blades. The working conditions include oxidizing environments and temperatures above 1000°C. The zirconium-based ceramics are developed in such a way that the microstructural control is possible through the control of chemical composition, fabrication route and, thermal treatment. The present paper proposes a laser route to deposit the TBC coating, where the microstructural control is a function of power density and interaction time between the laser beam and the material. The main objective of this work is to study the influence of the CO2 laser beam (Synrad Evolution 125) parameters: power density and interaction time, on the deposition process of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders on NiCrAlY/AISI 316L substrates. The resulting coating surface and interface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that is possible to match laser parameters of scanning speed and intensity to produce homogenous coatings. The X-Ray analyses show that the obtained ceramic coating has reduced number of phases, with prevalence of tetragonal phase.(author)

  15. Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    It is intended that the book will be a practical guide to provide any reader with the basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of any existing barrier product. After providing an introduction, where the terminology is outlined and some of the science is given (keeping the mathematics to a minimum), including barrier testing methods, the vacuum deposition process will be described. In theory a thin layer of metal or glass-like material should be enough to convert any polymer film into a perfect barrier material. The reality is that all barrier coatings have their performance limited by the defects in the coating. This book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting the defects. This enables readers...

  16. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  17. Corrosion Resistance of Copper Coatings Deposited by Cold Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnicki, M.; Baszczuk, A.; Jasiorski, M.; Małachowska, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the article, a study of corrosion resistance of copper and copper-based cermet (Cu+Al2O3 and Cu+SiC) coatings deposited onto aluminum alloy substrate using the low-pressure cold spraying method is presented. The samples were subjected to two different corrosion tests at room temperature: (1) Kesternich test and (2) a cyclic salt spray test. The selected tests were allowed to simulate service conditions typical for urban, industrial and marine environment. Examination of corroded samples included analysis changes on the coating surface and in the microstructure. The physicochemical tests were carried out using x-ray diffraction to define corrosion products. Moreover, microhardness and electrical conductivity measurements were conducted to estimate mechanical and physical properties of the coatings after corrosion tests. XRD analysis clearly showed that regardless of corrosion conditions, for all samples cuprite (Cu2O) was the main product. However, in the case of Cu+Al2O3 cermet coating, chlorine- and sulfate-containing phases such as Cu2Cl(OH)3 (paracetamite) and Cu3(SO4)(OH)4 (antlerite) were also recorded. This observation gives better understanding of the lowest microstructure changes observed for Cu+Al2O3 coating after the corrosion tests. This is also a justification for the lowest decrease in electrical conductivity registered after the corrosion tests for this coating.

  18. Corrosion Resistance of Copper Coatings Deposited by Cold Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnicki, M.; Baszczuk, A.; Jasiorski, M.; Małachowska, A.

    2017-10-01

    In the article, a study of corrosion resistance of copper and copper-based cermet (Cu+Al2O3 and Cu+SiC) coatings deposited onto aluminum alloy substrate using the low-pressure cold spraying method is presented. The samples were subjected to two different corrosion tests at room temperature: (1) Kesternich test and (2) a cyclic salt spray test. The selected tests were allowed to simulate service conditions typical for urban, industrial and marine environment. Examination of corroded samples included analysis changes on the coating surface and in the microstructure. The physicochemical tests were carried out using x-ray diffraction to define corrosion products. Moreover, microhardness and electrical conductivity measurements were conducted to estimate mechanical and physical properties of the coatings after corrosion tests. XRD analysis clearly showed that regardless of corrosion conditions, for all samples cuprite (Cu2O) was the main product. However, in the case of Cu+Al2O3 cermet coating, chlorine- and sulfate-containing phases such as Cu2Cl(OH)3 (paracetamite) and Cu3(SO4)(OH)4 (antlerite) were also recorded. This observation gives better understanding of the lowest microstructure changes observed for Cu+Al2O3 coating after the corrosion tests. This is also a justification for the lowest decrease in electrical conductivity registered after the corrosion tests for this coating.

  19. Cold spray technology: future of coating deposition processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B.S. Kalsi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold spray (CS belongs to a wide family of thermal spray technology with the difference that it is a solid state process in which spray particles are deposited via supersonic velocity impact at a temperature much below the melting point of the spray material. This paper briefly describes the various aspects of this rapidly emerging technology, with almost all the important parameters which affect the deposition behavior along with advantages and limitations; applications and history of emergence of this process is also reviewed. Though this technology emerges three decades ago but still it could not establish itself as viable practical industrial technology. Hence, the efforts, along with funding from public/private sources are required to commercialize this coating process. It is expected that next decade will saw the growth of cold spray as a viable coating process around the globe.

  20. Synthesis of mullite coatings by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulpuri, R.P.; Auger, M.; Sarin, V.K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Formation of mullite on ceramic substrates via chemical vapor deposition was investigated. Mullite is a solid solution of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} with a composition of 3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{circ}2SiO{sub 2}. Thermodynamic calculations performed on the AlCl{sub 3}-SiCl{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} system were used to construct equilibrium CVD phase diagrams. With the aid of these diagrams and consideration of kinetic rate limiting factors, initial process parameters were determined. Through process optimization, crystalline CVD mullite coatings have been successfully grown on SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrates. Results from the thermodynamic analysis, process optimization, and effect of various process parameters on deposition rate and coating morphology are discussed.

  1. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladwig, Angela

    2008-01-23

    There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of

  2. Plasma deposition of antimicrobial coating on organic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rżanek-Boroch, Zenobia; Dziadczyk, Paulina; Czajkowska, Danuta; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fabianowski, Wojciech

    2013-02-01

    Organic materials used for packing food products prevent the access of microorganisms or gases, like oxygen or water vapor. To prolong the stability of products, preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sulfites, benzoates, nitrites and many other chemical compounds are used. To eliminate or limit the amount of preservatives added to food, so-called active packaging is sought for, which would limit the development of microorganisms. Such packaging can be achieved, among others, by plasma modification of a material to deposit on its surface substances inhibiting the growth of bacteria. In this work plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide or/and sodium oxide were used as the coating precursors. As a result of bacteriological studies it was found that sulfur containing coatings show a 16% inhibition of Salmonella bacteria growth and 8% inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth. Sodium containing coatings show worse (by 10%) inhibiting properties. Moreover, films with plasma deposited coatings show good sealing properties against water vapor. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  3. Amorphous boron coatings produced with vacuum arc deposition technology

    CERN Document Server

    Klepper, C C; Yadlowsky, E J; Carlson, E P; Keitz, M D; Williams, J M; Zuhr, R A; Poker, D B

    2002-01-01

    In principle, boron (B) as a material has many excellent surface properties, including corrosion resistance, very high hardness, refractory properties, and a strong tendency to bond with most substrates. The potential technological benefits of the material have not been realized, because it is difficult to deposit it as coatings. B is difficult to evaporate, does not sputter well, and cannot be thermally sprayed. In this article, first successful deposition results from a robust system, based on the vacuum (cathodic) arc technology, are reported. Adherent coatings have been produced on 1100 Al, CP-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, 316 SS, hard chrome plate, and 52 100 steel. Composition and thickness analyses have been performed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Hardness (H) and modules (E) have been evaluated by nanoindentation. The coatings are very pure and have properties characteristic of B suboxides. A microhardness of up to 27 GPa has been measured on a 400-nm-thick film deposited on 52 100 steel, with a corresp...

  4. Transmission electron microscopy studies of YBCO coated conductor deposited using multiple-stage chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, H. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Material Research and Development Laboratory, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: hisasaki@jfcc.or.jp; Kato, T. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Material Research and Development Laboratory, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Sasaki, Y. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Material Research and Development Laboratory, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Hirayama, T. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Material Research and Development Laboratory, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Kashima, N. [Electric Power Research and Development Center, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1, Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 459-8522 (Japan); Nagaya, S. [Electric Power Research and Development Center, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1, Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 459-8522 (Japan); Izumi, T. [Superconductivity Research Center, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Center, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    A YBCO film was deposited on Hastelloy tape with highly oriented CeO{sub 2}/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} multilayer using multiple-stage chemical vapor deposition. The microstructures of the YBCO coated conductor were examined in detail using transmission electron microscopy. Analysis indicated a YBCO film about 1 {mu}m thick was deposited and consisted mainly of c-axis oriented grains. However, a-axis oriented grains were also observed in the YBCO film, and these a-axis oriented grains grew larger with increasing thickness of the YBCO film.

  5. Raman microscopic studies of PVD deposited hard ceramic coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Constable, C P

    2000-01-01

    GPa were deposited onto SS and HSS substrates. Subsequent Raman measurements found a correlation coefficient of 0.996 between Raman band position and stress (determined via XRD methods). In addition, there was also a similar correlation coefficient observed between hardness and Raman shift (cm sup - sup 1). The application of mechanical stresses on a TiAICrN coating via a stress rig was investigated and tensile and compressive shifts were observed. stresses caused by the scratching process. These shifts were found to be the largest at the edges of scratches. The Raman mapping of 'droplets', a defect inherent to PVD deposition processes, found that higher compressive stresses and large amounts of disorder occurred for coating growth onto droplets. Strategies designed to evaluate the ability of Raman microscopy to monitor the extent of real wear on cutting tools were evaluated. The removal of a coating layer and subsequent detection of a base layer proved successful. This was then expanded to real wear situatio...

  6. Influence of nanoparticles deposition conditions on the microarc coatings properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebodaeva, V.; Sedelnikova, M.; Sharkeev, Yu.

    2017-09-01

    The surface charge of biomaterials significantly contributes to such processes as protein adsorption or biofilm formation and consequently osseointegration bone tissue and implant. There are a set of methods to create a charge on dielectric biomaterials surface. One of the perspective methods of materials electrization is an introduction of the nanoparticles with appropriate biomedical properties into biomaterial. Boehmite AlO(OH) nanoparticles is perspective for the biomaterials surface modification due to its high surface area and positive charge. In this work, the investigations of microarc calcium phosphate biocoatings modified by boehmite nanoparticles on the Ti substrate were presented. A variation of the nanoparticles deposition parameters allowed producing calcium phosphate coatings with different morphology and boehmite nanoparticles size distribution. The investigations of the modified coatings by the transmission and scanning electron microscopy methods are presented in the work.

  7. Morphology, Composition, and Bioactivity of Strontium-Doped Brushite Coatings Deposited on Titanium Implants via Electrochemical Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Liang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification techniques have been applied to generate titanium implant surfaces that promote osseointegration for use in dental applications. In this study, strontium-doped brushite coatings were deposited on titanium by electrochemical deposition. The phase composition of the coating was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface morphologies of the coatings were studied through scanning electron microscopy, and the cytocompatibility and bioactivity of the strontium-doped brushite coatings were evaluated using cultured osteoblasts. Osteoblast proliferation was enhanced by the addition of strontium, suggesting a possible mechanism by which strontium incorporation in brushite coatings increased bone formation surrounding the implants. Cell growth was also strongly influenced by the composition of the deposited coatings, with a 10% Sr-doped brushite coating inducing the greatest amount of bone formation among the tested materials.

  8. The study of Zn–Co alloy coatings electrochemically deposited by pulse current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milorad V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition by pulse current of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel was examined, with the aim to find out whether pulse plating could produce alloys that could offer a better corrosion protection. The influence of on-time and the average current density on the cathodic current efficiency, coating morphology, surface roughness and corrosion stability in 3% NaCl was examined. At the same Ton/Toff ratio the current efficiency was insignificantly smaller for deposition at higher average current density. It was shown that, depending on the on-time, pulse plating could produce more homogenous alloy coatings with finer morphology, as compared to deposits obtained by direct current. The surface roughness was the greatest for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with direct current, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with pulse current, for both examined average current densities. It was also shown that Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited by pulse current could increase the corrosion stability of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel. Namely, alloy coatings deposited with pulse current showed higher corrosion stability, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with direct current, for almost all examined cathodic times, Ton. Alloy coatings deposited at higher average current density showed greater corrosion stability as compared with coatings deposited by pulse current at smaller average current density. It was shown that deposits obtained with pulse current and cathodic time of 10 ms had the poorest corrosion stability, for both investigated average deposition current density. Among all investigated alloy coatings the highest corrosion stability was obtained for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with pulsed current at higher average current density (jav = 4 A dm-2.

  9. Processing and Deposition of Nanocrystalline Oxide Composites for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying, Jackie

    2000-01-01

    .... Electrophoretic deposition was used to coat the nanocomposite powders onto nickel substrates. The effect of alumina content, powder calcination temperature, and film thickness on the thermal stability of zirconia-based coatings was examined...

  10. Deposition Mechanisms and Oxidation Behaviors of Ti-Ni Coatings Deposited in Low-Temperature HVOF Spraying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q. S.; Zhou, K. S.; Deng, C. M.; Liu, M.; Xu, L. P.; Deng, C. G.

    2014-08-01

    Three kinds of Ti-Ni powders were deposited on 316L stainless steel by low-temperature high-velocity oxygen fuel (LT-HVOF) spraying process, respectively. Deposition mechanisms and oxidation behaviors of the coatings were researched in this paper. The coating deposited from TiNi intermetallic powder had obvious laminar structure and the oxygen content was the highest among the three kinds of coatings. The oxygen content of the coating deposited from small-sized Ni-clad Ti powder was still high due to the melting of parts of particles. However, most of the coarse Ni-clad Ti powder was deposited in solid states without changes of chemical compositions and phase compositions. The oxygen content of the coating deposited from coarse Ni-clad Ti powder was the lowest among the three kinds of coatings. It indicated that the deposition behavior of the coating could effectively preserve the inner titanium from oxidation. The results of the present research demonstrated that it is entirely feasible to deposit active metal materials such as titanium and titanium alloy through the optimizing selection of powder in the LT-HVOF process.

  11. Electrochemical Sensor Coating Based on Electrophoretic Deposition of Au-Doped Self-Assembled Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongli; Zhu, Ye; Huang, Jing; Xu, Sheng; Luo, Jing; Liu, Xiaoya

    2018-02-14

    The electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of an electrode is a new strategy for preparing sensor coating. By simply changing the deposition conditions, the electrochemical response for an analyte of deposited NPs-based coating can be controlled. This advantage can decrease the difference between different batches of sensor coating and ensure the reproducibility of each sensor. This work investigated the effects of deposition conditions (including deposition voltage, pH value of suspension, and deposition time) on the structure and the electrochemical response for l-tryptophan of sensor coating formed from Au-doped poly(sodium γ-glutamate) with pendant dopamine units nanohybrids (Au/γ-PGA-DA NBs) via the EPD method. The structure and thickness of the deposited sensor coating were measured by atomic force microscopy, which demonstrated that the structure and thickness of coating can be affected by the deposition voltage, the pH value of the suspension, and the deposition time. The responsive current for l-tryptophan of the deposited sensor coating were measured by differential pulse voltammetry, which showed that the responsive current value was affected by the structure and thickness of the deposited coating. These arguments suggested that a rich design-space for tuning the electrochemical response for analyte and a source of variability in the structure of sensor coating can be provided by the deposition conditions. When Au/γ-PGA-DA NBs were deposited on the electrode surface and formed a continuous coating with particle morphology and thinner thickness, the deposited sensor coating exhibited optimal electrochemical response for l-tryptophan.

  12. Glassy Carbon Coating Deposited on Hybrid Structure of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of production metal matrix composites with aluminum oxide foam covered by glassy carbon layer used as reinforcement. The glassy carbon coating was formed for decreasing of friction coefficient and reducing the wear. In first step of technology liquid glassy carbon precursor is on ceramic foam deposited, subsequently cured and carbonated at elevated temperature. In this way ceramic foam is covered with glassy carbon coating with thickness of 2-8 μm. It provides desirable amount of glassy carbon in the structure of the material. In the next step, porous spheres with carbon coating are infiltrated by liquid matrix of Al-Cu-Mg alloy. Thereby, equable distribution of glassy carbon in composite volume is achieved. Moreover, typical problems for composites reinforced by particles like sedimentation, agglomeration and clustering of particles are avoided. Tribological characteristics during friction in air versus cast iron as a counterpart were made. Produced composites with glassy carbon layer are characterised by friction coefficient between 0.08-0.20, thus meeting the typical conditions for solid lubricants.

  13. Interface behavior of tungsten coating on stainless steel by electro spark deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuangang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of electro spark deposition method was put forward, which was based on the theory of electro spark deposition by changing the polarity in the liquid. Tungsten coating layers was produced on surface of Stainless Steel by electro spark deposition. The micro hardness, microstructure, chemical composition and phases of the coating layer were examined by means of hardness test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS analysis. The results showed that there was tungsten coating in the surface, which was discontinuous. Microhardness of the coating layer was about 3 times more than that of the substrate. The combination between coating layer and substrate was metallurgical bond.

  14. Performance characterization of Ni60-WC coating on steel processed with supersonic laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ni60-WC particles are used to improve the wear resistance of hard-facing steel due to their high hardness. An emerging technology that combines laser with cold spraying to deposit the hard-facing coatings is known as supersonic laser deposition. In this study, Ni60-WC is deposited on low-carbon steel using SLD. The microstructure and performance of the coatings are investigated through SEM, optical microscopy, EDS, XRD, microhardness and pin-on-disc wear tests. The experimental results of the coating processed with the optimal parameters are compared to those of the coating deposited using laser cladding.

  15. Advancement in Preparation of Hydroxyapatite/bioglass Graded Coatings by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liang; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Bao, Quanhe; Ma, Jie

    Electrophoretic deposition is a good method in the preparation of hydroxyapatite/bioglass graded coatings. Its processing parameters are easy to be operated. As it is nonbeeline process, it can be used in the deposition of complex shape and porous surface. This paper reviewed the advancement of the graded coatings in recent years, concluded the principles, characters, steps of electrophoretic deposition of bioceramic coatings and analyzed influencing factors in detail, such as granularity of suspension, aging of suspension, dispersion media, PH of suspension, electricity, voltage, deposition time, pretreatment of substrate and sintering. The foreground of hydroxyapatite/bioglass graded coatings is expected.

  16. Evaluation of Hydrogen Cracking in Weld Metal Deposited using Cellulosic-Coated Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    Cellulosic-coated electrodes (primarily AWS EXX10-type) are traditionally used for "stovepipe" welding of pipelines because they are well suited for deposition of pipeline girth welds and are capable of high deposition rates when welding downhill. De...

  17. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  18. Inorganic-organic thin implant coatings deposited by lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Felix; Davidson, Patricia M; Dentzer, Joseph; Gadiou, Roger; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Gallet, Olivier; Mihailescu, Ion N; Anselme, Karine

    2015-01-14

    The lifetime of bone implants inside the human body is directly related to their osseointegration. Ideally, future materials should be inspired by human tissues and provide the material structure-function relationship from which synthetic advanced biomimetic materials capable of replacing, repairing, or regenerating human tissues can be produced. This work describes the development of biomimetic thin coatings on titanium implants to improve implant osseointegration. The assembly of an inorganic-organic biomimetic structure by UV laser pulses is reported. The structure consists of a hydroxyapatite (HA) film grown onto a titanium substrate by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and activated by a top fibronectin (FN) coating deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was employed at fluences of 7 and 0.7J/cm(2) for HA and FN transfer, respectively. Films approximately 1500 and 450 nm thick were obtained for HA and FN, respectively. A new cryogenic temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry analysis method was employed to accurately measure the quantity of immobilized protein. We determined that less than 7 μg FN per cm(2) HA surface is adequate to improve adhesion, spreading, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. We believe that the proposed fabrication method opens the door to combining and immobilizing two or more inorganic and organic materials on a solid substrate in a well-defined manner. The flexibility of this method enables the synthesis of new hybrid materials by simply tailoring the irradiation conditions according to the thermo-physical properties of the starting materials.

  19. Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitin Padture

    2011-12-31

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in gas-turbine engines afford higher operating temperatures, resulting in enhanced efficiencies and performance. However, in the case of syngas-fired engines, fly ash particulate impurities that may be present in syngas can melt on the hotter TBC surfaces and form glassy deposits. These deposits can penetrate the TBCs leading to their failure. In experiments using lignite fly ash to simulate these conditions we show that conventional TBCs of composition 93wt% ZrO{sub 2} + 7wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (7YSZ) fabricated using the air plasma spray (APS) process are completely destroyed by the molten fly ash. The molten fly ash is found to penetrate the full thickness of the TBC. The mechanisms by which this occurs appear to be similar to those observed in degradation of 7YSZ TBCs by molten calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) sand and by molten volcanic ash in aircraft engines. In contrast, APS TBCs of Gd{sub 2Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composition are highly resistant to attack by molten lignite fly ash under identical conditions, where the molten ash penetrates ~25% of TBC thickness. This damage mitigation appears to be due to the formation of an impervious, stable crystalline layer at the fly ash/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} TBC interface arresting the penetrating moltenfly- ash front. Additionally, these TBCs were tested using a rig with thermal gradient and simultaneous accumulation of ash. Modeling using an established mechanics model has been performed to illustrate the modes of delamination, as well as further opportunities to optimize coating microstructure. Transfer of the technology was developed in this program to all interested parties.

  20. Deposition of titanium coating on SiC fiber by chemical vapor deposition with Ti-I{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian, E-mail: luo_shenfan@hotmail.com; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Yan-qing; Jin, Na; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The transformation paths of (Ti + I{sub 2}) powder to Ti coating is: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. • Uniform coating was obtained on SiC fiber, but it contained Si and C elements. • Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. • Deposition thickness increased with time and achieved the maximum at 90 min. - Abstract: Titanium coating was prepared on SiC fiber using titanium-iodine (Ti-I{sub 2}) mixture by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental observation were carried out in this work. The thermodynamic analysis of the reactions in the Ti-I{sub 2} system indicates that Ti and I{sub 2} raw powder materials transform to titanium coating as follows: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}), and (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. In theory, the conversions of TiI{sub 3} and TiI{sub 2} reach the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} is 1:1.5, while in actual experiment that reached the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} was 1:2, as there existed the waste of I{sub 2} due to sublimation. Typical deposited coating is relatively flat and uniform. However, as SiC is prone to react with Ti at high temperatures, the obtained coating contained some Si and C elements except for Ti. So the coating was not a pure Ti coating but contained some carbides and silicides. Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. The deposited thickness increased with the increase of heat preservation time, and achieved the maximum thickness at 90 min.

  1. Electrochemical deposition of coatings of highly entropic alloys from non-aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeníček V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with electrochemical deposition of coatings of highly entropic alloys. These relatively new materials have been recently intensively studied. The paper describes the first results of electrochemical coating with highly entropic alloys by deposition from non-aqueous solutions. An electrochemical device was designed and coatings were deposited. The coatings were characterised with electronic microscopy scanning, atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray diffraction methods and the combination of methods of thermic analysis of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry.

  2. Chemical vapour deposition of diamond coatings onto molybdenum dental tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, M.; Ahmed, W.; Sein, H.; Jones, A. N.; Rego, C. A.

    2003-10-01

    The growth of polycrystalline diamond films onto molybdenum rods and dental burrs by using a new hot filament chemical vapour deposition (CVD) system has been investigated. Negative dc bias voltage relative to the filament was applied to the molybdenum substrate prior to deposition. This led to much improved film adhesion and increased nucleation density. There was a factor of four improvement in the adhesive force from 20 to 80 N when a bias voltage of -300 V was employed to the substrate. The CVD coated molybdenum dental burr was found to give much improved performance and lifetime compared to the conventional sintered diamond burr. The CVD diamond burr showed no signs of deterioration even after 1000 operations whereas the conventional sintered diamond burrs were ineffective after between 30 and 60 operations. This represents a 30-fold improvement when CVD is applied. CVD diamond growth onto dental burrs has the potential for replacing exciting technology by achieving better performance and lifetime in a cost-effective manner.

  3. Soap-film coating: high-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renyun; Andersson, Henrik A; Andersson, Mattias; Andres, Britta; Edlund, Håkan; Edström, Per; Edvardsson, Sverker; Forsberg, Sven; Hummelgård, Magnus; Johansson, Niklas; Karlsson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Norgren, Magnus; Olsen, Martin; Uesaka, Tetsu; Ohlund, Thomas; Olin, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology.

  4. Deposition of Coatings from Live Yeast Cells and Large Particles by “Convective-Sedimentation” Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, Lindsey B.; Velev, Orlin D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective assembly at high volume fraction was used for the rapid deposition of uniform, close-packed coatings of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells onto glass slides. A computational model was developed to calculate the thickness profiles of such coatings for different set of conditions. Both the experiments and the numerical simulations demonstrated that the deposition process is strongly affected by the presence of sedimentation. The deposition device was inclined to increase the uniformity of the coatings by causing the cells to sediment toward the three-phase contact line. In accordance with the simulation, the experiments showed that both increasing the angle of the device and decreasing the angle between the slides increased the uniformity of the deposited coatings. Finally, the “convective-sedimentation” assembly method was used to deposit mixed layers of live cells and large latex particles as an example of immobilized biologically active composite coatings. PMID:19366200

  5. Deposition of Cerium-Based Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 380

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ci Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium-based conversion coatings were deposited on as-cast aluminum alloy 380 substrates by a spontaneous immersion process. In this study, the effects of rinsing temperature prior to immersion in the coating deposition solution were studied with respect to the surface morphology, electrochemical response, and corrosion resistance of the coatings. Panels rinsed at 25°C prior to coating had large cracks and holes in the coating. In contrast, panels rinsed at 100°C prior to coating had a uniform coating morphology with fewer, smaller cracks. Electrochemical testing revealed that coatings deposited on substrates rinsed at 100°C had higher impedance (~80 kΩ·cm2 and lower corrosion current (~0.34 μA/cm2 compared to coatings deposited on substrates rinsed at 25°C, which had 10 kΩ·cm2 impedance and 2.7 μA/cm2 corrosion current. Finally, ASTM B117 salt spray testing showed that rinsing at 100°C prior to coating resulted in cerium-based conversion coatings that could resist the formation of salt tails for at least 8 days.

  6. Deposition of titanium coating on SiC fiber by chemical vapor deposition with Ti-I2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xian; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Yan-qing; Jin, Na; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Titanium coating was prepared on SiC fiber using titanium-iodine (Ti-I2) mixture by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental observation were carried out in this work. The thermodynamic analysis of the reactions in the Ti-I2 system indicates that Ti and I2 raw powder materials transform to titanium coating as follows: Ti + I2 → (TiI2, TiI3), and (TiI2, TiI3) → Ti. In theory, the conversions of TiI3 and TiI2 reach the maximum when Ti:I2 is 1:1.5, while in actual experiment that reached the maximum when Ti:I2 was 1:2, as there existed the waste of I2 due to sublimation. Typical deposited coating is relatively flat and uniform. However, as SiC is prone to react with Ti at high temperatures, the obtained coating contained some Si and C elements except for Ti. So the coating was not a pure Ti coating but contained some carbides and silicides. Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. The deposited thickness increased with the increase of heat preservation time, and achieved the maximum thickness at 90 min.

  7. Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells ons biomimetically and electrolytically deposited calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; de Boer, Jan; de Groot, K.

    2009-01-01

    Biomimetic and electrolytic deposition are versatile methods to prepare calcium phosphate coatings. In this article, we compared the effects of biomimetically deposited octacalcium phosphate and carbonate apatite coatings as well as electrolytically deposited carbonate apatite coating on the

  8. Development of coatings for ultrasonic additive manufacturing sonotrode using laser direct metal deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyanth S, Niyanth [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Jordan, Brian H [ORNL; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [ORNL

    2016-10-01

    ORNL partnered with Fabrisonic, LLC to develop galling resistant hard facing coatings on sonotrodes used to fabricate 3D printed materials using ultrasonic additive manufacturing. The development and deployment of a coated sonotrode is expected to push the existing state of the art to facilitate the solidstate additive manufacturing of hard steels and titanium alloys. To this effect a structurally amorphous stainless steel material and cobalt chrome material were deposited on the sonotrode material. Both the deposits showed good adhesion to the substrate. The coatings made using the structurally amorphous steel materials showed cracking during the initial trials and cracking was eliminated by deposition on a preheated substrate. Both the coatings show hardness in excess of 600 HVN. Thus the phase 1 of this project has been used to identify suitable materials to use to coat the sonotrode. Despite the fact that successful deposits were obtained, the coatings need to be evaluated by performing detailed galling tests at various temperatures. In addition field tests are also necessary to test the stability of these coatings in a high cycle ultrasonic vibration mode. If awarded, phase 2 of the project would be used to optimize the composition of the deposit material to maximize galling resistance. The industrial partner would then use the coated sonotrode to fabricate builds made of austenitic stainless steel to test the viability of using a coated sonotrode.

  9. Polyglycolic acid microneedles modified with inkjet-deposited antifungal coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Ryan D; Daniels, Justin; Stafslien, Shane; Nasir, Adnan; Lefebvre, Joe; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-03-02

    In this study, the authors examined use of piezoelectric inkjet printing to apply an antifungal agent, voriconazole, to the surfaces of biodegradable polyglycolic acid microneedles. Polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips (average tip radius = 25 ± 3 μm) were prepared using a combination of injection molding and drawing lithography. The elastic modulus (9.9 ± 0.3 GPa) and hardness (588.2 ± 33.8 MPa) values of the polyglycolic acid material were determined using nanoindentation and were found to be suitable for use in transdermal drug delivery devices. Voriconazole was deposited onto the polyglycolic acid microneedles by means of piezoelectric inkjet printing. It should be noted that voriconazole has poor solubility in water; however, it is readily soluble in many organic solvents. Optical imaging, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to examine the microneedle geometries and inkjet-deposited surface coatings. Furthermore, an in vitro agar plating study was performed on the unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles. Unlike the unmodified and vehicle-modified microneedles, the voriconazole-modified microneedles showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles did not show activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that piezoelectric inkjet printing may be useful for loading transdermal drug delivery devices such as polyglycolic acid microneedles with antifungal pharmacologic agents and other pharmacologic agents with poor solubility in aqueous solutions.

  10. Microstructural characterization and chemical compatibility of pulsed laser deposited yttria coatings on high density graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sure, Jagadeesh [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India); Mishra, Maneesha [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Tarini, M. [SRM University, Kattankulathur-603 203 (India); Shankar, A. Ravi; Krishna, Nanda Gopala [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India); Kuppusami, P. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Mallika, C. [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India); Mudali, U. Kamachi, E-mail: kamachi@igcar.gov.in [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India)

    2013-10-01

    Yttria coatings were deposited on high density (HD) graphite substrate by pulsed laser deposition method and subsequently annealing in vacuum at 1373 K was carried out to evaluate the thermal stability of the coatings. Yttria deposited on HD graphite samples were exposed to molten LiCl–KCl salt at 873 K for 3 h to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coating for the purpose of pyrochemical reprocessing applications. The microstructure and the corrosion behavior of the yttria coating deposited on HD graphite in molten LiCl–KCl salt were evaluated by several characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction and Laser Raman patterns confirmed the presence of cubic phase of yttria in the coating. The surface morphology of yttria coating on HD graphite examined by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy revealed the agglomeration of oxide particles and formation of clusters. After annealing at 1373 K, no appreciable grain growth of yttria particles could be observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was carried out for elemental analysis before and after chemical compatibility test of the coated samples in molten LiCl–KCl salt to identify the corrosive elements present on the yttria coatings. The chemical compatibility and thermal stability of the yttria coating on HD graphite in molten LiCl–KCl salt medium have been established. - Highlights: • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was deposited on graphite by pulsed laser deposition method. • Chemical compatibility of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in LiCl–KCl salt at 873 K was studied. • Gibbs free energy change was positive for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} reaction with Cl{sub 2}, U and UCl{sub 3}. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating exhibited better corrosion performance in molten LiCl–KCl salt.

  11. Investigation of coatings of austenitic steels produced by supersonic laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorunov, A. I.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.

    2017-02-01

    The structure and properties of stainless austenitic steel coatings obtained by the supersonic laser deposition are studied in the paper. Implantation of the powder particles into the substrate surface and simultaneous plastic deformation at partial melting improved the mechanical properties of the coatings - tensile strength limit was 650 MPa and adhesion strength was 105 MPa. It was shown that insufficient laser power leads to disruption of the deposition process stability and coating cracking. Surface temperature increase caused by laser heating above 1300 °C resulted in coating melting. The X-ray analysis showed that radiation intensifies the cold spray process and does not cause changes in the austenitic base structure.

  12. Deposition patterns of porcelain coatings obtained by electrophoretic deposition in acetone. Part 1. Voltage and time effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Georgina; Vargas, Gregorio; Varela, F J Rodríguez

    2013-02-14

    Homogeneous surface morphologies are of interest to form different functional coatings. In order to verify if these morphologies could be observed and controlled in an electrophoretic cell, voltage and time effect have been studied on the deposition patterns of porcelain particle on a stainless steel substrate. The suspensions were prepared at 1 wt % of porcelain submicronic particles using acetone as dispersing media. The EPD experiments were carried out at 400, 600, and 800 V at deposition times of 1, 15, 30, 45, and 60 s. The morphology of the particle deposit patterns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. At 1 s, submicronic particles without any pattern formation were observed on the stainless steel substrate. At subsequent deposition times, the patterns evolved from worm like forms to ring like forms and finally to labyrinth-type agglomerates of particles depending on voltage and deposition times. At deposition times longer than 60 s, the particle deposit patterns were difficult to observe. The coatings obtained at deposition times below this value were subjected to thermal treatments at 900 °C for 2 h. The patterns were maintained after the sintering process, exhibiting dense, homogeneous, and crack-free surface coatings.

  13. Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterisation of Chitosan Coatings on Near-Β Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugowiec D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chitosan coatings were electrophoretically deposited (EPD on near-β Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. The influence of colloidal solution composition and EPD parameters on the quality of chitosan coatings was investigated. It was established that the uniformity of as-deposited chitosan coatings is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the solution used for EPD, the pH, electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential of chitosan colloidal molecules, as well as EPD parameters, such as potential difference value and deposition time. The microstructure of the coatings was investigated using electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The coatings 350 nm thick were homogeneous and exhibited an amorphous structure. The coatings had low hardness and Young’s modulus. The effect of surface of the substrate preparation prior to coating deposition on the adhesion of chitosan coatings to the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was also investigated. The coatings exhibited good adhesion to the non-acid-etched surface of the titanium alloy.

  14. The erosion performance of cold spray deposited metal matrix composite coatings with subsequent friction stir processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This study forms an initial investigation into the development of SprayStir, an innovative processing technique for generating erosion resistant surface layers on a chosen substrate material. Tungsten carbide - cobalt chromium, chromium carbide - nickel chromium and aluminium oxide coatings were successfully cold spray deposited on AA5083 grade aluminium. In order to improve the deposition efficiency of the cold spray process, coatings were co-deposited with powdered AA5083 using a twin powder feed system that resulted in thick (>300 μm) composite coatings. The deposited coatings were subsequently friction stir processed to embed the particles in the substrate in order to generate a metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layer. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the erosion performance of the SprayStirred surfaces and demonstrate the benefits of this novel process as a surface engineering technique. Volumetric analysis of the SprayStirred surfaces highlighted a drop of approx. 40% in the level of material loss when compared with the cold spray deposited coating prior to friction stir processing. Micro-hardness testing revealed that in the case of WC-CoCr reinforced coating, the hardness of the SprayStirred material exhibits an increase of approx. 540% over the unaltered substrate and 120% over the as-deposited composite coating. Microstructural examination demonstrated that the increase in the hardness of the MMC aligns with the improved dispersion of reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix.

  15. High-speed deposition of titanium carbide coatings by laser-assisted metal–organic CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yansheng [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tu, Rong, E-mail: turong@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Goto, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A semiconductor laser was first used to prepare wide-area LCVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. • The effect of laser power for the deposition of TiC{sub x} coatings was discussed. • TiC{sub x} coatings showed a columnar cross section and a dense surface texture. • TiC{sub x} coatings had a 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous reports. • This study gives the possibility of LCVD applying on the preparation of TiC{sub x} coating. - Abstract: A semiconductor laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of titanium carbide (TiC{sub x}) coatings on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate using tetrakis (diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} as source materials were investigated. The influences of laser power (P{sub L}) and pre-heating temperature (T{sub pre}) on the microstructure and deposition rate of TiC{sub x} coatings were examined. Single phase of TiC{sub x} coatings were obtained at P{sub L} = 100–200 W. TiC{sub x} coatings had a cauliflower-like surface and columnar cross section. TiC{sub x} coatings in the present study had the highest R{sub dep} (54 μm/h) at a relative low T{sub dep} than those of conventional CVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. The highest volume deposition rate (V{sub dep}) of TiC{sub x} coatings was about 4.7 × 10{sup −12} m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, which had 3–10{sup 5} times larger deposition area and 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous LCVD using CO{sub 2}, Nd:YAG and argon ion laser.

  16. INKJET PRINTING OF ALUMOOXIDE SOL FOR DEPOSITION OF ANTIREFLECTING COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Eremeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. This work describes for the first time the formation of antireflective coating on the base of boehmite phase of AlOOH with low refractive index (1.35 by inkjet printing on the nonporous substrate. This method gives the possibility to increase the contrast of colorful interfering images by 32% obtaining by inkjet printing of titanium dioxide sol. The usage of this technology enables to obtain patterns with wide viewing angle and makes them highly stable. Methods. Traditional sol-gel method with peptizing agents and heating for 90oC was applied for sol synthesis. Then the mixture was under sonic treatment for the obtaining of viscous sol. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield HA/HB viscometer, and the surface tension by Kyowa DY-700 tensiometer. Aluminum oxide ink was deposited on polished slides (26×76 mm2, Paul Marienfeld, Germany, over titanium oxide layer. To print titania ink, we use a desktop office printer Canon Pixma IP 2840 and Dimatix DMP-2831. The thickness of an inkjet AlOOH layer after drying in the air and removal of the solvents did not exceed 150 nm with an RI not less than 1.35 in the entire visible range. Results. The stable colloidal ink was obtained for the first time on the base of aluminum oxide matrix with neutral pH. The rheology was regulated by controlling parameters of sol-gel method in the system of aqueous titanium dioxide sol and by adding ethanol that affects the charge of double electrical layer of disperse phase. The controllable coalesce of drops enables to apply antireflection coating within the thickness accuracy of 10 nm. The morphology of particles and the topology of printed structures were analyzed by optical, scanning electron and atomic-force microscopes. Practical Relevance. We have proposed the approach to obtain colorful, interference patterns using two types of high refractive inks with different refractive indexes. The inkjet printing method opens new opportunities for

  17. Long period gratings coated with hafnium oxide by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for refractive index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luis; Burton, Geoff; Kubik, Philip; Wild, Peter

    2016-04-04

    Long period gratings (LPGs) are coated with hafnium oxide using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) to increase the sensitivity of these devices to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. PEALD allows deposition at low temperatures which reduces thermal degradation of UV-written LPGs. Depositions targeting three different coating thicknesses are investigated: 30 nm, 50 nm and 70 nm. Coating thickness measurements taken by scanning electron microscopy of the optical fibers confirm deposition of uniform coatings. The performance of the coated LPGs shows that deposition of hafnium oxide on LPGs induces two-step transition behavior of the cladding modes.

  18. Deposition, microstructure, and properties of nanocrystalline Ti(C,O,N) coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppi, S.; Larsson, A.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition of Ti(C,N) coatings from the TiCl4- CH3CN- N2-H2 system on cemented carbide substrates was studied. The morphology and grain size of the coatings were modified using carbon monoxide (CO). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that grain refinement of the Ti(C,N) coatings could be obtained by means of CO doping and nanocrystalline coatings were obtained at CO levels exceeding 6%. CO doping resulted in the incorporation of oxygen in the structure, but no segregation of oxygen to grain boundaries was observed. The coatings appeared to be of homogeneous composition even at the highest CO levels. Both improved coating hardness and surface quality were obtained with decreasing grain size. However, the coatings exhibited clearly lower crater wear resistance in the nanograined region. This was explained by an increased tendency for grain-boundary sliding in the nanocrystalline coatings leading to more pronounced plastic deformation.

  19. CrAlN coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation at different substrate bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Gomez, M.A. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Grupo de Corrosion y Proteccion, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Esteve, J. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Montala, F. [Tratamientos Termicos Carreras, TTC S.A., C/Doctor Almera 85, E-08205 Sabadell, Catalunya (Spain); Carreras, L. [Tratamientos Termicos Carreras, TTC S.A., C/Doctor Almera 85, E-08205 Sabadell, Catalunya (Spain); Grifol, M. [Tratamientos Termicos Carreras, TTC S.A., C/Doctor Almera 85, E-08205 Sabadell, Catalunya (Spain); Lousa, A. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)]. E-mail: alousa@ub.edu

    2006-09-25

    CrAlN is a good candidate as an alternative to conventional CrN coatings especially for high temperature oxidation-resistance applications. Different CrAlN coatings were deposited on hardened steel substrates by cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) from chromium-aluminum targets in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere at negative substrate bias between - 50 and - 400 V. The negative substrate bias has important effects on the deposition growth rate and crystalline structure. All our coatings presented hardness higher than conventional CrN coatings. The friction coefficient against alumina and tungsten carbide balls was around 0.6. The sliding wear coefficient of the CrAlN coatings was very low while an important wear was observed in the balls before a measurable wear were produced in the coatings. This effect was more pronounced as the negative substrate bias was increased.

  20. Influence of the deposition geometry on the microstructure of sputter-deposited V-Al-C-N coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darma, Susan; Krause, Baerbel; Doyle, Stephen; Mangold, Stefan; Baumbach, Tilo [ISS, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Ulrich, Sven; Stueber, Michael [IAM-AWP, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Multi-element hard coating materials such as V-Al-C-N are of great interest for many technological applications. Their mechanical properties depend on the composition and microstructure of the coating. In order to determine the optimum composition and deposition conditions of these complex materials, many samples are required. One powerful tool for reducing the number of experiments is based on the so-called combinatorial approach for thin film deposition: many different thin film samples can be realized simultaneously, exploiting the deposition gradient resulting from codeposition of several materials. We will present an X-ray diffraction study of the influence of the deposition geometry on the microstructure of V-Al-C-N coatings. The films were deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering from a segmented target composed of AlN and VC. Synchrotron radiation measurements where performed at the beamline PDIFF at ANKA. Significant texture changes were observed which can be attributed to the deposition geometry, as verified by calculations of the flux distribution. We conclude that codeposition can accelerate significantly the screening of new materials, under the condition that the desired property is not significantly influenced by the microstructural changes due to the deposition geometry.

  1. Functionalization and Area-Selective Deposition of Magnetic Carbon-Coated Iron Nanoparticles from Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Widenkvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A route to area-selective deposition of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles, involving chemical modification of the surface of the particles, is described. Partial oxidative etching of the coating introduces carboxylic groups, which then are esterified. The functionalized particles can be selectively deposited on the Si areas of Si/SiO2 substrates by a simple dipping procedure. Nanoparticles and nanoassemblies have been analyzed using SEM, TEM, and XPS.

  2. Deposition of Coatings for Raising the Wear Resistance of Friction Surfaces of Spherical Sliding Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlenko, A. O.; Davydov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The process of finishing plasma hardening with deposition of a multilayer amorphous coating of the Si - O - C - N system is considered as applied to hardening of the friction surfaces of spherical sliding bearings. The microrelief, the submicrorelief, and the tribological characteristics of the deposited wear-resistant antifriction amorphous coating, which are responsible for the elevated wear resistance of spherical sliding bearings, are investigated.

  3. Crack resistance of pvd coatings : Influence of surface treatment prior to deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    The crack resistance of three different PVD coatings, TiN, Ti(C,N), and a multilayer system of alternating TiN and TiAlN, have been investigated. The three coating systems were deposited onto substrates with a different surface roughness to study the influence of this pretreatment on the crack

  4. Synthesis of photocatalytic TiO2 nano-coatings by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.D.; Cavaliere, E; Mul, Guido; Gavioli, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report on the photocatalytic behavior in gas phase propane oxidation of well-defined TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) coatings prepared via Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD) on Si-wafers and quartz substrates. The temperature dependent crystal phase of the coatings was analyzed by

  5. Initial bacterial deposition on bare and zeolite-coated aluminum alloy and stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gexin; Beving, Derek E; Bedi, Rajwant S; Yan, Yushan S; Walker, Sharon L

    2009-02-03

    In this study, the impact of zeolite thin film coatings on bacterial deposition and "biofouling" of surfaces has been investigated in an aqueous environment. The synthesis of two types of zeolite coatings, ZSM-5 coated on aluminum alloy and zeolite A coated on stainless steel, and the characterization of the coated and bare metal surfaces are described. The extent of cell deposition onto the bare and zeolite-coated aluminum alloy and stainless steel surfaces is investigated in a parallel plate flow chamber system under a laminar flow conditions. The initial rates of bacterial transfer to the various surfaces are compared by utilizing a marine bacterium, Halomonas pacifica g, under a range of ionic strength conditions. H. pacifica g deposited onto bare metal surfaces to a greater extent as compared with cells deposited onto the zeolite coatings. The surface properties found to have the most notable effect on attachment are the electrokinetic and hydrophobicity properties of the metal and zeolite-coated surfaces. These results suggest that a combination of two chemical mechanisms-hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions-contribute to the antifouling nature of the zeolite surface. Additional observations on the relative role of the hydrodynamic and physical phenomena are also discussed.

  6. Microstructural characterization of Co-based coating deposited by low power pulse laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnia, A.; Ghaini, F. Malek; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    A detailed microstructural study of Stellite 6 coating deposited on a low carbon ferritic steel substrate using preplaced powder method and low power Nd:YAG pulse laser is performed. The grain structure and solidification texture of the coating are investigated by orientation imaging microscopy

  7. Crystal growth mechanism of calcium phosphate coatings on titanium by electrochemical deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokabber, Taraneh; Lu, Liqiang; van Rijn, Patrick; Vakis, Antonis I.; Pei, Yutao T.

    2018-01-01

    The pulsed current electrochemical deposition of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coatings on a titanium substrate was investigated in this study. The effects of applied voltage and H2O2 concentration in the electrolyte solution on the phase composition and coating morphology were studied using X-ray

  8. Thick CrN/NbN multilayer coating deposited by cathodic arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano Avelar; Tschiptschin, Andre Paulo; Souza, Roberto Martins, E-mail: antschip@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Lima, Nelson Batista de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    The production of tribological nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN coatings up to 6 μm thick by Sputtering/HIPIMS has been reported in literature. However, high demanding applications, such as internal combustion engine parts, need thicker coatings (>30 μm). The production of such parts by sputtering would be economically restrictive due to low deposition rates. In this work, nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN coatings were produced in a high-deposition rate, industrial-size, Cathodic Arc Physical Vapor Deposition (ARC-PVD) chamber, containing three cathodes in alternate positions (Cr/ Nb/Cr). Four 30 μm thick NbN/CrN multilayer coatings with different periodicities (20, 10, 7.5 and 4 nm) were produced. The coatings were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The multilayer coating system was composed of alternate cubic rock salt CrN and NbN layers, coherently strained due to lattice mismatch. The film grew with columnar morphology through the entire stratified structure. The periodicities adopted were maintained throughout the entire coating. The 20 nm periodicity coating showed separate NbN and CrN peaks in the XRD patterns, while for the lower periodicity (≤10nm) coatings, just one intermediate lattice (d-spacing) was detected. An almost linear increase of hardness with decreasing bilayer period indicates that interfacial effects can dominate the hardening mechanisms. (author)

  9. Thermal conductivity of titanium aluminum silicon nitride coatings deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samani, M.K., E-mail: majid1@e.ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Surface Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); CINTRA-CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Ding, X.Z. [Surface Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Amini, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering. Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore (Singapore); Khosravian, N.; Cheong, J.Y. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chen, G. [BC Photonics Technological Company, 5255 Woodwards Rd., Richmond, BC V7E 1G9 (Canada); Tay, B.K. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CINTRA-CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2013-06-30

    A series of physical vapour deposition titanium aluminum silicon nitride nanocomposite coating with a different (Al + Si)/Ti atomic ratio, with a thickness of around 2.5 μm were deposited on stainless steel substrate by a lateral rotating cathode arc process in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The composition and microstructure of the as-deposited coatings were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy observation. The titanium nitride (TiN) coating shows a clear columnar structure with a predominant (111) preferential orientation. With the incorporation of Al and Si, the crystallite size in the coatings decreased gradually, and the columnar structure and (111) preferred orientation disappeared. Thermal conductivity of the as-deposited coating samples at room temperature was measured by using pulsed photothermal reflectance technique. Thermal conductivity of the pure TiN coating is about 11.9 W/mK. With increasing the (Al + Si)/Ti atomic ratio, the coatings' thermal conductivity decreased monotonously. This reduction of thermal conductivity could be ascribed to the variation of coatings' microstructure, including the decrease of grain size and the resultant increase of grain boundaries, the disruption of columnar structure, and the reduced preferential orientation. - Highlights: • A series of titanium aluminum silicon nitride with different (Al + Si)/Ti atomic ratio were deposited on Fe304. • The composition and microstructure of the as-deposited coatings were analyzed. • Thermal conductivity of the samples was measured by pulsed photothermal reflectance. • With increasing the (Al + Si)/Ti atomic ratio, thermal conductivity decreased. • Reduction of thermal conductivity is ascribed to the variation of its microstructure.

  10. Deposition parameters to improve the fouling-release properties of thin siloxane coatings prepared by PACVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesso, Laurent; Navabpour, Parnia; Teer, Dennis; Pettitt, Michala E.; Callow, Maureen E.; Liu, Chen; Su, Xueju; Wang, Su; Zhao, Qi; Donik, Crtomir; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Jenko, Monika; Callow, James A.

    2009-04-01

    A range of SiO x-like coatings was deposited on glass slides from a hexamethylsiloxane precursor by plasma-assisted CVD. The effect of varying deposition parameters, specifically ion cleaning time and HMDSO/O 2 ratios, on the coating properties and antifouling performance was investigated. At low HMDSO/O 2 ratios, the resulting coatings were close to SiO 2. Carbon content in the bulk of the coatings increased with increasing HMDSO/O 2 ratio. Coatings deposited at high HMDSO/O 2 ratios and with the longest cleaning time (30 min), elevated the relative carbon content to 25 atomic %. Surface energies (22-43 mJ/m) were correlated with the degree of surface oxidation and hydrocarbon content. With the exception of the most polar coatings the apolar component of the surface energy ( γLW) was the dominant component. In the most hydrophilic coatings, the Lewis base component of the surface energy ( γ-) was dominant. Significantly improved antifouling performance was detected with the most reduced coatings deposited using the extended ion cleaning times. For both, the removal of sporelings of the marine green alga, Ulvalinza and the initial adhesion of the freshwater bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, there was a strong, positive correlation between strength of attachment and ion cleaning time. Increased ion cleaning time will elevate the deposition temperature, increasing decomposition rates and thus the crosslinking of the polymer. Increased cross-linking may render these coatings less permeable to penetration and mechanical interlocking by the adhesive polymers used by these organisms, thus reducing their adhesion. Films with improved biological performance have potential for use as coatings in the control of biofouling in applications such as heat exchangers, where thin films are important for effective thermal transfer, or optical windows where transparency is important.

  11. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  12. Aerosol deposition of hydroxyapatite and 4-hexylresorcinol coatings on titanium alloys for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gon; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Park, Dong-Soo; Lee, Yong-Chan; Choi, Eun-Jin; Chae, Weon-Sik; Baek, Dong-Heon; Choi, Je-Yong

    2011-11-01

    Aerosol deposition is a newly developed technique, and it can deliver the drug from a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated surface. 4-Hexylresorcinol (4-HR) is a well-known antiseptic. The influence of the 4-HR component of HA coatings on titanium surfaces was studied in vitro and in vivo. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques were used for the evaluation of the coating. The cellular response of the coating was evaluated by scanning electron microscopic study, MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase assay, and osteocalcin assay. In addition, the dental implant was coated with HA or HA + 4-HR. The implant was installed into the tibia of a rabbit after contamination by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The torque test and histologic analysis were then performed at 8 weeks after the operation. By use of an aerosol deposition technique, the combination of HA and 4-HR was successfully coated onto a titanium surface, which was confirmed by x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques. MG63 cells attached more rapidly to the HA + 4-HR coating than to the HA-only coating. The HA + 4-HR coating had significantly increased osteocalcin expression and alkaline phosphatase activity compared with the HA-only coating (P extraction or who have poor-quality bone. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Substrate Frequency Effects on Cr x N Coatings Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrosov, Aleksei; Naveed, Muhammad; Volinsky, Alex A.; Weiß, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Controlled ion bombardment is a popular method to fabricate desirable coating structures and modify their properties. Substrate biasing at high frequencies is a possible technique, which allows higher ion density at the substrate compared with DC current bias. Moreover, high ion energy along with controlled adatom mobility would lead to improved coating growth. This paper focuses on a similar type of study, where effects of coating growth and properties of DC magnetron-sputtered chromium nitride (Cr x N) coatings at various substrate bias frequencies are discussed. Cr x N coatings were deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering on Inconel 718 and (100) silicon substrates at 110, 160 and 280 kHz frequency at low duty cycle. Coating microstructure and morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scratch adhesion testing and nanoindentation. Results indicate a transformation of columnar into glassy structure of Cr x N coatings with the substrate bias frequency increase. This transformation is attributed to preferential formation of the Cr2N phase at high frequencies compared with CrN at low frequencies. Increase in frequency leads to an increase in deposition rate, which is believed to be due to increase in plasma ion density and energy of the incident adatoms. An increase in coating hardness along with decrease in elastic modulus was observed at high frequencies. Scratch tests show a slight increase in coating adhesion, whereas no clear increase in coating roughness can be found with the substrate bias frequency.

  14. Co3O4 protective coatings prepared by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burriel, M.; Garcia, G.; Santiso, J.

    2005-01-01

    of deposition temperature. Pure Co3O4 spinel structure was found for deposition temperatures ranging from 360 to 540 degreesC. The optimum experimental parameters to prepare dense layers with a high growth rate were determined and used to prepare corrosion protective coatings for Fe-22Cr metallic interconnects...

  15. Bone response adjacent to calcium phosphate electrostatic spray deposition coated implants: an experimental study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, P.J.D.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new technique to deposit calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates has been developed recently. This electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique seems to be very promising. It appears to have clinical advantages such as an inexpensive and simple set-up, high

  16. Chemical vapor deposited fiber coatings and chemical vapor infiltrated ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) were employed to deposit a series of interfacial coatings on SiC and carbon yarn. Molybdenum, tungsten and chromium hexacarbonyls were utilized as precursors in a low temperature (350[degrees]C) MOCVD process to coat SiC yarn with Mo, W and Cr oxycarbides. Annealing studies performed on the MoOC and WOC coated SiC yarns in N[sub 2] to 1,000[degrees]C establish that further decomposition of the oxycarbides occurred, culminating in the formation of the metals. These metals were then found to react with Si to form Mo and W disilicide coatings. In the Cr system, heating in N[sub 2] above 800[degrees]C resulted in the formation of a mixture of carbides and oxides. Convention CVD was also employed to coat SiC and carbon yarn with C, Bn and a new interface designated BC (a carbon-boron alloy). The coated tows were then infiltrated with SiC, TiO[sub 2], SiO[sub 2] and B[sub 4]C by a chemical vapor infiltration process. The B-C coatings were found to provide advantageous interfacial properties over carbon and BN coatings in several different composite systems. The effectiveness of these different coatings to act as a chemically inert barrier layer and their relationship to the degree of interfacial debonding on the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The effects of thermal stability and strength of the coated fibers and composites were also determined for several difference atmospheres. In addition, a new method for determining the tensile strength of the as-received and coated yarns was also developed. The coated fibers and composites were further characterized by AES, SEM, XPS, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  17. Electrophoretic deposition of tetracycline modified silk fibroin coatings for functionalization of titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Yinying; Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Sheng; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng; Chen, Lili

    2014-06-01

    Electrophoretic deposition has been widely used for the fabrication of functional coatings onto metal implant. A characteristic feature of this process is that positively charged materials migrate toward the cathode and can deposit on it. In this study, silk fibroin was decorated with tetracycline in aqueous solution to impart positive charge, and then deposited on negatively titanium cathode under certain electric field. The characterization of the obtained coatings indicated that the intermolecular hydrogen bonds formed between the backbone of silk fibroin and tetracycline molecular. In vitro biological tests demonstrated that osteoblast-like cells achieved acceptable cell affinity on the tetracycline cross-linked silk fibroin coatings, although greater cell viability was seen on pure silk fibroin coatings. The cationic silk fibroin coatings showed remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Therefore, we concluded that electrophoretic deposition was an effective and efficient technique to prepare cationic silk fibroin coatings on the titanium surface and that cationic silk fibroin coatings with acceptable biocompatibility and antibacterial property were promising candidates for further loading of functional agents.

  18. Single-walled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Partha P.; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Jiang, Hua; Timmermans, Marina; Kaskela, Antti; Tolochko, Oleg V.; Kurochkin, Alexey V.; Karppinen, Maarit; Nisula, Mikko; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility of ZnO deposition on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the help of an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was successfully demonstrated. The utilization of pristine SWCNTs as a support resulted in a non-uniform deposition of ZnO in the form of nanoparticles. To achieve uniform ZnO coating, the SWCNTs first needed to be functionalized by treating the samples in a controlled ozone atmosphere. The uniformly ZnO coated SWCNTs were used to fabricate UV sensing devices. An UV irradiation of the ZnO coated samples turned them from hydrophobic to hydrophilic behaviour. Furthermore, thin films of the ZnO coated SWCNTs allowed us switch p-type field effect transistors made of pristine SWCNTs to have ambipolar characteristics.

  19. Electrophoretic deposition and electrochemical behavior of novel graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Qian; Jia, Zhaojun; Xu, Xuchen; Shi, Yuying [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Yan, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Yufeng [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xi, Tingfei [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei, Shicheng [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Novel ternary graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite (GO-HY-HA) nanocomposite coatings were prepared on Ti substrate using anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Hyaluronic acid was employed as charging additive and dispersion agent during EPD. The kinetics and mechanism of the deposition, and the microstructure of the coated samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and microscopic Fourier transform infrared analysis. The results showed that the addition of GO sheets into the HY-HA suspensions could increase the deposition rate and inhibit cracks creation and propagation in the coatings. The corrosion resistant of the resulting samples were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization method in simulated body fluid, and the GO-HY-HA coatings could effectively improve the anti-corrosion property of the Ti substrate.

  20. Deposition of dual-layer coating on Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain Din, Sajad; Shah, M. A.; Sheikh, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    Dual-layer diamond coatings were deposited on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) using a hot filament chemical vapour deposition technique with the anticipation of studying the structural and morphology properties of the alloy. The coated diamond films were characterized using scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD studies reveal that the deposited films are highly crystalline in nature, whereas morphological studies show that the films have a cauliflower structure. XRD analysis was used to calculate the structural parameters of the Ti6Al4V and CVD-coated Ti6Al4V. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the nature and magnitude of the residual stress of the coatings.

  1. Microstructure evolution of Ti-Si-C-Ag nanocomposite coatings deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, J., E-mail: jonla@ifm.liu.se [Linkoeping University, Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, IFM, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Eklund, P.; Jensen, J. [Linkoeping University, Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, IFM, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ljungcrantz, H. [Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-582 16 Linkoeping (Sweden); Oberg, A. [ABB Corporate Research, Forskargraend 7, SE-721 78 Vaesteras (Sweden); Lewin, E.; Jansson, U. [Uppsala University, Department of Materials Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, PO Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Flink, A.; Hoegberg, H. [Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-582 16 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hultman, L. [Linkoeping University, Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, IFM, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    Nanocomposite coatings consisting of Ag and TiC{sub x} (x < 1) crystallites in a matrix of amorphous SiC were deposited by high-rate magnetron sputtering from Ti-Si-C-Ag compound targets. Different target compositions were used to achieve coatings with a Si content of {approx}13 at.%, while varying the C/Ti ratio and Ag content. Electron microscopy, helium ion microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to trace Ag segregation during deposition and possible decomposition of amorphous SiC. Eutectic interaction between Ag and Si is observed, and the Ag forms threading grains which coarsen with increased coating thickness. The coatings can be tailored for conductivity horizontally or vertically by controlling the shape and distribution of the Ag precipitates. Coatings were fabricated with hardness in the range 10-18 GPa and resistivity in the range 77-142 {mu}{Omega} cm.

  2. The erosion performance of cold spray deposited metal matrix composite coatings with subsequent friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peat, Tom, E-mail: tompeat12@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); McNutt, Philip [TWI Ltd., Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6AL (United Kingdom); Iqbal, Naveed [TWI Technology Centre, Wallis Way, Catcliff, Rotherham, S60 5TZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • WC-CoCr, Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings were cold spray deposited on AA5083 and friction stir processed. • The SprayStirred WC-CoCr demonstrated a hardness increase of 100% over the cold sprayed coating. • As-deposited and SprayStirred coatings were examined under slurry erosion test conditions. • Mass and volume loss was measured following 20-min exposure to the slurry. • The WC-CoCr and Al2O3 demonstrated a reduction in volume loss of approx. 40% over the cold sprayed coating. - Abstract: This study forms an initial investigation into the development of SprayStir, an innovative processing technique for generating erosion resistant surface layers on a chosen substrate material. Tungsten carbide – cobalt chromium, chromium carbide – nickel chromium and aluminium oxide coatings were successfully cold spray deposited on AA5083 grade aluminium. In order to improve the deposition efficiency of the cold spray process, coatings were co-deposited with powdered AA5083 using a twin powder feed system that resulted in thick (>300 μm) composite coatings. The deposited coatings were subsequently friction stir processed to embed the particles in the substrate in order to generate a metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layer. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the erosion performance of the SprayStirred surfaces and demonstrate the benefits of this novel process as a surface engineering technique. Volumetric analysis of the SprayStirred surfaces highlighted a drop of approx. 40% in the level of material loss when compared with the cold spray deposited coating prior to friction stir processing. Micro-hardness testing revealed that in the case of WC-CoCr reinforced coating, the hardness of the SprayStirred material exhibits an increase of approx. 540% over the unaltered substrate and 120% over the as-deposited composite coating. Microstructural examination demonstrated that the increase in the hardness of the

  3. Galvanic deposition and characterization of brushite/hydroxyapatite coatings on 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanda, Giuseppe [Laboratorio di Chimica Fisica Applicata, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Gestionale Informatica Meccanica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Brucato, Valerio; Pavia, Francesco Carfì; Greco, Silvia [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Piazza, Salvatore; Sunseri, Carmelo [Laboratorio di Chimica Fisica Applicata, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Gestionale Informatica Meccanica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Inguanta, Rosalinda, E-mail: rosalinda.inguanta@unipa.it [Laboratorio di Chimica Fisica Applicata, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Gestionale Informatica Meccanica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    In this work, brushite and brushite/hydroxyapatite (BS, CaHPO{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O; HA, Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}) coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316LSS) from a solution containing Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} by a displacement reaction based on a galvanic contact, where zinc acts as sacrificial anode. Driving force for the cementation reaction arises from the difference in the electrochemical standard potentials of two different metallic materials (316LSS and Zn) immersed in an electrolyte, so forming a galvanic contact leading to the deposition of BS/HA on nobler metal. We found that temperature and deposition time affect coating features (morphology, structure, and composition). Deposits were characterized by means of several techniques. The morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, the elemental composition was obtained by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, whilst the structure was identified by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. BS was deposited at all investigated temperatures covering the 316LSS surface. At low and moderate temperature, BS coatings were compact, uniform and with good crystalline degree. On BS layers, HA crystals were obtained at 50 °C for all deposition times, while at 25 °C, its presence was revealed only after long deposition time. Electrochemical studies show remarkable improvement in corrosion resistance. - Highlights: • Brushite/hydroxyapatite coatings were obtained by a galvanic deposition method. • Galvanic deposition is simple and cheap and does not require external power supply. • Temperature is a key parameter to control composition and morphology of coatings. • Ca/P ratio changes with deposition time, from about 1 up to an optimum value of 1.7. • Compact and adherent layer covering substrate surface were obtained on 316LSS.

  4. Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition – Technological Design Of Functional Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januś M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (PA CVD method allows to deposit of homogeneous, well-adhesive coatings at lower temperature on different substrates. Plasmochemical treatment significantly impacts on physicochemical parameters of modified surfaces. In this study we present the overview of the possibilities of plasma processes for the deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings doped Si and/or N atoms on the Ti Grade2, aluminum-zinc alloy and polyetherketone substrate. Depending on the type of modified substrate had improved the corrosion properties including biocompatibility of titanium surface, increase of surface hardness with deposition of good adhesion and fine-grained coatings (in the case of Al-Zn alloy and improving of the wear resistance (in the case of PEEK substrate.

  5. The removal torque of titanium implant inserted in rabbit femur coated with biomimetic deposited Ca-P coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuming, H; Guoli, Y; Xiaoxiang, W; Shifang, Z

    2008-10-01

    A number of experimental data on biomimetic deposition CaP (BDCaP) coating implants have reported promising outcomes by histological evaluation. But little is investigated on the role of the BDCaP coating and osseointegration mechanism by interface shear strength. To make a direct biomechanical comparison between the BDCaP coating implants and the uncoated rough titanium implants (control), a well-established animal model for implants removal torque testing was employed in rabbits, using a self-matching experimental design. All implants had an identical cylindrical screw shape without any macroscopic retentive structure. After 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks of bone healing, removal torque testing was performed to evaluate the interfacial shear strength of each implant type. The torqued implants were sputter-coated with gold for morphology observation and observed with a field-emission electron microscopy. Results showed that the interfacial shear strength of the BDCaP coating implants was similar to that of the uncoated rough implants at 2 and 4 weeks of healing. The mean removal torque values of the BDCaP coating implants were lower than those of control implants (P 0.05). It can be concluded that the BDCaP coating implants had no beneficial effect on the interfacial shear strength at early bone healing stage.

  6. Influence of precursor solution parameters on chemical properties of calcium phosphate coatings prepared using Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Schoonman, J.; Jansen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    A novel coating technique, referred to as Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD), was used to deposit calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings with a variety of chemical properties. The relationship between the composition of the precursor solutions and the crystal and molecular structure of the deposited

  7. High-rate deposition of optical coatings by closed-field magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in a wide range of optical applications. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished simply using time. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. The CFM configuration also allows plasma treatment of surfaces prior to deposition, allowing optimisation of coating adhesion to substrates such as plastics. This paper presents data on optical, durability and environmental properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process for a range of optical applications are described.

  8. Protecting BOPP film from UV degradation with an atomic layer deposited titanium oxide surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.lahtinen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp; Seppänen, Tarja; Cameron, David C. [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kotkamo, Sami; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    2013-10-01

    Titanium oxide layers were deposited onto a BOPP film by atomic layer deposition in order to prevent UV degradation of the film. The coatings were deposited in a low-temperature process at 80 °C by using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ozone as titanium and oxygen precursors, respectively. UV block characteristics of the coatings and their effect on the polymer were measured by using UV–vis and IR spectrometry, and differential scanning calorimetry. According to the results, the coatings provided a considerable decrease in the photodegradation of the BOPP film during UV exposure. IR spectra showed that during a 6-week UV exposure, a 67 nm titanium oxide coating was able to almost completely prevent the formation of photodegradation products in the film. The mechanical properties of the film were also protected by the coating, but as opposed to what the IR study suggested they were still somewhat compromised by the UV light. After a 6-week exposure, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the 67 nm titanium oxide coated film decreased to half of the values measured before the treatment. This should be compared to the complete degradation suffered by the uncoated base sheet already after only 4 weeks of treatment. The results show that nanometre scale inorganic films deposited by ALD show a promising performance as effective UV protection for BOPP substrates.

  9. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  10. Coating and functionalization of high density ion track structures by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mättö, Laura [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 (Finland); Szilágyi, Imre M., E-mail: imre.szilagyi@mail.bme.hu [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest H-1111 (Hungary); MTA-BME Technical Analytical Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest H-1111 (Hungary); Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 (Finland); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 (Finland)

    2016-10-01

    In this study flexible TiO{sub 2} coated porous Kapton membranes are presented having electron multiplication properties. 800 nm crossing pores were fabricated into 50 μm thick Kapton membranes using ion track technology and chemical etching. Consecutively, 50 nm TiO{sub 2} films were deposited into the pores of the Kapton membranes by atomic layer deposition using Ti({sup i}OPr){sub 4} and water as precursors at 250 °C. The TiO{sub 2} films and coated membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectometry (XRR). Au metal electrode fabrication onto both sides of the coated foils was achieved by electron beam evaporation. The electron multipliers were obtained by joining two coated membranes separated by a conductive spacer. The results show that electron multiplication can be achieved using ALD-coated flexible ion track polymer foils. - Highlights: • Porous Kapton membranes were obtained by ion track technology and chemical etching. • TiO{sub 2} films were deposited by ALD into the pores of the Kapton membranes. • TiO{sub 2} nanotube array was prepared by removing the polymer core. • MCP structures were obtained from the coated membranes. • Electron multiplication was achieved using the ALD-coated Kapton foils.

  11. Thin Bioactive Zn Substituted Hydroxyapatite Coating Deposited on Ultrafine-Grained Titanium Substrate: Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Prosolov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering on the surface of ultrafine-grained titanium substrates. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy provided information about the morphology and texture of the thin film while in-column energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of Zn in the coating. The Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite coating was formed by an equiaxed polycrystalline grain structure. Effect of substrate crystallinity on the structure of deposited coating is discussed. An amorphous TiO2 sublayer of 8-nm thickness was detected in the interface between the polycrystalline coating and the Ti substrate. Its appearance in the amorphous state is attributed to prior to deposition etching of the substrate and subsequent condensation of oxygen-containing species sputtered from the target. This layer contributes to the high coating-to-substrate adhesion. The major P–O vibrational modes of high intensity were detected by Raman spectroscopy. The Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite could be a material of choice when antibacterial osteoconductive coating with a possibility of withstanding mechanical stress during implantation and service is needed.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition of hydroxyapatite-hexagonal boron nitride composite coatings on Ti substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göncü, Yapıncak; Geçgin, Merve; Bakan, Feray; Ay, Nuran

    2017-10-01

    In this study, commercial pure titanium samples were coated with nano hydroxyapatite-nano hexagonal boron nitride (nano HA-nano hBN) composite by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The effect of process parameters (applied voltage, deposition time and solid concentration) on the coating morphology, thickness and the adhesion behavior were studied systematically and crack free nano hBN-nano HA composite coating production was achieved for developing bioactive coatings on titanium substrates for orthopedic applications. For the examination of structural and morphological characteristics of the coating surfaces, various complementary analysis methods were performed. For the structural characterization, XRD and Raman Spectroscopy were used while, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques were carried out for revealing the morphological characterization. The results showed that nano HA-nano hBN were successfully deposited on Ti surface with uniform, crack-free coating by EPD. The amounts of hBN in suspension are considered to have no effect on coating thickness. By adding hBN into HA, the morphology of HA did not change and hBN has no significant effect on porous structure. These nanostructured surfaces are expected to be suitable for proliferation of cells and have high potential for bioactive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vapor deposition on doublet airfoil substrates: Control of coating thickness and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Gas jet assisted vapor deposition processes for depositing coatings are conducted at higher pressures than conventional physical vapor deposition methods, and have shown promise for coating complex shaped substrates including those with non-line-of-sight (NLS) regions on their surface. These regions typically receive vapor atoms at a lower rate and with a wider incident angular distribution than substrate regions in line-of-sight (LS) of the vapor source. To investigate the coating of such substrates, the thickness and microstructure variation along the inner (curved) surfaces of a model doublet airfoil containing both LS and NLS regions has been investigated. Results from atomistic simulations and experiments confirm that the coating's thickness is thinner in flux-shadowed regions than in other regions for all the coating processes investigated. They also indicated that the coatings columnar microstructure and pore volume fraction vary with surface location through the LS to NLS transition zone. A substrate rotation strategy for optimizing the thickness over the entire doublet airfoil surface was investigated, and led to the identification of a process that resulted in only small variation of coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and pore volume fraction on all doublet airfoil surfaces.

  14. Electrophoretic deposition of cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) and CNs/alginate nanocomposite coatings and free standing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; de Larraya, Uxua Pérez; Garmendia, Nere; Lasheras-Zubiate, María; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) and CNs-based alginate composite coatings for biomedical applications. The mechanism of anodic deposition of CNs and co-deposition of CNs/alginate composites was analyzed based on the results of zeta-potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The capability of the EPD technique for manipulating the orientation of CNs and for the preparation of multilayer CNs coatings was demonstrated. The nanotopographic surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the deposited coatings were measured and discussed. Electrochemical testing demonstrated that a significant degree of corrosion protection of stainless steel could be achieved when CNs-containing coatings were present. Additionally, the one-step EPD-based processing of free-standing CNs/alginate membranes was demonstrated confirming the versatility of EPD to fabricate free-standing membrane structures compared to a layer-by-layer deposition technique. CNs and CNs/alginate nanocomposite coatings produced by EPD are potential candidates for biomedical, cell technology and drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings deposited by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Yanfeng; Song Lei; Liu Xiaoguang; Huang Yi; Huang Tao; Wu Yao; Chen Jiyong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Wu Fang, E-mail: fwu@scu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings have great potential in dental and orthopedic medical implant applications, due to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. However, most of the coating preparation techniques either produce only thin thickness coatings or require tedious preparation steps. In this study, a new attempt was made to deposit bioactive glass-ceramic coatings on titanium substrates by the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, triethyl phosphate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate solutions were mixed together to form a suspension after hydrolysis, and the liquid suspension was used as the feedstock for plasma spraying of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} bioactive glass-ceramic coatings. The in vitro bioactivities of the as-deposited coatings were evaluated by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 4 h, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. The as-deposited coating and its microstructure evolution behavior under SBF soaking were systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with nanostructure had been successfully synthesized by the LPPS technique and the synthesized coatings showed quick formation of a nanostructured HCA layer after being soaked in SBF. Overall, our results indicate that the LPPS process is an effective and simple method to synthesize nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with good in vitro bioactivity.

  16. The formation of calcium phosphate coatings by pulse laser deposition on the surface of polymeric ferroelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolbasov, E.N. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Lapin, I.N.; Svetlichnyi, V.A. [Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Lenivtseva, Y.D. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Malashicheva, A. [Federal Almazov Medical Research Centre, 2 Akkuratova St., St. Petersburg 197341 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); ITMO University, Institute of translational Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Malashichev, Y. [St. Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Golovkin, A.S. [Federal Almazov Medical Research Centre, 2 Akkuratova St., St. Petersburg 197341 (Russian Federation); Anissimov, Y.G. [Griffith University, School of Natural Sciences, Engineering Dr., Southport, QLD 4222 (Australia); Tverdokhlebov, S.I., E-mail: tverd@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Calcium phosphate coatings were obtained on ferroelectric polymer materials surface by using PLD method. • Obtained coatings have well-developed surface. • Depending on sputtering target composition it is possible to obtain crystalline or amorphous coating. • Formation of coating does not change the crystal structure of the ferroelectric polymer material. - Abstract: This work analyses the properties of calcium phosphate coatings obtained by pulsed laser deposition on the surface of the ferroelectric polymer material. Atomic force and scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrate that, regardless of the type of sputtering target, the calcium phosphate coatings have a multiscale rough surface that is potentially capable of promoting the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts. This developed surface of the coatings is due to its formation mainly from a liquid phase. The chemical and crystalline composition of the coatings depends on the type of sputtering target used. It was shown that, regardless of the type of sputtering target, the crystalline structure of the ferroelectric polymer material does not change. Cell viability and adhesion studies of mesenchymal stromal cells on the coatings were conducted using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. These studies indicated that the produced coatings are non-toxic.

  17. The atmospheric chemical vapour deposition of coatings on glass

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, K D

    1996-01-01

    The deposition of thin films of indium oxide, tin doped indium oxide (ITO) and titanium nitride for solar control applications have been investigated by Atmospheric Chemical Vapour Deposition (APCVD). Experimental details of the deposition system and the techniques used to characterise the films are presented. Results from investigations into the deposition parameters, the film microstructure and film material properties are discussed. A range of precursors were investigated for the deposition of indium oxide. The effect of pro-mixing the vaporised precursor with an oxidant source and the deposition temperature has been studied. Polycrystalline In sub 2 O sub 3 films with a resistivity of 1.1 - 3x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA cm were obtained with ln(thd) sub 3 , oxygen and nitrogen. The growth of ITO films from ln(thd) sub 3 , oxygen and a range of tin dopants is also presented. The effect of the dopant precursor, the doping concentration, deposition temperature and the effect of additives on film growth and microstr...

  18. Thermal Cycling Behavior of Quasi-Columnar YSZ Coatings Deposited by PS-PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiasheng; Zhao, Huayu; Zhong, Xinghua; Shao, Fang; Liu, Chenguang; Zhuang, Yin; Ni, Jinxing; Tao, Shunyan

    2017-01-01

    Columnar-structured thermal barrier coatings, owing to their high strain tolerance, are expected for their potential possibilities to substantially extend turbine lives and improve engine efficiencies. In this paper, plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) process was used to deposit yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with quasi-columnar structures. Thermal cyclic tests on burner rigs and thermal shock tests by heating and water-quenching method were involved to evaluate the thermal cycling and thermal shock behaviors of such kind of structured thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Evolution of the microstructures, phase composition, residual stresses and failure behaviors of quasi-columnar YSZ coatings before and after the thermal tests was investigated. The quasi-columnar coating obtained had an average life of around 623 cycles when the spallation area reached about 10% of the total coating surface during burner rig tests with the coating surface temperature of 1250 °C. Failure of the coating is mainly due to the break and pull-out of center columnar segments.

  19. lectrolytic deposition of lithium into calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; de Groot, K.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Lithium ions stimulate the Wnt signaling pathway and the authors previously demonstrated that lithium enhances the proliferation of tissue cultured human mesenchymal stem cells. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a calcium phosphate/lithium coating by means of

  20. Characterization of Tungsten Carbide coatings deposited on AISI 1020 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Ramirez, Z. Y.

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the variation in the mechanical properties of AISI 1020 standardized steel, heat treated by a quenching and tempering process and with a Tungsten Carbide coating, was performed a microstructural and chemical characterization of the coating material through electron microscopy scanning and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The steel received a heat treatment of quenching performed by heating to 850°C, followed by cooling in water and tempering at a temperature of 450°C with air cooling. Tests of a) microhardness with a Wilson-Wolpert Tukon 2100B micro durometer and b) resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear following the ASTM G99-05 “Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk machine” and ASTM G65-04 “standard test method for measuring abrasion using dry sand and rubber Wheel” standards respectively. The results show that the microhardness of the steel do not vary with the load used to perform the test; in addition, the heat treatment of quenching and tempering improves by 5.5% the property while the coating increase it by 124.2%. Regarding the abrasive wear resistance, it is observed that the amount of material lost increases linearly with the distance covered. It was determined that the heat treatment decreased on average by 17.5% the volume of released material during the tests while the coating recued it by 66.7%. The amount volume of material lost during the adhesive wear tests increases linearly with the distance covered while the heat treatment decreased on average by 10.5% the volume of released material during the trial and the coating reduced it by 66.5%.

  1. Cold spray technology: future of coating deposition processes

    OpenAIRE

    S.B.S. Kalsi; Harminder Singh; Sidhu, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Cold spray (CS) belongs to a wide family of thermal spray technology with the difference that it is a solid state process in which spray particles are deposited via supersonic velocity impact at a temperature much below the melting point of the spray material. This paper briefly describes the various aspects of this rapidly emerging technology, with almost all the important parameters which affect the deposition behavior along with advantages and limitations; applications and history of emerg...

  2. Small grain size zirconium-based coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, O., E-mail: omar.jimenez.udg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Audronis, M.; Leyland, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Flores, M.; Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Kanakis, K.; Matthews, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Hard, partly amorphous, ZrTiB(N) coatings were deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) onto (111) silicon wafers at low substrate temperatures of 85 and 110 °C using Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering. A segmented rectangular sputter target composed of three pieces (Zr/TiB{sub 2}/Zr) was used as the source of evaporation of coating components. Two different substrate biases (i.e. floating potential and − 50 V) and N{sub 2} reactive-gas flow rates of 2, 4 and 6 sccm were employed as the main deposition parameter variables. The chemical composition, structure, morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using a variety of analytical techniques such as Glow-Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) and nanoindentation. With other parameters fixed, coating properties were found to be dependent on the substrate negative bias and nitrogen flow rate. Linear scan profiles and SEM imaging revealed that all coatings were smooth, dense and featureless (in fracture cross section) with no apparent columnar morphology or macro-defects. GAXRD structural analysis revealed that mostly metallic phases were formed for coatings containing no nitrogen, whereas a solid solution (Zr,Ti)N single phase nitride was found in most of the reactively deposited coatings — exhibiting a very small grain size due to nitrogen and boron grain refinement effects. Hardness values from as low as 8.6 GPa up to a maximum of 25.9 GPa are related mainly to solid solution strengthening effects. The measured elastic moduli correlated with the trends in hardness behaviour; values in the range of 120–200 GPa were observed depending on the selected deposition parameters. Also, high H/E values (> 0.1) were achieved with several of the coatings.

  3. Some features of ion mixing during simultaneous ion implantation and deposition of metallic coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Pogrebnyak, A D; Mikhalev, A D; Shablya, V T; Yanovskij, V P

    2001-01-01

    The results on the Ta, Cu ions implantation into the aluminium substrate by simultaneous deposition of these ions in the form of coatings are presented. The complex structure of these coatings from the given elements in the substrate, as well as the increase in the microhardness, adhesion and corrosion resistance growth are determined. It is shown on the basis of the results of the secondary ions energy distribution, that intermetallic phases are formed in the substrate surface layer

  4. Thickness measurement methods for physical vapor deposited aluminum coatings in packaging applications: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Martina; Schmid, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The production of barrier packaging materials, e.g., for food, by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of inorganic coatings such as aluminum on polymer substrates is an established and well understood functionalization technique today. In order to achieve a sufficient barrier against gases, a coating thickness of approximately 40 nm aluminum is necessary. This review provides a holistic overview of relevant methods commonly used in the packaging industry as well as in packaging research for deter...

  5. Thickness Measurement Methods for Physical Vapor Deposited Aluminum Coatings in Packaging Applications: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Lindner; Markus Schmid

    2017-01-01

    The production of barrier packaging materials, e.g., for food, by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of inorganic coatings such as aluminum on polymer substrates is an established and well understood functionalization technique today. In order to achieve a sufficient barrier against gases, a coating thickness of approximately 40 nm aluminum is necessary. This review provides a holistic overview of relevant methods commonly used in the packaging industry as well as in packaging research for deter...

  6. Chemical vapour deposition of optical coatings onto small scale complex optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, M. L.; Gibson, D. R.; Manookian, W.; Waddell, E. M.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we describe how optical coatings can be deposited uniformly with a high precision and reproducibility on 3-dimensional substrates, such as spherical lenses, by CVD. We present results that will highlight some specific advantages of CVD over the traditionally used methods of e-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering and we will show that CVD has tremendous potential for enhancing the quality of optical coatings and for making cost savings.

  7. UV protective zinc oxide coating for biaxially oriented polypropylene packaging film by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.lahtinen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kääriäinen, Tommi, E-mail: tommi.kaariainen@colorado.edu [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Johansson, Petri, E-mail: petri.johansson@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kotkamo, Sami, E-mail: sami.kotkamo@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Seppänen, Tarja, E-mail: tarja.seppanen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kuusipalo, Jurkka, E-mail: jurkka.kuusipalo@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Cameron, David C., E-mail: david.cameron@miktech.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) packaging film was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) coatings by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to protect the film from UV degradation. The coatings were made at a process temperature of 100 °C using diethylzinc and water as zinc and oxygen precursors, respectively. The UV protective properties of the coatings were tested by using UV–VIS and infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a mechanical strength tester, which characterised the tensile and elastic properties of the film. The results obtained with 36 and 67 nm ZnO coatings showed that the ZnO UV protective layer is able to provide a significant decrease in photodegradation of the BOPP film under UV exposure. While the uncoated BOPP film suffered a complete degradation after a 4-week UV exposure, the 67 nm ZnO coated BOPP film was able to preserve half of its original tensile strength and 1/3 of its elongation at break after a 6-week exposure period. The infrared analysis and DSC measurements further proved the UV protection of the ZnO coatings. The results show that a nanometre scale ZnO coating deposited by ALD is a promising option when a transparent UV protection layer is sought for polymer substrates. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposited zinc oxide coatings were used as UV protection layers. • Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film was well protected against UV light. • Formation of UV degradation products in BOPP was significantly reduced. • Mechanical properties of the UV exposed BOPP film were significantly improved.

  8. Galvanic deposition and characterization of brushite/hydroxyapatite coatings on 316L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanda, Giuseppe; Brucato, Valerio; Pavia, Francesco Carfì; Greco, Silvia; Piazza, Salvatore; Sunseri, Carmelo; Inguanta, Rosalinda

    2016-07-01

    In this work, brushite and brushite/hydroxyapatite (BS, CaHPO4·H2O; HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316LSS) from a solution containing Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and NH4H2PO4 by a displacement reaction based on a galvanic contact, where zinc acts as sacrificial anode. Driving force for the cementation reaction arises from the difference in the electrochemical standard potentials of two different metallic materials (316LSS and Zn) immersed in an electrolyte, so forming a galvanic contact leading to the deposition of BS/HA on nobler metal. We found that temperature and deposition time affect coating features (morphology, structure, and composition). Deposits were characterized by means of several techniques. The morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, the elemental composition was obtained by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, whilst the structure was identified by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. BS was deposited at all investigated temperatures covering the 316LSS surface. At low and moderate temperature, BS coatings were compact, uniform and with good crystalline degree. On BS layers, HA crystals were obtained at 50°C for all deposition times, while at 25°C, its presence was revealed only after long deposition time. Electrochemical studies show remarkable improvement in corrosion resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Friction and wear of TiCN coatings deposited by filtered arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.W.; Ng, K.; Samandi, M. [Wollongong Univ. NSW (Australia). Department of Materials Engineering

    1998-06-01

    A series of macroparticle-free TiN, TiCN and TiC coatings were deposited on 316 austenitic stainless steel using a titanium target in a filtered arc deposition system and reactive mixtures of CH4 and N2 gases. The microhardness of the coatings were measured by using an Ultra Microhardness Indentation System (UMIS-2000). The wear and friction of the coatings were assessed under controlled test conditions in a pin-on-disc tribometer. The results show a significant increase in microhardness and wear resistance as the CH4 :N2 gas flow rate ratio is increased. At lower load (14N), all coatings exhibited low friction and wear. At higher load (25N), the higher carbon content TiCN and TiC coatings showed a much lower friction and wear compared to TiN and low carbon TiCN. The topographical examination of coatings and worn surfaces established that the self-lubricating effect of the carbonaceous particles condensed from the plasma during the deposition was primarily responsible for the low friction and wear regime. (authors). Extended abstract. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. Nano-structured yttria-stabilized zirconia coating by electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki-Ghaleh, H., E-mail: H_Maleki@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rekabeslami, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Division, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakeri, M.S. [Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Siadati, M.H. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Division, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javidi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Talebian, S.H. [Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Technologi Petronas, Perak (Malaysia); Aghajani, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    The most important role of thermal barrier coatings is to reduce the temperature of the substrate in high temperature applications. Nanoparticle zirconia might be a suitable choice for improving the efficiency of thermal barrier coatings. Nanostructured coatings have lower thermal conduction, higher thermal expansion and lower dimensional variations at higher temperatures in comparison with the microstructured coatings. Electrophoretic deposition has been preferred for thermal barrier coatings due to its simplicity, controllability and low cost. In the present study, three different suspensions of ZrO{sub 2}–8 wt%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (40 nm) made with ethanol, acetone and acetyl acetone were used. Electrophoretic deposition was conducted at a fixed voltage of 60 V for 120 s on aluminized Inconel 738-LC, and then heat treated at 1100{sup o}C for 4 h in air atmosphere. The coating morphology and elemental distribution were studied using scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that suspension media have an important effect on the quality of the final product. Acetyl acetone showed better dispersion of particles than the other two media. Consequently, deposition from acetyl acetone resulted in uniform and crack-free layers while those from ethanol and acetone were completely non-uniform due to agglomeration and low viscosity, respectively.

  11. Effect of deposition current on microstructure and properties of CoCrWC alloy PTA coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. G. Paes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt-Based alloys are largely applied to the surface of components as welded coatings. Carbides reinforced CoCrWC system is used to extend the service life under harsh environments involving wear and corrosion in different media. This work aims to evaluate the effect of deposition current on the microstructure and properties of PTA coatings. So, CoCrWC alloy (Stellite #6 was processed on AISI316L stainless steel plates with the following main arc current: 100, 120, 150, 180 and 200A. So, different interaction with the substrate must be expected and its effect on coatings features was evaluated. The geometry of single track coatings, dilution, formed phases and phase volume fraction was assessed by laser Confocal, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Vickers hardness and wear tests were carried out to correlate microstructure to properties of coatings. Coatings showed microstructure composed by hypoeutectic dendrites of Cobalt solid solution and interdendrictic carbides. Dilution increased with deposition current from 11,8 e 56,5% which reduced the carbides fraction and increased the Cobalt solid solution areas, resulting in hardness decrease from 500 to 310HV0,5. Higher deposition current induced mass loss rate increase on pin-on-disc sliding wear tests, arising 44,38% increment on wear coefficient, as a consequence of the lower carbides fraction and solid solution alloying and refinement degree of the microstructure.

  12. Electrophoretic Deposition as a New Bioactive Glass Coating Process for Orthodontic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyotaro Kawaguchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the surface modification of orthodontic stainless steel using electrophoretic deposition (EPD of bioactive glass (BG. The BG coatings were characterized by spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. The frictional properties were investigated using a progressive load scratch test. The remineralization ability of the etched dental enamel was studied according to the time-dependent mechanical properties of the enamel using a nano-indentation test. The EPD process using alternating current produced higher values in both reflectance and lightness. Additionally, the BG coating was thinner than that prepared using direct current, and was completely amorphous. All of the BG coatings displayed good interfacial adhesion, and Si and O were the major components. Most BG-coated specimens produced slightly higher frictional forces compared with non-coated specimens. The hardness and elastic modulus of etched enamel specimens immersed with most BG-coated specimens recovered significantly with increasing immersion time compared with the non-coated specimen, and significant acid-neutralization was observed for the BG-coated specimens. The surface modification technique using EPD and BG coating on orthodontic stainless steel may assist the development of new non-cytotoxic orthodontic metallic appliances having satisfactory appearance and remineralization ability.

  13. Investigation on the corrosion behavior of physical vapor deposition coated high speed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ravi Raja Malarvannan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work emphasizes on the influence of the TiN and AlCrN coatings fabricated on high speed steel form tool using physical vapor deposition technique. The surface microstructure of the coatings was studied using scanning electron microscope. Hardness and corrosion studies were also performed using Vickers hardness test and salt spray testing, respectively. The salt spray test results suggested that the bilayer coated (TiN- bottom layer and AlCrN- top layer substrate has undergone less amount of corrosion, and this is attributed to the dense microstructure. In addition to the above, the influence of the above coatings on the machining performance of the high speed steel was also evaluated and compared with that of the uncoated material and the results suggested that the bilayered coating has undergone very low weight loss when compared with that of the uncoated substrate depicting enhanced wear resistance.

  14. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong

    2012-12-21

    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications.

  15. Characterization and antibacterial performance of bioactive Ti–Zn–O coatings deposited on titanium implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Tzu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hungkuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yin-Yu, E-mail: yinyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical and Computer-Aided Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Huang, Heng-Li; Hsu, Jui-Ting [School of Dentistry, College of Medicine China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ya-Chi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mingdao University, Changhua 523, Taiwan (China); Wu, Aaron Yu-Jen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti)-based materials have been used for dental and orthopedic implants because of their excellent biological compatibility, superior mechanical strength, and high corrosion resistance. The hypothesis of this present study was to manufacture the Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} layer possessing the biocompatibility and antibacterial ability on the surface of Ti specimens. TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, and Ti(Zn)O{sub 2} coatings were deposited on polished pure Ti substrates using a cathodic arc deposition system. Murine osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and human Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were cultured onto the surface with different deposited coatings, respectively. The biocompatibility was examined by cell viability and osteogenic gene expression. The antibacterial ability was determined by SYTO9 nucleic acid staining. A porous Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} coating was successfully produced. The ZnO exhibited a fibrous structure with nanorods showing a hydrophobic feature (contact angle approximately 89°). These material properties affected the following biological performance. The antibacterial testing found no apparent difference between the uncoated Ti plate and the TiO{sub 2} coating. However, significantly lower numbers of S. aureus were observed on ZnO and Ti(Zn)O{sub 2} coatings compared to that on the uncoated Ti. The biocompatible testing exhibited that TiO{sub 2} and Ti(Zn)O{sub 2} coatings enhanced greater cell viability and proliferation than the uncoated Ti plate and ZnO coating. The osteogenic gene expression of Dlx-5 and osterix also improved for the TiO{sub 2} and Ti(Zn)O{sub 2} coatings. However, a significant inhibition of cell viability was found for the ZnO coating. These findings suggested that the composite Ti(Zn)O{sub 2} coating with a lower content of Zn (7.6 ± 1.3 at.%) not only improved antibacterial activity, but also maintained the biocompatibility to bone cells. - Highlights: ► TiO{sub 2}, Ti(Zn)O{sub 2} and ZnO coatings were deposited by cathodic arc

  16. PREPARING OF THE CHAMELEON COATING BY THE ION JET DEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Skocdopole

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of chameleon coatings using an Ionized Jet Deposition (IJD technique is reported in the present paper. IJD is a new flexible method for thin film deposition developed by Noivion, Srl. The chameleon coatings are thin films characterised by a distinct change of their tribological properties according to the external conditions. The deposited films of SiC and TiN materials were examined by the Raman spectroscopy, SEM and XPS. The results of the Raman spectroscopy have proved an amorphous structure of SiC films. The data from XPS on TiN films have shown that the films are heavily oxidized, but also prove that the films are composed of TiN and pure Ti. The SEM provided information about the size of grains and particles constituting the deposited films, which is important for tribological properties of the films. Deposition of the chameleon coating is very complex problem and IJD could be ideal method for preparation of this coating.

  17. In Situ Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-Based Metallic Glass Coatings by Electrospark Deposition Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, Alexander A.; Pyachin, S. A.; Ermakov, M. A.; Syuy, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    Crystalline FeWMoCrBC electrode materials were prepared by conventional powder metallurgy. Metallic glass (MG) coatings were produced by electrospark deposition onto AISI 1035 steel in argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy verified the amorphous structure of the as-deposited coatings. The coatings have a thickness of about 40 microns and a uniform structure. The results of dry sliding wear tests against high-speed steel demonstrated that Fe-based MG coatings had a lower friction coefficient and more than twice the wear resistance for 20 km sliding distance with respect to AISI 1035 steel. High-temperature oxidation treatment of the metal glass coatings at 1073 K in air for 12 h revealed that the oxidation resistance of the best coating was 36 times higher than that for bare AISI 1035 steel. These findings are expected to broaden the applications of electrospark Fe-based MG as highly protective and anticorrosive coatings for mild steel.

  18. Corrosion And Thermal Processing In Cold Gas Dynamic Spray Deposited Austenitic Stainless Steel Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CORROSION AND THERMAL PROCESSING IN COLD GAS DYNAMIC SPRAY DEPOSITED AUSTENITIC...THERMAL PROCESSING IN COLD GAS DYNAMIC SPRAY DEPOSITED AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COATINGS by John A Luhn June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Sarath...precipitate. The resolution of the EDS process may not have been sufficient to show very small precipitates however. SEM imaging at higher

  19. Diamond like carbon coatings deposited by microwave plasma CVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Laser and Plasma Technology Division,. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. MS received 3 May 2007. Abstract. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by microwave assisted chemical vapour deposi- tion system using d.c. bias voltage ranging from –100 V to –300 V. These films were ...

  20. The emissivity of W coatings deposited on carbon materials for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruset, C., E-mail: ruset@infim.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Falie, D.; Grigore, E.; Gherendi, M.; Zoita, V. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Zastrow, K.-D.; Matthews, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Courtois, X.; Bucalossi, J. [IRFM, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 SAINT PAUL LEZ DURANCE (France); Likonen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The emissivity of tungsten coatings deposited on carbon substrates such as CFC and fine grain graphite was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm in the temperature range of 400 °C–1200 °C. • The emissivity of other materials of interest for nuclear fusion such as tungsten and beryllium was measured as well. • The influence of substrate structure and of the viewing angle on the emissivity of W coatings was investigated in detail. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings deposited on carbon materials such as carbon fiber composite (CFC) or fine grain graphite are currently used in fusion devices as amour for plasma facing components (PFC). More than 4000 carbon tiles were W-coated by Combined Magnetron Sputtering and Ion Implantation technology for the ITER-like Wall at JET, ASDEX Upgrade and WEST tokamaks. The emissivity of W coatings is a key parameter required by protection systems of the W-coated PFC and also by the diagnostic tools in order to get correct values of temperature and heat loading. The emissivity of tungsten is rather well known, but the literature data refer to bulk tungsten or tungsten foils and not to coatings deposited on carbon materials. The emissivity was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm. It was found that the structure of the substrate has a significant influence on the emissivity values. The temperature dependence of the emissivity in the range of 400 °C–1200 °C and the influence of the viewing angle were investigated as well. The results are given in a table for W coatings and for other materials of interest for fusion such as bulk W and bulk Be.

  1. Deposition of multilayer optical coatings using closed-field magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Hall, G. W.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in display technologies. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to < +/-1% is accomplished simply using time, although optical monitoring can be used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, narrowband filters as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process are described.

  2. LDRD Project 52523 final report :Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal tribological coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungk, John Michael (University of Minnesota); Dugger, Michael Thomas; George, Steve M. (University of Colorado); Prasad, Somuri V.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mayer, Thomas Michael; Scharf, Thomas W.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Gerberich, William W. (University of Minnesota)

    2005-10-01

    Friction and wear are major concerns in the performance and reliability of micromechanical (MEMS) devices. While a variety of lubricant and wear resistant coatings are known which we might consider for application to MEMS devices, the severe geometric constraints of many micromechanical systems (high aspect ratios, shadowed surfaces) make most deposition methods for friction and wear-resistance coatings impossible. In this program we have produced and evaluate highly conformal, tribological coatings, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), for use on surface micromachined (SMM) and LIGA structures. ALD is a chemical vapor deposition process using sequential exposure of reagents and self-limiting surface chemistry, saturating at a maximum of one monolayer per exposure cycle. The self-limiting chemistry results in conformal coating of high aspect ratio structures, with monolayer precision. ALD of a wide variety of materials is possible, but there have been no studies of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of these films. We have developed processes for depositing thin (<100 nm) conformal coatings of selected hard and lubricious films (Al2O3, ZnO, WS2, W, and W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates), and measured their chemical, physical, mechanical and tribological properties. A significant challenge in this program was to develop instrumentation and quantitative test procedures, which did not exist, for friction, wear, film/substrate adhesion, elastic properties, stress, etc., of extremely thin films and nanolaminates. New scanning probe and nanoindentation techniques have been employed along with detailed mechanics-based models to evaluate these properties at small loads characteristic of microsystem operation. We emphasize deposition processes and fundamental properties of ALD materials, however we have also evaluated applications and film performance for model SMM and LIGA devices.

  3. Effect of the addition CNTs on performance of CaP/chitosan/coating deposited on magnesium alloy by electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [Department of Neuro Intern, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Pharmaceutical Research Institute in Heilongjiang Province, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Wen, Zhaohui, E-mail: wenzhaohui1968@163.com [Department of Neuro Intern, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhao, Meng [Department of Neuro Intern, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Guozhong, E-mail: hydlgz1962@163.com [Department of Neuro Intern, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai, Changsong, E-mail: changsd@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemistry Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-01-01

    CaP/chitosan/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was prepared via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by conversion in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The bonding between the layer and the substrate was studied by an automatic scratch instrument. The phase compositions and microstructures of the composite coatings were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The element concentration and gentamicin concentration were respectively determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) test and ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV). The cell counting kit (CCK) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of samples to SaOS-2 cells. The results showed that a few CNTs with their original tubular morphology could be found in the CaP/chitosan coating and they were beneficial for the crystal growth of phosphate and improvement of the coating bonding when the addition amount of CNTs in 500 ml of electrophoretic solution was from 0.05 g to 0.125 g. The loading amount of gentamicin increased and the releasing speed of gentamicin decreased after CNTs was added into the CaP/chitosan coating for immersion loading and EPD loading. The cell viability of Mg based CaP/chitosan/CNTs was higher than that of Mg based CaP/chitosan from 16 days to 90 days. - Highlights: • CaP/chitosan/CNTs coating on AZ91D was prepared. • The addition of CNTs could improve the performance of CaP/chitosan coating. • A new method of loading gentamicin by EPD was proposed.

  4. Sputtering: A vacuum deposition method for coating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1972-01-01

    The sputtering process is described in terms of its features: versatility, momentum transfer, configuration of target, precise controls and the relatively slow deposition rate. Sputtered films are evaluated in terms of adherence, coherence, and internal stresses. The strong adherence is attributed to the high kinetic energies of the sputtered material, sputter etched (cleaned) surface, and the submicroscopic particle size. An illustration is a sputtered solid film lubricant such as MoS2. Friction tests were conducted on a thin, 2000 A deg thick MoS2 film. These films are very dense and without observable pinholes, and the particle to particle cohesion is strong. Tolerances (film thickness) can be controlled to a millionth of a centimeter. Very adherent films of sputtered Teflon can be deposited in a single operation on any type of material (metal, glass, paper) and on any geometrical configuration with a dense adherent film.

  5. Microstructural Evolution of (Ti,W,CrB2 Coatings Deposited on Steel Substrates during Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Newirkowez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the present experiments are transition metal diboride coatings of composition (Ti0.49W0.51B2 and (Ti0.44W0.30Cr0.26B2. The coatings were deposited on steel substrates using dc magnetron sputtering. We investigated how annealing in argon at elevated temperatures modifies microstructure. The as-deposited films are amorphous. Annealing between 700 and 1100 °C results in the formation of nano-crystalline precipitates with average grain diameters of about 10–50 nm. A TiC phase (Fm-3m; a ≈ 4.3 Å is observed as the dominating precipitate phase. In addition, small amounts (10%–20% of a Cr23C6 phase (Fm-3m; a ≈ 10.6 Å are observed. In contrast to literature data on the same coatings deposited on silicon substrates, the formation of boride precipitate phases is strongly suppressed here. From investigations with X-ray diffractometry, electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry we conclude that the nanostructure of the coatings is formed by reactive phase formation of the boride coating with the carbon containing steel substrate.

  6. Electrophoretic deposition of PEEK-TiO 2 composite coatings on stainless steel

    KAUST Repository

    Seuß, Sigrid

    2012-03-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been successfully used to deposit composite coatings composed of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2) nanoparticles on 316L stainless steel substrates. The suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles and PEEK microparticles for EPD were prepared in ethanol. PEEK-TiO 2 composite coatings were optimized using suspensions containing 6wt% PEEK-TiO 2 in ethanol with a 3:1 ratio of PEEK to TiO 2 in weight and by applying a potential difference of 30 V for 1 minute. A heat-treatment process of the optimized PEEK-TiO 2 composite coatings was erformed at 335°C for 30 minutes with a heating rate of 10°Cmin -1 to densify the deposits. The EPD coatings were microstructurally evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that EPD is a convenient and rapid method to fabricate PEEK/TiO 2 coatings on stainless steel which are interesting for biomedical applications. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  7. Characterization and antibacterial performance of ZrCN/amorphous carbon coatings deposited on titanium implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Ho [School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, 404 Taiwan (China); Chang, Yin-Yu, E-mail: yinyu@mail2000.com.tw [Department of Mechanical and Computer-Aided Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin, Taiwan (China); Huang, Heng-Li [School of Dentistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Ho-Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mingdao University, Changhua, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-30

    Titanium (Ti)-based materials have been used for dental/orthopedic implants due to their excellent biological compatibility, superior mechanical strength and high corrosion resistance. The osseointegration of Ti implants is related to their composition and surface treatment. Better biocompatibility and anti-bacterial performances of Ti implant are beneficial for the osseointegration and for avoiding the infection after implantation surgery. In this study, nanocomposite ZrCN/amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings with different carbon contents were deposited on a bio-grade pure Ti implant material. A cathodic-arc evaporation system with plasma enhanced duct equipment was used for the deposition of ZrCN/a-C coatings. Reactive gas (N{sub 2}) and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} activated by the zirconium plasma in the evaporation process were used to deposit the ZrCN/a-C coatings. To verify the susceptibility of implant surface to bacterial adhesion, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), one of the major pathogen frequently found in the dental implant-associated infections, was chosen for in vitro anti-bacterial analyses. In addition, the biocompatibility of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells on coatings was also evaluated by a cell proliferation assay. The results suggested that the ZrCN/a-C coatings with carbon content higher than 12.7 at.% can improve antibacterial performance with excellent HGF cell compatibility as well.

  8. Electrophoretic deposition of chitosan/45S5 bioactive glass composite coatings doped with Zn and Sr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMiola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the original 45S5 bioactive glass (BG was modified by introducing zinc and/or strontium oxide (6% mol in place of calcium oxide. Sr was added for its ability to stimulate bone formation, Zn for its role in bone metabolism, antibacterial properties and anti-inflammatory effect. The glasses were produced by means of melting and quenching process. SEM and XRD analyses evidenced that Zr and Sr introduction did not modify the glass structure and morphology, while compositional analysis (EDS demonstrated the effective addition of these elements inside the glass network. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF up to one month evidenced a reduced bioactivity kinetics for Zn-doped glasses. Doped glasses were combined with chitosan to produce organic/inorganic composite coatings on stainless steel AISI 316L by electrophoretic deposition (EPD. Two EPD processes were considered for coating development, namely direct current EPD (DC-EPD and alternating current EPD (AC-EPD. The stability of the suspension was analysed and the deposition parameters were optimized. Tape and bending tests demonstrated a good coating-substrate adhesion for coatings containing 45S5-Sr and 45S5-ZnSr glasses, while the adhesion to the substrate decreased by using 45S5-Zn glass. FTIR analyses demonstrated the composite nature of coatings and SEM observations indicated that glass particles were well integrated in the polymeric matrix, the coatings were fairly homogeneous and free of cracks; moreover the AC-EPD technique provided better results than DC-EPD in terms of coating quality. SEM, XRD analyses and Raman spectroscopy, performed after bioactivity test in SBF solution, confirmed the bioactive behaviour of 45S5-Sr containing coating, while coatings containing Zn exhibited no hydroxyapatite formation.

  9. Features of copper coatings growth at high-rate deposition using magnetron sputtering systems with a liquid metal target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bleykher, G.A.; Borduleva, A.O.; Yuryeva, A.V.; Krivobokov, V.P.; Lančok, Ján; Bulíř, Jiří; Drahokoupil, Jan; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Fekete, Ladislav; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Tomáštík, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 324, Sep (2017), s. 111-120 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * evaporation * high-rate coating deposition * coating properties * Cu coatings Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  10. Prospects of chemically deposited CoS-CU2S coatings for solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thin films of Cu2S deposited on CoS-precoated glass substrates from chemical baths and annealed at 100oC were found to have desirable solar control characteristics superior to commercial tinted glass and magnetron sputtered multilayer metallic solar control coatings. These include: transmission spectra in the ...

  11. The electrochemical deposition of tin-nickel alloys and the corrosion properties of the coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2005-01-01

    The electrodeposition of tin/nickel (65/35 wt%) is a unique coating process because of the deposition of an intermetallic phase of nickel and tin, which cannot be formed by any pyrometallurgical process. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that intermetallic phases can be formed throu...

  12. Structure of anodized Al–Zr sputter deposited coatings and effect on optical appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of interaction of light with the microstructure of anodized layer giving specific optical appearance is investigated using Al–Zr sputter deposited coating as a model system on an AA6060 substrate. Differences in the oxidative nature of various microstructural components result in th...

  13. Corrosion resistant Zn–Co alloy coatings deposited using saw-tooth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method. Optimal configuration, represented as (Zn–Co)2.0/4.0/300 was found to exhibit ∼ 89 times better corrosion resistance compared to monolithic (Zn–Co)3.0 alloy deposited for same time, from same bath. The better corrosion resistance of CMMA coatings was ...

  14. Electrophoretic deposition of a bioactive Si, Ca-rich glass coating on 316L stainless steel for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work consisted in the development and characterization of a vitroceramic coating on 316L stainless steel bymeans of electrophoretic deposition (EPD. This vitroceramic coating was obtained through a Si-, Ca-rich glas coating crystallization. The electrophoretic deposition tests were performed on 316L stainless steel mechanically polished substrates. The results suggest that the electrophoretic coatings adhered well to the metallic surfaces. Theresults demonstrate that the crystallized coatings are potentially bioactive, because a dense and homogeneous apatite layer, similar to a bone, makes up.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of gentamicin-loaded bioactive glass/chitosan composite coatings for orthopaedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishbin, Fatemehsadat; Mouriño, Viviana; Flor, Sabrina; Kreppel, Stefan; Salih, Vehid; Ryan, Mary P; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-06-11

    Despite their widespread application, metallic orthopaedic prosthesis failure still occurs because of lack of adequate bone-bonding and the incidence of post-surgery infections. The goal of this research was to develop multifunctional composite chitosan/Bioglass coatings loaded with gentamicin antibiotic as a suitable strategy to improve the surface properties of metallic implants. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was applied as a single-step technology to simultaneously deposit the biopolymer, bioactive glass particles, and the antibiotic on stainless steel substrate. The microstructure and composition of the coatings were characterized using SEM/EDX, XRD, FTIR, and TGA/DSC, respectively. The in vitro bioactivity of the coatings was demonstrated by formation of hydroxyapatite after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) in a short period of 2 days. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements indicated the release of 40% of the loaded gentamicin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) within the first 5 days. The developed composite coating supported attachment and proliferation of MG-63 cells up to 10 days. Moreover, disc diffusion test showed improved bactericidal effect of gentamicin-loaded composite coatings against S. aureus compared to control non-gentamicin-loaded coatings.

  16. Structure and corrosion properties of Cr coating deposited on aerospace bearing steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhang, Fengxiang; Zheng, Lijing; Zhang, Hu

    2017-11-01

    The corrosion protection of chromium coating deposited on aerospace bearing steels by using the Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc deposition- Metal Evaporation Vacuum Arc duplex technique (MEVVA-FCVA) had been investigated. The protection efficiency of chromium coating on different substrate materials had also been evaluated. The chromium coating was mainly composed of nanocrystallineα-Cr in a range of 50-200 nm. The orientation distributions of α-Cr film on substrates with different composition had a certain difference to each other. Electrochemical experimental results indicated that the chromium coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of experimental bearing steels in 3.5% NaCl solution. The protective efficiency of chromium films were all over 98%. The corrosion resistance of chromium coating was influenced by the chemical composition of substrate material. The chromium coatings on higher Cr-containing substrate displayed lower corrosion current density and more positive corrosion potential. The increase of passive film thickness and the formation of a mass of chromium oxide and hydroxide on the surface are responsible for the improved corrosion properties.

  17. Sealing of hard CrN and DLC coatings with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Emma; Kolev, Ivan; Díaz, Belén; Swiatowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Marcus, Philippe; Fenker, Martin; Toth, Lajos; Radnoczi, György; Vehkamäki, Marko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-02-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique that is based on alternating and saturating surface reactions of two or more gaseous precursors. The excellent conformality of ALD thin films can be exploited for sealing defects in coatings made by other techniques. Here the corrosion protection properties of hard CrN and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on low alloy steel were improved by ALD sealing with 50 nm thick layers consisting of Al2O3 and Ta2O5 nanolaminates or mixtures. In cross sectional images the ALD layers were found to follow the surface morphology of the CrN coatings uniformly. Furthermore, ALD growth into the pinholes of the CrN coating was verified. In electrochemical measurements the ALD sealing was found to decrease the current density of the CrN coated steel by over 2 orders of magnitude. The neutral salt spray (NSS) durability was also improved: on the best samples the appearance of corrosion spots was delayed from 2 to 168 h. On DLC coatings the adhesion of the ALD sealing layers was weaker, but still clear improvement in NSS durability was achieved indicating sealing of the pinholes.

  18. Morphological, structural and electrochemical analysis of sputter-deposited ceria and titania coatings for MCFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, Valerie; Mendoza, Leonardo; Goux, Aurelie; Ringuede, Armelle; Cassir, Michel [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique, UMR 7575 CNRS, ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Billard, Alain; Briois, Pascal [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Surfaces (UMR 7570), Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, F 54042 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2006-10-06

    In order to protect the MCFC nickel cathode, TiO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2} coatings were prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. These oxides are stable thermodynamically whatever the cathode or anode gaseous conditions. Good quality, dense and homogeneous coatings were obtained at thicknesses lower than 1{mu}m. The structure of the deposits, as analysed by XRD, was the expected one. In this work only dense nickel substrates were used. After their direct immersion in a Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} carbonate eutectic at 650{sup o}C, which can be considered as extremely corrosive conditions with respect to the usual MCFC conditions, the coatings were affected. TiO{sub 2} coatings were transformed into Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, in agreement with thermodynamic predictions; however, they became progressively unstable, which was probably due to a problem of mechanical adhesion rather than to solubility. The thinner was the deposit, the higher was its conductance and the closer to that of a pure Ni electrode was its electrocatalytic activity. CeO{sub 2} coatings were stable in a ceria form and their adhesion was better even though not fully satisfactory. These first preliminary results are promising regarding the direct contact of the coatings with the corrosive carbonate melt, but the improvement of the adhesion is one of the major problems to solve. (author)

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer (registered) microneedles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittard, S D; Narayan, R J; Jin, C; Monteiro-Riviere, N A [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ovsianikov, A; Chichkov, B N [Laser Zentrum Hannover, Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Stafslien, S; Chisholm, B, E-mail: roger_narayan@msn.co [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, 1805 Research Park Drive, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    One promising option for transdermal delivery of protein- and nucleic acid-based pharmacologic agents involves the use of microneedles. However, microneedle-generated pores may allow microorganisms to penetrate the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis and cause local or systemic infection. In this study, microneedles with antimicrobial functionality were fabricated using two-photon polymerization-micromolding and pulsed laser deposition. The antibacterial activity of the silver-coated organically modified ceramic (Ormocer (registered) ) microneedles was demonstrated using an agar diffusion assay. Human epidermal keratinocyte viability on the Ormocer (registered) surfaces coated with silver was similar to that on uncoated Ormocer (registered) surfaces. This study indicates that coating microneedles with silver thin films using pulsed laser deposition is a useful and novel approach for creating microneedles with antimicrobial functionality. (communication)

  20. Optical study of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings deposited at different spray distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, R.; Kowalski, S.; Żórawski, W.

    2017-08-01

    Series of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings deposited on titanium substrate at different spray (plasma gun to workpiece) distance were investigated. The optical methods as dark field confocal microscopy, Raman/PL and UV-VIS spectroscopy were used for study the influence of deposition process on structural degradation of HA precursor. The hydroxyl group concentration was investigated by study the OH mode intensity in the Raman spectra. Optical absorption coefficients at near UV region were analyzed by Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy. PL intensity observed during Raman measurement was also considered as relation to defects concentration and degradation level. It was confirmed the different gunsubstrate distance has a great impact on structure of deposited HA ceramics.

  1. Ion-substituted calcium phosphate coatings deposited by plasma-assisted techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Gabriela; Bianchi, Michele; Sassoni, Enrico; Russo, Alessandro; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2017-05-01

    One of the main critical aspects behind the failure or success of an implant resides in its ability to fast bond with the surrounding bone. To boost osseointegration, the ideal implant material should exhibit composition and structure similar to those of biological apatite. To this aim, the most common approach is to coat the implant surface with a coating of hydroxyapatite (HA), resembling the main component of mineralized tissues. However, bone apatite is a non-stoichiometric, multi-substituted poorly-crystalline apatite, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, with high biological relevance. Ion-substituted HAs can be deposited by so called "wet methods", which are however poorly reproducible and hardly industrially feasible; at the same time bioactive coatings realized by plasma assisted method, interesting for industrial applications, are generally made of stoichiometric (i.e. un-substituted) HA. In this work, the literature concerning plasma-assisted deposition methods used to deposit ion-substituted HA was reviewed and the last advances in this field discussed. The ions taken into exam are those present in mineralized tissues and possibly having biological relevance. Notably, literature about this topic is scarce, especially relating to in vivo animal and clinical trials; further on, available studies evaluate the performance of substituted coatings from different points of view (mechanical properties, bone growth, coating dissolution, etc.) which hinders a proper evaluation of the real efficacy of ion-doped HA in promoting bone regeneration, compared to stoichiometric HA. Moreover, results obtained for plasma sprayed coatings (which is the only method currently employed for deposition at the industrial scale) were collected and compared to those of novel plasma-assisted techniques, that are expected to overcome its limitations. Data so far available on the topic were discussed to highlight advantages, limitations and possible perspectives of these

  2. Statistical Determination of a Fretting-Induced Failure of an Electro-Deposited Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungmok Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes statistical determination of fretting-induced failure of an electro-deposited coating. A fretting test is conducted using a ball-on-flat plate configuration. During a test, a frictional force is measured, along with the relative displacement between an AISI52100 ball and a coated flat specimen. Measured data are analyzed with statistical process control tools; a frictional force versus number of fretting cycles is plotted on a control chart. On the control chart, critical number of cycles to coating failure is statistically determined. Fretted surfaces are observed after interrupting a series of fretting tests. Worn surface images and wear profiles provide that the increase on the kinetic friction coefficient after a steady-state sliding is attributed to the substrate enlarged at a contact surface. There is a good agreement between observation of worn surfaces and statistical determination for fretting-induced coating failure.

  3. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium and Copper Composite Coatings Deposited by LPCS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnicki M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of microstructure and corrosion resistance of composite coatings (Al+Al2O3 and Cu+Al2O3 deposited by Low Pressure Cold Spraying method (LPCS. The atmospheric corrosion resistance was examined by subjecting the samples to cyclic salt spray and Kesternich test chambers, with NaCl and SO2 atmospheres, respectively. The selected tests allowed reflecting the actual working conditions of the coatings. The analysis showed very satisfactory results for copper coatings. After eighteen cycles, with a total time of 432 hours, the samples show little signs of corrosion. Due to their greater susceptibility to chloride ions, aluminium coatings have significant corrosion losses.

  4. Alternating Current Electrophoretic Deposition of Antibacterial Bioactive Glass-Chitosan Composite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Seuss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternating current (AC electrophoretic deposition (EPD was used to produce multifunctional composite coatings combining bioactive glass (BG particles and chitosan. BG particles of two different sizes were used, i.e., 2 μm and 20–80 nm in average diameter. The parameter optimization and characterization of the coatings was conducted by visual inspection and by adhesion strength tests. The optimized coatings were investigated in terms of their hydroxyapatite (HA forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF for up to 21 days. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy results showed the successful HA formation on the coatings after 21 days. The first investigations were conducted on planar stainless steel sheets. In addition, scaffolds made from a TiAl4V6 alloy were considered to show the feasibility of coating of three dimensional structures by EPD. Because both BG and chitosan are antibacterial materials, the antibacterial properties of the as-produced coatings were investigated using E. coli bacteria cells. It was shown that the BG particle size has a strong influence on the antibacterial properties of the coatings.

  5. Mechanism of the electrochemical deposition of samarium-based coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Edgar J. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Ortega-Borges, Raul [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Godinez, Luis A. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Chapman, Thomas W. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Meas-Vong, Yunny [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: yunnymeas@cideteq.mx

    2006-11-12

    Samarium-based films have been shown to form from aqueous solutions on the surfaces of metallic substrates such as steel or aluminum, and their presence has been reported to decrease substantially the corresponding corrosion rate of the underlying metallic substrate. Based on previous reports on the deposition of oxides or hydroxides of the closely related element cerium, this work demonstrates that samarium films are formed following a similar mechanism, which involves as the fundamental step an increase in interfacial pH resulting from cathodic oxygen-reduction or hydrogen-evolution reactions. With cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements, rotating-disk electrode (RDE) tests, and surface characterization techniques, namely, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray surface microanalysis (EDX), the postulated mechanism was verified, and the surface morphology of the resulting films was correlated with the nature of the reduction reaction that triggers film formation.

  6. Rapidly-Deposited Polydopamine Coating via High Temperature and Vigorous Stirring: Formation, Characterization and Biofunctional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Deng, Yi; Lyu, Beier; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Hai; Ma, Hongwei; Lyu, Yalin; Wei, Shicheng

    2014-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) coating provides a promising approach for immobilization of biomolecules onto almost all kinds of solid substrates. However, the deposition kinetics of PDA coating as a function of temperature and reaction method is not well elucidated. Since dopamine self-polymerization usually takes a long time, therefore, rapid-formation of PDA film becomes imperative for surface modification of biomaterials and medical devices. In the present study, a practical method for preparation of rapidly-deposited PDA coating was developed using a uniquely designed device, and the kinetics of dopamine self-polymerization was investigated by QCM sensor system. It was found that high temperature and vigorous stirring could dramatically speed up the formation of PDA film on QCM chip surface. Surface characterization, BSA binding study, cell viability assay and antibacterial test demonstrates that the polydopamine coating after polymerization for 30 min by our approach exhibits similar properties to those of 24 h counterpart. The method has a great potential for rapid-deposition of polydopamine films to modify biomaterial surfaces. PMID:25415328

  7. Rapidly-deposited polydopamine coating via high temperature and vigorous stirring: formation, characterization and biofunctional evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    Full Text Available Polydopamine (PDA coating provides a promising approach for immobilization of biomolecules onto almost all kinds of solid substrates. However, the deposition kinetics of PDA coating as a function of temperature and reaction method is not well elucidated. Since dopamine self-polymerization usually takes a long time, therefore, rapid-formation of PDA film becomes imperative for surface modification of biomaterials and medical devices. In the present study, a practical method for preparation of rapidly-deposited PDA coating was developed using a uniquely designed device, and the kinetics of dopamine self-polymerization was investigated by QCM sensor system. It was found that high temperature and vigorous stirring could dramatically speed up the formation of PDA film on QCM chip surface. Surface characterization, BSA binding study, cell viability assay and antibacterial test demonstrates that the polydopamine coating after polymerization for 30 min by our approach exhibits similar properties to those of 24 h counterpart. The method has a great potential for rapid-deposition of polydopamine films to modify biomaterial surfaces.

  8. Recent Advances in the Deposition of Diamond Coatings on Co-Cemented Tungsten Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Polini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-cemented tungsten carbides, namely, hard metals are largely used to manufacture high wear resistant components in several manufacturing segments. Coating hard metals with superhard materials like diamond is of utmost interest as it can further extend their useful lifespan. The deposition of diamond coatings onto WC-Co can be extremely complicated as a result of poor adhesion. This can be essentially ascribed to (i the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients between diamond and WC-Co, at the typical high temperatures inside the chemical vapour deposition (CVD chamber, generates large residual stresses at the interface; (ii the role of surface Co inside the WC-Co matrix during diamond CVD, which promotes carbon dissolution and diffusion. The present investigation reviews the techniques by which Co-cemented tungsten carbides can be treated to make them prone to receive diamond coatings by CVD. Further, it proposes interesting ecofriendly and sustainable alternatives to further improve the diamond deposition process as well as the overall performance of the coated hard metals.

  9. Biocompatibility of Titania Nanotube Coatings Enriched with Silver Nanograins by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Piszczek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity investigations of titania nanotube (TNT coatings enriched with silver nanograins (TNT/Ag have been carried out. TNT/Ag nanocomposite materials were produced by combining the electrochemical anodization and chemical vapor deposition methods. Fabricated coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. The release effect of silver ions from TNT/Ag composites immersed in bodily fluids, has been studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The metabolic activity assay (MTT was applied to determine the L929 murine fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on the surface of TNT/Ag coatings. Moreover, the results of immunoassays (using peripheral blood mononuclear cells—PBMCs isolated from rats allowed the estimation of the immunological activity of TNT/Ag surface materials. Antibacterial activity of TNT/Ag coatings with different morphological and structural features was estimated against two Staphylococcus aureus strains (ATCC 29213 and H9. The TNT/Ag nanocomposite layers produced revealed a good biocompatibility promoting the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. A desirable anti-biofilm activity against the S. aureus reference strain was mainly noticed for these TiO2 nanotube coatings, which contain dispersed Ag nanograins deposited on their surface.

  10. Bacterial adherence on fluorinated carbon based coatings deposited on polyethylene surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terriza, A; Del Prado, G; Perez, A Ortiz; Martinez, M J; Puertolas, J A; Manso, D Molina; Gonzalez-Elipe, A R; Yubero, F; Barrena, E Gomez; Esteban, J, E-mail: antonia.terriza@icmse.csic.es

    2010-11-01

    Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopaedic surgery. In this work we present a thorough study of several plasma based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond like carbon (DLC), fluorine doped DLC (F-DLC) and a high fluorine content carbon-fluor polymer (CF{sub X}). The study correlates the surface chemistry and hydrophobicity of the coating surfaces with their antibacterial performance. The coatings were deposited by RF-plasma assisted deposition at room temperature on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples. Fluorine content and relative amount of C-C and C-F bond types was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hydrophobicity by water contact angle measurements. Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to non-coated and coated UHMWPE samples was evaluated. Comparisons of the adherence performance were evaluated using a paired t test (two materials) and a Kruskall Wallis test (all the materials). S. aureus was statistically significant (p< 0.001) less adherent to DLC and F-DLC surfaces than S. epidermidis. Both bacteria showed reduction of adherence on DLC/UHMWPE. For S. aureus, reduction of bacterial adherence on F-DLC/UHMWPE was statistically significant respect to all other materials.

  11. Corrosion and wear behaviours of a reactive-sputter-deposited Ta2O5 nanoceramic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Jiang; Lu, Xiaolin; Hu, Dongsheng; Tao, Hongliang; Munroe, Paul; Xie, Zong-Han

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V, a novel β-Ta2O5 nanoceramic coating was synthesised using reactive sputter deposition enabled by double glow discharge plasma technique. The surface topography, chemical composition, and microstructure of the newly developed coating were characterised by a variety of surface analytical techniques. The coating microstructure was found to exhibit a compact striated pattern extending in a direction perpendicular to coating surface, which is composed of equiaxed β-Ta2O5 grains with an average grain size of ∼20 nm, well adhered to the Ti-6A1-4V substrate. The hardness and the Young's modulus of the as-deposited coating were obtained by nanoindentation, and the adhesion strength between the coating and substrate was determined by a scratch tester. The dry sliding wear behaviours of the coating were investigated at room temperature against Si3N4 ceramic balls at room temperature under applied loads ranging from 2.3 N to 5.3 N using a ball-on-disc tribometer. The specific wear rates of the coating exhibited only a slight increase with applied normal load, and were shown to be two orders of magnitude lower than that for Ti-6Al-4V under the same loading condition. Furthermore, the electrochemical behaviour of the coating immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was systematically examined by using a range of complementary electrochemical techniques including potentiodynamic polarisation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Mott-Schottky analysis as well as potential of zero charge (PZC). The results showed that the corrosion resistance of the β-Ta2O5 nanoceramic coating was better than that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Hence, by possessing higher mechanical properties and good wear and corrosion resistance, the β-Ta2O5 nanoceramic coating is considered to be a promising candidate for protection of engineering components operating under harsh conditions.

  12. Nano-Scale Structure Investigation of Vapour Deposited AlCrSiN Coating Using Transmission Electron Microscope Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukaszkowicz K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned the structural analysis of the AlCrSiN coating deposited by arc Physical Vapour Deposition method on the X40CrMoV5-1 hot work tool steel substrate. The deposition process was carried out on a device equipped with a technique of lateral, rotating cathodes. The nano/microstructure, phase identification and chemical state of the coating were analysed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the investigated coatings have nanostructured nature consisting of fine crystallites. The fractographic tests were made using the scanning electron microscope and allow to state, that the coating was deposited uniformly and tightly adhere to the substrate material. In the work is presented the nature of a transition zone between the produced AlCrSiN coating and substrate material.

  13. Antireflection Coatings for Strongly Curved Glass Lenses by Atomic Layer Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Pfeiffer; Ulrike Schulz; Andreas Tünnermann; Adriana Szeghalmi

    2017-01-01

    Antireflection (AR) coatings are indispensable in numerous optical applications and are increasingly demanded on highly curved optical components. In this work, optical thin films of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2 and Ta2O5 were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is based on self-limiting surface reactions leading to a uniform film thickness on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Al2O3/TiO2/SiO2 and Al2O3/Ta2O5/SiO2 AR coatings were successfully applied in the 400–750 nm and 400–700 nm spectral ran...

  14. Superhydrophobic photocatalytic PTFE – Titania coatings deposited by reactive pDC magnetron sputtering from a blended powder target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com; Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T.

    2017-04-01

    The production of photocatalytic coatings with superhydrophobic properties, as opposed to the conventional hydrophilic properties, is desirable for the prevention of adhesion of contaminants to photocatalytic surfaces with subsequent deterioration of photocatalytic properties. In this work polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) – TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were deposited using a novel method of reactive pulsed direct current (pDC) magnetron sputtering of a blended PTFE – titanium oxide powder target. The surface characteristics and photocatalytic properties of the deposited composite coatings were studied. The as-deposited coatings were annealed at 523 K in air and analysed with Raman spectroscopy, optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrophobicity was assessed though measurements of water contact angles, and photocatalytic properties were studied via methylene blue dye degradation under UV irradiation. It was found that variations of gas flow and, hence, process pressures allowed deposition of samples combining superhydrophobicity with stable photocatalytic efficiency under UV light irradiation. Reversible wettability behaviour was observed with the alternation of light-dark cycles. - Highlights: • PTFE-TiO{sub 2} coatings were deposited by pDC reactive magnetron sputtering. • Blended powder target was used for coatings deposition. • Deposited coatings combined superhydrophobic and photocatalytic properties. • Under UV irradiation coatings exhibited reversible wettability.

  15. Microstructural Effects and Properties of Non-line-of-Sight Coating Processing via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a unique processing method that bridges the gap between conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, and enables highly tailorable coatings composed of a variety of materials in thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures with modification of the processing conditions. The strengths of this processing technique are material and microstructural flexibility, deposition speed, and potential for non-line-of-sight (NLOS) capability by vaporization of the feedstock material. The NLOS capability of PS-PVD is investigated here using yttria-stabilized zirconia and gadolinium zirconate, which are materials of interest for turbine engine applications. PS-PVD coatings were applied to static cylindrical substrates approximately 6-19 mm in diameter to study the coating morphology as a function of angle. In addition, coatings were deposited on flat substrates under various impingement configurations. Impingement angle had significant effects on the deposition mode, and microscopy of coatings indicated that there was a shift in the deposition mode at approximately 90° from incidence on the cylindrical samples, which may indicate the onset of more turbulent flow and PVD-like growth. Coatings deposited at non-perpendicular angles exhibited a higher density and nearly a 2× improvement in erosion performance when compared to coatings deposited with the torch normal to the surface.

  16. Influence of Deposition Condition on Y2O3 Coatings Produced by Pulsed Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Miyazaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Y2O3 nanoparticle suspension aqueous solution was prepared using citric acid. Then, Y2O3 film was deposited using this solution with pulsed electrophoretic deposition (EPD. A dense Y2O3 film of 25.7 μm thickness was obtained with deposition conditions of 0.5 wt% Y2O3 concentration, bias voltage of 0.5 V, and bias frequency of 1 kHz. The respective resistivities of the as-deposited film and films heat-treated at 200°C and 400°C were 2.84 × 103 Ω·cm, 5.36 × 104 Ω·cm, and 2.05 × 106 Ω·cm. A 59.8 μm thick dense Y2O3 film was obtained using two-step deposition with change of the bias voltage: a first step of 0.5 V and a second step of 2.0 V.

  17. Pulsed laser deposition of zinc ferrite coatings on SS316 and characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramohan, P.; Chandran, S.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V. [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnan, R.; Dash, S. [IGCAR, Materials Science Group, Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Primary heat transport system in BWR and PWR releases mainly nickel and iron as the corrosion materials which get deposited on fuel clad and get activated in core and released to ex-core as Co-58 and Co-60 resulting in the incorporation of these on spinals leading to more than 90% activity. A non-radioactive element which is capable of reducing the corrosion release rate and minimize the crud deposits on fuel clad will help to bring down the surface contamination. In BWR and PWR, on PHT SS surfaces, the incorporation of Zn ions in ferrite lattice brings down corrosion rate and {sup 60}Co activity pick up considerably. Zinc, due to its higher stabilization energy, gets preferentially incorporated in the inner chromite layers compared with other elements and make the inner oxide layer more corrosion protective. An attempt has been made to prepare zinc ferrite (used as target) coating by pulse laser deposition technique on AISI 316 SS (substrate) using Nd-YAG laser (λ-1064nm; pulse width - 5 ns; pulse energy- 500 mJ; repetition rate - 10 Hz) at various temperatures ranging from 298K to 973K and at different pressures ranging from 10{sup -6} mbar to 10{sup -1}mbar. The synthesis of zinc ferrite coating by PLD causes a reduction in crystallite size. This is expected to help in better corrosion protection and reduced activity pick up. The coating thickness and surface roughness were measured using a surface profilometer and found to be ∼500nm and ∼40nm, respectively. The zinc ferrite coating prepared at 298K showed characteristic XRD pattern for pure zinc ferrite. The coating developed at higher temperatures showed a mixture of zinc ferrite and iron oxide phases. The Electrochemical impedance studies were carried out on these films at room temperature. Increase in the film deposition temperature shows decrease in the pore resistance R{sub p} and charge transfer resistance R{sub ct} of the films. Film formed with different pressure conditions show decrease in the

  18. Microstructures and Wear Performance of PTAW Deposited Ni-Based Coatings with Spherical Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewei Deng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-based coatings with different content of spherical tungsten carbide were deposited by plasma transfer arc welding (PTAW method on 304 austenitic stainless steel sheets in this study. The microstructure and wear property of spherical tungsten carbide particle reinforced composite coatings were investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and sliding wear test. It is shown that the fraction of spherical tungsten carbides has an important influence on microstructure of Ni-based overlay. The Ni40 overlay consists of γ-Ni dendrites with interdendritic Ni-based eutectics, borides and carbides improving the wear resistance. In the case of composite coatings with different content of tungsten carbide, many new phases are observed, such as Ni2W4C and NiW. In addition, there are a large number of irregular structures in composite coatings, such as acicular structure and irregular stripe organization. The results of sliding wear test indicate that the mass loss of coatings is influenced by the content of tungsten carbide. The mass loss decreases with the increase of tungsten carbide fraction. At high load, the abrasive resistance of composite coating with 60 wt. % tungsten carbide is improved about 50-fold compared to that of Ni40 overlay.

  19. Hydroxyapatite coating on cobalt alloys using electrophoretic deposition method for bone implant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminatun; M, Shovita; I, Chintya K.; H, Dyah; W, Dwi

    2017-05-01

    Damage on bone due to osteoporosis and cancer triggered high demand for bone implant prosthesis which is a permanent implant. Thus, a prosthesis coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) is required because it is osteoconductive that can trigger the growth of osteoblast cells. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of HA suspension in terms of the surface morphology, coating thickness, adhesion strength and corrosion rate resulting in the HA coating with the best characteristics for bone implant. Coating using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method with concentrations of 0.02M, 0.04M, 0.06M, 0.08M, and 0.1M was performed on the voltage and time of 120V and 30 minutes respectively. The process was followed by sintering at the temperature of 900 °C for 10 minutes. The results showed that the concentration of HA suspension influences the thickness and the adhesion of layer of HA. The higher the concentration of HA-ethanol suspension the thicker the layer of HA, but its coating adhesion strength values became lower. The concentration of HA suspension of 0.04 M is the best concentration, with characteristics that meet the standards of the bone implant prosthesis. The characteristics are HA coating thickness of 199.93 ± 4.85 μm, the corrosion rate of 0.0018 mmpy and adhesion strength of 4.175 ± 0.716 MPa.

  20. Multi-Length Scale Tribology of Electrophoretically Deposited Nickel-Diamond Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shikha; Goel, Sneha; Pandey, Chandra Prabha; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-02-01

    Electrophoretically deposited (EPD) nickel and its composite coatings are widely used to enhance the life span of continuous ingot casting molds in the steel, aerospace and automotive industries. This article reports the effect of different concentrations of diamond particles (2.5-10 g/L) on the wear mechanism of EPD Ni. The distribution of diamond particles in the Ni matrix was observed using Voronoi tessellation. Variation in COF was observed by a fretting wear test to be 0.51 ± 0.07 for Ni, which decreases to 0.35 ± 0.03 for the Ni-diamond coatings. The wear volume of the coatings with 7.5 g/L concentration of diamond was observed to be a minimum (0.051 ± 0.02 × 10-3 mm3) compared with other composite coatings. Further, the micro-scratch testing of the coatings also exhibited a reduced COF (0.03-0.12) for 7.5 g/L diamond concentration compared with Ni (0.08-0.13). Higher wear resistance of the diamond-added coatings (optimum 7.5 g/L concentration) is due to the balance between the dispersion strengthening mechanism and the enhancement of the load-bearing capacity due to the incorporation of diamond particles. Thus, these composites can be used for applications in automotive and aerospace industries.

  1. Thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades: Chemical vapor deposition (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumenov, I. K.; Aksenov, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Schemes are presented for experimental setups (reactors) developed at leading scientific centers connected with the development of technologies for the deposition of coatings using the CVD method: at the Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany), the French Aerospace Research Center, the Materials Research Institute (Tohoku University, Japan) and the National Laboratory Oak Ridge (USA). Conditions and modes for obtaining the coatings with high operational parameters are considered. It is established that the formed thermal barrier coatings do not fundamentally differ in their properties (columnar microstructure, thermocyclic resistance, thermal conductivity coefficient) from standard electron-beam condensates, but the highest growth rates and the perfection of the crystal structure are achieved in the case of plasma-chemical processes and in reactors with additional laser or induction heating of a workpiece. It is shown that CVD reactors can serve as a basis for the development of rational and more advanced technologies for coating gas turbine blades that are not inferior to standard electron-beam plants in terms of the quality of produced coatings and have a much simpler and cheaper structure. The possibility of developing a new technology based on CVD processes for the formation of thermal barrier coatings with high operational parameters is discussed, including a set of requirements for industrial reactors, high-performance sources of vapor precursors, and promising new materials.

  2. Tungsten oxide coatings deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor for detection of nitrogen dioxide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangc@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Wang, Jie [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2016-05-25

    Increasing attention has been paid on preparation methods for resistive-type gas sensors based on semiconductor metal oxides. In this work, tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) coatings were prepared on alumina substrates and used as gas sensitive layers. The coatings were deposited by atmospheric plasma spray using powder, solution precursor, or a combination of both. Tungsten oxide powder through a powder port and ammonium tungstate aqueous solution through a liquid port were injected into plasma stream respectively or together to deposit WO{sub 3} coatings. Phase structures in the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyzer. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that the coatings were in microstructure, nanostructure or micro-nanostructure. The sensing properties of the sensors based on the coatings exposed to 1 ppm nitrogen dioxide gas were characterized in a home-made instrument. Sensing properties of the coatings were compared and discussed. The influences of gas humidity and working temperature on the sensor responses were further studied. - Highlights: • Porous gas sensitive coatings were deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor. • Crystallized WO{sub 3} were obtained through hybrid plasma spray plus a pre-conditioned step. • Plasma power had an important influence on coating microstructure. • The particle size of atmospheric plasma-sprayed microstructured coating was stable. • Solution precursor plasma-sprayed WO{sub 3} coatings had nanostructure and showed good responses to 1 ppm NO{sub 2}.

  3. Tantalum Coating of Steel, Copper, Aluminum, and Titanium by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Bjerrum, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Tantalum coatings ranging from 0.5 to 120 mm has been deposited by CVD at 625-1000 C using tantalum pentachloride as precursor. Deposition rates range from 1 to 80mm/h and an activation energy of 103 kJ/mole is calculated. Well adhering deposits has been obtained on stainless steel, carbon steels......, nickel, copper, titanium and aluminum. Calculation of the equilibrium composition of Ta-Cl-H-systems at 1000 K and 1100 K shows that TaCl4 and TaCl3 are stable at the deposition conditions and that a high yield (>90%) of tantalum is theoretically obtainable at low pressure (5 mbar) and moderate precursor...

  4. Chemical vapour deposition diamond coating on tungsten carbide dental cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, H.; Ahmed, W.; Rego, C. A.; Jones, A. N.; Amar, M.; Jackson, M.; Polini, R.

    2003-10-01

    Diamond coatings on Co cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) hard metal tools are widely used for cutting non-ferrous metals. It is difficult to deposit diamond onto cutting tools, which generally have a complex geometry, using a single step growth process. This paper focuses on the deposition of polycrystalline diamond films onto dental tools, which possess 3D complex or cylindrical shape, employing a novel single step chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth process. The diamond deposition is carried out in a hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) reactor with a modified filament arrangement. The filament is mounted vertically with the drill held concentrically in between the filament coils, as opposed to the commonly used horizontal arrangement. This is a simple and inexpensive filament arrangement. In addition, the problems associated with adhesion of diamond films on WC-Co substrates are amplified in dental tools due to the very sharp edges and unpredictable cutting forces. The presence of Co, used as a binder in hard metals, generally causes poor adhesion. The amount of metallic Co on the surface can be reduced using a two step pre-treatment employing Murakami etching followed by an acid treatment. Diamond films are examined in terms of their growth rate, morphology, adhesion and cutting efficiency. We found that in the diamond coated dental tool the wear rate was reduced by a factor of three as compared to the uncoated tool.

  5. Comparative study of niobium nitride coatings deposited by unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota Colombia (Colombia); Rodil, S.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: muhl@servidor.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) coatings have many interesting properties such as chemical inertness, excellent mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity, high melting point, and a superconducting transition temperature between 16 and 17 K. For this reason, these compounds have many potential thin film applications. In this work we compare the properties of NbN{sub x} films deposited using well-characterized balanced and unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems. Samples of NbN were deposited in the two systems under almost identical deposition conditions, that is, the same substrate temperature, plasma power, gas pressure, substrate to target distance and Ar/N{sub 2} ratio. Prior to the film preparation both the magnetic field geometry and the characteristics of the plasma were determined. The microstructure and composition of the deposits were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance and the micro-abrasion wear resistance were measured by anodic polarization potentiodynamic studies and by ball cratering, respectively. The NbN films grown using the highly unbalanced magnetron configuration had a preferential (111) crystal orientation and a composite hardness of up to 2400 HV{sub 0.025}. While the films deposited using the balanced magnetron had a mixed crystalline orientation and a hardness of 2000 HV{sub 0.025}. The results demonstrate the strong effect of magnetic field configuration on the ion bombardment, and the resultant coating characteristics.

  6. Mechanistic Study on the Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings Induced by Volcanic Ash Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masayuki

    2017-08-01

    Thermal stress generated on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by volcanic ash (VA) deposition was assessed measuring the tip deflection of a multilayered beam structure as a function of temperature. The TBC in this study was deposited onto the surface of a blade utilized in a land-based gas turbine which is composed of 8 wt.%Y2O3-ZrO2/CoNiCrAlY on a Ni-based superalloy. The VA-deposited TBC sample was heated at 1453 K, and the effect of VA deposition on TBC delamination was examined in comparison with a TBC sample without VA deposition as a reference. On the basis of the VA attack damage mechanism which was investigated via the tip deflection measurement and a comprehensive microstructure examination, a damage-coupled constitutive model was proposed. The proposed model was based on the infiltration of the molten VA inside pores and phase transformations of yttria -tabilized zirconia in the TBC system. The numerical analysis results, which were simulated utilizing the finite element code installing the developed constitutive model, showed us that VA attack on the TBC sample induced near-interfacial cracks because of a significant increasing in the coating stress.

  7. Studies on spin coated PANI/PMMA composite thin film: Effect of post-deposition heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, J.B.; Patil, R.B. [Vacuum Techniques and Thin Film Laboratory, USIC, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MS (India); Puri, R.K. [Vacuum Techniques and Thin Film Laboratory, USIC, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MS (India)], E-mail: rkp_usic@unishivaji.ac.in; Puri, Vijaya [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

    2008-12-30

    Adhesion, structural and optical properties of spin coated PANI/PMMA composite thin films of different composition on glass substrate are reported. The effect of post-deposition heating for 100 deg. C, 125 deg. C and 150 deg. C is also reported. The adhesion of the film was found to increase from 712 {+-} 5 x 104 N/m{sup 2} to 1602 {+-} 3 x 10{sup 4} N/m{sup 2} and refractive index decreased from 1.852 {+-} 0.005 to 1.650 {+-} 0.004 with increase in concentration of PMMA. Due to post-deposition heating adhesion, optical band gap increased but refractive index decreased.

  8. Effect of the deposition temperature on corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the hydroxyapatite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladescu, A., E-mail: alinava@inoe.ro [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele (Romania); Braic, M. [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele (Romania); Azem, F. Ak [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Buca-Izmir (Turkey); Titorencu, I. [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology Nicolae Simionescu of the Romanian Academy, 8 B.P.Hasdeu, Bucharest (Romania); Braic, V. [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele (Romania); Pruna, V. [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology Nicolae Simionescu of the Romanian Academy, 8 B.P.Hasdeu, Bucharest (Romania); Kiss, A. [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele (Romania); Parau, A.C.; Birlik, I. [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Buca-Izmir (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite has been produced at temperature from 400 to 800 °C by magnetron sputtering. • Hydroxyapatite crystallinity is improved by increasing substrate temperature. • The increase of substrate temperature resulted in corrosion resistance increasing. • The coating shows high growth of the osteosarcoma cells over a wide temperature range. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramics belong to a class of calcium phosphate-based materials, which have been widely used as coatings on titanium medical implants in order to improve bone fixation and thus to increase the lifetime of the implant. In this study, HAP coatings were deposited from pure HAP targets on Ti6Al4V substrates using the radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique at substrate temperatures ranging from 400 to 800 °C. The surface morphology and the crystallographic structure of the films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the coatings in saliva solution at 37 °C was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization. Additionally, the human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63) was used to test the biocompatibility of the coatings. The results showed that all of the coatings grown uniformly and that the increasing substrate temperature induced an increase in their crystallinity. Corrosion performance of the coatings was improved with the increase of the substrate temperature from 400 °C to 800 °C. Furthermore, all the coatings support the attachment and growth of the osteosarcoma cells with regard to the in vitro test findings.

  9. Wet and dry atmospheric deposition on TiO{sub 2} coated glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabas, Anne, E-mail: anne.chabas@lisa.univ-paris12.f [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Universite Paris 12, Universite Paris 7, CNRS, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France); Gentaz, Lucile; Lombardo, Tiziana; Sinegre, Romain [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Universite Paris 12, Universite Paris 7, CNRS, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France); Falcone, Roberto [Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro, Calle Briati 10, 30141 Murano, Venezia (Italy); Verita, Marco [Laboratorio di Analisi dei Materiali Antichi LAMA, Universita IUAV di Venezia, S. Polo 2648, 30125 Venezia (Italy); Cachier, Helene [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CNRS-CEA, Orme des Merisiers, bat 701, 91191Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2010-12-15

    To prevent the soiling of glass window used in the built environment, the use TiO{sub 2} coated products appears an important application matter. To test the cleaning efficiency and the sustainability of self-cleaning glass, a field experiment was conducted under real life condition, on a site representative of the background urban pollution. Samples of float glass, used as reference, and commercialized TiO{sub 2} coated glasses were exposed to dry and wet atmospheric deposition during two years. The crossed optical, chemical and microscopic evaluations performed, after withdrawal, allowed highlighting a sensible difference between the reference and the self-cleaning substrate in terms of accumulation, nature, abundance and geometry of the deposit. This experiment conducted in real site emphasized on the efficacy of self-cleaning glass to reduce the maintenance cost. - This paper evaluates the self-cleaning glass efficiency highlighting its ability to prevent soiling and to be used as a mean of remediation.

  10. Morphology control in thin films of PS:PLA homopolymer blends by dip-coating deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital, Alexane [Interfaces, Confinement, Matériaux et Nanostructures (ICMN), CNRS-Université d’Orléans, UMR 7374, 1B Rue de la Férollerie, C.S. 40059, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Groupe de recherches sur l’énergétique des milieux ionisés (GREMI), CNRS-Université d’Orléans, UMR 7344, 14 rue d' Issoudun, B.P. 6744, F45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Vayer, Marylène [Interfaces, Confinement, Matériaux et Nanostructures (ICMN), CNRS-Université d’Orléans, UMR 7374, 1B Rue de la Férollerie, C.S. 40059, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Tillocher, Thomas; Dussart, Rémi [Groupe de recherches sur l’énergétique des milieux ionisés (GREMI), CNRS-Université d’Orléans, UMR 7344, 14 rue d' Issoudun, B.P. 6744, F45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Boufnichel, Mohamed [STMicroelectronics, 16, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, B.P. 7155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • A process to control the morphology of polymer blends thin film is described. • It is based on the use of dip-coating at various withdrawal speeds. • The process is examined within the capillary and the draining regimes. • The final dried morphology is controlled by the regime of deposition. • This study is of high interest for the preparation of advanced functional surfaces. - Abstract: In this work, smooth polymer films of PS, PLA and their blends, with thicknesses ranging from 20 nm up to 400 nm and very few defects on the surface were obtained by dip-coating. In contrast to the process of spin-coating which is conventionally used to prepare thin films of polymer blends, we showed that depending on the deposition parameters (withdrawal speed and geometry of the reservoir), various morphologies such as layered films and laterally phase-separated domains could be formed for a given blend/solvent pair, offering much more opportunities compared to the spin-coating process. This diversity of morphologies was explained by considering the superposition of different phenomena such as phase separation process, dewetting and vitrification in which parameters such as the drying time, the compatibility of the polymer/solvent pairs and the affinity of the polymer towards the interfaces were suspected to play a significant role. For that purpose, the process of dip-coating was examined within the capillary and the draining regimes (for low and high withdrawal speed respectively) in order to get a full description of the thickness variation and evaporation rate as a function of the deposition parameters.

  11. Standard specification for pyrolytic and vacuum deposition coatings on flat glass

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the optical and aesthetic quality requirements for coatings applied to glass for use in building glazing. 1.2 The coatings covered are applied to the glass using either pyrolytic or vacuum (sputtering) deposition methods and are typically applied to control solar heat gain, energy performance, comfort level, and condensation and enhance the aesthetic of the building. 1.3 This specification addresses blemishes related to the coating only. It does not address glass blemishes, applied ceramic frits, and organic films. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

  12. Effect of gas ratio on tribological properties of sputter deposited TiN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Mahesh R., E-mail: maheshchavda1990@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology, Mogar-388340 (India); Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Rawal, Sushant K., E-mail: sushantrawal.me@charusat.ac.in [CHAMOS Matrusanstha Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chandubhai S. Patel Institute of Technology, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Changa-388421 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings were deposited on Si, corning glass, pins of mild steel (MS, ϕ3mm), aluminium (Al, ϕ4mm) and brass (ϕ6mm) substratesby DC magnetron sputtering. The argon and nitrogen (Ar:N{sub 2})gas ratio was precisely controlled by Mass Flow Controller (MFC) and was varied systematically at diffract values of 10:10,12:08, 16:04 and 18:02sccm. The structural properties of TiN coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its surface topography was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The tribological properties of TiN coatings were investigated using pin-on-disc tribometer.

  13. Sol-gel synthesis of 45S5 bioglass – Prosthetic coating by electrophoretic deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faure Joel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the 45S5 bioactive glass has been prepared by the sol-gel process using an organic acid catalyst instead of nitric acid usually used. The physico-chemical and structural characterizations confirmed and validated the elemental composition of the resulting glass. In addition, the 45S5 bioactive glass powder thus obtained was successfully used to elaborate by electrophoretic deposition a prosthetic coating on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V.

  14. Fabrication of black-gold coatings by glancing angle deposition with sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Vitrey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of black-gold coatings using sputtering is reported here. Glancing angle deposition with a rotating substrate is needed to obtain vertical nanostructures. Enhanced light absorption is obtained in the samples prepared in the ballistic regime with high tilt angles. Under these conditions the diameter distribution of the nanostructures is centered at about 60 nm and the standard deviation is large enough to obtain black-metal behavior in the visible range.

  15. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Antimicrobial Silver Coating on Ormocer® Microneedles

    OpenAIRE

    Gittard, SD; Narayan, RJ; Jin, C.; Ovsianikov, A.; Chichkov, BN; Monteiro-Riviere, NA; Stafslien, S; Chisholm, B

    2009-01-01

    One promising option for transdermal delivery of protein- and nucleic acid-based pharmacologic agents involves the use of microneedles. However, microneedle-generated pores may allow microorganisms to penetrate the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis and cause local or systemic infection. In this study, microneedles with antimicrobial functionality were fabricated using two photon polymerization-micromolding and pulsed laser deposition. The antibacterial activity of the silver-coated organ...

  16. Synthesis of photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} nano-coatings by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraters, Bindikt D. [Photo Catalytic Synthesis Group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Cavaliere, Emanuele [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica and Interdisciplinary Laboratories for Advanced Materials Physics (i-Lamp), Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via dei Musei 41, Brescia 25121 (Italy); Mul, Guido [Photo Catalytic Synthesis Group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Gavioli, Luca, E-mail: luca.gavioli@unicatt.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica and Interdisciplinary Laboratories for Advanced Materials Physics (i-Lamp), Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via dei Musei 41, Brescia 25121 (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of well-defined TiO{sub 2} coatings by supersonic cluster beam deposition. • Morphology is studied for samples annealed at 500, 650 and 800 °C by HR-SEM. • Anatase (500, 650 °C) and Rutile (800 °C) are observed by Raman spectroscopy. • Quartz support improved the coating activity by factor 4–6 compared to Si-wafer. • Silicon is detrimental for photocatalytic activity promoting charge recombination. - Abstract: In this paper we report on the photocatalytic behavior in gas phase propane oxidation of well-defined TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle (NP) coatings prepared via Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD) on Si-wafers and quartz substrates. The temperature dependent crystal phase of the coatings was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, and the morphology by High Resolution-Scanning Electron Microscopy. SCBD deposition in the presence of oxygen enables the in situ synthesis of TiO{sub 2} layers of amorphous NP at room temperature. Adapting the deposition temperature to 500 °C or 650 °C leads to Anatase crystals of variable size ranges, and layers showing significant porosity. At 800 °C mainly Rutile is formed. Post annealing by wafer heating of the amorphous NP prepared at room temperature results in comparable temperature dependent phases and morphologies. Photocatalytic activity in propane oxidation was dependent on the morphology of the samples: the activity decreases as a function of increasing particle size. The presence of water vapor in the propane feed generally increased the activity of the wafer-heated samples, suggesting OH groups are not profoundly present on SCBD synthesized layers. In addition, a remarkable effect of the substrate (Si or Quartz) was observed: strong interaction between Si and TiO{sub 2} is largely detrimental for photocatalytic activity. The consequences of these findings for the application of SCBD to synthesize samples for fundamental (spectroscopic) study of photocatalysis are

  17. Electrochemically deposited gentamicin-loaded calcium phosphate coatings for bone tissue integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Lina; Visai, Livia; Bloise, Nora; Arciola, Carla Renata; Ulivi, Lorenzo; Candiani, Gabriele; Cigada, Alberto; Chiesa, Roberto; De Nardo, Luigi

    2012-10-01

    Despite improvements in operative environment and surgical techniques, post-operative infections remain one of the most devastating complications in total joint replacement prostheses. Several efforts have been made to modify the surface of materials in order to prevent bacterial adhesion and colonization. Here, we show a one-pot electrochemical surface modification process for co-deposition of calcium phosphate and gentamicin, with the aim of triggering specific biological responses and imparting antibacterial properties on titanium alloy prostheses. Gentamicin-loaded calcium phosphate coatings were deposited on Ti specimens via cathodic polarization in an electrochemical bath containing different amounts of the antibiotic salt (1-10 mg mL-1). Coatings were evaluated in terms of chemico-physical properties, via SEM/EDX, XRD, and ICP analysis, and antibacterial activity, via agar disc diffusion test on Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 and Staphylococcus aureus SA113. An effective incorporation of gentamicin was achieved without any major effect on the morphology and structure. Morphology resulted in a typical plate-like brushite structure, confirmed by chemical composition and crystallographic structure. Gentamicin-loaded coatings showed an antibacterial efficacy on both staphlococcal strains, with a dose-dependent activity. Electrochemical technology can be advantageously exploited in order to obtain coatings for bone-contact prostheses with tailored antibacterial properties.

  18. Thermochemical hydrogen sensor based on Pt-coated nanofiber catalyst deposited on pyramidally textured thermoelectric film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seil; Song, Yoseb; Lee, Young-In; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The hydrogen gas-sensing performance has been systemically investigated of a new type of thermochemical hydrogen (TCH) sensor, composed of pyramidally textured thermoelectric (TE) film and catalytic Pt-coated nanofibers (NFs) deposited over the TE film. The TE film was composed of stoichiometric Bi2Te3, synthesized by means of cost-effective electrochemical deposition onto a textured silicon wafer. The resulting pyramidally textured TE film played a critical role in maximizing hydrogen gas flow around the overlying Pt NFs, which were synthesized by means of electrospinning followed by sputtering and acted as a heating catalyst. The optimal temperature increase of the Pt NFs was determined by means of optimizations of the electrospinning and sputtering durations. The output voltage signal of the optimized TCH sensor based on Pt NFs was 17.5 times higher than that of a Pt thin film coated directly onto the pyramidal TE material by using the same sputtering duration, under the fixed conditions of 3 vol% H2 in air at room temperature. This observation can be explained by the increased surface area of (111) planes accessible on the Pt-coated NFs. The best response time and recovery time observed for the optimized TCH sensor based on Pt-coated NFs were respectively 17 and 2 s under the same conditions. We believe that this type of TCH sensor can be widely used for supersensitive hydrogen gas detection by employing small-size Pt NFs and various chalcogenide thin films with high thermoelectric performance.

  19. Protective coating of inner surface of steel tubes via vacuum arc deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, K.; Roos, E.; Lyutovich, A.; Boese, J.; Itskov, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA); Ashurov, Kh.; Mirkarimov, A.; Kazantsev, S.; Kadirov, Kh. [Uzbek Academy of Science, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Arifov Inst. of Electronics

    2010-07-01

    The Vacuum Arc Deposition (VAD) technique based on sputtering a chosen electrode material and its deposition via plasma allows highly-productive technology for creating a wide class of protecting coatings on complex structures. In this work, VAD was applied as a method for the protection of the inner surface of tubes for power-plant boilers against steam oxidation. For this aim, a source cathode of an alloy with high chromium and nickel content was employed in two different VAD treatment systems: a horizontal vacuum chamber (MPA) and a vertical system where the work-piece of the tubes to be protected served as a vacuum changer (Arifov Institute of Electronics). Surface coating with variation of deposition parameters and layer thickness was performed. Characterisation of coated tubes has shown that the method realised in this work allows attainment of material transfer from the cathode to the inner surface with nearly equal chemical composition. It was demonstrated that the initial martensitic structure of the tubes was kept after the vacuum-arc treatment which can provide for both the high mechanical robustness and the corrosion-resistance of the final material. (orig.)

  20. Natural Deposit Coatings on Steel during Cathodic Protection and Hydrogen Ingress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The calcareous coating formed during cathodic protection (CP in seawater is known to reduce the current demand by hindering the transport of species required to support the cathodic reactions and, thereby, improve the economic performance of CP systems. There is, however, uncertainty as to whether the coating reduces hydrogen uptake or indeed enhances it. To ascertain this, two sets of samples were polarized at −1.1 V (standard calomel electrode, SCE in 3.5% w/v NaCl and synthetic seawater (ASTM D1141 at 20 °C and the diffusible hydrogen content measured over a period of 530 h. Under such conditions reports suggest a deposit with two distinct layers, comprising an initial brucite layer followed by an aragonite layer. Contrary to other findings, a fine initial layer containing Ca and Mg followed by a brucite layer was deposited with a few specks of Ca-containing zones in synthetic seawater. The hydrogen uptake was found to occur within the initial 100 h of exposure in synthetic seawater whilst it continued without the benefit of a deposit coating, i.e., in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution.

  1. Characterization of Copper Coatings Deposited by High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray for Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimijazi, H. R.; Aghaee, M.; Salehi, M.; Garcia, E.

    2017-11-01

    Copper coatings were deposited on steel substrates by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying. The microstructure of the feedstock copper powders and free-standing coatings were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction pattern was utilized to determine phase compositions of powders and coatings. Oxygen content was determined by a LECO-T300 oxygen determiner. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured in two directions, through-thickness and in-plane by laser flash apparatus. The electrical resistivity of the coatings was measured by the four-point probe method. Oxygen content of the coatings was two times higher than that of the initial powders (0.35-0.37%). The thermal and electrical conductivities of the coatings were different depending on the direction of the measurement. The thermal and electrical conductivity of the coatings improved after annealing for 6 h at a temperature of 600°C.

  2. Enhanced field electron emission of graphene sheets by CsI coating after electrophoretic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianlong; Zeng, Baoqing; Wu, Zhe; Sun, Hao

    2012-03-01

    Because of the large quantities of edges, graphene can serve as an efficient edge emitter for field emission (FE). Cesium iodide (CsI) coating was promising to enhance the electron emission and utilized in FE applications. In this work, FE of graphene sheets after electrophoretic deposition (ED) was studied. Electron emission property of GS was obviously improved by coating with CsI. The turn-on field of GS decreased from 4.4 to 2.5 V/ μm; and threshold field decreased from 9 to 5.8 V/μm, respectively. This FE improvement must due to a higher effective density of emission site generated around the GS surface after coating. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and computation were taken to reveal the influence after coating. Investigations of CsI coated MWCNTs were also compared in order to better understand the origin of the low turn-on electric field obtained by GS. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  3. Stabilization of soybean oil bodies using protective pectin coatings formed by electrostatic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Daigo; Gray, David; Decker, Eric Andrew; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2008-03-26

    Soybeans contain oil bodies that are naturally coated by a layer of phospholipids and proteins. In nature, this coating protects the oil bodies from environmental stresses and could be utilized by food manufacturers for the same purpose. However, natural oil bodies are physically unstable to aggregation because of the relatively weak electrostatic repulsion between them, which limits their application in many foods. In this study, oil bodies were extracted from soybean using an aqueous extraction method and then coated by a pectin layer using electrostatic deposition. The influence of NaCl (0-500 mM), pH (2-8), and freeze-thaw cycling (-20 degrees C, 22 h/40 degrees C, 2 h) on the properties and stability of the oil bodies coated by the pectin layer was analyzed using zeta-potential, particle size, and creaming stability measurements. These results suggest that pectin-coated oil bodies have similar or improved stability compared to uncoated oil bodies and may provide a new way of creating functional soy products for use in the food and other industries.

  4. Sensing behavior study of silica-coated Ag nanoparticles deposited on glassy carbon toward nitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Pooja; Reddy, Pramod [CSIR, Sector-30C, Central Scientific Instruments Organization (India); Arora, Swati [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University (India); Singh, Suman; Ghanshyam, C.; Singla, M. L., E-mail: singla_min@yahoo.co.in [CSIR, Sector-30C, Central Scientific Instruments Organization (India)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of silica-coated silver core/shell nanostructures (NSs) and their sensing behavior when deposited on glassy carbon (GC) electrode for nitrobenzene (NB) detection. Synthesized silica-coated silver core/shell NSs were characterized for their chemical, structural and morphological properties. TEM analysis confirmed that the silica-coated silver nanoparticles (size {approx}200 nm) are spherical in shape and the core diameter is {approx}38 nm. FT-IR spectra also confirmed the coating of silica on the surface of silver nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry studies of NB with silica-coated silver core-shell nanoparticles-modified GC electrodes revealed two cathodic peaks at -0.74 V (C{sub 1}) and -0.34 V (C{sub 2}) along with two anodic peaks at -0.64 V (A{sub 1}) and -0.2 V (A{sub 2}). Enhanced cathodic peak current (C{sub 1}, I{sub P}) of the core-shell NSs-modified electrode is observed relative to bare and silica-modified electrodes. Amperometric studies revealed a very high current sensitivity (114 nA/nM) and linearly dependent reduction current with NB amount in the low concentration range and a detection limit of 25 nM. Moreover, the core-shell NSs-modified electrode showed good reproducibility and selectivity toward NB in the presence of many cationic, anionic, and organic interferents.

  5. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF{sub 2} conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  6. Cold Spray Deposition of Ni and WC-Reinforced Ni Matrix Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidokht, S. A.; Vo, P.; Yue, S.; Chromik, R. R.

    2017-09-01

    Ni-WC composites are ideal protective coatings against wear and are often fabricated using laser cladding and thermal spray processes, but the high temperatures of these processes result in decarburization, which deteriorates the performance of the coating. Cold spray has the potential to deposit Ni-WC composite coatings and retain the composition of the initial WC feedstock. However, the insignificant plastic deformation of hard WC particles makes it difficult to build up a high WC content coating by cold spray. By using three different WC powder sizes, the effect of feedstock powder size on WC retention was tested. To improve WC retention, a WC/Ni composite powder in mixture with Ni was also sprayed. Microstructural characterization, including the deformed structure of Ni splats, retention, distribution, and fragmentation of WC, was performed by scanning electron microscopy. An improvement in WC retention was achieved using finer WC particles. Significant improvement in WC particles retention was achieved using WC/Ni composite powder, with the WC content in the coating being close to that of the feedstock.

  7. Some Properties of Platinum and Palladium Modified Aluminide Coatings Deposited by CVD Method on Nickel-Base Superalloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zagula-Yavorska, M; Sieniawski, J; Gancarczyk, T

    2012-01-01

    In the paper some functional properties (hardness and oxidation resistance) of platinum and palladium modified aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD method on a nickel-based superalloy were determined...

  8. Structure of anodized Al–Zr sputter deposited coatings and effect on optical appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Canulescu, Stela [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Shabadi, Rajashekhara [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, Université Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve ‘Ascq (France); Rechendorff, Kristian [Tribology Centre, Danish Technological Institute, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology, DK-2800 Kgs., Lyngby (Denmark); Ambat, Rajan, E-mail: ram@mek.dtu.dk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Microstructure of magnetron sputtered Al–Zr coatings on AA6060 under as coated and heat treated condition. • Effect of heat treatment and precipitation of Al–Zr–Si (τ{sub 1}) phase on optical appearance of anodized layer. • Partial oxidation of τ{sub 1} precipitates after anodizing and relation to darkening of the anodized layer. • Oxidized region of τ{sub 1} precipitates was amorphous while unoxidized region retained crystallinity. • Unoxidized metallic τ{sub 1} in amorphous anodic alumina acts as light absorption centres and causes darkening after anodizing. - Abstract: The mechanism of interaction of light with the microstructure of anodized layer giving specific optical appearance is investigated using Al–Zr sputter deposited coating as a model system on an AA6060 substrate. Differences in the oxidative nature of various microstructural components result in the evolution of typical features in the anodized layer, which are investigated as a function of microstructure and correlated with its optical appearance. The Zr concentration in the coating was varied from 6 wt.% to 23 wt.%. Heat treatment of the coated samples was carried out at 550 °C for 4 h in order to evolve Al–Zr based second phase precipitates in the microstructure. Anodizing was performed using 20 wt.% sulphuric acid at 18 °C with an intention to study the effect of anodizing on the Al–Zr based precipitates in the coating. Detailed microstructural characterization of the coating and anodized layer was carried out using high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, and optical appearance using spectrophotometry. The evolution of microstructure in the anodized layer as a function of anodizing parameters and their influence on the interaction of light is investigated and the results in general are applicable to discolouration of anodized layer on

  9. Preparation of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys using cyclic electrochemical deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Sil [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative Science and Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys, prepared using a cyclic electrochemical deposition method, have been investigated using a variety of surface analytical experimental methods. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings were prepared by electrolytic deposition in electrolytes containing Ca{sup 2+}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and SiO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions. The deposited layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and a wettability test. Phase transformation from (α″ + β) to largely β occurred with increasing Ta content in the Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys, yielding larger grain size. The morphology of the Si-HA coatings was changed by increasing the number of deposition cycles, with the initial plate-like structures changing to mixed rod-like and plate-like shapes, and finally to a rod-like structure. From the ATR-FTIR spectra, Si existed in the form of SiO{sub 4}{sup 4−} groups in Si-HA coating layer. The lowest aqueous contact angles and best wettability were found for the Si-HA coatings prepared with 30 deposition cycles. - Highlights: • Electrochemically deposited Si-HA coatings on Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys were investigated. • The Si-HA coatings were initially precipitated along the martensitic structure. • The morphology of the Si-HA coating changed with the deposition cycles. • Si existed in the form of SiO{sub 4}{sup 4−} groups in the Si-HA coating.

  10. Properties of amorphous SiC coatings deposited on WC-Co substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, silicon carbide films were deposited onto tungsten carbide from a sintered SiC target on a r.f. magnetron sputtering system. Based on previous results about the influence of r.f. power and argon pressure upon the properties of films deposited on silicon substrates, suitable conditions were chosen to produce high quality films on WC-Co pieces. Deposition parameters were chosen in order to obtain high deposition rates (about 30 nm/min at 400 W rf power and acceptable residual stresses (1.5 GPa. Argon pressure affects the energy of particles so that films with higher hardness (30 GPa were obtained at low pressures (0.05 Pa. Wear rates of the coated pieces against a chromium steel ball in a diamond suspension medium were found to be about half of the uncoated ones. Hardness and wear resistance measurements were done also in thermally annealed (200-800 °C samples revealing the effectiveness of SiC coatings to protect tool material against severe mechanical degradation resulting of high temperature (above 500 °C oxidation.

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of ZnO/alginate and ZnO-bioactive glass/alginate composite coatings for antimicrobial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero-Arias, L.; Cabanas-Polo, S.; Goudouri, O.M. [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Misra, S.K. [Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad 382424 (India); Gilabert, J. [Institute of Ceramics Materials (ITC), University Jaume I, Avenida Vicent SosBaynat, 12006 Castellon (Spain); Valsami-Jones, E. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sanchez, E. [Institute of Ceramics Materials (ITC), University Jaume I, Avenida Vicent SosBaynat, 12006 Castellon (Spain); Virtanen, S. [Institute for Surface Science and Corrosion (LKO, WW4), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Boccaccini, A.R., E-mail: aldo.boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Two organic/inorganic composite coatings based on alginate, as organic matrix, and zinc oxide nanoparticles (n-ZnO) with and without bioactive glass (BG), as inorganic components, intended for biomedical applications, were developed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Different n-ZnO (1–10 g/L) and BG (1–1.5 g/L) contents were studied for a fixed alginate concentration (2 g/L). The presence of n-ZnO was confirmed to impart antibacterial properties to the coatings against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, while the BG induced the formation of hydroxyapatite on coating surfaces thereby imparting bioactivity, making the coating suitable for bone replacement applications. Coating composition was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study both the surface and the cross section morphology of the coatings. Polarization curves of the coated substrates made in cell culture media at 37 °C confirmed the corrosion protection function of the novel organic/inorganic composite coatings. - Highlights: • Organic–inorganic nanocomposite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic deposition • nZnO and bioactive glass containing alginate coatings exhibit antibacterial effect. • Bioactive character and anticorrosion function of coatings demonstrated.

  12. The effect of cladding speed on phase constitution and properties of AISI 431 stainless steel laser deposited coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmati, I.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2011-01-01

    Shorter processing time has given impetus to laser cladding technology and therefore in this research the AISI 431 martensitic stainless steel coatings are laser deposited at high cladding speeds, i.e. up to 117 mm/s. The analysis of phase constitution and functional properties of the coatings are

  13. Influence of thermal spraying parameters on the corrosion resistance of aluminium oxide coatings deposited on steel 1020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Y.; Vera, E.; Moreno, M.; Pineda, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Parameters required for the preparation of coatings of aluminium oxide deposited on AISI 1020 steels were determined according to their thickness and type of flame to differentiate their behaviour against corrosion. Commercial powders were used by the method of thermal spraying deposition. The coatings were analysed by OM (optical microscopy), the thickness was measured by means of a coating thickness gauge and electrochemical techniques variables measured was the Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and approximation Tafel potentiodynamic curves. The corrosion current for steel 1020 with Na2SO4 electrolyte of 3.5% is of the order of hundreds of A/cm2 and coated steel given in the order of A/cm2, which leads to think that the projection produces coatings uniform low closed porosity, although techniques DC indicate a significant porosity as is observable current response to the potentiodynamic curve. The observed thicknesses fall into the hundreds of microns and little uniformity was noted in this coatings. The coatings deposited by oxidizing flame was better performance in corrosion than the coating deposited by neutral flame.

  14. Characterization and in vitro biocompatibility study of Ti–Si–N nanocomposite coatings developed by using physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Pramanshu; Gupta, Pallavi [Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 India (India); Srivastava, Swati [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); Jayaganthan, R., E-mail: rjayafmt@iitr.ernet.in [Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 India (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); Chandra, Ramesh [Nanoscience Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); Roy, Partha [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India)

    2014-02-28

    Amongst the Ti alloys used as orthopedic implant materials, Ti6Al4V is one of the widely used alloys. Magnetron sputtering was used to deposit nanocomposite coating of Ti–Si–N on the Ti6Al4V substrate at different power and then the coating structure and surface properties were characterized through contact angle measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In vitro biocompatibility of the coatings was assessed by using mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBMMSC). Antibacterial studies were performed using Escherichia coli (E. coli) microorganisms. The osteogenic differentiation was also carried out in order to get gene expressions. The AFM results confirmed that the coatings deposited at 120 W was smoother as compared to other coatings developed at different power, along with optimum contact angle, also these coatings showed good antibacterial results. The fluorescent and viability results of 120 W sample confirmed their good biocompatibility as compared to the coatings deposited 20, 40, 60, and 100 W power. Hence, the coating deposited at 120 W exhibit desirable microstructural characteristics beneficial for surface modification of orthopedic implants.

  15. Porous SiO2/HAp Coatings on Cp-Titanium Grade 1 Surfaces Produced by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous hydroxyapatite doped SiO2 coatings were electrophoretically deposited (EPD on commercially pure titanium. The influence of EPD parameters on coatings quality was investigated. Microstructural observation was done using transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffractometry.

  16. Tribological characterization of zirconia coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V components for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, M; Lopomo, N; Marchiori, G; Gambardella, A; Boi, M; Bianchi, M; Visani, A; Pavan, P; Russo, A; Marcacci, M

    2016-05-01

    One of the most important issues leading to the failure of total joint arthroplasty is related to the wear of the plastic components, which are generally made of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Therefore, the reduction of joint wear represents one of the main challenges the research in orthopedics is called to address nowadays. Surface treatments and coatings have been recognized as innovative methods to improve tribological properties, also in the orthopedic field. This work investigated the possibility to realize hard ceramic coatings on the metal component of a prosthesis, by means of Pulsed Plasma Deposition, in order to reduce friction and wear in the standard coupling against UHMWPE. Ti6Al4V substrates were coated with a 2 μm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer. The mechanical properties of the YSZ coatings were assessed by nanoindentation tests performed on flat Ti6Al4V substrates. Tribological performance was evaluated using a ball-on-disk tribometer in dry and lubricated (i.e. with fetal bovine serum) highly-stressing conditions, up to an overall distance of 10 km. Tribology was characterized in terms of coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of the UHMWPE disk. After testing, specimens were analyzed through optical microscopy and SEM images, in order to check the wear degradation mechanisms. Progressive loading scratch tests were also performed in dry and wet conditions to determine the effects of the environment on the adhesion of the coating. Our results supported the beneficial effect of YSZ coating on metal components. In particular, the proposed solution significantly reduced UHMWPE wear rate and friction. At 10 km of sliding distance, a wear rate reduction of about 18% in dry configuration and of 4% in presence of serum, was obtained by the coated group compared to the uncoated group. As far as friction in dry condition is concerned, the coating allowed to maintain low CoF values until the end of the tests, with an

  17. Rapid Deposition of Uniform Polydopamine Coatings on Nanoparticle Surfaces with Controllable Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orishchin, Nazar; Crane, Cameron C; Brownell, Matthew; Wang, Tengjiao; Jenkins, Samuel; Zou, Min; Nair, Arun; Chen, Jingyi

    2017-06-20

    Polydopamine is a bioinspired, versatile material that can adhere to bulk and nanoscale surfaces made of disparate materials to improve their physical and chemical properties in many applications. The typical methods to coat polydopamine on the nanoparticle substrates usually take several hours to a day. This work successfully applies a dispersion method to form a controllable, uniform coating on a nanoparticle surface within minutes. Using plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a substrate, the coating thickness can be monitored using a spectroscopic method based on the extinction peak shifts of the Ag nanoparticles. The deposition rate increases with dopamine concentration; however, too much excess dopamine leads to the formation of free dopamine particles. The optimized concentration of dopamine (i.e., ∼6 mM) can be applied to other nanoparticles by normalizing the number of particles to maintain a constant concentration of dopamine per unit surface area (i.e., 1.70 × 10(4) dopamine/nm(2)). The molecular dynamics simulation reveals that the amount of hydrogen bonding increases with water content, suggesting that sufficient mixing using the dispersion tool facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonding, thus rapidly depositing PDA on the nanoparticle surface. The physical and chemical properties (e.g., pH response and thermal stability) can be tailored by varying the coating thickness due to the changes in the number of hydrogen bonds and the conformation of π-π interactions. This dispersion method provides a facile means to control the PDA coating thickness on nanoparticle surfaces and thus the surface properties of nanoparticles toward various applications.

  18. Cathodic electrophoretic deposition of bismuth oxide (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) coatings and their photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaogang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Li, Xueming, E-mail: xueminglicqu@126.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Lai, Chuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University of Arts and Science, Dazhou 635000 (China); Li, Wulin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems (Education Ministry of China), Chongqing University, 400044 (China); Zhang, Daixiong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xiong, Zhongshu [School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Bismuth oxide (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) coating has been prepared by cathodic electrophoretic deposition method and exhibits high photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B. - Highlights: • The nano-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings have been firstly successfully fabricated by EPD method. • The EPD deposition mechanism of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings is firstly given. • Deposition dynamics are investigated by regulating different deposition times and applied field strengths in detail. • Obtained coating show great photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B. - Abstract: In this study, cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD), a low cost, one-step and flexible method, has been successfully developed to prepare bismuth oxide (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) coatings. Stable suspensions consisted of isopropyl alcohol and trace additive-polyethyleneimine. Deposition was achieved on the cathode at applied field strengths of 5–25 V mm{sup −1} using a total solids loading of 0.5–2 g L{sup −1} at ambient temperature and pressure. The deposition mechanism of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings was firstly given, and deposition kinetics were investigated in detail. The deposits were characterized qualitatively by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) observation, atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, respectively. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of obtained coatings were evaluated through degradation of Rhodamine B under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation.

  19. Comparative analysis of electrophysical properties of ceramic tantalum pentoxide coatings, deposited by electron beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkov, N.; Mateev, E.; Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Yakovin, S.; Kolesnikov, D.; Sudzhanskaya, I.; Goncharov, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have been deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods. For the magnetron sputtering process Ta target was used. X-ray diffraction measurements show that these coatings are amorphous. XPS survey spectra of the ceramic Ta2O5 coatings were obtained. All spectra consist of well-defined XPS lines of Ta 4f, 4d, 4p and 4s; O 1s; C 1s. Ta 4f doublets are typical for Ta2O5 coatings with two main peaks. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images of the e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have revealed a relatively flat surface with no cracks. The dielectric properties of the tantalum pentoxide coatings have been investigated in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical behaviour of e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have also been compared. The deposition process conditions principally effect the structure parameters and electrical properties of Ta2O5 ceramic coatings. The coatings deposited by different methods demonstrate the range of dielectric parameters due to the structural and stoichiometric composition changes

  20. Ti-doped hydrogenated diamond like carbon coating deposited by hybrid physical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Rae; Sle Jun, Yee; Moon, Kyoung Il; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon films containing titanium and hydrogen (Ti-doped DLC:H) were synthesized using a hybrid technique based on physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The film was deposited under a mixture of argon (Ar) and acetylene gas (C2H2). The amount of Ti in the Ti-doped DLC:H film was controlled by varying the DC power of the Ti sputtering target ranging from 0 to 240 W. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and chemical properties of Ti-doped DLC:H films with varying Ti concentrations, were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nano indentation, a ball-on-disk tribometer, a four-point probe system and dynamic anodic testing. As a result, the optimum composition of Ti in Ti-doped DLC:H film using our hybrid method was found to be a Ti content of 18 at. %, having superior electrical conductivity and high corrosion resistance, suitable for bipolar plates. Its hardness value was measured to be 25.6 GPa with a low friction factor.

  1. Corrosion resistance of amorphous hydrogenated SiC and diamond-like coatings deposited by r. f. -plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, C. (Lab. de Physique des Materiaux, CNRS, 92 Meudon (France)); Lecoeur, J. (Lab. d' Electrochimie Interfaciale, CNRS, 92 Meudon (France)); Sampeur, Y. (ICMC, 91 Le Coudray Montceaux (France)); Catania, P. (ICMC, 91 Le Coudray Montceaux (France))

    1993-10-08

    This paper reports on the properties and corrosion resistance of amorphous hydrogenated carbon and amorphous hydrogenated SiC films deposited by r.f.-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition at low temperatures (below 200 C). SiC coatings were prepared from SiH[sub 4]-CH[sub 4] gas mixtures. Hydrogenated diamond-like coatings were deposited from classical CH[sub 4]-H[sub 2] mixtures. The influence of various deposition parameters was investigated. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the films were studied (density, hydrogen content, nanohardness, internal stress, critical load and friction coefficient). Two examples of corrosion resistance are given: (1) the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of SiC and diamond-like coatings deposited on metal implants (Ti alloy) (the corrosion resistance is evaluated through potentiodynamic polarization tests in biological media; the biocompatibility of coated and uncoated metals is compared using differentiated human cell cultures); and (2) the corrosion resistance of SiC-coated magnesium in chloride-containing boric borate buffer at pH = 9.3 evaluated from anodic polarization curves and scanning electron microscopy studies. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of tribological wear and corrosion in coatings of diamalloy 4060NS deposited by thermal spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña R, S. M.; Moreno T, C. M.; Espinosa C, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Surface engineering seeks the development of new techniques to improve the performance and life of components of machines or industrial facilities, always looking for low costs and the least possible environmental damage. Thermal projection is one of the techniques that is based on the projection of particles of compounds and alloys on properly prepared and heated substrates, these particles are driven by a stream of air passing through an oxyacetylene flame which gives the energy to the process; These coatings give the possibility to improve the properties of the materials or the maintenance of components to maximize the availability of service. In order to reduce the damage caused by wear and corrosion of a low carbon AISI 1020 steel, they were coated with a metal based alloy, studying the effect of the cobalt-chromium-silicon-tungsten carbide alloy coating (DIAMALLLOY 4060 NS). The coating was deposited with two different pressures in the gases supplied to the torch, obtaining two flames and working three thicknesses of coating that oscillate between 100-500μm, according to the number of deposited layers, making use of a projection gun Castolin Eutectic. Powder and substrate characterization was performed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), spark emission spectroscopy and metallographic analysis. The results confirm the chemical nature and structure of the powder of the alloy and the substrate to be used, in addition, the thermal stability of the system was verified. The evaluation of the adhesion of the deposited layers was carried out by the implementation of pull-off tests according to ASTM D4541, in order to determine the type of failure that is presented. Mechanical wear was determined using a MT/60/NI microtest tribometer while electrochemical tests were performed using a suitable experimental unit for this purpose, confirming that the substrate exhibits lower wear levels when coated with

  3. Fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor for nanoparticles coating via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chen-Long; Liu, Xiao; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2015-07-01

    A fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor has been designed for coating on nanoparticles (NPs) via atomic layer deposition. It consists of five major parts: reaction chamber, dosing and fluidizing section, pumping section, rotary manipulator components, as well as a double-layer cartridge for the storage of particles. In the deposition procedure, continuous fluidization of particles enlarges and homogenizes the void fraction in the particle bed, while rotation enhances the gas-solid interactions to stabilize fluidization. The particle cartridge presented here enables both the fluidization and rotation acting on the particle bed, demonstrated by the analysis of pressure drop. Moreover, enlarged interstitials and intense gas-solid contact under sufficient fluidizing velocity and proper rotation speed facilitate the precursor delivery throughout the particle bed and consequently provide a fast coating process. The cartridge can ensure precursors flowing through the particle bed exclusively to achieve high utilization without static exposure operation. By optimizing superficial gas velocities and rotation speeds, minimum pulse time for complete coating has been shortened in experiment, and in situ mass spectrometry showed the precursor usage can reach 90%. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy results suggested a saturated growth of nanoscale Al2O3 films on spherical SiO2 NPs. Finally, the uniformity and composition of the shells were characterized by high angle annular dark field-transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  5. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo

    2017-09-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  6. Fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor for nanoparticles coating via atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Chen-Long; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Rong, E-mail: rongchen@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: bshan@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Shan, Bin, E-mail: rongchen@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: bshan@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2015-07-15

    A fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor has been designed for coating on nanoparticles (NPs) via atomic layer deposition. It consists of five major parts: reaction chamber, dosing and fluidizing section, pumping section, rotary manipulator components, as well as a double-layer cartridge for the storage of particles. In the deposition procedure, continuous fluidization of particles enlarges and homogenizes the void fraction in the particle bed, while rotation enhances the gas-solid interactions to stabilize fluidization. The particle cartridge presented here enables both the fluidization and rotation acting on the particle bed, demonstrated by the analysis of pressure drop. Moreover, enlarged interstitials and intense gas–solid contact under sufficient fluidizing velocity and proper rotation speed facilitate the precursor delivery throughout the particle bed and consequently provide a fast coating process. The cartridge can ensure precursors flowing through the particle bed exclusively to achieve high utilization without static exposure operation. By optimizing superficial gas velocities and rotation speeds, minimum pulse time for complete coating has been shortened in experiment, and in situ mass spectrometry showed the precursor usage can reach 90%. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy results suggested a saturated growth of nanoscale Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on spherical SiO{sub 2} NPs. Finally, the uniformity and composition of the shells were characterized by high angle annular dark field-transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  7. Layer-by-layer click deposition of functional polymer coatings for combating marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen Jing; Pranantyo, Dicky; Neoh, Koon-Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Teo, Serena Lay-Ming; Rittschof, Daniel

    2012-09-10

    "Click" chemistry-enabled layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of multilayer functional polymer coatings provides an alternative approach to combating biofouling. Fouling-resistant azido-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-based polymer chains (azido-poly(PEGMA)) and antimicrobial alkynyl-functionalized 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride-based polymer chains (alkynyl-poly(META)) were click-assembled layer-by-layer via alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The polymer multilayer coatings are resistant to bacterial adhesion and are bactericidal to marine Gram-negative Pseudomonas sp. NCIMB 2021 bacteria. Settlement of barnacle ( Amphibalanus (= Balanus ) amphitrite ) cyprids is greatly reduced on the multilayer polymer-functionalized substrates. As the number of the polymer layers increases, efficacy against bacterial fouling and settlement of barnacle cyprids increases. The LBL-functionalized surfaces exhibit low toxicity toward the barnacle cyprids and are stable upon prolonged exposure to seawater. LBL click deposition is thus an effective and potentially environmentally benign way to prepare antifouling coatings.

  8. Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition for Coating Flexible Porous Li-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Katherine E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tenent, Robert C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yersak, Alexander S. [University of Colorado; Sharma, Kashish [University of Colorado; Wallas, Jasmine M. [University of Colorado; Dameron, Arrelaine A. [University of Colorado; Li, Xuemin [Colorado School of Mines; Yang, Yongan [Colorado School of Mines; George, Steven M. [University of Colorado

    2017-12-29

    Ultrathin atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings on the electrodes of Li-ion batteries can enhance the capacity stability of the Li-ion batteries. To commercialize ALD for Li-ion battery production, spatial ALD is needed to decrease coating times and provide a coating process compatible with continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) processing. The porous electrodes of Li-ion batteries provide a special challenge because higher reactant exposures are needed for spatial ALD in porous substrates. This work utilized a modular rotating cylinder spatial ALD reactor operating at rotation speeds up to 200 revolutions/min (RPM) and substrate speeds up to 200 m/min. The conditions for spatial ALD were adjusted to coat flexible porous substrates. The reactor was initially used to characterize spatial Al2O3 and ZnO ALD on flat, flexible metalized polyethylene terephthalate foils. These studies showed that slower rotation speeds and spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules could significantly increase the reactant exposure. The modular rotating cylinder reactor was then used to coat flexible, model porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The uniformity of the ZnO ALD coatings on the porous AAO membranes was dependent on the aspect ratio of the pores and the reactant exposures. Larger reactant exposures led to better uniformity in the pores with higher aspect ratios. The reactant exposures were increased by adding spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules. The modular rotating cylinder reactor was also employed for Al2O3 ALD on porous LiCoO2 (LCO) battery electrodes. Uniform Al coverages were obtained using spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules at rotation speeds of 25 and 50 RPM. The LCO electrodes had a thickness of ~49 um and pores with aspect ratios of ~12-25. Coin cells were then constructed using the ALD-coated LCO electrodes and were tested to determine their battery

  9. In vitro response to alkaline phosphatase coatings immobilized onto titanium implants using electrospray deposition or polydopamine-assisted deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhuis, Arnold W G; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2014-04-01

    Immobilization of biomolecules onto implant surfaces is one of the most straightforward strategies to control the interaction between an implant and its biological environment. Recently, it was shown that the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) could be efficiently immobilized onto titanium implants in a single step using polydopamine. We hypothesized that such polydopamine-ALP coatings can enhance the early attachment of cells and increase mineralization. Therefore, the current study aimed at immobilization of ALP onto titanium by means of either one- or two-step polydopamine-assisted immobilization or electrospray deposition, the comparative characterization of these experimental substrates and subsequent cell behavioral analysis using primary osteoblast-like cells. Uncoated titanium and ALP-free polydopamine coatings served as controls. Despite significant ALP surface activity and lower water contact for angles ALP-containing surface modifications, only marginal effects on early cell behavior (i.e., cell spreading) and osteogenic differentiation (i.e., proliferation, differentiation and mineralization) were observed in comparison to uncoated titanium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nanomechanical properties of TiCN and TiCN/Ti coatings on Ti prepared by Filtered Arc Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yong [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Lu, Cheng, E-mail: chenglu@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Yu, Hailiang [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044 (China); Kiet Tieu, A.; Su, Lihong; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Hongtao [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Kong, Charlie [Electron Microscope Unit, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-02-11

    Monolayer TiCN and multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings were deposited on the surface of Ti using the Filtered Arc Deposition System (FADS). Nanoindentation tests were performed on both coatings. The multilayer TiCN/Ti coating exhibited better ductility than the monolayer TiCN coating. The lattice constants of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the fracture behavior of the coatings. Inter-columnar, inclined and lateral cracks were found to be the dominant crack modes in the monolayer TiCN coatings while small bending crack and radial crack were the dominant crack modes in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to simulate the indentation process. It was found that the Ti interlayer in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating could efficiently suppress the fracture, which is responsible for the improved ductility of the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating.

  11. Thickness Measurement Methods for Physical Vapor Deposited Aluminum Coatings in Packaging Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lindner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of barrier packaging materials, e.g., for food, by physical vapor deposition (PVD of inorganic coatings such as aluminum on polymer substrates is an established and well understood functionalization technique today. In order to achieve a sufficient barrier against gases, a coating thickness of approximately 40 nm aluminum is necessary. This review provides a holistic overview of relevant methods commonly used in the packaging industry as well as in packaging research for determining the aluminum coating thickness. The theoretical background, explanation of methods, analysis and effects on measured values, limitations, and resolutions are provided. In industrial applications, quartz micro balances (QCM and optical density (OD are commonly used for monitoring thickness homogeneity. Additionally, AFM (atomic force microscopy, electrical conductivity, eddy current measurement, interference, and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS are presented as more packaging research related methods. This work aims to be used as a guiding handbook regarding the thickness measurement of aluminum coatings for packaging technologists working in the field of metallization.

  12. Atomic Layer Deposited Coatings on Nanowires for High Temperature Water Corrosion Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersak, Alexander S; Lewis, Ryan J; Liew, Li-Anne; Wen, Rongfu; Yang, Ronggui; Lee, Yung-Cheng

    2016-11-30

    Two-phase liquid-cooling technologies incorporating micro/nanostructured copper or silicon surfaces have been established as a promising thermal management solution to keep up with the increasing power demands of high power electronics. However, the reliability of nanometer-scale features of copper and silicon in these devices has not been well investigated. In this work, accelerated corrosion testing reveals that copper nanowires are not immune to corrosion in deaerated pure hot water. To solve this problem, we investigate atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO 2 coatings grown at 150 and 175 °C. We measured no difference in coating thickness for a duration of 12 days. Using a core/shell approach, we grow ALD TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 protective coatings on copper nanowires and demonstrate a preservation of nanoengineered copper features. These studies have identified a critical reliability problem of nanoscale copper and silicon surfaces in deaerated, pure, hot water and have successfully demonstrated a reliable solution using ALD TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 protective coatings.

  13. Modeling Flow Coating of Colloidal Dispersions in the Evaporative Regime: Prediction of Deposit Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumenc, Frédéric; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Guerrier, Béatrice

    2016-12-27

    We investigate flow coating processes, i.e., the formation of dry coatings starting from dilute complex fluids confined between a static blade and a moving substrate. In particular, we focus on the evaporative regime encountered at low substrate velocity, at which the coating flow is driven mainly by solvent evaporation in the liquid meniscus. In this regime, general arguments based on mass conservation show that the thickness of the dry film decreases as the substrate velocity increases, unlike the behavior in the well-known Landau-Levich regime. This work focuses on colloidal dispersions, which deserve special attention. Indeed, flow coating is expected to draw first a solvent-saturated film of densely packed colloids, which further dries fully when air invades the pores of the solid film. We first develop a model based on the transport equations for binary mixtures, which can describe this phenomenon continuously, using appropriate boundary conditions and a criterion to take into account pore-emptying in the colloidal film. Extensive numerical simulations of the model then demonstrate two regimes for the deposit thickness as a function of the process parameters (substrate velocity, evaporation rate, bulk concentration, and particle size). We finally derive an analytical model based on simplified transport equations that can reproduce the output of our numerical simulations very well. This model can predict analytically the two observed asymptotic regimes and therefore unifies the models recently reported in the literature.

  14. Conductive zinc oxide thin film coatings by combustion chemical vapour deposition at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunke, I., E-mail: iz@innovent-jena.de [Innovent e.V. Technology Development, Department of Surface Engineering, Prüssingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Heft, A. [Innovent e.V. Technology Development, Department of Surface Engineering, Prüssingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Schäfer, P.; Haidu, F.; Lehmann, D. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Semiconductor Physics, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Grünler, B.; Schimanski, A. [Innovent e.V. Technology Development, Department of Surface Engineering, Prüssingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Zahn, D.R.T. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Semiconductor Physics, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    We have established a combustion chemical vapour deposition (C-CVD) system for the deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) at atmospheric pressure. This C-CVD process has the advantage of a short exposure of the substrates to the flame. It is also potentially applicable as an inline coating system. Fundamental studies were performed on undoped ZnO. The specific resistivity of these layers strongly depends on the film thickness and decreases with increasing thickness. As the lowest resistivities, values of about 2.0 · 10{sup −1} Ωcm are achieved. Ultra-violet photoemission spectra show the valence band structure of the deposited ZnO. The work function and valence band edge were determined. UV–vis spectra were taken to investigate the transmission of the coated glass samples. From these spectra the band gap energy was obtained. Raman spectroscopy as well as infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ordered ZnO crystallites. The X-ray diffraction verified this result and illustrates the hexagonal structure. In the mid-infrared range precursor deposits were detected for low substrate temperatures. - Highlights: ► Zinc oxide (ZnO) films are conductive in the range of 2.0 · 10{sup −1} Ωcm. ► X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy indicate crystalline ZnO films. ► Precursor deposits were proved within the films for low growing temperatures. ► Band gap energy changes are achieved due to different growing temperatures.

  15. Deposition of DLC Film on Stainless Steel Substrates Coated by Nickel Using PECVD Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Zahra; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Vaghri, Elnaz; Saghaleini, Amir; Diudea, Mircea V

    2012-06-01

    Research on diamond-like carbon (DLC) films has been devoted to find both optimized conditions and characteristics of the deposited films on various substrates. In the present work, we investigate the quality of the DLC films grown on stainless steel substrates using different thickness of the nickel nanoparticle layers on the surface. Nickel nanoparticles were sputtered on the stainless steel substrates at 200 °C by a DC-sputtering system to make a good adherence between DLC coating and steel substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize the surface roughness and distribution function of the nickel nanoparticles on the substrate surface. Diamond like carbon films were deposited on stainless steel substrates coated by nickel using pure acetylene and C2H2/H2 with 15% flow ratio by DC-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) systems. Microstructural analysis by Raman spectroscopy showed a low intensity ratio ID/IG for DLC films by increasing the Ni layer thickness on the stainless steel substrates. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) evidenced the peaks attributed to C-H bending and stretching vibration modes in the range of 1300-1700 cm-1 and 2700-3100 cm-1, respectively, in good agreement with the Raman spectroscopy and confirmed the DLC growth in all samples.

  16. Optimal foraging by deposit-feeding invertebrates: roles of particle size and organic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghon, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Feeding experiments were conducted on marine, deposit-feeding benthic invertebrates to test the predictions of an optimal foraging model. Food item selection based on sediment particle size and presence or absence of an organic coating on particles was investigated. Animals displaying a wide range of feeding mechanisms were studied in particle size-selection experiments using artificial sediment of closely controlled size composition. While these trends of selection of smaller particles and protein-coated particles follow qualitatively the predictions of the optimal foraging model, the animals did not ingest exclusively the preferred particle types. Mechanics of particle handling rather than behavioral responses to particle characteristics appear to offer the better explanation for the observed selection patterns. In particular, the results support strongly the recently proposed role of mucous adhesion in particle selection by deposit feeders. These and other results from studies of deposit feeders suggest that factors in addition to food item selection must be considered when testing the assumptions and predictions of optimal foraging theory.

  17. Thermal conductivity of titanium nitride/titanium aluminum nitride multilayer coatings deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samani, M.K., E-mail: majid1@e.ntu.edu.sg [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Surface Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Ding, X.Z. [Surface Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Khosravian, N. [Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Amin-Ahmadi, B. [Electron Microscopy for materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Yi, Yang [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 117608 (Singapore); Chen, G. [BC Photonics Technological Company, 5255 Woodwards Rd., Richmond, BC V7E 1G9 (Canada); Neyts, E.C.; Bogaerts, A. [Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Tay, B.K. [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-03-02

    A series of [TiN/TiAlN]{sub n} multilayer coatings with different bilayer numbers n = 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 were deposited on stainless steel substrate AISI 304 by a lateral rotating cathode arc technique in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The composition and microstructure of the coatings have been analyzed by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD analysis shows that the preferential orientation growth along the (111) direction is reduced in the multilayer coatings. TEM analysis reveals that the grain size of the coatings decreases with increasing bilayer number. HRTEM imaging of the multilayer coatings shows a high density misfit dislocation between the TiN and TiAlN layers. The cross-plane thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured by a pulsed photothermal reflectance technique. With increasing bilayer number, the multilayer coatings' thermal conductivity decreases gradually. This reduction of thermal conductivity can be ascribed to increased phonon scattering due to the disruption of columnar structure, reduced preferential orientation, decreased grain size of the coatings and present misfit dislocations at the interfaces. - Highlights: • TiN/TiAlN multilayer coatings with different bilayer number were deposited on SS. • The composition and microstructure of the as-deposited coatings were analyzed. • Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured by pulsed photothermal reflectance. • Thermal conductivity depends on the coatings' microstructure and number of layers. • With increasing the bilayer number, thermal conductivity decreased.

  18. Characterisation of TiC layers deposited using an electrical discharge coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algodi, S. J.; Murray, J. W.; Clare, A. T.; Brown, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-conventional, high-accuracy machining process for the manufacture of complex shapes, regardless of hardness of the workpiece. There is interest to develop the EDM technique for coating or surface modification by using a powder metallurgy (PM) tool electrode and/or added powder suspended within the dielectric fluid. We report on the EDM deposition of TiC coatings onto stainless steel, using either Cu or TiC electrodes, with and without Ti powder in the working oil. EDM processed layers exhibited hardness values ∼ 3-4 times higher than the substrate, emphasising the ability of EDM to impart improved mechanical performance to the surface of austenitic stainless steel.

  19. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of cotton fabric coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, and with deposited silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maráková, Nela; Humpolíček, Petr; Kašpárková, Věra; Capáková, Zdenka; Martinková, Lenka; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-02-01

    Cotton fabric was coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, in situ during the oxidation of respective monomers. Raman and FTIR spectra proved the complete coating of substrates. Polypyrrole content was 19.3 wt.% and that of polyaniline 6.0 wt.%. Silver nanoparticles were deposited from silver nitrate solutions of various concentrations by exploiting the reduction ability of conducting polymers. The content of silver was up to 11 wt.% on polypyrrole and 4 wt.% on polyaniline. The sheet resistivity of fabrics was determined. The conductivity was reduced after deposition of silver. The chemical cleaning reduced the conductivity by less than one order of magnitude for polypyrrole coating, while for polyaniline the decrease was more pronounced. The good antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli and low cytotoxicity of polypyrrole-coated cotton, both with and without deposited silver nanoparticles

  20. Application of Taguchi Method to the Optimization of a-C:H Coatings Deposited Using Ion Beam Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Kao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi design method is used to optimize the adhesion, hardness, and wear resistance properties of a-C:H coatings deposited on AISI M2 steel substrates using the ion beam assisted physical vapor deposition method. The adhesion strength of the coatings is evaluated by means of scratch tests, while the hardness is measured using a nanoindentation tester. Finally, the wear resistance is evaluated by performing cyclic ball-on-disc wear tests. The Taguchi experimental results show that the optimal deposition parameters are as follows: a substrate bias voltage of 90 V, an ion beam voltage of 1 kV, an acetylene flow rate of 21 sccm, and a working distance of 7 cm. Given these optimal processing conditions, the a-C:H coating has a critical load of 99.8 N, a hardness of 25.5 GPa, and a wear rate of 0.4 × 10−6 mm3/Nm.

  1. On the Improvement of AA2024 Wear Properties through the Deposition of a Cold-Sprayed Titanium Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Astarita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the enhancement of the tribological properties of AA2024 through the deposition of a titanium coating. In particular two different coatings were studied: (1 untreated titanium coating; and (2 post-deposition laser-treated titanium coating. Titanium grade 2 powders were deposited onto an aluminium alloy AA2024-T3 sheet through the cold gas dynamic spray process. The selective laser post treatment was carried out by using a 220 W diode laser to further enhance the wear properties of the coating. Tribo-tests were executed to analyse the tribological behaviour of materials in contact with an alternative moving counterpart under a controlled normal load. Four different samples were tested to assess the effectiveness of the treatments: untreated aluminium sheets, titanium grade 2 sheets, as-sprayed titanium powders and the laser-treated coating layer. The results obtained proved the effectiveness of the coating in improving the tribological behaviour of the AA2024. In particular the laser-treated coating showed the best results in terms of both the friction coefficient and mass lost. The laser treatment promotes a change of the wear mechanism, switching from a severe adhesive wear, resulting in galling, to an abrasive wear mechanism.

  2. Initial colloid deposition on bare and zeolite-coated stainless steel and aluminum: influence of surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gexin; Bedi, Rajwant S; Yan, Yushan S; Walker, Sharon L

    2010-08-03

    The impact of surface roughness of bare and zeolite ZSM-5 coated stainless steel and aluminum alloy on colloid deposition has been investigated using a parallel plate flow chamber system in an aqueous environment. The metals were systematically polished to alter the surface roughness from nanoscale to microscale, with the subsequent surface roughness of both the bare and coated surfaces varying from 11.2 to 706 nm. The stainless steel and aluminum alloy surfaces are extensively characterized, both as bare and as coated surfaces. Experimental results suggest that ZSM-5 coating and surface roughness have a pronounced impact on the kinetics of the colloid deposition. The ZSM-5 coating reduced colloid adhesion compared to the corresponding bare metal surface. In general, the greater surface roughness of like samples resulted in higher colloid deposition. Primarily, this is due to greater surface roughness inducing less reduction in the attractive interactions occurring between colloids and collector surfaces. This effect was sensitive to ionic strength and was found to be more pronounced at lower ionic strength conditions. For the most electrostatically unfavorable scenario (ZSM-5 coatings in 1 mM KNO(3)), the enhanced deposition may also be attributed to inherent surface charge heterogeneity of ZSM-5 coatings due to aluminum in the crystalline structure. The two exceptions are ZSM-5 coated mirror-polished stainless steel and the unpolished aluminum surfaces, which are rougher than the other two samples of the same metal type but result in the least deposition. The reasons for these observations are discussed, as well as the effect of surface charge and hydrophobicity on the adhesion. The relative importance of surface roughness versus contributions of electrostatic interactions and hydrophobicity to the colloid deposition is also discussed.

  3. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J., E-mail: jacobo.hernandez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); García-Ruiz, J.P. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Manso-Silvan, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  4. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are

  5. Aluminum-silicon coatings on austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304 and 317 deposited by chemical vapor deposition in a fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luddey Marulanda Arevalo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-silicon coatings were deposited onto stainless steels AISI 304 and AISI 317. The deposition was performed at 540°C with a ratio of active gases HCl/H2 of 1/15.3; argon was used as a carrier gas. The bed of the FBR-CVD process consisted of 2.5 g aluminum powder, 7.5 g silicon powder and 90 g alumina. After the coatings were deposited, each sample was given a heat treatment to improve its mechanical properties and oxidation behavior by diffusing the alloying elements. Thermodynamic simulation was performed with Thermo-Calc software to investigate the composition of the deposited material. The coated and uncoated specimens were exposed to temperatures of 750ºC in an atmosphere where the vapor was transported to the samples using a flow of N2 of 40 ml/min and 100% water vapor (H2O. The coated specimens gained little weight during the thousand hours of exposure and will thus guard against a corrosive attack compared to the uncoated substrates. In addition, the coated stainless steels show an oxidation rate with a logarithmic trend while the uncoated steel oxidation rate showed a linear trend.

  6. All-oxide broadband antireflection coatings by plasma ion assisted deposition: design, simulation, manufacturing and re-optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrandt, Steffen; Stenzel, Olaf; Kaiser, Norbert

    2010-09-13

    A new all-oxide design for broadband antireflection coatings with significantly reduced impact of deposition errors to the final reflectance is presented. Computational manufacturing including re-optimization during deposition has been used in the design work to account for maximum insensibility of the design with respect to deposition errors typical for plasma ion assisted deposition PIAD. Repeated deposition runs with the deducted monitoring and re-optimization strategy verify the validity of the simulations and the stability of the derived design solution.

  7. Controlled nanostructured silver coated surfaces by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheel, D.W.; Brook, L.A.; Yates, H.M. [Institute for Materials Research, Salford University, Manchester, M5 4 WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    Thin film silver has been widely reported for its interesting properties. In this paper we describe a route to produce controlled nanostructured silver layers. A combination of Flame Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition at atmospheric pressure, with low cost and a low toxicity silver precursor, was used to generate coatings of structured silver surfaces on glass. This approach gives a high degree of control of surface structure, density and topography. These layers have potential applications in areas such as catalysis, photo-activity and for biocidal surfaces. Our results indicate very high biocidal activity where the nano-structure is proposed as playing a significant role. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenhorst, L.M., E-mail: lena.wallenhorst@hawk-hhg.de [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Gerhard, C. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Militz, H. [Wood Biology and Wood Products, Burckhardt Institute, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Büsgenweg 4, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ohms, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Viöl, W. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Zn/ZnO mixed systems were deposited from elemental zinc by a cold plasma-spray process. • Oxidation was confirmed by XPS. • The coatings exhibited a strong absorption in the UV spectral range, thus being suitable as protective layers, e.g. on thermosensitive materials. - Abstract: In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  9. Synthesis of Colloidal ZnO Nanoparticles and Deposit of Thin Films by Spin Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alberto Alvarado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were synthesized, the average size of these nanoparticles is around 25 nm with hexagonal form. It was noted that stabilization depends directly on the purifying process; in this work we do not change the nature of the solution as a difference from Meulekamp's method, and we do not use any alkanes to remove the byproducts; only a centrifuge to remove those ones was used, thereby the stabilization increases up to 24 days. It is observed from the results that only three times of washing is enough to prevent the rapid aging process. The effect of annealing process on the composition, size, and geometrical shape of ZnO nanoparticles was studied in order to know whether the annealing process affects the crystallization and growth of the nanoparticles. After the synthesis, the colloidal nanoparticles were deposited by spin coating technique showing that the formed nanoparticles have no uniformly deposition pattern. But is possible to deposit those ones in glass substrates. A possible deposition process of the nanoparticles is proposed.

  10. Morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by dip coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marouf, Sara; Beniaiche, Abdelkrim; Guessas, Hocine, E-mail: aziziamor@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Systemes Photoniques et Optiques Non Lineaires, Institut d' Optique et Mecanique de Precision, Universite Ferhat Abbas-Setif 1, Setif (Algeria); Azizi, Amor [Laboratoire de Chimie, Ingenierie Moleculaire et Nanostructures, Universite Ferhat Abbas-Setif 1, Setif (Algeria)

    2017-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by dip coating technique. The effects of sol aging time on the deposition of ZnO films was studied by using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical transmission techniques. The morphology of the films strongly depends on preparation route and deposition technique. It is noteworthy that films deposited from the freshly prepared solution feature indistinct characteristics; had relatively poor crystalline quality and low optical transmittance in the visible region. The increase in sol aging time resulted in a gradual improvement in crystallinity (in terms of peak sharpness and peak intensity) of the hexagonal phase for all diffraction peaks. Effect of sol aging on optical transparency is quite obvious through increased transmission with prolonged sol aging time. Interestingly, 72-168 h sol aging time was found to be optimal to achieve smooth surface morphology, good crystallinity and high optical transmittance which were attributed to an ideal stability of solution. These findings present a better-defined and more versatile procedure for production of clean ZnO sols of readily adjustable nanocrystalline size. (author)

  11. The Tribological Behaviors of Three Films Coated on Biomedical Titanium Alloy by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-11-01

    Three thin films (DLC, a-C, and TiN) were performed on Ti6Al4V by chemical vapor deposition. Carbon ion implantation was pretreated for DLC and a-C films while Ti transition layer was pretreated for TiN film to strengthen the bonding strength. X-ray diffraction, Raman measurement, nano-hardness and nano-scratch tester, and cross-section etching by FIB method were used to analyze film characteristics. Tribological behaviors of these coatings were studied by articulation with both ZrO2 and UHMWPE balls using ball-on-disk sliding. The thickness values reached ~0.46, ~0.33, and ~1.67 μm for DLC, a-C, and TiN film, respectively. Nano-hardness of the coatings compared with that of untreated and bonding strength (critical load in nano-scratch test) values of composite coatings compared with that of monolayer film all increased significantly, respectively. Under destructive test (ZrO2 ball conterface) in bovine serum lubrication, TiN coating revealed the best wear resistance while DLC showed the worst. Film failure was mainly attributed to the plowing by hard ZrO2 ball characterized by abrasive and adhesive wear. Under normal test (UHMWPE ball conterface), all coatings showed significant improvement in wear resistance both in dry sliding and bovine serum lubrication. Both DLC and a-C films showed less surface damage than TiN film due to the self-lubricating phenomenon in dry sliding. TiN film showed the largest friction coefficient both in destructive and normal tests, devoting to the big TiN grains thus leading to much rougher surface and then a higher value. The self-lubricating film formed on DLC and a-C coating could also decrease their friction coefficients. The results indicated that three coatings revealed different wear mechanisms, and thick DLC or a-C film was more promising in application in lower stress conditions such as artificial cervical disk.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition and characterization of HA/chitosan nanocomposite coatings on Ti6Al7Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Tomasz; Kot, Marcin; Seuss, Sigrid; Kędzierska, Aleksandra; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan (nc-HA/chitosan) composite coatings were produced on two phase (α+β) Ti6Al7Nb titanium alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The microstructure of the coatings was examined by scanning- and transmission electron microscopy methods as well as by X-ray diffractometry. The coatings, 770 nm-800 nm thick, were uniform, without any cracks or presence of large voids and they exhibited good adhesion to the titanium alloy substrate. The microstructure of the coatings consisted of nc-HA needle-like particles homogeneously embedded in a chitosan matrix. The deposited coatings exhibited good adhesion to the substrate. The best adhesion to the titanium alloy was determined for the coating deposited from suspensions containing 4 g/L of HA at 10 V during 240 s. The results confirm EPD as a convenient method to develop uniform and crack-free nanoscale organic-inorganic composite coatings on two phase titanium alloy substrates with potential application in orthopedic and dental implants.

  13. Characterisation Studies of the Structure and Properties of As-Deposited and Annealed Pulsed Magnetron Sputtered Titania Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ridealgh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide thin films are durable, chemically stable, have a high refractive index and good electro/photochemical proprieties. Consequently, they are widely used as anti-reflective layers in optical devices and large area glazing products, dielectric layers in microelectronic devices and photo catalytic layers in self-cleaning surfaces. Titania coatings may have amorphous or crystalline structures, where three crystalline phases of TiO2 can be obtained: anatase, rutile and brookite, although the latter is rarely found. It is known, however, that the structure of TiO2 coatings is sensitive to deposition conditions and can also be modified by post-deposition heat treatments. In this study, titania coatings have been deposited onto soda-lime glass substrates by reactive sputtering from a metallic target. The magnetron was driven in mid-frequency pulsed DC mode. The as-deposited coatings were analysed by micro Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Selected coatings were annealed at temperatures in the range 200–700 °C and re-analysed. Whilst there was weak evidence of a nanocrystallinity in the as-deposited films, it was observed that these largely amorphous low temperature structures converted into strongly crystalline structures at annealing temperatures above 400 °C.

  14. Multifaceted and route-controlled "click" reactions based on vapor-deposited coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting-Pi; Tai, Ching-Heng; Wu, Jyun-Ting; Wu, Chih-Yu; Liang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    2016-02-01

    "Click" reactions provide precise and reliable chemical transformations for the preparation of functional architectures for biomaterials and biointerfaces. The emergence of a multiple-click reaction strategy has paved the way for a multifunctional microenvironment with orthogonality and precise multitasking that mimics nature. We demonstrate a multifaceted and route-controlled click interface using vapor-deposited functionalized poly-para-xylylenes. Distinctly clickable moieties of ethynyl and maleimide were introduced into poly-para-xylylenes in one step via a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) copolymerization process. The advanced interface coating allows for a double-click route with concurrent copper(i)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) and the thiol-maleimide click reaction. Additionally, double-click reactions can also be performed in a cascade manner by controlling the initiation route to enable the CuAAC and/or thiol-yne reaction using a mono-functional alkyne-functionalized poly-para-xylylene. The use of multifaceted coatings to create straightforward and orthogonal interface properties with respect to protein adsorption and cell attachment is demonstrated and characterized.

  15. Antireflection Coatings for Strongly Curved Glass Lenses by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Pfeiffer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection (AR coatings are indispensable in numerous optical applications and are increasingly demanded on highly curved optical components. In this work, optical thin films of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2 and Ta2O5 were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD, which is based on self-limiting surface reactions leading to a uniform film thickness on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Al2O3/TiO2/SiO2 and Al2O3/Ta2O5/SiO2 AR coatings were successfully applied in the 400–750 nm and 400–700 nm spectral range, respectively. Less than 0.6% reflectance with an average of 0.3% has been measured on a fused silica hemispherical (half-ball lens with 4 mm diameter along the entire lens surface at 0° angle of incidence. The reflectance on a large B270 aspherical lens with height of 25 mm and diameter of 50 mm decreased to less than 1% with an average reflectance < 0.3%. The results demonstrate that ALD is a promising technology for deposition of uniform optical layers on strongly curved lenses without complex in situ thickness monitoring.

  16. Al2O3 Coatings on Magnesium Alloy Deposited by the Fluidized Bed (FB Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baiocco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are widely employed in several industrial domains for their outstanding properties. They have a high strength-weight ratio, with a density that is lower than aluminum (33% less, and feature good thermal properties, dimensional stability, and damping characteristics. However, they are vulnerable to oxidation and erosion-corrosion phenomena when applied in harsh service conditions. To avoid the degradation of magnesium, several coating methods have been presented in the literature; however, all of them deal with drawbacks that limit their application in an industrial environment, such as environmental pollution, toxicity of the coating materials, and high cost of the necessary machinery. In this work, a plating of Al2O3 film on a magnesium alloy realized by the fluidized bed (FB technique and using alumina powder is proposed. The film growth obtained through this cold deposition process is analyzed, investigating the morphology as well as tribological and mechanical features and corrosion behavior of the plated samples. The resulting Al2O3 coatings show consistent improvement of the tribological and anti-corrosive performance of the magnesium alloy.

  17. The potential of photo-deposited silver coatings on Foley catheters to prevent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ian Richard; Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica

    2016-12-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. The resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms to conventional antibiotic therapies and the increasing health-care costs have recently encouraged the definition of alternative preventive strategies, which can have a positive effect in the management of infections. Antimicrobial urinary catheters have been developed through the photo-chemical deposition of silver coatings on the external and luminal surfaces. The substrates are exposed to ultraviolet radiation after impregnation into a silver-based solution, thus inducing the in situ synthesis of silver particles. The effect of the surface treatment on the material was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and silver ion release measurements. The ability of microorganisms commonly associated with urinary tract infections was investigated in terms of bacterial viability, proliferation and biofilm development, using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis as target organisms. The silver coatings demonstrated good distribution of silver particles to the substrate, and proved an effective antibacterial capability in simulated biological conditions. The low values of silver ion release demonstrated the optimum adhesion of the coating. The results indicated a good potential of silver-based antimicrobial materials for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Design and development of artificial neural networks for depositing powders in coating treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Ming-Der; Liu, Chyuan-Du; Wang, Jen-Ting

    2005-05-01

    We propose the application of an artificial neural network to a Taguchi orthogonal experiment to develop a robust and efficient method of depositing alloys with a favorable surface morphology by a specific microwelding hardfacing process. An artificial neural network model performs self-learning by updating weightings and repeated learning epochs. The artificial neural network construct can be developed based on data obtained from experiments. The root of mean squares (RMS) error can be minimized by applying results obtained from training and testing samples, such that the predicted and experimental values exhibit a good linear relationship. An analysis of variance indicates that the significant factors explain approximately 70% of the total variance. Consequently, the Taguchi-based neural network model is experimentally confirmed to estimate accurately the hardfacing roughness performance. The experimental results reveal the hardfacing roughness performance of the product of PTA coating is greatly improved by optimizing the coating conditions and is accurately predicted by the artificial neural network model. The combination of the neural network model with Taguchi-based experiments is demonstrated as an effective and intelligent method for developing a robust, efficient, high-quality coating process.

  19. An Experimental Thermally Deposited Coating for Improved Bonding to Glass-fiber Posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Giselle Rodrigues; Silva, Fernanda Pereira; Oliveira-Ogliari, Aline; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Moraes, Rafael R; Novais, Veridiana Resende; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa

    To determine whether an experimental thermally deposited siloxane-methacrylate coating for use in industrial scale applications would improve the bond strength of resin-based materials to glass fiber posts (GFPs) without affecting their mechanical properties. An experimental 5% (w/v) solution of methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane was prepared. Two types of GFPs (Exacto, Angelus; White Post DC, FGM) were divided into the following groups: S: silane; SA: silane and adhesive; HS: 35% H₂O₂ and silane; HSA: 35% H₂O₂, silane and adhesive; Exp: siloxane-methacrylate coating (Si-O) via post immersion in experimental solution followed by heating; Exp-S: silane after Si-O treatment; Exp-A: adhesive after Si-O treatment; and Exp-SA: silane and adhesive after Si-O treatment. The posts were positioned in a mold to allow insertion of a dual-curing resin core, serially sectioned into beams, and subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTSB) testing. The three-point bending test and SEM/EDX analysis were used to assess the mechanical and surface properties of untreated GFPs that were etched with H₂O₂ or treated with Si-O. Surface treatments affected the μTSB only for the Exacto GFPs. The highest μTBS (MPa) was observed in Exp-S and Exp-SA groups, whereas H₂O₂ etching resulted in intermediate values. The mechanical properties were not affected by surface treatments. Exacto GFPs had significantly higher flexural strength (σf) and flexural modulus (Ef) than did the White Post DC GFPs, but the latter were significantly stiffer (S) than Exacto, regardless of the surface treatment tested. H₂O₂ promoted morphological changes in post surfaces. The experimental treatment promoted deposition of Si onto the post surface, improving bond strengths of Exacto posts. The proposed novel coating technique is a viable procedure for fiber post manufacturers to improve the μTSB of resin-based materials.

  20. The Formation of Composite Ti-Al-N Coatings Using Filtered Vacuum Arc Deposition with Separate Cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Shulepov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ti-Al-N coatings were deposited on high-speed steel substrates by filtered vacuum arc deposition (FVAD during evaporation of aluminum and titanium cathodes. Distribution of elements, phase composition, and mechanical properties of Ti-Al-N coatings were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and nanoindentation, respectively. Additionally, tribological tests and scratch tests of the coatings were performed. The stoichiometry of the coating changes from Ti0.6Al0.4N to Ti0.48Al0.52N with increasing aluminum arc current from 70 A to 90 A, respectively. XRD and TEM showed only face-centered cubic Ti-Al-N phase with preferred orientation of the crystallites in (220 direction with respect to the sample normal and without precipitates of AlN or intermetallics inside the coatings. Incorporation of Al into the TiN lattice caused shifting of the (220 reflex to a higher 2θ angle with increasing Al content. Low content and size of microdroplets were obtained using coaxial plasma filters, which provides good mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings. The highest value of microhardness (36 GPa and the best wear-resistance were achieved for the coating with higher Al content, thus for Ti0.48Al0.52N. These coatings exhibit good adhesive properties up to 30 N load in the scratch tests.

  1. Comparative study on microstructure, crystallite size and lattice strain of as-deposited and thermal treatment silver silicon nitride coating on Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, Umi; Mahmoodian, R.

    2017-06-01

    Silver silicon nitride coating were deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy using physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering technique. Field Emission Spectroscopy (FESEM), Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize as-deposited and after heat treatment of AgSiN coatings in order to understand the morphology, compositions and structure. Meanwhile, in determining the crystallite size and lattice strain, the simplified Williamson-Hall plot method was utilized. The heat treated coated sample shown to reveal granular surface structure, bigger crystallite size and lattice strain as compared to the as-deposited coated sample.

  2. Novel antibacterial silver-silica surface coatings prepared by chemical vapour deposition for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, S; Elfakhri, S; Sheel, D W; Sheel, P; Bolton, F J; Foster, H A

    2013-11-01

    Environmental contamination plays an important role in the transmission of infections, especially healthcare-associated infections. Disinfection transiently reduces contamination, but surfaces can rapidly become re-contaminated. Antimicrobial surfaces may partially overcome that limitation. The antimicrobial activity of novel surface coatings containing silver and silica prepared using a flame-assisted chemical vapour deposition method on both glass and ceramic tiles was investigated. Antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria including recent clinical isolates was investigated based on the BS ISO 22196:2007 Plastics--Measurement of antibacterial activity on plastics surfaces, British Standards Institute, London, method. Activity on natural contamination in an in use test in a toilet facility was also determined. Activity on standard test strains gave a log10 reduction of five after 1-4 h. The hospital isolates were more resistant, but MRSA was reduced by a log10 reduction factor of >5 after 24 h. Activity was maintained after simulated ageing and washing cycles. Contamination in situ was reduced by >99.9% after 4 months. Activity was inhibited by protein, but, although this could be overcome by increasing the amount of silver in the films, this reduced the hardness of the coating. The coatings had a good activity against standard test strains. Clinical isolates were killed more slowly but were still sensitive. The optimum composition for use therefore needs to be a balance between activity and durability. The coatings may have applications in health care by maintaining a background antimicrobial activity between standard cleaning and disinfection regimes. They may also have applications in other areas where reduction in microbial contamination is important, for example, in the food industry. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Action mechanism of hydrogen gas on deposition of HfC coating using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yalei, E-mail: yaleipm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Zehao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xiong, Xiang, E-mail: xiongx@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Xiaobin [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Chen, Zhaoke; Sun, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • HfC coatings were deposited on C/C composites by LPCVD using HfCl4-CH4-H2-Ar system. • Action mechanism of H2 on structure and growth behavior of HfC coating was studied. • Increased H2 concentration leads to transformation in growth mechanism of coating. - Abstract: Hafnium carbide coatings were deposited on carbon/carbon composites by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system. The microstructure, mechanical and ablation resistance performance of HfC coatings deposited with various H{sub 2} concentrations were investigated. The effect of hydrogen gas on the deposition of HfC coating was also discussed. Results show that all of the deposited coatings are composed of single cubic HfC phase, the hydrogen gas acted as a crucial role in determining the preferred orientation, microstructure and growth behavior of HfC coatings. During the deposition process, the gas phase supersaturation of the reaction species can be controlled by adjusting the hydrogen gas concentration. When deposited with low hydrogen gas concentration, the coating growth was dominated by the nucleation of HfC, which results in the particle-stacked structure of HfC coating. Otherwise, the coating growth was dominated by the crystal growth at high hydrogen gas concentration, which leads to the column-arranged structure of HfC coating. Under the ablation environment, the coating C2 exhibits better configurational stability and ablation resistance. The coating structure has a significant influence on the mechanical and ablation resistance properties of HfC coating.

  4. The effect of cladding speed on phase constitution and properties of AISI 431 stainless steel laser deposited coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati, I.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2011-01-01

    Shorter processing time has given impetus to laser cladding technology and therefore in this research the AISI 431 martensitic stainless steel coatings are laser deposited at high cladding speeds, i.e. up to 117 mm/s. The analysis of phase constitution and functional properties of the coatings are performed by optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and hardness and sliding wear tests. The outcome of this research shows that an extreme refinement of the solidification structur...

  5. The erosion performance of particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings produced by co-deposition cold gas dynamic spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on the erosion performance of three particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings, co-deposited with an aluminium binder via cold-gas dynamic spraying. The deposition of ceramic particles is difficult to achieve with typical cold spray techniques due to the absence of particle deformation. This issue has been overcome in the present study by simultaneously spraying the reinforcing particles with a ductile metallic binder which has led to an increased level of ceramic/cermet particles deposited on the substrate with thick (>400 μm) coatings produced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the erosion performance of the co-deposited coatings within a slurry environment. The study also incorporated standard metallographic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of reinforcing particles within the aluminium matrix. All coatings exhibited poorer erosion performance than the uncoated material, both in terms of volume loss and mass loss. The Al2O3 reinforced coating sustained the greatest amount of damage following exposure to the slurry and recorded the greatest volume loss (approx. 2.8 mm3) out of all of the examined coatings. Despite the poor erosion performance, the WC-CoCr reinforced coating demonstrated a considerable hardness increase over the as-received AA5083 (approx. 400%) and also exhibited the smallest free space length between adjacent particles. The findings of this study reveal that the removal of the AA5083 matrix by the impinging silicon carbide particles acts as the primary wear mechanism leading to the degradation of the coating. Analysis of the wear scar has demonstrated that the damage to the soft matrix alloy takes the form of ploughing and scoring which subsequently exposes carbide/oxide particles to the impinging slurry.

  6. Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang, E-mail: xiangliwj@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Lin [Institute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Yu, Xiaoming [The Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Feng, Yafei [Institute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Chengtao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Ke [The Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Su, Daniel [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of α and β phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12 weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. - Highlights: • Ta film was coated on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition. • Tantalum coating allowed for higher levels of cell adhesion and proliferation. • Better new bone formation occurred inside the tantalum-coated scaffolds. • Clinical image data was integrated with EBM to fabricate customized scaffold.

  7. CuAlS2 thin films – Dip coating deposition and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil H. Chaki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available CuAlS2 thin films were deposited by a dip coating technique at room temperature. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDAX and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that the deposited CuAlS2 thin film is nearly stoichiometric and possesses a tetragonal unit cell structure. The crystallite sizes determined from the XRD data employing Scherrer's formula and modified forms of Hall–Williamson relation like the uniform deformation model (UDM, uniform stress deformation model (USDM, uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM, and the size–strain plot method (SSP were in good agreement with each other. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies of the thin film revealed that the deposited film is uniform without any cracks and the film covers the whole of the substrates. The atomic force microscopy (AFM of the as-synthesized thin film surfaces showed spherical grains having coalescences between them. The optical absorbance spectrum analysis showed that the thin films possess both direct and indirect band gaps. The semiconducting and p-type nature of the thin films was confirmed from dc – electrical resistivity versus temperature, room temperature Hall effect, and Seebeck coefficient versus temperature measurements. The effect of the different illuminations on the CuAlS2 thin film showed that it can be used as a material for absorption of ultra-violet radiation. All the obtained characterization results are deliberated in detail.

  8. Characterization of hydroxyapatite coating by pulse laser deposition technique on stainless steel 316 L by varying laser energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandelwal, Himanshu, E-mail: khandelwal_iit@yahoo.com [IIT Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Singh, Gurbhinder, E-mail: gurbinder@yahoo.com [Bhai Maha Singh College of Engineering, Muktsar, Panjab (India); Agrawal, Khelendra [Apex Institute of Engineering, Jaipur (India); Prakash, Satya; Agarwal, R.D. [IIT Roorkee (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydroxyapatite coating was successfully deposited on stainless steel substrate by pulse laser deposition at different energy levels (i.e. 300 mJ and 500 mJ, respectively). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in laser energy affects the surface characteristic of hydroxyapatite coating (particle size, surface roughness, uniformity, Ca/P ratio). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser energy between 300 mJ and 500 mJ is the optimal choice for obtaining ideal Ca/P ratio. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite is an attractive biomaterial mainly used in bone and tooth implants because it closely resembles human tooth and bone mineral and has proven to be biologically compatible with these tissues. In spite of this advantage of hydroxyapatite it has also certain limitation like inferior mechanical properties which do not make it suitable for long term load bearing applications; hence a lot of research is going on in the development of hydroxyapatite coating over various metallic implants. These metallic implants have good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is to deposit hydroxyapatite coating over stainless steel grade 316 L by pulse laser deposition technique by varying laser energy. To know the effect of this variation, the coatings were than characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, finite emission-scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  9. Reel-to-reel preparation of ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD)-MgO based coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiskott, Sascha; Arendt, Paul N; Coulter, J Yates; Dowden, Paul C; Foltyn, Stephen R; Gibbons, Brady J; Matias, Vladimir; Sheehan, Chris J [Superconductivity Technology Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-05-01

    We report on our efforts in developing and scaling-up the systems for IBAD-MgO based coated conductor fabrication. The overall fabrication process involves a number of different processes including: electropolishing of the substrates; barrier-layer, seed-layer, and IBAD-MgO deposition by e-beam evaporation; and pulsed laser deposition of buffer and YBCO layers. All processes are realized in reel-to-reel processing systems. Latest results have shown that the IBAD-MgO approach yields coated conductor performance comparable to the best results achieved elsewhere to date.

  10. Fatigue property of a bioabsorbable magnesium alloy with a hydroxyapatite coating formed by a chemical solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromoto, Sachiko; Tomozawa, Masanari; Maruyama, Norio

    2013-09-01

    A hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating was directly formed on an extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy by a single-step chemical solution deposition. The HAp coating consists of an outer porous HAp layer, an inner continuous HAp layer, and a thin intermediate MgO layer, and the inner HAp and MgO layers are composed of nanocrystals. Tensile and fatigue tests were performed on the HAp-coated AZ31 in air. The HAp coating microscopically showed neither crack nor detachment at 5% static elongation (1.5% residual strain). With further elongation under tensile stress, cracks were formed perpendicularly to the tensile direction, and fragments of the coating detached with a fracture inside the inner continuous HAp layer. The fatigue strengths at 10(7) cycles (fatigue limit) of HAp-coated and mechanically polished AZ31 were ca. 80 MPa and ca. 90 MPa, respectively. The slight decrease in the fatigue limit with the HAp coating is attributed to small pits with a depth of ca. 10 μm formed on the substrate during the HAp-coating treatment. The HAp coating remained on the specimen without cracks after 10(7) cycles at the fatigue limit, which provides ca. 3% cyclic elongation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coating fabricated on ZK60 magnesium alloy using combined micro-arc oxidation with electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Lu, Chao; Wang, Chao; Song, Renguo

    2014-12-01

    A bio-ceramic composite coating was fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy using combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The MAO coating as the basal layer was produced in alkaline electrolyte with (n-MAO coating) and without (MAO coating) the addition of CeO2 and ZrO2 nano-particles, respectively. A hydroxyapatite (HA) coating as the covering layer was deposited on the n-MAO coating to improve the biological properties of the coating (n-MAO/EPD composite coating). The morphology and phase composition of three treated coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of these coatings was evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization tests and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The XRD spectra showed that the CeO2 and ZrO2 peaks can be collected in the n-MAO coating, and HA particles exists in the n-MAO/EPD composite coating. The results of corrosion tests indicated that the n-MAO/EPD composite coating owned increased bioactivity and long-term protective ability compared with the MAO coating and the n-MAO coating. Thus Mg alloy coated with the n-MAO/EPD composite coating should be more suited as biodegradable bone implants.

  12. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Razza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating, as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  13. Supersonic Plasma Spray Deposition of CoNiCrAlY Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, F. R.; Miranda, F. S.; Reis, D. A. P.; Essiptchouk, A. M.; Filho, G. P.

    2017-06-01

    Plasma spray is a versatile technology used for production of environmental and thermal barrier coatings, mainly in the aerospace, gas turbine, and automotive industries, with potential application in the renewable energy industry. New plasma spray technologies have been developed recently to produce high-quality coatings as an alternative to the costly low-pressure plasma-spray process. In this work, we studied the properties of as-sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate with smooth surface ( R a = 0.8 μm) by means of a plasma torch operating in supersonic regime at atmospheric pressure. The CoNiCrAlY coatings were evaluated in terms of their surface roughness, microstructure, instrumented indentation, and phase content. Static and dynamic depositions were investigated to examine their effect on coating characteristics. Results show that the substrate surface velocity has a major influence on the coating properties. The sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings exhibit low roughness ( R a of 5.7 μm), low porosity (0.8%), excellent mechanical properties ( H it = 6.1 GPa, E it = 155 GPa), and elevated interface toughness (2.4 MPa m1/2).

  14. The Influence of Electrolytic Concentration on the Electrochemical Deposition of Calcium Phosphate Coating on a Direct Laser Metal Forming Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianyue Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcium phosphate (CaP coating on titanium surface enhances its biocompatibility, thus facilitating osteoconduction and osteoinduction with the inorganic phase of the human bone. Electrochemical deposition has been suggested as an effective means of fabricating CaP coatings on porous surface. The purpose of this study was to develop CaP coatings on a direct laser metal forming implant using electrochemical deposition and to investigate the effect of electrolytic concentration on the coating’s morphology and structure by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In group 10−2, coatings were rich in dicalcium phosphate, characterized to be thick, layered, and disordered plates. In contrast, in groups 10−3 and 10−4, the relatively thin and well-ordered coatings predominantly consisted of granular hydroxyapatite. Further, the hydrophilicity and cell affinity were improved as electrolytic concentration increased. In particular, the cells cultured in group 10−3 appeared to have spindle morphology with thick pseudopodia on CaP coatings; these spindles and pseudopodia strongly adhered to the rough and porous surface. By analyzing and evaluating the surface properties, we provided further knowledge on the electrolytic concentration effect, which will be critical for improving CaP coated Ti implants in the future.

  15. Tribocorrosion Failure Mechanism of TiN/SiOx Duplex Coating Deposited on AISI304 Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Xie, Zhiwen; Chen, Tian; Gong, Feng

    2016-11-26

    TiN/SiOx duplex coatings were synthesized on AISI304 stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) followed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). The microstructure and tribocorrosion failure behaviors of the duplex coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, reciprocating-sliding tribometer, and electrochemical tests. The as-deposited duplex coating had a two-layered columnar growth structure consisting of face-centered cubic TiN and amorphous SiOx. Sliding tests showed that the TiN interlayer had good adhesion with the substrate, but the SiOx layer suffered from severe delamination failure. Friction force induced a number of micro-cracks in the coating, which provided channels for the diffusion of NaCl solution. The tribocorrosion test showed that the duplex coating exhibited a lower wear-performance in NaCl solution than in ambient atmosphere. Multi-scale chloride ion corrosion occurred simultaneously and substantially degraded the bonding strength of the columnar crystals or neighboring layers. Force-corrosion synergy damage eventually led to multi-degradation failure of the duplex coating. The presented results provide a comprehensive understanding of the tribocorrosion failure mechanism in coatings with duplex architecture.

  16. Electrophoretic-deposited novel ternary silk fibroin/graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings on titanium substrate for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Xiong, Pan; Mo, Maosong; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Yufeng

    2016-09-01

    The combination of graphene oxide (GO) with robust mechanical property, silk fibroin (SF) with fascinating biological effects and hydroxyapatite (HA) with superior osteogenic activity is a competitive approach to make novel coatings for orthopedic applications. Herein, the feasibility of depositing ternary SF/GO/HA nanocomposite coatings on Ti substrate was firstly verified by exploiting electrophoretic nanotechnology, with SF being used as both a charging additive and a dispersion agent. The surface morphology, microstructure and composition, in vitro hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility of the resulting coatings were investigated by SEM, Raman, FTIR spectra and biocompatibility tests. Results demonstrated that GO, HA and SF could be co-deposited with a uniform, smooth thin-film morphology. The hemolysis rate analysis and the platelet adhesion test indicated good blood compatibility of the coatings. The human osteosarcoma MG63 cells displayed well adhesion and proliferation behaviors on the prepared coatings, with enhanced ALP activities. The present study suggested that SF/GO/HA nanocomposite coatings could be a promising candidate for the surface functionalization of biomaterials, especially as orthopedic implant coating.

  17. Tribocorrosion Failure Mechanism of TiN/SiOx Duplex Coating Deposited on AISI304 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available TiN/SiOx duplex coatings were synthesized on AISI304 stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID followed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS. The microstructure and tribocorrosion failure behaviors of the duplex coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, reciprocating-sliding tribometer, and electrochemical tests. The as-deposited duplex coating had a two-layered columnar growth structure consisting of face-centered cubic TiN and amorphous SiOx. Sliding tests showed that the TiN interlayer had good adhesion with the substrate, but the SiOx layer suffered from severe delamination failure. Friction force induced a number of micro-cracks in the coating, which provided channels for the diffusion of NaCl solution. The tribocorrosion test showed that the duplex coating exhibited a lower wear-performance in NaCl solution than in ambient atmosphere. Multi-scale chloride ion corrosion occurred simultaneously and substantially degraded the bonding strength of the columnar crystals or neighboring layers. Force-corrosion synergy damage eventually led to multi-degradation failure of the duplex coating. The presented results provide a comprehensive understanding of the tribocorrosion failure mechanism in coatings with duplex architecture.

  18. Micro-scale mechanical characterization of Inconel cermet coatings deposited by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ch.; Verdi, D.; Garrido, M.A.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an Inconel 625-Cr3C2 cermet coating was deposited on a steel alloy by laser cladding. The elastic and plastic mechanical properties of the cermet matrix were studied by the depth sensing indentation (DSI) in the micro scale. These results were compared with those obtained from an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. The values of Young's modulus and hardness of cermet matrix were higher than those of an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. Meanwhile, the indentation stress–strain curve of the cermet matrix showed a strain hardening value which was more than twice the one obtained for the Inconel 600 bulk. Additionally, the mechanical properties of unmelted Cr3C2 ceramic particles, embedded in the cermet matrix were also evaluated by DSI using a spherical indenter. (Author)

  19. Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition of DLC coating for modification of orthodontic magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsarat, W. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Aukkaravittayapun, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Jotikasthira, D. [Department of Odontology-Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to use the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) technique to form diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on orthodontic magnets to solve the corrosion problem. To search for the optimal material modification effect, PIII-D conditions including gases, processing time, and pulsing mode were varied. The formation of DLC films was confirmed and characterized with Raman spectra. The intensity of the remnant magnetic field of the magnets and the hardness, adhesion and thickness of the thin films were then measured. A corrosion test was carried out using clinic dental fluid. Improved benefits including a satisfying hardness, adhesion, remnant magnetic strength and corrosion resistance of the DLC coating could be achieved by using a higher interrupting time ratio and shorter processing time.

  20. Micro-scale mechanical characterization of Inconel cermet coatings deposited by laser cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an Inconel 625-Cr3C2 cermet coating was deposited on a steel alloy by laser cladding. The elastic and plastic mechanical properties of the cermet matrix were studied by the depth sensing indentation (DSI in the micro scale. These results were compared with those obtained from an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. The values of Young's modulus and hardness of cermet matrix were higher than those of an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. Meanwhile, the indentation stress–strain curve of the cermet matrix showed a strain hardening value which was more than twice the one obtained for the Inconel 600 bulk. Additionally, the mechanical properties of unmelted Cr3C2 ceramic particles, embedded in the cermet matrix were also evaluated by DSI using a spherical indenter.

  1. Growth and Characterization of Carbon Nanofibers on Fe/C-Fiber Textiles Coated by Deposition-Precipitation and Dip-Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to synthesize carbon nanofibers on C-fiber textiles, by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe catalyst. The substrate, which was a carbon textile consisting of non-woven carbon fibers and attached graphite particles, was oxidized by nitric acid, before the deposition process. Hydroxyl groups were created on the C-fiber textile, due to the oxidization step. Fe(III) hydroxide was subsequently deposited on the oxidized surface of the C-fiber textile. To deposit ferric particles, two different methods were tested: (i) deposition-precipitation, and (ii) dip-coating. For the experiments using both types of catalyst deposition, the weight ratio of Fe to C-fiber textile was also varied. Ferric particles were reduced to iron after deposition, by using H2/N2 gas, and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown by flowing ethylene gas. Properties of carbon nanofibers created like this were analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), N2-sorption (BET), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectoscopy (XPS), Thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and Raman spectroscopy. In the case of the deposition-precipitation method, the results show that the diameter of carbon nanofibers grew up to 40-60 nm and 30-55 nm, at which the weight ratios of Fe catalyst to C-fiber textiles were 1:30 and 1:70, respectively. When Fe particles were deposited by the dip-coating method, the diameter of carbon nanofibers grew up to 40-60 nm and 25-30 nm, for the ratios of Fe catalyst to C-fiber textiles of 1:10 and 1:30, respectively.

  2. Gradient titanium and silver based carbon coatings deposited on AISI316L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Damian; Reczulska, Malgorzata Czerniak-; Kolodziejczyk, Lukasz; Szymanski, Witold

    2013-06-01

    The constantly growing market for medical implants and devices caused mainly due to a lack of proper attention attached to the physical condition as well as extreme sports and increased elderly population creates the need of new biocompatible biomaterials with controlled bioactivity and certain useful properties. According to many literature reports, regarding the modifications of variety of different biomaterials using the surface engineering techniques and their biological and physicochemical examination results, the most promising material for great spectra of medical applications seem to be carbon layers. Another issue is the interaction between the implant material and surrounding tissue. In particular cases this interface area is directly exposed to air. Abovementioned concern occurs mainly in case of the external fixations, thus they are more vulnerable to infection. Therefore a crucial role has the inhibition of bacterial adhesion that may prevent implant-associated infections, occurrence of other numerous complications and in particular cases rejection of the implant. For this reason additional features of carbon coatings like antibacterial properties seem to be desired and justified. Silver doped diamond-like carbon coatings with different Ag concentrations were prepared by hybrid RF PACVD/MS (Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition/Magnetron Sputtering) deposition technique. Physicochemical parameters like chemical composition, morphology and surface topography, hardness and adhesion were determined. Examined layers showed a uniform distribution of silver in the amorphous DLC matrix, high value of H/E ratio, good adhesion and beneficial topography which make them a perfect material for medical applications e.g. modification of implants for the external fixations.

  3. Drop coating deposition Raman spectroscopy of proteinogenic amino acids compared with their solution and crystalline state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderka, Tomáš; Kopecký, Vladimír

    2017-10-01

    The Raman spectra of 20 proteinogenic amino acids were recorded in the solution, glass phase (as drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) samples) and crystalline forms in the wide spectral range of 200-3200 cm- 1. The most apparent spectral differences between the Raman spectra of the crystalline forms, glass phases and aqueous solutions of amino acids were briefly discussed and described in the frame of published works. The possible density dependencies of spectral bands were noted. In some cases, a strong influence of the sample density, as well as of the organization of the water envelope, was observed. The most apparent changes were observed for Ser and Thr. Nevertheless, for the majority of amino acids, the DCDR sample form is an intermediate between the solution and crystalline forms. In contrast, aromatic amino acids have only a small sensitivity to the form of the sample. Our reference set of Raman spectra is useful for revealing discrepancies between the SERS and solid/solution spectra of amino acids. We also found that some previously published Raman spectra of polycrystalline samples resemble glassy state rather than crystalline spectra. Therefore, this reference set of spectra will find application in every branch of Raman spectroscopy where the spectra of biomolecules are collected from coatings.

  4. Effect of Electrochemically Deposited MgO Coating on Printable Perovskite Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Nirmal Peiris

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we studied the effect of MgO coating thickness on the performance of printable perovskite solar cells (PSCs by varying the electrodeposition time of Mg(OH2 on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO/TiO2 electrode. Electrodeposited Mg(OH2 in the electrode was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis and scanning electron microscopic (SEM images. The performance of printable PSC structures on different deposition times of Mg(OH2 was evaluated on the basis of their photocurrent density-voltage characteristics. The overall results confirmed that the insulating MgO coating has an adverse effect on the photovoltaic performance of the solid state printable PSCs. However, a marginal improvement in the device efficiency was obtained for the device made with the 30 s electrodeposited TiO2 electrode. We believe that this undesirable effect on the photovoltaic performance of the printable PSCs is due to the higher coverage of TiO2 by the insulating MgO layer attained by the electrodeposition technique.

  5. Deposition of Antimicrobial Copper-Rich Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Pressure Jet Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kredl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inanimate surfaces serve as a permanent reservoir for infectious microorganisms, which is a growing problem in areas in everyday life. Coating of surfaces with inorganic antimicrobials, such as copper, can contribute to reduce the adherence and growth of microorganisms. The use of a DC operated air plasma jet for the deposition of copper thin films on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS substrates is reported. ABS is a widespread material used in consumer applications, including hospitals. The influence of gas flow rate and input current on thin film characteristics and its bactericidal effect have been studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of thin copper layers on plasma-exposed ABS and the formation of copper particles with a size in the range from 20 to 100 nm, respectively. The bactericidal properties of the copper-coated surfaces were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. A reduction in growth by 93% compared with the attachment of bacteria on untreated samples was observed for coverage of the surface with 7 at. % copper.

  6. Deposition of Antimicrobial Copper-Rich Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Pressure Jet Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredl, Jana; Kolb, Juergen F; Schnabel, Uta; Polak, Martin; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Fricke, Katja

    2016-04-07

    Inanimate surfaces serve as a permanent reservoir for infectious microorganisms, which is a growing problem in areas in everyday life. Coating of surfaces with inorganic antimicrobials, such as copper, can contribute to reduce the adherence and growth of microorganisms. The use of a DC operated air plasma jet for the deposition of copper thin films on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) substrates is reported. ABS is a widespread material used in consumer applications, including hospitals. The influence of gas flow rate and input current on thin film characteristics and its bactericidal effect have been studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of thin copper layers on plasma-exposed ABS and the formation of copper particles with a size in the range from 20 to 100 nm, respectively. The bactericidal properties of the copper-coated surfaces were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. A reduction in growth by 93% compared with the attachment of bacteria on untreated samples was observed for coverage of the surface with 7 at. % copper.

  7. CrN/AlN nanolaminate coatings deposited via high power pulsed and middle frequency pulsed magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagcivan, N.; Bobzin, K. [Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Kackertstr. 15, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Ludwig, A.; Grochla, D. [Institute for Materials, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Brugnara, R.H., E-mail: brugnara@iot.rwth-aachen.de [Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Kackertstr. 15, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Nanolaminate coatings based on transition metal nitrides such as CrN, AlN and TiN deposited via physical vapor deposition (PVD) have shown great advantage as protective coatings on tools and components subject to high loads in tribological applications. By varying the individual layer materials and their thicknesses it is possible to optimize the coating properties, e.g. hardness, Young's modulus and thermal stability. One way for further improvement of coating properties is the use of advanced PVD technologies. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is an advancement of pulsed magnetron sputtering (MS). The use of HPPMS allows a better control of the energetic bombardment of the substrate due to the higher ionization degree of metallic species. It provides an opportunity to influence chemical and mechanical properties by varying the process parameters. The present work deals with the development of CrN/AlN nanolaminate coatings in an industrial scale unit by using two different PVD technologies. Therefore, HPPMS and mfMS (middle frequency magnetron sputtering) technologies were used. The bilayer period Λ, i.e. the thickness of a CrN/AlN double layer, was varied between 6.2 nm and 47.8 nm by varying the rotational speed of the substrate holders. In a second step the highest rotational speed was chosen and further HPPMS CrN/AlN coatings were deposited applying different HPPMS pulse lengths (40, 80, 200 μs) at the same mean cathode power and frequency. Thickness, morphology, roughness and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The chemical composition was determined using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). Detailed characterization of the nanolaminate was conducted by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hardness and the Young's modulus were analyzed by nanoindentation measurements. The residual

  8. Oxidation behavior of NiCoCrAlY coatings deposited by double-Glow plasma alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shiyu; Miao, Qiang; Liang, Wenping; Li, Baiqiang

    2018-01-01

    The NiCoCrAlY coatings were deposited on the Inconel 718 alloy substrates by a novel method called double-glow plasma alloying (DG). The phases and microstructure of the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis while their chemical composition was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of the NiCoCrAlY coatings was typical of coatings formed by DG, with their structure consisting of uniform submicron-sized grains. Further, the coatings showed high adhesion strength (critical load >46 N). In addition, the oxidation characteristics of the coatings and the substrate were examined at three different temperatures (850, 950, and 1050 °C) using a muffle furnace. The coatings showed a lower oxidation rate, which was approximately one-tenth of that of the substrate. Even after oxidation for 100 h, the Al2O3 phase was the primary phase in the surface coating (850 °C), with the thickness of the oxide film increasing to 0.65 μm at 950 °C. When the temperature was increased beyond 1050 °C, the elemental Al and Ni were consumed in the formation of the oxide scale, which underwent spallation at several locations. The oxidation products of Cr, which were produced in large amounts and had a prism-like structure, controlled the subsequent oxidation behavior at the surface.

  9. Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Based WC/Co Coatings Deposited by Spray and Fuse Process Varying the Oxygen Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, H.; Olaya, J. J.; Alfonso, J. E.; Mtshali, C. B.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the effect of oxygen flow variation in the corrosion behavior of Ni-based WC/Co coatings deposited by spray and fuse process was investigated. The coatings were deposited on gray cast iron substrates using a Superjet Eutalloy thermal spraying gun. The morphology of the coatings was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The crystallographic phases were registered by x-ray diffraction (XRD), the diffraction patterns show the crystalline phases of the powder components with principal reflections for Ni and WC, the increase in flame temperature, due to the oxygen flow variation, generated amorphization in the nickel and an important crystallization of the planes (111) and (222) of WC as well as the decarburization of WC in W2C and W metallic. The corrosion behavior was investigated at room temperature in a 3.5% w/w aqueous solution of NaCl via potentiodynamic polarization. Electrochemical corrosion test showed that the coatings deposited under neutral flame conditions with an oxygen flow of 12.88 SCFH evidenced higher corrosion resistance. The chemical composition of the coatings and corrosion areas were analyzed by particle-induced x-ray emission, this technique permitting the corroboration of the decarburization process of WC determined by XRD and the formation of Cl structures.

  10. Synthesis of LSM films deposited by dip-coating on YSZ substrate; Sintese de filmes de LSM depositados por dip-coating em substratos de YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Leandro da; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Ribeiro, Nielson F.P. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica. Nucleo de Catalise

    2010-07-01

    The dip-coating process was used to deposit films of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.}3MnO{sub 3} (LSM) used as cathode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In this study we evaluated the relationship between the deposition parameters such as speed of withdrawal and number of deposited layers of LSM film on a substrate of 8% YSZ commercial, and structural properties, such as thickness and formation of cracks. The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With parameters set the film had good adhesion to the substrate with a thickness around 10 {mu}m, showing possible adherence problems when more than one layer is deposited on the substrate. (author)

  11. The potential of nano-structured silicon oxide type coatings deposited by PACVD for control of aquatic biofouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akesso, L.; Pettitt, M.E.; Callow, J.A.; Callow, M.E.; Stallard, J.; Teer, D.; Liu, C.; Wang, S.; Zhao, Q.; D'Souza, F.; Willemsen, P.R.; Donnelly, G.T.; Donik, C.; Kocijan, A.; Jenko, M.; Jones, L.A.; Guinaldo, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    SiOx-like coatings were deposited on glass slides from a hexamethylsiloxane precursor by plasma-assisted CVD (PACVD). Surface energies (23.1-45.7 mJ m-1) were correlated with the degree of surface oxidation and hydrocarbon contents. Tapping mode AFM revealed a range of surface topologies with Ra

  12. Properties of Oil/Water Emulsions Affecting the Deposition, Clearance and After-Feel Sensory Perception of Oral Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, S.; Hollander, de E.L.; Velde, van de E.; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of (i) protein type, (ii) protein content, and (iii) viscosity of o/w emulsions on the deposition and clearance of oral oil coatings and after-feel perception. Oil fraction (moil/cm2tongue) and after-feel perception differed considerably

  13. High-temperature tribological characteristics of silver and gold coatings on ceramics prepared by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-04-01

    An ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) system was used to deposit silver and gold coatings on polycrystalline {alpha}-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates for tribological studies at temperatures to 400{degrees}C. The wear tests were performed with an oscillating ball-on-flat type of test apparatus as a partial simulation of ring/liner motion and contact geometry in actual engine systems. The test results showed that without a surface coating, both the wear rates and the friction coefficients of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} test pairs were quite high, and increased substantially with temperature. In contract, the wear of flats coated with silver and gold was at unmeasurable levels, even after sliding tests of 110,000 passes. The wear of balls (uncoated) sliding against the Ag- and Au-coated flats was reduced by factors of 45 to more than 500 depending on coating type and ambient temperature. The friction coefficients of pairs with an IBAD-Ag or Au coating were in the range of 0.32--0.5.

  14. Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Xiaoming; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Chengtao; Yang, Ke; Su, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of α and β phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective coatings of hafnium dioxide by atomic layer deposition for microelectromechanical systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdova, Maria, E-mail: maria.berdova@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland); Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Tallarida, Grazia; Cianci, Elena [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Lamagna, Luca; Losa, Stefano; Rossini, Silvia; Somaschini, Roberto; Gioveni, Salvatore [STMicroelectronics, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, 20126, Milano (Italy); Franssila, Sami, E-mail: sami.franssila@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me or Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and ozone for potential applications in microelectromechanical systems. • ALD HfO{sub 2} protects aluminum substrates from degradation in moist environment and at the same time retains good reflectance properties of the underlying material. • The resistance of hafnium dioxide to moist environment is independent of chosen precursors. - Abstract: This work presents the investigation of HfO{sub 2} deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from either HfD-CO4 or TEMAHf and ozone for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, in particular, for environmental protection of aluminum micromirrors. This work shows that HfO{sub 2} films successfully protect aluminum in moist environment and at the same time retain good reflectance properties of underlying material. In our experimental work, the chemical composition, crystal structure, electronic density and roughness of HfO{sub 2} films remained the same after one week of humidity treatment (relative humidity of 85%, 85 °C). The reflectance properties underwent only minor changes. The observed shift in reflectance was only from 80–90% to 76–85% in 400–800 nm spectral range when coated with ALD HfO{sub 2} films grown with Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and no shift (remained in the range of 68–83%) for films grown from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me.

  16. Deposition kinetics of quantum dots and polystyrene latex nanoparticles onto alumina: role of water chemistry and particle coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Ivan R; Olsson, Adam L J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2013-03-05

    A clear understanding of the factors controlling the deposition behavior of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), such as quantum dots (QDs), is necessary for predicting their transport and fate in natural subsurface environments and in water filtration processes. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to study the effect of particle surface coatings and water chemistry on the deposition of commercial QDs onto Al2O3. Two carboxylated QDs (CdSe and CdTe) with different surface coatings were compared with two model nanoparticles: sulfate-functionalized (sPL) and carboxyl-modified (cPL) polystyrene latex. Deposition rates were assessed over a range of ionic strengths (IS) in simple electrolyte (KCl) and in electrolyte supplemented with two organic molecules found in natural waters; namely, humic acid and rhamnolipid. The Al2O3 collector used here is selected to be representative of oxide patches found on the surface of aquifer or filter grains. Deposition studies showed that ENP deposition rates on bare Al2O3 generally decreased with increasing salt concentration, with the exception of the polyacrylic-acid (PAA) coated CdTe QD which exhibited unique deposition behavior due to changes in the conformation of the PAA coating. QD deposition rates on bare Al2O3 were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than those of the polystyrene latex nanoparticles, likely as a result of steric stabilization imparted by the QD surface coatings. Adsorption of humic acid or rhamnolipid on the Al2O3 surface resulted in charge reversal of the collector and subsequent reduction in the deposition rates of all ENPs. Moreover, the ratio of the two QCM-D output parameters, frequency and dissipation, revealed key structural information of the ENP-collector interface; namely, on bare Al2O3, the latex particles were rigidly attached as compared to the more loosely attached QDs. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the nature of ENP coatings as well

  17. Comparative Study of Deposit through a Membrane and Spin-Coated MWCNT as a Flexible Anode for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Aloui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study between multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates using (i spin-coating technique and (ii deposition through a membrane. We deduce from transparence, electrical properties, and AFM image that deposition through membrane presents better properties than spin-coating method. The concentration comparison shows that the optimum result was achieved at a concentration of 1.2 mg·mL−1 corresponding to a resistance (Rs of 180 Ω·cm−2 and an optical transparence of about 81% using a wavelength 550 nm. We will also demonstrate the use of the elaborated electrodes to fabricate the following flexible structure: PET-MWCNTs/MEH-PPV/Al. The series resistance Rs and the ideality factor n were calculated.

  18. Al2O3 coatings against high temperature corrosion deposited by metal-organic low pressure chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Corbach, H.D.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of thin amorphous films of Al2O3 on steels was performed at low pressure. Aluminium tri-sec-butoxide (ATSB) was used as a precursor. The effects of the deposition temperature (200–380 °C), the deposition pressure (0.17–1.20 kPa) and the ATSB concentration

  19. The n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coating fabricated on ZK60 magnesium alloy using combined micro-arc oxidation with electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lu, Chao [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wang, Chao; Song, Renguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Adding CeO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} nano-particles to modify the properties of n-MAO coating. • A bio-ceramic n-MAO/EPD composite coating was prepared by two-step methods. • The n-MAO/EPD composite coating with HA has a favorable anti-corrosion effect. - Abstract: A bio-ceramic composite coating was fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy using combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The MAO coating as the basal layer was produced in alkaline electrolyte with (n-MAO coating) and without (MAO coating) the addition of CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} nano-particles, respectively. A hydroxyapatite (HA) coating as the covering layer was deposited on the n-MAO coating to improve the biological properties of the coating (n-MAO/EPD composite coating). The morphology and phase composition of three treated coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of these coatings was evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization tests and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The XRD spectra showed that the CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} peaks can be collected in the n-MAO coating, and HA particles exists in the n-MAO/EPD composite coating. The results of corrosion tests indicated that the n-MAO/EPD composite coating owned increased bioactivity and long-term protective ability compared with the MAO coating and the n-MAO coating. Thus Mg alloy coated with the n-MAO/EPD composite coating should be more suited as biodegradable bone implants.

  20. Characterization and mechanical behaviour of reinforced hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by vacuum plasma spray on SS-316L alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amardeep; Singh, Gurbhinder; Chawla, Vikas

    2018-01-10

    Hydroxyapatite powder reinforced individually with 10wt percentage (wt%) of Al2O3 and ZrO2 (HA + 10wt% Al2O3 and HA + 10wt% ZrO2) was thermally sprayed onto SS-316L substrate with a bond coat of Zirconia by vacuum plasma spray (VPS) technique. The resulted coatings were heat treated at 700°C for 1h to study its effects on microstructural and mechanical properties of the deposited coatings. The characterization of the coatings was carried out using scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, porosity, surface roughness and crystallinity using Rietveld analysis. The results indicated that after post coating heat treatment substantial decrease in porosity was witnessed along with significant improvement in crystallinity. Besides, the hardness across the cross-section of the coatings and bond strength was considerably improved; however the hardness of top coat was reduced owing to the loosening of un-melted and partially melted particles by diffusion process which takes place during heat treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wear and Corrosion Properties of 316L-SiC Composite Coating Deposited by Cold Spray on Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Ma, Bing; Liu, Guang; Song, Hui; Wu, Jinming; Cui, Lang; Zheng, Ziyun

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of commonly used magnesium alloys, 316L stainless steel coating and 316L-SiC composite coating have been deposited directly on commercial AZ80 magnesium alloy using cold spraying technology (CS). The microstructure, hardness and bonding strength of as-sprayed coatings were studied. Their tribological properties sliding against Si3N4 and GCr15 steel under unlubricated conditions were evaluated by a ball-on-disk tribometer. Corrosion behaviors of coated samples were also evaluated and compared to that of uncoated magnesium alloy substrate in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the corresponding wear tracks and corroded surfaces to determine wear and corrosion mechanisms. The results showed that the as-sprayed coatings possessed higher microhardness and more excellent wear resistance than magnesium alloy substrate. Meanwhile, 316L and 316L-SiC coating also reduced the corrosion current density of magnesium alloy and the galvanic corrosion of the substrates was not observed after 200-h neutral salt spray exposure, which demonstrated that corrosion resistance of a magnesium alloy substrate could be greatly improved by cold-sprayed stainless steel-based coatings.

  2. Optically transparent and durable Al2O3 coatings for harsh environments by ultra short pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Hannu; Syväluoto, Aki; Leskinen, Jari T. T.; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, an environmental protection is needed for a number of optical applications in conditions quickly impairing the clarity of optical surfaces. Abrasion resistant optical coatings applied onto plastics are usually based on alumina or polysiloxane technology. In many applications transparent glasses and ceramics need a combination of abrasive and chemically resistant shielding or other protective solutions like coatings. In this study, we intended to test our hypothesis that clear and pore free alumina coating can be uniformly distributed on glass prisms by ultra short pulsed laser deposition (USPLD) technique to protect the sensitive surfaces against abrasives. Abrasive wear tests were carried out by the use of SiC emery paper using specified standard procedures. After the wear tests the measured transparencies of coated prisms turned out to be close those of the prisms before coating. The coating on sensitive surfaces consistently displayed enhanced wear resistance exhibiting still high quality, even after severe wear testing. Furthermore, the coating modified the surface properties towards hydrophobic nature in contrast to untreated prisms, which became very hydrophilic especially due to wear.

  3. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/h-BN and Chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 Composite Coatings on Stainless Steel (316L) Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Raddaha, Namir S.; Luis Cordero-Arias; Sandra Cabanas-Polo; Sannakaisa Virtanen; Roether, Judith A; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of an experimental investigation designed to deposit chitosan/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and chitosan/h-BN/titania (TiO2) composites on SS316L substrates using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for potential antibacterial applications. The influence of EPD parameters (voltage and deposition time) and relative concentrations of chitosan, h-BN and TiO2 in suspension on deposition yield was studied. The composition and structure of deposited coatings were inv...

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of CdS coatings and their photocatalytic activities in the degradation of tetracycline antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A.; Hernández-Uresti, D. B.; Obregón, S.

    2016-11-01

    The photocatalytic activities of CdS coatings formed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) were evaluated through the photodegradation of an antibiotic, tetracycline. First, CdS nanoparticles were synthesized under microwave irradiation of aqueous solutions containing the cadmium and sulfur precursors at stoichiometric amounts and by using trisodium citrate as stabilizer. Microwave irradiation was carried out in a conventional microwave oven at 2.45 GHz and 1650 W of nominal power, for 60 s. The CdS nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence and X-ray diffraction. Electrophoretic deposition parameters were 300 mV, 600 mV and 900 mV of applied voltage between aluminum plates separated by 1 cm. The fractal dimensions of the surfaces were evaluated by atomic force microscopy and correlated to the morphological and topographic characteristics of the coatings. The photocatalytic activity of the CdS coatings was investigated by means the photodegradation of the tetracycline antibiotic under simulated sunlight irradiation. According to the results, the photoactivity of the coatings directly depends on the concentration of the precursors and the applied voltage during the deposition. The material obtained at 600 mV showed the best photocatalytic behavior, probably due to its physical properties, such as optimum load and suitable aggregate size.

  5. Effect of zirconium nitride physical vapor deposition coating on preosteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation onto titanium screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Manuela; Gatti, Giorgio; Migliario, Mario; Marchese, Leonardo; Rocchetti, Vincenzo; Renò, Filippo

    2014-11-01

    Titanium has long been used to produce dental implants. Problems related to its manufacturing, casting, welding, and ceramic application for dental prostheses still limit its use, which highlights the need for technologic improvements. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the biologic performance of titanium dental implants coated with zirconium nitride in a murine preosteoblast cellular model. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical and morphologic characteristics of titanium implants coated with zirconium nitride by means of physical vapor deposition. Chemical and morphologic characterizations were performed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the bioactivity of the implants was evaluated by cell-counting experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis found that physical vapor deposition was effective in covering titanium surfaces with zirconium nitride. Murine MC-3T3 preosteoblasts were seeded onto titanium-coated and zirconium nitride-coated screws to evaluate their adhesion and proliferation. These experiments found a significantly higher number of cells adhering and spreading onto zirconium nitride-coated surfaces (Pimplants could make the surface of the titanium more bioactive than uncoated titanium surfaces. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Additive Mixing and Conformal Coating of Noniridescent Structural Colors with Robust Mechanical Properties Fabricated by Atomization Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingsong; Zhang, Yafeng; Shi, Lei; Qiu, Huihui; Zhang, Suming; Qi, Ning; Hu, Jianchen; Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2018-02-15

    Artificial structural colors based on short-range-ordered amorphous photonic structures (APSs) have attracted great scientific and industrial interest in recent years. However, the previously reported methods of self-assembling colloidal nanoparticles lack fine control of the APS coating and fixation on substrates and poorly realize three-dimensional (3D) conformal coatings for objects with irregular or highly curved surfaces. In this paper, atomization deposition of silica colloidal nanoparticles with poly(vinyl alcohol) as the additive is proposed to solve the above problems. By finely controlling the thicknesses of APS coatings, additive mixing of noniridescent structural colors is easily realized. Based on the intrinsic omnidirectional feature of atomization, a one-step 3D homogeneous conformal coating is also readily realized on various irregular or highly curved surfaces, including papers, resins, metal plates, ceramics, and flexible silk fabrics. The vivid coatings on silk fabrics by atomization deposition possess robust mechanical properties, which are confirmed by rubbing and laundering tests, showing great potential in developing an environmentally friendly coloring technique in the textile industry.

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of CdS coatings and their photocatalytic activities in the degradation of tetracycline antibiotic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vázquez, A., E-mail: alejandro.lqi@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66455 Nuevo León (Mexico); Hernández-Uresti, D.B., E-mail: ing.dianahdz@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, CICFIM–Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66455 Nuevo León (Mexico); Obregón, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, CICFIM–Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66455 Nuevo León (Mexico)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • CdS photocatalyst was prepared by electrophoretic deposition. • The CdS coating was used in the photodegradation of antibiotics. • O{sub 2}{sup −} and ·OH radicals were responsible for the degradation of tetracycline. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activities of CdS coatings formed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) were evaluated through the photodegradation of an antibiotic, tetracycline. First, CdS nanoparticles were synthesized under microwave irradiation of aqueous solutions containing the cadmium and sulfur precursors at stoichiometric amounts and by using trisodium citrate as stabilizer. Microwave irradiation was carried out in a conventional microwave oven at 2.45 GHz and 1650 W of nominal power, for 60 s. The CdS nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence and X-ray diffraction. Electrophoretic deposition parameters were 300 mV, 600 mV and 900 mV of applied voltage between aluminum plates separated by 1 cm. The fractal dimensions of the surfaces were evaluated by atomic force microscopy and correlated to the morphological and topographic characteristics of the coatings. The photocatalytic activity of the CdS coatings was investigated by means the photodegradation of the tetracycline antibiotic under simulated sunlight irradiation. According to the results, the photoactivity of the coatings directly depends on the concentration of the precursors and the applied voltage during the deposition. The material obtained at 600 mV showed the best photocatalytic behavior, probably due to its physical properties, such as optimum load and suitable aggregate size.

  8. Bioactivity response of Ta{sub 1-x}O{sub x} coatings deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Alves, C.F., E-mail: cristiana.alves@fisica.uminho.pt [GRF-CFUM, Physics Departament, University of Minho, Campus of Azurem, Guimaraes 4800-058 (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-788 (Portugal); Carvalho, S. [GRF-CFUM, Physics Departament, University of Minho, Campus of Azurem, Guimaraes 4800-058 (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-788 (Portugal)

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants is sometimes accompanied by failure due to periimplantitis disease and subsequently poor esthetics when soft–hard tissue margin recedes. As a consequence, further research is needed for developing new bioactive surfaces able to enhance the osseous growth. Tantalum (Ta) is a promising material for dental implants since, comparing with titanium (Ti), it is bioactive and has an interesting chemistry which promotes the osseointegration. Another promising approach for implantology is the development of implants with oxidized surfaces since bone progenitor cells interact with the oxide layer forming a diffusion zone due to its ability to bind with calcium which promotes a stronger bond. In the present report Ta-based coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto Ti CP substrates in an Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere. In order to assess the osteoconductive response of the studied materials, contact angle and in vitro tests of the samples immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) were performed. Structural results showed that oxide phases where achieved with larger amounts of oxygen (70 at.% O). More compact and smooth coatings were deposited by increasing the oxygen content. The as-deposited Ta coating presented the most hydrophobic character (100°); with increasing oxygen amount contact angles progressively diminished, down to the lowest measured value, 63°. The higher wettability is also accompanied by an increase on the surface energy. Bioactivity tests demonstrated that highest O-content coating, in good agreement with wettability and surface energy values, showed an increased affinity for apatite adhesion, with higher Ca/P ratio formation, when compared to the bare Ti substrates. - Highlights: • Ta{sub 1-x}O{sub x} coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. • Amorphous oxide phases were achieved with higher oxygen amounts. • Contact angles progressively diminished, with increasing oxygen content. • Ta

  9. Deposition of calcium phosphate coatings using condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) as phosphate source through induction heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Hou, Saisai; Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Mengmeng; Deng, Linhong; Xiong, Xinbo; Ni, Xinye

    2016-12-01

    In present work condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) were used as phosphate source in induction heating to deposit calcium phosphate coatings. The phase, morphology, and composition of different phosphate-related coatings were characterized and compared using XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Results showed that P2O7(4-)formed calcium pyrophosphate hydrate coatings with interconnected cuboid-like particles. The as-deposited calcium tripolyphosphate hydrate coating with P3O10(5-) was mainly composed of flower-like particles assembled by plate-like crystals. The bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were also studied. Moreover, the feasibility of using hybrid phosphate sources for preparing and depositing coatings onto magnesium alloy was investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vacuum arc plasma deposition of thin titanium dioxide films on silicone elastomer as a functional coating for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudot, Cécile; Kühn, Marvin; Kühn-Kauffeldt, Marina; Schein, Jochen

    2017-05-01

    Silicone elastomer is a promising material for medical applications and is widely used for implants with blood and tissue contact. However, its strong hydrophobicity limits adhesion of tissue cells to silicone surfaces, which can impair the healing process. To improve the biological properties of silicone, a triggerless pulsed vacuum cathodic arc plasma deposition technique was applied to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO2) films onto the surface. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used for coating characterization. Deposited films were about 150nm thick and exhibited good adhesion to the underlying silicone substrate. Surface wettability and roughness both increased after deposition of the TiO2 layer. In addition, cell-biological investigations demonstrated that the in-vitro cytocompatibility of TiO2-coated samples was greatly improved without impacting silicone's nontoxicity. For validation of use in medical devices, further investigations were conducted and demonstrated stability of surface properties in an aqueous environment for a period of 68days and the coating's resistance to several sterilization methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; Nogueira Junior, Lafayette; Massi, Marcos; Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0-14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  12. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti, E-mail: joserenatocq@hotmail.com [Potiguar University, Department of Biotechnology, Natal (Brazil); Nogueira Junior, Lafayette [São Paulo State University, Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Massi, Marcos [Federal University of São Paulo, Institute of Science and Technology, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio [São Paulo State University, Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva [Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Department of Physics, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Özcan, Mutlu [University of Zurich, Dental Materials Unit, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Materials Science, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0–14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  13. Development of superlattice CrN/NbN coatings for joint replacements deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepian, Papken Ehiasarian; Ehiasarian, Arutiun Papken; Purandare, Yashodhan; Sugumaran, Arunprabhu Arunachalam; Marriott, Tim; Khan, Imran

    2016-09-01

    The demand for reliable coating on medical implants is ever growing. In this research, enhanced performance of medical implants was achieved by a CrN/NbN coating, utilising nanoscale multilayer/superlattice structure. The advantages of the novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering technology, namely, its unique highly ionised plasma, were exploited to deposit dense and strongly adherent coatings on CoCr implants. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed coating superlattice structure with bi-layer thickness of 3.5 nm. CrN/NbN deposited on CoCr samples showed exceptionally high adhesion, critical load values of LC2 = 50 N in scratch adhesion tests. Nanoindentation tests showed high hardness of 34 GPa and Young's modulus of 447 GPa. Low coefficient of friction (μ) 0.49 and coating wear coefficient (K C) = 4.94 × 10(-16) m(3) N(-1) m(-1) were recorded in dry sliding tests. Metal ion release studies showed a reduction in Co, Cr and Mo release at physiological and elevated temperatures (70 °C) to almost undetectable levels (<1 ppb). Rotating beam fatigue testing showed a significant increase in fatigue strength from 349 ± 59 MPa (uncoated) to 539 ± 59 MPa (coated). In vitro biological testing has been performed in order to assess the safety of the coating in biological environment; cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and sensitisation testing have been performed, all showing no adverse effects.

  14. Characterizations of multilayer ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO multilayer thin films are deposited on glass substrate using sol-gel spin coating technique and the effect of these multilayer films on optical, electrical and structural properties are investigated. It is observed that these multilayer films have great impact on the properties of ZnO. X-ray Diffraction (XRD confirms that ZnO has hexagonal wurtzite structure. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM showed the crack-free films which have uniformly distributed grains structures. Both micro and nano particles of ZnO are present on thin films. Four point probe measured the electrical properties showed the decreasing trend between the average resistivity and the number of layers. The optical absorption spectra measured using UV–Vis. showed the average transmittance in the visible region of all films is 80% which is good for solar spectra. The performance of the multilayer as transparent conducting material is better than the single layer of ZnO. This work provides a low cost, environment friendly and well abandoned material for solar cells applications. Keywords: Multilayer films, Semiconductor, ZnO, XRD, SEM, Optoelectronic properties

  15. Zirconia sol-gel coatings deposited on 304 stainless steel for chemical protection in acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, F. Perdomo; Atik, M.; Avaca, Luis A.; Aegerter, M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1995-12-31

    Zr O{sub 2} thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and using dip-coating technique for deposition on 304 austenitic stainless steel, from sonocatalyzed sols of zirconia alkoxide, isopropanol (Zr(O C{sub 3} H{sub 7})4/C{sub 3} H{sub 7} OH = 0.5), glacial acetic acid and water (C H{sub 3} CO OH/H{sub 2} O = 0.5). The films were dried at 40 deg C/15 min and thermally treated in the air with a linear variation of 5 deg C/min and two isothermal holdings at 400 deg C during 1 h and afterwards at 800 deg C during several periods of time (up to 20 h). The film thickness ranges between 0.6 and 0.8 {mu}m. Structure and morphology were studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the polarization resistance and the corrosion rate (mpy) in 1,0 N aqueous solution of H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} at room temperature were determined using potentiometric polarization curves with a scanning velocity of 1 mV/s. These films act as a blocking physical layer in the corrosion media and increase the substrate life time in a factor of 7 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fibrinogen matrix deposited on the surface of biomaterials acts as a natural anti-adhesive coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiullin, Roman; Christenson, Wayne; Owaynat, Hadil; Yermolenko, Ivan S; Kadirov, Marsil K; Ros, Robert; Ugarova, Tatiana P

    2015-10-01

    Adsorption of fibrinogen on the luminal surface of biomaterials is a critical early event during the interaction of blood with implanted vascular graft prostheses which determines their thrombogenicity. We have recently identified a nanoscale process by which fibrinogen modifies the adhesive properties of various surfaces for platelets and leukocytes. In particular, adsorption of fibrinogen at low density promotes cell adhesion while its adsorption at high density results in the formation of an extensible multilayer matrix, which dramatically reduces cell adhesion. It remains unknown whether deposition of fibrinogen on the surface of vascular graft materials produces this anti-adhesive effect. Using atomic force spectroscopy, single cell force spectroscopy, and standard adhesion assays with platelets and leukocytes, we have characterized the adhesive and physical properties of the contemporary biomaterials, before and after coating with fibrinogen. We found that uncoated PET, PTFE and ePTFE exhibited high adhesion forces developed between the AFM tip or cells and the surfaces. Adsorption of fibrinogen at the increasing concentrations progressively reduced adhesion forces, and at ≥2 μg/ml all surfaces were virtually nonadhesive. Standard adhesion assays performed with platelets and leukocytes confirmed this dependence. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular events underlying thrombogenicity of vascular grafts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crystal-Structure-Based Modeling Study of Temperature-Dependent Fracture Toughness for Brittle Coating Deposited on Ductile Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yichen; Chen, Kuiying; Liu, Rong; Yao, Matthew X.; Collier, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    The temperature-dependent fracture toughness of a brittle coating/ductile substrate system, WC-10Co4Cr deposited on 1018 low carbon steel, is evaluated at microscopic level using an indentation-based model in terms of the Arrhenius-type equation and rate-controlling theory. The formulation of the model utilizes the parameters of crystal structures of each phase in the coating material. The slip systems of hard hexagonal δ-WC phase and soft FCC α-Co phase are analyzed. The fracture toughness of the two-phase coating is obtained by integrating the fracture toughness of single δ-WC phase coating and that of single α-Co phase coating using either the basic mixture method or the unconstrained mixture method. The results suggest that the fracture toughness of WC-10Co4Cr coating/1018 low carbon steel substrate system may remain constant until the temperature reaches a critical value, about 200 K, and ranges from 2.16 to 10.82 {{MPa}}{{m}}^{1/2} , with temperature increasing from room temperature (298 K) to 1000 K.

  18. Deposition of stable amine coating onto polycaprolactone nanofibers by low pressure cyclopropylamine plasma polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manakhov, Anton [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Nečas, David [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Čechal, Jan [CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pavliňák, David [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Eliáš, Marek [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-04-30

    Amine-rich films are of high interest for the bio-applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering thanks to their high reactivity allowing the formation of the covalent linkages between biomolecules and a surface. However, the bio-applications of amine-rich films require their good stability in water which is often achieved at large expenses of the amine concentration. Recently, non-toxic cyclopropylamine (CPA) has been applied for the plasma polymerization of films bearing high NH{sub x} environment combined with the moderate thickness loss (20%) after water immersion for 48 h. In this work, the amine-rich film with the NH{sub x} concentration over 7 at.% was deposited on Si substrates and polycaprolactone nanofiber meshes by using CPA plasma polymerization (pulsed mode) in a vertically oriented stainless steel reactor. The substrates were placed at the radio frequency electrode and the ion bombardment caused by direct-current self-bias was suppressed by using high pressure of 50 Pa. Analysis of samples by scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any cracks in the deposited layer formed during a sample immersion in water. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed a slight oxidation of amine groups in water but the film still contained 5 at.% of NH{sub x} (according to the N1s XPS fitting) after the immersion. The rapid oxidation of amine groups was observed during the aging experiment carried out in air at room temperature because FTIR revealed an increase of amide peaks that increased progressively with aging time. However, this oxidation was significantly reduced if the plasma polymer was stored at − 20 °C. Since the films exhibit high amine concentration and very good water stability they have great potential for applications as biocompatible functional coatings. - Highlights: • Cyclopropylamine plasma polymers deposited on polycaprolactone nanofibers • Amine-rich films with high

  19. Comparison of the cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of atomic-layer-deposited alumina and titania ultrathin protective coatings deposited at 200 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Sadeghi-Tohidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of ultrathin protective coatings on silicon thin films were investigated. The cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of 22 nm-thick atomic-layered-deposited (ALD titania were characterized and compared to that of 25 nm-thick alumina. Both coatings were deposited at 200 °C. The fatigue rates are comparable at 30 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH while they are one order of magnitude larger for alumina compared to titania at 80 °C, 90% RH. The improved fatigue performance is believed to be related to the improved stability of the ALD titania coating with water compared to ALD alumina, which may in part be related to the fact that ALD titania is crystalline, while ALD alumina is amorphous. Static fatigue crack nucleation and propagation was not observed. The underlying fatigue mechanism is different from previously documented mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking, and appears to result from the presence of compressive stresses and a rough coating–substrate interface.

  20. An Investigation of the CSC-MIG Welding Process for Deposition of Conventional, Ultrafine and Nanostructured MMC Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Patrick

    Welding based coating deposition techniques allow high rates of material deposition and form a permanent metallurgical bond between the coating and the substrate material. Welding based methods can also provide an economic alternative over other industrial coating deposition processes where high initial capital investment and running costs can be restrictive. As with all technological sectors, the need for new and improved machinery and processes to meet industrial needs provides a drive for continued research. The controlled short-circuit MIG (CSC-MIG) welding system is a newly developed welding apparatus built to overcome several shortcomings associated with traditional MIG welding. It allows for greater control of many welding parameters and has reduced heat input during deposition when compared with conventional MIG welding systems. This project was conducted to understand the CSC-MIG welding system as a process and as a hardfacing deposition technique through examination of the microstructural features and transformations of Ni/WC coatings. Several coatings deposited with a Ni/WC electrode wire, with heat input ranging between 10 J/mm and 110 J/mm, were examined. It was found that the detrimental decarburization reactions acting on the WC particles, as seen in thermal spray systems, do not occur when welding with the CSC-MIG. Although the energy input during welding with the CSC-MIG system is significantly lower than for traditional MIG, dissolution of the reinforcing phase is an issue to be contended with and must be minimized through proper selection of welding parameters. Precipitation of a reaction layer around the WC/W2C reinforcing phase was identified as WC; the average thickness of which increased from 3.8 mum to 7.2 mum for the low and high heat input condition, respectively. Precipitation of newly formed WC particles was also observed; their size distribution increased from D50 = 2.4 mum in the low heat input weldment to D50 = 6.75 mum in the high

  1. Experimental Comparison of Calcium Sulfate (CaSO(4)) Scale Deposition on Coated Carbon Steel and Titanium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Dhawi AbdulRahman

    Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) deposit reduces heat exchange in heat transfer equipment which adversely affects the equipment performance and plant production. This experimental study was conducted by using the Rotating Cylinder Electrode (RCE) equipment available in the university's Center for Engineering Research (CER/RI) to study and compare the effect of solution hydrodynamics on Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) scale deposition on coated carbon steel and titanium surfaces. In addition, the Scanning Electron Microscopic was used to examine the morphology and distribution of Calcium Sulfate (CaSO 4) crystals deposited on titanium metal surfaces. In this study, the rotational speed was varied from 100 to 2000 RPM to study the behavior of Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) accumulation on both materials. Based on the experimental results, Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) scale obtained in the present study was almost constant on coated carbon steel in which the rate of scale deposition is equal to the rate of scale removal. However, the deposition of Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) observed on titanium material was increased as the speed increased.

  2. Toward High-Performance Coatings for Biomedical Devices: Study on Plasma-Deposited Fluorocarbon Films and Ageing in PBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mantovani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High performance coatings tailored to medical devices represent a recognised approach to modulate surface properties. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon films have been proposed as a potential stent coating. Previous studies have shown promising adhesion properties: the 35 nm-thick film sustained plastic deformation up to 25% such as induced during the clinical implantation. In this study, the compositional and morphological changes of plasma-deposited fluorocarbon films were examined during ageing in a pseudo-physiological medium, a phosphate buffer solution (PBS, by angle-resolved XPS, FT-IR data and AFM images. The evolution of the ageing process is discussed: defluorination and crosslinking yielded an oxidized protective top layer onto the films, which showed further degradation.

  3. Cracking caused by cutting of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings and its relation to the structural features of coatings deposited at different initial substrate temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Bojan R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the cracking phenomenon in as-plasma-sprayed hydroxylapatite coatings (HACs after they were being subjected to the severe cutting conditions in the direction perpendicular to the coating/substrate interface. In order to evaluate the effects of substrate preheating on the occurrence of micro-cracks, the HACs were deposited at different initial substrate temperatures (TS = 20, 100 and 200°C. The changes in phase composition and HA splat morphology with TS were observed and were correlated with the cracking occurrence. The results showed that severe cutting conditions introduced a localized cracking in the regions of HACs dominantly attributed to the brittle hydroxyl-deficient amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP phase. This effect was particularly observable in the HACs deposited without preheating of substrate. On the other hand, the preheating of substrate reduced the presence of micro-cracks and caused insignificant changes in the average local phase composition. In HACs deposited with preheating of substrate, the HA splats (of which HACs are composed were thinner and recrystallized HA regions seemed smaller in size and more evenly distributed. These results implied potentially important roles of the HA splat formation mechanism on the distribution of ACP and recrystallized HA regions in the as-plasma-sprayed HACs and the cracking resistance of HACs. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 34022

  4. Durability of fiber post-to-composite bonds achieved by physical vapor deposition and tribochemical silica coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathke, Andreas; Frehse, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Haller, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate post-to-composite bonds in terms of their durability, achieved either by physical vapor deposition (PVD) or tribochemical silica coating (TSC) compared to coupling strategies for fiber posts at chairside. Thirty uncoated fiber posts (DT Light) each were either left untreated (control) or silanized with a one-bottle (Monobond Plus) or a two-bottle (Clearfil SE Bond/Porcelain Bond Activator) silane at the chairside. Thirty coated fiber posts each had already been silica coated and silanized by the manufacturer using PVD (DT Light SL) or TSC (DentinPost Coated) deposition techniques. Surface analysis was carried out by profilometry and x-ray microanalysis. All the posts were surrounded by 2-mm-thick disks of a dual-curing composite resin (MultiCore Flow). After water storage for 24 h at 37°C, the specimens in each group were randomly divided into three subgroups (n=10) and subjected to 0, 1500, and 20,000 thermocycles (5°C to 55°C) prior to push-out testing. Failure modes were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The statistical significance was determined with two-way ANOVA, the Student-Newman-Keuls test, and Fisher's exact test. The conditioned posts had significantly higher interfacial bond strengths than the control posts after thermocycling (p0.05). Coatings deposited by TSC reached the highest bond values (pdelamination (pcomposite. PVD and TSC techniques enhanced the bond durability of fiber posts. TSC led to a superior post-tocomposite bond, probably based on more effective micromechanical adhesion due to the higher surface roughness.

  5. A combined coating strategy based on atomic layer deposition for enhancement of corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangmei; Yang, Qiuyue; Li, Zhaoyang; Yuan, Wei; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Wu, Shuilin

    2018-03-01

    Rapid corrosion restricts the wide application of Mg and Mg-based alloys. In this work, a combined surface strategy was employed to modify the surface of AZ31 Mg Alloy. An atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized to prepare ZrO2 nanofilm on Mg substrate. During this course, the film thickness could be precisely controlled by adjusting the ALD cycles with a deposition rate of 0.117 nm/cycle. The subsequent PLGA grafting on ZrO2 nanofilm was carried out by a spin-coating process to further enhance the corrosion resistance. The nanoscratch tests showed that this hybrid coating had good bonding strength with substrate and similar Young's modulus to natural bone. In vitro corrosion tests demonstrated that a thicker ZrO2 nanofilm on the surface could reduce the corrosion rate of Mg substrate when compared to a thinner coating. When increasing ZrO2 deposition cycles from 25 to 100, the corrosion resistance could be significantly increased by two or three orders of magnitude. Hydrogen evolution tests revealed the synergetic effects of both galvanic corrosion and local acidic action could accelerate the corrosion of the AZ31 modified with the PLGA/ZrO2 coating once the ZrO2 nanofilm was damaged. Therefore, by changing the ALD cycles, the corrosion resistance of both ZrO2 thin film and ZrO2/PLGA hybrid coatings can be adjusted. This work provides an effective combined surface strategy that can be employed to adjust the corrosion resistance of Mg-based alloys for biomedical applications.

  6. Direct sputtering- and electro-deposition of gold coating onto the closed surface of ultralow-density carbon-hydrogen foam cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jiaqiu; Yin, Jialing; Zhang, Hao; Yao, Mengqi; Hu, Wencheng, E-mail: huwc@uestc.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The surface pores of P(DVB/St) foam cylinder are sealed by CVD method. • Gold film was deposited on the surface of foam cylinder by magnetron sputtering. • Electroless plating was excluded in the present experiments. • The gold coatings were thickened through the electrodeposition process. - Abstract: This work aimed to fabricate a gold coating on the surface of ultralow-density carbon-hydrogen foam cylinder without electroless plating. Poly (divinylbenzene/styrene) foam cylinder was synthetized by high internal phase emulsion, and chemical vapor deposition polymerization approach was used to form a compact poly-p-xylylene film on the foam cylinder. Conducting gold thin films were directly deposited onto the poly-p-xylylene-modified foam cylinder by magnetron sputtering, and electrochemical deposition was adopted to thicken the gold coatings. The micro-structures and morphologies of poly (divinylbenzene/styrene) foam cylinder and gold coating were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The gold coating content was investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray. The thicknesses of poly-p-xylylene coating and sputtered gold thin-film were approximately 500 and 100 nm, respectively. After electrochemical deposition, the thickness of gold coating increased to 522 nm, and the gold coating achieved a compact and uniform structure.

  7. Morphology and microstructure evolution of Ti-50 at.% Al cathodes during cathodic arc deposition of Ti-Al-N coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Bilal; Zhu, Jianqiang; Polcik, Peter; Kolozsvari, Szilard; Hâkansson, Greger; Johnson, Lars; Ahlgren, Mats; Jöesaar, Mats; Odén, Magnus

    2017-06-01

    Today's research on the cathodic arc deposition technique and coatings therefrom primarily focuses on the effects of, e.g., nitrogen partial pressure, growth temperature, and substrate bias. Detailed studies on the morphology and structure of the starting material—the cathode—during film growth and its influence on coating properties at different process conditions are rare. This work aims to study the evolution of the converted layer, its morphology, and microstructure, as a function of the cathode material grain size during deposition of Ti-Al-N coatings. The coatings were reactively grown in pure N2 discharges from powder metallurgically manufactured Ti-50 at.% Al cathodes with grain size distribution averages close to 1800, 100, 50, and 10 μm, respectively, and characterized with respect to microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties. The results indicate that for the cathode of 1800 μm grain size the disparity in the work function among parent phases plays a dominant role in the pronounced erosion of Al, which yields the coatings rich in macro-particles and of high Al content. We further observed that a reduction in the grain size of Ti-50 at.% Al cathodes to 10 μm provides favorable conditions for self-sustaining reactions between Ti and Al phases upon arcing to form γ phase. The combination of self-sustaining reaction and the arc process not only result in the formation of hole-like and sub-hole features on the converted layer but also generate coatings of high Al content and laden with macro-particles.

  8. Anodized porous titanium coated with Ni-CeO2 deposits for enhancing surface toughness and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Ouyang, Chun

    2017-05-01

    In order to make large improvements of surface toughness and wear resistance for pure titanium (Ti) substrate, anodic titanium oxide (ATO) surface with nanoporous structure was coated with the Ni-CeO2 nanocomposite coatings. Regarding TiO2 barrier layer on Ti surface to inhibit its electrochemical activity, pre-treatments were successively processed with anodizing, sensitizing, activating, and then followed by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as an activated layer for electroplating Ni-CeO2 deposits. The existing Pd atoms around ATO nanopores were expected as the heterogeneous nucleation sites for supporting the growing locations of electroless Ni-P film. The innovative of interface design using porous structure was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical adhesion interface between Ti substrate and surface coatings. Besides the objectives of this work were to elucidate how effects by the adding CeO2 nanoparticles on modifying microstructures and wear mechanisms of Ni-CeO2 nanocomposite coatings. Many efforts of XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and Nanoindentation tests were devoted to comparing different wear behaviors of Ni-CeO2 coatings relative to pure nickel. Results indicated that uniform-distributed Ti nanopores with an average diameter size of ∼200 nm was achieved using the Phosphate-type anodizing solution at DC 150 V. A worn surface without fatigue cracks was observed for TAO surface coated with Ni-CeO2 deposits, showing the existing Ce-rich worn products to be acted as a solid lubricant phase for making a self-healing effect on de-lamination failures. More important, this finding will be the guidelines for Ce-rich precipitations to be expected as the strengthening phase in anodized porous of Ti, Al and Mg alloys for intensifying their surface properties.

  9. Structure and properties of polyaniline nanocomposite coatings containing gold nanoparticles formed by low-energy electron beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Surui; Rogachev, A. A.; Yarmolenko, M. A.; Rogachev, A. V.; Xiaohong, Jiang; Gaur, M. S.; Luchnikov, P. A.; Galtseva, O. V.; Chizhik, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Highly ordered conductive polyaniline (PANI) coatings containing gold nanoparticles were prepared by low-energy electron beam deposition method, with emeraldine base and chloroauric acid used as target materials. The molecular and chemical structure of the layers was studied by Fourier transform infrared, Raman, UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology of the coatings was investigated by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. Conductive properties were obtained by impedance spectroscopy method and scanning spreading resistance microscopy mode at the micro- and nanoscale. It was found that the emeraldine base layers formed from the products of electron-beam dispersion have extended, non-conductive polymer chains with partially reduced structure, with the ratio of imine and amine groups equal to 0.54. In case of electron-beam dispersion of the emeraldine base and chloroauric acid, a protoemeraldine structure is formed with conductivity 0.1 S/cm. The doping of this structure was carried out due to hydrochloric acid vapor and gold nanoparticles formed by decomposition of chloroauric acid, which have a narrow size distribution, with the most probable diameter about 40 nm. These gold nanoparticles improve the conductivity of the thin layers of PANI + Au composite, promoting intra- and intermolecular charge transfer of the PANI macromolecules aligned along the coating surface both at direct and alternating voltage. The proposed deposition method of highly oriented, conductive nanocomposite PANI-based coatings may be used in the direct formation of functional layers on conductive and non-conductive substrates.

  10. In vitro performance of Ag-incorporated hydroxyapatite and its adhesive porous coatings deposited by electrostatic spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcekaya, Ozkan; Webster, Thomas J; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki; Ergun, Celaletdin

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial infection of implanted materials is a significant complication that might require additional surgical operations for implant retrieval. As an antibacterial biomaterial, Ag-containing hydroxyapatite (HA) may be a solution to reduce the incidences of implant associated infections. In this study, pure, 0.2mol% and 0.3mol% Ag incorporated HA powders were synthesized via a precipitation method. Colloidal precursor dispersions prepared from these powders were used to deposit porous coatings onto titanium and stainless steel substrates via electrostatic spraying. The porous coating layers obtained with various deposition times and heat treatment conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scratch tests were conducted to assess the adhesion strength of the coating. Antibacterial activity of Ag-incorporated HA was tested towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) at various incubation times. Osteoblast adhesion on Ag-incorporated HA was evaluated to assess biocompatibility. Improvement in adhesion strength of the coating layer was observed after the heat treatment process due to mutual ionic diffusion at the interface. The Ag-incorporated HA killed all viable E. coli after 24h of incubation, whereas no antibacterial activity was detected with pure HA. In addition, in vitro cell culture tests demonstrated osteoblast adhesion similar to pure HA, which indicated good cytocompatibility. In summary, results of this study provided significant promise for the future study of Ag-incorporated HA for numerous medical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  12. Rapid biomimetic deposition of octacalcium phosphate coatings on zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) for dental implant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Martin; Krnel, Kristoffer; Pribosic, Irena; Kosmac, Tomaz

    2012-03-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coatings on zirconia oral implants have a great potential to improve the osseointegration of already existing ceramic implants, owing to high osteoconductive characteristics of OCP and its possibility of use as a drug delivery system. Such OCP coatings can be prepared with a simple two-step biomimetic procedure investigated in our study. In the first step, zirconia discs were immersed into the solution with a pH 7.4 and after 1 h of soaking a thin nanostructured calcium phosphate (Ca-P) layer was precipitated on the ceramic substrate via three stages: (i) precipitation of an amorphous Ca-P; (ii) precipitation of the OCP; and (iii) the transformation of the OCP to apatite. This Ca-P layer later served as a template for the rapid deposition of a thicker OCP coating in the second step of the synthesis where the substrate was immersed into the solution with pH 7.0. The main benefits of the method are a relatively quick synthesis, simplicity and a good reproducibility. Moreover, the coatings show good tensile adhesion strength according to the tape tests (ASTM D-3359). In addition, mild physiological conditions of the synthesis may allow incorporation of biologically active molecules in the coating.

  13. Biomimetic thermal barrier coating in jet engine to resist volcanic ash deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Major, Zsuzsanna; Schulz, Uwe; Muth, Tobias; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    The threat of volcanic ash to aviation safety is attracting extensive attention when several commercial jet aircraft were damaged after flying through volcanic ash clouds from the May 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helen in Washington, U.S. and especially after the air traffic disruption in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A major hazard presented by volcanic ash to aircraft is linked to the wetting and spreading of molten ash droplets on engine component surfaces. Due to the fact ash has a lower melting point, around 1100 °C, than the gas temperature in the hot section (between 1400 to 2000 °C), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components (e.g., combustor and turbine blades), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components of the engine creating, substantial damage or even engine failure after ingestion. Here, inspiring form the natural surface of lotus leaf (exhibiting extreme water repellency, known as 'lotus effect'), we firstly create the multifunctional surface thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by producing a hierarchical structure with femtosecond laser pulses. In detail, we investigate the effect of one of primary femtosecond laser irradiation process parameter (scanning speed) on the hydrophobicity of water droplets onto the two kinds of TBCs fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spray (APS), respectively as well as their corresponding to morphology. It is found that, comparison with the original surface (without femtosecond laser ablation), all of the irradiated samples demonstrate more significant hydrophobic properties due to nanostructuring. On the basis of these preliminary room-temperature results, the wettability of volcanic ash droplets will be analysed at the high temperature to constrain the potential impact of volcanic ash on the jet engines.

  14. Electrophoretic deposition of hybrid coatings on aluminum alloy by combining 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilan to silicon–zirconium sol solutions for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mei; Xue, Bing; Liu, Jianhua, E-mail: yumei@buaa.edu.cn; Li, Songmei; Zhang, You

    2015-09-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) silicon–zirconium organic–inorganic hybrid coatings were applied on LC4 aluminum alloy for corrosion protection. 3-Glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (GTMS) and Zirconium (IV) n-propoxide (TPOZ) were used as precursors. 3-Aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APS) was added to enhance the corrosion protective performance of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize morphology, microstructure and component. The results show that the addition of APS leads to the enhanced migration and deposition of positively charged colloidal particles on the surface of metal substrate, which results in the thickness increasing of coatings. However, loading an excessive amount of APS gives a heterogeneous coating surface. The corrosion protective performance of coatings were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The results indicate that the addition of APS improves corrosion protective performance of coatings. The optimal addition content of APS is about 15%. The 15% APS coating is uniform and dense, as well as has good corrosion protective performance. The impedance value (1.58 × 10{sup 5} Ω·cm{sup 2}, at the lowest frequency) of 15% APS coating is half order of magnitude higher than that of coating without APS, and 15% APS coating always keeps the best corrosion protective performance with prolonged immersion time. This kind of coating is identified with “double-structure” properties based on the analysis of EIS and potentiodynamic polarization. Furthermore, the equivalent circuit results indicate that the intermediate oxide layer plays a main role in corrosion protection. - Highlights: • Electrophoretic deposition hybrid coatings are prepared on LC4 aluminum alloy. • 3-Aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APS) enhances the corrosion protective performance. • The

  15. Anodized porous titanium coated with Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits for enhancing surface toughness and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaowei, E-mail: zhouxiaowei901@163.com; Ouyang, Chun

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Structural design of anodized nanoporous Ti was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical bonding interface. • Anodized porous Ti substrate was activated by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as transitional layer to deposit Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. • An analytical model was validated for predicting the Ce-rich worn products as a self-lubricant phase for monitoring wear mechanisms. - Abstract: In order to make large improvements of surface toughness and wear resistance for pure titanium (Ti) substrate, anodic titanium oxide (ATO) surface with nanoporous structure was coated with the Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. Regarding TiO{sub 2} barrier layer on Ti surface to inhibit its electrochemical activity, pre-treatments were successively processed with anodizing, sensitizing, activating, and then followed by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as an activated layer for electroplating Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits. The existing Pd atoms around ATO nanopores were expected as the heterogeneous nucleation sites for supporting the growing locations of electroless Ni-P film. The innovative of interface design using porous structure was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical adhesion interface between Ti substrate and surface coatings. Besides the objectives of this work were to elucidate how effects by the adding CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles on modifying microstructures and wear mechanisms of Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. Many efforts of XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and Nanoindentation tests were devoted to comparing different wear behaviors of Ni-CeO{sub 2} coatings relative to pure nickel. Results indicated that uniform-distributed Ti nanopores with an average diameter size of ∼200 nm was achieved using the Phosphate-type anodizing solution at DC 150 V. A worn surface without fatigue cracks was observed for TAO surface coated with Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits, showing the existing Ce-rich worn products to be acted as a

  16. Quantifying the influence of humic acid adsorption on colloidal microsphere deposition onto iron-oxide-coated sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, BT9 5AG Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Flynn, R., E-mail: r.flynn@qub.ac.u [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, BT9 5AG Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Kammer, F. von der; Hofmann, T. [Department of Environmental Geosciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    This article describes an approach for quantifying microsphere deposition onto iron-oxide-coated sand under the influence of adsorbed Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA). The experimental technique involved a triple pulse injection of model latex microspheres (microspheres) in pulses of (1) microspheres, followed by (2) SRHA, and then (3) microspheres, into a column filled with iron-coated quartz sand as a water-saturated porous medium. A random sequential adsorption model (RSA) simulated the gradual rise in the first (microsphere) breakthrough curve (BTC). Using the same model calibration parameters a dramatic increase in concentration at the start of the second particle BTC, generated after SRHA injection, could be simulated by matching microsphere concentrations to extrapolated RSA output. RSA results and microsphere/SRHA recoveries showed that 1 {mu}g of SRHA could block 5.90 {+-} 0.14 x 10{sup 9} microsphere deposition sites. This figure was consistent between experiments injecting different SRHA masses, despite contrasting microsphere deposition/release regimes generating the second microsphere BTC. - This paper describes a method to quantify the influence of humic acid adsorption on particulate colloid deposition in saturated porous media.

  17. Electrophoretic co-deposition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reinforced alginate–Bioglass® composite coating on stainless steel: Mechanical properties and in-vitro bioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiang; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: aldo.boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-07-01

    PVA reinforced alginate–bioactive glass (BG) composite coatings were produced on stainless steel by a single step electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The present paper discusses the co-deposition mechanism of the three components and presents a summary of the relevant properties of the composite coatings deposited from suspensions with different PVA concentrations. Homogeneous composite coatings with compact microstructure and increased thickness, i.e. as high as 10 μm, were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface roughness of coatings with different PVA contents was slightly increased, while a significant increase of water contact angles due to PVA addition was detected and discussed. Improved adhesion strength of coatings containing different amounts of PVA was quantitatively and qualitatively confirmed by pull-off adhesion and cycled bending tests, respectively. In-vitro bioactivity tests were performed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively. The decomposition rate of the coatings was reduced with PVA content, and rapid hydroxyapatite forming ability of the composite coatings in SBF was confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. According to the results of this study, composite alginate–Bioglass® bioactive coatings combined with PVA are proposed as promising candidates for dental and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • PVA reinforced alginate–bioactive glass composite coating on stainless steel produced by EPD • The co-deposition mechanism was experimentally confirmed. • Homogeneous and compact coating microstructure obtained by the addition of PVA • Improved adhesion strength of PVA reinforced coatings confirmed qualitatively and quantitatively • Controlled degradation rate and rapid HA forming ability of PVA-containing coatings in SBF.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates for bone replacement applications: mechanisms and development of new bioactive materials based on polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero Arias, Luis Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the need to improve the usually encountered osteointegration of metallic implants with the surrounding body tissue in bone replacement applications, bioactive organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates were developed in this work using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as coating technology. In the present work three polysaccharides, namely alginate, chondroitin sulfate and chitosan were used as the organic part, acting as the matrix of the coating and enabling the c...

  19. Optimized Deposition Parameters & Coating Properties of Cobalt Phosphorus Alloy Electroplating for Technology Insertion Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    epoxy coated on opposing sides. When opposing sides of legs are plated, the legs deflect under the stress of the coating. c) Hydrogen...Coatings were ground to 0.003” using low-stress grinding techniques, and were longitudinally polished to a 16 µinch Ra finish. FIGURE 2. ROTATING...were coated with 0.002” nCo-P at Integran Technologies Inc. or 0.002” at FRC-SE. Testing was conducted using CS-17 wheels at FRC-SE. 3.2 RESULTS

  20. Modeling of Thickness and Profile Uniformity of Thermally Sprayed Coatings Deposited on Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanjun, Zhang; Wenbo, Li; Dayu, Li; Jinkun, Xiao; Chao, Zhang

    2017-11-01

    In thermal spraying processes, kinematic parameters of the robot play a decisive role in the coating thickness and profile. In this regard, some achievements have been made to optimize the spray trajectory on flat surfaces. However, few reports have focused on nonholonomic or variable-curvature cylindrical surfaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the coating profile, coating thickness, and scanning step, which is determined by the radius of curvature and scanning angle. A mathematical simulation model was developed to predict the thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. Experiments were performed on cylinders with different radiuses of curvature to evaluate the predictive ability of the model.

  1. Microstructure and Wear Analysis of FeBCr Based Coating Deposited by HVOF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Priyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermally sprayed coatings that are based on FeBCr-related alloy powders are widely used to improve properties such as the surface hardness and wear resistance of a variety of coated metal substrate materials. Gray cast iron is widely used in the automobile industry due to its low cost and performance. In this work Gray cast iron substrate is coated with FeBCr alloy powder to improve its performance. The microstructure and micro abrasive wear performance of both the uncoated substrates and the coated substrates were characterized by optical microscopy as well as by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. In addition, X-ray Diffraction (XRD was undertaken in the partial characterization of the coating. The densely layered coating had porosity levels that were below 2.5 % and a high surface hardness, of the order of 980 HV0.1. The coating exhibited excellent wear resistance when subjected to the ball-cratering test method. The low coefficients of friction of hard coating on the substrate were recorded. The wear performance of the coating was nearly 82 % better than that of the substrate, with a 0.05 N load, even under severe three body abrasive conditions.

  2. Vancomycin–chitosan composite deposited on post porous hydroxyapatite coated Ti6Al4V implant for drug controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chi-Chuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing, University 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chien-Chung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing, University 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Taichung Armed Force General Hospital, 348, Sec. 2, Jhongshan Road, Taiping City, Taichung 411, Taiwan (China); Liao, Jiunn-Wang [Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing, University 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Yen, Shiow-Kang, E-mail: skyen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing, University 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2013-05-01

    Through the hydrogen bonds and the deprotonation, the vancomycin–chitosan composite has been originally deposited on Ti4Al4V by electrochemical technology. However, the rapid destruction of the hydrogen bonding between them by polar water molecules during immersion tests revealed 80% drug burst in a few hours. In this study, the post porous hydroxyapatite (HA) coated Ti4Al4V is prepared for the subsequent electrolytic deposition of vancomycin–chitosan composite to control the drug release. As expected, the initial burst is reduced to 55%, followed by a steady release about 20% from day 1 to day 5 and a slower release of the retained 25% after day 6, resulting in bacterial inhibition zone diameter of 30 mm which can last for more than a month in antibacterial tests, compared with the coated specimen without HA gradually loosing inhibition zone after 21 days. Besides, the cell culture indicates that the vancomycin–chitosan/HA composite coated has enhanced the proliferation, the differentiation and the mineralization of the osteoblast-like cell. In general, it is helpful for the osteointegration on permanent implants. Consistently, it effectively provides the prophylaxis and therapy of osteomyelitis according to the results of the rabbit infection animal model. - Highlights: ► The releasing curve of the vancomycin–chitosan/HA composite revealed three periods. ► The drug release sustained one month due to the effect of post porous HA coating. ► The composite coating could treat the osteomyelitis in the rabbit infection model.

  3. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/h-BN and Chitosan/h-BN/TiO₂ Composite Coatings on Stainless Steel (316L) Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddaha, Namir S; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Roether, Judith A; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-03-04

    This article presents the results of an experimental investigation designed to deposit chitosan/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and chitosan/h-BN/titania (TiO₂) composites on SS316L substrates using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for potential antibacterial applications. The influence of EPD parameters (voltage and deposition time) and relative concentrations of chitosan, h-BN and TiO₂ in suspension on deposition yield was studied. The composition and structure of deposited coatings were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM. It was observed that h-BN and TiO₂ particles were dispersed in the chitosan matrix through simultaneous deposition. The adhesion between the electrophoretic coatings and the stainless steel substrates was tested by using tape test technique, and the results showed that the adhesion strength corresponded to 3B and 4B classes. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical polarization curves, indicating enhanced corrosion resistance of the chitosan/h-BN/TiO₂ and chitosan/h-BN coatings compared to the bare stainless steel substrate. In order to investigate the in-vitro inorganic bioactivity, coatings were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 28 days. FTIR and XRD results showed no formation of hydroxyapatite on the surface of chitosan/h-BN/TiO₂ and chitosan/h-BN coatings, which are therefore non bioactive but potentially useful as antibacterial coatings.

  4. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/h-BN and Chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 Composite Coatings on Stainless Steel (316L Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namir S. Raddaha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an experimental investigation designed to deposit chitosan/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN and chitosan/h-BN/titania (TiO2 composites on SS316L substrates using electrophoretic deposition (EPD for potential antibacterial applications. The influence of EPD parameters (voltage and deposition time and relative concentrations of chitosan, h-BN and TiO2 in suspension on deposition yield was studied. The composition and structure of deposited coatings were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM. It was observed that h-BN and TiO2 particles were dispersed in the chitosan matrix through simultaneous deposition. The adhesion between the electrophoretic coatings and the stainless steel substrates was tested by using tape test technique, and the results showed that the adhesion strength corresponded to 3B and 4B classes. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical polarization curves, indicating enhanced corrosion resistance of the chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 and chitosan/h-BN coatings compared to the bare stainless steel substrate. In order to investigate the in-vitro inorganic bioactivity, coatings were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF for 28 days. FTIR and XRD results showed no formation of hydroxyapatite on the surface of chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 and chitosan/h-BN coatings, which are therefore non bioactive but potentially useful as antibacterial coatings.

  5. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/h-BN and Chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 Composite Coatings on Stainless Steel (316L) Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddaha, Namir S.; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Roether, Judith A.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of an experimental investigation designed to deposit chitosan/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and chitosan/h-BN/titania (TiO2) composites on SS316L substrates using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for potential antibacterial applications. The influence of EPD parameters (voltage and deposition time) and relative concentrations of chitosan, h-BN and TiO2 in suspension on deposition yield was studied. The composition and structure of deposited coatings were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM. It was observed that h-BN and TiO2 particles were dispersed in the chitosan matrix through simultaneous deposition. The adhesion between the electrophoretic coatings and the stainless steel substrates was tested by using tape test technique, and the results showed that the adhesion strength corresponded to 3B and 4B classes. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical polarization curves, indicating enhanced corrosion resistance of the chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 and chitosan/h-BN coatings compared to the bare stainless steel substrate. In order to investigate the in-vitro inorganic bioactivity, coatings were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 28 days. FTIR and XRD results showed no formation of hydroxyapatite on the surface of chitosan/h-BN/TiO2 and chitosan/h-BN coatings, which are therefore non bioactive but potentially useful as antibacterial coatings. PMID:28788541

  6. XPS and AFM Investigations of Ti-Al-N Coatings Fabricated Using DC Magnetron Sputtering at Various Nitrogen Flow Rates and Deposition Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Obrosov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ti-Al-N coatings were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS onto IN 718 at different nitrogen flow rates and deposition temperatures. The coatings’ properties were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS as well as nanoindentation. It was found that higher deposition temperature leads to higher surface roughness and nitrogen flux influences the shape of grains. According to XPS, the bonding structure of all coatings exhibited the (Ti,AlN phase. Mechanical properties depend on the Al content within the films. The coating with the best mechanical properties (deposited at 500 °C and 20 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm was further deposited onto tungsten carbide (WC cutting tools for cylindrical turning experiments. A quasi-constant flank wear was observed until a machining volume of 23,500 mm3.

  7. Hard Cr–Al–Si–B–(N) coatings deposited by reactive and non-reactive magnetron sputtering of CrAlSiB target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V., E-mail: kiruhancev-korneev@yandex.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr., 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Pierson, J.F. [Institut Jean Lamour - Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, CS 14 234, F-54042 Nancy (France); Kuptsov, K.A.; Shtansky, D.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr., 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Cr–Al–Si–B–N coatings with amorphous structure. • Coatings demonstrate hardness in range of 18–30 GPa. • Coatings exhibit friction coefficient ∼0.4. • Coatings show a very high oxidation resistance up to 1300 °C. • Coatings withstand cyclic loads up to 1000 N for 10{sup 5} cycles without fracture. - Abstract: Relationships between chemical composition, mechanical and tribological properties, fracture resistance, thermal stability and oxidation resistance of the magnetron sputtered Cr–Al–Si–B–(N) coatings were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, nanoindentation, as well as pin-on-disk, scratch and impact tests. The coatings deposited in Ar showed high friction coefficient and wear rate of 0.8 and 46.0 × 10{sup −6} mm{sup 3}/N m during tribological tests compared with 0.4 and 2.0–2.1 × 10{sup −6} mm{sup 3}/N m of reactively deposited coatings. During impact tests, N-free coatings showed the smallest impact wear of 1.34 × 10{sup 5} μm{sup 3}, but, in contrast to the N-containing coatings, demonstrated fracture even at a load of 800 N. It was explained by the fact that the N-free coating, having high hardness of 30 GPa, yet was very brittle. Structural changes and oxidation mechanism of the Cr–Al–Si–B–(N) coatings during annealing in air at temperatures up to 1300 °C were also studied in detail. It was revealed that the coating deposited in Ar showed the best oxidation resistance up to 1300 °C.

  8. Corrosion resistant Zn–Co alloy coatings deposited using saw-tooth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Micro/nanostructured multilayer coatings of Zn–Co alloy were developed periodically on mild steel from acid chloride bath. Composition modulated multilayer alloy (CMMA) coatings, having gradual change in composition (in each layer) were developed galvanostatically using saw-tooth pulses through single.

  9. The electrochemical deposition of tin-nickel alloys and the corrosion properties of the coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2005-01-01

    electrodeposition. The alloy has unique corrosion properties and exhibits surface passivation like stainless steel. The coating is decorative and non-allergic to the skin, can replace decorative nickel and nickel-chromium coatings in many cases and decreases the risk for allergic contact dermatitis. A number...

  10. ELECTRICAL FURNACE FOR PRODUCING CARBIDE COATINGS USING THE THERMOREACTIVE DEPOSITION/DIFFUSION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO CASTILLEJO

    2011-01-01

    the presence of VC and NbC, and as MEB results clearly show, the formation of regular thickness coatings. The results obtained allow for assessing that the designed and built furnace fulfills the requirements of the TRD technique for obtaining different types of hard coatings.

  11. Anodization and Optical Appearance of Sputter Deposited Al-Zr Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2014-01-01

    and microstructure of the commercial alloys, and even more difficult with recycled alloys. Sputter coating methods promise to control the chemical composition of the Al alloy surfaces and eventually modify the microstructure of the surfaces with heat treatments thus enabling the freedom on the substrate quality....... This paper evaluates the use of magnetron sputtered Al-Zr coatings on Al combined with heat treatment and anodizing for obtaining required optical properties. Metallurgical and optical characterization was carried out to investigate the effect of coating microstructure and anodizing parameters on appearance...... of the anodized layer. The microstructure of the coating is found to influence the appearance of anodized layer owing to the presence of completely or partially dissolved second phases during anodizing process. Oxidation status of the second phase particles in the coatings affected the light absorption...

  12. Deposition stress effects on the life of thermal barrier coatings on burner rigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  13. The structure and mechanical properties of multilayer nanocrystalline TiN/ZrN coatings obtained by vacuum-arc deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Demchyshyn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiN/ZrN multilayered condensates on BK-8 carbide tips substrates (62 HRC were produced by the vacuumarc deposition technique, using Ti and Zr plasma flows in reactive nitrogen gas medium with working pressure of 6.6·10–1 Pa. The TiN/ZrN multilayered condensates consist of TiN and ZrN sublayers, which have a thickness of ~100 nm, controlled by the processing parameters of the used deposition technique. The obtained coatings have hardness of 45 GPa and Young’s modulus of 320 GPa. The obtained results show that mechanical properties of such multilayered composites are considerably improved in comparison to those for the single-component coatings, TiN and ZrN. The dependence of hardness and Young’s modulus of the composites on sublayer thickness within a range of 100 nm was determined. The investigated structure and improved mechanical properties of the TiN/ZrN multilayered condensates would be very good platform for finding their industrial application, such as hard coatings with different purposes.

  14. Failure Strain and Strain-Stress Analysis in Titanium Nitride Coatings Deposited on Religa Heart Ext Ventricular Assist Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopernik M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Polish ventricular assist device is made of Bionate II with deposited TiN biocompatible nano-coating. The two scale finite element model is composed of a macro-model of blood chamber and a micro-model of the TiN/Bionate II. The numerical analysis of stress and strain states confirmed the possibility of fracture. Therefore, the identification of a fracture parameter considered as a failure strain is the purpose of the present work. The tensile test in a micro chamber of the SEM was performed to calibrate the fracture parameter of the material system TiN/Bionate II. The failure strain is a function of a temperature, a thickness of coating and parameters of surface's profile. The failure strain was calculated at the stage of the test, in which the initiation of fracture occurred. The finite element micro-model includes the surface roughness and the failure strain under tension condition for two thicknesses of coatings which will be deposited on the medical device.

  15. INFLUENCE OF PLASMA NITRIDING ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOUR AND ADHESION OF DLC COATINGS DEPOSITED ON AISI 420 STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N. Pecina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the corrosion behavior and adhesion of two DLC (“Diamond Like Carbon” films (“Soft” and “Hard” were studied. Both coatings were deposited by PACVD (“Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition” on plasma-nitrided and non-nitrided AISI 420 stainless steel. Raman spectroscopy was conducted and surface hardness was measured. The microstructure by OM and SEM, was observed. Adhesion tests were performed with C. Rockwell indentation test. Salt Spray and immersion were performed in HCl. The “Soft” coating was 20 μm thick, the “Hard” film was about 2.5 μm. The hardness was of 500 HV in the “Soft” DLC and 1400 HV in the “Hard” DLC. Both coatings presented low friction coefficient and good adhesion when they were deposited on nitrided steel. Also presented good resistance to atmospheric corrosion. HCl DLC degradation slowed rapidly introduced uncoated samples.

  16. STEM-EELS analysis reveals stable high-density He in nanopores of amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Roland; Lacroix, Bertrand; Godinho, Vanda; Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Duchamp, Martial; Fernández, Asunción

    2015-02-20

    A broad interest has been showed recently on the study of nanostructuring of thin films and surfaces obtained by low-energy He plasma treatments and He incorporation via magnetron sputtering. In this paper spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope is used to locate and characterize the He state in nanoporous amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. A dedicated MATLAB program was developed to quantify the helium density inside individual pores based on the energy position shift or peak intensity of the He K-edge. A good agreement was observed between the high density (∼35-60 at nm(-3)) and pressure (0.3-1.0 GPa) values obtained in nanoscale analysis and the values derived from macroscopic measurements (the composition obtained by proton backscattering spectroscopy coupled to the macroscopic porosity estimated from ellipsometry). This work provides new insights into these novel porous coatings, providing evidence of high-density He located inside the pores and validating the methodology applied here to characterize the formation of pores filled with the helium process gas during deposition. A similar stabilization of condensed He bubbles has been previously demonstrated by high-energy He ion implantation in metals and is newly demonstrated here using a widely employed methodology, magnetron sputtering, for achieving coatings with a high density of homogeneously distributed pores and He storage capacities as high as 21 at%.

  17. Conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on carbon fibers by chemical bath deposition for efficient supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha

    2013-01-01

    A novel supercapacitor electrode structure has been developed in which a uniform and conformal coating of nanostructured Ni(OH)2 flakes on carbon microfibers is deposited in situ by a simple chemical bath deposition process at room temperature. The microfibers conformally coated with Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes exhibit five times higher specific capacitance compared to planar (non-conformal) Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes prepared by drop casting of Ni(OH)2 powder on the carbon microfibers (1416 F g-1vs. 275 F g-1). This improvement in supercapacitor performance can be ascribed to the preservation of the three-dimensional structure of the current collector, which is a fibrous carbon fabric, even after the conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes. The 3-D network morphology of the fibrous carbon fabric leads to more efficient electrolyte penetration into the conformal electrode, allowing the ions to have greater access to active reaction sites. Cyclic stability testing of the conformal and planar Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes, respectively, reveals 34% and 62% drop in specific capacitance after 10 000 cycles. The present study demonstrates the crucial effect that electrolyte penetration plays in determining the pseudocapacitive properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films - Coating characterization and first cell biological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strąkowska, Paulina; Beutner, René; Gnyba, Marcin; Zielinski, Andrzej; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD>HAp/B-NCD>uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  19. Accumulation of proanthocyanidins and/or lignin deposition in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats may lead to frequent defective cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Mineo; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hiraoka, Miho; Kawada, So; Iiyoshi, Ryota; Yamashita, Kazuki; Sonoki, Tomonori; Maeda, Hayato; Kawasaki, Michio

    2017-03-01

    Defective cracking frequently occurs in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats, where proanthocyanidins accumulate and lignin is deposited, suggesting that proanthocyanidins and/or lignin may change physical properties and lead to defective cracking. In the seed production of many yellow soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, very low percentages of self-pigmented seeds are commonly found. This phenomenon is derived from a recessive mutation of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation. In Japan, most of these self-pigmented seeds are buff-colored, and frequently show multiple defective cracks in the seed coat. However, it is not known why cracking occurs specifically in buff seed coats. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed between yellow and buff soybean seed coats. Compared with yellow soybeans, in which defective cracking rarely occurs, contents of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and lignin were significantly higher in buff seed coats. Histochemical data of PAs and lignin in the seed coats strongly supported this result. Measurements of the physical properties of seed coats using a texture analyzer showed that a hardness value was significantly decreased in the buff seed coats. These results suggest that PA accumulation and/or lignin deposition may affect the physical properties of buff seed coats and lead to the defective cracking. This work contributes to understanding of the mechanism of defective cracking, which decreases the seed quality of soybean and related legumes.

  20. Hybrid biocomposite with a tunable antibacterial activity and bioactivity based on RF magnetron sputter deposited coating and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, A.A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Center of Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Surmenev, R.A., E-mail: rsurmenev@gmail.com [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Center of Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Surmeneva, M.A.; Mukhametkaliyev, T. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Center of Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Loza, K.; Prymak, O.; Epple, M. [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • A biocomposite of hydroxyapatite film and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was tested. • The concentration of the released silver in phosphate or acetate buffer was studied. • The concentration and release rate of AgNPs can be controlled in a tailored manner. - Abstract: In this work, we describe fabrication techniques used to prepare a multifunctional biocomposite based on a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method were deposited on Ti substrates using a dripping/drying method followed by deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating via radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputter-deposition. The negatively charged silver nanoparticles (zeta potential −21 mV) have a spherical shape with a metallic core diameter of 50 ± 20 nm. The HA coating was deposited as a dense nanocrystalline film over a surface of AgNPs. The RF-magnetron sputter deposition of HA films on the AgNPs layer did not affect the initial content of AgNPs on the substrate surface as well as NPs size and shape. SEM cross-sectional images taken using the backscattering mode revealed a homogeneous layer of AgNPs under the CaP layer. The diffraction patterns from the coatings revealed reflexes of crystalline HA and silver. The concentration of Ag ions released from the biocomposites after 7 days of immersion in phosphate and acetate buffers was estimated. The obtained results revealed that the amount of silver in the solutions was 0.27 ± 0.02 μg mL{sup −1} and 0.54 ± 0.02 μg mL{sup −1} for the phosphate and acetate buffers, respectively, which corresponded well with the minimum inhibitory concentration range known for silver ions in literature. Thus, this work establishes a new route to prepare a biocompatible layer using embedded AgNPs to achieve a local antibacterial effect.

  1. NiTi intermetallic surface coatings by laser metal deposition for improving wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V substrates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, MN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available was evident on the worn surface demonstrating that the mechanism is adhesion and abrasive wear. The wear track of the laser deposited Ti50Ni50 coating is presented in Figure 10(a), showing ploughing mechanism experienced by the coating. Wear debris...). Plastic deformation and shallow plough grooves on the worn surface of theNiTi show that the coating suffers fromnonsevere abra- sive and adhesive wear from the hard tungsten carbide ball. Figure 11(a) displays the wear track of the laser deposited Ni55Ti45...

  2. Zr-ZrO sub 2 cermet solar coatings designed by modelling calculations and deposited by dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Qi Chu; Lee, K D; Shen, Y G

    2003-01-01

    High solar performance Zr-ZrO sub 2 cermet solar coatings were designed using a numerical computer model and deposited experimentally. The layer thickness and Zr metal volume fraction for the Zr-ZrO sub 2 cermet solar selective coatings on a Zr or Al reflector with a surface ZrO sub 2 or Al sub 2 O sub 3 anti-reflection layer were optimized to achieve maximum photo-thermal conversion efficiency at 80 deg. C under concentration factors of 1-20 using the downhill simplex method in multi-dimensions in the numerical calculation. The dielectric function and the complex refractive index of Zr-ZrO sub 2 cermet materials were calculated using Sheng's approximation. Optimization calculations show that Al sub 2 O sub 3 /Zr-ZrO sub 2 /Al solar coatings with two cermet layers and three cermet layers have nearly identical solar absorptance, emittance and photo-thermal conversion efficiency that are much better than those for films with one cermet layer. The optimized Al sub 2 O sub 3 /Zr-ZrO sub 2 /Al solar coating film w...

  3. Fabrication of sharp tungsten-coated tip for atomic force microscopy by ion-beam sputter deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yukinori; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2011-11-01

    Tungsten (W) is significantly suitable as a tip material for atomic force microscopy (AFM) because its high mechanical stiffness enables the stable detection of tip-sample interaction forces. We have developed W sputter-coating equipment to compensate the drawbacks of conventional Si cantilever tips used in AFM measurements. By employing an ion gun commonly used for sputter cleaning of a cantilever tip, the equipment is capable of depositing conductive W films in the preparation chamber of a general ultrahigh vacuum (UHV)-AFM system without the need for an additional chamber or transfer system. This enables W coating of a cantilever tip immediately after sputter cleaning of the tip apex and just before the use in AFM observations. The W film consists of grain structures, which prevent tip dulling and provide sharpness (coated Si tip can clearly resolve the atomic structures of a Ge(001) surface without any artifacts, indicating that, as a force sensor, the fabricated W-coated Si tip is superior to a bare Si tip. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS TO IMPROVE THE WEAR RESISTANCE OF COATING DEPOSITED ON THE METAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij Shalapko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It was established that existing methods show low accuracy when assessing the durability of coatings. Furthermore, they don’t allow assessment of the contribution into durability of structural components and fillers for thermodiffusion and polymer-composite coatings, respectively. A method to evaluate durability of thermal diffusion chrome coatings on carbon steel and gray cast irons has been developed - the speed υp of destruction of the structural components of the coating. In addition, the destruction of each structural component is characterized by a constant value of destruction speed υp and potential φ, and their sharp vibrations are in complete destruction of the coating and the beginning of the destruction of the base metal. From the start of the test until the abrupt change in the rate of destruction υp, which is found on the curve υp - τ is the assessment of durability coating t¶ hat is specified with the curve φ - τ. Accuracy of the durability decreases from ± 30 min to ± 2 min. Developed as a way to assess the durability fillers polymer composite coatings, along with the finding that the rate of destruction υp of the time includes total disability coverage t3aƧ and time breakdown cover τn which are fixed on the curve φ - τ.

  5. A comparative study of two advanced spraying techniques for the deposition of biologically active enzyme coatings onto bone-substituting implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonge, Lise T. de [Department of Periodontology and Biomaterials PB309, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Philips van Leydenlaan 25, 6525 EX Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ju, J. [Department of Precision Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); VCAD System Research Program, RIKEN - Institute of Physichal and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G. [Department of Periodontology and Biomaterials PB309, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Philips van Leydenlaan 25, 6525 EX Nijmegen (Netherlands); Yamagata, Y. [VCAD System Research Program, RIKEN - Institute of Physichal and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Higuchi, T. [Department of Precision Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Wolke, J.G.C. [Department of Periodontology and Biomaterials PB309, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Philips van Leydenlaan 25, 6525 EX Nijmegen (Netherlands); Inoue, K. [Fuence Co., Ltd., 207 Wako RIKEN Incubation Plaza, 2-3-13, Minami, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0104 (Japan); Jansen, J.A., E-mail: J.Jansen@dent.umcn.n [Department of Periodontology and Biomaterials PB309, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Philips van Leydenlaan 25, 6525 EX Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-30

    Surface modification of implant materials with biomolecule coatings is of high importance to improve implant fixation in bone tissue. In the current study, we present two techniques for the deposition of biologically active enzyme coatings onto implant materials. The well-established thin film ElectroSpray Deposition (ESD) technique was compared with the SAW-ED technique that combines high-frequency Surface Acoustic Wave atomization with Electrostatic Deposition. By immobilizing the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) onto implant surfaces, the influence of both SAW-ED and ESD deposition parameters on ALP deposition efficiency and ALP biological activity was investigated. ALP coatings with preserved enzyme activity were deposited by means of both the SAW-ED and ESD technique. The advantages of SAW-ED over ESD include the possibility to spray highly conductive protein solutions, and the 60-times faster deposition rate. Furthermore, significantly higher deposition efficiencies were observed for the SAW-ED technique compared to ESD. Generally, it was shown that protein inactivation is highly dependent on both droplet dehydration and the applied electrical field strength. The current study shows that SAW-ED is a versatile and flexible technique for the fabrication of functionally active biomolecule coatings.

  6. An Alternative Low-Cost Process for Deposition of MCrAlY Bond Coats for Advanced Syngas/Hydrogen Turbine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    2015-09-11

    The objective of this project was to develop and optimize MCrAlY bond coats for syngas/hydrogen turbine applications using a low-cost electrolytic codeposition process. Prealloyed CrAlY-based powders were codeposited into a metal matrix of Ni, Co or Ni-Co during the electroplating process, and a subsequent post-deposition heat treatment converted it to the MCrAlY coating. Our research efforts focused on: (1) investigation of the effects of electro-codeposition configuration and parameters on the CrAlY particle incorporation in the NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings; (2) development of the post-deposition heat treating procedure; (3) characterization of coating properties and evaluation of coating oxidation performance; (4) exploration of a sulfurfree electroplating solution; (5) cost analysis of the present electrolytic codeposition process. Different electro-codeposition configurations were investigated, and the rotating barrel system demonstrated the capability of depositing NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings uniformly on the entire specimen surface, with the CrAlY particle incorporation in the range 37-42 vol.%. Post-deposition heat treatment at 1000-1200 °C promoted interdiffusion between the CrAlY particles and the Ni-Co metal matrix, resulting in β/γ’/γ or β/γ’ phases in the heat-treated coatings. The results also indicate that the post-deposition heat treatment should be conducted at temperatures ≤1100 °C to minimize Cr evaporation and outward diffusion of Ti. The electro-codeposited NiCrAlY coatings in general showed lower hardness and surface roughness than thermal spray MCrAlY coatings. Coating oxidation performance was evaluated at 1000-1100 °C in dry and wet air environments. The initial electro-codeposited NiCoCrAlY coatings containing relatively high sulfur did not show good oxidation resistance. After modifications of the coating process, the cleaner NiCoCrAlY coating exhibited good oxidation performance at 1000 °C during the 2,000 1-h cyclic

  7. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coating for improvement of anti-oxidation and anti-wear properties by low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Yun; Kim, Ok Hee; Park, Chong Ook [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, Byung Hahn; Jung, Bahl [Agency of Defence Development, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    The deposition properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition were studied to evaluate Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as part of multi-layer coatings for anti-oxidation and anti-wear coating of graphite in the propellant-burning environment. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was deposited on the pack-SiC coated graphite and the tendencies of deposition rate and surface morphology changes with temperatures and reaction gas ratios were investigated. In low deposition temperatures the deposition rate increased with increasing temperature but in high temperatures the deposition rate decreased with increasing temperature. The grain size of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} decreased with increasing temperature. In condition that the range of reaction gas ratios is 20 {<=} NH{sub 3}/SiH{sub 4} {<=} 40, the deposition rate and surface morphology did not change. The Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} deposited at 800-1300 degree was amorphous, and by post-annealing at 1300 degree in N{sub 2} ambient, the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystallized. (author). 15 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Microstructure and properties of composite polyetheretherketone/Bioglass® coatings deposited on Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Tomasz; Seuss, Sigrid; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2013-05-01

    Composite polyetheretherketone (PEEK)/Bioglass® coatings were electrophoretically deposited on two phase α + β Ti-6Al-7Nb titanium alloy substrates. A heat treatment was performed to improve the adhesion of the coatings to the substrate. The microstructure of the coatings and substrate was examined by light microscopy, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy methods as well as by X-ray diffractometry. Coatings deposited from suspensions with PEEK/Bioglass® weight ratio of 0.3 showed the best quality. Coatings of 40 μm thickness, exhibiting uniform porosity, without any cracks or presence of large voids were produced. The microstructure of the coatings was observed to be composed of Bioglass® particles fairly homogeneously embedded in a PEEK matrix. STEM-EDX line analysis revealed diffusion of Na from the glass to the PEEK matrix after heat-treatment. The results demonstrate that electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a very useful method to deposit uniform and reproducible microporous composite PEEK/Bioglass® coatings on titanium alloy substrate for biomedical applications.

  9. Microstructure and properties of composite polyetheretherketone/Bioglass{sup ®} coatings deposited on Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalewicz, Tomasz, E-mail: tmoskale@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Seuss, Sigrid; Boccaccini, Aldo R. [Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Composite polyetheretherketone (PEEK)/Bioglass{sup ®} coatings were electrophoretically deposited on two phase α + β Ti–6Al–7Nb titanium alloy substrates. A heat treatment was performed to improve the adhesion of the coatings to the substrate. The microstructure of the coatings and substrate was examined by light microscopy, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy methods as well as by X-ray diffractometry. Coatings deposited from suspensions with PEEK/Bioglass{sup ®} weight ratio of 0.3 showed the best quality. Coatings of 40 μm thickness, exhibiting uniform porosity, without any cracks or presence of large voids were produced. The microstructure of the coatings was observed to be composed of Bioglass{sup ®} particles fairly homogeneously embedded in a PEEK matrix. STEM-EDX line analysis revealed diffusion of Na from the glass to the PEEK matrix after heat-treatment. The results demonstrate that electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a very useful method to deposit uniform and reproducible microporous composite PEEK/Bioglass{sup ®} coatings on titanium alloy substrate for biomedical applications.

  10. Photochemically induced deposition of protective alumina coatings onto UV emitting phosphors for Xe excimer discharge lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxtermann, Mike, E-mail: mike.b@fh-muenster.de; Jüstel, Thomas, E-mail: tj@fh-muenster.de

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A UV-reactor for the pH induced precipitation of inorganic material is described. • The photolysis of Azide (N{sub 3}{sup −}) leads to a steady pH increase used for precipitation. • A UV induced Al(OH){sub 3} precipitation is used to craft Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings onto YPO{sub 4}:Bi. • The influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated onto YPO{sub 4}:Bi with different thicknesses is discussed. • SEM, VUV-spectroscopy and ESA measurements were performed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated samples. - Abstract: This work concerns the particle coating of the UV-C emitting phosphor YPO{sub 4}:Bi, targeting a stability enhancement of the phosphor material for Xe excimer lamp operation. To this end, the material is coated by the wide band gap material Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In order to obtain a thin and homogeneous coating layer, a novel process based on the photochemical cleavage of NaN{sub 3} in water was developed. This results in a slow and continuous enhancement of the pH value due to ongoing NaOH formation, which results in the precipitation of Al(OH){sub 3} from an Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {sub ×} 18H{sub 2}O solution. It turned out that the obtained particle coatings are of much better quality, i.e. homogeneity, compared to coatings made from a wet-chemical homogeneous precipitation process. The morphology and electrochemical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated YPO{sub 4}:Bi are discussed on the basis of optical spectroscopy, ESA measurements, and SEM/EDX investigations.

  11. Cerium, gallium and zinc containing mesoporous bioactive glass coating deposited on titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shruti, S., E-mail: biotech.shruti@gmail.com; Andreatta, F.; Furlani, E.; Marin, E.; Maschio, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Mesoporous bioactive glass substituted with Ce, Ga or Zn coated on Ti6Al4 V alloy. • Ce, Ga and Zn play vital role in bone metabolism. • Coating was homogenous and crack free retaining the characteristics of glass samples. • Apatite layer formed on unsubstituted, Ce and Ga substituted samples by 15 d. • Zn substituted samples lack apatite layer formation ability. - Abstract: Surface modification is one of the methods for improving the performance of medical implants in biological environment. In this study, cerium, gallium and zinc substituted 80%SiO{sub 2}-15%CaO-5%P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) were coated over Ti6Al4 V substrates by dip-coating method in order to obtain an inorganic—organic hybrid coating (MBG-PCL). Structural characterization was performed using XRD, nitrogen adsorption, SEM-EDXS, FTIR. The MBG-PCL coating uniformly covered the substrate with the thickness found to be more than 1 μm. Glass and polymer phases were detected in the coating along with the presence of biologically potent elements cerium, gallium and zinc. In addition, in vitro bioactivity was investigated by soaking the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 30 days at 37 °C. The apatite-like layer was monitored by FTIR, SEM-EDXS and ICP measurements and it formed in all the samples within 15 days except zinc samples. In this way, an attempt was made to develop a new biomaterial with improved in vitro bioactive response due to bioactive glass coating and good mechanical strength of Ti6Al4 V alloy along with inherent biological properties of cerium, gallium and zinc.

  12. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm...... particlesconsisted of mainly TiO2, TiO2 mixed with Cl and/or Ag, TiO2particles coated with carbon, and Ag particles with size ranging from 60 nm to ca. 5 μm. As expected, no significant VOC emissions were observed as a result of spraying. Finally, we provide recommendations for exposure model parameterization....

  13. Surface modification of tantalum pentoxide coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering and correlation with cell adhesion and proliferation in in vitro tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykova, A.; Safonov, V.; Goltsev, A.; Dubrava, T.; Rossokha, I.; Donkov, N.; Yakovin, S.; Kolesnikov, D.; Goncharov, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2016-03-01

    The effect was analyzed of surface treatment by argon ions on the surface properties of tantalum pentoxide coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural parameters of the as-deposited coatings were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction profiles and X-ray photoelectron spectra were also acquired. The total surface free energy (SFE), the polar, dispersion parts and fractional polarities, were estimated by the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaeble method. The adhesive and proliferative potentials of bone marrow cells were evaluated for both Ta2O5 coatings and Ta2O5 coatings deposited by simultaneous bombardment by argon ions in in vitro tests.

  14. Ta2O5/ Al2O3/ SiO2 - antireflective coating for non-planar optical surfaces by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, K.; Schulz, U.; Tünnermann, A.; Szeghalmi, A.

    2017-02-01

    Antireflective coatings are essential to improve transmittance of optical elements. Most research and development of AR coatings has been reported on a wide variety of plane optical surfaces; however, antireflection is also necessary on nonplanar optical surfaces. Physical vapor deposition (PVD), a common method for optical coatings, often results in thickness gradients on strongly curved surfaces, leading to a failure of the desired optical function. In this work, optical thin films of tantalum pentoxide, aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is based on self-limiting surface reactions. The results demonstrate that ALD optical layers can be deposited on both vertical and horizontal substrate surfaces with uniform thicknesses and the same optical properties. A Ta2O5/Al2O3/ SiO2 multilayer AR coating (400-700 nm) was successfully applied to a curved aspheric glass lens with a diameter of 50 mm and a center thickness of 25 mm.

  15. Molecular structure, optical, electrical and sensing properties of PANI-based coatings with silver nanoparticles deposited from the active gas phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragachev, A.A., E-mail: rogachev78@mail.ru [International Chinese-Belorussian Scientific Laboratory on Vacuum-Plasma Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Yarmolenko, M.A. [International Chinese-Belorussian Scientific Laboratory on Vacuum-Plasma Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Xiaohong, Jiang [International Chinese-Belorussian Scientific Laboratory on Vacuum-Plasma Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Shen, Ruiqi [Key Lab of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Luchnikov, P.A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Rogachev, A.V. [Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, 104, Sovetskaya Street, Gomel 246019 (Belarus)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • PANI-based coatings were deposited by plasma chemical solvent-free method. • PANI + AgCl coating has a partially doped structure with low variation in size of oxidized and reduced PANI units. • The increasing of the sensing performance of this coating was established at the low frequency region of impedance spectra. - Abstract: The plasma chemical solvent-free method of doped and nanocomposite polyaniline-based (PANI-based) conductive coatings deposition was elaborated. Molecular structure, morphology, optical, electrical and sensing properties of PANI-based coating were investigated by Fourier transform infrared, UV–vis, impedance spectroscopy methods and transmittance electron microscopy. The synthesized PANI-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles have a partially doped structure with low variation in size of oxidized and reduced PANI units. The nanocomposite PANI-based coatings were deposited onto interdigital capacitor for ammonia gas sensing applications. The increasing of the sensing performance of the PANI-based coatings with silver nanoparticles was established in particular at the low frequency region of impedance spectra. The high sensitivity and linearity of this sensor response were examined at a direct and alternating voltage with ammonia concentrations up to 10 ppm.

  16. Influence of the electrolyte's pH on the properties of electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite coating on additively manufactured Ti64 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, Alina; Vranceanu, Diana M; Kulesza, Slawek; Ivanov, Alexey N; Bramowicz, Mirosław; Fedonnikov, Alexander S; Braic, Mariana; Norkin, Igor A; Koptyug, Andrey; Kurtukova, Maria O; Dinu, Mihaela; Pana, Iulian; Surmeneva, Maria A; Surmenev, Roman A; Cotrut, Cosmin M

    2017-12-01

    Properties of the hydroxyapatite obtained by electrochemical assisted deposition (ED) are dependent on several factors including deposition temperature, electrolyte pH and concentrations, applied potential. All of these factors directly influence the morphology, stoichiometry, crystallinity, electrochemical behaviour, and particularly the coating thickness. Coating structure together with surface micro- and nano-scale topography significantly influence early stages of the implant bio-integration. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of pH modification on the morphology, corrosion behaviour and in vitro bioactivity and in vivo biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite prepared by ED on the additively manufactured Ti64 samples. The coatings prepared in the electrolytes with pH = 6 have predominantly needle like morphology with the dimensions in the nanometric scale (~30 nm). Samples coated at pH = 6 demonstrated higher protection efficiency against the corrosive attack as compared to the ones coated at pH = 5 (~93% against 89%). The in vitro bioactivity results indicated that both coatings have a greater capacity of biomineralization, compared to the uncoated Ti64. Somehow, the coating deposited at pH = 6 exhibited good corrosion behaviour and high biomineralization ability. In vivo subcutaneous implantation of the coated samples into the white rats for up to 21 days with following histological studies showed no serious inflammatory process.

  17. Controlled Deposition and Performance Optimization of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Ultrasonic Spray-Coating of Photoactive Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chieh; Lan, Ding-Hung; Lee, Kun-Mu; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Cheng-Liang

    2017-04-10

    This study investigated a new film-deposition technique, ultrasonic spray-coating, for use in the production of a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Stable atomization and facile fabrication of perovskite thin films by ultrasonic spray-coating were achieved in a one-step method through manipulating the ink formulation (e.g., solution concentration, precursor composition, and mixing solvent ratio) and the drying kinetics (e.g., post-annealing temperature). The performance of the perovskite solar cells was mainly influenced by the intrinsic film morphology and crystalline orientation of the deposited perovskite layer. By suitable optimization of the spreading and drying conditions of the ink, ultrasonic spray-coated perovskite photovoltaic devices were obtained with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 11.30 %, a fill factor of 73.6 %, a short-circuit current of 19.7 mA cm-1 , and an open-circuit voltage of 0.78 V, respectively. Notably, the average power efficiency reached above 10 %, attributed to the large flower-like perovskite crystal with orientation along the (1 1 2)/(2 0 0) and (2 2 4)/(4 0 0) directions. Thus, the ultrasonic spray-coating method for perovskite photoactive layers, combining advantages of good photovoltaic performance results and benefits from cost and processing, has the potential for large-scale commercial production. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Deposition kinetics of bacteriophage MS2 on a silica surface coated with natural organic matter in a radial stagnation point flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baoling; Pham, Mai; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2008-10-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coupled with a radial stagnation point flow (RSPF) cell was used to study deposition kinetics of bacteriophage MS2 on silica surface coated with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM). Three stocks of MS2 stored in 1 mM NaHCO3, deionized (DI) water or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution were studied. MS2 stored in PBS solution were found to aggregate at all studied ionic strengths from 3 mM to 200 mM, while MS2 stored in DI water and bicarbonate solutions remained monodispersed. Isoelectric points of MS2 storedin PBS solution were lower than for those stored in DI water and 1 mM NaHCO3 solution. Nonrepulsive deposition rates of MS2 on silica surface coated with poly-L-lysine (PLL) were independent of ionic strength. In contrast MS2 deposition rates on bare silica surface or silica surface coated with SRNOM increased gradually and stabilized at an ionic strength of 60 mM. MS2 deposition rates on bare silica surface were higher than those on silica surface coated with SRNOM at low ionic strengths. Deposition rates on these two surfaces were similar at high ionic strengths. Experimental data suggest that electrostatic and steric interactions were the two main deposition mechanisms of MS2 on either bare silica or silica surface coated with SRNOM.

  19. Precision Vapor Deposited Coatings for Detector and Optical Coupling Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this effort the following tasks will be addressed:1) Develop reliable multilayer coatings for transition edge detectors, kinetic inductance films, and optical...

  20. Plasma-Arc Deposited Elemental Boron Film for use as a Durable Nonstick Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klepper, C. C

    2007-01-01

    Report developed under Small Business Innovation Research Contract. Under this Phase I SBIR contract, HY-Tech Research performed development of an abrasion resistant, non-stick coating for cookware used by the U.S. Army in the field...

  1. Non-Cyanide Electrodeposited Ag–PTFE Composite Coating Using Direct or Pulsed Current Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Sieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of FC-4 cationic surfactant on electrodeposited Ag–PTFE composite coating using direct or pulsed currents were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDS, optical microscope, and a linear tribometer. FC-4:PTFE in various ratios were added to a non-cyanide succinimide silver complex bath. Direct or pulsed current method was used at a constant current density to enable comparison between both methods. A high incorporation rate of PTFE was successfully achieved, with pulsed current being highly useful in increasing the amount of PTFE in the composite coating. The study of coating wear under sliding showed that a large majority of the electrodeposited coatings still managed to adhere to the substrate, even after 10 wear cycles of sliding tests. Performance improvements were achieved on all the samples with a coefficient of friction (CoF between 0.06 and 0.12.

  2. Investigation of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide coating deposited on aluminium alloy substrate by plasma technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Soyama, Juliano; Dirscherl, Kai

    2011-01-01

    . The photocatalytic process is initiated by UV-light in TiO2 which creates electron-/hole pairs in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) of TiO2, respectively. The electron/hole pairs generated have sufficient energy to cause reduction and oxidation on its surface providing the self-cleaning effect....... Literature consists of large number of publications on titanium dioxide coating for self-cleaning applications, with glass as the main substrate. Only little work is available on TiO2 coating of metallic alloys used for engineering applications. Engineering materials, such as light-weight aluminium and steel...... of the coating strongly influences the photocatalytic properties. In general, the photocatalytic activity increased with thickness. Quantification of images scanned with Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) revealed that there is a linear relationship between the thickness of the coating and the average cell size...

  3. Deposition of nanocrystalline nonstoichiometric chromium oxide coatings on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by chromium acetylacetonate vapor pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremlev, K. V.; Ob'edkov, A. M.; Ketkov, S. Yu.; Kaverin, B. S.; Semenov, N. M.; Gusev, S. A.; Andreev, P. V.

    2017-04-01

    Nanocrystalline coatings of nonstoichiometric chromium oxide have been obtained for the first time on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the method of metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition using chromium acetylacetonate as a precursor. The new hybrid nanomaterial (Cr2O2.4/MWCNT) has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. It is established that oxidation of the hybrid nanomaterial in air under soft conditions (at 380°C) leads to the formation of nanocrystalline chromium oxide (Cr2O3) on the surface of MWCNTs.

  4. Oxidation Behavior of Titanium Carbonitride Coating Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spray Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; He, Jining; Yan, Dianran; Liao, Hanlin; Zhang, Nannan

    2017-10-01

    As a high-hardness and anti-frictional material, titanium carbonitride (TiCN) thick coatings or thin films are increasingly being used in many industrial fields. In the present study, TiCN coatings were obtained by atmospheric plasma spray synthesis or reactive plasma spray. In order to promote the reaction between the Ti particles and reactive gases, a home-made gas tunnel was mounted on a conventional plasma gun to perform the spray process. The oxidation behavior of the TiCN coatings under different temperatures in static air was carefully investigated. As a result, when the temperature was over 700 °C, the coatings suffered from serious oxidation, and finally they were entirely oxidized to the TiO2 phase at 1100 °C. The principal oxidation mechanism was clarified, indicating that the oxygen can permeate into the defects and react with TiCN at high temperatures. In addition, concerning the use of a TiCN coating in high-temperature conditions, the microhardness of the oxidized coatings at different treatment temperatures was also evaluated.

  5. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films — Coating characterization and first cell biological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strąkowska, Paulina [Gdańsk University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty (Poland); Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and Informatics (Poland); Beutner, René [Max Bergmann Center, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany); Gnyba, Marcin [Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and Informatics (Poland); Zielinski, Andrzej [Gdańsk University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty (Poland); Scharnweber, Dieter, E-mail: Dieter.Scharnweber@tu-dresden.de [Max Bergmann Center, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD > HAp/B-NCD > uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  6. Zircon coatings deposited by electrophoresis on steel 316L; Recubrimientos de circonia depositados por electroforesis sobre acero 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espitia C, I. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, UMSNH, Edificio D, C.U., 58060 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Contreras G, M.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH, Edificio U, C.U., 58060 Morelia , Michoacan (Mexico); Bartolo P, P.; Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Reyes G, J. [IFUNAM, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, L. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The present research involved zirconia coatings prepared using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on 316l stainless steel, via hydrolysis of ZrOCI{sub 2} aqueous solution. Initially, a first zirconia thin film was obtained and treated at 400 C for consolidation. Then a second zirconia film was deposited to obtain a homogeneous and fully covered 316l stainless steel plate. The XPS analyses show that on the first zirconia film, the elements Fe, Cr, O and Zr are present. In this first film the compounds Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} are formed. While in the second film only the Zr and O are observed so that the surface is formed by ZrO{sub 2}. (Author)

  7. MULTILAYER COATINGS Ti/TiN, Cr/CrN AND W/WN DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ADHESION TO BASE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Horník

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of single and multilayer layer PVD coatings based on Cr and Ti widely used in tool application. Additionally, W and WN based coating which are not so widespread were designed and deposited as functionally graded material. The coatings properties were evaluated from the point of view of hardness and adhesion. The hardness measuring was carried out using nanoindentation method. The scratch test was performed to test adhesion. Moreover, the presence of metallic interlayer in functionally graded materials further increases the coating adhesion by gradually approaching its composition to the substrate. Coatings consisting of W and WN have showed very good adhesion. With regard to the results of the scratch test, the multilayer coatings of CrN, TiN and WN have increased adhesion and can be assumed to have their protective function improved. Results will be appliedin development of functionally graded layers for functionally graded materials.

  8. The influence of deposition temperature on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrOxNy/ZrO₂ coatings deposited using RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, G.I., E-mail: gcubillos@unal.edu.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, National University of Colombia, Av. Cra. 30 No 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Bethencourt, M., E-mail: manuel.bethencourt@uca.es [Department of Materials Science, Metallurgy Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, International Campus of Excellence of the Sea (CEI-MAR), University of Cadiz, Avda. República Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Olaya, J.J., E-mail: jjolayaf@unal.edu.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia); Alfonso, J.E., E-mail: jealfonsoo@unal.edu.co [Department of Physic, Faculty of Science, National University of Colombia, Av. Cra. 30 No 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Marco, J.F., E-mail: jfmarco@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Química Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the influence of substrate temperature on the structure, morphology and corrosion resistance of ZrOxNy/ZrO₂ thin films deposited on 304 stainless steel using radio frequency sputtering (RF sputtering). Structural analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD); morphological analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface chemical analysis was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD data showed that the films deposited at 300 °C (573 K) and 350 °C (623 K) result in the growth of a monoclinic zirconium oxynitride phase with preferential orientation along the (-1 1 1) plane, while at 14 °C (287 K) the predominant phase is of polycrystalline ZrO₂. The corrosion results indicate that the coatings provide good resistance to corrosion in chloride-containing media, being better in the film deposited at 350 °C (623 K). SEM analysis demonstrated the homogeneity of the films deposited at the three temperatures; AFM studies established the average roughness of the films to be 4.25 nm. The binding energies of the Zr 3d, N 1s, and O 1s core levels determined by XPS were all compatible with the formation of a zirconium oxynitride and zirconium oxide in the surface of the film. ZrOxNy/ZrO₂ thin films are promising candidates for increasing the corrosion resistance of the steels in chloride-rich environments.

  9. Effect of the pulsed laser deposition conditions on the tribological properties of thin-film nanostructured coatings based on molybdenum diselenide and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominskii, V. Yu.; Grigor'ev, S. N.; Romanov, R. I.; Nevolin, V. N.

    2012-04-01

    The structural state and tribological properties of gradient and composite antifriction coatings produced by pulsed laser codeposition from MoSe2(Ni) and graphite targets are studied. The coatings are deposited onto steel substrates in vacuum and an inert gas, and an antidrop shield is used to prevent the deposition of micron-size particles from a laser jet onto the coating. The deposition of a laser jet from the graphite target and the application of a negative potential to the substrate ensure additional high-energy atom bombardment of growing coatings. Comparative tribological tests performed at a relative air humidity of ˜50% demonstrate that the "drop-free" deposition of a laser-induced atomic flux in the shield shadow significantly improves the antifriction properties of MoSe x coatings, decreasing the friction coefficient from 0.07 to 0.04. The best tribological properties, which combine a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance, are detected in drop-free MoSe x coatings additionally alloyed with carbon (up to ˜55 at %) and subjected to effective bombardment by high-energy atoms during growth. Under these conditions, a dense nanocomposite structure containing the self-lubricating MoSe2 phase and an amorphous carbon phase with a rather high concentration of diamond bonds forms.

  10. Structure and corrosion behavior of sputter deposited cerium oxide based coatings with various thickness on Al 2024-T3 alloy substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Huang, Jiamu, E-mail: huangjiamu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Claypool, James B.; Castano, Carlos E. [Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); O’Keefe, Matthew J., E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu [Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Crystalline CeO{sub 2} coatings are deposited on Al 2024-T3 alloys by magnetron sputtering. • The crystal size and internal stress both increased with the thickness of CeO{sub 2} coating. • The ∼210 nm thick coating has the highest adhesion strength to the Al alloy substrate. • The ∼900 nm thick coating increased the corrosion resistance two orders of magnitude. • CeO{sub 2} coatings provide good cathodic inhibition for Al alloys by acting as physical barriers. - Abstract: Cerium oxide based coatings from ∼100 to ∼1400 nm in thickness were deposited onto Al 2024-T3 alloy substrates by magnetron sputtering of a 99.99% pure CeO{sub 2} target. The crystallite size of CeO{sub 2} coatings increased from 15 nm to 46 nm as the coating thickness increased from ∼100 nm to ∼1400 nm. The inhomogeneous lattice strain increased from 0.36% to 0.91% for the ∼100 nm to ∼900 nm thick coatings and slightly decreased to 0.89% for the ∼1400 nm thick coating. The highest adhesion strength to Al alloy substrates was for the ∼210 nm thick coating, due to a continuous film coverage and low internal stress. Electrochemical measurements indicated that sputter deposited crystalline CeO{sub 2} coatings acted as physical barriers that provide good cathodic inhibition for Al alloys in saline solution. The ∼900 nm thick CeO{sub 2} coated sample had the best corrosion performance that increased the corrosion resistance by two orders magnitude and lowered the cathodic current density 30 times compared to bare Al 2024-T3 substrates. The reduced defects and exposed surface, along with suppressed charge mobility, likely accounts for the improved corrosion performance as coating thickness increased from ∼100 nm to ∼900 nm. The corrosion performance decreased for ∼1400 nm thick coatings due in part to an increase in coating defects and porosity along with a decrease in adhesion strength.

  11. Nucleation/Growth Mechanisms and Morphological Evolution of Porous MnO2 Coating Deposited on Graphite for Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The nucleation and growth mechanisms of porous MnO2 coating deposited on graphite in MnSO4 solution were investigated in detail by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of honeycomb-like MnO2 were evaluated by cycle voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. Results indicated that MnO2 was synthesized by the following steps: Mn2+→ Mn3++ e-, Mn3++2H2O → MnOOH + 3H+, and MnOOH → MnO2 + H++ e-. The deposition of MnO2 was divided into four stages. A short incubation period (approximately 1.5 s was observed, prior to nucleation. The decreasing trend of the current slowed as time increased due to nucleation and MnO2 growth in the second stage. A huge number of nuclei were formed by instantaneous nucleation, and these nuclei grew and connected with one another at an exceedingly short time (0.5 s. In the third stage, the gaps in-between initial graphite flakes were filled with MnO2 until the morphology of the flakes gradually became similar to that of the MnO2-deposited layer. In the fourth stage, the graphite electrode was covered completely with a thick and dense layer of MnO2 deposits. All MnO2 electrodes at different deposition times obtained nearly the same specific capacitance of approximately 186 F/g, thus indicating that the specific capacitance of the electrodes is not related with deposition time.

  12. Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings prepared by pulsed laser deposition from RKKP targets (sol-gel vs melt-processing route)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, J.V., E-mail: giulietta.rau@ism.cnr.it [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Teghil, R. [Universita della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Via dell' Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100 Potenza (Italy); CNR-IMIP U.O.S. di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito scalo (PZ) (Italy); Fosca, M. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Chimica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5-00185 Rome (Italy); De Bonis, A. [Universita della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Via dell' Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100 Potenza (Italy); CNR-IMIP U.O.S. di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito scalo (PZ) (Italy); Cacciotti, I.; Bianco, A. [Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, UR INSTM ' Roma Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Rome (Italy); Albertini, V. Rossi [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Caminiti, R. [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Chimica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5-00185 Rome (Italy); Ravaglioli, A. [Parco Torricelli delle Arti e delle Scienze, Via Granarolo, 64-48018 Faenza (Ra) (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings for bone tissue repair and regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pulsed Lased Deposition allowed congruent transfer of target composition to coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Target was prepared by sol-gel process suitable for compositional tailoring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium, widely used for orthopaedics and dental implants, was used as substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The physico-chemical properties of the prepared coatings are reported. -- Abstract: The deposition of innovative glass-ceramic composition (i.e. RKKP) coatings by Pulsed Lased Deposition (PLD) technique is reported. RKKP was synthesised following two methodologies: melt-processing and sol-gel, the latter being particularly suitable to tailor the compositional range. The PLD advantage with respect to other deposition techniques is the congruent transfer of the target composition to the coating. The physico-chemical properties of films were investigated by Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Angular and Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction, and Vickers microhardness. The deposition performed at 12 J/cm{sup 2} and 500 Degree-Sign C allows to prepare crystalline films with the composition that replicates rather well that of the initial targets. The 0.6 {mu}m thin melt-processing RKKP films, possessing the hardness of 25 GPa, and the 4.3 {mu}m thick sol-gel films with the hardness of 17 GPa were obtained.

  13. Influence of Carbon Nanotube Coatings on Carbon Fiber by Ultrasonically Assisted Electrophoretic Deposition on Its Composite Interfacial Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT coatings were utilized to enhance the interfacial properties of carbon fiber (CF/epoxy(EP composites by ultrasonically assisted electrophoretic deposition (EPD. A characterization of the CF surface properties was done before and after coating (surface chemistry, surface morphologies, and surface energy. The result shows that oxygenated groups concentrations of the CF surfaces experienced significant increases from 12.11% to 24.78%. Moreover, the uniform and homogeneous CNT films were tightly attached on the surface of CF, and the surface wettability of CF is significant improved by enhanced surface free energy when introduced ultrasonic during the EPD process. In addition, the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS and water absorption of CF/EP composite were measured. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that the fracture mechanisms of the new interface layer formed by depositing CNTs on the CF surface contributed to the enhancement of the mechanical performance of the epoxy. This means that the efficient method to improve interfacial performance of composites has shown great commercial application potential.

  14. Optimization of Process Parameters of Pulsed Electro Deposition Technique for Nanocrystalline Nickel Coating Using Gray Relational Analysis (GRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, C.; Sundara Moorthy, N.; Venkatesan, R.; Aswinprasad, V.

    The moving parts of any mechanism and machine parts are always subjected to a significant wear due to the development of friction. It is an utmost important aspect to address the wear problems in present environment. But the complexity goes on increasing to replace the worn out parts if they are very precise. Technology advancement in surface engineering ensures the minimum surface wear with the introduction of polycrystalline nano nickel coating. The enhanced tribological property of the nano nickel coating was achieved by the development of grain size and hardness of the surface. In this study, it has been decided to focus on the optimized parameters of the pulsed electro deposition to develop such a coating. Taguchi’s method coupled gray relational analysis was employed by considering the pulse frequency, average current density and duty cycle as the chief process parameters. The grain size and hardness were considered as responses. Totally, nine experiments were conducted as per L9 design of experiment. Additionally, response graph method has been applied to determine the most significant parameter to influence both the responses. In order to improve the degree of validation, confirmation test and predicted gray grade were carried out with the optimized parameters. It has been observed that there was significant improvement in gray grade for the optimal parameters.

  15. Hot Corrosion of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray on a Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, N. Diaz; Sanchez, O.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.

    In this research, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel analysis were utilized to study the hot corrosion performance at 700∘C of air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with a NiCrAlY bond coat grown by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), deposited on an INCONEL 625 substrate, in contact with corrosive solids salts as vanadium pentoxide V2O5 and sodium sulfate Na2SO4. The EIS data were interpreted based on proposed equivalent electrical circuits using a suitable fitting procedure performed with Echem AnalystTM Software. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), with Rietveld refinement for quantitative phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determinate the coating morphology and corrosion products. The XRD analysis indicated that the reaction between sodium vanadate (NaVO3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) produces yttrium vanadate (YVO4) and leads to the transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition of SiO2 - P2O5 - CaO - MgO glass coatings on titanium substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanni Ednan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of bioactive glass-ceramic have been deposited on titanium substrates by the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique under different experimental conditions. The effect of parameters such as deposition pressure and temperature of heat treatments was studied. The microstructure and the crystalline phases of the coatings were characterized using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis; the phases present were titanium oxides, calcium magnesium silicates and phosphates. The adhesion of the as-deposited films has been examined by scratch tests. The interfacial adhesion of the coatings was better when the deposition was performed at low pressure. Samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF, and a calcium-phosphate precipitate was observed on the surface of less crystallized samples, suggesting that there is some relationship between surface reactivity and crystallinity.

  17. Physicochemical and Biological Investigation of Different Structures of Carbon Coatings Deposited onto Polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Kaczorowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the thrombogenic properties of polyurethane that was surface modified with carbon coatings. Physicochemical properties of manufactured coatings were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Raman spectroscopy and contact angle measurement methods. Samples were examined by the Impact-R method evaluating the level of platelets activation and adhesion of particular blood cell elements. The analysis of antimicrobial resistance against E. coli colonization and viability of endothelial cells showed that polyurethane modified with use of carbon layers constituted an interesting solution for biomedical application.

  18. Corrosion resistance of zirconium oxynitride coatings deposited via DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis-nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, G.I., E-mail: gcubillos@unal.edu.co [Department of Chemistry, Group of Materials and Chemical Processes, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Av. Cra. 30 No 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Bethencourt, M., E-mail: manuel.bethencourt@uca.es [Department of Materials Science, Metallurgy Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, International Campus of Excellence of the Sea - CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Avda. República Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Olaya, J.J., E-mail: jjolayaf@unal.edu.co [Faculty of Engineering, Group of Materials and Chemical Processes, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Av. Cra. 30 No 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • New ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} films were deposited on stainless steel 316L using PSY-N and UBMS. • ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} rhombohedral polycrystalline film grew with PSY-N. • Zr{sub 2}ON{sub 2} crystalline structures, mostly oriented along the (2 2 2) plane, grew with UBMS. • Layers improved corrosion behavior in NaCl media, especially those deposited by UBMS. - Abstract: ZrO{sub x}N{sub y}/ZrO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on stainless steel using two different methods: ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (SPY-N) and the DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique (UBMS). Using the first method, ZrO{sub 2} was initially deposited and subsequently nitrided in an anhydrous ammonia atmosphere at 1023 K at atmospheric pressure. For UBMS, the film was deposited in an atmosphere of air/argon with a Φair/ΦAr flow ratio of 3.0. Structural analysis was carried out through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphological analysis was done through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} rhombohedral polycrystalline film was produced with spray pyrolysis-nitriding, whereas using the UBMS technique, the oxynitride films grew with cubic Zr{sub 2}ON{sub 2} crystalline structures preferentially oriented along the (2 2 2) plane. Upon chemical analysis of the surface, the coatings exhibited spectral lines of Zr3d, O1s, and N1s, characteristic of zirconium oxynitride/zirconia. SEM analysis showed the homogeneity of the films, and AFM showed morphological differences according to the deposition technique of the coatings. Zirconium oxynitride films enhanced the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion using both techniques. The protective efficacy was evaluated using electrochemical techniques based on linear polarization (LP). The results indicated that the layers provide good resistance to corrosion when exposed to chloride

  19. Preparation of Stable Superhydrophobic Coatings on Wood Substrate Surfaces via Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine and Electroless Deposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaili Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA chemistry and electroless deposition approaches were used to prepare stable superhydrophobic coatings on wood surfaces. The as-formed PDA coating on a wood surface exhibited a hierarchical micro/nano roughness structure, and functioned as an “adhesive layer” between the substrate and a metallic film by the metal chelating ability of the catechol moieties on PDA, allowing for the formation of a well-developed micro/nanostructure hierarchical roughness. Additionally, the coating acted as a stable bridge between the substrate and hydrophobic groups. The morphology and chemical components of the prepared superhydrophobic wood surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The PDA and octadecylamine (OA modified surface showed excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA of about 153° and a rolling angle (RA of about 9°. The CA further increased to about 157° and RA reduced to about 5° with the Cu metallization. The superhydrophobic material exhibited outstanding stability in harsh conditions including ultraviolet aging, ultrasonic washing, strong acid-base and organic solvent immersion, and high-temperature water boiling. The results suggested that the PDA/OA layers were good enough to confer robust, degradation-resistant superhydrophobicity on wood substrates. The Cu metallization was likely unnecessary to provide significant improvements in superhydrophobic property. However, due to the amazing adhesive capacity of PDA, the electroless deposition technique may allow for a wide range of potential applications in biomimetic materials.

  20. Influence of Pt particles on the porosity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [Beijing Key Laboratory for Corrosion, Erosion and Surface Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083, Beijing (China); Research Institute of Aerospace Special Materials and Processing Technology, 100074, Beijing (China); He, Yedong, E-mail: htgroup@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Corrosion, Erosion and Surface Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jin [Beijing Key Laboratory for Corrosion, Erosion and Surface Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-01

    Porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Pt coatings were successfully prepared on the Ni-based alloy by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition. It is found that the porosity of coatings can be reduced obviously by Pt particles co-deposited with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This phenomenon can be attributed to that the mechanism of plasma discharge is changed in such CPED. As the Pt particles are dispersed in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating, the electron avalanche is difficult to occur. So, the breakdown takes place in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Pt coating difficultly, the destructive effect of the breakdown will therefore be decreased, and the porosity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can be reduced which has been verified by the results of surface morphologies of the coatings. - Highlights: • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Pt coatings were prepared on Ni-based alloys by CPED. • The porosity of coating is reduced obviously by Pt particles dispersed with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The related mechanisms of plasma discharge in CPED were discussed.

  1. Efficiency enhancement of flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells deposited on polyimide-coated soda lime glass substrate by alkali treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadono, Adiyudha; Ogihara, Tomohiro; Hino, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nakada, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Alkali treatment effects on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells deposited on polyimide-coated soda lime glass (PI-coated SLG) were investigated. CIGS on PI-coated SLG shows Na diffusion from the substrate, which should be controlled to obtain high efficiencies. Further incorporation of Na was achieved by enhancing diffusion from the substrate or by external incorporation using post-deposition treatment (PDT) methods. Both methods lead to a high efficiency of approximately 15%. Moreover, aside from Na, K was also incorporated by KF-PDT, resulting in efficiency improvement from 12% for an untreated CIGS to more than 18% at the maximum substrate temperature of 450 °C, which is comparable to CIGS deposited at higher temperatures using the same equipment. It was also found that the alkali concentration of CIGS deposited on PI-coated SLG shows almost the same behavior as that of a film deposited on a rigid glass, suggesting that the deposition technique for CIGS on the rigid glass can be applied to flexible substrates.

  2. Microstresses and microstructure in thick cobalt-based laser deposited coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, U.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    Microstresses in a thick laser clad Co-based coating on steel substrate were investigated with 3D X-ray microscopy using an intense synchrotron microfocused beam. The microstructure was examined with tight microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy

  3. Large-aperture plasma-assisted deposition of inertial confinement fusion laser coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, James B; Kupinski, Pete; Rigatti, Amy L; Schmid, Ansgar W; Lambropoulos, John C; Papernov, Semyon; Kozlov, Alexei; Spaulding, John; Sadowski, Daniel; Chrzan, Z Roman; Hand, Robert D; Gibson, Desmond R; Brinkley, Ian; Placido, Frank

    2011-03-20

    Plasma-assisted electron-beam evaporation leads to changes in the crystallinity, density, and stresses of thin films. A dual-source plasma system provides stress control of large-aperture, high-fluence coatings used in vacuum for substrates 1m in aperture.

  4. Use of cerium-based inhibitors in electrochemically deposited coatings for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eric Leon

    2000-10-01

    Corrosion is a common problem in military aircraft and structural components made from high strength aluminum alloys such as 7075 T-6 and 2024 T-3 are particularly susceptible. Chromating is the most commercially used surface pre-treatment for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloys in the aircraft and the aerospace industries. Major reasons for the widespread use of chromium-based protective coatings are their self-healing nature, excellent corrosion resistance and their ease of application. However, current environmental legislation is moving towards total exclusion of hexavalent chromium, Cr6+ due to its toxic nature. Regulatory pressure to reduce the hazardous waste of chromium supports development of non-toxic alternative methods of corrosion protection. The degree and type of corrosion protection provided by these alternative coatings are also of importance. ASTM standards are used to evaluate coating performance, but these methods are time consuming and not particularly quantitative nor reproducible. Some ASTM methods require from 336 to 2000 hours, so it is clear that the development of an accelerated test method for the evaluation of new corrosion inhibitive systems which successfully correlates with the ASTM B-117 Salt Spray test is necessary. The purpose of this study was the incorporation and evaluation of promising cerium-based corrosion inhibitors into cathodically deposited electrocoat primers for the replacement of toxic chromium in military and aerospace applications. Classical ASTM methods, as well as short term electrochemical tests, were used to evaluate the corrosion protection provided by the inhibitor containing primer formulations. SEM/EDX and Auger spectroscopies were used to characterize the morphology and elemental composition of the resulting coatings.

  5. Atomic Layer Deposited MgO: A Lower Overpotential Coating for Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Masihhur R; Jackson, David H K; Xu, Shenzhen; Hamers, Robert J; Morgan, Dane; Kuech, Thomas F

    2017-03-29

    An ultrathin MgO coating was synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD) to improve the surface properties of the Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 (NMC) cathode. An in-situ quartz crystal sensor was used to monitor the "self-limiting" surface reactions during ALD process and estimate the density of the deposited film. The electrochemical performance of the MgO-coated NMC cathode was evaluated in a half-cell assembly and compared to other ALD-based coatings, such as Al2O3 and ZrO2. Cyclic voltammetry studies suggested that ALD MgO has a higher Li-diffusion coefficient which resulted in lower overpotential on the NMC cathode surface and improved Li-ion battery rate performance. MgO-coated NMC also yielded improved capacity retention over uncoated NMC in a long-range cycling test.

  6. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  7. Hybrid biocomposites based on titania nanotubes and a hydroxyapatite coating deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering: Surface topography, structure, and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernozem, Roman V.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Krause, Bärbel; Baumbach, Tilo; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tyurin, Alexander I.; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias; Surmenev, Roman A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, biocomposites based on porous titanium oxide structures and a calcium phosphate (CaP) or hydroxyapatite (HA) coating are described and prepared. Nanotubes (NTs) with different pore dimensions were processed using anodic oxidation of Ti substrates in a NH4F-containing electrolyte solution at anodization voltages of 30 and 60 V with a DC power supply. The external diameters of the nanotubes prepared at 30 V and 60 V were 53 ± 10 and 98 ± 16 nm, respectively. RF-magnetron sputtering of the HA target in a single deposition run was performed to prepare a coating on the surface of TiO2 NTs prepared at 30 and 60 V. The thickness of the CaP coating deposited on the mirror-polished Si substrate in the same deposition run with TiO2 NTs was determined by optical ellipsometry (SE) 95 ± 5 nm. Uncoated and CaP-coated NTs were annealed at 500 °C in air. Afterwards, the presence of TiO2 (anatase) was observed. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nanoindentation results revealed the influence that the NT dimensions had on the CaP coating deposition process. The tubular surfaces of the NTs were completely coated with the HA coating when prepared at 30 V, and no homogeneous CaP coating was observed when prepared at 60 V. The XRD patterns show peaks assigned to crystalline HA only for the coated TiO2 NTs prepared at 30 V. High-resolution XPS spectra show binding energies (BE) of Ca 2p, P 2p and O 1s core-levels corresponding to HA and amorphous calcium phosphate on TiO2 NTs prepared at 30 V and 60 V, respectively. Fabrication of TiO2 NTs results in a significant decrease to the elastic modulus and nanohardness compared to the Ti substrate. The porous structure of the NTs causes an increase in the elastic strain to failure of the coating (H/E) and the parameter used to describe the resistance of the material to plastic deformation (H3/E2) at the nanoscale level compared to the Ti substrate. Furthermore

  8. Effect of C/Si Ratio on the Electrochemical Behavior of a-SiCx:H Coatings on SS301 Substrate Deposited by PECVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbide (a-SiCx:H coatings were deposited on stainless steel 301 (SS301 using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with the methane gas flow ranging from 30 to 90 sccm. XRD spectra confirmed the amorphous structure of these coatings. The as-deposited coatings all exhibited homogenous dense feature, and no porosities were observed in SEM and AFM analysis. The a-SiCx:H coatings remarkably increased the corrosion resistance of the SS301 substrate. With the increase of the C concentration, the a-SiCx:H coatings exhibited significantly enhanced electrochemical behavior. The a-SiCx:H coating with the highest carbon concentration acted as an excellent barrier to charge transfer, with a corrosion current of 3.5×10-12 A/cm2 and a breakdown voltage of 1.36 V, compared to 2.5×10-8 A/cm2 and 0.34 V for the SS301 substrate.

  9. Improved corrosion resistant and mechanical behavior of distinct composite coatings (silica/titania/zirconia on Ti–6Al–4V deposited by EPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chellappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized composite powders (ZrO2/TiO2, SiO2/TiO2, and SiO2/ZrO2 were successfully deposited on Ti–6Al–4V by electrophoretic deposition method (EPD to improve its electrochemical characteristics for better biomedical applications. In the present investigation, the three composite powders were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and its phase purity was analyzed by Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. Further, the performance of the deposited coatings was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, scratch resistance test. The electrochemical properties of the composite coatings were analyzed by Potentiodynamic (Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS studies. From the results, we observed that the corrosion resistance behavior of the different composite coated metallic substrate exhibited divergent corrosion resistance nature than blank Ti–6Al–4V. Of all these coatings on Ti–6Al–4V, the composite made up of, ZrO2/TiO2 has pronounced corrosion resistance behavior in Ringer’s solution when compared to others. This behavior is due to the presence of strong adherent coating owing to the existence of uniform deposition on Ti–6Al–4V.

  10. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Thick Ti-6Al-4V Coating Deposited on Ti-6Al-4V Substrate via High-Pressure Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N. W.; Tan, A. W. Y.; Sun, W.; Liu, E.

    2017-08-01

    Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) coating with a thickness of about 9 mm was deposited on commercial Ti64 substrate via a high-pressure cold spray process. The microstructure, hardness, and wear and corrosion resistance of the Ti64 coating were systematically investigated. The hardness of the Ti64 coating was higher than that of the Ti64 substrate due to the cold-worked microstructure of the coating. The tribological results showed that there was no significant difference in the surface wear rates of the Ti64 coating measured on its different layers while the surface wear resistance of the Ti64 coating was lower than its cross-sectional wear resistance. The corrosion results showed that the Ti64 coating did not effectively prevent its underlying Ti64 substrate from corrosion due to the occurrence of pores in the coating microstructure. It could be concluded that the hardness and wear resistance of the Ti64 coating were comparable to those of the commercial Ti64 substrate.

  11. Ion Vapour Deposited (IVD) Aluminium Coatings for the Corrosion Protection of High Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    iron rust is detected within many of the pits (Figure 17). This rust forms as the aluminium loses its effectiveness to act as a sacrificial anode ...Cadmium possesses a low rate of corrosion and is therefore a very durable coating. It also provides sacrificial corrosion protection to the underlying...appeared to be remnants of rust (Figure 11). Energy dispersive X- Ray analysis identified silicon, aluminium, iron, manganese and calcium in this

  12. Anodisation of sputter deposited aluminium–titanium coatings: Effect of microstructure on optical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Junker-Holst, Andreas; Vestergaard Nielsen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    -ray diffraction (XRD), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), while the optical appearance was investigated using photospectrometry. The microstructure of the coatings was varied by heat treatment, resulting in the precipitation of Al3Ti phases. The reflectance of the anodised surfaces...... layer was rough, causing light trapping. Progressive darkening of the anodised layer is assumed to be due to the synergetic effect of morphology of incorporated intermetallics and substrate interface....

  13. Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Sequential Cleaning and Coating Deposition for Cadmium Plating Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Department of Defense. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer , or otherwise...which Cd is currently being applied include AISI 4340, Hy-Tuf, Aermet 100, M50, 300M, PH13-8Mo stainless steel and maraging grades 200-250. The...power of the cyanide solutions. Additional corrosion resistance is often gained by applying a chromate conversion coating to the Cd-plated components

  14. Effects of calcium phosphate coating to SLA surface implants by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method on self-contained coronal defect healing in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Heun-Joo; Song, Ji-Eun; Um, Yoo-Jung; Chae, Gyung Joon; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung-Min [Dentium Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: shchoi726@yuhs.a [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of self-contained coronal defects on a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface implant, which had a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating applied by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We also evaluated the effect of heating the coating to different temperatures. The CaP-coated SLA implants exhibited a slightly larger bone healing capacity in the self-contained coronal defect than SLA implants, indicating that combining SLA surface implants and a CaP coating by the IBAD method had synergistic effects on bone healing. There was no difference in the healing capacity between 350 deg. C and 450 deg. C heat treatment of the coating layer.

  15. Characterization of catalytic chemical vapor-deposited SiCN thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Ono, Takahita; Masayoshi, Esashi

    2012-06-01

    Silicon carbonitride thin films of 480 to 730-nm thicknesses were grown on silicon substrate using ammonia and hexamethyldisilazane gas sources using catalytic chemical vapor deposition process. Compositions of silicon, carbon and nitrogen in the SiCN films were varied by changing the flow rate of ammonia gas. The effect of deposition conditions on the structural, optical and mechanical properties of SiCN thin films was examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the higher flow rate of ammonia gas results in higher nitrogen and lower carbon content in the deposited thin films. The measurement of stress as a function of substrate temperature in the SiCN film showed that the stress changes from compressive to tensile in the range of 275°C to 325°C. With these preliminary characterization tests, it is expected that SiCN nano-thin films can be used for developing sensors for harsh environment.

  16. Use of Multiple DC Magnetron Deposition Sources for Uniform Coating of Large Areas (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    2005- 1 June 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9451-04-C-0067 DF297548 Use of multiple DC magnetron deposition sources for...thickness at some point on the substrate plane to yield a relative thickness distribution or it can be used to find the ratio Mlm which will be useful... Mlm of the material deposited in each area, is shown in columns 3 though 5, for the three sources.. For example, within the area from the center of the

  17. Effect of deposition parameters and heat-treatment on the microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of hydroxyapatite/titanium coating deposited on Ti6Al4V by RF-magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianwei; Chen, Zhangbo; Han, Wenjun; He, Danfeng; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Qingliang

    2017-09-01

    Functionally graded HA/Ti coatings were deposited on silicon and Ti6Al4V substrate by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The effect of RF-power, negative bias and heat-treatment on the microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, AFM Nanoindentation and electrochemical workstation. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited HA/Ti coatings were characteristic of amorphous structure, which transformed into a crystal structure after heat-treatment, and reformed O-H peak. The content of crystallization was increasing with the increase of negative bias. A dense, homogenous, smooth and featured surface, and columnar cross-section structure was observed in SEM observation. AFM results showed that the surface roughness became higher after heat-treatment, and increased with increasing RF-power. The mechanical test indicated that the coating had a higher nanohardness (9.1 GPa) in the case of  -100 V and 250 W than that of Ti6Al4V substrate, and a critical load as high as 17  ±  3.5 N. The electrochemical test confirmed the HA/Ti coating served as a stable protecting barrier in improving the corrosion resistance, which the corrosion current density was 1.3% of Ti6Al4V, but it was significantly influenced by RF-power and negative bias. The contact angle test demonstrated that all the coatings exhibited favorable hydrophilic properties, and it decreased by 20-25% compared to that untreated samples. Thus all results indicated that magnetron sputtering is a promising way for fabricating a better biocompatible ceramic coating by adjusting deposition parameters and post-deposition heat treatments.

  18. Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition: Conformal Coating, Subnanometer Thickness Control, and Smart Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-22

    Transistors have already been made three-dimensional (3D), with device channels (i.e., fins in trigate field-effect transistor (FinFET) technology) that are taller, thinner, and closer together in order to enhance device performance and lower active power consumption. As device scaling continues, these transistors will require more advanced, fabrication-enabling technologies for the conformal deposition of high-κ dielectric layers on their 3D channels with accurate position alignment and thickness control down to the subnanometer scale. Among many competing techniques, area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) is a promising method that is well suited to the requirements without the use of complicated, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-incompatible processes. However, further progress is limited by poor area selectivity for thicker films formed via a higher number of ALD cycles as well as the prolonged processing time. In this issue of ACS Nano, Professor Stacy Bent and her research group demonstrate a straightforward self-correcting ALD approach, combining selective deposition with a postprocess mild chemical etching, which enables selective deposition of dielectric films with thicknesses and processing times at least 10 times larger and 48 times shorter, respectively, than those obtained by conventional AS-ALD processes. These advances present an important technological breakthrough that may drive the AS-ALD technique a step closer toward industrial applications in electronics, catalysis, and photonics, etc. where more efficient device fabrication processes are needed.

  19. Electron Microscopy Characterization of Ni-Cr-B-Si-C Laser Deposited Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmati, I.; Rao, J. C.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    During laser deposition of Ni-Cr-B-Si-C alloys with high amounts of Cr and B, various microstructures and phases can be generated from the same chemical composition that results in heterogeneous properties in the clad layer. In this study, the microstructure and phase constitution of a high-alloy

  20. Influence of carbon nanotubes coatings onto carbon fiber by oxidative treatments combined with electrophoretic deposition on interfacial properties of carbon fiber composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Chao; Jiang, Jianjun, E-mail: jianjun@nwpu.edu.cn; Liu, Fa; Fang, Liangchao; Wang, Junbiao; Li, Dejia; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotube/carbon fiber hybrid fiber was proposed by the treatment with hydrogen peroxide and concentrated nitric acid combined with electrophoretic deposition process. - Highlights: • Carbon nanotube coated carbon fiber was prepared by two methods. • Uniform and dense CNTs network formed by oxidative treatments combined with EPD. • Pretreatment of the CF is beneficial to EPD of CNTs on carbon fiber surface. • CNTs enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • CNTs have contributed to the interfacial properties of composite. - Abstract: To improve the interfacial performance of carbon fiber (CF) and epoxy resin, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coatings were utilized to achieve this purpose through coating onto CF by the treatment with hydrogen peroxide and concentrated nitric acid combined with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The influence of electrophoretically deposited CNTs coatings on the surface properties of CFs were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic contact angle analysis. The results indicated that the deposition of carbon nanotubes introduced some polar groups to carbon fiber surfaces, enhanced surface roughness and changed surface morphologies of carbon fibers. Surface wettability of carbon fibers may be significantly improved by increasing surface free energy of the fibers due to the deposition of CNTs. The thickness and density of the coatings increases with the introduction of pretreatment of the CF during the EPD process. Short beam shear test was performed to examine the effect of carbon fiber functionalization on mechanical properties of the carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites. The interfacial adhesion of CNTs/CF reinforced epoxy composites showed obvious enhancement of interlaminar shear strength by 60.2% and scanning electron microscope photographs showed that the failure mode of composites was changed

  1. Effect of Hydrogen Exposure on Mechanical and Tribological Behavior of CrxN Coatings Deposited at Different Pressures on IN718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Obrosov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the properties of the CrxN coatings deposited on the Inconel 718 superalloy using direct current reactive magnetron sputtering are investigated. The influence of working pressure on the microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties of the CrxN coatings before and after high-temperature hydrogen exposure is studied. The cross-sectional scanning electron micrographs indicate the columnar structure of the coatings, which changes from dense and compact columns to large columns with increasing working pressure. The Cr/N ratio increases from 1.4 to 1.9 with increasing working pressure from 300 to 900 mPa, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a change from mixed hcp-Cr2N and fcc-CrN structure to approximately stoichiometric Cr2N phase. After gas-phase hydrogenation, the coating deposited at 300 mPa exhibits the lowest hydrogen absorption at 600 °C of all investigated coatings. The results indicate that the dense mixed cubic and hexagonal structure is preferential for hydrogen permeation resistance due to the presence of cubic phase with higher packing density in comparison to the hexagonal structure. After hydrogenation, no changes in phase composition were observed; however, a small amount of hydrogen is accumulated in the coatings. An increase of coating hardness and elastic modulus was observed after hydrogen exposure. Tribological tests reveal that hydrogenation leads to a decrease of the friction coefficient up to 20%–30%. The best value of 0.25 was reached for hydrogen exposed CrxN coating deposited at 300 mPa.

  2. Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi, E-mail: Terhi.Hirvikorpi@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Laine, Risto, E-mail: Risto.Laine@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: Mika.Vaha-Nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kilpi, Väinö, E-mail: Vaino.Kilpi@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Salo, Erkki, E-mail: Erkki.Salo@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Li, Wei-Min, E-mail: Wei-Min.Li@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Lindfors, Sven, E-mail: Sven.Lindfors@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Vartiainen, Jari, E-mail: Jari.Vartiainen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kenttä, Eija, E-mail: Eija.Kentta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Nikkola, Juha, E-mail: Juha.Nikkola@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Harlin, Ali, E-mail: Ali.Harlin@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kostamo, Juhana, E-mail: Juhana.Kostamo@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Thin (30–40 nm) and highly uniform Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings have been deposited at relatively low temperature of 100 °C onto various polymeric materials employing the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, both batch and roll-to-roll (R2R) mode. The applications for ALD have long been limited those feasible for batch processing. The work demonstrates that R2R ALD can deposit thin films with properties that are comparable to the film properties fabricated by in batch. This accelerates considerably the commercialization of many products, such as flexible, printed electronics, organic light-emitting diode lighting, third generation thin film photovoltaic devices, high energy density thin film batteries, smart textiles, organic sensors, organic/recyclable packaging materials, and flexible displays, to name a few. - Highlights: • Thin and uniform Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings have been deposited onto polymers materials. • Batch and roll-to-roll (R2R) atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been employed. • Deposition with either process improved the barrier properties. • Sensitivity of coated films to defects affects barrier obtained with R2R ALD.

  3. Iridium-coated micropore x-ray optics using dry etching of a silicon wafer and atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tomohiro; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Moriyama, Teppei; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Kakiuchi, Takuya; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Putkonen, Matti

    2013-08-20

    To enhance x-ray reflectivity of silicon micropore optics using dry etching of silicon (111) wafers, iridium coating is tested by use of atomic layer deposition. An iridium layer is successfully formed on sidewalls of tiny micropores with a pore width of 20 μm and depth of 300 μm. The film thickness is ∼20  nm. An enhanced x-ray reflectivity compared to that of silicon is confirmed at Ti Kα 4.51 keV, for what we believe to be the first time, with this type of optics. Some discrepancies from a theoretical reflectivity curve of iridium-coated silicon are noticed at small incident angles <1.3°. When a geometrical shadowing effect due to occultation by a ridge existing on the sidewalls is taken into account, the observed reflectivity becomes well represented by the modified theoretical curve. An estimated surface micro roughness of ∼1  nm rms is consistent with atomic force microscope measurements of the sidewalls.

  4. Fabrication of nitrogen-containing diamond-like carbon film by filtered arc deposition as conductive hard-coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yushi; Harigai, Toru; Isono, Ryo; Imai, Takahiro; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Masao; Taki, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yushi; Tsuji, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Satoru; Kunitsugu, Shinsuke; Habuchi, Hitoe; Kiyohara, Shuji; Ito, Mikio; Yick, Sam; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Phil

    2018-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, which are amorphous carbon films, have been used as hard-coating films for protecting the surface of mechanical parts. Nitrogen-containing DLC (N-DLC) films are expected as conductive hard-coating materials. N-DLC films are expected in applications such as protective films for contact pins, which are used in the electrical check process of integrated circuit chips. In this study, N-DLC films are prepared using the T-shaped filtered arc deposition (T-FAD) method, and film properties are investigated. Film hardness and film density decreased when the N content increased in the films because the number of graphite structures in the DLC film increased as the N content increased. These trends are similar to the results of a previous study. The electrical resistivity of N-DLC films changed from 0.26 to 8.8 Ω cm with a change in the nanoindentation hardness from 17 to 27 GPa. The N-DLC films fabricated by the T-FAD method showed high mechanical hardness and low electrical resistivity.

  5. Growth of CdS thin films on indium coated glass substrates via chemical bath deposition and subsequent air annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Kumar, Kamlesh; Singh, Balwant Kr; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata, E-mail: neillohit@yahoo.co.in

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS film grown on indium coated glass substrates via CBD and subsequent annealing. • Disappearance of the indium (1 1 2) peak confirms interdiffusion at 300 °C. • SIMS indicates the subsequent interdiffusion at progressively higher temperature. • Composite In–CdS layer showed lower photosensitivity compared to pure CdS. - Abstract: In the present work attempts were made to synthesize indium doped CdS films by fabricating In/CdS bilayers using CBD-CdS on vacuum evaporated In thin films and subsequent air annealing. 135 nm CdS films were grown onto 20 nm and 35 nm indium coated glass substrate employing chemical bath deposition technique. The In/CdS bilayers thus formed were subjected to heat treatment at the temperatures between 200 and 400 °C for 4 min in the muffle furnace to facilitate indium to diffuse into the CdS films. XRD pattern ascertained no noticeable shift in lattice constant implying grain boundary metal segregation, while secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the diffusion profile of indium into CdS matrices. Mass spectrometry results showed that substantial diffusion of indium had been taken place within CdS at 400 °C. Dark and photocurrent with different illumination time were measured to ascertain the photosensitivity of pure and composite CdS films.

  6. Tribological and mechanical properties of Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN nanoscale multilayer PVD coatings deposited on AISI H11 hot work tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Bukhaiti, M.A., E-mail: m.albukhaiti@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sana’a University, Sana’a 12544 (Yemen); Al-hatab, K.A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sana’a University, Sana’a 12544 (Yemen); Tillmann, W.; Hoffmann, F.; Sprute, T. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universitat Dortmund, Leonhard-Euler-Str.2, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • New Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN multilayer coating was developed. • It showed low wear rates (10{sup −16} m{sup 3}/N m), low friction coefficients (μ ∼ 0.25), and good hardness (17–20 GPa). • Friction coefficients and wear rates decrease and increase, respectively, with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity. • The coating/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pair showed superior wear resistance and low friction coefficient in comparison to coating/100Cr6 pair. - Abstract: A new [Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN]{sub 5} multilayer coatings were deposited onto polished substrate AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) steel by an industrial magnetron sputtering device. The tribological performance of the coated system was investigated by a ball-on-disk tribometer against 100Cr6 steel and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls. The friction coefficients and specific wear rates were measured at various normal loads (2, 5, 8, and 10 N) and sliding velocities (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 m/s) in ambient air and dry conditions. The phase structure, composition, wear tracks morphologies, hardness, and film/substrate adhesion of the coatings were characterized by light-microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 3D-surface analyzer, nanoindentation, and scratch tests. Results showed that the deposited coatings showed low wear rates in the scale of 10{sup −15} m{sup 3}/N m, low friction coefficients against 100Cr6 and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls in the range of 0.25–0.37, and good hardness in the range of 17–20 GPa. Results also revealed that the friction coefficients and disc wear rates decrease and increase, respectively with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity for both coating/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and coating/100Cr6 sliding system. Compared with the uncoated-H11 substrate, the deposited coating exhibited superior tribological and mechanical properties. The dominant wear mechanism was abrasive wear for coating/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pair, while

  7. Biocompatible and bioactive nanostructured glass coatings synthesized by pulsed laser deposition: In vitro biological tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, A.C.; Sima, F.; Duta, L.; Popescu, C.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-54, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Capitanu, D. [S.C. Medical SRL, Nasta Hospital, Bucharest (Romania); Mustata, R.; Sima, L.E.; Petrescu, S.M. [Institute of Biochemistry, Romanian Academy, Splaiul Independentei 296, Bucharest (Romania); Janackovic, D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-03-01

    We report on the synthesis by pulsed laser deposition with a KrF* excimer laser source ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 25 ns) of bioglass thin films of 6P57 and 6P61 types. Physiology, viability, and proliferation of human osteoblast cells were determined by quantitative in vitro tests performed by flow cytometry on primary osteoblasts cultured on pulsed laser deposited bioglasses. Both types of glass films proved to be appropriate mediums for cell survival and proliferation. In a parallel investigation, cell morphology and adhesion to the surface was studied by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Strong bonds between the materials and cells were found in both cases, as osteoblast pseudopodes penetrated deep into the material. According to our observations, the 6P57 glass films were superior with respect to viability and proliferation performances.

  8. Influence of ternary elements (X = Si, B, Cr) on TiAlN coating deposited by magnetron sputtering process with single alloying targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Duck Hyeong [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Heat and Surface Technology Service Center, Incheon, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Gyeonggi-do, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kyoung Il; Shin, Seung Yong [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Heat and Surface Technology Service Center, Incheon, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Caroline Sunyong, E-mail: sunyonglee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Gyeonggi-do, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Ti–Al based single alloying targets were prepared by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Also, Si, B, and Cr added targets were prepared to improve wear and corrosion properties. The investigation on the alloying targets showed that their microstructures were about 20–30 nm in size and all the elements were homogeneously distributed. Ternary Ti–Al-based coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering method with various alloying targets, such as TiAlSi, TiAlB and TiAlCr. The composition of the coating was almost the same with that of the target. Their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, field emission scanning electron microscope, nano-indenter, tribometer and etc. Moreover, effects of 3rd element on the wear and corrosion properties of Ti–Al–N based coatings were studied here. From the results of TiAlN-X coating properties, the sample coated with TiAlN-B showed the highest hardness. Moreover, TiAlN-Cr coatings showed the best friction coefficient in oil condition and best corrosion resistance with the lowest corrosion current density. Therefore, easy method of coating TiAlN with ternary element using single target, was demonstrated as well as its improved structural properties. - Highlights: • Improve properties of TiAlN coatings by adding third elements such as Si, B, and Cr • TiAlN-B coatings showed the highest hardness. • TiAlN-Cr coatings showed the best friction coefficient in oil condition. • TiAlN-Cr coatings showed the best corrosion resistance.

  9. Copper-Coated Liquid-Crystalline Elastomer via Bioinspired Polydopamine Adhesion and Electroless Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Carl P; Merkel, Daniel R; Laursen, Christopher M; Brinckmann, Stephan A; Yakacki, Christopher M

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the functionalization of main-chain nematic elastomers with a conductive metallic surface layer using a polydopamine binder. Using a two-stage thiol-acrylate reaction, a programmed monodomain is achieved for thermoreversible actuation. A copper layer (≈155 nm) is deposited onto polymer samples using electroless deposition while the samples are in their elongated nematic state. Samples undergo 42% contraction when heated above the isotropic transition temperature. During the thermal cycle, buckling of the copper layer is seen in the direction perpendicular to contraction; however, transverse cracking occurs due to the large Poisson effect experienced during actuation. As a result, the electrical conductivity of the layer reduced quickly as a function of thermal cycling. However, samples do not show signs of delamination after 25 thermal cycles. These results demonstrate the ability to explore multifunctional liquid-crystalline composites using relatively facile synthesis, adhesion, and deposition techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhorst, L. M.; Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G.; Gerhard, C.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-07-01

    In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  11. Synthesis of meso-crystalline Al2O3 nano-platelet coatings using combustion chemical vapor deposition (C-CVD)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dhonge, BP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Meso-crystalline alumina (Al2O3) coatings having a nano-platelet microstructure were synthesized using an indigenously designed combustion chemical vapor deposition facility. Aluminum acetylacetonate of 0.001 to 0.005 M concentrations dissolved...

  12. Bacterial deposition to fluoridated and non-fluoridated polyurethane coatings with different elastic modulus and surface tension in a parallel plate and a stagnation point flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.P.; Huijs, F.M.; Vries, J. de; Klijnstra, J.W.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, H.C. van der

    2003-01-01

    Deposition of three marine bacterial strains with different cell surface hydrophobicities from artificial seawater to polyurethane coatings on glass with different surface tensions and elastic modulus was studied in situ in a parallel plate (PP) and stagnation point (SP) flow chamber. Different

  13. Piezoelectric characterization of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films deposited on metal foil substrates by dip coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotaka; Hamamura, Tomohiro; Nishi, Takahito; Tan, Goon; Umegaki, Toshihito; Kanno, Isaku

    2017-10-01

    We fabricated the piezoelectric bimorphs composed of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films on metal foil substrates. To efficiently inexpensively manufacture piezoelectric bimorphs with high flexibility, 1.2-µm-thick PZT thin films were directly deposited on both surfaces of 10- and 20-µm-thick bare stainless-steel (SS) foil substrates by dip coating with a sol-gel solution. We confirmed that the PZT thin films deposited on the SS foil substrates at 500 °C or above have polycrystalline perovskite structures and the measured relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss were 323-420 and 0.12-0.17, respectively. The PZT bimorphs were demonstrated by comparing the displacements of the cantilever specimens driven by single- and double-side PZT thin films on the SS foil substrates under the same applied voltage. We characterized the piezoelectric properties of the PZT bimorphs and the calculated their piezoelectric coefficient |e 31,f| to be 0.3-0.7 C/m2.

  14. Electrospark deposition of Al2O3–TiB2/Ni composite-phase surface coatings on Cu–Cr–Zr alloy electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve electrode life during the resistance spot welding of galvanized steel plates, an Al2O3–TiB2 composite coating was synthesized on the surfaces of spot-welding electrodes through an electrospark deposition process. The microstructure, elemental composition, phase structure, and mechanical properties of the coating were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and microhardness testing. It was found that extensive cracking occurred in the monolithic Al2O3–TiB2 coating and at the coating–electrode interface. When the Al2O3–TiB2 coating was deposited on electrodes precoated with Ni, the number of defects decreased significantly. Further, delamination did not occur, and fewer cracks were formed. The average hardness of the multilayered Al2O3–TiB2/Ni coating was approximately 2200 HV and higher than that of the monolithic Al2O3–TiB2 coating (1100 HV.

  15. Micro-scratch and corrosion behavior of functionally graded HA-TiO2 nanostructured composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnoush, Hamidreza; Aghazadeh Mohandesi, Jamshid; Çimenoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, functionally graded coatings of HA/TiO2 nanoparticles and HA-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings with 0, 10 and 20 wt% of TiO2 were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The functionally graded structure of HA/TiO2 coatings was formed by gradual addition of HA suspension into the deposition cell containing TiO2 nanoparticles. Micro-scratch test results showed the highest critical distances of crack initiation and delamination, normal load before failure and critical contact pressures for functionally graded coating. It was observed that the improvement of adhesion strength and fracture toughness of functionally graded coatings would be due to the reduction of thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between Ti-6Al-4V substrate and HA. The results of potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that the graded structure of the coating could efficiently increase the corrosion resistance of substrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Deposition of multicomponent chromium carbide coatings using a non-conventional source of chromium and silicon with micro-additions of boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ruiz, Jesus Eduardo, E-mail: jesus.gonzalez@biomat.uh.cu [Biomaterials Center, University of Havana (Cuba); Rodriguez Cristo, Alejandro [Mechanical Plants Company, Road of the Sub-Plan, Farm La Cana, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Ramos, Adrian Paz [Department of Chemistry, Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Quintana Puchol, Rafael [Welding Research Center, Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba)

    2017-01-15

    The chromium carbide coatings are widely used in the mechanical industry due to its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In this work, we evaluated a new source of chromium and silicon with micro-additions of boron on the deposition of multi-component coatings of chromium carbides in W108 steel. The coatings were obtained by the pack cementation method, using a simultaneous deposition at 1000 deg for 4 hours. The coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, optical microscopy, microhardness test method and pin-on-disc wear test. It was found that the coatings formed on W108 steel were mainly constituted by (Cr,Fe){sub 23}C{sub 6} , (Cr,Fe){sub 7} C{sub 3} , Cr{sub 5-x}Si{sub 3-x} C{sub x+z}, Cr{sub 3} B{sub 0,44}C{sub 1,4} and (or) Cr{sub 7} BC{sub 4} . The carbide layers showed thicknesses between 14 and 15 μm and maximum values of microhardness between 15.8 and 18.8 GPa. Also, the micro-additions of boron to the mixtures showed statistically significant influence on the thickness, microhardness and abrasive wear resistance of the carbide coatings. (author)

  17. Composite films prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (IAD) for design and fabrication of antireflection coatings in visible and near-infrared spectral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1994-11-01

    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) processes configured with a well-controlled plasma source at the center base of a vacuum chamber, which accommodates two independent e-gun sources, is used to deposition TiO2MgF2 and TiO2-SiO2 composite films of selected component ratios. Films prepared by this technology are found durable, uniform, and nonabsorbing in visible and near-IR regions. Single- and multilayer antireflection coatings with refractive index from 1.38 to 2.36 at (lambda) equals 550 nm are presented. Methods of enhancement in optical performance of these coatings are studied. The advantages of AR coatings formed by TiO2-MgF2 composite films over those similar systems consisting of TiO2-SiO2 composite films in both visible and near-IR regions are also presented.

  18. Production of hard hydrophilic Ni-B coatings on hydrophobic Ni-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelbuel, Ferhat; Karabudak, Filiz; Yesildal, Ruhi [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the wetting state of liquid droplets on Ni-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V hierarchical structured hydrophobic surfaces in micro/nanoscale. Electroless Ni-B deposition as a surface coating treatment has recently drawn considerable attention of researchers owing to remarkable advantages when compared with other techniques such as low price, conformal ability to coat substrates, good bath stability and relatively easier plating process control. The Ni-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V substrates were plated by electroless Ni-B plating process. The coated films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness testing and static contact angle measurement. Results obtained from the analyses show that electroless Ni-B deposition may improve the hardness and wettability of the Ni-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces.

  19. Structural and Mechanical Properties of CrNx Coatings Deposited by Medium-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering with and without Ion Source Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Xin Tian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CrNx coatings were deposited on Si (100 and WC-Co substrates by a home-made medium-frequency magnetron sputtering system with and without thermal filament ion source assistance. The structure and composition of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties were assessed by microhardness and pin-on-disc testing. The ion source-assisted system showed a deposition rate of 3.88 μm/h, much higher than the value 2.2 μm/h without ion source assistance. The CrNx coatings prepared with ion source assistance exhibited an increase in microhardness (up to 16.3 GPa and adecrease in friction coefficient (down to 0.48 at the optimized cathode source-to-substrate distance.

  20. Development and application of a green-chemistry solution deposition technique for buffer layer coating on cube-textured metal substrates in view of further deposition of rare-earth based superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P

    and hazardous chemicals such as 2-methoxyethanol, and trifluroacetic acid (TFA). Therefore, in our research the main focus was on the development of SrTiO3 single buffer layers based on environmentally safe chemicals, to reach the engineering requirements for continuous coating of long substrate tapes. A new...... precursor solution for SrTiO3 buffer layers has been successfully developed with the reagents of strontium acetate, acetic acid, titanium isopropoxide, 1-methoxy-2-propanol and 2,4-pentanedione. Using this precursor with dip-coating, high cube-textured SrTiO3 mono-coatings on Cu-33at.%Ni tapes were...... which consist of YBCO superconducting coatings on cube-textured Ni based alloy tapes.  Before the epitaxial deposition this superconducting layer, a buffer layer is applied on the metal substrate as a diffusion barrier which is also required to transfer the strong texture of the underlying substrate...

  1. Study of the adhesive properties versus stability/aging of hernia repair meshes after deposition of RF activated plasma polymerized acrylic acid coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivolo, Paola [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Nisticò, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.nistico@unito.it [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Barone, Fabrizio [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Faga, Maria Giulia; Duraccio, Donatella [CNR-IMAMOTER, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino (Italy); Martorana, Selanna [Herniamesh S.r.l., Via F.lli Meliga 1/C, 10034 Chivasso (Italy); Ricciardi, Serena [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Magnacca, Giuliana [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    In order to confer adhesive properties to commercial polypropylene (PP) meshes, a surface plasma-induced deposition of poly-(acrylic acid) (PPAA) is performed. Once biomaterials were functionalized, different post-deposition treatments (i.e. water washing and/or thermal treatments) were investigated with the aim of monitoring the coating degradation (and therefore the loss of adhesion) after 3 months of aging in both humid/oxidant (air) and inert (nitrogen) atmospheres. A wide physicochemical characterization was carried out in order to evaluate the functionalization effectiveness and the adhesive coating homogeneity by means of static water drop shape analysis and several spectroscopies (namely, FTIR, UV–Visible and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The modification of the adhesion properties after post-deposition treatments as well as aging under different storage atmospheres were investigated by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) used in Force/Distance (F/D) mode. This technique confirms itself as a powerful tool for unveiling the surface adhesion capacity as well as the homogeneity of the functional coatings along the fibers. Results obtained evidenced that post-deposition treatments are mandatory in order to remove all oligomers produced during the plasma-treatment, whereas aging tests evidenced that these devices can be simply stored in presence of air for at least three months without a meaningful degradation of the original properties. - Highlights: • Plasma polymerized surface functionalization of hernia-repair meshes was used to confer adhesive properties. • The stability of the adhesive coating was verified under different post-deposition conditions. • The use of AFM in F/D mode was selected to monitor the coating degradation.

  2. Characterization of MIS structures and PTFTs using TiOx deposited by spin-coating

    OpenAIRE

    Marsal, L. F.; Iñiguez, B.; J. Pallarés; Cerdeira, A.; Estrada, M.; Sanchez, J.G.; Meneses, C

    2014-01-01

    10.1016/j.microrel.2014.01.020 This paper presents a method to deposit titanium oxide (TiOx) films from a sol containing IV titanium isopropoxide Ti[OCH(CH3)2] 4, 2-methoxyethanol, CH3OCH2CH2OH and ethanolamine H2NCH2CH2OH, in order to obtain layers with thickness above 220 nm with the required characteristics to be used in Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor, MIS, structures and polymeric thin film transistors, PTFTs. The effect of using different component ratios is described. The dielectric ...

  3. In Vitro Analysis of Electrophoretic Deposited Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite Coating on Micro-arc Oxidized AZ91 Magnesium Alloy for Biomaterials Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been recently introduced as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic applications. However, their fast corrosion, low bioactivity, and mechanical integrity have limited their clinical applications. The main aim of this research was to improve such properties of the AZ91 Mg alloy through surface modifications. For this purpose, nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) was coated on AZ91 Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation and electrophoretic deposition method. The coated alloy was characterized through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro corrosion tests, mechanical tests, and cytocompatibility evaluation. The results confirmed the improvement of the corrosion resistance, in vitro bioactivity, mechanical integrity, and the cytocompatibility of the coated Mg alloy. Therefore, the nanostructured FHA coating can offer a promising way to improve the properties of the Mg alloy for orthopedic applications.

  4. Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 Coatings Significantly Improve Thermal, Chemical, and Mechanical Stability of Anodic TiO2 Nanotube Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We report on a very significant enhancement of the thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes layers, provided by thin Al2O3 coatings of different thicknesses prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). TiO2 nanotube layers coated with Al2O3 coatings exhibit significantly improved thermal stability as illustrated by the preservation of the nanotubular structure upon annealing treatment at high temperatures (870 °C). In addition, a high anatase content is preserved in the nanotube layers against expectation of the total rutile conversion at such a high temperature. Hardness of the resulting nanotube layers is investigated by nanoindentation measurements and shows strongly improved values compared to uncoated counterparts. Finally, it is demonstrated that Al2O3 coatings guarantee unprecedented chemical stability of TiO2 nanotube layers in harsh environments of concentrated H3PO4 solutions. PMID:28291942

  5. Surface enhanced Raman scattering properties using Au-coated ZnO nanorods grown by two-step, off-axis pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakano, Tatsunori; Tanaka, Yuto; Nishimura, Ryo; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N; Saiki, Toshiharu; Obara, Minoru [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi 223-8522 (Japan); Atanasov, Petar A [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)], E-mail: obara@obara.elec.keio.ac.jp

    2008-12-07

    ZnO nanorod arrays on Si (1 0 0) substrate were grown by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method, and then coated with Au. Two samples of Au-coated nanorod arrays with different average diameters of 150 and 400 nm were prepared to investigate the size dependence of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The diameter of the nanorods was controllable by the substrate position during PLD. High SERS enhancement was observed from both Au-coated ZnO nanorod arrays. The Raman spectra of rhodamine 6G (R6G) as low as 1 nM were measured with an average diameter of 400 nm at an excitation wavelength of 532 nm. The SERS was explained by the field enhancement effect induced by surface plasmon polaritons of Au-coated nanorods (nanoshells)

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of antimicrobial coatings on non-woven textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Anton Yu.; Deng, Xiaolong; Onyshchenko, Iuliia; Vujosevic, Danijela; Vuksanovic, Vineta; Cvelbar, Uros; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; Leys, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    A simple method for preparation of nanoparticle incorporated non-woven fabric with high antibacterial efficiency has been proposed based on atmospheric pressure plasma process. In this work direct current plasma jet stabilized by fast nitrogen flow was used as a plasma deposition source. Three different types of the nanoparticles (silver, copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles) were employed as antimicrobial agents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have shown a positive chemical shift observed for Ag 3d 5/2 (at 368.1 eV) suggests that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are partly oxidized during the deposition. The surface chemistry and the antibacterial activity of the samples against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were investigated and analyzed. It is shown that the samples loaded with nanoparticles of Ag and Cu and having the barrier layer of 10 nm characterized by almost 97% of bacterial reduction whereas the samples with ZnO nanoparticles provide 86% reduction of Staphylococcus aureus. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  7. Predicting the Effects of Powder Feeding Rates on Particle Impact Conditions and Cold Spray Deposited Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.; Carter, Michael J.; Johnson, Kyle W.

    2017-10-01

    As the industrial application of the cold spray technology grows, the need to optimize both the cost and the quality of the process grows with it. Parameter selection techniques available today require the use of a coupled system of equations to be solved to involve the losses due to particle loading in the gas stream. Such analyses cause a significant increase in the computational time in comparison with calculations with isentropic flow assumptions. In cold spray operations, engineers and operators may, therefore, neglect the effects of particle loading to simplify the multiparameter optimization process. In this study, two-way coupled (particle-fluid) quasi-one-dimensional fluid dynamics simulations are used to test the particle loading effects under many potential cold spray scenarios. Output of the simulations is statistically analyzed to build regression models that estimate the changes in particle impact velocity and temperature due to particle loading. This approach eases particle loading optimization for more complete analysis on deposition cost and time. The model was validated both numerically and experimentally. Further numerical analyses were completed to test the particle loading capacity and limitations of a nozzle with a commonly used throat size. Additional experimentation helped document the physical limitations to high-rate deposition.

  8. Electrochemical deposition of silver on manganese dioxide coated reduced graphene oxide for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmi; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Jeon, Seungwon

    2015-08-01

    We have prepared a reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported silver (Ag) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) deposited porous-like catalyst (denoted as rGO/MnO2/Ag) through a facile electrochemical deposition route and have been used as a cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline fuel cells. The physical properties of rGO/MnO2/Ag have been investigated via several instrumental methods. This material exhibits a polycrystalline structure characterized by Ag/MnO2 microsphere formation as a result of Ostwald ripening. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data reveal that the MnO2 and Ag have been slightly alloyed and Mn presents with the dioxide form on rGO. The electrochemical properties of the electrocatalyst have been studied via several voltammetric methods. The results demonstrated that the rGO/MnO2/Ag has an excellent catalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media compared to the other tested electrodes. Particularly, it shows 1.2 times higher current density and better electron transfer rate at 0.3 V per O2 than that of 20 wt% Pt/C. The other kinetic analysis reveals that the O2 has reduced directly to H2O through a nearly four-electron pathway with better anodic fuel tolerance and duration performance than that of 20% Pt/C.

  9. Biocompatible and bioactive coatings of Mn{sup 2+}-doped {beta}-tricalcium phosphate synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, F.; Socol, G.; Axente, E. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Box MG-54, RO-77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Box MG-54, RO-77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania)], E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro; Zdrentu, L.; Petrescu, S.M. [Institute of Biochemistry, Splaiul Independentei 296, Bucharest (Romania); Mayer, I. [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)

    2007-12-15

    The extension of pulsed laser deposition to the synthesis on Ti substrates of {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) coatings doped with manganese is reported. Targets sintered from two crystalline Mn-doped {beta}-TCP powders (with the composition Ca{sub 2.9}Mn{sub 0.1}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Ca{sub 2.8}Mn{sub 0.2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) were ablated with an UV KrF* ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} {approx} 7 ns) laser source. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy investigations showed that the films, while prevalently amorphous, had a Ca/P ratio of about 1.50-1.52. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed a rather homogeneous aspect of the coatings which were molded to the relief of the chemically etched Ti substrate. Fluorescence microscopy was applied to test the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells grown on the obtained biostructures. Our investigations found that, even 14 days after cultivation, the synthesized films were not cytotoxic. On the contrary, they showed excellent bioactivity, as demonstrated by the neat spread of the cells over the entire surface of Mn-doped {beta}-TCP. When tested in osteoprogenitor cell culture, the Ca{sub 2.8}Mn{sub 0.2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} samples revealed a higher potential for proliferation and better viability compared with Ca{sub 2.9}Mn{sub 0.1}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}.

  10. The effect of crystal structure of TiO2 nanotubes on the formation of calcium phosphate coatings during biomimetic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Kim, Sun; McLeod, John A.; Li, Jun; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Liu, Lijia

    2017-02-01

    The crystallization process of bioactive calcium phosphate (CaP) species via biomimetic deposition onto anodic TiO2 nanotubes is investigated. The porous surface of nanostructured TiO2 provides an ideal substrate for CaP crystallization. The compositions of CaP coatings are studied using X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES) at the Ca K-edge. Using detection modes with different probing depths, both the surface of the CaP coating and the CaP-TiO2 interface are simultaneously analyzed. Calcium phosphate (CaP) species, such as hydroxyapatite (HAp), octacalcium phosphate (Ca8(HPO4)2(PO4)4·5H2O, OCP), brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O, DCPD), and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), are found in the CaP coatings. TiO2 nanotubes of amorphous and anatase phases are comparatively studied to determine their effect on the efficiency of CaP formation and the phase transformation among CaP species in prolonged deposition time. It is found the composition of CaP coating has a strong dependency on the crystal structure of TiO2 substrate and the kinetics (deposition time).

  11. Deposition of TiN coatings using ACPVD technique on AM60 alloy; Recubrimientos de TiN depositados mediante ACPVD sobre aleaciones de magnesio AM60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichel, M.; Candela, N.; Barea, R.; Conejero, G.; Carsi, M.

    2013-06-01

    Magnesium alloys are reaching special interest due to their good specific properties, low cost and good manufacturing properties. However, their low hardness, wear and corrosion resistance limit their applications in certain sectors of industry. These drawbacks can be solved by applying hard ceramic coatings, such as nitrides or metal carbides. TiN is one of the most used coatings due to its high adhesion, hardness, low coefficient of friction and chemical stability. Physical vapor deposition by cathodic arc CAPVD, is a versatile technique, which uses low temperatures and high ionization energies, generating homogeneous coatings. To achieve coatings with high quality, a careful control of the manufacturing parameters is required, such as bias voltage, gas flow or intensity. This paper focuses on magnesium alloys, AM60, coated with TiN using physical vapor deposition cathodic arc technique (CAPVD) at different intensity values (40A and 100A) and surface preparation (grinding up to 4000 grit and polished to 3{mu}m). It was included a final condition with an intermediate Al film. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, roughness, optical microscopy and scanning electron. (Author) 28 refs.

  12. Preparation and characterization of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyethylenimine through a facile one-pot deposition route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Isa; Aghazadeh, Mustafa; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Doroudi, Taher; Kolivand, Peir Hossein

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we report the electrochemical synthesis and simultaneous in situ coating of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylenimine (PEI). The cathodic deposition was carried out through electro-generation of OH- on the surface of cathode. An aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3·9H2O (3.4 g/L) and FeCl2·4H2O (1.6 g/L) was used as the deposition bath. The electrochemical precipitation experiments were performed in the direct current mode under a 10 mA cm-2 current density for 30 min. Polymer coating was performed in an identical deposition bath containing of 0.5 g PVP and 0.5 g PEI. The deposited uncoated and PVP-PEI coated MNPs were characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and field-emission scanning and transmission electron microscopies (FE-SEM and TEM). Structural XRD and IR analyses revealed both samples to be composed of pure crystalline magnetite (Fe3O4). Morphological observations through FE-SEM and TEM proved the product to be spherical nanoparticles in the range of 10-15 nm. The presence of two coating polymers (i.e. PVP and PEI) on the surface of the electro-synthesized MNPs was proved by FTIR and DLS results. The percentage of the polymer coating (31.8%) on the MNPs surface was also determined based on DSC-TGA data. The high magnetization value, coercivity and remanence values measured by VSM indicated the superparamagnetic nature of both prepared MNPs. The obtained results confirmed that the prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles had suitable physico-chemical and magnetic properties for biomedical applications.

  13. The Electro-Spark Deposited WC-Cu Coatings Modified by Laser Treatment / Powłoki WC-Cu Naniesione Elektroiskrowo I Modyfikowane Obróbką Laserową

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work was to determine the influence of laser treatment on microstructure, X-ray diffraction, microhardness, surface geometric structure and roughness, corrosion resistance and tribological properties of coatings deposited on C45 carbon steel by the electro-spark deposition (ESD process. The studies were conducted using WC-Cu electrodes produced by the powder metallurgy route. The tests show that the laser-treated electro-spark deposited WC-Cu coatings are characterized by higher corrosion resistance, surface roughness and seizure resistance which come at the expense of lower microhardness. The laser treatment process causes the homogenization of the chemical composition, structure refinement and healing of microcracks and pores of the electro-spark deposited coatings. Laser treated ESD coatings can be applied in sliding friction pairs and as protective coatings.

  14. Study of the adhesive properties versus stability/aging of hernia repair meshes after deposition of RF activated plasma polymerized acrylic acid coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolo, Paola; Nisticò, Roberto; Barone, Fabrizio; Faga, Maria Giulia; Duraccio, Donatella; Martorana, Selanna; Ricciardi, Serena; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2016-08-01

    In order to confer adhesive properties to commercial polypropylene (PP) meshes, a surface plasma-induced deposition of poly-(acrylic acid) (PPAA) is performed. Once biomaterials were functionalized, different post-deposition treatments (i.e. water washing and/or thermal treatments) were investigated with the aim of monitoring the coating degradation (and therefore the loss of adhesion) after 3months of aging in both humid/oxidant (air) and inert (nitrogen) atmospheres. A wide physicochemical characterization was carried out in order to evaluate the functionalization effectiveness and the adhesive coating homogeneity by means of static water drop shape analysis and several spectroscopies (namely, FTIR, UV-Visible and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The modification of the adhesion properties after post-deposition treatments as well as aging under different storage atmospheres were investigated by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) used in Force/Distance (F/D) mode. This technique confirms itself as a powerful tool for unveiling the surface adhesion capacity as well as the homogeneity of the functional coatings along the fibers. Results obtained evidenced that post-deposition treatments are mandatory in order to remove all oligomers produced during the plasma-treatment, whereas aging tests evidenced that these devices can be simply stored in presence of air for at least three months without a meaningful degradation of the original properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanocrystalline ZnO film deposited by ultrasonic spray on textured silicon substrate as an anti-reflection coating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sali, S., E-mail: samira_sali@yahoo.fr [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 02 Bd, Frantz FANON, B.P. 140, Algiers (Algeria); Houari Boumediene University (USTHB), Faculty of Physics, Algiers (Algeria); Boumaour, M. [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 02 Bd, Frantz FANON, B.P. 140, Algiers (Algeria); Kechouane, M. [Houari Boumediene University (USTHB), Faculty of Physics, Algiers (Algeria); Kermadi, S.; Aitamar, F. [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 02 Bd, Frantz FANON, B.P. 140, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-07-01

    A ZnO thin film was successfully synthesized on glass, flat surface and textured silicon substrates by chemical spray deposition. The textured silicon substrate was carried out using two solutions (NaOH/IPA and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). Textured with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution, the sample surface exhibits uniform pyramids with an average height of 5 {mu}m. The properties and morphology of ZnO films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the ZnO nanocrystalline film along the c-axis where the low value of the tensile strain 0.26% was obtained. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology. The morphology of the ZnO layers depends dramatically on the substrate used and follows the contours of the pyramids on the substrate surface. The average reflectance of the textured surface was found to be around 13% and it decreases dramatically to 2.57% after deposition of a ZnO antireflection coating. FT-IR peaks arising from the bonding between Zn-O are clearly represented using a silicon textured surface. A very intense photoluminescence (PL) emission peak is observed for ZnO/textured Si, revealing the good quality of the layer. The PL peak at 380.5 nm (UV emission) and the high-intensity PL peak at 427.5 nm are observed and a high luminescence occurs when using a textured Si substrate.

  16. Formation of Nanosized Lamellas of a Hardening Intermetallic Phase in the Powder Ni-based Coating Deposited by Microplasma Spraying on Steel Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alontseva, D.; Ghassemieh, E.; Russakova, A.; Dzhes, A.; Prokhorenkova, N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents new results of studying the structure-phase compositions of Ni-based powder coating, deposited by Microplasma Spraying onto steel substrate by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is shown that we have managed to obtain the predicted specific structure with nanosized lamellas of intermetallic phases due to the appropriate proper selection of modes of additional microplasma processing. As a result, the microhardness of the coating has been increased by 1.25 times.

  17. Photovoltaic conversion in TiO{sub 2} coatings sensitized with chemical deposited CdSe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, M. E; Orihuela, A; Vazquez, G [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We have investigated the photovoltaic conversion of spray painted titanium dioxide coatings sensitized with chemically deposited cadmium selenide thi