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Sample records for vat ly lam

  1. VAT on Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    The VAT classification of services provided in connection with arbitration proceedings will be illustrated on the basis of the law and practice in Denmark, Germany and Sweden. Since VAT is a tax that has been harmonised in the EU, the VAT position ought to be the same for similar services in all...... Member States, unless a Member State has a stand-still clause. The VAT treatment of services does not appear to be the same in these three countries. In Germany and Sweden it is agreed that services provided in connection with arbitration proceedings are subject to VAT, but in Denmark...... they are not regarded as subject to VAT. For the background to why VAT is not levied on services connected with arbitration proceedings in Denmark, it is necessary to look at some past rulings of the Danish VAT Tribunal (Momsnævn). These decisions were made prior to the amendment of the Danish VAT Act in 1994 and so...

  2. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  3. The Right for Deducting VAT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Constantin Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2017-01-01

    Romania must comply with the VAT Directive, the judgments of the Court of Justice of theEuropean Union and the European Court of Human Rights on VAT matter, that includes the matterof VAT deduction...

  4. LAM (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had previously been used to treat LAM, newer analyses suggest they do not produce clinical benefit in ... including its role with the Rare Lung Disease-Clinic Network and the annual international LAM research conferences ...

  5. The Right for Deducting VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania must comply with the VAT Directive, the judgments of the Court of Justice of theEuropean Union and the European Court of Human Rights on VAT matter, that includes the matterof VAT deduction. The right to deduct VAT, in principle, cannot be limited for a taxable person andit is an abuse of law made by tax authorities when refusing this right. There are exceptions though,when the substantive and/or formal requirements are not met, the taxable person was involved in aVAT fraud or its supplier incorrectly drawn-up the invoice. The substantive requirements are: thepurchases must be from a taxable person and must be used for taxable activities. The formalrequirements are the obligations relating to accounting, invoicing and tax declarations. If taxauthorities discover a VAT fraud or/and that a VAT liability has not been declared they must takeimmediate measures, impose compliance and collect the corresponding sums from the responsibleperson.

  6. Classifying VAT Legislation for Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    The paper offers a framework for partitioning articles in legal documents pertaining to value added tax (VAT) into categories suitable for subsequent integration in computerized systems for automatically deriving VAT rates. The importance of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system supporting...

  7. VAT IN DIGITAL ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Pozvek, Maruša

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of economic and technological development incur permanent changes in taxation on VAT. Cross-border e-commerce has the potential to reshape and step up the European internal market for consumers through encouraging businesses to sell to consumers abroad and increasing consumer confi dence in cross-border purchases. While e-commerce has the potential to increase EU welfare substantially, it also faces a number of regulatory barriers in VAT system that block the realisation of t...

  8. Lam lam o lam (6/4 e)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Laulun sanat: Lam, lam o lam, Så undersan, Förtryckt, försökt; Dock likväl älskadt högt! Mitt hjerta är ej mitt, Men ditt: Din lön, Guds Lam, För hån och skam, För sårens flod Och för ditt kors och blod.

  9. New European approach to combat VAT fraud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, M.; Hel - van Dijk, van der E.C.J.M. (Lisette)

    2014-01-01

    The Member States of the European Union (EU) are missing billions of Euros each year as a result of cross-border VAT fraud. After its introduction, the current VAT system appeared to contain flaws and proved to be vulnerable to fraud. Tackling VAT fraud since then has become serious business within

  10. VATS segmentectomy: an underused option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendogni, Paolo; Tosi, Davide; Rosso, Lorenzo; Palleschi, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Margherita; Mazzucco, Alessandra; Nosotti, Mario

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the "gold standard" procedure for surgically resectable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is pulmonary lobectomy. Even though sublobar resections (SLR), particularly segmentectomy, seem attractive as an alternative to lobectomy in early stage lung cancers, they are still debated procedures. The aim of this study is to answer to the question: "Is VATS lung segmentectomy an underused option?" To obtain an answer to this query, the authors carried out a review of the "state of the art" as follows: (I) performing a non-systematic review of the literature; (II) analyzing the review articles published; (III) looking at the ongoing studies, the results of which have not yet published; (IV) scanning the technical aspect of lung segmentectomy. After completing the multi-step revision, we can conclude that there is a lack of evidence about the oncological value of segmentectomy in early stage NSCLC. Although VATS segmentectomy is feasible and performed by many thoracic surgeons, it's currently not yet world-wide adopted. Among the trials now being recruited in some countries and, aimed to clarify the role of SLR in the treatment of early stage lung cancer, a European prospective randomized study is advocated to implement the scientific knowledge on this issue.

  11. VATS Lobectomy: Surgical Evolution from Conventional VATS to Uniportal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonzalez-Rivas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no standardized technique for the VATS lobectomy, though most centres use 2 ports and add a utility incision. However, the procedure can be performed by eliminating the two small ports and using only the utility incision with similar outcomes. Since 2010, when the uniportal approach was introduced for major pulmonary resection, the technique has been spreading worldwide. The single-port technique provides a direct view to the target tissue. The conventional triple port triangulation creates a new optical plane with genesis of dihedral or torsional angle that is not favorable with standard two-dimension monitors. The parallel instrumentation achieved during single-port approach mimics inside the maneuvers performed during open surgery. Furthermore, it represents the less invasive approach possible, and avoiding the use of trocar, we minimize the compression of the intercostal nerve. Further development of new technologies like sealing devices for all vessels and fissure, robotic arms that open inside the thorax, and wireless cameras will facilitate the uniportal approach to become the standard surgical procedure for pulmonary resection in most thoracic departments.

  12. Price Effects of VAT Introduction in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Dalic

    1997-01-01

    The value added tax (VAT) will be introduced in Croatia on January 1, 1998. As a single rate tax of 22% with the very narrow scope of exemptions it will replace the current retail sales tax on goods and services. The nature of the price effects caused by the introduction of VAT is an issue with which all countries that currently apply VAT were faced both during preparations for its introduction and during the period immediately following. The requirement to study the possible price effects of...

  13. VAT Cashing System: between Myth and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana ISPAS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The value added tax (VAT collection system, which is applied to any company with a turnover of up to 500,000 Euros, has become optional from 1 January 2014. Since January 1, 2014, taxpayers may choose the optional introduction of new system of VAT collection anytime during the year 2014 by filing a notice from the IRS, SELF removal from the register of taxable persons applying this system. By making changes and deregistration itself, taxpayers will continue to apply the system of VAT collection.For operations whose VAT chargeable event occurred until 31 December 2013 for the invoices issued before that date, in the event that the 90th calendar day from the date of invoice or the date set imitates the chargeability of tax occurs on full or partial consideration receipt of goods delivered or services rendered. Changing the Tax Code is provided in GEO no. 111/2013, published in Official Gazette no. 809 of 19 December. New tax rules allow taxpayers to decide if they want apply VAT at collection system, this decision targeting about half a million taxpayers from Romania.

  14. Transfer pricing principles in VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    2011-01-01

    The main part of the article is devoted to a critical analysis of the optional transfer pricing provisions in the EC VAT Directive in the light of the principle of fiscal neutrality. As an integrated part of this analysis, the VAT transfer pricing regime is considered in the light of the well......-known principles for transfer pricing in the area of income tax law, as set out in Art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. The last part of the article contains a brief discussion of to which extent it is desirable to harmonize the two tax systems´ transfer pricing rules....

  15. SMEs Record Keeping in Ghana: Has VAT Made It Better?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip Kofi Adom; Kwaku Amakye; Edinam Doh; Regina Anku

    2014-01-01

      With the introduction of the VAT Flat Rate Scheme, which brings on-board traders on whom the VAT record-keeping requirements would or might prove burdensome, concerns arise on the potential impact...

  16. VAT teatril kaks uut noortelavastust / Tiiu Talvist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvist, Tiiu

    2010-01-01

    VAT teater panustab sel hooajal uutesse laste- ja noortelavastustesse: lisaks itaallaste Nino d’Introna ja Giacomo Ravicchio teksti põhjal valminud seiklusloole „Robinson & Crusoe” (lavastaja Aare Toikka), esietendub aprillis Mare Sabolotny noorte probleemidest kõnelev lavalugu „Kirjaklambritest vöö”. Lavastaja Rein Agur

  17. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416. When...

  18. ( Moringa oleifera Lam).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Planting methods and Pinching on growth and vegetative yield of drumstick ( Moringa oleifera Lam). ... branches were not significantly affected by planting methods. Fresh vegetative yield were obtained with direct sowing + pinching at 2 and 4 WAS and transplanting at 2 WAT and pinching at 2 WAT respectively.

  19. Moringa oleifera lam.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: Moringa oleifera, germination in vitro, micropropagation, milieu MS/2, subcultures. English Title: Micropropagation of nutritional and pharmacological interest plant: Moringa oleifera lam. English Abstract. To establish Moringa oleifera in vitro, peeled seeds were used and germination, under the conditions of ...

  20. Adipocyte nuclei captured from VAT and SAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Suresh; Yu, Ping; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K; Hartzell, Diane; Baile, Clifton A; Meagher, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related comorbidities are thought to result from the reprogramming of the epigenome in numerous tissues and cell types, and in particular, mature adipocytes within visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT and SAT. The cell-type specific chromatin remodeling of mature adipocytes within VAT and SAT is poorly understood, in part, because of the difficulties of isolating and manipulating large fragile mature adipocyte cells from adipose tissues. We constructed MA-INTACT (Mature Adipocyte-Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types) mice using the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) promoter (ADNp) to tag the surface of mature adipocyte nuclei with a reporter protein. The SUN1mRFP1Flag reporter is comprised of a fragment of the nuclear transmembrane protein SUN1, the fluorescent protein mRFP1, and three copies of the Flag epitope tag. Mature adipocyte nuclei were rapidly and efficiently immuno-captured from VAT and SAT (MVA and MSA nuclei, respectively), of MA-INTACT mice. MVA and MSA nuclei contained 1,000 to 10,000-fold higher levels of adipocyte-specific transcripts, ADIPOQ, PPARg2, EDNRB, and LEP, relative to uncaptured nuclei, while the latter expressed higher levels of leukocyte and endothelial cell markers IKZF1, RETN, SERPINF1, SERPINE1, ILF3, and TNFA. MVA and MSA nuclei differentially expressed several factors linked to adipogenesis or obesity-related health risks including CEBPA, KLF2, RETN, SERPINE1, and TNFA. The various nuclear populations dramatically differentially expressed transcripts encoding chromatin remodeler proteins regulating DNA cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation (TETs, DNMTs, TDG, GADD45s) and nucleosomal histone modification (ARID1A, KAT2B, KDM4A, PRMT1, PRMT5, PAXIP1). Remarkably, MSA and MVA nuclei expressed 200 to 1000-fold higher levels of thermogenic marker transcripts PRDM16 and UCP1. The MA-INTACT mouse enables a simple way to perform cell-type specific analysis of highly purified mature adipocyte nuclei from VAT and SAT

  1. The economics of a temporary VAT cut

    OpenAIRE

    Crossley, Thomas; Low, Hamish; Wakefield, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    1. The rate of VAT has been cut temporarily to 15%, with a return to 17.5% in place for the end of 2009. The government has predicted that this will increase consumer spending by about 0.5%. Much of the analysis of this tax cut has been critical of the policy and concluded that the government's estimates of the impact on spending are over-optimistic. The source of this criticism is a misunderstanding of the mechanism through which the tax cut will have an impact. In fact, we believe the gover...

  2. Transfer pricing under an origin based VAT system

    OpenAIRE

    Genser, Bernd; Günther G. Schulze

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes transfer pricing incentives under a destination-based and an origin-based VAT system. While a switch to the origin-based VAT may moderate or reinforce the incentive for transfer pricing induced by income tax differentials, we show that in the case of the EU this switch tends to reduce the transfer pricing incentive and thus should remove one of the last major objections against the adoption of an origin-based VAT system in the EU.

  3. Kalevipoeg ja Mumm-Summ VAT Teatri moodi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    VAT Teatris esietendub 5. dets. M. Kampuse lavastatud jõuluetendus "Lihtsalt ... Mesilane" C. Vogli lugude "Väike mesilane Mumm-Summ" ainetel. VAT Teatri ja Markus Zohneri koostööprojektina esietendus 30. nov. Tallinna Linnateatris rahvuseepose "Kalevipoeg" motiividel loodud M. Zohneri lavaversioon

  4. 1 Relationship between Income Size, Inspection and VAT Compliance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... problem of tax non compliance among business firms constrains the realization of revenue collection targets ... taxpayer's income, inspection by the tax authorities, use of tax registers and. VAT compliance. A sample of 233 ..... Designing VAT systems: some efficiency considerations. Review of Economics ...

  5. Reimbursement of VAT on written-off Receivables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florentsen, Bjarne; Møller, Michael; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2003-01-01

    In many OECD countries, a seller has a right to reimbursement of VAT (RVAT) she has paid on goods sold, but for which she has not yet received payment. Such reimbursement of VAT on receivables is economically inefficient. It leads to:@* Distortion of credit markets, by subsidizing direct credit a...

  6. Equity and VAT in Tanzania. | Mugoya | African Journal of Finance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is normally argued that Value Added Tax (VAT) is essentially regressive in the sense that all consumers pay the same amount of the tax per unit of the taxable commodity consumed. In order to introduce some progressivity into VAT it is thus common to provide for preferential treatment to commodities that form a large ...

  7. „WELL TEMPERED " VAT - BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SĂLCEANU ALEXANDRU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT represents an indirect tax due to the state budget that includes all phases of the economic circuit, namely manufacturing, services and distribution, up to sales to final consumers. VAT collection is done fractionally, according to the value added at each stage of the economic circuit. Introduced in our country in 1993, VAT has been continuously improved and since Romania has been a member of the European Union (EU since 2007, WATT has been harmonized with the European Community directives. Today, Romania encounters serious difficulties in collecting the VAT, being atop of the countries with tax arrears. This is why it is required a more effective collaboration between the parliament, which adopts laws, the government, that implements and business environment, where the added value is obtained, in order to achieve a more efficient and robust VAT system against fraud that can contribute to fiscal consolidation by increasing public budget revenues.

  8. The Features of Functioning of VAT in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamaslo Olha T.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the essence and features of value-added tax (VAT, the leading indirect tax in Ukraine, a part of which is the highest revenue to the State budget among all tax payments. The main advantages and disadvantages of functioning of VAT in the current management conditions have been determined. The chronology of appearance, the features of existence of VAT in different stages, and the evolution of legal and regulatory support for administration of the tax were researched. The mechanism for the VAT calculation, the current tax rates, features of functioning of the Single tax invoice register, and the tax reporting periods for VAT were considered in detail. The procedure of electronic administration of the value-added tax has been disclosed. The efficiency of the system of e-administration of VAT has been defined in the context of introduction of tax payer’s personal account. It has been concluded that the domestic taxation system requires further reforming, but a significant number of the mechanisms introduced are a positive step in the sphere of VAT administration.

  9. VATS anatomic lung resections-the European experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, Sofina; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    thoracic units globally, the uptake was slow and frustrating. Many surgeons considered it complex and unsafe being skeptic about its oncological validity. The last decade has witnessed significant change of practice in many thoracic units with a new generation of VATS thoracic surgeons. Additionally......Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has undergone significant evolution over several decades. Although endoscopic instruments continued to improve, it was not until 1992 that the first VATS lobectomy for lung cancer was performed. Despite significant seeding of such procedure in several...

  10. Kivirähk VAT Teatris / Meelis Kapstas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kapstas, Meelis, 1963-

    1999-01-01

    VAT Teatri hooaja repertuaar. A. Kivirähki näidend "Sibulad ja šokolaad". Järgmise aasta jaanuaris saab teater oma statsionaarse lava - amfiteatri põhimõttel tehtud kammersaali Rahvusraamatukogus

  11. Comparison study between bacteriological aetiology and outcome of VAT & VAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr H. Kahlil

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: From the study we concluded that VAT infection is as severe as VAP and it needs more attention to prevent its presence as, once present, it usually progress to VAP increasing mortality rate in ICU.

  12. VAT-teater vaatab 30 aastat tulevikku / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2010-01-01

    VAT Teater toob S. Becketti "Krappi viimase lindi" lavale ebatavalisel moel. Festivalil "Draama 2010" Tartus toimub 8. septembril esimene avalik lindistus "...viimane lint / Saare esimene lint". Kontseptsioon: Tanel Saar ja Co. Esitus: Tanel Saar ja Hanna Allsaar. Näitejuhid-konsultandid: Rait Avestik ja Aare Toikka. "Krappi viimane lint" esietendub VAT Teatri ja Tanel Saare esituses 2040. a. sügisel. Festivali "Draama 2010" kavast

  13. Institutional paradoxes of vat under developing economy of transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy G. Bachurin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the characteristics of the destructive impact of VAT taxation on the socioeconomic situation of the Russian Federation. Methods the research is based on the complex economic and legal methodology including the institutional approach with the account of the national socioeconomic and legal realities determining the conditions of functioning of branches and particular enterprises in the Russian economy. Results the conditions and characteristics of the introduction of VAT in the Russian Federation are viewed the reasons are revealed for the formation and development of the problemcausing VAT in the domestic tax system the socioeconomic implications of VAT are analyzed the viability of replacing VAT for a turnover tax is demonstrated. Scientific novelty for the first time the conceptual position is articulated that under the realities of the reformed Russian economy the normativelegal outline of the VAT complements the accumulated destructive potential blocking the way to the industrial growth in the national economy enhances the asymmetry of conditions of different forms of ownership while the actual conditions of the transition period in Russia do not correspond to the main idea and purpose of VAT as an institution aimed at the efficient relocation of a significant part of the newly created value added to the social sectors and at the modernizing effect on the productive forces for technological improvement in industry. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the article can be used when discussing issues on the need for the VAT reform in the Russian Federation including switching to the turnover tax. nbsp

  14. Teaching video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrott, Philip W; Jones, David R

    2013-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become the standard of care for early stage lung cancer throughout the world. Teaching this complex procedure requires adequate case volume, adequate instrumentation, a committed operating room team and baseline experience with open lobectomy. We outline what key maneuvers and steps are required to teach and learn VATS lobectomy. This is most easily performed as part of a thoracic surgery training program, but with adequate commitment and proctoring, there is no reason experienced open surgeons cannot become proficient VATS surgeons. We provide videos showing the key portions of a subcarinal lymph node dissection, posterior hilar dissection of the right upper lobe, fissureless right middle lobectomy, and fissureless left lower lobectomy. These videos highlight what we feel are important principals in VATS lobectomy, i.e., N2 and N1 lymph node dissection, fissureless techniques, and progressive responsibility of the learner. Current literature in simulation of VATS lobectomy is also outlined as this will be the future of teaching in VATS lobectomy.

  15. Impact of standard rate of VAT on tax mix in EU 27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Šinkyříková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Value Added Tax (VAT is one of the key resources within tax collection and therefore VAT effectiveness and VAT complexity represent one of the current world topics. Standard rates of VAT may and may not be the simple key to define whether VAT is important in the tax mix or not. This paper focuses on the question whether the amount of the VAT rate has an impact on the share of VAT in the tax mix. The VAT share on total taxes is studied in connection of average and median standard rates applied so as to answer the question: “Do the countries with higher share of VAT in the tax mix set its standard rates of VAT beyond the average of EU 27?” The paper examines this issue using data EU member countries, especially EU 27, in years 1995–2010.

  16. Ladder Operators for Lamé Spheroconal Harmonic Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Méndez-Fragoso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of ladder operators in spheroconal coordinates and their respective actions on Lamé spheroconal harmonic polynomials are presented in this article. The polynomials are common eigenfunctions of the square of the angular momentum operator and of the asymmetry distribution Hamiltonian for the rotations of asymmetric molecules, in the body-fixed frame with principal axes. The first set of operators for Lamé polynomials of a given species and a fixed value of the square of the angular momentum raise and lower and lower and raise in complementary ways the quantum numbers $n_1$ and $n_2$ counting the respective nodal elliptical cones. The second set of operators consisting of the cartesian components $hat L_x$, $hat L_y$, $hat L_z$ of the angular momentum connect pairs of the four species of polynomials of a chosen kind and angular momentum. The third set of operators, the cartesian components $hat p_x$, $hat p_y$, $hat p_z$ of the linear momentum, connect pairs of the polynomials differing in one unit in their angular momentum and in their parities. Relationships among spheroconal harmonics at the levels of the three sets of operators are illustrated.

  17. Caragana arborescens Lam.: Siberian peashrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Dietz; Paul E. Slabaugh; Franklin T. Bonner

    2008-01-01

    Siberian peashrub - Caragana arborescens Lam. - is one of the most hardy small deciduous trees or shrubs planted on the northern Great Plains (George 1953; Rehder 1940). Introduced into North America in 1752 (Rehder 1940), Siberian peashrub is native to Siberia and Manchuria and occurs from southern Russia to China (Graham 1941). Varieties include the dwarf (C. a. nana...

  18. Petricola pholadiformis Lam. in Holz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Icke, H.

    1915-01-01

    In einer Abhandlung von Caesar R. Boettger über Petricola pholadiformis Lam. 1) führt derselbe, über die Erscheinung dieser Muschel in Europa sprechend, die folgende Ansicht von Loppens an: „Pour expliquer l'apparition subite sur nos côtes en 1899 de ces animaux perforants, qui vivent sur les côtes

  19. Estimated revenues of VAT and fuel tax on aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteland, M.; Faber, J.

    2013-07-15

    International aviation is exempt from VAT, both on their inputs (e.g. on fuel or aircraft) and on their revenues (e.g. on tickets). In the EU, aviation fuel is also exempt from the minimum fuel excise tariffs. This report calculates the potential revenues of VAT on tickets and fuel tax on jet fuel. If VAT were to be levied on tickets while other aviation taxes were simultaneously abolished, this would yield revenues in the order of EUR 7 billion. Excise duty on jet fuel would raise revenues in the order of EUR 20 billion. These figures do not take into account the impact of the cost increases on demand for aviation into account. Since higher costs will reduce demand, the estimates can be considered an upper bound.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  1. VATs in Federal States: Experiences and Emerging Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Richard M.; Pierre-Pascal Gendron

    2001-01-01

    The biggest tax story of the last third of the 20 th century was the value-added tax (VAT). From its tentative beginnings in the reform of the French production tax in the early 1950s, by August 2000 some form of VAT existed in at least 123 countries. Few fiscal innovations have been adopted so widely and so quickly. Towards the close of the century, another striking trend was the increasing decentralization of the public sector in many countries around the world. In this process, increasing ...

  2. Effective VAT Rates on Selected Sectors in Tanzania: An Input ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimates, by the use of an Input-Output approach, the extent of variation in the effective VAT burden falling on different sub-sectors of the Tanzanian economy. Since optimal taxation theory implies the superiority of rate differentiation over rate uniformity it is important to establish empirically the extent of effective ...

  3. The Chemistry of Vat Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    From prehistoric times people have been fascinated with color; from cave paintings to the latest computers, color has been a constant companion. Textiles are made more beautiful by the alteration or application of colorants. This teaching resource investigates vat dyes, a colorant class which includes the oldest dyes known as well as important…

  4. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching (VAT) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching (VAT) on the knowledge and practice of dental hygiene among primary school children in Bangalore, India. The hypothesis to be tested was that the mean post-test knowledge and practice scores of primary school ...

  5. Nigerian Veterinary .ieiirriai Vat. iii, i-a {aria}

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Veterinary .ieiirriai Vat. iii, i-a {aria}. iJNiZiERGR/XUUATE V" ViiilW OF THE VETERINARY i'RtMi'iilSSiON;. A STUDY OF AHMAE)U HELLO UNiVESITY, ZARIA - NEGEREA. REM} A®RWEJNME$, BID AND BET .ANQHANG, H. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Medicine. Abniadu Hello University, Zaria on.

  6. Tutorial on Modeling VAT Rules Using OWL-DL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    . In an ERP setting such a model could reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and increase the quality of the system. We have selected OWL-DL because we believe that description logic is suited for modeling VAT rules due to the decidability of important inference problems that are key to the way we plan...

  7. Transfer Pricing Principles VAT/GST v. Direct Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the optional transfer pricing provisions in the EC VAT Directive [1] are subject to a more detailed analysis, with a view to considering them in the light of the well-known principles for transfer pricing in the area of income tax law, as set out in Art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax Conv...

  8. Hea Teatri auhinna sai VAT Teatri lavastaja Aare Toikka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    9. XII andis Eesti Teatrikriitikute Ühendus välja Hea Teatri auhinna VAT Teatri kunstilisele juhile ja lavastajale Aare Toikkale. Ära toodud varasemad laureaadid (Guido Kangur 2002, Andres Noormets 2003, Aleksander Eelmaa 2004, Maarika Vaarik 2005)

  9. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case for Value Added Tax (VAT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    over dependency on oil revenue for the economic development of the country has left much to be deserved. ... growth results from the deliberately designed regimes that encourage compliance by all who should pay. .... Nigerian tax system and economic growth: A times analysis found that indirect tax. (VAT and CED) ...

  10. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.416 Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. (a) The vats, tanks and drain tables used for making cheese should be of metal construction with adequate jacket capacity for...

  11. An Analysis on Combating Vat Fraud in The European Union Using New IT Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixăndroiu R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available European VAT fraud has been growing at an alarming rate [2]. The level of VAT losses for one year is between €60bn and €100bn for all member states. This level of fraud has created an urgent need for Europe to address the issue of the reform of the VAT system.

  12. To Tax or Not To Tax: Is that Really the Question? – VAT, Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian Value Added Tax of 2002 follows the standard approach of exempting financial services from VAT. Not all 'financial services' are, however, exempted from VAT. A number of services provided by the financial institutions are made taxable by the VAT laws of Ethiopia. No subject in this regard has probably ...

  13. TensorLy: Tensor Learning in Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Tensor methods are gaining increasing traction in machine learning. However, there are scant to no resources available to perform tensor learning and decomposition in Python. To answer this need we developed TensorLy. TensorLy is a state of the art general purpose library for tensor learning.

  14. The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NT Azaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability of a value-added tax (VAT system, particularly in developing countries.  The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST. Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countries gain revenue from the presence of VAT, it is significantly more in developed countries, although the dummy VAT variable interacted with trace openness enters positively for the lower- and upper middle-income groups.  This proves the importance of trade for VAT revenues, but also that VAT combined with interaction variables is conducive to higher tax revenues.

  15. Changes in VAT rates during the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Široký

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the current economical crisis, there are used various tools of economic policy. Some of them are changes in taxes, particularly changes in the value added tax due to its importance.Value added tax is the most harmonized tax in the single internal market of the European Communities. Although community law defines the basic legal constraints of VAT rules in individual countries, the Council Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value added tax, as amended, leaves some areas open for the Member States. One of the main characteristics of VAT is its tax rates which are – while maintaining specified minimal borders – in competency of Member States.Paper illustrates and evaluates the changes in tax rates of individual Member States during the economic crisis and points to their context and consequences.

  16. The Impact of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union on VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard, Karina Kim Egholm

    2016-01-01

    The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union became legally binding following its entry into force with the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009, and it has the same legal value as the EU Treaties. Since then, the EU fundamental rights aspect of VAT law has not been subject to much academic...... discussion or particular attention from VAT practitioners. This article contributes to further development of research in the area of EU fundamental rights and VAT law by examining; when the Charter is relevant in VAT law and if so how the Charter manifests itself in EU VAT case law, and what special...... interpretative principles the Charter triggers itself in connection with interpretation of fundamental rights comprised by the Charter. The Charter has proved to play an important—but also diversified—role in both formal and substantive aspects of VAT law, such as national rules on administrative sanctions...

  17. VATS intraoperative tattooing to facilitate solitary pulmonary nodule resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS has become routine and widely accepted for the removal of solitary pulmonary nodules of unknown etiology. Thoracosopic techniques continue to evolve with better instruments, robotic applications, and increased patient acceptance and awareness. Several techniques have been described to localize peripheral pulmonary nodules, including pre-operative CT-guided tattooing with methylene blue, CT scan guided spiral/hook wire placement, and transthoracic ultrasound. As pulmonary surgeons well know, the lung and visceral pleura may appear featureless on top of a pulmonary nodule. Case description This paper presents a rapid, direct and inexpensive approach to peripheral lung lesion resection by marking the lung parenchyma on top of the nodule using direct methylene blue injection. Methods In two patients with peripherally located lung nodules (n = 3 scheduled for VATS, we used direct methylene blue injection for intraoperative localization of the pulmonary nodule. Our technique was the following: After finger palpation of the lung, a spinal 25 gauge needle was inserted through an existing port and 0.1 ml of methylene blue was used to tattoo the pleura perpendicular to the localized nodule. The methylene blue tattoo immediately marks the lung surface over the nodule. The surgeon avoids repeated finger palpation, while lining up stapler, graspers and camera, because of the visible tattoo. Our technique eliminates regrasping and repalpating the lung once again to identify a non marked lesion. Results Three lung nodules were resected in two patients. Once each lesion was palpated it was marked, and the area was resected with security of accurate localization. All lung nodules were resected in totality with normal lung parenchymal margins. Our technique added about one minute to the operative time. The two patients were discharged home on the second postoperative day, with no morbidity. Conclusion

  18. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The...

  19. Nursing for the complete VATS lobectomy performed with non-tracheal intubation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Wang, Yidong; Lin, Suihong; Yin, Pengying; XU, YANWEN

    2014-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has without doubt been the most important advance in thoracic surgery. The general anesthesia before the tracheal intubation for VATS was often accompanied with tracheal mucosa and lung injuries, which were typically manifested as painful throat, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms. However, the non-intubated anesthesia VATS can avoid these shortcomings due to its shorter anesthesia time, simpler steps, and quicker post-operative recovery. A total ...

  20. VAT Teater toob külakosti Hiiumaa lastele ja noortele / Tiiu Talvist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvist, Tiiu

    2009-01-01

    VAT Teater esineb Hiiumaal lastelavastusega "Varblase Priidu" (autor Rudolf Herfurtner, lavastaja Mart Kampus) ja noortelavastusega "Kas sulle meeldib porno?" (autor Klas Abrahamsson, lavastaja Margo Teder)

  1. A Self-Peeling Vat for Improved Release Capabilities During DLP Materials Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue; Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2016-01-01

    This paper describe research to increase the competitiveness of vat polymerisation by increasing the manufacturing rate while lowering the normal forces that induce part stress during the lift procedure of vat based systems. This is achieved through introducing a polymerisation vat that allows...... for an eased release of the manufactured part from the vat by means of a flexible membrane system. A membrane of fluorinated ethylene polymer will through elastic deformation automatically peel off the part as the part is lifted during layer changes. Peeling has been qualified by means of a truncated inverted...

  2. Cloning and expression pattern of vat-1 homolog gene in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb-Hennard, Christine; Cousin, Xavier; Prengel, Isabel; Kremmer, Elisabeth

    2004-11-01

    The VAT-1 protein is present in the electric organ of marine rays where it is suggested to play a central role in nerve signal transmission. VAT-1 homolog protein was also identified in mouse and human but its function remains to be determined. We have investigated VAT-1 homolog in zebrafish Danio rerio since it is an excellent model amenable to the combination of genetic, molecular and embryological studies. Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the zebrafish VAT-1 homolog shares approximately 51-61% identity with the electric ray, mouse, and human counterparts. By in situ hybridization, vat-1 homolog mRNA is first observed in the trigeminal nuclei at the 8-somite stage. At 20-somite stage, vat-1 homolog is detected in the brain, namely in primary clusters of neurons, in the epiphysis and in the hindbrain. vat-1 homolog is also present in the neural tube but this expression disappears after 72 h post-fertilization. At 24 h post-fertilization, vat-1 homolog starts to be expressed in the developing gut. At later stages, vat-1 homolog is present throughout the brain, appears in the maturing retina and the pharyngeal cavity.

  3. CONTROVERSIES ON THE APPLICATION OF THE VAT SPLIT PAYMENT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the urgent need to attract additional amounts to the state budget to cover the increased budget expenditures involved in the implementation of the government program, by the end of August 2017, the Government of Romania adopted an ordinance obliging the entities to apply, starting on January 1st 2018, the VAT split payment mechanism, system which no longer allows them to use the value added tax cashed affently to the delivery of goods and provision of services, which is why these amounts are to be cashed in separate accounts opened by entities in the state treasury or credit institutions. Only that, later, through the draft of Law on the approval of that ordinance, the Senate made changes to the legislative act, so that the VAT split payment would only apply to companies in insolvency or that register delays in payment of the tax. Although this measure aims at combating the tax evasion and fraud by increasing the voluntary compliance and tax collection degree, the measure can prove to be unfounded, which violates the legislative technique and, in particular, the Community provisions by being inappropriate. In this context, the main objective of this scientific approach is to identify the special situations that arise at the level of entities as a result of the application of the breakdown mechanism of value added tax and to determine the possible advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Clearance and Organ Distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in the Presence and Absence of LAM-Binding Immunoglobulin M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Mednick, Aron J.; Lendvai, Nikoletta; Casadevall, Arturo

    2000-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a component of the mycobacterial surface which has been associated with a variety of deleterious effects on immune system function. Despite the importance of LAM to the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection, there is no information available on its fate in vivo. In this study, we determined the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of exogenously administered LAM in mice. For measurements of serum and tissue LAM concentrations, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which used monoclonal antibodies of different isotypes to capture and detect LAM at concentrations of ≥0.4 μg/ml. Intravenous administration of LAM to mice resulted in transient serum levels with organ deposition in the spleen and in the liver. Immunohistochemical studies localized LAM to the spleen marginal zone macrophages and, to a lesser degree, to liver macrophages. When LAM was administered to mice previously given a LAM-binding immunoglobulin M (IgM), LAM was very rapidly cleared from circulation. In those mice, deposition of LAM in the spleen was significantly reduced while LAM deposition in the liver increased. Administration of LAM-binding IgM resulted in significant levels of IgM to LAM in bile consistent with an increased hepatobiliary excretion of LAM in the presence of specific antibody. Bile, liver extracts, and bile salts were found to rapidly inactivate the immunoreactivity of LAM. The results indicate that serum clearance and organ deposition of LAM in mice are affected by the presence of LAM-binding antibody and suggest a mechanism by which antibody could modify the course of mycobacterial infection. PMID:10603406

  5. The direct and immediate link test regarding deduction of input VAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    It follows explicitly from the EC VAT Directive that the deduction of input VAT depends on a positive link between on the one hand the incurred expenses and on the other hand the planned or actually completed taxed output transactions. In theory and in practice the deeper nature of this link, how...

  6. Lyα emitters with very large Lyα equivalent widths, EW0(Lyα) ≃ 200-400 Å, at z ˜ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Schaerer, Daniel; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Goto, Ryosuke

    2017-02-01

    We present physical properties of spectroscopically confirmed Lyα emitters (LAEs) with very large rest-frame Lyα equivalent widths EW0(Lyα). Although the definition of large EW0(Lyα) LAEs is usually difficult due to limited statistical and systematic uncertainties, we identify six LAEs selected from ˜3000 LAEs at z ˜ 2 with reliable measurements of EW0 (Lyα) ≃ 200-400 Å given by careful continuum determinations with our deep photometric and spectroscopic data. These large EW0(Lyα) LAEs do not have signatures of AGN, but notably small stellar masses of M★ = 107-8 M⊙ and high specific star formation rates (star formation rate per unit galaxy stellar mass) of ˜100 Gyr-1. These LAEs are characterized by the median values of L(Lyα) = 3.7 × 1042 erg s-1 and MUV = -18.0 as well as the blue UV continuum slope of β = -2.5 ± 0.2 and the low dust extinction E(B-V)_* = 0.02^{+0.04}_{-0.02}, which indicate a high median Lyα escape fraction of f_esc^{Lyα }=0.68± 0.30. This large f_esc^{Lyα } value is explained by the low H I column density in the interstellar medium which is consistent with full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Lyα line, FWHM(Lyα) = 212 ± 32 km s-1, significantly narrower than those of small EW0(Lyα) LAEs. Based on the stellar evolution models, our observational constraints of the large EW0 (Lyα), the small β, and the rest-frame He II EW imply that at least a half of our large EW0(Lyα) LAEs would have young stellar ages of ≲20 Myr and very low metallicities of Z history.

  7. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  8. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of VATS and SBRT in the Treatment of NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong WANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective More and more chest physicians chose video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS to treat early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. In recent years, there is still lack of a random trial comparing the clinical outcomes of VATS and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT in treating NSCLC. To provide a reference for the choice between VATS and SBRT, in the current meta-analysis, we compared the clinical outcomes of these two therapies in treating NSCLC. Methods Five major medical databases, CNKI, CPVIP (http://www.cqvip.com/, PubMed, Embase, and ISI web of science were systematically searched to identify all studies from January 2010 to February 2016 on VATS and SBRT therapies. Finally, original English or Chinese publications of stage I and II NSCLC with adequate patients and adequate SBRT doses were enrolled. A multivariate random effects model was used to perform a meta-analysis to compare overall survival and disease free survival between VATS and SBRT while adjusting for median age and operable patient numbers. Results Fourteen VATS studies (included 3,482 patients and nineteen SBRT studies (included 3,997 patients published in the same period were eligible. The median age and follow-up duration were 64 years and 43.4 months for VATS patients and 74 years and 29.5 months for SBRT patients, respectively. The mean unadjusted overall survival rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years with VATS were 93.5%, 84.9%, 77.0% and 76.3% compared to 89.0% 73.3% 59.0% and 36.7% with SBRT. The mean unadjusted disease free survival rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years with VATS were 93.6%, 88.6%, 85.6% and 75.6% compared to 79.3%, 72.1%, 64.9% and 58.9% with SBRT. While, after adjusted for proportion of operable patients and median age, the estimate overall survival rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years with VATS were 94%, 92%, 84% and 71% compared to 98%, 95%, 87% and 83% with SBRT. And the estimate disease free survival rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years with

  9. Lyα Profile, Dust, and Prediction of Lyα Escape Fraction in Green Pea Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Dijkstra, Mark; Tilvi, V.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-08-01

    We studied Lyman-α (Lyα) escape in a statistical sample of 43 Green Peas with HST/COS Lyα spectra. Green Peas are nearby star-forming galaxies with strong [O iii]λ5007 emission lines. Our sample is four times larger than the previous sample and covers a much more complete range of Green Pea properties. We found that about two-thirds of Green Peas are strong Lyα line emitters with rest-frame Lyα equivalent width > 20 \\mathringA . The Lyα profiles of Green Peas are diverse. The Lyα escape fraction, defined as the ratio of observed Lyα flux to intrinsic Lyα flux, shows anti-correlations with a few Lyα kinematic features—both the blue peak and red peak velocities, the peak separations, and the FWHM of the red portion of the Lyα profile. Using properties measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we found many correlations—the Lyα escape fraction generally increases at lower dust reddening, lower metallicity, lower stellar mass, and higher [O iii]/[O ii] ratio. We fit their Lyα profiles with the H i shell radiative transfer model and found that the Lyα escape fraction is anti-correlated with the best-fit N H i . Finally, we fit an empirical linear relation to predict {f}{esc}{Lyα } from the dust extinction and Lyα red peak velocity. The standard deviation of this relation is about 0.3 dex. This relation can be used to isolate the effect of intergalactic medium (IGM) scatterings from Lyα escape and to probe the IGM optical depth along the line of sight of each z> 7 Lyα emission-line galaxy in the James Webb Space Telescope era.

  10. The Lyα Reference Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostlin, Goran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent

    2014-01-01

    with combinations of long-pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard HST. In addition, LARS utilizes Hα and Hβ narrowband and u, b, i broadband imaging with ACS and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lyα photons...... the reduction steps used to obtain the Lyα images, including our LARS eXtraction software (LaXs), which utilizes pixel-by-pixel spectral synthesis fitting of the energy distribution to determine and subtract the continuum at Lyα. We demonstrate that the use of SBC long-pass-filter combinations increase...... the signal-to-noise ratio by an order of magnitude compared to the nominal Lyα filter available in SBC. To exemplify the science potential of LARS, we also present some first results for a single galaxy, Mrk 259 (LARS #1). This irregular galaxy shows bright and extended (indicative of resonance scattering...

  11. Vesicle amine transport protein-1 (VAT-1) is upregulated in glioblastomas and promotes migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertsch, S; Becker, M; Lichota, A; Paulus, W; Senner, V

    2009-08-01

    Diffuse invasion of single-glioma cells is the main obstacle to successful therapy of these tumours. After identifying vesicle amine transport protein-1 (VAT-1) as being upregulated in invasive human gliomas, we study its possible function in glioblastoma cell migration. Based on data obtained from previous oligonucleotide arrays, we investigated expression of VAT-1 in glioblastoma tissue and cell lines on mRNA levels using reverse transcriptase PCR. Furthermore, we examined the amount and localization of VAT-1 protein using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Using small interfering RNA technology we repressed VAT-1 expression in human glioma cell lines and analysed their migration using wound healing and transwell migration assays. Increased VAT-1 mRNA and protein levels were found in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines compared with normal human brain. Small interfering RNA-mediated VAT-1 knockdown led to significantly reduced migration of human glioma cells. VAT-1 is overexpressed in glioblastomas and functionally involved in glioma cell migration, representing a new component involved in glioma invasion

  12. Features of VAT Accounting and Fiscality – History, Practices and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The value-added tax (VAT is an indirect tax, supported by the final consumer of the good/service that it is applied. During the productive and commercial cycle, the companies pay VAT according to the value added on the good/service. Quite recently appeared in the fiscal system of different states, VAT has a big spreading area. The taxation rates are different from a country to another, according to the economic conditions and the fiscal law (in EU, from 15% for Cyprus and Luxembourg to 27% for Hungary, and outside EU, from 3% for Iran, to 25% for Norway. In Romania, the rates are: the standard rate of 24% and the reduced rates of 9% and 5%, the payment term being monthly or quarterly, according to the company turnover. In the accounting and fiscality area, VAT presents special features, conditioned by the type of activity and the company size. In order to support the small companies, starting with 01.01.2013 the “VAT Encashment System” was introduced, that relates the VAT payability to the encashment moment of the invoice. The VAT impact on the profitability is an aspect that must be considered when we discuss about: costs, cash-flow, results, liquidity, solvency or efficiency rates.

  13. Efficiency of a single-rate and broad-based VAT system: the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Antić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the performance and efficiency of the VAT system in B&H and explore the effects of internal and external factors influencing VAT collection. The VAT system in B&H is a consumption-type, single-rate and broad-based system. Ever since its implementation, VAT collection in B&H has been subject to strong oscillations, from an extremely high performance in the first two years after the introduction, to a sharp drop at the beginning of the crisis. After a temporary recovery, VAT collection declined in the last quarter of 2012 and has been negative ever since, although a weak recovery of the B&H economy was observed in 2013. The key hypothesis is that the high efficiency of the broadbased and single-rate structured VAT system may be neutralized by the country’s specific circumstances and VAT policy design. Applying a set of indicators for VAT efficiency analysis, developed by IMF, OECD and EU, we find a deterioration of the components of the policy gap caused by derogations of the VAT Law, and an increasing compliance gap, due to an increase of the VAT debt and tax evasion, in consequence of poor policy design in the field of excises. As a result of the influence of the country’s specific circumstances and its VAT policy design the identifiable current net losses on VAT in 2013 amount to 4% of net VAT collection or 0.4% of GDP. The analysis presented in the paper proves the main hypothesis that a VAT design, even when it is close to theoretically ideal concept, cannot on its own produce a high level of VAT efficiency and performance.

  14. Schistosomacidal activity of Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the schistosomacidal effect of Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. on Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Three different concentrations (6.0, 3.0 and 1.5) mg/ml of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant roots was given orally to different groups of infected mice. Praziquantel was ...

  15. A Self-Peeling Vat for Improved Release Capabilities During DLP Materials Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue; Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2016-01-01

    cone as test geometry. As the cross-sectional diameter of the cone increase throughout the build-job, the geometry will release from the glass based build platform at the point where the peeling force exceed the adhesion force between platform and part. At failure point the lateral surface area...... of the top and bottom of the truncated cone is used as a measure of the performance of the vat with respect to release-capability. This has been tested at increasing manufacturing rates. The new self-peeling vat outperformed industrial state-of-the-art vats by 814% percent....

  16. Difference of application of VAT in EU member states during the supply of goods including installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There still exist the differences in provision of VAT, in interpretation of VAT provisions and application of the rules in practice between the EU member states. Application of VAT during the supply of goods with installation to other EU member state, both during the existence of establishment in the state of customer and also without it, is considered to be one from the problematic field. Other discrepancies are created by inclusion of the sub suppliers, who can come from other EU member state or from the same state as customer, to this transaction. Questions of VAT application during the supply of goods with installation to other EU member state were processed by using standard methods of scientific work in the frame of five selected EU countries – Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Czech Republic.

  17. VAT-teatris mõtiskletakse allasurutud pingete üle / Mari Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari

    2006-01-01

    13. apr. esietendus VAT Teatris Amélie Nothombi "Vaenlase kosmeetika", tõlkija, lavastaja ja muusikaline kujundaja Peeter Raudsepp, kunstnik Hardi Volmer. Tükki mängitakse rahvusraamatukogu teatrisaalis

  18. Evaluation of polymer micro parts produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro manufacturing scale feature production by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes for the direct production of miniaturized polymer components is analysed in this work. The study characterizes the AM processes for polymer micro parts productions using the vat photopolymerization method...

  19. The impact of VAT introduction on UK residential energy demand: an investigation using the cointegration approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Roger [Surrey Energy Economics Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    Over a two-year period, which started in April 1994, the real price of energy to UK households was expected to rise by 17.5% as a result of value-added tax (VAT) introduction. The regressive nature of the tax forced the government to limit VAT on residential fuel to 8%. Using a cointegration approach, to take account of the non-stationarity fuel consumption time series, this paper estimates real energy and fuel specific price and income elasticities for the period 1974:1-1994:1. They suggest that natural gas has a positive real energy price elasticity indicating that, as real price of energy rises, households scrap inefficient heaters and invest in more efficient ones, principally natural gas. These estimates enable projections to be made of the impact of the introduction of VAT and imply a rise in natural gas consumption as a result of the additional VAT, although at the expense of other less efficient fuels. (author)

  20. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy using a standardized anterior approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Christensen, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Lobectomy using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) still is a controversial operation despite its many observed benefits. The controversy may be due to difficulties performing the procedure. This study addresses a standardized anterior approach facilitating the operation....

  1. Resignation from the VAT exemption of sales of residential premises by the developer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Koziollek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax institutions should be construed in a rational manner, in order so as to not restrict economic turnover excessively. The regulations concerning the possibility to resign from the VAT exemption of sales of residential premises by the developer characterizes by the high level of formalism which affects in a negative manner the sales process performed by the developer. This paper is devoted to the fragment of the polish Act on the goods and services tax governing the issue of resignation from the VAT exemption of sales of residential premises, which implies in a certain extent to appeal to the regulation of exemptions stipulated in this Act. The subject matter of this analysis is to examine the correctness of transposition of the Directive 112 into polish legal system in the field of real estate exemptions from VAT, the conditions for exercising the optional exemption, as well as the benefit of the resignation from the VAT exemption by the taxpayer.

  2. The Vat Exemption for Health Care: Eu Law and its Impact on Swedish law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Påhlsson Robert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The general rule in EU law is that value-added tax (VAT is to be levied on all goods and services. There are a number of exceptions, however, one of which applies to certain medical services. This paper examines the legal basis for tax exemptions in EU VAT law and in Swedish law, with particular attention to the extent to which the rapidly growing private health-care sector is covered by these tax exemptions.

  3. STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF CASH ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR VAT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cash accounting system for VAT has been implemented in Romania as of 1 January 2013 and now turns one year of application in Romania. Since its implementation the system has sparked controversy, being harshly criticised by professional accountants in Romania and elsewhere. Criticisms mainly concerned the following issues: no possibility to choose to apply the system, breach of the VAT neutrality principles, maximum period of 90 days to postpone the chargeability of VAT for unpaid deliveries, while VAT deduction was subject to payment of the value of goods and services invoiced without specifying any term. In this article we would like to examine the extent to which the legislative changes that came into effect as of 1 January 2014 improve the cash accounting system for VAT in Romania. We will also analyse to what extent the system applied in 2013 has brought advantages/disadvantages to the economic entities in Romania based on a survey carried out on a heterogeneous sample of companies in the county of Gorj, regarded as nationally representative. Finally, we intend to compare the cash accounting system for VAT in Romania with its UK counterpart.

  4. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie...AND SUBTITLE LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0132 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...designed to generate short-term safety and efficacy data regarding imatinib mesylate (imatinib) in the treatment of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis ( LAM

  5. On LAM's and SAM's for Halley's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peale, Stanton J.

    1992-01-01

    Non principal axis rotation for comet Halley is inferred from dual periodicities evident in the observations. The modes where the spin axis precesses around the axis of minimum moment of inertia (long axis mode or LAM) and where it precesses around the axis of maximum moment of inertia (short axis mode or SAM) are described from an inertial point of view. The currently favored LAM model for Halley's rotation state satisfies observational and dynamical constraints that apparently no SAM can satisfy. But it cannot reproduce the observed post perihelion brightening through seasonal illumination of localized sources on the nucleus, whereas a SAM can easily produce post or pre perihelion brightening by this mechanism. However, the likelihood of a LAM rotation for elongated nuclei of periodic comets such as Halley together with Halley's extreme post perihelion behavior far from the Sun suggest that Halley's post perihelion brightening may be due to effects other than seasonal illumination of localized sources, and therefore such brightening may not constrain its rotation state.

  6. Effects of VATS Lobectomy, VATS Anatomic Segmentectomy, and Open Thoracotomy on Pulmonary Function of Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjiao ZHANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is a malignancy with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Surgery is the preferred treatment for non-small cell lung cancer. This study aims to investigate the effects of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS lobectomy, VATS segmentectomy, and open thoracotomy on pulmonary function in the early postoperative stage and compare the difference among three groups. Methods Pulmonary function data of patients were collected from September 2015 to February 2016 in Department of Thoracic Surgical Oncology, Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The patients were categorized according to operation methods into three groups, namely, VATS segmentectomy, VATS lobectomy, and open thoracotomy groups. Pulmonary function was assessed 1 day before the surgery, 3 days after the surgery, and 3 months after the surgery. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20.0 through single-factor analysis of variance. Results Pulmonary function 3 days after the surgery was compared among the three groups. There was a significant difference in forced vital capacity (FVC, FVC%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, FEV1%, peak expiratory flow (PEF, maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV, transfer factor for carbon monoxide of lung (TLCO and TLCO% (P values were as follows: 0.033, 0.042, 0.029, 0.045, 0.039, 0.021, 0.018, 0.024. The comparison of pulmonary function of 3 groups at the time of 3 months after operation showed that there was a significant difference among three groups in FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1%, PEF, MVV, TLCO, TLCO% (P values were as follows: 0.019, 0.024, 0.044, 0.021, 0.037, 0.029, 0.045, 0.017. Conclusion No matter in the early stage after surgery or at the time of 3 months after surgery, the patients’ pulmonary function in VATS segmentectomy is better than the data of VATS lobectomy group, and the pulmonary function data of VATS lobectomy patients recovered better than the open

  7. Evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam) as seed protectant against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamaismotsch . on stored cowpea and maize under tropical conditions.

  8. Using virtual reality simulation to assess competence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Konge, Lars

    2017-06-01

    The societies of thoracic surgery are working to incorporate simulation and competency-based assessment into specialty training. One challenge is the development of a simulation-based test, which can be used as an assessment tool. The study objective was to establish validity evidence for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim ® ) and introduced to the steps of the procedure for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy. The participants performed two VATS lobectomies on the simulator with a 5-min break between attempts. Nineteen pre-defined simulator metrics were recorded. Fifty-three participants from nine different countries were included. High internal consistency was found for the metrics with Cronbach's alpha coefficient for standardized items of 0.91. Significant test-retest reliability was found for 15 of the metrics (p-values 50 VATS lobectomies performed). A pass/fail level defined as approximately one standard deviation from the mean metric scores for experienced surgeons passed none of the novices (0 % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices and experienced surgeons and pass/fail criteria for the test were set with acceptable consequences. This test can be used as a first step in assessing thoracic surgery trainees' VATS lobectomy competency.

  9. DETERMINING VAT PRO RATE. CASE STUDY AT A PAWNSHOP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE ECOBICI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Determining VAT pro rate entails in terms of theory the calculation of the share of taxable transactions made by an entity in total transactions. Thus, the entities that use VAT mixed regimes will be able to deduct the VAT related to operations afferent to the transactions with deductibility right and without deduction right, just in the same proportion with calculated pro rata. Also, regulations and adjustments will be made using the final pro rate applied for the entire ending year in the last statement of every year. By the 25th of the first month of the financial year, any entity must declare the provisional pro rate for the coming year to the tax administration body, which is equal to that determined for the ended year. The method used for capturing the main practical tax and accounting problems inherent to determine the VAT pro rate is the case study made at a pawn shop in Romania over the year 2016. Thus, given the multiplicity of operations carried out by pawnshops (pawnshop with gold and silver goods, pawnshop with electronics, selling goods unclaimed at the expiration of the pawn contracts, melting gold and silver and sale in the form of ingots or bars etc., in this article there will be discussed the main problems which may occur in practice on the VAT pro rata, using the example of an entity of this kind in Romania for 2016.

  10. The effect of calcium levels on synaptic proteins. A study on VAT-1 from Torpedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linial, M; Levius, O; Ilouz, N; Parnas, D

    1995-01-01

    In this study we compare major synaptic proteins from Torpedo electric organ to their homologues from mammalian brain. Most of these proteins are members of small gene families. We demonstrate a high degree of evolutionary conservation of most synaptic proteins. However, in the electric organ each gene family is represented only by a single member. We focus on VAT-1, a major protein of the vesicle membrane in Torpedo. VAT-1 is located on the synaptic vesicle membrane and is highly concentrated on the plasma membrane following the application of alpha-latrotoxin. Taking advantage of the relative simplicity of Torpedo synapses, we performed an in vitro study on the properties of VAT-1 affected by changes in Ca2+ levels. VAT-1 is a low affinity Ca2+ binding protein whose ability to bind Ca2+ resides mainly, but not entirely, on the carboxy-terminal domain of the protein. In the presence of Ca2+, the protein is organized in a high molecular mass complex, which is destabilized by depleting Ca2+. This effect occurs only by chelating Ca2+ ions, but not with other divalent ions. VAT-1 is not complexed to any of the proteins which were implicated in the docking/fusion complex such as VAMP, synaptophysin or syntaxin, regardless of Ca2+ levels. Dependence of the stability of protein complexes on Ca2+ levels is also demonstrated on Torpedo n-Sec1. The possible physiological implications of such Ca2+ dependence are discussed.

  11. The taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a Comparative Law approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Villanueva Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the definitions of the main taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a comparative approach to thelegislation of different countries (Spain, Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In this regard, it analyzes which legislations offer definitions according to the principles of generality, fiscal neutrality and legal certainty for VAT. Moreover, it points out that the VAT systems of those countries do not require as a condition for the configuration of the taxable events that the transactions involve a «value added» or a final consumption. In the specificcase of «supplies of goods», the VAT systems have a similar definition of the taxable event, although there are a few differences. However, in the case of«supplies of services», which is the most important taxable event for VAT, there are important differences at the time each country defines it. This is not a desirable effect for the international trade of services, since the lack of harmonization produces double taxation or double non taxation.

  12. Nutritional characterization of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. B Moyo, PJ Masika, A Hugo, V Muchenje. Abstract. Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. moringaceae) is a highly valued plant that is mostly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. It is used for food, medication and industrial purposes. The objective of the ...

  13. Visualising Learning Design in LAMS: A Historical View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, James

    2011-01-01

    The Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) provides a web-based environment for the creation, sharing, running and monitoring of Learning Designs. A central feature of LAMS is the visual authoring environment, where educators use a drag-and-drop environment to create sequences of learning activities. The visualisation is based on boxes…

  14. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    proven treatment for LAM is lung transplantation, which carries significant one-year mortality and after which LAM can recur in the transplanted...production of PGE2 and 6-K-PGF1. This result has been published (Figure 4j-k, Li et al., J Expt Med 2014, please see the Appendix 1). 2) Inhibition

  15. Using virtual reality simulation to assess competence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2017-01-01

    for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. METHODS: Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim(®)) and introduced to the steps of the procedure...... % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices......BACKGROUND: The societies of thoracic surgery are working to incorporate simulation and competency-based assessment into specialty training. One challenge is the development of a simulation-based test, which can be used as an assessment tool. The study objective was to establish validity evidence...

  16. Advantages and disadvantages of single incision VATS in major anatomical resection for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halezeroğlu, Semih

    2017-01-01

    Safety and feasibility of lung resections by single incision thoracoscopy have been confirmed in large number of studies. As proponents claim its lesser invasive nature caused by lacking of additional intercostal port(s), opponents question the outcome measures of the approach especially in oncological manner. Since there is no major discussion regarding the superiority of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) on lung resections over the open technique in the surgical management of lung cancer today, advantage and disadvantage of single incision VATS lung resections was reviewed with the comparison of standard, multi-port VATS approach in this article. Overall, results of comparative studies confirm that single incision and multiportal thoracoscopy are similar, or single incision thoracoscopy has more advantages in the lung resection for lung cancer. Currently, the main disadvantage of single incision approach is the lacking of long-term oncological results.

  17. Signatures of positive selection in LY96 gene in vertebrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To investigate the natural selection hypothesis, we compared the coding sequences from 13 vertebrates and evaluated the molecular evolution of LY96 gene in these species. Result shows that natural selection at exon 4 has indeed played a role in shaping the function of LY96 in the course of evolution. In addition to the ...

  18. The Effect of VAT Rate on Price Setting Behaviour in Latvia: Evidence from CPI Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantins Benkovskis; Ludmila Fadejeva

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the inflation effect of recent VAT rate changes in Latvia by using CPI micro data. Our findings suggest that the pass-through of the tax rate to consumer prices is strong in case of upward tax adjustments, especially when there are no demand restrictions, while the pass-through is weaker for tax reductions. The frequency of price changes peaks at the moment of VAT adjustment, which, however, is partially compensated by lower average size of price revisions. The level of p...

  19. Developments of VAT Rates in EU Countries in the Context of Harmonization and Fiscal Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Andrejovská; Lucia Mihóková

    2015-01-01

    Although the value added tax is most often used tax it is a relatively young tax instrument that can assure significant increase in countries tax revenues. The advantage of VAT is that it is a consumption tax and so the tax payers take it as a natural part of the price. To assure the transparency and flexibility of relationships between EU countries, EC stresses the need of harmonizing Member States’ approaches to VAT rates and tax bases. Development of its rates refers to a relative autonomy...

  20. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Kumar Paikra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. or munga is one of the most important plant widely cultivated in India. It belongs to family Moringaceae. This plant is widely used as nutritional herb and contains valuable pharmacological action like anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti- fertility, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, cardiovascular, anti-ulcer, CNS activity, anti-allergic, wound healing, analgesic, and antipyretic activity, Moringa oleifera Lam. The plant is also known as Horse - radish tree, Drumstick tree. Every part of this plant contains a valuable medicinal feature. It contain rich source of the vitamin A, vitamin C and milk protein. Different types of active phytoconstituents like alkaloids, protein, quinine, saponins, flavonoids, tannin, steroids, glycosides, fixed oil and fats are present. This plant is also found in the tropical regions. Some other constituents are niazinin A, niazinin B and niazimicin A, niaziminin B. The present review discusses the phytochemical composition, medicinal uses & pharmacological activity of this plant.

  1. AB009. Comparison of uniportal and multiportal video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) complicated segmentectomy: a propensity score matching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yuan; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Chang, Chao-Chun; Huang, Wei-Li; Yen, Yi-Ting; Tseng, Yau-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background Complicated segmentectomy, which is defined as a segmentectomy not belonging to the conventional segmentectomy, is considered as a more difficult technique in uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) approach. Rare literature discussed about uniportal VATS complicated segmentectomy and its comparison with multiportal approach. We want to compare the perioperative outcomes of uniportal and multiportal VATS complicated segmentectomy. Methods A total of 187 patients underwent uniportal or multiportal VATS complicated segmentectomy in NCKUH from July 2010 to March 2017. The patients who underwent synchronous bilateral surgery, double anatomical resections, and repeated surgery were excluded. A crude comparison and a propensity score matching analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, were conducted to elucidate the short-term outcomes between uniportal and multiportal VATS complicated segmentectomy. Results The presenting study includes 96 uniportal and 68 multiportal VATS complicated segmentectomy between July 2010 and March 2017. A propensity score matching yielded 56 patients in each group. The operation time and blood loss were not significantly different between these two groups. Uniportal VATS complicated segmentectomy had a shorter duration of pleural drainage and postoperative hospital stay (2.8 vs. 3.6 days and 4.2 vs. 5.3 days, respectively) (P<0.01). Both the intraoperative and postoperative complication rates were not significantly different as well. No 30-day mortality was observed in our series. Conclusions VATS complicated segmentectomy in uniportal approach are feasible, and comparable with those of the multiportal approach in short-term perioperative outcomes.

  2. Adapting vat dye as an alternate dyeing agent for vegetable tanned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was subdivided into three parts where various techniques for applying dyes were used. It proved successful, thus indicating that, with proper formulation, vat dye and its accompanying agents could perform effectively on protein fibre in leatherwork, just as it does on cellulose fibre in textiles.

  3. Characterisation of the microflora contaminating the wooden vats used for traditional Sicilian cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Scatassa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Sicilian cheese productions are carried out employing traditional wooden vats, called tina. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial role of wooden dairy equipment by contributing to enriching the milk microflora and improving the acidification processes. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the safety of the wooden vats used to coagulate milk. To this purpose, the different microbial populations hosted onto the internal surfaces of the vats used to produce two different stretched cheeses, namely Caciocavallo Palermitano and Vastedda della valle del Belìce DOP, were investigated for the presence of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as for bacteria with inhibitory effect in vitro against pathogenic microorganisms. A wide biodiversity of protechnological lactic acid bacteria (LAB, in terms of species, was revealed. Several LAB inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. The wooden vats analysed resulted safe for three main findings: absence of the main pathogenic species, presence of high levels of LAB, anti-Listeria activity of many LAB.

  4. A Comparison of Some Properties of Vat-Heated and Dry Skim Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some properties, namely; viscosity, flavour, acidity, texture, aroma and palatability of cultured yoghurt made from milk previously heated to 90OC for 30 minutes in a Vat were studied and the results compared to those of yoghurt fortified by addition of dry skim milk powder. The results showed no significant difference (P ...

  5. OptiLam: design of optimised rolling schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, B.; Arribas, M; Carrillo, A.R.; Barbero, J. I.; Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Song, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays il is known that the Ihennomcchanical schedules applied during hot rolling of fIal products provide the steel with improvcd mechanical properties. In Ihis work an oplimisation tool, OptiLam (OptiLam v.l), bascd on él predictive software alld capabIe oC generating optimised rolling schedulcs to obtain Ihe dcsired mechanical properties in the fiual product is described. OptiLam includes somc well-knowll Illctallurgical modcls which predict microstmctural evolution duril1g h...

  6. Microbial Activation of Wooden Vats Used for Traditional Cheese Production and Evolution of Neoformed Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Cruciata, Margherita; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cardamone, Cinzia; Mancuso, Isabella; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Portolano, Baldassare

    2015-01-01

    Three Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains were used to develop ad hoc biofilms on the surfaces of virgin wooden vats used for cheese production. Two vats (TZ) were tested under controlled conditions (pilot plant), and two vats (TA) were tested under uncontrolled conditions (industrial plant). In each plant, one vat (TA1 and TZ1) was used for the control, traditional production of PDO Vastedda della Valle del Belìce (Vastedda) cheese, and one (TA2 and TZ2) was used for experimental production performed after lactococcal biofilm activation and the daily addition of a natural whey starter culture (NWSC). Microbiological and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed differences in terms of microbial levels and composition of the neoformed biofilms. The levels of the microbial groups investigated during cheese production showed significant differences between the control trials and between the control and experimental trials, but the differences were not particularly marked between the TA2 and TZ2 productions, which showed the largest numbers of mesophilic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) cocci. LAB populations were characterized phenotypically and genotypically, and 44 dominant strains belonging to 10 species were identified. Direct comparison of the polymorphic profiles of the LAB collected during cheese making showed that the addition of the NWSC reduced their biodiversity. Sensory evaluation showed that the microbial activation of the wooden vats with the multistrain Lactococcus culture generated cheeses with sensory attributes comparable to those of commercial cheese. Thus, neoformed biofilms enable a reduction of microbial variability and stabilize the sensorial attributes of Vastedda cheese. PMID:26546430

  7. Antileishmanial compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Preet Kamal; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Inder Pal

    2014-01-01

    The antileishmanial activity of extracts and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. was investigated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donavani. The 70% ethanolic extract of roots and the methanolic extract of leaves showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 83.0 microg/ml and 47.5 microg/ml, respectively. Antileishmanial activity of the methanolic extract of leaves increased upon fractionation, as its ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more active with an IC50 value of 27.5 microg/ml. The most active antileishmanial compound niazinin, a thiocarbamate glycoside isolated from this fraction, showed an IC50 value of 5.25 microM. Results presented in this study indicate that extracts from M. oleifera may be developed as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  8. The LAM space active optics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  9. The value-added tax (VAT) rate of international natural gas trade; Le regime TVA des echanges internationaux de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botter, E

    2008-07-15

    Since January 1, 2005, international gas trades are controlled by common right derogatory VAT rules. Transfrontier exchanges do not obey to the classical territory rules of exchange of goods but to a particular VAT regime. Moreover, the access to networks and the transportation of natural gas are subjected to particular VAT regulations. This article explains these particularities. (J.S.)

  10. Indication of transposition of a mobile DNA element containing the vat(D) and erm(B) genes in Enterococcus faecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Flannagan, S.E.; Clewell, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    The vat(D) and erm(B) genes encoding streptogramin resistance in Enterococcus faecium transferred together, and a direct physical link between erm(B) and vat(D) was detected. Both the vat(D) and erm(B) probes hybridized to fragments of different sizes in the donor and transconjugants, which...

  11. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  12. Efficacy of Candlewood Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam.) for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lam.) was assessed in the laboratory for their ability to protect stored grains from damage by Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus on maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams of sterilized grains were measured in glass ...

  13. Toxicity and persistence of Boscia senegalensis Lam. (Ex Poir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity and persistence of Boscia senegalensis Lam. (Ex Poir.) (Capparaceae) leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae). A Doumma, BY Alfari, M Sembene, SDR Sidikou, A Sanon, GK Ketoh, AH Kadidia, IA Glitho ...

  14. In vitro regeneration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) yield. The establishment of in vitro regeneration protocol for this plant is essential to improve it through tissue culture and genetic engineering. The objective of this study was to establish in vitro regeneration protocol ...

  15. Charring Rate for Fire Exposed X-Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Bernice VY; Fah Tee, Kong

    2017-06-01

    Design of timber structures has been outlined in Eurocode 5. Notional charring rate for softwood and hardwood timber is given. For the performance of X-LAM panels in fire, only little information on charring is available and whether the fire behaviour of X-LAM is similar to homogenous timber panels has not yet been systematically analysed. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of X-LAM and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature as an element of structure in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Numerical study has been carried out based on available experimental results. Charring rates for X-LAM panels obtained from experimental results are compared with those obtained from Eurocode 5 and proposed simplified model.

  16. VAT: a computational framework to functionally annotate variants in personal genomes within a cloud-computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Lukas; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Chen, David Z; Khurana, Ekta; Sboner, Andrea; Harmanci, Arif; Rozowsky, Joel; Clarke, Declan; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2012-09-01

    The functional annotation of variants obtained through sequencing projects is generally assumed to be a simple intersection of genomic coordinates with genomic features. However, complexities arise for several reasons, including the differential effects of a variant on alternatively spliced transcripts, as well as the difficulty in assessing the impact of small insertions/deletions and large structural variants. Taking these factors into consideration, we developed the Variant Annotation Tool (VAT) to functionally annotate variants from multiple personal genomes at the transcript level as well as obtain summary statistics across genes and individuals. VAT also allows visualization of the effects of different variants, integrates allele frequencies and genotype data from the underlying individuals and facilitates comparative analysis between different groups of individuals. VAT can either be run through a command-line interface or as a web application. Finally, in order to enable on-demand access and to minimize unnecessary transfers of large data files, VAT can be run as a virtual machine in a cloud-computing environment. VAT is implemented in C and PHP. The VAT web service, Amazon Machine Image, source code and detailed documentation are available at vat.gersteinlab.org.

  17. Hardwood press-lam crossties : processing and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Tschernitz; E.L. Schaffer; R.C. Moody; R.W. Jokerst; D.S. Gromala; C.C. Peters; W.T. Henry

    1979-01-01

    Crossties were made by the Press-Lam process, in which logs are peeled into veneers, dried, and glued into billets in a continuous procedure. Billets were made from 8.5-foot-long veneers and from 4-foot-long veneers, cut into final product dimensions, and treated with preservative. In laboratory tests, bending strength and stiffness of the Press-Lam ties were found to...

  18. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  19. Vat, an amazing gene conferring resistance to aphids and viruses they carry: from molecular structure to field effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Boissot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We review half a century of research on Cucumis melo resistance to Aphis gossypii from molecular to field levels. The Vat gene is unique in conferring resistance to both A. gossypii and the viruses it transmits. This double phenotype is aphid clone-dependent and has been observed in 25 melon accessions, mostly from Asia. It is controlled by a cluster of genes including CC-NLR, which has been characterized in detail. Copy-number polymorphisms (for the whole gene and for a domain that stands out in the LLR region and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the Vat cluster. The role of these polymorphisms in plant aphid/interactions remains unclear. The Vat gene structure suggests a functioning with separate recognition and response phases. During the recognition phase, the VAT protein is thought to interact (likely indirectly with an aphid effector introduced during cell puncture by the aphid. A few hours later, several miRNAs are upregulated in Vat plants. Peroxidase activity increases, and callose and lignin are deposited in the walls of the cells adjacent to the stylet path, disturbing aphid behavior. In aphids feeding on Vat plants, Piwi-interacting RNA-like sequences are abundant and the levels of other miRNAs are modified. At the plant level, resistance to aphids is quantitative (aphids escape the plant and display low rates of reproduction. Resistance to viruses is qualitative and local.Durability of NLR genes is highly variable. A. gossypii clones are adapted to Vat resistance, either by introducing a new effector that interferes with the deployment of plant defenses, or by adapting to the defenses it triggered. Viruses transmitted in a non-persistent manner cannot adapt to Vat resistance. At population level, Vat reduces aphid density and genetic diversity. The durability of Vat resistance to A. gossypii populations depends strongly on the agro-ecosystem, including, in particular, the presence of other cucurbit crops

  20. A remarkable new species of Coeliccia from the Tuyen Lam Lake area, Lam Dong, southern Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-04-15

    Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed.

  1. Biological features produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Mendez Ribo, Macarena; Pedersen, David Bue

    2017-01-01

    Bio inspired surfaces have attracted great interest due to their potential applications in different industries by using a variety of structures. The fabrication of microstructures having complex shapes have been developed within the recent decades. This work realizes the direct fabrication...... of micro biological features by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes. The study characterizes the additive manufacturing processes for polymeric micro part productions using the vat photopolymerization method. A specifically designed vat photopolymerization AM machine suitable for precision printing...... thickness. In order to select the optimal range of printing parameters, a sensitivity analysis was carried out prior to the final experiment. The print quality was assessed in terms of features heights, tip heights and tip diameters....

  2. Decolorization of a textile vat dye by adsorption on waste ash

    OpenAIRE

    MIODRAG ŠMELCEROVIĆ; DRAGAN ĐORĐEVIĆ; MILE NOVAKOVIĆ; MIRJANA MIZDRAKOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    An adsorption process using cheap adsorbents could be described as a simple, selective and low cost alternative for the treatment of colored waste water compared to conventional physical and chemical processes. In this study the use of a natural waste adsorbent–ash was investigated for the removal of a textile vat dye Ostanthren blue GCD remaining after the dyeing of cotton textile. The ash obtained as a waste material during the burning of brown coal in the heating station of Leskovac (Serbi...

  3. Performance Simulation and Verification of Vat Photopolymerization Based, Additively Manufactured Injection Molding Inserts with Micro-Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Hofstätter, Thomas; Michailidou, Ifigeneia

    2017-01-01

    Injection molding soft tooling inserts manufactured additively with vat photopolymerization represent a valid technology for prototyping and pilot production of polymer parts. However, a significant drawback is the low heat conductivity of photopolymers influencing cycletime and part quality...

  4. Developments of VAT Rates in EU Countries in the Context of Harmonization and Fiscal Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Andrejovská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the value added tax is most often used tax it is a relatively young tax instrument that can assure significant increase in countries tax revenues. The advantage of VAT is that it is a consumption tax and so the tax payers take it as a natural part of the price. To assure the transparency and flexibility of relationships between EU countries, EC stresses the need of harmonizing Member States’ approaches to VAT rates and tax bases. Development of its rates refers to a relative autonomy of the states’ policies and at the same time illustrates the changes in the tax harmonization process, which enhances the need for its research. The paper analyzes the development of VAT rates in the EU since their introduction, with the emphasis on the period 2000–2012. Development is evaluated in terms of harmonization and fiscal consolidation in the crisis years. At the same time the implicit rate of value added tax is determined, which serves as a measure of tax collection success to its base.

  5. Ethnopharmacological uses of Antidesma madagascariense Lam. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antidesma madagascariense Lam. is an indigenous plant of the Mascarene Islands which has interestingly shined as a promising traditional medicinal plant. The ethnobotanical uses of this plant were geared toward the treatment and management of dysentery, albumin in the urine, jaundice, fever, diabetes, skin infections, rheumatic and body aches among others. Preliminary screening of this plant coupled with a plethora of in vitro and in vivo tests have furnished scientists with documented findings that have appraised its traditional use in the treatment and management of infectious diseases. The presence of antidesmin, a commonly characterized component of Antidesma species, might justify the medicinal virtues of this plant. The present monograph aims at providing the botanical description, traditional uses and latest findings documented on A. madagascariense. Nonetheless, continued research on this plant needs to be completed in order to rationalize the use of this promising plant as a potential source of beneficial constituents for the treatment and management of human diseases and hence set up promising optimism for drug development. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 86-89

  6. Micropropagation of Pluchea sagittalis (Lam. Cabrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. ROSSATO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro protocol for the micropropagation of Pluchea sagittalis (Lam. Cabrera. Plants were regenerated in vitro from stem segments. The procedure employed includes: 1 surface sterilization of shoots by immersion in 70% ethanol for 10 s followed by 1.0% NaOCl for 10 min, and subsequent immersion in 0.05% HgCl2 for 3 min and two washes with sterile distilled water; 2 induction of root and shoot by culture on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium (MS; 3 acclimatization of 60 day-old-plantlets in soil under ex vitro conditions. Minimum contamination was observed for apical shoot explants (10%. However, independently of the explant position in the stem, all explants regenerated new shoots. Various successive cultivations from stem explants every 60 days during more than 1 year have been shown to be a suitable method to propagate P. sagittalis in vitro. Low salt concentration (25% of the normal concentration in the medium promoted greater growth of plantlets because the plants had a higher number of roots and longer roots in such an environment. Our protocol for the micropropagation of P. sagittalis can be accomplished as a two-step procedure within a short period of time (two months before transplanting.

  7. The Impact of Taxation of the Domestic Economic Transactions on the Vat Collection Through Electronic Fiscal Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of collecting tax resources to the consolidated budget has determined and still determines difficulties which cannot be neglected in all the former socialist countries of the Central and Eastern Europe. From the Members States of the European Union, Romania is the country with the highest VAT Gap between EU Member States: 41%, compared to a European average of 15.2%. One solution tried to solve this problem was the regulation of mandatory use of electronic cash registers with fiscal memory. In this way, it was considered that a better highlight and also a tighter control of economic transactions will be achieved, from a fiscal point of view. In our study, we analyze, for the Romanian context in the postEU accession, whether the mandatory introduction of these devices in recording commercial transactions has had a significant impact on VAT collection. The study includes two stages of the analysis: in the first stage we estimated the influence of VAT rate variation on the degree of the VAT collection. Then we used the residual component to test the influence of EFDs’ mandatory introduction on VAT collection or on fiscal efficiency. The results indicate an improvement in the collection of VAT but also a decrease in the efficiency of fiscal collection.

  8. THE VALUE ADDED TAX AND THE EVASION CHAIN OF INTRA-COMMUNITARIAN VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliman Eugen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship IRS taxpayer runs the risk of turning into a psychological war in which, however, given the positions held, the IRS is by far on a favorable footing. Between the apparently excessively formal position held by the IRS, which seems to conceal behind the laws, and the sometimes forced interpretation of the laws, by the taxpayer, there are the courts of law, also disturbed by the legislative changes which appear to have entered a perpetual motion. The objective of the fiscal administration regarding the value added tax is to combat tax evasion and fraud. It is very important to combat evasion in the VAT field because it represents the indirect tax of the largest share in the consolidated general budget. VAT evasion represents the intention of not paying the tax, withholding or not declaring it, or requesting its refund which would not be fit, due to the exaggeration of the deductible amount of the VAT. The essential aim of the IRS inspector is to verify the correctness of the declared amount of the value added tax. It should also be observed whether the incorrectness is deliberate or whether it was due to misunderstanding, carelessness or the ignorance of the payer. In all cases judgment is necessary, as for the cases of negligence the amount to be paid must be corrected and accompanied by applying fines and / or penalties, and in the cases of intended fraud legal actions are to be applied in order to obtain a conviction. Deceitful deductions represent other methods for tax evasion and are undertaken based on fake invoices, invoices often used several times for deduction, or invoices related to purchases that have never been made. Thus there are examples of economic agents who have practiced the right to deduct the VAT due to the acquisition of goods which consisted in the property of other economic agents. In other cases noticed was the deduction of VAT on goods or services that were not included in the activities of the economic

  9. The Origin of Lyα Emission in the Green Peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Tara; Jaskot, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Green Peas (GPs) are young, rare, compact starburst galaxies with strong [O III] emission and are some of the only known galaxies leaking ionizing Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation. The Lyα spectral line is one indirect diagnostic of LyC escape, as LyC-leaking galaxies may have narrower and stronger Lyα emission. We calculate a variety of nebular and physical properties of the GPs to determine which parameters correlate best with particular Lyα features, including Lyα equivalent width, escape fraction, and blue-to-red velocity peak separation. We find that ionizing photon production correlates strongly with Lyα equivalent width and that peak separation is particularly sensitive to the ionized vs. neutral gas content of the galaxy. We discuss the implications of these properties for LyC-leaking galaxies.

  10. 75 FR 76952 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer... distribution facilities of Lam Research Corporation, located in Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, California... equipment at the facilities of Lam Research Corporation, located in Fremont, Newark, and Livermore...

  11. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Elbaz-Alon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure, vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch, and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction. We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication.

  12. For-LySa: UML for Authentication Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Montangero, Carlo; Perrone, Lara

    2005-01-01

    The DEGAS project aims at enriching standard UML-centred development environments in such a way that the developers of global applications can exploit automated formal analyses with minimal overhead. In this paper, we present For-LySa, an instantiation of the DEGAS approach for authentication...... analysis, which exploits an existing analysis tool developed for the process calculus LySa. We discuss what information is needed for the analysis, and how to build the UML model of an authentication protocol in such a way that the needed information can be extracted from the model. We then present our...

  13. Homogeneous and non-local heterogeneous transport phenomena with VAT application analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catton, I.; Travkin, V.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Some fundamental questions about the mathematical description of transport phenomena in heterogeneous media are addressed to highlight the importance of the smallest scale, of using the correct equations and of choosing a consistent set of scaling parameters. Micro-pore flow is treated using a viscosity correlation that properly treats the near wall region in a capillary. Equations resulting from use of volume averaging theory (VAT) are compared with exact solutions and it shown that certain terms normally ignored must be retained. A consistent set of scaling parameters are derived and shown to yield consistent results over a wide range of different media morphologies.

  14. Implementation of the changes in VAT regulations in steel industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Szyguła

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the importance of the changes in legal regulations regarding the value added tax in force from October 1st 2013. The current legal status has been summarized along with the description of reverse charge and joint liability. It has been identified that the reason for introducing these changes was to reduce the losses from tax fraud in the steel market. The process of adaptation to the changes in the legal environment has been exemplified by a representative company based in Poland. It has been determined that the changes introduced in the VAT Act and Tax Ordinance improved the competitive position of the analysed company.

  15. VATS-guided epicardial pacemaker implantation. Hand-sutured fixation of atrioventricular leads in an experimental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, M; Fuhrer, J; Altermatt, H J; Ris, H; Mettler, D; Althaus, U; Carrel, T

    1997-12-01

    In neonates and infants epicardial stimulation may be preferred to endocardial stimulation because of growth-associated lead problems and the risk of vascular complications associated with transvenous electrodes. This study analyzes the feasibility of atrioventricular implantation of a new epicardial lead using the video-assisted thoracic surgical (VATS) technique in an animal model. Bipolar steroid-eluting epicardial leads were implanted in seven young white pigs. In five animals bipolar atrial and ventricular pacing leads (n = 10) were inserted and fixed by the VATS technique, while two animals served as controls and underwent implantation through anterolateral thoracotomy. Surgical feasibility, pacing, and sensing thresholds of the leads as well as hemodynamic parameters during pacing were studied. Histological changes beneath the electrodes were evaluated 1 week after the implantation. All animals survived the pacemaker lead implantation. One animal which underwent thoracotomy died because of irreversible ventricular fibrillation induced by rapid ventricular pacing. One animal in the VATS group exhibited intraoperative herniation of the heart through the pericardial window. All animals with left-sided VATS implantations demonstrated good individual pacing and sensing threshold values. The mean cardiac output was 1.6 times higher during AAI-mode pacing as compared to VVI-mode pacing at a heart rate of 140/min. One animal died postoperatively due to respiratory failure. No displacements of the pacemaker leads were observed in the survivors. While VATS-guided implantation of epicardial, atrial, and ventricular leads is feasible, technical improvements of the system are mandatory for safe clinical application.

  16. The Vat-AIEC protease promotes crossing of the intestinal mucus layer by Crohn's disease-associated Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibold, Lucie; Garenaux, Estelle; Dalmasso, Guillaume; Gallucci, Camille; Cia, David; Mottet-Auselo, Benoit; Faïs, Tiphanie; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu; Barnich, Nicolas; Bonnet, Richard; Delmas, Julien

    2016-05-01

    The aetiology of Crohn's disease (CD) involves disorders in host genetic factors and intestinal microbiota. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are receiving increased attention because in studies of mucosa-associated microbiota, they are more prevalent in CD patients than in healthy subjects. AIEC are associated both with ileal and colonic disease phenotypes. In this study, we reported a protease called Vat-AIEC from AIEC that favours the mucosa colonization. The deletion of the Vat-AIEC-encoding gene resulted in an adhesion-impaired phenotype in vitro and affected the colonization of bacteria in contact with intestinal epithelial cells in a murine intestinal loop model, and also their gut colonization in vivo. Furthermore, unlike LF82Δvat-AIEC, wild-type AIEC reference strain LF82 was able to penetrate a mucus column extensively and promoted the degradation of mucins and a decrease in mucus viscosity. Vat-AIEC transcription was stimulated by several chemical conditions found in the ileum environment. Finally, the screening of E. coli strains isolated from CD patients revealed a preferential vat-AIEC association with AIEC strains belonging to the B2 phylogroup. Overall, this study revealed a new component of AIEC virulence that might favour their implantation in the gut of CD patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The brightest Ly α emitter: Pop III or black hole?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallottini, A.; Ferrara, A.; Pacucci, F.; Gallerani, S.; Salvadori, S.; Schneider, R.; Schaerer, D.; Sobral, D.; Matthee, J.

    2015-01-01

    CR7 is the brightest z = 6.6 Ly α emitter (LAE) known to date, and spectroscopic follow-up by Sobral et al. suggests that CR7 might host Population (Pop) III stars. We examine this interpretation using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Several simulated galaxies show the same `Pop III wave'

  18. Signatures of positive selection in LY96 gene in vertebrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... As a secreted glycoprotein that binds to the extracellular domain of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Lymphocyte Antigen. 96 (LY96), also called myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), is required for the activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide. (LPS) and plays an important role in innate immunity, which is the first line ...

  19. Haematological effects of leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological effects of leaves extract of Moringa oleifera Lam were investigated in normal and myelo-suppressed Wistar rats. Acute toxicity and phytochemistry of Moringa oleifera were determined. Wistar-rats (n=35), aged 2 to 3 months, weighing 120 - 170 grams were divided into 5 groups of 7 rats per group, labeled A ...

  20. Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma. Mutasim M. Khalafalla, Eltayb Abdellatef, Hussain Mohammed Dafalla, Amr A. Nassrallah, Khalid M. Aboul-Enein, David A. Lightfoot, Fadl E. El-Deeb, Hany A. El-Shemy ...

  1. Hypotensive Activity of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the hypotensive activity and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) roots. Methods: The fresh roots of M. oleifera was cut into small pieces and successively extracted with petroleum ether (PE) and dichloromethane (DC). PE extract was further divided into MRP and MRP -1.

  2. Extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam . showing inhibitory activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is one of the many medicinal plants employed by herbalist to treat or manage people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in African Traditional Medicine (ATM) and there are many claims to the fact that it improves quality of life and reverses the course of the HIV/AIDS disease progression.

  3. Genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeats markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. from Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing City and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. 100 primers were carried out on 22 wild populations, 14 could produce highly ...

  4. Genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. from Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing City and. Guangxi Zhuang autonomous Region in China. 10 primer combinations were carried out on 180 different individuals ...

  5. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    expression in TSC2- reexpressing LAM patient-derived cells (Fig. 1g). To address how estradiol exerts its action on COX-2 expression and prostaglandin...lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Journal of medical genetics 37:55-57. Auricchio, N., I. Malinowska, R. Shaw, B.D. Manning, and D.J. Kwiatkowski. Therapeutic trial of metformin

  6. Targeting Autophagy for the Treatment of TSC and LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    15ng/ml) and hyrdroxychloroquine (200mg or 400mg) will be taken orally daily for 6 months. Up to 18 female subjects ages 18 and older with LAM will be...if data is collected before the 6 month timepoint. Summary of Amendment 03  Instructions for use of contraceptives were clarified in the protocol

  7. Når TV-kokken ofrer lam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    programmet Jamie’s Italian Escape (Channel 4, 2006) og det franske madprogram Le Chef en France (M6, 2012) med kokken Cyril Lignac. De to analyseeksempler har det til fælles, at det i begge tilfælde er lam, der slås ihjel og tilberedes. I artiklen analyseres, hvordan slagtningerne i disse madprogrammer...

  8. Phytochemical and anti-diarrheal studies of Bauhinia rufescens Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bauhinia rufescens Lam, family Leguminosae – Caesalpinoideae, an economic, ornamental and medicinal plant with fruits edible to human and animals, was subjected to phytochemical and anti-diarrheal studies. The phytochemical screening of the leaves, roots and stem bark showed the presence of saponins, tannins, ...

  9. Structured Dialogue Design in LAMS through Interactive Lecture Podcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the utility of interactive lecture podcasting in LAMS and the impact of structured dialogue design. It reports how curriculum renewal and innovation were greeted with scepticism by teacher education students enrolled in a compulsory curriculum unit at an Australian university. An analytic induction methodology in conjunction…

  10. Coagulation of some humic acid solutions by Moringa oleifera Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Experiments were carried out to study humic acid solutions and surface waters coagulation by Moringa oleifera Lam seeds aqueous extract. High amounts of such extract (up to. 10 g/L) were required to clarify humic acid solutions whereas 0.5 g/L were used to remove 90% of initial turbidity of a surface water.

  11. Genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of. Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. from Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing City and. Guangxi Zhuang autonomous Region in China. 10 primer combinations were carried out on 180.

  12. In vitro clonal propagation of Fuchsia magellanica Lam. | Parveen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuchsia magellanica Lam. is a famous ornamental plant which is rarely found in Pakistan. Its beauty and ... This study is undertaken to perform in vitro clonal propagation and acclimatization of F. magellanica in order to get hundreds of F. magellanica plants in the laboratory in comparatively less time. Hence, it would be ...

  13. (Chlorophyta) biomass production using Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorella sorokiniana Shih. et Krauss, a unicellular green alga was assayed to assess its to promotion potentials response of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. C. sorokiniana grown in 200 ml aliquots of modified basal medium for two weeks: was treated with the aqueous and ethanolic extracts at ...

  14. Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. moringaceae) is a highly valued plant that is mostly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. It is used for food, medication and industrial purposes. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional value of Moringa leaves of the South African ecotype. Proximate and.

  15. Hypotensive Activity of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the hypotensive activity and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) roots. Methods: The fresh roots of M. oleifera was cut into small pieces and successively extracted with petroleum ether (PE) and dichloromethane (DC). PE extract was further divided into MRP and MRP -1.

  16. VAT regime affecting the acquisition of electronic information sources in Slovenia and in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilen Mandelj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax legislation system in the Republic of Slovenia as well as that of the European Union does not keep pace with the rapid technological development. A lot of problems arise in the field of purchasing and providing access to electronic information sources, namely electronic journals which are very important to disseminate research results. Problems arising from the application of the EC Directive 2006/112 in the Slovenian legislation system are described. The goal that the Value Added Tax (VAT would not affect the international competitiveness of the EU Member states was not met. Different levels of general and reduced tax rates and even different levels of taxation of electronic information sources put Member States in unequal positions. Tax regimes in Member States and their responses to the problem of VAT are discussed. The article shows the complexity of electronic information sources which can partly be taxed as services and party as goods in electronic form. A simulation of expenditure on electronic information sources at different tax rates and possible changes of tax legislation are presented.

  17. miRNA-mediated auxin signalling repression during Vat-mediated aphid resistance in Cucumis melo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Sampurna; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Thompson, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Resistance to Aphis gossypii in melon is attributed to the presence of the single dominant R gene virus aphid transmission (Vat), which is biologically expressed as antibiosis, antixenosis and tolerance. However, the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood at the molecular level. Aphid-induced transcriptional changes, including differentially expressed miRNA profiles that correspond to resistance interaction have been reported in melon. The potential regulatory roles of miRNAs in Vat-mediated aphid resistance were further revealed by identifying the specific miRNA degradation targets. A total of 70 miRNA:target pairs, including 28 novel miRNA:target pairs, for the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified: 11 were associated with phytohormone regulation, including six miRNAs that potentially regulate auxin interactions. A model for a redundant regulatory system of miRNA-mediated auxin insensitivity is proposed that incorporates auxin perception, auxin modification and auxin-regulated transcription. Chemically inhibiting the transport inhibitor response-1 (TIR-1) auxin receptor in susceptible melon tissues provides in vivo support for the model of auxin-mediated impacts on A. gossypii resistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Linfangioleimiomatose pulmonar - LAM. Um caso de associação de LAM e angiomiolipoma renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mendonça

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Relatase o caso clínico de uma jovem mulber, que é submetida a uma nefrectomia radical por volumoso tumor à direita, tendo verificado tratarse dum angiomiolipoma. Até então sem qualquer queixa, sinal ou sintoma do foro respiratório. No decurso do pós-operatório, fez complicação aparatosa no contexto da qual foi identificado um pneumotorax espontâneo bilateral. Após a alta hospitalar, foram observados e registados vários episódios de pneumotorax espontâneo, unilateral. A partir do episodio inicial desenvolve, lenta e progressivamente, um quadro clínico de dispneia. Apresenta-se a evolução clínica e alguns parâmetros caracterizadores das alterações funcionais respiratórias, ao longo de seis anos, bem como a documentação de TAC-HR do tórax e histológica, que permitiram fundamentar o diagnóstico desta associação de entidades raras. SUMMARY: We present the case report of a young woman submited to a radical nefrectomy of the right kidney due to the presence of a large tumor diagnosed as an angiomyolipoma. Until such time no respiratory signs and symptoms were referred. Complications during post-op led to the identification of a bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. After being released from the hospital the patient returned several times due to unilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. After the first of these episodes she developed slowly progressive dyspnea. We present the clinical evolution and respiratory function parameters for a six year follow-up as well as thoracic HR-CT scan documentation and histologic studies that permit the diagnosis of these associated and rare entities. Palavras chave: Linfangioleirniomatose pulmonar - LAM, angiomiolipoma, pneumotorax espontâneo bilateral, : Key -words, Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis - LAM, angiomyolipoma, Bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces

  19. Excise duties and VAT in Europe: situation in december 2001; Accises et TVA: situation en decembre 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-12-01

    No changes occurred in the European Union at year end, regarding excise duties and VAT rates. For the year, the excise duties on automotive LPG were modified on January 1, in Germany and Netherlands. For its part, Luxembourg lowered its excise duty on auto-gas as per June, 1 from 54,54 Euros (LUF 2200) for 1000 litres to 54,04 Euros (LUF 2180). One could notice that Belgium and Finland still apply a zero excise duty on LPG autogas, while Luxembourg has the lowest VAT on autogas: 6%. (authors)

  20. Ly6C- Monocytes Regulate Parasite-Induced Liver Inflammation by Inducing the Differentiation of Pathogenic Ly6C+ Monocytes into Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Morias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes consist of two well-defined subsets, the Ly6C+ and Ly6C- monocytes. Both CD11b+ myeloid cells populations have been proposed to infiltrate tissues during inflammation. While infiltration of Ly6C+ monocytes is an established pathogenic factor during hepatic inflammation, the role of Ly6C- monocytes remains elusive. Mice suffering experimental African trypanosome infection die from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS that is initiated by phagocytosis of parasites by liver myeloid cells and culminates in apoptosis/necrosis of liver myeloid and parenchymal cells that reduces host survival. C57BL/6 mice are considered as trypanotolerant to Trypanosoma congolense infection. We have reported that in these animals, IL-10, produced among others by myeloid cells, limits the liver damage caused by pathogenic TNF-producing Ly6C+ monocytes, ensuring prolonged survival. Here, the heterogeneity and dynamics of liver myeloid cells in T. congolense-infected C57/BL6 mice was further dissected. Moreover, the contribution of Ly6C- monocytes to trypanotolerance was investigated. By using FACS analysis and adoptive transfer experiments, we found that the accumulation of Ly6C- monocytes and macrophages in the liver of infected mice coincided with a drop in the pool of Ly6C+ monocytes. Pathogenic TNF mainly originated from Ly6C+ monocytes while Ly6C- monocytes and macrophages were major and equipotent sources of IL-10 within myeloid cells. Moreover, Nr4a1 (Nur77 transcription factor-dependent Ly6C- monocytes exhibited IL-10-dependent and cell contact-dependent regulatory properties contributing to trypanotolerance by suppressing the production of TNF by Ly6C+ monocytes and by promoting the differentiation of the latter cells into macrophages. Thus, Ly6C- monocytes can dampen liver damage caused by an extensive Ly6C+ monocyte-associated inflammatory immune response in T. congolense trypanotolerant animals. In a more general context, Ly6C- or Ly6C

  1. ‘Do You Want a Receipt?’ Combating VAT and RST Evasion with Lottery Tickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C. Hemels (Sigrid); M. Fabbri (Marco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractGovernments both in developed and developing countries are facing the problem of value added tax (VAT) and retail sales tax (RST) evasion. This explains a growing interest in policies alternative to the traditional methods of deterrence. This paper describes the achievements resulting

  2. Changes in the VAT Burden on Expenses of Selected Households in the Czech Republic (2007–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Střílková Regína

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic is a typical representative EU Member State which has several times changed VAT rates during the analyzed period 2007–2014 in an effort to consolidate the public budget. These changes are reflected in household spending, which were analyzed by means of the consumer basket, the composition of which is also undergoing changes. Another factor that has an impact on household expenditures is the transfer of commodities between the reduced and standard rate of VAT. The final factor used is the differentiation of households according to their income levels. The aim of this paper is to determine how these changes took effect in the Czech Republic in the share of consumption of commodities included in the standard and reduced VAT rates and in exempt transactions according to household income groups in the analyzed period 2007–2014 and to determine the impact of these changes on the tax burden on selected households by value added tax and confirmation of the assumption of VAT regressivity.

  3. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Saulo Luis da; Figueiredo,Patrícia Maria; Yano,Tomomasa

    2007-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool) were also tested to ve...

  4. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  5. Expression of the Ly-6 family proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H in the rat brain is compartmentalized, cell-type specific, and developmentally regulated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Cinar, Betül; Jensen, Majbrit Myrup

    2014-01-01

    The Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, which affects diverse processes in the immune system, has attracted renewed attention due to the ability of some Ly-6 proteins to bind to and modulate the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, there is a scarcity of knowledge r...

  6. The CALYMHA survey: Lyα luminosity function and global escape fraction of Lyα photons at z = 2.23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Best, Philip; Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub; Oteo, Iván; Smail, Ian; Morabito, Leah; Paulino-Afonso, Ana

    2017-04-01

    We present the CAlibrating LYMan-α with Hα (CALYMHA) pilot survey and new results on Lyman α (Lyα) selected galaxies at z ˜ 2. We use a custom-built Lyα narrow-band filter at the Isaac Newton Telescope, designed to provide a matched volume coverage to the z = 2.23 Hα HiZELS survey. Here, we present the first results for the COSMOS and UDS fields. Our survey currently reaches a 3σ line flux limit of ˜4 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2, and a Lyα luminosity limit of ˜1042.3 erg s-1. We find 188 Lyα emitters over 7.3 × 105 Mpc3, but also find significant numbers of other line-emitting sources corresponding to He II, C III] and C IV emission lines. These sources are important contaminants, and we carefully remove them, unlike most previous studies. We find that the Lyα luminosity function at z = 2.23 is very well described by a Schechter function up to LLy α ≈ 1043 erg s-1 with L^{ast }=10^{42.59^{+0.16}_{-0.08}} erg s-1, φ ^{ast }=10^{-3.09^{+0.14}_{-0.34}} Mpc-3 and α = -1.75 ± 0.25. Above LLy α ≈ 1043 erg s-1, the Lyα luminosity function becomes power-law like, driven by X-ray AGN. We find that Lyα-selected emitters have a high escape fraction of 37 ± 7 per cent, anticorrelated with Lyα luminosity and correlated with Lyα equivalent width. Lyα emitters have ubiquitous large (≈40 kpc) Lyα haloes, ˜2 times larger than their Hα extents. By directly comparing our Lyα and Hα luminosity functions, we find that the global/overall escape fraction of Lyα photons (within a 13 kpc radius) from the full population of star-forming galaxies is 5.1 ± 0.2 per cent at the peak of the star formation history. An extra 3.3 ± 0.3 per cent of Lyα photons likely still escape, but at larger radii.

  7. The Spectrally Resolved Lyα Emission of Three Lyα-selected Field Galaxies at z ~ 2.4 from the HETDEX Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Hill, Gary J.; Adams, Joshua J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Drory, Niv; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Overzier, Roderik A.; Song, Mimi; Zeimann, Gregory R.

    2013-10-01

    We present new results on the spectrally resolved Lyα emission of three Lyα-emitting field galaxies at z ~ 2.4 with high Lyα equivalent width (>100 Å) and Lyα luminosity (~1043 erg s-1). At 120 km s-1 (FWHM) spectral resolution, the prominent double-peaked Lyα profile straddles the systemic velocity, where the velocity zero point is determined from spectroscopy of the galaxies' rest-frame optical nebular emission lines. The average velocity offset from systemic of the stronger redshifted emission component for our sample is 176 km s-1 while the average total separation between the redshifted and main blueshifted emission components is 380 km s-1. These measurements are a factor of ~2 smaller than for UV-continuum-selected galaxies that show Lyα in emission with lower Lyα equivalent widths. We compare our Lyα spectra to the predicted line profiles of a spherical "expanding shell" Lyα radiative transfer grid that models large-scale galaxy outflows. Specifically, blueward of the systemic velocity where two galaxies show a weak, highly blueshifted (by ~1000 km s-1) tertiary emission peak, the model line profiles are a relatively poor representation of the observed spectra. Since the neutral gas column density has a dominant influence over the shape of the Lyα line profile, we caution against equating the observed Lyα velocity offset with a physical outflow velocity, especially at lower spectral resolution where the unresolved Lyα velocity offset is a convoluted function of several degenerate parameters. Referring to rest-frame ultraviolet and optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we find that galaxy-galaxy interactions may play an important role in inducing a starburst that results in copious Lyα emission as well as perturbing the gas distribution and velocity field, both of which have strong influence over the Lyα emission line profile. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  8. Novel LY Converter Topologies for High Gain Transfer Ratio - A New Breed of XY Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, M.S.; Padmanaban, S.; Kulkarni, R.

    2016-01-01

    New LY converter topologies of DC-DC XY family for renewable energy applications are articulated in this paper. Four LY topologies are presented in this paper and the proposed topologies provide an operative solution for renewable energy applications which requires a very high inverting voltage...... consistently showed good conformity with theoretical analysis and also validates the functionality of the proposed LY converter topologies of the XY converter family....

  9. Changing Traditions and Village Development in Kalotaszentkirály

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Kraft

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of village traditions depends on the stability and cohesion of village communities. Since the opening of Transylvania after the fall of Nicolae Ceauşescu, there has been a sort of revival of Hungarian village dance and music, on the one hand, but, on the longer term, the communities themselves are threatened by economic challenges and by consequent demographic changes. This essay is based on field research conducted in Kalotaszentkirály (Sincraiu from 1995 to 2010.

  10. Un codice arabo in caratteri ebraici dalla Trapani degli Abbate (Vat. ebr. 358

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandalà, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript Vat. ebr. 358 contains the Arabic text written in Hebrew script of paragraphs VI-X of the first part of the medical encyclopedia Kitāb kāmil al-ṣinā ͑a al-ṭibbiyya (‘The perfect book of the medical art’. The work was composed before 367/977-978 by ͑Alī ibn al- ͑Abbās al-Majūsī (d. 384/994 [?]. This article claims the place of production of the manuscript to be Trapani (Ṭrābaniš in Sicily. The city is explicitly mentioned in the colophon that was copied on Adar 26, 5053 (March 13, 1293. This article expands our knowledge of the circulation of Arab medical science among Sicilian Jews (13-15th c..

    El manuscrito Vat. ebr. 358 contiene el texto árabe escrito en caracteres hebreos de los apartados VI-X de la primera parte del Kitāb kāmil al-ṣinā ͑a al-ṭibbiyya (‘El libro perfecto del arte medico’. Esta última es la enciclopedia médica compuesta antes de 367/977-978 por ͑Alī ibn al- ͑Abbās al-Majūsī (m. 384/994 [?]. En el presente artículo se apunta, por primera vez, al lugar de producción del manuscrito, Trapani (Ṭrābaniš en Sicilia. La ciudad aparece mencionada explícitamente en el colofón del manuscrito copiado el 26 de adar 5053 (13 de marzo 1293. Con este artículo se pretende contribuir al estudio de la circulación del conocimiento médico árabe entre los judíos sicilianos durante los siglos XII a XV.

  11. Retention Rates, Graduates, and LAM-Series Completers for the Legal Assistant Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John

    In February 1996, Gainesville College, in Georgia, conducted a study of students in its Legal Assistant Management (LAM) Program to determine retention rates, numbers of graduates, and course pass rates. Retention and graduation rates were calculated for 175 students who enrolled in at least one LAM course from spring 1991 to fall 1995. In…

  12. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research..., requesting special-purpose subzone status for the wafer fabrication equipment manufacturing facilities of Lam Research Corporation (Lam), located in Fremont, California. The application was submitted pursuant to the...

  13. Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Randová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

  14. AB005. Evolution for pulmonary sequestration resection by VATS approach in NCKUH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hung; Chang, Chao-Chun; Huang, Wei-Li; Yen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Ying Yuan; Tseng, Yau-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background Surgical intervention is a cure method for pulmonary sequestration. Patients usually complain upper airway symptoms after being adult. We reviewed those patients diagnosed pulmonary sequestration and underwent surgery in NCKUH. Since uniportal video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) anatomical resection started in 2016, we collected the information to figure out the evolution from multi-portal approach to uniportal approach. Methods We reviewed the patients who had pulmonary sequestration and received surgical treatment. The general data such as surgery procedure and postoperative care is collected. The uniportal approach is beginning in 2016. We make a comparison between multiportal group and uniportal group. Results This study is from 2007 to 2017 and the total patient number is eighteen. We exclude wedge resection for anatomical resection comparison. There are five patients in multiportal group and six patients in uniportal group. There is no difference in surgery time and blood loss between the two groups. However, the chest tube extraction is shorter in uniportal group. Conclusions Anatomical resection is an optimal approach for treating pulmonary sequestration. After ten years practice for thoracoscopic surgery, uniportal approach is evolving and being mature in our hospital.

  15. Decolorization of a textile vat dye by adsorption on waste ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIODRAG ŠMELCEROVIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An adsorption process using cheap adsorbents could be described as a simple, selective and low cost alternative for the treatment of colored waste water compared to conventional physical and chemical processes. In this study the use of a natural waste adsorbent–ash was investigated for the removal of a textile vat dye Ostanthren blue GCD remaining after the dyeing of cotton textile. The ash obtained as a waste material during the burning of brown coal in the heating station of Leskovac (Serbia was used for the treatment of waste waters from the textile industry, i.e., waste water after the dyeing process. The effect of ash quantity, initial dye concentration, pH and agitation time on adsorption was studied. The Langmuir model was used to describe the adsorption isotherm. Based on the analytical expression of the Langmuir model, the adsorption constants, such as adsorption capacity and adsorption energy, were found. Pseudo first and second order kinetic models were studied to evaluate the kinetic data.

  16. Las Webquest en la docencia universitaria: aprendizaje colaborativo con LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Holgado Sáez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las WebQuest son un recurso didáctico basado en el aprendizaje constructivista y en la metodología colaborativa que está teniendo mucho éxito en las etapas de Infantil, Primaria y Secundaria. En el presente artículo pretendemos ofrecer una propuesta de utilización de este recurso en la etapa universitaria con LAMS -Sistema de Control de Actividades de Aprendizaje- a través de entornos virtuales de aprendizaje, como Moodle.

  17. Regulation of leukocyte migration by activation of the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, O; Kansas, G S; Munro, J M; Griffin, J D; Tedder, T F

    1991-02-21

    A central feature of host defence is the ability of leukocytes to enter tissues in response to immune or inflammatory stimuli. The leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) regulates the migration of human leukocytes by mediating the binding both of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules of peripheral lymph nodes and of neutrophils to endothelium at inflammatory sites. As lymphocytes and neutrophils express the same LAM-1 protein, it is not clear how lineage-specific differences in leukocyte migration are controlled. We now report that the affinity of LAM-1 for a carbohydrate-based ligand, PPME, is dramatically increased following lymphocyte and neutrophil activation by lineage-specific stimuli. In addition, activation of lymphocytes by physiological stimuli enhanced LAM-1-dependent binding to high endothelial venules. Thus, transient changes in LAM-1 affinity after leukocyte stimulation probably directly influence leukocyte migration.

  18. Anne-Ly Võlli: Iga inimene ja asutus vajab omamoodi lähenemist / Anne-Ly Võlli ; intervjueerinud Jaanika Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võlli, Anne-Ly, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    MTÜ Jõgevamaa Omavalitsuste Aktiviseerimiskeskus kinnitas avaliku konkursi tulemusel juhatuse liikmeks Anne-Ly Võlli, kelle ülesandeks on keskuse tegevuse juhtimine ja koostöö arendamine partneromavalitsuste ja teiste koostööpartnerite vahel

  19. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  20. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragunathan Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV, and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

  1. Evolution of Ly Forest in Redshift Range 0.5< < 3.4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We collect 23 spectral data from literature, which is regarded as a relatively sufficient sample. The evolution index was calculated to study the evolution of Ly line density of Ly forest. This paper discusses the relationship between the evolution with the redshift in different interval threshold of column density. The results ...

  2. Reflection of the Change in VAT Rates on Selected Household Expenditures in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic (2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Široký

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union in the period of years 2007–2013 increased the rate of value added tax several times in an attempt to consolidate public budgets. While the Czech Republic is a typical representative of country changing VAT rates several times, Slovakia made practically only one change in the VAT rate. On the other hand, the Slovak Republic is a country where the reduced rate is applied only to the minimum of commodities. Changes in VAT are naturally reflected in household expenditures which are analyzed by the consumer basket, whose composition is also a subject of changes. Another factor that has an impact on household spending is swapping commodities between the rates of VAT.The aim of this paper is, based on the analytic-synthetic methods, to determine how are these changes differently manifested in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic in reference to the share of commodity consumption included in the standard and reduced VAT rates and to the exempt transactions, and, in particular, to determine how they affected the VAT burden of the hypothetical household in both countries.

  3. Lyčių lyderystė : panašumai ir skirtumai

    OpenAIRE

    Bujevič-Valuckienė, Jevgenija

    2010-01-01

    Magistro darbo objektas: lyčių lyderystė – panašumai ir skirtumai. Darbo tikslas: išanalizuoti moterų ir vyrų lyderių asmeninių savybių bei vadovavimo ir komunikavimo įgūdžių panašumus ir skirtumus. Darbo uždaviniai: išanalizuoti socializacijos proceso įtaką socialinės lyties formavimuisi; ištirti lyčių komunikacijos teorijas; išanalizuoti lyčių komunikacijos organizacijoje ypatumus bei lyčių stereotipų įtaką komunikacijai; išnagrinėti efektyvios lyderystės sąvoką bei lyčių lyderystės panašum...

  4. Mannose-Capped Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces CD4+ T cell Anergy via GRAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sande, Obondo J.; Karim, Ahmad F.; Li, Qing; Ding, Xuedong; Harding, Clifford V.; Rojas, Roxana E.; Boom, W. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall glycolipid, Lipoarabinomannan, can inhibit CD4+ T cell activation by down-regulating phosphorylation of key proximal TCR signaling molecules Lck, CD3ζ, ZAP70 and LAT. Inhibition of proximal TCR signaling can result in T cell anergy, in which T cells are inactivated following an antigen encounter, yet remain viable and hyporesponsive. We tested whether LAM-induced inhibition of CD4+ T cell activation resulted in CD4+ T cell anergy. The presence of LAM during primary stimulation of P25TCR-Tg murine CD4+ T cells with M. tuberculosis Ag85B peptide resulted in decreased proliferation and IL-2 production. P25TCR-Tg CD4+ T cells primed in the presence of LAM also exhibited decreased response upon re-stimulation with Ag85B. The T cell anergic state persisted after the removal of LAM. Hypo-responsiveness to re-stimulation was not due to apoptosis, generation of FoxP3-positive regulatory T cells or inhibitory cytokines. Acquisition of the anergic phenotype correlated with up-regulation of GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes) protein in CD4+ T cells. Inhibition of human CD4+ T cell activation by LAM also was associated with increased GRAIL expression. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of GRAIL before LAM pre-treatment abrogated LAM induced hypo-responsiveness. In addition, exogenous IL-2 reversed defective proliferation by down-regulating GRAIL expression. These results demonstrate that LAM up-regulates GRAIL to induce anergy in Ag-reactive CD4+ T cells. Induction of CD4+ T cell anergy by LAM may represent one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis evades T cell recognition. PMID:26667170

  5. Ly6C(low) and not Ly6C(high) macrophages accumulate first in the heart in a model of murine pressure-overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheit, Christina; Zhang, Yunyang; Faron, Anton; Köpke, Odilia; Weisheit, Gunnar; Steinsträsser, Arne; Frede, Stilla; Meyer, Rainer; Boehm, Olaf; Hoeft, Andreas; Kurts, Christian; Baumgarten, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tissue remodeling in the course of chronic left ventricular hypertrophy requires phagocytes which degrade cellular debris, initiate and maintain tissue inflammation and reorganization. The dynamics of phagocytes in left ventricular hypertrophy have not been systematically studied. Here, we characterized the temporal accumulation of leukocytes in the cardiac immune response by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy at day 3, 6 and 21 following transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac hypertrophy due to chronic pressure overload causes cardiac immune response and inflammation represented by an increase of immune cells at all three time points among which neutrophils reached their maximum at day 3 and macrophages at day 6. The cardiac macrophage population consisted of both Ly6C(low) and Ly6C(high) macrophages. Ly6C(low) macrophages were more abundant peaking at day 6 in response to pressure overload. During the development of cardiac hypertrophy the expression pattern of adhesion molecules was investigated by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. CD11b, CX3CR1 and ICAM-1 determined by qRT-PCR in whole cardiac tissue were up-regulated in response to pressure overload at day 3 and 6. CD11b and CX3CR1 were significantly increased by TAC on the surface of Ly6C(low) but not on Ly6C(high) macrophages. Furthermore, ICAM-1 was up-regulated on cardiac endothelial cells. In fluorescence microscopy Ly6C(low) macrophages could be observed attached to the intra- and extra-vascular vessel-wall. Taken together, TAC induced the expression of adhesion molecules, which may explain the accumulation of Ly6C(low) macrophages in the cardiac tissue, where these cells might contribute to cardiac inflammation and remodeling in response to pressure overload.

  6. Ly6C(low and not Ly6C(high macrophages accumulate first in the heart in a model of murine pressure-overload.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Weisheit

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue remodeling in the course of chronic left ventricular hypertrophy requires phagocytes which degrade cellular debris, initiate and maintain tissue inflammation and reorganization. The dynamics of phagocytes in left ventricular hypertrophy have not been systematically studied. Here, we characterized the temporal accumulation of leukocytes in the cardiac immune response by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy at day 3, 6 and 21 following transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Cardiac hypertrophy due to chronic pressure overload causes cardiac immune response and inflammation represented by an increase of immune cells at all three time points among which neutrophils reached their maximum at day 3 and macrophages at day 6. The cardiac macrophage population consisted of both Ly6C(low and Ly6C(high macrophages. Ly6C(low macrophages were more abundant peaking at day 6 in response to pressure overload. During the development of cardiac hypertrophy the expression pattern of adhesion molecules was investigated by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. CD11b, CX3CR1 and ICAM-1 determined by qRT-PCR in whole cardiac tissue were up-regulated in response to pressure overload at day 3 and 6. CD11b and CX3CR1 were significantly increased by TAC on the surface of Ly6C(low but not on Ly6C(high macrophages. Furthermore, ICAM-1 was up-regulated on cardiac endothelial cells. In fluorescence microscopy Ly6C(low macrophages could be observed attached to the intra- and extra-vascular vessel-wall. Taken together, TAC induced the expression of adhesion molecules, which may explain the accumulation of Ly6C(low macrophages in the cardiac tissue, where these cells might contribute to cardiac inflammation and remodeling in response to pressure overload.

  7. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Rocha, Juliana C.B.; Mello, Joao C.P. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: mello@uem.br; Almeida, Glalber C. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 {mu}L and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  8. Finding bright z ≥ 6.6 Ly α emitters with lensing: prospects for Euclid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, L.; Serjeant, S.; Vaccari, M.

    2017-10-01

    We model the z ≥ 6.6 Ly α luminosity function to estimate the number of lensed high-z Ly α emitters that may be detected by the Euclid Deep Survey. To span the whole range of possible predictions, we exploit two Ly α luminosity function models and two strong gravitational lensing models from the literature. We show that the planned Euclid Deep Survey observing 40 deg2 over the 920-1850 nm wavelength range down to a flux limit of Flim = 5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 will enable us to find between ˜0.85 and ˜1.82 deg-2 lensed Ly α emitters at z ≥ 6.6 depending on the adopted Ly α luminosity function and strong gravitational lensing model. The obvious [O ii], [O iii] and H β contaminants of the Ly α lensed population will be identified with the help of Euclid's spectral resolving power, while the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will enable the identification of the interloper population of H α emitters. By combining Euclid and the SKA, we will thus be able to identify, for the first time, a sample of ˜34 to ˜73 lensed Ly α emitters at z ≥ 6.6.

  9. The Ly49 natural killer cell receptors: a versatile tool for viral self-discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Richard; Rossjohn, Jamie; Brooks, Andrew G

    2014-03-01

    The activation of murine and human natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by families of receptors including the Ly49 and Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, respectively, both of which contain activating and inhibitory members. The archetypal role of inhibitory Ly49 receptors is to attenuate NK cell responses to normal cells that express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I molecules, in essence allowing for more robust responses to infected or cancerous cells that lack MHC-I on their cell surface. However, it is now evident that Ly49 receptors have an appreciably more sophisticated array of functions. In particular, some activating Ly49 receptors can bind directly to MHC-I-like viral gene products such as m157, whereas others recognize self-MHC-I but only in the presence of viral chaperones. Although Ly49 receptor recognition is centred on the MHC-I-like fold, these NK cell receptors can also engage related ligands in unexpected ways. Herein we review the varied strategies employed by Ly49 receptors to recognize both self and viral ligands, with particular emphasis on the recently determined mode of Ly49-m157 ligation, and highlight the versatile nature of this family in the control of viral infections.

  10. Characteristics of microbial biofilm on wooden vats ('gerles') in PDO Salers cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didienne, Robert; Defargues, Catherine; Callon, Cécile; Meylheuc, Thierry; Hulin, Sophie; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize microbial biofilms from 'gerles' (wooden vats for making PDO Salers cheese) and identify their role in milk inoculation and in preventing pathogen development. Gerles from ten farms producing PDO Salers cheese were subjected to microbial analysis during at least 4 periods spread over two years. They were distinguished by their levels of Lactobacillus (between 4.50 and 6.01 log CFU/cm(2)), Gram negative bacteria (between 1.45 and 4.56 log CFU/cm(2)), yeasts (between 2.91 and 5.57 log CFU/cm(2)), and moulds (between 1.72 and 4.52 log CFU/cm(2)). They were then classed into 4 groups according their microbial characteristics. These 4 groups were characterized by different milk inoculations (with either sour whey or starter culture, daily or not), and different washing procedures (with water or whey from cheese making). The farm gerles were not contaminated by Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Only one slight, punctual contamination was found on one gerle among the ten studied. Even when the milk was deliberately contaminated with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in the 40 L experimental gerles, these pathogens were found neither on the gerle surfaces nor in the cheeses. Using 40 L experimental gerles it was shown that the microbial biofilms on the gerle surfaces formed in less than one week and then remained stable. They were mainly composed of a great diversity of lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus hilgardii,…), Gram positive catalase positive bacteria (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Curtobacterium oceanosedimentum Citrococcus spp., Brachybacterium rhamnosum, Kocuria rhizophila, Arthrobacter spp.…) and yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus). In less than 1 min, even in a 500 L farm gerle, the gerle's microbial biofilm can inoculate pasteurized milk with micro-organisms at levels

  11. Long-term outcome of vincristine-aspirin-ticlopidine (VAT) therapy for vascular tumors associated with Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Chocarro, Gloria; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Ramirez-Villar, Gema Lucia

    2013-09-01

    . This study aimed to clarify the combinatorial treatment effect of agents as aspirin and ticlopidine associated with vincristine in the management of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP), a severe thrombocytopenic coagulopathy that occurs in the presence of an enlarging vascular tumor such as kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA). . A retrospective review was conducted of medical records of all children with diagnosis of KHE or TA associated with KMP treated with vincristine-aspirin-ticlopidine (VAT) therapy at two different institutions in the same country from 1994 to 2011. Clinical features, response to VAT therapy and outcomes were recorded. . Eleven patients (mean age 11 months, range 0-36), including seven females (64%) and four males (36%), were identified. Seven patients underwent incisional biopsy and two different histologies were found, KHE in four patients and TA in three patients. Tumors were located in the head and neck (n = 5), chest wall (n = 2), arm (n = 2) and retroperitoneum (n = 2). Mean platelet level was 10,200/mm(3) (range 4,000-21,000). A plaque-like lesion with ecchymosis was the most common cutaneous manifestation (63%). All patients underwent VAT therapy. Mean duration of treatment was 3.9 months for vincristine, 13.9 months for aspirin, and 13.4 months for ticlopidine. All patients are alive with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years (range, 2-17). . Antiaggregant therapy is helpful in combination with vincristine in the treatment of KMP associated with KHE and TA. Prognosis is excellent if severe thrombocytopenia is controlled despite failure in reduction of tumor size. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Robot-assisted thoracoscopic brachytherapy for lung cancer: comparison of the ZEUS robot, VATS, and manual seed implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guo-Wei; Pytel, Martin; Trejos, Ana Luisa; Hornblower, Victoria; Smallwood, Jennifer; Patel, Rajni; Fenster, Aaron; Malthaner, Richard A

    2007-09-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy is becoming an accepted treatment option for lung cancer patients for whom surgery poses a high risk. Robotic surgery has the potential to deliver brachytherapy seeds into tumors while keeping surgeons at a safe distance from the radioactive source. Our aim was to compare the accuracy, number of attempts, and time needed to place seeds next to a target when using a manual technique, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and the ZEUS robot for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A brachytherapy seed injector was developed and attached to one of the ZEUS robotic arms. Four subjects each inserted inactive dummy brachytherapy seeds into clear agar-gelatin cubes containing a 1.6-mm stainless steel ball target. Two orthogonal radiographs were taken of each agar cube, and the corresponding distances were measured in triplicate using ImageJ processing software. The mean distance between the center of each seed and the corresponding target was calculated using the Pythagorean theorem. Comparisons were made using analysis of variance, t-tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, as appropriate. A total of 384 tests (128 for each technique) were performed. The median accuracies for the manual technique, VATS, and ZEUS were 1.8 mm (range: 0.9-6.7 mm), 2.4 mm (range: 1.0-11.3 mm), and 3.6 mm (range: 1.3-16.7 mm), respectively (p ZEUS were 1 (range: 1-5), 4 (range: 1-14), and 3 (range: 1-20), respectively (p ZEUS were 3.0 s (range: 1-43 s), 86.5 s (range: 6-372 s), and 64.5 s (range: 5-356 s), respectively (p ZEUS robotic platform was able to place seeds beside a target within a clinically acceptable distance, with an acceptable amount of trauma and time required. It achieved results equal to or better than those obtained with VATS.

  13. Regulation of expression of two LY-6 family genes by intron retention and transcription induced chimerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallya Meera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of the expression of particular genes can rely on mechanisms that are different from classical transcriptional and translational control. The LY6G5B and LY6G6D genes encode LY-6 domain proteins, whose expression seems to be regulated in an original fashion, consisting of an intron retention event which generates, through an early premature stop codon, a non-coding transcript, preventing expression in most cell lines and tissues. Results The MHC LY-6 non-coding transcripts have shown to be stable and very abundant in the cell, and not subject to Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD. This retention event appears not to be solely dependent on intron features, because in the case of LY6G5B, when the intron is inserted in the artificial context of a luciferase expression plasmid, it is fully spliced but strongly stabilises the resulting luciferase transcript. In addition, by quantitative PCR we found that the retained and spliced forms are differentially expressed in tissues indicating an active regulation of the non-coding transcript. EST database analysis revealed that these genes have an alternative expression pathway with the formation of Transcription Induced Chimeras (TIC. This data was confirmed by RT-PCR, revealing the presence of different transcripts that would encode the chimeric proteins CSNKβ-LY6G5B and G6F-LY6G6D, in which the LY-6 domain would join to a kinase domain and an Ig-like domain, respectively. Conclusion In conclusion, the LY6G5B and LY6G6D intron-retained transcripts are not subjected to NMD and are more abundant than the properly spliced forms. In addition, these genes form chimeric transcripts with their neighbouring same orientation 5' genes. Of interest is the fact that the 5' genes (CSNKβ or G6F undergo differential splicing only in the context of the chimera (CSNKβ-LY6G5B or G6F-LY6G6C and not on their own.

  14. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments...

  15. Group Theoretical Properties and Band Structure of the Lamé Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Li, H; Iachello, Francesco; Li, Hui; Kusnezov, Dimitri

    2000-01-01

    We study the group theoretical properties of the Lamé equation and its relation to su(1,1) and su(2). We compute the band structure, dispersion relation and transfer matrix and discuss the dynamical symmetry limits.

  16. Potentiel de germination de Moringa oleifera Lam. Sous différents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiel de germination de Moringa oleifera Lam. Sous différents traitements à Dshang dans les Hautes terres de l\\'Ouest-Cameroun. TE Pamo, B Boukila, SMC Momo, JR Kana, F Tendonkeng, LB Tonfack ...

  17. Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module (R-LAM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R-LAM (Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module), promises a new generation of both integrated navigation modules and stand-alone navigation subsystems including...

  18. Detection of virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes in Campylobacter species using newly developed multiplex PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprade, Natacha; Cloutier, Michel; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward; Wilkes, Graham; Villemur, Richard; Khan, Izhar U H

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. This twofold study was sought to: i) develop and optimize four single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays for the detection of six virulence (ciaB, dnaJ, flaA, flaB, pldA and racR), three toxin (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and one antibiotic resistance tet(O) genes in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and ii) apply and evaluate the developed mPCR assays by testing 470 previously identified C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari isolates from agricultural water. In each mPCR assay, a combination of two or three sets of primer pairs for virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes was used and optimized. Assay 1 was developed for the detection of dnaJ, racR and cdtC genes with expected amplification sizes of 720, 584 and 182bp. Assay 2 generated PCR amplicons for tet(O) and cdtA genes of 559 and 370bp. Assay 3 amplified cdtB ciaB, and pldA genes with PCR amplicon sizes of 620, 527 and 385bp. Assay 4 was optimized for flaA and flaB genes that generated PCR amplicons of 855 and 260bp. The primer pairs and optimized PCR protocols did not show interference and/or cross-amplification with each other and generated the expected size of amplification products for each target VAT gene for the C. jejuni ATCC 33291 reference strain. Overall, all ten target VAT genes were detected at a variable frequency in tested isolates of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. where cdtC, flaB, ciaB, cdtB, cdtA and pldA were commonly detected compared to the flaA, racR, dnaJ and tet(O) genes which were detected with less frequency. The developed mPCR assays are simple, rapid, reliable and sensitive tools for simultaneously assessing potential pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profiling in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. The mPCR assays will be useful in diagnostic and analytical settings for routine screening of VAT characteristics of Campylobacter spp. as well as being applicable in epidemiological

  19. The Lyα reference sample. I. Survey outline and first results for Markarian 259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Marquart, Thomas; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Guaita, Lucia; Micheva, Genoveva [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Oscar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden); Orlitová, Ivana [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Gruyters, Pieter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Herenz, Edmund Christian [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), innoFSPEC, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique Paris, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologa (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofsica, POB 78, E-28691, Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Instituto de Astronoma, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Apdo. Postal 106, Ensenada B. C. 22800 (Mexico); and others

    2014-12-10

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral line in use for characterizing high-redshift (z) galaxies. This paper presents an overview of the survey, its selection function, and HST imaging observations. The sample was selected from the combined GALEX+Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog at z = 0.028-0.19, in order to allow Lyα to be captured with combinations of long-pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard HST. In addition, LARS utilizes Hα and Hβ narrowband and u, b, i broadband imaging with ACS and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lyα photons are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ∼ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present the reduction steps used to obtain the Lyα images, including our LARS eXtraction software (LaXs), which utilizes pixel-by-pixel spectral synthesis fitting of the energy distribution to determine and subtract the continuum at Lyα. We demonstrate that the use of SBC long-pass-filter combinations increase the signal-to-noise ratio by an order of magnitude compared to the nominal Lyα filter available in SBC. To exemplify the science potential of LARS, we also present some first results for a single galaxy, Mrk 259 (LARS #1). This irregular galaxy shows bright and extended (indicative of resonance scattering) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate

  20. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario: Implications for Land Administration and Management (LAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Felino; Ballesteros, Marife M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  1. Moringa oleifera Lam. improves lipid metabolism during adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, I; Vanella, L; Distefano, A; Nicolosi, D; Maravigna, A; Lazzarino, G; Di Rosa, M; Tibullo, D; Acquaviva, R; Li Volti, G

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including inflammation, cancer and metabolic disorders. We investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism and cellular antioxidant systems. We showed that Moringa oleifera Lam. treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α). In addition, Moringa oleifera Lam. induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a well established protective and antioxidant enzyme. Finally Moringa oleifera Lam. significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that Moringa oleifera Lam. may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis.

  2. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  3. Postranní kanály u Smart Card

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšil, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zaměřuje na čipové karty a popisuje známé typy útoků, které vyuţívají postranních kanálů. Čipová karta spadá do skupiny nejmladších a nejchytřejších karet. Ve svém těle, které je nejčastěji vyrobeno z PVC, má vloţen čip obsahující mikroprocesor. Útoky postranními kanály jsou útoky, které se snaţí vyuţít unikající informace z fyzické implementace systému při práci kryptografického algoritmu. Těchto unikajících citlivých informací se snaţí vyuţít útočník, protoţe mohou být za...

  4. Trahv? Herned klassinurgas? Või hoopis ihunuhtlus? / Pilme, Lea; Kivistik, Ly; Sirgmets, Raili; Part, Aivar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Suhtumisest koolijuhtidele trahvimisõiguse andmise ideesse vestlevad Rakvere Põhikooli direktor Lea Pilme, Uhtna Põhikooli direktor Ly Kivistik, Väike-Maarja Gümnaasiumi direktor Raili Sirgmets ja Rakvere Gümnaasiumi direktor Aivar Part

  5. Insight into the bacterial diversity of fermentation woad dye vats as revealed by PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Vesna; Osimani, Andrea; Taccari, Manuela; Garofalo, Cristiana; Butta, Alessandro; Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2017-07-01

    The bacterial diversity in fermenting dye vats with woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) prepared and maintained in a functional state for approximately 12 months was examined using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent PCR-DGGE analyses and next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. An extremely complex ecosystem including taxa potentially contributing to both indigo reduction and formation, as well as indigo degradation was found. PCR-DGGE analyses revealed the presence of Paenibacillus lactis, Sporosarcina koreensis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus thermoamylovorans, while Bacillus thermolactis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium were also identified but with sequence identities lower than 97%. Dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by pyrosequencing included Clostridium ultunense, Tissierella spp., Alcaligenes faecalis, Erysipelothrix spp., Enterococcus spp., Virgibacillus spp. and Virgibacillus panthothenicus, while sub-dominant OTUs included clostridia, alkaliphiles, halophiles, bacilli, moderately thermophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, aerobes, and even photosynthetic bacteria. Based on the current knowledge of indigo-reducing bacteria, it is considered that indigo-reducing bacteria constituted only a small fraction in the unique microcosm detected in the natural indigo dye vats.

  6. A Faint Flux-limited Lyα Emitter Sample at z ˜ 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Isak G. B.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Rosenwasser, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    We present a flux-limited sample of z ˜ 0.3 Lyα emitters (LAEs) from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism spectroscopic data. The published GALEX z ˜ 0.3 LAE sample is pre-selected from continuum-bright objects and thus is biased against high equivalent width (EW) LAEs. We remove this continuum pre-selection and compute the EW distribution and the luminosity function of the Lyα emission line directly from our sample. We examine the evolution of these quantities from z ˜ 0.3 to 2.2 and find that the EW distribution shows little evidence for evolution over this redshift range. As shown by previous studies, the Lyα luminosity density from star-forming (SF) galaxies declines rapidly with declining redshift. However, we find that the decline in Lyα luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.3 may simply mirror the decline seen in the Hα luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.4, implying little change in the volumetric Lyα escape fraction. Finally, we show that the observed Lyα luminosity density from AGNs is comparable to the observed Lyα luminosity density from SF galaxies at z = 0.3. We suggest that this significant contribution from AGNs to the total observed Lyα luminosity density persists out to z ˜ 2.2. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar; Vrunda Vernekar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenu...

  8. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with Lyα and 21 cm Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneka, Caroline; Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang

    2017-10-01

    We study 21 cm and Lyα fluctuations, as well as Hα, while distinguishing between Lyα emission of galactic, diffuse, and scattered intergalactic medium (IGM) origin. Cross-correlation information about the state of the IGM is obtained, testing neutral versus ionized medium cases with different tracers in a seminumerical simulation setup. In order to pave the way toward constraints on reionization history and modeling beyond power spectrum information, we explore parameter dependencies of the cross-power signal between 21 cm and Lyα, which displays a characteristic morphology and a turnover from negative to positive correlation at scales of a couple Mpc-1. In a proof of concept for the extraction of further information on the state of the IGM using different tracers, we demonstrate the use of the 21 cm and Hα cross-correlation signal to determine the relative strength of galactic and IGM emission in Lyα. We conclude by showing the detectability of the 21 cm and Lyα cross-correlation signal over more than one decade in scale at high signal-to-noise ratio for upcoming probes like SKA and the proposed all-sky intensity mapping satellites SPHEREx and CDIM, while also including the Lyα damping tail and 21 cm foreground avoidance in the modeling.

  9. An IUE survey of interstellar H I Ly alpha absorption. 1: Column densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplas, Athanassios; Savage, Blair D.

    1994-01-01

    We measure Galactic interstellar neutral hydrogen column densities by analyzing archival interstellar Ly alpha absorption line data toward 554 B2 and hotter stars observed at high resolution with the IUE satellite. This study more than doubles the number of lines of sight with measures of N(H I) based on Ly alpha. We have included the scattered light background correction algorithm of Bianchi and Bohlin in our data reduction. We use the correlation between the Balmer discontinuity (c sub 1) index and the stellar Ly alpha absorption in order to assess the effects of stellar Ly alpha contamination. Approximately 40% of the B stars with measured (c sub 1) index, exhibit serious stellar Ly alpha contamination. One table contains the derived values of the interstellar N(H I) for 393 stars with at most small amounts of stellar contamination. Another lists the observed values of total N(H I) for 161 stars with suspected stellar Ly alpha contamination and/or uncertain stellar parameters.

  10. Hubble space telescope emission line galaxies at z ∼ 2: the Lyα escape fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Gebhardt, Henry; Schneider, Donald P.; Hagen, Alex; Malz, A. I., E-mail: rbc@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: grzeimann@psu.edu, E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: gebhardt@psu.edu, E-mail: dps@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: hagen@psu.edu, E-mail: malz@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-11-20

    We compare the Hβ line strengths of 1.90 < z < 2.35 star-forming galaxies observed with the near-IR grism of the Hubble Space Telescope with ground-based measurements of Lyα from the HETDEX Pilot Survey and narrow-band imaging. By examining the line ratios of 73 galaxies, we show that most star-forming systems at this epoch have a Lyα escape fraction below ∼6%. We confirm this result by using stellar reddening to estimate the effective logarithmic extinction of the Hβ emission line (c {sub Hβ} = 0.5) and measuring both the Hβ and Lyα luminosity functions in a ∼100, 000 Mpc{sup 3} volume of space. We show that in our redshift window, the volumetric Lyα escape fraction is at most 4.4{sub −1.2}{sup +2.1}%, with an additional systematic ∼25% uncertainty associated with our estimate of extinction. Finally, we demonstrate that the bulk of the epoch's star-forming galaxies have Lyα emission line optical depths that are significantly greater than that for the underlying UV continuum. In our predominantly [O III] λ5007-selected sample of galaxies, resonant scattering must be important for the escape of Lyα photons.

  11. Stiochiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, K.; Cheng, Chaohsiung; Jap, B.K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Nikaido, H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The authors have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 {mu}M for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of their results.

  12. The diagnostic accuracy of pericardial and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays in patients with suspected tuberculous pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandie, Shaheen; Peter, Jonathan G; Kerbelker, Zita S; Meldau, Richard; Theron, Grant; Govender, Ureshnie; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Dheda, Keertan; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-09-16

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of urinary and pericardial fluid (PF) lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays in tuberculous pericarditis (TBP). From October 2009 through September 2012, 151 patients with TBP were enrolled. Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and/or pericardial histology were the reference standard for definite TBP. 49% (74/151), 33.1% (50/151) and 17.9% (27/151) of patients had definite-, probable-, and non-TB respectively; 69.5% (105/151) were HIV positive. LAM ELISA had the following sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value and negative predictive values (95% confidence interval): urinary - 17.4% (9.1-30.7), 93.8% (71.7-98.9), 2.8 (0.1-63.3), 0.9 (0.8-0.9), 88.9% (56.5-98.0), and 28.3% (17.9-41.6); PF - 11.6% (6.0-21.3), 88% (70.0-95.8), 0.9 (0.08-12.0), 1.0 (0.9-1.1), 72.7% (43.4-90.1), and 26.6% (18.2-36.9). Sensitivity increased with a CD4 ≤ 100 cells/mm(3) from 3.5% to 50% (p LAM ELISA; for urinary LAM strip test, grade 1 and 2 cut-points performed similarly, irrespective of HIV status or CD4 count. For PF LAM strip tests, switching cut-points from grade 1 to 2 significantly reduced test sensitivity (54.5% versus 19.7%; p LAM assays have low sensitivity but high specificity for diagnosis of TBP. The sensitivity of urinary LAM is increased in HIV-infected patients with a CD4 ≤ 100 cells/mm(3).

  13. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant' Anna, Carlos M.R., E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  14. Antibacterial phenolic compounds from the spines of Gleditsia sinensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ligang; Li, Duan; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Yuanshuai; Wu, Jianyong

    2007-04-01

    This study was to isolate antibacterial compounds from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. spines through bioassay-guided fractionation (against a Gram-positive bacterium Xanthomonas vesicatoria and a Gram-negative bacterium Bacillus subtilis). The crude ethanol extract of G. sinensis spines was partitioned sequentially with solvents of increasing polarity. The ethyl acetate fraction, which exhibited the most significant antibacterial activities among all the solvent fractions, was further separated by column chromatograph, yielding seven phenolic compounds including ethyl gallate (1) and caffeic acid (7), and five flavonoids, dihydrokaempferol (2), eriodictyol (3), quercetin (4), 3,3',5',5,7-pentahydroflavanone (5) and (-)-epicatechin (6). Compounds 4, 5 and 7 showed moderate inhibitory activities against both bacterial species, with compound 7 having the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.125 mg mL(-1), while compounds 1 and 2 showed a weak inhibitory activity only against B. subtilis (MIC 1.00 mg mL(-1)), and compounds 3 and 6 showed insignificant activity against the two bacteria.

  15. Sistema de reprodução de Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC Reproduction system of Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Fernandes Guimarães

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available R. dichotoma (Lam. DC. é um arbusto que ocorre na região central do Brasil em ambientes úmidos, brejosos, formando nestes locais grandes populações. O período de floração desta espécie é longo de 6-8 meses. Neste estudo realizado no município de Tanabi (São Paulo, o pico de floração ocorreu no mês de abril. Semelhante ao observado em outras Melastomataceae de anteras tubulares e deiscência poricida, R. dichotoma é polinizada por abelhas vibradoras. Este estudo constatou que esta espécie é autocompatível com 59% de sucesso obtido nas autopolinizações manuais (n=90 e não foi observada a presença de agamospernmia (n=85. A polinização cruzada (xenogamia foi predominante, sendo que 66% das flores polinizadas desenvolveram frutos (n=92. Surpreendentemente, apesar desta espécie apresentar anteras poricidas constatou-se a ocorrência de autopolinização espontânea em 33% das flores (n=92.R. dichotoma (Lam.. DC. is a shrub native of Central Brazil, occurring in large population in wet, marsh like environment. The present study was carried out at the municipality of Tanabi (São Paulo State. The flowering season of this species is long lasting ca. 6-8 months, but April is the month when most individuals are in flower. Similar to other Melastomataceae species possessing tubular and poricidal anthers, R. dichotoma is pollinated by buzz bees. The species, as indicated in this study, is self-compatible, 59% of success resulted from artificial self-pollination (n=90. Agamospermy did not occur (n=85. Cross pollination (xenogamy proved to be predominant: 66% fruits was obtained from cross-pollinated flowers (n=92. Although the present species has poricidal anthers, surprisingly spontaneous sef-pollination was observed 33% of success (n=92.

  16. Atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz Antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Braz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz pertence a família Crassulaceae e é conhecida vulgarmente como coirama, folha-da-fortuna, ou folha-do-ar, sendo usada popularmente como antifúngico, no tratamento da hipertensão, em úlceras e em inflamações. O presente estudo objetivou analisar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz em modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por indometacina em Rattus norvegicus, machos (150 a 250 g com idade de 70 dias. Os animais receberam por via oral: água, extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (1 e 2 g Kg-1 ou ranitidina (60 mg Kg-1 , fármaco com ação gastroprotetora conhecida que atua bloqueando os receptores de histamina H2. Após uma hora dos tratamentos, todos animais receberam indometacina via intraperitoneal. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz possui ação gastroprotetora; na dose de 1 g Kg-1 inibiu 45,49% o índice de ulceração induzido pela indometacina, e, na dose de 2 g Kg-1, inibiu 49,50%. Sugere-se o envolvimento de vários mecanismos na ação gastroprotetora dessa planta e não somente uma possível participação das prostaglandinas nesse efeito. Estudos futuros com diferentes modelos de indução de úlcera gástrica tornam-se necessários para melhor avaliar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz belongs to the family Crassulaceae, is popularly known as "coirama", "folha-da-fortuna", or "folha-do-ar" and has been commonly used as antifungal, in the treatment of hypertension, ulcers and inflammation. The present study aimed to analyze the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in Rattus norvegicus, males (150-250 g aged 70 days old. The animals received by the oral route: water, aqueous extract from

  17. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of a solid dispersion of (3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methoxy] benzoate (VA-T) and polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sa-Li; Hou, Peng; Li, Bin; Fu, Jing; Yin, Xing-Bin; Dang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Chun-Jing; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Hui; Lei, Hai-Min; Ni, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Ischemic brain injury is a major disease which threatens human health and safety. (3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methoxy] benzoate (VA-T), a newly discovered lead compound, is effective for the treatment of ischemic brain injury and its sequelae. But the poor solubility of VA-T leads to poor dissolution and limited clinical application. In order to improve the dissolution of VA-T, the pharmaceutical technology of solid dispersions was used in the present study. VA-T/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solid dispersion was prepared by the solvent method. The dissolution studies were carried out and solid state characterization was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution rate of VA-T was significantly improved by solid dispersion compared to that of the pure drug and physical mixture. The results of DSC and XRD indicated that the VA-T solid dispersion was amorphous. The IR spectra showed the possible interaction between VA-T and PVP was the formulation of hydrogen bonding. The SEM analysis demonstrated that there was no VA-T crystal observed in the solid dispersions. The ideal drug-to-PVP ratio was 1:5. In conclusion, the solid dispersion technique can be successfully used for the improvement of the dissolution profile of VA-T. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency contraceptive pills as a backup for lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) of contraception: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Omar M; Hassen, Shaimaa G; Nour, Sanna A; Kames, Mervat A; Yones, Entsar M

    2013-03-01

    The use of breastfeeding as a method of birth spacing occasionally ends in "unplanned pregnancy." This is due to unexpected expiration of one or more of the lactation amenorrhea method (LAM) prerequisites. The current study tests a new concept that the in-advance provision of single packet of progestogen emergency contraception (EC) pills during the postpartum LAM counseling may decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy during breastfeeding. This was a registered two-armed randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929). Women intending to breastfeed and to postpone pregnancy for 1 year or more were approached. They received adequate postpartum contraceptive counseling. Women intending to use LAM were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The LAM-only group received the proper LAM counseling and did not receive counseling about EC. The LAM-EC group received counseling for both LAM and EC with in-advance provision of one packet of EC pills. They were advised to use these pills if one of the prerequisites of LAM expires and sexual relation has occurred before the initiation of another regular contraceptive protection. All the participants were advised that they need to use another regular method upon expiration of any of the LAM prerequisites. Eligible women were 1158 parturients randomized into two equal groups. Forty-four percent of the women provided with EC used them. Significantly more women in the LAM-EC group initiated regular contraception within or shortly after the first 6 months postpartum when compared with those in the LAM-only group (30.5% vs. 7.3%, respectively; p=.0004). Pregnancy occurred in 5% of the LAM-only group as compared with 0.8% in the LAM-EC group (p=.005). Minimal side effects were reported after EC use. In-advance provision of EC pills can increase the rate of initiation of regular contraception once one or more of the prerequisites of LAM expire. Consequently, the use of EC pills as a temporary backup of LAM can decrease the incidence

  19. Predictive and prognostic properties of TB-LAM among HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elia, Alexander; Evans, Denise; McNamara, Lynne; Berhanu, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Lönnermark, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment LAM +ve at baseline. LAM had poor sensitivity (0.0% 95% CI 0.00-23.2) to predict incident TB within 6 months of initiation. We analyzed 22 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis at initiation separately. Of these, LAM +ve patients (27%) showed lower CD4 gains compared to LAM negative patients (median increase 103 vs 199 cells/mm(3); p = 0.08). LAM has limited value for accurately predicting incident TB in patients with higher CD4 counts after ART initiation. LAM may help identify TB/HIV co-infected patients at ART initiation who respond more slowly to treatment and require targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes. Larger studies with longer patient follow-up are needed.

  20. New Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM sublineage with geographical specificity for the Old World revealed by phylogenetical and Bayesian analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-12-01

    We recently showed that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineage LAM9 could be subdivided as two distinct subpopulations - each reflecting its unique biogeographical structure and evolutionary history. We subsequently attempted to verify if this genetic structuration could be traced in an enlarged global sample. For this purpose, we analyzed global evolutionary relationships of LAM strains in a large dataset (n = 1923 isolates from 35 countries worldwide) with concomitant spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data, followed by a deeper analysis of LAM9 sublineage (n = 851 isolates). Based on a combination of phylogenetical analysis and Bayesian statistics, a total of three different clusters, tentatively named LAM9C1, C2 and C3 were described in this dataset. Closer inspection of the phylogenetic tree with concomitant data on origin of isolates with genetic clusterization revealed LAM9C3 being the most tightly knit group exclusively found in the Old World as opposed to LAM9C2 being a loosely-knit group without any phylogeographical specificity; while LAM9C1 appeared with a majority of strains being well-clustered despite some isolates that intermixed with unrelated LAM clusters. Subsequently, we hereby describe a new M. tuberculosis LAM sublineage named LAM9C3 with phylogeographical specificity for the Old World. These findings open new perspectives to study respective migration histories and adaptation to human hosts of specific M. tuberculosis clones during the exploration and conquest of the New World. We therefore plan to reevaluate the nomenclature and evolutionary history of various LAM sublineages using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Decreasing Fraction of Strong Ly α Emitters around z ∼ 6-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadoun, Raphael; Zheng, Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi, E-mail: raphael.sadoun@utah.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2017-04-10

    The fraction of galaxies with strong Ly α emission has been observed to decrease rapidly with redshift at z ≳ 6, after a gradual increase at z < 6. This has been interpreted as being a trace of the reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM): the emitted Ly α photons would be scattered by an increasingly neutral IGM at z > 6. We study this effect by modeling the ionization and Ly α radiative transfer in the infall region and the IGM around a Ly α emitting galaxy (LAE), for a spherical halo model with the mean density and radial velocity profiles in the standard ΛCDM cosmological scenario. We find that the expected fast increase of the ionizing background intensity toward the end of the reionization epoch implies a rapid evolution of halo infall regions from being self-shielded against the external ionizing background to being mostly ionized. Whereas self-shielded infall regions can scatter the Ly α photons over a much larger area than the commonly used apertures for observing LAEs, the same infalling gas is no longer optically thick to the Ly α emission line after it is ionized by the external background, making the Ly α emission more compact and brighter within the observed apertures. Based on this simple model, we show that the observed drop in the abundance of LAEs at z > 6 does not imply a rapid increase with redshift of the fraction of the whole IGM volume that is atomic, but is accounted for by a rapid increase of the neutral fraction in the infall regions around galaxy host halos.

  2. Physical properties of z ~ 4 LBGs: differences between galaxies with and without Lyα emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Santini, P.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:We analysed the physical properties of z ˜4 Lyman Break Galaxies observed in the GOODS-S survey, in order to investigate possible differences between galaxies where the Lyα is present in emission, and those where the line is absent or in absorption. Methods: The objects were selected from their optical color and then spectroscopically confirmed by Vanzella et al. (2005). From the public spectra we assessed the nature of the Lyα emission and divided the sample into galaxies with Lyα in emission and objects without a Lyα line (i.e. either absent or in absorption). We then used complete photometry, from U band to mid-infrared from the GOODS-MUSIC database, to study the observational properties of the galaxies, such as UV spectral slopes and optical to mid-infrared colors, and the possible differences between the two samples. Lastly, we used standard spectral fitting techniques to determine the physical properties of the galaxies, such as total stellar mass, stellar ages and so on, and again we looked at the possible differences between the two samples. Results: Our results indicate that LBG with Lyα in emission are on average a much younger and less massive population than the LBGs without Lyα emission. Both populations are forming stars very actively and are relatively dust free, although those with line emission seem to be even less dusty on average. We briefly discuss these results in the context of recent models for the evolution of Lyman break galaxies and Lyα emitters.

  3. Kinematics and Optical Depth in the Green Peas: Suppressed Superwinds in Candidate LyC Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskot, Anne E.; Oey, M. S.; Scarlata, Claudia; Dowd, Tara

    2017-12-01

    By clearing neutral gas away from a young starburst, superwinds may regulate the escape of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons from star-forming galaxies. However, models predict that superwinds may not launch in the most extreme, compact starbursts. We explore the role of outflows in generating low optical depths in the Green Peas (GPs), the only known star-forming population with several confirmed and candidate LyC-leaking galaxies. With Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of 25 low-redshift GPs, including new observations of 13 of the most highly ionized GPs, we compare the kinematics of UV absorption lines with indirect H I optical depth diagnostics: Lyα escape fraction, Lyα peak separation, or low-ionization absorption line equivalent width. The data suggest that high-ionization kinematics tracing superwind activity may correlate with low optical depth in some objects. However, the most extreme GPs, including many of the best candidate LyC emitters with weak low-ionization absorption and strong, narrow Lyα profiles, show the lowest velocities. These results are consistent with models for suppressed superwinds, which suggests that outflows may not be the only cause of LyC escape from galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS-5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-14080, GO-13293, and GO-12928.

  4. Specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes prevents immunopathology in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Schumak

    Full Text Available Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb, we depleted in vivo Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2, Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G or both cell types (by anti-Gr1 during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg. Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes.

  5. The Ly49E receptor inhibits the immune control of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Filtjens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT cells, is triggered by uPA. Therefore, we compared wild type (WT to Ly49E knockout (KO mice for their control of experimental T. cruzi infection. Our results show that young, i.e. 4- and 6-week-old, Ly49E KO mice control the infection better than WT mice, indicated by a lower parasite load and less cachexia. The beneficial effect of Ly49E depletion is more obvious in 4-week-old male than in female mice and weakens in 8-week-old mice. In young mice, the lower T. cruzi parasitemia in Ly49E KO mice is paralleled by higher IFN-γ production compared to their WT controls. Our data indicate that Ly49E receptor expression inhibits the immune control of T. cruzi infection. This is the first demonstration that the inhibitory Ly49E receptor can interfere with the immune response to a pathogen in vivo.

  6. Molecular Mechanism of Enhanced Anticancer Effect of Nanoparticle Formulated LY2835219 via p16-CDK4/6-pRb Pathway in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LY2835219 is a dual inhibitor to CDK4 and CDK6. This study was to prepare LY2835219-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CNP/LY and LY2835219-loaded hyaluronic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (HACNP/LY and revealed their anticancer effect and influence on p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway against colon cell line. The nanoparticle sizes of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were approximately 195±39.6 nm and 217±31.1 nm, respectively. The zeta potentials of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were 37.3±1.5 mV and 30.3±2.2 mV, respectively. And the preparation process showed considerable drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency. LY2835219, CNP/LY, and HACNP/LY inhibited HT29 cell proliferation with 0.68, 0.54, and 0.30 μM of IC50, respectively. G1 phase was arrested by LY2835219 and its formulations. Furthermore, inhibition of CDK4/6 by LY2835219 formulations induced CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, and pRb decrease and p16 increase at both protein and mRNA levels. Overall, nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could enhance the cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest, and HACNP/LY strengthened the trend furtherly compared to CNP/LY. It is the first time to demonstrate the anticancer effect and mechanism against HT29 by LY2835219 and its nanoparticles. The drug and its nanoparticle formulations delay the cell growth and arrest cell cycle through p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway, while the nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could strengthen the process.

  7. Los excerpta de Beda (De Temporum Ratione 19 y 23 en Ripoll (ACA, Ripoll 59 y Vat. Reg. Lat. 123

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    José Martínez Gázquez

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of texts and glossaries contained in the manuscript ACA Ripoll 59 reveals various compilations of glossaries and «computation» texts, besides Priscian's grammar, which is the most important text in the manuscript. The analysis and identification of the fragments in ACA Ripoll 59 the same as those in Vat. Reg. Lat. 123, which also belongs to the manuscripts found in Ripoll, corresponding to various chapters of Beda, allow us to study the different currents that exerted their cultural influence in the Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll. Through the variants established for each of the texts that have been identified, one detects the influence of various families of manuscripts in the composition of these fragments.

  8. Aged-look vat dyed cotton with anti-bacterial/anti-fungal properties by treatment with nano clay and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryan, Ali Sadeghian; Montazer, Majid; Harifi, Tina; Rad, Mahnaz Mahmoudi

    2013-06-05

    In this research, nanotechnology as a route to functional finishing of textiles was used along with bio-finishing to enhance the cotton fabrics performance. For this purpose, quaternary modified montmorillonite and common enzymes such as cellulase, laccase and their mixture were applied on vat dyed cotton fabric. Characteristic analysis of the treated samples and the dispersed nano clays in the effluent of the treatment was performed by various analyzing methods. The nano/bio-finishing is believed to impart antibacterial and antifungal activities with simultaneously higher lightness, advanced softness and handle properties into cotton fabrics. Moreover, cotton fabrics were proved to have no adverse effects (low toxicity) on human dermal fibroblasts. Findings suggest the potential of the proposed method in reducing the risk of microorganism for textile applications and imparting better handle and appearance properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing the results of VATS pleurectomy and talc pleurodesis with small sized catheter in randomised patients with malign pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Tunçözgür

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pleural effusion occurs as a result of detoriationin equilibrium between absorption and secretion.We aimed to investigate the clinical responses of talkpleurodesis and pleurectomy with video assisted thoracoscopicsurgery (VATS in patients with malignant pleuraleffusion.Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with malignantpleural effusion between June 2007 and June 2008were included in this study. Thoracentesis was performedin order to study the biochemical, microbiologic, cytologicalanalysis. Glucose, total protein, albumin, lactic dehydrogenasesand cytological examination were studied ineffusion and blood sample simultaneously. Cases wereclassified into two groups; in group I (n=25, small calibratedcatheter and talk pleurodesis were performed. Ingroup II (n=20, VATS pleurectomy was performed.Results: There were 32 females and 13 males with meanage 51.58 (27-75 years. Diagnosis was made with cytologicexamination of pleural fluid that was aspirated withthoracentesis. Transudate- exudate discrimination wasdone according to Light’s criteria. Success rates of thegroups were as complete response; 84% (n=21 in groupI, 85% (n=17 in group II. Unsuccessful response was16% (n=4 in group I and 15% (n=3 in group II. Therewas no statistically significant difference between hospitalstay and tube duration of groups when compared to eachother.Conclusion: The treatment of malignant pleural effusionis palliative due to poor prognosis. The purpose isto eliminate dyspnea in patients with short survival time.There was no significant difference between the VATSpleurectomy and talc pleurodesis that has been known aseffective sclerosant agent. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:223-228

  10. IMPLICAÇÕES DA ANÁLISE V-A-T DA TEORIA DAS RESTRIÇÕES NA GESTÃO DA CADEIA DE SUPRIMENTOS

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    Diego Augusto de Jesus Pacheco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa é identificar o impacto da análise V-A-T da Teoria das Restrições na gestão estratégica de materiais à luz da Matriz de Posicionamento Estratégico dos Materiais (MPEM. A partir de dois estudos de caso, buscou-se verificar: i em qual classificação cada empresa se enquadrava dentro da lógica V-A-T, e ii se a gestão estratégica de materiais a partir da abordagem da MPEM pode ser considerada semelhante ou não nos casos investigados. Os resultados da pesquisa apontaram que a classificação V-A-T no caso da empresa S é do tipo A e no caso da empresa K é do tipo V. Já a análise da gestão estratégica de materiais a partir da MPEM, evidenciou que no caso S pertence ao quadrante não crítico e no caso K pertence ao quadrante estratégico. Identificou-se que a classificação V-A-T tende a impactar na gestão de materiais e no controle de estoques.

  11. The detection and settlement of VAT fraud in four countries : Addendum to the report value-added tax fraud in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronowitz, A.A.; Laagland, D.C.G.; Paulides, G.

    1996-01-01

    This addendum to the report 'Value-added tax fraud in the European Union' gives additional information on the detection and settlement of VAT fraud in Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. See link to the report at: More information.

  12. Kinetic modeling of [18 F]VAT, a novel radioligand for PET imaging vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in nonhuman primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongjun; Yue, Xuyi; Liu, Hui; Han, Junbin; Flores, Hubert; Su, Yi; Parsons, Stanley M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Tu, Zhude

    2018-01-06

    Molecular imaging of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the brain provides an important cholinergic biomarker for the pathophysiology and treatment of dementias including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, kinetics modeling methods were applied and compared for quantifying regional brain uptake of the VAChT-specific PET radiotracer, ((-)-(1-(-8-(2-fluoroethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)-methanone) ([18 F]VAT) in macaques. Total volume distribution (VT ) estimates were compared for one-tissue compartment model (1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), Logan graphic analysis (LoganAIF) and multiple linear analysis (MA1) with arterial blood input function using data from three macaques. Using the cerebellum-hemispheres as the reference region with data from seven macaques, three additional models were compared: reference tissue model (RTM), simplified reference tissue model (SRTM), and Logan graphic analysis (LoganREF). Model selection criterion (MSC) indicated that a) 2TCM and SRTM were the most appropriate kinetics models for [18 F]VAT; and b) SRTM was strongly correlated with 2TCM (Pearson's coefficients r > 0.93, p VAT has good reproducibility and reliability (TRV 0.72). These studies demonstrate [18 F]VAT is a promising VAChT PET tracer for quantitative assessment of VAChT levels in the brain of living subjects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Constraint on neutrino masses from SDSS-III/BOSS Ly$\\alpha$ forest and other cosmological probes

    CERN Document Server

    Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Lesgourgues, Julien; Rossi, Graziano; Borde, Arnaud; Viel, Matteo; Aubourg, Eric; Kirkby, David; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, James; Roe, Natalie; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Weinberg, David

    2015-02-27

    We present constraints on the parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model in the presence of massive neutrinos, using the one-dimensional Ly$\\alpha$ forest power spectrum obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2013), complemented by additional cosmological probes. The interpretation of the measured Ly$\\alpha$ spectrum is done using a second-order Taylor expansion of the simulated power spectrum. BOSS Ly$\\alpha$ data alone provide better bounds than previous Ly$\\alpha$ results, but are still poorly constraining, especially for the sum of neutrino masses $\\sum m_\

  14. Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of LY2510924 in Patients With Advanced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihorel, S; Raddad, E; Fiedler-Kelly, J; Stille, J R; Hing, J; Ludwig, E

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of LY2510924, a potent peptide antagonist of the CXCR4 receptor, after subcutaneous administration in patients with advanced cancer forms and quantify LY2510924 stimulatory effects on the mobilization of cells bearing the cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) as an indirect reflection of the chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12/CXCR4 axis inhibition. LY2510924 PK were best characterized by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and dose-dependent clearance predicting steady state after three daily doses and little accumulation (accumulation ratio <1.17). The dynamics of CD34+ cell counts were best characterized with a precursor model with reversible transfer from the precursor to the central compartment and LY2510924-driven stimulation of cell mobilization. Model-based simulations show that once-daily doses of 20 mg LY2510924 produce maximum CD34+ cell response and that peak effect typically occurs after three daily doses and slowly wanes over time. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. The Role of Context Free Collaboration Design Patterns in Learning Design within LAMS: Lessons Learned from an Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordaki, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an experiment aimed at the design of short learning courses in the context of LAMS, using a number of specific context-free collaboration design patterns implemented within LAMS. In fact, 25 Prospective Computer Engineers (PCEs) participated in this experiment. The analysis of the data shows that PCEs fully used these context…

  16. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  17. The de Bono LAMS Sequence Series: Template Designs as Knowledge-Mobilising Strategy for 21st Century Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the five interlocking de Bono LAMS sequences are introduced as a new form of generic template designs. This transdisciplinary knowledge-mobilising strategy is based on Edward de Bono's attention-directing ideas and thinking skills, commonly known as the CoRT tools. The development of the de Bono LAMS sequence series is an important…

  18. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  19. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE MORINGA (Moringa oleifera Lam SOB OMISSÃO DE NUTRIENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam is a leguminous species well adapted to arid and semi arid conditions and is largely used as ornamental for parks and gardens in the animal feeding and human diet and as medicinal. Since research informations on this plant species are scarce, the current work aimed to evaluate the production of leaves, stems and roots dry matter in Moringa oleifera Lam seedlings hidroponicaly grown under physiological conditions or not. The treatments used were the following: (1 nutrient solution containing all required macronutrients (experimental control or lacking (2 N; (3 P; (4 K; (5 Ca; (6 Mg and (7 S. The Moringa oleifera Lam showed different responses to the imposed treatments. Nutrient solution free of N, P and Mg decreased whole dry matter production (WDM and increased root to shoot ratios (R/S, however both parameters were not affected in plants grown under absence of K, Ca and S in the nutrient solution.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of induced sputum LAM ELISA for tuberculosis diagnosis in sputum-scarce patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, J. G.; Cashmore, T. J.; Meldau, R.; Theron, G.; van Zyl-Smit, R.; Dheda, K.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To examine whether a lipoarabinomannan (LAM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that offers diagnostic utility using urine in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection can be used in induced sputum to diagnose sputum-scarce patients with suspected TB. DESIGN LAM was measured in induced sputum samples obtained from 61 consecutively recruited sputum-scarce TB suspects in a tertiary hospital respiratory clinic in South Africa. Liquid culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used as the reference standard. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess alternative LAM concentration cut-offs. RESULTS A total of 87% (53/61) of study patients had a valid M. tuberculosis culture result; 49% (23/53) were HIV-infected and 17% (9/53) were culture-positive for M. tuberculosis. Induced sputum smear microscopy and LAM ELISA had an overall sensitivity of 56% (95%CI 27–81); however, the specificity of LAM ELISA was 48% (95%CI 34–62), while the positive and negative predictive values were respectively 18% (95%CI 8–36) and 84% (95%CI 65–94). An optimal rule-in cut-off selected by receiver operating characteristic (LAM concentration > 5.73 ng/ml) increased test specificity to 98% and reduced sensitivity to 22%. Normalisation of the assay for sample total protein or cell count did not improve diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSIONS In this proof-of-concept study, the ELISA was not clinically useful for TB diagnosis using induced sputum. PMID:22710609

  1. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment.

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    Iain W Chalmers

    Full Text Available The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29 containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study. While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a and SmLy6D (Sm29 induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored.Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K. Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively, these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7% for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to rising Ig

  2. Coagulation of some humic acid solutions by Moringa oleifera lam seeds: effect on chlorine requirement

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    L.M. Bawa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to study humic acid solutions and surface waters coagulation by Moringa oleifera Lam seeds aqueous extract. High amounts of such extract (up to 10 g/L were required to clarify humic acid solutions whereas 0.5 g/L were used to remove 90% of initial turbidity of a surface water. The treatment of water with low turbidity (Moringa oleifera Lam seeds extract released a high amount of organic compounds in treated solutions leading to a high chlorine requirement.

  3. Bioassay-guided isolation of vasorelaxant compounds from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senejoux, François; Demougeot, Céline; Kerram, Parhat; Aisa, Haji Akber; Berthelot, Alain; Bévalot, Françoise; Girard-Thernier, Corine

    2012-03-01

    Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae) is traditionally used in Uighur's medicine for the treatment of hypertension. Our study determined and evaluated the bioactive compounds by performing an activity-guided fractionation of a hydroalcoholic extract of the whole plant, using an in vitro model of rat isolated thoracic aortic rings. Seven compounds were identified as active principles: acacetin, apigenin, chrysin, thymonin, acetovanillone, 4-hydroxyacetophenone and ethyl 4-coumarate. Apigenin, chrysin and ethyl 4-coumarate were found to be the most effective. Our results provide the first evidence that the vasodilation induced by Z. clinopodioides Lam. is mediated, at least in part, by phenolic components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of the Relative Intensity of the Ly-(alpha) Lines in Fe 25+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K L; Beiersdorfer, P; Reed, K J; Osterheld, A L

    2002-06-18

    The intensity of the polarized Ly-{alpha}{sub 1} (2p{sub 3/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2}) transition has been measured relative to that of the unpolarized Ly-{alpha}{sub 2} (2p{sub 1/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2}) transition in Fe{sup 25+}. The measurements were made with the Livermore electron beam ion trap EBIT-II for beam energies from threshold to 2.5 times threshold. The results are compared to the corresponding intensity ratio predicted using excitation cross sections from distorted-wave calculations, which includes polarization, the M1(2s{sub 1/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2}) transition, and cascade contributions. Discrepancies are found that tend to confirm a recent report of a measurement of the Ly-{alpha} lines in Ti{sup 21+} performed on the Tokyo electron beam ion trap.

  5. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  6. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae Leaf morphoanatomy of Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Donato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. são usadas na medicina popular como hipoglicemiantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfológica e anatomicamente as folhas desta planta, de modo que os dados obtidos possam ser utilizados como referência em exames de controle de qualidade de amostras de fármacos, com vistas a verificar a autenticidade. Folhas inteiras foram diafanizadas e coradas para o estudo da nervação. Secções transversais do pecíolo e transversais e paradérmicas da lâmina foliar foram analisadas em microscópio óptico (MO e a superfície do limbo foi observada, também, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Foram aplicados testes histoquímicos em material fresco, para identificação e localização de glicídios, amido, taninos, lignina, cristais e sílica. Morfologicamente, a folha é simples, oval-elíptica, com margem inteira, base aguda, ápice acuminado e textura cartácea. A venação é do tipo camptódromo-broquidódromo. Anatomicamente, a folha é hipostomática, com mesofilo compacto e dorsiventral, com três estratos de parênquima paliçádico. A epiderme é uniestratificada, silicificada em algumas regiões e as células exibem paredes anticlinais retas. Em posição subepidérmica ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais e acompanhados por séries cristalíferas. Os dados obtidos são comparados com os de outras espécies de Myrtaceae e conclui-se que as características morfológicas e anatômicas de M. multiflora contribuem para a diagnose.Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. leaves have been used in folk medicine as hypoglycemic. The aim of this work is to describe morphoanatomically the leaves of this plant in order to use the obtained data as reference in quality control tests of drug samples, investigating their authenticity. Whole leaves were diaphanized and stained for venation study. Petiole transverse sections and leaf blade

  7. A submillimeter galaxy illuminating its circumgalactic medium: Lyα scattering in a cold, clumpy outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geach, J. E.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Smith, D. J. B. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Bower, R. G.; Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bremer, M. N. [School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Chapin, E. L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunlop, J. S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Michałowski, M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Department of Physics, MC 0435, 910 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Robson, E. I. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Van der Werf, P., E-mail: j.geach@herts.ac.uk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-20

    We report the detection at 850 μm of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal 'Lyman-α Blob' (LAB), a 100 kpc scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z = 3.1. The flux density of the source, S {sub 850} = 4.6 ± 1.1 mJy, implies the presence of a galaxy or group of galaxies with a total luminosity of L {sub IR} ≈ 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}. The position of an active source at the center of a ∼50 kpc radius ring of linearly polarized Lyα emission detected by Hayes et al. suggests that the central source is leaking Lyα photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in H I clouds at a large galactocentric radius. The Lyα morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of a biconical outflow, and the average Lyα line profiles of the two 'lobes' are dominated by a red peak, which is expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Lyα emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Lyα: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?.

  8. Neutral ISM, Ly α , and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. Emil; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Puschnig, Johannes, E-mail: trive@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-01

    Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Ly α line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Ly α , but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si ii. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium.

  9. Gastroprotective activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, F F B P; Fernandes, H B; Piauilino, C A; Pereira, S S; Carvalho, K I M; Chaves, M H; Soares, P M G; Miura, L M C V; Leite, J R S A; Oliveira, R C M; Oliveira, F A

    2011-09-01

    The stem barks of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae), locally known as "mamica de cadela", are popularly used in dyspepsies, stomachic, tonic, antitumoral, antipyretic and are used in treating flatulence and colic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (EEZR) stem barks in acute gastric lesion models, investigating their possible mechanisms. Mice were used for the evaluation of the acute toxicity, and mice and rats to study the gastroprotective activity. The gastroprotective action of EEZR was analyzed in the absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesion models in mice, hypothermic-restraint stress, and ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In the investigation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of EEZR, the participation of the NO-synthase pathway, ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)), the levels of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH) and the catalase activity using the ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesion model and the quantification of the gastric mucus and the antisecretory activity through pylorus ligature model in rats were analyzed. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity for the EEZR (up to the 4 g/kg dose, po), and it was not possible to calculate the DL(50). EEZR (125-500 mg/kg) exhibited a significant gastroprotective effect in absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol, hypothermic-restraint stress, and ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric lesion models. EEZR (250 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited still a gastroprotective activity in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model. Gastroprotection of EEZR was significantly decreased in pre-treated mice with l-NAME or glibenclamide, the respective nitric oxide synthase and K(ATP) channels inhibitors. Our studies revealed that EEZR (500 mg/kg) prevented the decrease of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH) and increased the catalase levels in ethanol-treated animals. Furthermore, the extract (500 mg

  10. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  11. CLASP/SJ Observations of Rapid Time Variations in the Lyα Emission in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Ishikawa, Ryohko; Bando, Takamasa; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Auchère, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    The Chromospheric Lyα SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket experiment launched on 2015 September 3 to investigate the solar chromosphere and transition region. The slit-jaw (SJ) optical system captured Lyα images with a high time cadence of 0.6 s. From the CLASP/SJ observations, many variations in the solar chromosphere and transition region emission with a timescale of SJ field of view and investigate the relationship between short (<30 s) temporal variations in the Lyα emission and the coronal structures observed by Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). We compare the Lyα temporal variations at the coronal loop footpoints observed in the AIA 211 Å (≈2 MK) and AIA 171 Å (≈0.6 MK) channels with those in the regions with bright Lyα features without a clear association with the coronal loop footpoints. We find more short (<30 s) temporal variations in the Lyα intensity in the footpoint regions. Those variations did not depend on the temperature of the coronal loops. Therefore, the temporal variations in the Lyα intensity at this timescale range could be related to the heating of the coronal structures up to temperatures around the sensitivity peak of 171 Å. No signature was found to support the scenario that these Lyα intensity variations were related to the nanoflares. Waves or jets from the lower layers (lower chromosphere or photosphere) are possible causes for this phenomenon.

  12. Molecular dynamics, thermodynamic, and mutational binding studies for tumor-specific LyP-1 in complex with p32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Selin Seda; Yalçın, Gözde; Çevik, Özge; Andaç, Cenk; Gürsoy, R Neslihan

    2017-04-21

    Recent studies in tumor homing peptides have shown the specificity of LyP-1 (CGNKRTRGC) to tumor lymphatics. In this present work, we evaluated the possible interactions between cyclic LyP-1 and its receptor, p32, with molecular dynamics and docking studies in order to lead the design of novel LyP-1 derivatives, which could bind to p32 more effectively and perform enhanced antitumor effect. The total binding enthalpy energies have been obtained by MM-PBSA thermodynamic computations and the favorability of p32.LyP-1 complex in water has been shown by explicit water MD computations. The last 30 ns of molecular dynamics trajectory have shown the strong interaction of LyP-1 with the inner surface chains of p32, especially with chains B and C. ALA-SCAN mutagenesis studies have indicated the considerable influence of Asn3, Lys4, Arg5, and Arg7 amino acid residues on the specific binding of LyP-1. Within the knowledge of the critical role of p32 receptor in cancer cell metabolism, this study can lead to further developments in anticancer therapy by targeting p32 with LyP-1 derivatives as active targeting moiety. This data can also be applied for the development of new drug delivery systems in which LyP-1 can be used for its targeting and anticancer properties.

  13. Efficacy of Single-Port Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery Lobectomy Compared with Triple-Port VATS by Propensity Score Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyung Sub; Park, Chang Kwon; Kim, Jae Bum

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for lobectomy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients has become increasingly common. The objective of this study was to compare the feasibility and safety of single-port and triple-port VATS lobectomy. A total of 73 patients with NSCLC who underwent VATS lobectomy from December 2011 to August 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, including 47 in the triple-port group and 26 in the single-port group. Statistical analysis was performed after propensity score matching. Patients were matched on a 1-to-1 basis. Operative time and intraoperative blood loss in the triple-port group and the single-port group were similar (189.4±50.8 minutes vs. 205.4±50.6 minutes, p=0.259; 286.5±531.0 mL vs. 314.6±513.1 mL, p=0.813). There were no cases of morbidity or mortality. No significant differences in complications or the total number of dissected lymph nodes were found between the 2 groups. In the single-port group, more mediastinal lymph nodes were dissected than in the triple-port group (1.7±0.6 vs. 1.2±0.5, p=0.011). Both groups had 1 patient with bronchopleural fistula. Chest tube duration and postoperative hospital stay were shorter in the single-port group than in the triple-port group (8.7±5.1 days vs. 6.2±6.6 days, p=0.130; 11.7±6.1 days vs. 9.5±6.4 days, p=0.226). However, the differences were not statistically significant. In the single-port group, the rate of conversion to multi-port VATS lobectomy was 11.5% (3 of 26). The rates of conversion to open thoracotomy in the triple-port and single-port groups were 7.7% and 3.8%, respectively (p=1.000). In comparison with the triple-port group, single-port VATS lobectomy showed similar results in safety and efficacy, indicating that single-port VATS lobectomy is a feasible and safe option for lung cancer patients.

  14. Effect of Moringa oleifera lam . leaves powder on the evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) leaves have exceptional nutritional qualities and they are used against malnutrition in Africa and Asia. The deficiency corrected by M. oleifera leaves powder administration into daily meal of HIV positive and negative patients has been determined during 14 weeks nutritional recovery by ...

  15. Effets des aliments contenant les folioles de Moringa oleifera Lam et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zootechniques et économiques) et à la qualité de la viande des lapins nourris aux aliments à base de folioles de Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) ou aux aliments commerciaux. Au total 144 lapereaux de race locale âgés de 35 à 40 jours dont 79 ...

  16. Effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) pods as feed additive on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lam.) pod meal (MPM) on production, immunity, and functional food index of chicken eggs. Two hundred HyLine W36 layer birds aged 50 weeks, 1469 ± 46.63 g, were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design, with five ...

  17. Basic Density and Strength Properties Variations in Cordia Africana (Lam) Grown Under Agroforestry in Arumeru, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahonge, C.P.I.

    2007-01-01

    Variations in basic density and strength properties of Cordia africana (lam) grown under agroforestry in Arumeru district Arusha Tanzania were determined. Tree sampling procedure and data collection based on standard methods (ISO 3129.of 1975). The main results indicated that basic density increased

  18. Adopting Learning Design with LAMS: Multi-Dimensional, Synchronous Large-Scale Adoption of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilescu-Buga, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) has been trialled and used by users from many countries around the globe, but despite the positive attitude towards its potential benefits to pedagogical processes its adoption in practice has been uneven, reflecting how difficult it is to make a new technology based concept an integral part of the…

  19. Performance of a Press-Lam bridge : a 5-year load-testing and monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Gromala; R. C. Moody; M. M. Sprinkel

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of load tests on an experimental highway bridge erected and put into service on the George Washington National Forest in Virginia in 1977. The bridge, made entirely of Press-Lam, a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) product, was load tested 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after erection. The bridge continues to perform quite well and,...

  20. Solutions of several coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . We provide an extensive set of exact quasiperiodic solutions of a number of coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé polynomials of arbitrary order. The models discussed are: (i) coupled Salerno model, (ii) coupled Ablowitz–Ladik model, ...

  1. Nicosulfuron Biodegradation by a Novel Cold-Adapted Strain Oceanisphaera psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan; Song, Jinlong; Dong, Weiwei; Mu, Yingchun; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Ziwen; Wang, Yanwei; Kong, Delong; Zhou, Yiqing; Jiang, Xu; Zhao, Bin; Han, Gang; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2017-11-29

    Nicosulfuron is a common environmental pollutant, posing a great threat to aquatic systems and causing significant damage to crops. This study reported a cold-adapted strain Oceanisphaera psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC, which efficiently degrades nicosulfuron over a wide range of temperatures (5 to 40 °C). The Box-Behnken design method was used to optimize the degradation conditions. O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC can degrade 92.4% and 74.6% of initially supplemented 100 mg/L nicosulfuron under the optimum and low temperature of 18.1 and 5 °C, respectively, within 7 days. O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC was found to be highly efficient in degrading cinosulfuron, chlorsulfuron, rimsulfuron, bensulfuron methyl, and ethametsulfuron methyl. Metabolites from nicosulfuron degradation were identified by UPLC-MS, and a possible degradation pathway was proposed. Furthermore, O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC can also degrade nicosulfuron in soil; 78.6% and 67.4% of the initial nicosulfuron supplemented at 50 mg/kg were removed at 18.1 and 5 °C, respectively, within 15 days.

  2. Solutions of several coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coupled discrete models are ubiquitous in a variety of physical contexts. We provide an extensive set of exact quasiperiodic solutions of a number of coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé polynomials of arbitrary order. The models discussed are: coupled Salerno model,; coupled Ablowitz–Ladik model,; coupled 4 ...

  3. Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. of Moraceae is a large evergreen tree with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. of Moraceae is a large evergreen tree with milky latex. This species occurs wild and is also cultivated for its fruit, which is edible. Leaves are simple and dark green. The branchlets are covered with rust-brown hairs. Inflorescence is axillary. The female inflorescence is globose with individualjlowers ...

  4. Growth and yield of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batates (L.) Lam.) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batates (L.) Lam.) as influenced by type of planting material. O A Namo, O E Michael. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 37-42. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information.

  6. The Diagnostic Value of Urine Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) Antigen in Childhood Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Agustin; Nursiloningrum, Erlin; Arthamin, Maimun Zulhaidah; Olivianto, Ery; Chandrakusuma, Mas Slamet

    2017-03-01

    Diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult because the clinical presentation is not specific, the chest X-ray interpretation has low accuracy and sputum sample is difficult to obtain. Antigen detection test such as rapid urine LAM is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing TB . Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is the main component of M.tuberculosis cell wall. To determine the diagnostic value of urinary LAM antigen for diagnosis of childhood TB. In the present cross-sectional study, subjects were included using consecutive sampling method. All the children aged 0-14 years Suspected of pulmonary or extra pulmonary TB suffering from cough more than two weeks, fever without clear aetiology, loss of body weight or poor weight gain, fatigue, malaise, chronic lymph node enlargement, spine angulation, joint swelling and had history of contact with positive sputum smear adult TB patient were enrolled in the study. Pulmonary and extra pulmonary diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), chest X-ray, Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB) staining and or sputum culture. Urinary LAM level was measured by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Cut off value and Area Under the Curve (AUC) were determined using ROC statistical analysis (SPSS 21.0). Sensitivity and specificity was measured from 2x2 cross table. Out of 61 subjects suspected as TB, 49 (80.3%) were eventually diagnosed with TB. Of those diagnosed with TB, 21 (42.9%) were microbiologically confirmed cases either by sputum microscopy (34.7%) or culture (8.2%), whereas 28 subjects were unconfirmed cases (57.1%). The urinary LAM level was higher in subjects with TB (1.80+1.02) mg/l compared to non-TB group (0.46+0.3) mg/l; pLAM had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity with cut off value 0.98 mg/l using microbiological and clinical confirmation as standard reference and 33% sensitivity and 60% specificity with cut off value 1.69 mg/l using microbiological confirmation only. Urinary LAM

  7. ALMA Observations of Lyα Blob 1: Halo Substructure Illuminated from Within

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geach, J. E.; Narayanan, D.; Matsuda, Y.; Hayes, M.; Mas-Ribas, Ll; Dijkstra, M.; Steidel, C. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Feldmann, R.; Avison, A.; Agertz, O.; Ao, Y.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bremer, M. N.; Clements, D. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, C. M.; Kubo, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Scott, Douglas; Smith, D. J. B.; Spaans, M.; Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Taniguchi, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Verma, A.; Yamada, T.

    2016-01-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 850 μm continuum observations of the original Lyα Blob (LAB) in the SSA22 field at z = 3.1 (SSA22-LAB01). The ALMA map resolves the previously identified submillimeter source into three components with a total flux density of S 850 =

  8. Nonclassical Ly6C− Monocytes Drive the Development of Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Misharin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different subsets and/or polarized phenotypes of monocytes and macrophages may play distinct roles during the development and resolution of inflammation. Here, we demonstrate in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis that nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes are required for the initiation and progression of sterile joint inflammation. Moreover, nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes differentiate into inflammatory macrophages (M1, which drive disease pathogenesis and display plasticity during the resolution phase. During the development of arthritis, these cells polarize toward an alternatively activated phenotype (M2, promoting the resolution of joint inflammation. The influx of Ly6C− monocytes and their subsequent classical and then alternative activation occurs without changes in synovial tissue-resident macrophages, which express markers of M2 polarization throughout the course of the arthritis and attenuate joint inflammation during the initiation phase. These data suggest that circulating Ly6C− monocytes recruited to the joint upon injury orchestrate the development and resolution of autoimmune joint inflammation.

  9. Interaktiivne võrguõpik "Võnkumised ja lained" / Ly Sõõrd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõõrd, Ly

    2000-01-01

    Interaktiivne võrguõpik "Võnkumised ja lained" on mõeldud gümnaasiumi 10. kl. füüsikakursuse osa "Mehaanilised võnkumised ja lained" õppimiseks iseseisvalt interneti vahendusel ning asub aadressil : http://www.physic.ut.ee/̃ly/xklass/opik.html

  10. Activity of LY333328 in Experimental Meningitis Caused by a Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain Susceptible to Penicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Joachim; Smirnov, Alexander; Wellmer, Andreas; Ragheb, Jasmin; Prange, Juliane; Schütz, Eckhardt; Wettich, Klaus; Kalich, Siegfried; Nau, Roland

    2001-01-01

    In a rabbit model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis single doses of 10 and 2.5 mg of the glycopeptide LY333328 per kg of body weight reduced bacterial titers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) almost as rapidly as ceftriaxone at 10 mg/kg/h (changes in log CFU, −0.29 ± 0.21 and −0.26 ± 0.22 versus −0.34 ± 0.15/ml/h). A dose of 1 mg/kg was bacteriostatic (change in log CFU, 0.01 ± 0.11/ml/h). In two animals receiving LY333328 at a dose of 40 mg/kg the bacterial titers were reduced by 0.54 and 0.51 log CFU/ml/h. The penetration of CSF by LY333328 was 1 to 5%. The concentrations of lipoteichoic and teichoic acids in CSF and neuronal damage were similar in ceftriaxone- and LY333328-treated animals. PMID:11408247

  11. Clustering of Ly alpha emitters at z approximate to 4.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovac, Katarina; Somerville, Rachel S.; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Wang, JunXian

    2007-01-01

    We present the clustering properties of 151 Ly alpha-emitting galaxies at z approximate to 4.5 selected from the Large Area Lyman Alpha (LALA) survey. Our catalog covers an area of 36'; 36' observed with five narrowband filters. We assume that the angular correlation function w(theta) is well

  12. High-redshift Ly alpha emitters : clues on the Milky Way infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Dayal, Pratika; Ferrara, Andrea

    With the aim of determining if Milky Way (MW) progenitors could be identified as high-redshift Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs), we have derived the intrinsic properties of z approximate to 5.7 MW progenitors, which are then used to compute their observed Ly alpha luminosity, L(alpha), and equivalent

  13. A phase II study to evaluate LY2603618 in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laquente, Berta; Lopez-Martin, Jose; Richards, Donald; Illerhaus, Gerald; Chang, David Z.; Kim, George; Stella, Philip; Richel, Dirk; Szcylik, Cezary; Cascinu, Stefano; Frassineti, G. L.; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Hurt, Karla; Hynes, Scott; Lin, Ji; Lin, Aimee Bence; Von Hoff, Daniel; Calvo, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether checkpoint kinase 1 inihibitor (CHK1), LY2603618, and gemcitabine prolong overall survival (OS) compared to gemcitabine alone in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. Patients with Stage II-IV locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer

  14. Silicon depletion in damped Ly α systems. The S/Zn method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladilo, G.; Abate, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328199362; Yin, J.; Cescutti, G.; Matteucci, F.

    2011-01-01

    Silicates are an important component of interstellar dust that has been poorly investigated in high redshift galaxies. As a preliminary step to studying silicates at high redshift, we survey silicon depletions in damped Ly α (DLA) systems. Silicon depletion is mild in the Galactic interstellar

  15. In vitro activity of a new 'higher-Iactam' antibacterial agent LY 193239

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-16

    Mar 16, 1991 ... Hinton broth and inoculated by spreading 100 III on chocolate agar plates at 6 hours and 24 hours. Results. MICs. Results of agar dilution susceptibility studies are shown in. Table 1. . Activity of LY 193239 is excellent against the two Neisseria species tested. Beta-laetamase-producing strains of Neisseria.

  16. HI column density distribution function at z=0 : Connection to damped Ly alpha statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Martin; Verheijen, MAW; Briggs, FH

    We present a measurement of the HI column density distribution function f(N-HI) at the present epoch for column densities > 10(20) cm(-2). These high column densities compare to those measured in damped Ly alpha lines seen in absorption against background quasars. Although observationally rare, it

  17. Accelerated Evolution of the Lyα Luminosity Function at z >~ 7 Revealed by the Subaru Ultra-deep Survey for Lyα Emitters at z = 7.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Akira; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Furusawa, Hisanori; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Naito, Yoshiaki; Momose, Rieko; Yuma, Suraphong; Iye, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    We present the ultra-deep Subaru narrowband imaging survey for Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 7.3 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) and Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) fields (~0.5 deg2) with a total integration time of 106 hr. Exploiting our new sharp bandwidth filter, NB101, installed on the Suprime-Cam, we have reached L(Lyα) = 2.4 × 1042 erg s-1 (5σ) for z = 7.3 LAEs, about four times deeper than previous Subaru z >~ 7 studies, which allows us to reliably investigate the evolution of the Lyα luminosity function (LF) for the first time down to the luminosity limit same as those of Subaru z = 3.1-6.6 LAE samples. Surprisingly, we only find three and four LAEs in the SXDS and COSMOS fields, respectively, while one expects a total of ~65 LAEs by our survey in the case of no Lyα LF evolution from z = 6.6 to 7.3. We identify a decrease of the Lyα LF from z = 6.6 to 7.3 at the >90% confidence level from our z = 7.3 Lyα LF with the best-fit Schechter parameters of L*{Lyα } = 2.7+8.0-1.2 × 1042 {erg} {s}-1 and φ * = 3.7+17.6-3.3 × 10-4 {Mpc}-3 for a fixed α = -1.5. Moreover, the evolution of the Lyα LF is clearly accelerated at z > 6.6 beyond the measurement uncertainties including cosmic variance. Because no such accelerated evolution of the UV-continuum LF or the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) is found at z ~ 7, but suggested only at z > 8, this accelerated Lyα LF evolution is explained by physical mechanisms different from a pure SFR decrease but related to the Lyα production and escape in the process of cosmic reionization. Because a simple accelerating increase of intergalactic medium neutral hydrogen absorbing Lyα cannot be reconciled with Thomson scattering of optical depth measurements from WMAP and Planck, our findings may support new physical pictures suggested by recent theoretical studies, such as the existence of HI clumpy clouds within cosmic ionized bubbles that are selectively absorbing Lyα and the large ionizing photon escape

  18. DESCOMPOSICIÓN Y LIBERACIÓN DE NITRÓGENO Y MATERIA ORGÁNICA EN HOJAS DE Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Y Moringa oleifera Lam. EN UN BANCO MIXTO DE FORRAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Petit-Aldana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las tasas de descomposición, la liberación de N y MO en hojas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. y Moringa oleifera Lam. en un banco mixto de forraje en Yucatán, México, en las épocas de lluvias y sequía, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Se llenaron 120 bolsas con hojas frescas de las especies colectadas, y se colocaron en cada unidad experimental. Se evaluaron tres periodos de incubación para cada tratamiento: cuatro, ocho, y 16 semanas por cada época. A finales del experimento se observó que el proceso de descomposición fue más rápido en la temporada de lluvias. La pérdida de peso y la liberación de N y MO fueron más aceleradas en M. oleifera en monocultivo y en la asociación L. leucocephala con M. oleifera. Los patrones de descomposición de todas las especies siguieron el modelo exponencial simple, con más del 80 % de la masa inicial incorporada al final del periodo de estudio. Se concluye que L. leucocephala, G. ulmifolia y M. oleifera en monocultivo y asociadas, demostraron su capacidad para producir considerables cantidades de materia orgánica y liberar importantes cantidades de N en cortos periodos.

  19. The Distinction between Direct and General Costs with Regard to the Deduction of Input VAT - The Case of Acquisition, Holding and Sale of Shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    is of general importance to all types of costs, but judged from the case law of the ECJ it has especially materialised itself when it comes to costs related to the acquisition, holding or sales of shares. The purpose of this article is therefore twofold. On the one hand it deals with the difficult question...... of distinguishing between direct and general costs. On the other hand the aim is to describe and analyse the law as it stands regarding the treatment of shares in the EU VAT system, with a special focus on the right to deduct input VAT on costs re-lating to transactions in shares. As a part of this analysis the aim...

  20. Lyα excess in high-redshift radio galaxies: a signature of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Martín, M.; Humphrey, A.; De Breuck, C.; Fosbury, R.; Binette, L.; Vernet, J.

    2007-03-01

    About 54 per cent of radio galaxies at z >= 3 and 8 per cent of radio galaxies at 2 ~ 2) radio galaxies. These Lyα-excess objects (LAEs) show Lyα/HeII values consistent with or above standard photoionization model predictions. We reject with confidence several scenarios to explain the unusual strength of Lyα in these objects: shocks, low nebular metallicities, high gas densities and absorption/scattering effects. We show that the most successful explanation is the presence of a young stellar population which provides the extra supply of ionizing photons required to explain the Lyα excess in at least the most extreme LAEs (probably in all of them). This interpretation is strongly supported by the tentative trend found by other authors for z >= 3 radio galaxies to show lower ultraviolet rest-frame polarization levels, or the dramatic increase in the detection rate at submm wavelengths of z > 2.5 radio galaxies. The enhanced star formation activity in LAEs could be a consequence of a recent merger which has triggered both the star formation and the active galactic nucleus/radio activities. The measurement of unusually high Lyα ratios in the extended gas of some high-redshift radio galaxies suggests that star formation activity occurs in spatial scales of tens of kpc. We argue that, although the fraction of LAEs may be incompletely determined, both at 2 = 3, the much larger fraction of LAEs found at z >= 3 is a genuine redshift evolution and not due to selection effects. Therefore, our results suggest that the radio galaxy phenomenon is more often associated with a massive starburst at z > 3 than at z < 3. Unpublished results are presented in this paper for the radio galaxy 1338-1941, based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal (Chile) for the ESO project 69.B-0078(B). E-mail: montse@iaa.es

  1. TRANSITING THE SUN. II. THE IMPACT OF STELLAR ACTIVITY ON Lyα TRANSITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llama, J.; Shkolnik, E. L., E-mail: joe.llama@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    High-energy observations of the Sun provide an opportunity to test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of transiting exoplanets in the presence of stellar activity. Here we insert the transit of a hot Jupiter into continuous disk integrated data of the Sun in Lyα from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory/EVE instrument to assess the impact of stellar activity on the measured planet-to-star radius ratio (R{sub p}/R{sub ⋆}). In 75% of our simulated light curves, we measure the correct radius ratio; however, incorrect values can be measured if there is significant short-term variability in the light curve. The maximum measured value of R{sub p}/R{sub ⋆} is 50% larger than the input value, which is much smaller than the large Lyα transit depths that have been reported in the literature, suggesting that for stars with activity levels comparable to the Sun, stellar activity alone cannot account for these deep transits. We ran simulations without a transit and found that stellar activity cannot mimic the Lyα transit of 55 Cancari b, strengthening the conclusion that this planet has a partially transiting exopshere. We were able to compare our simulations to more active stars by artificially increasing the variability in the Solar Lyα light curve. In the higher variability data, the largest value of R{sub p}/R{sub ⋆} we measured is <3× the input value, which again is not large enough to reproduce the Lyα transit depth reported for the more active stars HD 189733 and GJ 436, supporting the interpretation that these planets have extended atmospheres and possible cometary tails.

  2. A search for z <1.2 Ly-alpha Blobs using SWIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Hegel, P.; Jansen, R. A.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Windhorst, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A recent major discovery has been that of “blobs” of Ly-α (LABs) emission at high (z > 1.7) redshift. These objects are distinguished by their relative lack of stellar continuum emission, large physical and angular sizes, and are found in regions of high galaxy density. The limited information available on LABs makes their nature unclear. Possibilities include cooling radiation from collapsing protogalactic clouds, cold gas stream accretion onto dark matter halos, superwinds from massive starbursts, and gas photoionized by obscured or transient AGN. As with any new class of object, more data and larger samples are needed to narrow down the range of possibilities. Below z ~ 1.7, Lyα detection require space-based observations. Keel et al. (2009) used deep GALEX grism observations of two fields centered on galaxy clusters at z = 0.8, in order to constrain the comoving space density of the LAB population at that redshift. No LABs were detected. Based on limited data, this result suggest a rapid decrease in the space density of LABs since z ~ 2. Using Swift’s unique ultraviolet imaging capability, we attempt to locate z test the theory that blob activity is regulated in part by cluster formation by searching for blobs in the vicinity of QSOs. Our search consisted of 130 observations with the Swift/UVOT instrument's UVW1 (corresponds to Ly-α at z ~ 1.1) and UVW2 (corresponds to Ly-α at 0.55) filters centered on QSOs at z ~0.55. To probe the hosts of our Ly-α Blob candidates, we obtained follow-up ground-based optical observations of 30 candidates using the VATT 4k CCD in the U, B, and V filters. We present SEDs for the most promising objects and a census of the contents of our UVOT fields.

  3. An Improved Antagonist Radiotracer for the Kappa Opioid Receptor: Synthesis and Characterization of 11C-LY2459989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Kim, Su Jin; Holden, Daniel; Lin, Shu-fei; Need, Anne; Rash, Karen; Barth, Vanessa; Mitch, Charles; Navarro, Antonio; Kapinos, Michael; Maloney, Kathleen; Ropchan, Jim; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2016-01-01

    The kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases and addictive disorders. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with radioligands provides a means to image the KOR in vivo and investigate its function in health and disease. The purpose of this study was to develop the selective KOR antagonist 11C-LY2459989 as a PET radioligand and characterize its imaging performance in non-human primates. Methods LY2459989 was synthesized and assayed for in vitro binding to opioid receptors. Ex vivo studies in rodents were conducted to assess its potential as a tracer candidate. 11C-LY2459989 was synthesized by reaction of its iodophenyl precursor with 11C-cyanide followed by partial hydrolysis of the resulting 11C-cyanophenyl intermediate. Imaging experiments with 11C-LY2459989 were carried out in rhesus monkeys with arterial input function measurement. Imaging data were analyzed with kinetic models to derive in vivo binding parameters. Results LY2459989 is a full antagonist with high binding affinity and selectivity for KOR (Ki = 0.18, 7.68, and 91.3 nM, respectively, for κ, μ, and δ receptors). Ex vivo studies in rats indicated LY2459989 as an appropriate tracer candidate with high specific binding signals, and confirmed its KOR binding selectivity in vivo. 11C-LY2459989 was synthesized in high radiochemical purity and good specific activity. In rhesus monkeys, 11C-LY2459989 displayed a fast rate of peripheral metabolism. Similarly, 11C-LY2459989 displayed fast uptake kinetics in the brain and an uptake pattern consistent with the distribution of KOR in primates. Pretreatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.v.) resulted in a uniform distribution of radioactivity in the brain. Further, specific binding of 11C-LY2459989 was dose-dependently reduced by the selective KOR antagonist LY2456302 and the unlabeled LY2459989. Regional binding potential (BPND) values derived from the multilinear analysis method (MA1), as a measure of in vivo specific

  4. Investigating B Cell Development, Natural and Primary Antibody Responses in Ly-6A/Sca-1 Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan A Jones

    Full Text Available Ly-6A/Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly-6A/Sca-1 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed on many cell types including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and early lymphoid-specific progenitors. Ly-6A/Sca-1 is expressed on CD4+ T cells and plays a role in regulating cellular responses to foreign antigens. The role of Ly-6A/Sca-1 in primary antibody responses has not been defined. To investigate whether Ly-6A/Sca-1 functions in humoral immunity, we first injected Ly-6A/Sca-1-deficient and wild-type control mice with chicken ovalbumin (c-Ova protein mixed with an adjuvant. We then assessed the ability of the mice to generate a primary antibody response against cOva. We further examined the development of B cells and circulating antibody isotypes in non-immunized Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient mice to determine if Ly6A/Sca-1 functions in development irrespective of antigen-specific immune activation. Ly-6A/Sca-1/Sca-1-deficient mice did not show any significant changes in the number of B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, Ly-6A/Sca-1/Sca-1-/- mice have significantly elevated serum levels of IgA with λ light chains compared to wild type controls. B cell clusters with high reactivity to anti-IgA λ monoclonal antibody were detected in the lamina propria of the gut, though this was not observed in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Despite these differences, the Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient mice generated a similar primary antibody response when compared to the wild-type mice. In summary, we conclude that the primary antibody response to cOva antigen is similar in Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient and sufficient mice. In addition, we report significantly higher expression of the immunoglobulin λ light chain by B cells in lamina propria of Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient mice when compared to the wild-type control.

  5. More than Solfège and Hand Signs: Philosophy, Tools, and Lesson Planning in the Authentic Kodály Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, James

    2015-01-01

    Four components of the Kodály concept are delineated here: philosophy, objectives, essential tools, and lesson planning process. After outlining the tenets of the Kodály philosophy and objectives, the article presents the Kodály concept's essential tools, including singing, movable "do" solfège, rhythm syllables, hand signs, singing on…

  6. VAT application in travel services pursuant to the Czech and EU legislations and a proposal for amendments in the Czech value-added tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domain of value-added tax has been already fully harmonized. Its regulation dwells on the Council Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value-added tax, and all member countries of the European Union are obliged to provide for the implementation of this Directive into their national legislations similarly as the Czech Republic, which entered the European Union on 1 May 2004. The Act no. 235/2004 Coll. on the value-added tax as amended (hereinafter „value-added tax law“ should be therefore in line with the Directive. In reality however, some issues in the VAT law have not been fully harmonized yet. One of these issues is for example the application of a special routine for travel services according to §89 of the VAT law, which is in essential contradiction with the Directive in question, the controversial point being definition of the person of customer whom the Directive understands in a different way than the VAT law. Thus, the characterization of the problem based on the Czech and EU legislations with respect to jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the European Community forms a framework of the paper. Based on a comparative analysis of the application of special and ordinary routines in providing travel services to the customer by the taxpayer, tax incidence in his assessment base is determined. At the same time, the paper also includes a proposal for the change of the definition of customer in the VAT law so that the application of the given routine is fully in line with the EU Directive.

  7. C11. Tratamento de empiemas por VATS – análise retrospectiva Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra (CHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cortesão

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Os derrames parapneumónicos (DPP surgem em até 57% dos doentes internados com pneumonia bacteriana. Uma parte destes derrames regridem com a antibioterapia instituída, enquanto outros evoluem para formas complicadas de DPP. Neste grupo de doentes é necessário utilizar métodos terapêuticos adicionais invasivo. Uma das técnicas terapêuticas disponíveis, a cirurgia toracoscópica assistida por vídeo (VATS, tem dado provas de maior eficácia clínica quando comparada com outras opções sendo, inclusivamente, apontada em alguns estudos como terapêutica de primeira escolha para o tratamento inicial de DPP em fase fibrinopurulenta (fase 2 ou organizativa (fase 3.Apesar de ser consensualmente aceite que DPP complicados, em fase 2 ou fase 3, requerem terapêutica invasiva, não estão estabelecidos critérios que orientem nem a escolha da terapêutica a utilizar, nem o tempo útil para a sua utilização.Apresenta-se uma análise retrospectiva de 394 casos de empiema pleural tratados por VATS, no período de 1992 a 2000 no Sector de Cirurgia Torácica do CHC, dos quais 310 eram do sexo masculino (78% e 84 do sexo feminino (22%. Em 63,1% dos casos os doentes apresentavam comorbilidades. A média de idades foi de 55,5 anos (14-94.Relativamente a 171 deles, analisaram-se também dados clínicos, laboratoriais, microbiológicos e imagiológicos. O sintoma mais frequente foi a toracalgia isolada ou associada a outras queixas. Observou-se leucocitose mais frequentemente na fase 1 e 2 (com ou sem neutrofilia. A anemia foi mais prevalente em homens (90%, sobretudo na fase 3. Foi efectuada toracocentese em 61,4%. O aspecto purulento do líquido pleural surgiu em 40% das toracocenteses efectuadas no estadio 2. O pH do líquido pleural, nos casos em que foi determinado, foi inferior a 7,2 em mais de 50% no estadio 1 e 2 e em 40% no estadio 3. O estudo microbiológico do l

  8. Lyα Escape from z ~ 0.03 Star-forming Galaxies: The Dominant Role of Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Aida; Leitherer, Claus; Salzer, John

    2013-03-01

    The usefulness of H I Lyα photons for characterizing star formation in the distant universe is limited by our understanding of the astrophysical processes that regulate their escape from galaxies. These processes can only be observed in detail out to a few × 100 Mpc. Past nearby (z =0.03. The galaxies cover a broad range of luminosity, oxygen abundance, and reddening. In this paper, we characterize the observed Lyα lines and establish correlations with fundamental galaxy properties. We find seven emitters. These host young (stellar populations have rest-frame equivalent widths in the range 1-12 Å, and have Lyα escape fractions within the COS aperture in the range 1%-12%. One emitter has a double-peaked Lyα with peaks 370 km s-1 apart and a stronger blue peak. Excluding this object, the emitters have Lyα and O I λ1302 offsets from Hα in agreement with expanding-shell models and Lyman break galaxies observations. The absorbers have offsets that are almost consistent with a static medium. We find no one-to-one correspondence between Lyα emission and age, metallicity, or reddening. Thus, we confirm that Lyα is enhanced by outflows and is regulated by the dust and H I column density surrounding the hot stars.

  9. The AMPA receptor potentiator LY404187 increases cerebral glucose utilization and c-fos expression in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Jill H; Whalley, Katherine; Murray, Tracey; O'neill, Michael J; McCulloch, James

    2004-10-01

    AMPA receptor potentiators enhance AMPA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission and may have therapeutic potential as cognitive enhancers or antidepressants. The anatomical basis for the action of AMPA receptor potentiators is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the biarylpropylsulfonamide AMPA receptor potentiator, LY404187 (0.05 to 5 mg/kg subcutaneously), upon cerebral glucose utilization and c-fos expression using 14C-2-deoxglucose autoradiography and c-fos immunocytochemistry. LY404187 (0.5 mg/kg) produced significant elevations in glucose utilization in 28 of the 52 anatomical regions analyzed, which included rostral neocortical areas and the hippocampus, as well the dorsal raphe nucleus, lateral habenula, and locus coeruleus. No significant decreases in glucose utilization were observed in any region after LY404187 administration. The increases in glucose utilization with LY404187 (0.5 mg/kg) were blocked by pretreatment with the AMPA receptor antagonist LY293558 (25 mg/kg), indicating that LY404187 acts through AMPA receptor-mediated mechanisms. LY404187 (0.5 mg/kg) also produced increases in c-fos immunoreactivity in the cortex, locus coeruleus, and the dorsal raphe nucleus. These studies demonstrate neuronal activation in key brain areas that are associated with memory processes and thus provide an anatomical basis for the cognitive enhancing effects of AMPA receptor potentiators.

  10. Targeted Blockade of TARP-g8-Associated AMPA Receptors: Anticonvulsant Activity with the Selective Antagonist LY3130481 (CERC-611).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, Jeffrey M; Schober, Douglas A; Gleason, Scott D; Catlow, John T; Porter, Warren J; Reel, Jon; Jin, X; Hobbs, J; Gehlert, Donald; Gernert, Douglas L; Gardinier, Kevin M; Kato, Akihiko S; Ping, X; Smith, J L

    2017-11-01

    6-[(1S)-1-[1-[5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-pyridyl]pyrazol-3-yl]ethyl]-3H-1,3-benzothiazol-2-one (LY3130481 or CERC-611) is a selective antagonist of AMPA receptors containing transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) g-8 that is under development for epilepsy. The present study provided a broad inquiry into its anticonvulsant properties. LY3130481 was anticonvulsant in multiple acute seizure provocation models in mice and rats. In addition, LY3130481 was effective against absence seizures in the GAERS genetic model and in the Frings mouse model. Likewise LY3130481 attenuated convulsions in mice and rats with long term induction of seizures (e.g., corneal, pentylenetetrazole, hippocampal, and amygdala kindled seizures). In slices of epileptic human cortex, LY3130481 significantly decreased neuronal firing frequencies. LY3130481 displaced from rat brain a radioligand specific for AMPA receptors associated with TARP g-8 whereas non-TARP-selective molecules did not. Binding was also observed in hippocampus freshly transected from a patient Taken as a whole, the findings reported here establish the broad anticonvulsant efficacy of LY3130481 indicating that blockade of AMPA receptors associated with TARP g-8 is sufficient for these protective effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family.

  12. LyP-1-conjugated Fe3O4 nanoparticles suppress tumor growth by magnetic induction hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Peishan; Wang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jieying; Zhang, Han; Yang, Xin; Huang, Yun; Tang, Jintian

    2017-11-22

    To find a promising drug carrier to suppress tumor using magnetic induction hyperthermia (MIH) and targeted therapy, two superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and LyP-1, respectively, were prepared and compared. The particle size ranges of PEG-SPIONs and LyP-1-SPIONs were 10~15nm, and 15~20nm, respectively. In FTIR spectra, PEG-SPIONs and LyP-1-SPIONs had strong peaks between 575 and 1630 cm-1. Specifically, the PEG-SPIONs mainly has peaks in 581 and 1630 cm-1. The LyP-1-SPIONs mainly had peaks in 575, 1050 and 1625 cm-1. The contents of Fe3O4 in the PEG-SPIONs and LyP-1-SPIONs were about 94.24% and 89.26%, respectively. The iron contents in the MCF-7 and CT-26 cells were 33.1±1.8pg and 27.9±0.95pg, respectively, after co-incubation with LyP-1-SPIONs for 8 hours. The LyP-1-SPIONs accumulated in the nucleus of MCF-7 cells while PEG-SPIONs in cytoplasma. In vitro, after 30 days we can found the tumor almost stopped to grow in Group LyP-1-SPIONs. LyP-1-SPIONs are promising in treating cancer as they accumulated in the nucleus of MCF-7 cells which expressed p32 and almost stopped tumor growth by combined MIH and targeted therapy.

  13. In vitro propagation, ex vitro rooting and leaf micromorphology of Bauhinia racemosa Lam.: a leguminous tree with medicinal values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Udit; Kataria, Vinod; Shekhawat, N S

    2017-01-01

    A micropropagation system for Bauhinia racemosa Lam. was developed involving axillary shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting using nodal explants obtained from mature tree. MS medium with 3.0 mg l−1 BA (6-benzyladenine...

  14. Neutral ISM, Lyα, and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. Emil; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Puschnig, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Lyα line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Lyα, but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si II. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium. Based on observations with HST-COS, program GO 13017, obtained from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NNX09AF08G and by other grants and

  15. 3-D-geocoronal hydrogen density derived from TWINS Ly-α-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Zoennchen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on Ly-α-line-of-sight measurements taken with two Ly-α detectors onboard of the satellite TWINS1 (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers density profiles of the exospheric, neutral geocoronal hydrogen were derived for the time period between summer solstice and fall equinox 2008. With the help of specifically developed inversion programs from Ly-α line of sight intensities the three-dimensional density structure of the geocoronal hydrogen at geocentric distances r>3 RE could be derived for the period mentioned characterized by very low solar 10.7 cm radiofluxes of ≈65–70 [10−22 W m−2 Hz−1]. The time-variable, solar "line-centered"-Ly-α-flux was extracted on the basis of daily (terrestrial NGDC 10.7 cm radioflux data using the models from Barth et al. (1990 and Vidal-Madjar (1975. The results for the geocoronal H-densities are compared here both with theoretical calculations based on a Monte-Carlo model by Hodges (1994 and with density profiles obtained with the Geocoronal Imager (GEO by Østgaard and Mende (2003. In our results we find a remarkably more pronounced day-/night-side asymmetry which clearly hints to the existence of a hydrogen geotail (i.e. a tail structure with comparatively higher hydrogen densities on the night side of the earth for geocenctric distances >4 RE, and a only weakly pronounced polar depletion. These unexpected features we try to explain by new models in the near future. The derived 3-D-H-density structures are able to explain the line-of-sight (LOS dependent Ly-α intensity variations for all LOS seen up to now with TWINS-LAD. The presented results are valid for the region with geocentric distances 3 RELy-α-scattering allowing the use of single scattering calculations.

  16. A Faraday rotation search for magnetic fields in quasar damped Ly alpha absorption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Abraham L.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a Faraday rotation survey of 61 radio-bright QSOs conducted at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The Galactic contribution to the Faraday rotation is estimated and subtracted to determine the extragalactic rotation measure (RRM) for each source. Eleven of these QSOs are known to exhibit damped Ly alpha absorption. The rate of incidence of significant Faraday rotation of these 11 sources is compared to the remaining 50 and is found to be higher at the 99.8% confidence level. However, as this is based upon only two detections of Faraday rotation in the damped Ly alpha sample, the result is only tentative. If the two detections in the damped Ly alpha sample are dug to the absorbing systems, then the inferred rotation measure induced by these systems is roughly 250 rad/sq m. The two detections were for the two lowest redshift absorbers in the sample. We find that a rotation measure of 250 rad/sq m would have gone undetected for any other absorber in the damped Ly alpha sample due to the 1/(1 + 2) squared dilution of the observed RRM with redshift. Thus the data are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is a generic property of damped Ly alpha absorbers. We do not confirm the suggestion that the amplitude of RRMs increases with redshift. Rather, the data are consistent with no redshift evolution. We find that the uncertainty in the estimation of the Galactic rotation measure (GRM) is a more serious problem than previously realized for extra-galactic Faraday rotation studies of QSO absorbers. A careful analysis of current methods for estimating GRM indicate that it can be determined to an accuracy of about 15 - 20 rad/sq m. Previous studies underestimated this uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. Due to this uncertainty, rotation measures such as we suspect are associated with damped Ly alpha absorption systems can only be detected at redshifts less than z approximately

  17. Molecular characterization and expression of a novel human leukocyte cell-surface marker homologous to mouse Ly-9

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente García, Miguel Ángel de la; Tovar, Victoria; Villamor, Neus; Zapater, Nuria; Pizcueta, Pilar; Campo, Elias; Jaime Bosch, Jaime; Engel, Pablo

    2001-01-01

    Producción Científica .Ly-9 is a mouse cell-surface glycoprotein that is selectively expressed on thymocytes and on mature T and B lymphocytes. Ly-9 belongs to the CD2 subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily, an emerging family of cell signaling receptors. Recently, a partial human Ly-9 complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence has been described. Full-length cDNA clones were isolated that included the initiation codon, the sequence encoding the full signal peptide, and 14 amino acids more in the...

  18. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S

    2016-02-11

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (Determine(TM) TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm(3) (IQR 89-256/mm(3)). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1-55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4-33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0-66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51-0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression.

  19. Análisis farmacognóstico preliminar de las semillas de Moringa oleifera Lam cosechadas en Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Fernández, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Moringa oleifera Lam (moringa) is a species of recognized use for both humans and animals. The seeds are a source of fixed oils with high content of unsaturated fatty acids and especially oleic acid. This oil can be used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products and as well as in biodiesel. Objective: to develop preliminary pharmacognostic analysis using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam harvested in Jovellanos municipality, Matanzas, Cuba. Methods: moringa seeds were evaluated ...

  20. Metalloadsorption by Escherichia coli Cells Displaying Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Anchored to the Outer Membrane Protein LamB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carolina; Kotrba, Pavel; Ruml, Tomas; Cebolla, Angel; De Lorenzo, Víctor

    1998-01-01

    Yeast (CUP1) and mammalian (HMT-1A) metallothioneins (MTs) have been efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the outer membrane protein LamB. A 65-amino-acid sequence from the CUP1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast [Y] MT) was genetically inserted in permissive site 153 of the LamB sequence, which faces the outer medium. A second LamB fusion at position 153 was created with 66 amino acids recruited from the form of human (H) MT that is predominant in the adipose tissue, HMT-1A. Both LamB153-YMT and LamB153-HMT hybrids were produced in vivo as full-length proteins, without any indication of instability or proteolytic degradation. Each of the two fusion proteins was functional as the port of entry of lambda phage variants, suggesting maintenance of the overall topology of the wild-type LamB. Expression of the hybrid proteins in vivo multiplied the natural ability of E. coli cells to bind Cd2+ 15- to 20-fold, in good correlation with the number of metal-binding centers contributed by the MT moiety of the fusions. PMID:9573175

  1. UPDATES DECLARING THE DELIVERIES AND PURCHASES MADE ON THE NATIONAL TERRITORY BY THE PERSONS REGISTERED FOR VAT SINCE OCTOBER 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE ECOBICI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is in the applied research line and aims to present the main news on the new model of informative statement regarding the deliveries and acquisitions made in Romania (Statement 394. The new format increases the number of pages of required information from two to 16. Fortunately, the VAT-extempt operations are not declared. The deadline for submission of the 394 statement is the end of the next month following the end of the reporting period, even if no taxabile operations were conducted in that period. Ommissions or errors found are corrected by a subsequent statement, which is going to replace the original statement. There is reason to rectify the situations where invoices are received in another reporting period to the date of their issuance by suppliers, the reception day of documents is taken into consideration and not the date of issuace. After analyzing we believe that the Declaration 394 is particularly bushy in terms of the information required to be included, being one of the most complained forms from the website launched by the Government (“maisimplu.gov.ro”. Although the information contained in the previous versions of the statement (from 01.01.2007 and until 30.09.2016 were much reduced compared to the current version, NAFA could use this information effectively to combat tax evasion. There are many examples across the country where, through the errors detected electronically in the Statements 394 laid down by the taxpayers, the abilitated control bodies found actions of tax evasion on the spot, marked by the differences between deliveries declared by some suppliers and the purchases declared by their customers. We understand the approach of NAFA in the fight against tax evasion, but we consider that the new changes brought to the informative statement 394 form is one able to generate higher costs and threats for taxpayers, without bringing in exchange an effect in combating the tax evasion.

  2. Variability of bacterial biofilms of the "tina" wood vats used in the ragusano cheese-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, G; Ogier, J C; Parayre, S; Pediliggieri, C; Carnemolla, T M; Falentin, H; Madec, M N; Carpino, S; Lortal, S

    2007-11-01

    Ragusano cheese is a "protected denomination of origin" cheese made in the Hyblean region of Sicily from raw milk using traditional wooden tools, without starter. To explore the Ragusano bacterial ecosystem, molecular fingerprinting was conducted at different times during the ripening and biofilms from the wooden vats called "tinas" were investigated. Raw milks collected at two farm sites, one on the mountain and one at sea level, were processed to produce Ragusano cheese. Raw milk, curd before and after cooking, curd at stretching time (cheese 0 time), and cheese samples (4 and 7 months) were analyzed by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) and by classical enumeration microbiology. With the use of universal primers, PCR-TTGE revealed many differences between the raw milk profiles, but also notable common bands identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Enterococcus faecium. After the stretching, TTGE profiles revealed three to five dominant species only through the entire process of ripening. In the biofilms of the two tinas used, one to five species were detected, S. thermophilus being predominant in both. Biofilms from five other tinas were also analyzed by PCR-TTGE, PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis, specific PCR tests, and sequencing, confirming the predominance of lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and the presence of a few high-GC-content species, like coryneform bacteria. The spontaneous acidification of raw milks before and after contact with the five tinas was followed in two independent experiments. The lag period before acidification can be up to 5 h, depending on the raw milk and the specific tina, highlighting the complexity of this natural inoculation system.

  3. Variability of Bacterial Biofilms of the “Tina” Wood Vats Used in the Ragusano Cheese-Making Process▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, G.; Ogier, J. C.; Parayre, S.; Pediliggieri, C.; Carnemolla, T. M.; Falentin, H.; Madec, M. N.; Carpino, S.; Lortal, S.

    2007-01-01

    Ragusano cheese is a “protected denomination of origin” cheese made in the Hyblean region of Sicily from raw milk using traditional wooden tools, without starter. To explore the Ragusano bacterial ecosystem, molecular fingerprinting was conducted at different times during the ripening and biofilms from the wooden vats called “tinas” were investigated. Raw milks collected at two farm sites, one on the mountain and one at sea level, were processed to produce Ragusano cheese. Raw milk, curd before and after cooking, curd at stretching time (cheese 0 time), and cheese samples (4 and 7 months) were analyzed by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) and by classical enumeration microbiology. With the use of universal primers, PCR-TTGE revealed many differences between the raw milk profiles, but also notable common bands identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Enterococcus faecium. After the stretching, TTGE profiles revealed three to five dominant species only through the entire process of ripening. In the biofilms of the two tinas used, one to five species were detected, S. thermophilus being predominant in both. Biofilms from five other tinas were also analyzed by PCR-TTGE, PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis, specific PCR tests, and sequencing, confirming the predominance of lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and the presence of a few high-GC-content species, like coryneform bacteria. The spontaneous acidification of raw milks before and after contact with the five tinas was followed in two independent experiments. The lag period before acidification can be up to 5 h, depending on the raw milk and the specific tina, highlighting the complexity of this natural inoculation system. PMID:17720831

  4. Immunosuppressive activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2010-07-06

    Traditionally, the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is used for the treatment of ascites and rheumatism, while the dried seeds of the plant are used as an 'anti-allergic' agent. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ethanolic extract of seeds from Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation. Circulatory and splenic leukocyte counts, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and humoral antibody responses were measured in mice using SRBC as the antigen. In addition, macrophage phagocytosis was measured by the carbon clearance test. The extract dose-dependently (50, 100 and 200mg/kg) inhibited spleen weight as well as circulatory leukocyte and splenocyte counts. The delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was significantly inhibited (PMoringa oleifera have immunosuppressive activity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effets du tractus digestif de chèvres sur la germination de Zizyphus mauritiana Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guèye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Goat Digestive Tractus on the Seeds Germination of Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. The jujube tree (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam., a plant of numerous uses, native of Africa is threatened to extinction. The presence of lignified endocarpe scarcely permeable to water and to air inhibits seed germination and consequentiy limits its regeneration. Its preservation requires good knowledge of various factors controlling seed dormancy. The mechanisms involved in breaking seed dormancy were studied in light of natural scarification. The results showed that isolated seeds obtained after breaking endocarpe gave the highest germination rate (88 %. In this case, seeds germinated sooner, five days after sowing. The fruits which have passed in transit in the digestive tube of goat presented germination rate (69 % significantly more important than those of intact fruits (61 %. However, the germination rate of ingested fruits was, in average, more important than those of the seeds with endocarpe and no ingested (65 %.

  6. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The results showed that Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract had antidiabetic activity with IC50 less than 100 ppm. However, the activity is lesser than quercetin.

  7. CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells mediate mechanical inflammatory pain hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Nader; Chiu, Isaac M.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Pain hypersensitivity at the site of inflammation as a result of chronic immune diseases, pathogenic infection, and tissue injury is a common medical condition. However, the specific contributions of the innate and adaptive immune system to the generation of pain during inflammation have not been systematically elucidated. We therefore set out to characterize the cellular and molecular immune response in two widely used preclinical models of inflammatory pain: (i) intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) as a model of adjuvant- and pathogen-based inflammation and (ii) a plantar incisional wound as a model of tissue injury-based inflammation. Our findings reveal differences in temporal patterns of immune cell recruitment and activation states, cytokine production, and pain in these two models, with CFA causing a nonresolving granulomatous inflammatory response whereas tissue incision induced resolving immune and pain responses. These findings highlight the significant differences and potential clinical relevance of the incisional wound model compared with the CFA model. By using various cell-depletion strategies, we find that, whereas lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G (Ly)6G+CD11b+ neutrophils and T-cell receptor (TCR) β+ T cells do not contribute to the development of thermal or mechanical pain hypersensitivity in either model, proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells were necessary for mechanical hypersensitivity during incisional pain, and, to a lesser extent, CFA-induced inflammation. However, inflammatory (CCR2+Ly6Chi) monocytes were not responsible for these effects. The finding that a population of proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells contribute to mechanical inflammatory pain provides a potential cellular target for its treatment in wound inflammation. PMID:26598697

  8. Inspiraling halo accretion mapped in Ly α emission around a z ˜ 3 quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni Battaia, Fabrizio; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Obreja, Aura; Buck, Tobias; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2018-01-01

    In an effort to search for Ly α emission from circum- and intergalactic gas on scales of hundreds of kpc around z ∼ 3 quasars, and thus characterize the physical properties of the gas in emission, we have initiated an extensive fast survey with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE): Quasar Snapshot Observations with MUse: Search for Extended Ultraviolet eMission (QSO MUSEUM). In this work, we report the discovery of an enormous Ly α nebula (ELAN) around the quasar SDSS J102009.99+104002.7 at z = 3.164, which we followed-up with deeper MUSE observations. This ELAN spans ∼297 projected kpc, has an average Ly α surface brightness SBLy α ∼ 6.04 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2(within the 2σ isophote) and is associated with an additional four previously unknown embedded sources: two Ly α emitters and two faint active galactic nuclei (one type-1 and one type-2 quasar). By mapping at high significance, the line-of-sight velocity in the entirety of the observed structure, we unveiled a large-scale coherent rotation-like pattern spanning ∼300 km s-1 with a velocity dispersion of complement our MUSE observations and are definitely needed to fully characterize such a complex system. None the less, our observations reveal the potential of new sensitive integral-field spectrographs to characterize the dynamical state of diffuse gas on large scales in the young Universe, and thereby witness the assembly of galaxies.

  9. Effects of Celecoxib and Ly117018 Combination on Human Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus H. Baumann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation and signalling of estrogen receptor (ER and COX-2 represent two important pathways in breast cancer cell regulation. Activation of either pathway is associated with breast cancer cell proliferation and eventually malignant progression. Raloxifene analogue, Ly117018, a selective estrogen receptor modulator and celecoxib, a specific COX- 2 inhibitor have been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation when used alone in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the combined drug effects on hormone-dependent MCF-7 and hormone-independent MDA-MB-435 cells in vitro were evaluated. Cell proliferation assays excluded drug antagonism and revealed a moderate synergistic growth inhibitory activity of Ly117018 and celecoxib on both cell lines when combined in specific concentrations. Growth inhibition of either compound was not associated with cell cycle arrest. In MCF-7 cells, western blot analysis revealed a decreased phosphorylation of the AKT protein by either agent alone or in combination. In MDA-MB-435 cells, celecoxib alone induced an increase in AKT phosphorylation relative to total AKT protein; this effect was decreased in the presence of Ly117018. These results indicate that these two drugs are non-antagonistic; and when combined in specific concentrations, moderate synergistic antiproliferative activity of celecoxib and Ly117018 were observed in hormone-dependent MCF-7 and hormone- independent MDA-MB-435 cells associated with changes in cell cycle distribution and regulation of AKT protein and phosphorylation. These findings further support a central role of the ER- and COX-2 pathways in human breast cancer cells.

  10. New α-glucosides of caffeoyl quinic acid from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Ahmed, Fakhruddin Ali; Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kim, Sang-Yong; Shibata, Hirofumi; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Two new caffeoyl quinic acid α-glucosides, together with three known caffeoyl quinic acids and five known flavonoid glucosides, were isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 4-O-(4'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (2) by spectroscopic analyses.

  11. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Claudia R. B.; Mazzafera, Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils). Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium c...

  12. Light as an indicator of ecological succession in brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mengarda,Liana H. G.; Souza,Rogério L. F. de; Campostrini, Eliemar; Reis,Fabrício O.; Vendrame,Wagner A.; Cuzzuol,Geraldo R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The ecophysiological behavior of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.) plants was evaluated as affected by light quantity and quality. Nine-month-old plants were cultivated under 0%, 50%, and 80% artificial shading, and natural shading imposed by a closed canopy for a period of 392 days. At the end of that period growth parameters were measured, including relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf mass (SLM) and root:shoot ratio (R:S). Highe...

  13. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  14. Performance Indicators in a Lean Manufacturing Enterprise : Case: Oy CrossLam Kuhmo Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Sirviö, Janika

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was assigned by Oy CrossLam Kuhmo Ltd., a recently established lean company that manufactures CLT panels. There was a need to start measuring the performance of the company. Therefore, the objective of the thesis was to discover the factors affecting the performance indicator selection and accordingly, to define the appropriate performance indicators. The balanced scorecard served as a framework for defining the indicators. The research approach is qualitative. The primary data...

  15. Evaluation of Two Moringa oleifera Lam Varieties Using Different Substrates in Nursery Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Damisela Pacheco Veiga; Idania Yero Pino; Nelson Heriberto Martin Cuesta; Delmy Triana González; Oscar Loyola Hernández

    2016-01-01

    A nursery study was made on brown soil with typical carbonate to evaluate agroproductive behavior of Plain and Supergenious Moringa oleifera Lam varieties, using different substrates. Three substrates were studied (worm castings, decomposed cattle manure and compost), using a randomized block experimental design, with 8 treatments and three replicas. The evaluation included the amount of leaves 30 days after germination, plant height until transplantation every ten days and at 30 days, stem d...

  16. Ly-6G+CCR2- myeloid cells rather than Ly-6ChighCCR2+ monocytes are required for the control of bacterial infection in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildner, Alexander; Djukic, Marija; Garbe, David; Wellmer, Andreas; Kuziel, William A; Mack, Matthias; Nau, Roland; Prinz, Marco

    2008-08-15

    Myeloid cell recruitment is a characteristic feature of bacterial meningitis. However, the cellular mechanisms important for the control of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection remain largely undefined. Previous pharmacological or genetic studies broadly depleted many myeloid cell types within the meninges, which did not allow defining the function of specific myeloid subsets. Herein we show that besides CD11b(+)Ly-6G(+)CCR2(-) granulocytes, also CD11b(+)Ly-6C(high)CCR2(+) but not Ly-6C(low)CCR2(-) monocytes were recruited in high numbers to the brain as early as 12 h after bacterial challenge. Surprisingly, CD11b(+)Ly-6C(high)CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes modulated local CXCL2 and IL-1beta production within the meninges but did not provide protection against bacterial infection. Consistent with these results, CCR2 deficiency strongly impaired monocyte recruitment to the infected brains but was redundant for disease pathogenesis. In contrast, specific depletion of polymorphonuclear granulocytes caused elevated local bacterial titer within the brains, led to an aggravated clinical course, and enhanced mortality. These findings demonstrate that Ly-6C(high)CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes play a redundant role for the host defense during bacterial meningitis and that predominantly CD11b(+)Ly-6G(+)CCR2(-) myeloid cells are involved in the restriction of the extracellular bacteria.

  17. Ly6Chi Monocytes Provide a Link between Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Möhle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics, though remarkably useful, can also cause certain adverse effects. We detected that treatment of adult mice with antibiotics decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention. Reconstitution with normal gut flora (SPF did not completely reverse the deficits in neurogenesis unless the mice also had access to a running wheel or received probiotics. In parallel to an increase in neurogenesis and memory retention, both SPF-reconstituted mice that ran and mice supplemented with probiotics exhibited higher numbers of Ly6Chi monocytes in the brain than antibiotic-treated mice. Elimination of Ly6Chi monocytes by antibody depletion or the use of knockout mice resulted in decreased neurogenesis, whereas adoptive transfer of Ly6Chi monocytes rescued neurogenesis after antibiotic treatment. We propose that the rescue of neurogenesis and behavior deficits in antibiotic-treated mice by exercise and probiotics is partially mediated by Ly6Chi monocytes.

  18. Cosmic Variance in the Physical Properties of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, R.; Matkovic, A.; Feldmeier, J. J.; Hay, J.; MUSYC Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We have used the Mosaic camera of the CTIO 4-m telescope to conduct a deep, narrow- band survey of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies (LAEs) over the redshift ranges 3.10 < z < 3.13 and 2.04 < z < 2.08 in two 0.3 square degree fields, one centered on the Extended Hubble Deep Field South and the other on SDSS 1030+05. These data, combined with our previous surveys of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, give us a total survey volume of 400,000 Mpc^3 in 2.06 and 500,000 Mpc^3 at 3.1 which has been surveyed down to monochromatic line luminosities of log(L) ~42.3 ergs/s. We analyze the samples of Ly-alpha emitters found in the surveys, and present their luminosity, equivalent width, and color distributions as well as internal extinction and star formation rate. We also use these samples to search for diffuse Ly-alpha halos around LAEs at these redshifts. Most importantly, we use the information provided by our three survey fields to investigate the effect that cosmic variance has on these properties and on measurements of their evolution.

  19. z ∼ 1 Lyα emitters. I. The luminosity function , , ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wold, Isak G. B.; Barger, Amy J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowie, Lennox L., E-mail: wold@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: barger@astro.wisc.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We construct a flux-limited sample of 135 candidate z ∼ 1 Lyα emitters (LAEs) from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism data using a new data cube search method. These LAEs have luminosities comparable to those at high redshifts and lie within a 7 Gyr gap present in existing LAE samples. We use archival and newly obtained optical spectra to verify the UV redshifts of these LAEs. We use the combination of the GALEX UV spectra, optical spectra, and X-ray imaging data to estimate the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction and its dependence on Lyα luminosity. We remove the AGNs and compute the luminosity function (LF) from 60 z ∼ 1 LAE galaxies. We find that the best-fit LF implies a luminosity density increase by a factor of ∼1.5 from z ∼ 0.3 to z ∼ 1 and ∼20 from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 2. We find a z ∼ 1 volumetric Lyα escape fraction of 0.7% ± 0.4%.

  20. INTEGRATING LMSs IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS:Greek Teachers’ Initial Perceptions about LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros PAPADAKIS,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students’ motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits. This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the integration of LAMS, a Learning Activity Management System, in the educational praxis. Through a multifaceted research method, involving a small scale participatory action research, the research team attempted to investigate the preconditions required to integrate LAMS in the everyday lesson. Two tutorial workshops were organized with the participation of 46 educators from geographically diverse urban areas, from K-12 to Tertiary Education. Results indicated that teachers have developed a positive attitude towards LAMS and the use of collaborative online tools during the educational process. Although teachers have certain objections on integrating LMSs, which stem mainly from the current status of the Greek educational system, they accept relative advantages of integrating online collaborative approaches over the traditional face-to-face approach. Well-organized and carefully implemented tutorial workshops can spark teachers’ interest and bring about change in the educational process. Small scale interventions such as these can prove to foster dialogue among teachers of various backgrounds and set the foundations to create online communities of practice for innovative teachers.

  1. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  2. Interaction of Bacteriophage l with Its E. coli Receptor, LamB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Chatterjee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The initial step of viral infection is the binding of a virus onto the host cell surface. This first viral-host interaction would determine subsequent infection steps and the fate of the entire infection process. A basic understating of the underlining mechanism of initial virus-host binding is a prerequisite for establishing the nature of viral infection. Bacteriophage λ and its host Escherichia coli serve as an excellent paradigm for this purpose. λ phages bind to specific receptors, LamB, on the host cell surface during the infection process. The interaction of bacteriophage λ with the LamB receptor has been the topic of many studies, resulting in wealth of information on the structure, biochemical properties and molecular biology of this system. Recently, imaging studies using fluorescently labeled phages and its receptor unveil the role of spatiotemporal dynamics and divulge the importance of stochasticity from hidden variables in the infection outcomes. The scope of this article is to review the present state of research on the interaction of bacteriophage λ and its E. coli receptor, LamB.

  3. Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae en la provincia de Alicante [Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae in the province of Alicante (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se cita por primera vez para la flora de la Comunidad Valenciana la presencia de Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. en la provincia de Alicante, especie hasta el momento únicamente localizada dentro de la Península Ibérica en las provincias de Almería y Murcia, y con una cita dispersa en Córdoba. La planta se ha localizado cerca del límite con la Región de Murcia. Aparentemente se trata de la cita mundial más septentrional para la especie en el Mediterráneo Occidental.. ABSTRACT: A first citation of Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. in the Valencian Community (Spain is reported. Formerly the species was citated in the Iberian peninsule from the provinces of Murcia and Almeria; in addition there is a disperse citation from Cordoba. This plant has been found in the province of Alicante, close to the borderline with the neighbouring Region of Murcia. It deals apparently with the Northernmost site for this species in the Western Mediterranean.

  4. Ly6Chi Monocytes and Their Macrophage Descendants Regulate Neutrophil Function and Clearance in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Graubardt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMF play a pivotal role in the resolution of acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI. Timely termination of neutrophil activity and their clearance are essential for liver regeneration following injury. Here, we show that infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes, their macrophage descendants, and neutrophils spatially and temporally overlap in the centrilobular necrotic areas during the necroinflammatory and resolution phases of AILI. At the necroinflammatory phase, inducible ablation of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes resulted in reduced numbers and fractions of reactive oxygen species (ROS-producing neutrophils. In alignment with this, neutrophils sorted from monocyte-deficient livers exhibited reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 2. Moreover, human CD14+ monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or hepatocyte apoptotic bodies directly induced ROS production by cocultured neutrophils. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling of neutrophils from Ly6Chi monocyte-deficient versus normal livers revealed 449 genes that were differentially expressed with at least twofold change (p ≤ 0.05. In the absence of Ly6Chi monocytes, neutrophils displayed gene expression alterations associated with decreased innate immune activity and increased cell survival. At the early resolution phase, Ly6Chi monocytes differentiated into ephemeral Ly6Clo MoMF and their absence resulted in significant accumulation of late apoptotic neutrophils. Further gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of a specific repertoire of bridging molecules and receptors involved with apoptotic cell clearance during the transition from Ly6Chi monocytes to MoMF. Collectively, our findings establish a phase-dependent task division between liver-infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes and their MoMF descendants with the former regulating innate immune functions and cell survival of neutrophils and the later neutrophil clearance.

  5. Ly6Chi Monocytes and Their Macrophage Descendants Regulate Neutrophil Function and Clearance in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubardt, Nadine; Vugman, Milena; Mouhadeb, Odelia; Caliari, Gabriele; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Reuveni, Debby; Zigmond, Ehud; Brazowski, Eli; David, Eyal; Chappell-Maor, Lousie; Jung, Steffen; Varol, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMF) play a pivotal role in the resolution of acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). Timely termination of neutrophil activity and their clearance are essential for liver regeneration following injury. Here, we show that infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes, their macrophage descendants, and neutrophils spatially and temporally overlap in the centrilobular necrotic areas during the necroinflammatory and resolution phases of AILI. At the necroinflammatory phase, inducible ablation of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes resulted in reduced numbers and fractions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing neutrophils. In alignment with this, neutrophils sorted from monocyte-deficient livers exhibited reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 2. Moreover, human CD14+ monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or hepatocyte apoptotic bodies directly induced ROS production by cocultured neutrophils. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling of neutrophils from Ly6Chi monocyte-deficient versus normal livers revealed 449 genes that were differentially expressed with at least twofold change (p ≤ 0.05). In the absence of Ly6Chi monocytes, neutrophils displayed gene expression alterations associated with decreased innate immune activity and increased cell survival. At the early resolution phase, Ly6Chi monocytes differentiated into ephemeral Ly6Clo MoMF and their absence resulted in significant accumulation of late apoptotic neutrophils. Further gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of a specific repertoire of bridging molecules and receptors involved with apoptotic cell clearance during the transition from Ly6Chi monocytes to MoMF. Collectively, our findings establish a phase-dependent task division between liver-infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes and their MoMF descendants with the former regulating innate immune functions and cell survival of neutrophils and the later neutrophil clearance. PMID:28620383

  6. Probing natural killer cell education by Ly49 receptor expression analysis and computational modelling in single MHC class I mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Johansson

    Full Text Available Murine natural killer (NK cells express inhibitory Ly49 receptors for MHC class I molecules, which allows for "missing self" recognition of cells that downregulate MHC class I expression. During murine NK cell development, host MHC class I molecules impose an "educating impact" on the NK cell pool. As a result, mice with different MHC class I expression display different frequency distributions of Ly49 receptor combinations on NK cells. Two models have been put forward to explain this impact. The two-step selection model proposes a stochastic Ly49 receptor expression followed by selection for NK cells expressing appropriate receptor combinations. The sequential model, on the other hand, proposes that each NK cell sequentially expresses Ly49 receptors until an interaction of sufficient magnitude with self-class I MHC is reached for the NK cell to mature. With the aim to clarify which one of these models is most likely to reflect the actual biological process, we simulated the two educational schemes by mathematical modelling, and fitted the results to Ly49 expression patterns, which were analyzed in mice expressing single MHC class I molecules. Our results favour the two-step selection model over the sequential model. Furthermore, the MHC class I environment favoured maturation of NK cells expressing one or a few self receptors, suggesting a possible step of positive selection in NK cell education. Based on the predicted Ly49 binding preferences revealed by the model, we also propose, that Ly49 receptors are more promiscuous than previously thought in their interactions with MHC class I molecules, which was supported by functional studies of NK cell subsets expressing individual Ly49 receptors.

  7. PREDICTING Lyα AND Mg II FLUXES FROM K AND M DWARFS USING GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Rolph, Kristina A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis S., E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu, E-mail: kristina.rolph@fandm.edu, E-mail: speacock@lpl.arizona.edu, E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    A star's ultraviolet (UV) emission can greatly affect the atmospheric chemistry and physical properties of closely orbiting planets with the potential for severe mass loss. In particular, the Lyα emission line at 1216 Å, which dominates the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum, is a major source of photodissociation of important atmospheric molecules such as water and methane. The intrinsic flux of Lyα, however, cannot be directly measured due to the absorption of neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium and contamination by geocoronal emission. To date, reconstruction of the intrinsic Lyα line based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra has been accomplished for 46 FGKM nearby stars, 28 of which have also been observed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Our investigation provides a correlation between published intrinsic Lyα and GALEX far- and near-ultraviolet (NUV) chromospheric fluxes for K and M stars. The negative correlations between the ratio of the Lyα to the GALEX fluxes reveal how the relative strength of Lyα compared to the broadband fluxes weakens as the FUV and NUV excess flux increase. We also correlate GALEX fluxes with the strong NUV Mg II h+k spectral emission lines formed at lower chromospheric temperatures than Lyα. The reported correlations provide estimates of intrinsic Lyα and Mg II fluxes for the thousands of K and M stars in the archived GALEX all-sky surveys. These will constrain new stellar upper atmosphere models for cool stars and provide realistic inputs to models describing exoplanetary photochemistry and atmospheric evolution in the absence of UV spectroscopy.

  8. SHARDS Frontier Fields: Physical Properties of a Low-mass Lyα Emitter at z = 5.75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Diego, Jose M.; Lagattuta, David; Richard, Johan; Schaerer, Daniel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Sklias, Panos; Alcalde Pampliega, Belén; Cava, Antonio; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Domínguez-Sánchez, Helena; Eliche-Moral, Carmen; Esquej, Pilar; Huertas-Company, Marc; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Rawle, Tim; Rodríguez Espinosa, José Miguel; Rosa González, Daniel; Rujopakarn, Wiphu

    2017-11-01

    We analyze the properties of a multiply imaged Lyα (Lyα) emitter at z = 5.75 identified through SHARDS Frontier Fields intermediate-band imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) cluster Abell 370. The source, A370-L57, has low intrinsic luminosity (M UV ˜ -16.5), steep UV spectral index (β = -2.4 ± 0.1), and extreme rest-frame equivalent width of Lyα ({{EW}}0({Ly}α )={420}-120+180 Å). Two different gravitational lens models predict high magnification (μ ˜ 10-16) for the two detected counterimages, separated by 7″, while a predicted third counterimage (μ ˜ 3-4) is undetected. We find differences of ˜50% in magnification between the two lens models, quantifying our current systematic uncertainties. Integral field spectroscopy of A370-L57 with MUSE shows a narrow (FWHM = 204 ± 10 km s-1) and asymmetric Lyα profile with an integrated luminosity L(Lyα) ˜ 1042 erg s-1. The morphology in the Hubble Space Telescope bands comprises a compact clump (r e good representative of the population of galaxies responsible for cosmic reionization.

  9. DISCOVERY OF MASSIVE, MOSTLY STAR FORMATION QUENCHED GALAXIES WITH EXTREMELY LARGE Lyα EQUIVALENT WIDTHS AT z ∼ 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Scoville, Nick Z.; Capak, Peter L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Toft, Sune [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Renzini, Alvio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovač, Katarina [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: tani@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2015-08-10

    We report a discovery of six massive galaxies with both extremely large Lyα equivalent widths (EWs) and evolved stellar populations at z ∼ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lyα emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lyα emitters (LAEs) with 12 optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the spectral energy distribution fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame EWs of EW{sub 0} (Lyα) ∼ 100–300 Å, (2) M{sub ⋆} ∼ 10{sup 10.5}–10{sup 11.1} M{sub ⊙}, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M{sub ⋆} ∼ 0.03–1 Gyr{sup −1}. Three of the six MAESTLOs have extended Lyα emission with a radius of several kiloparsecs, although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for active galactic nuclei, the observed extended Lyα emission is likely to be caused by a star formation process including the superwind activity. We suggest that this new class of LAEs, MAESTLOs, provides a missing link from star-forming to passively evolving galaxies at the peak era of the cosmic star formation history.

  10. Stool Xpert MTB/RIF and urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) for diagnosing tuberculosis in hospitalized HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Pavlinac, Patricia B; Cranmer, Lisa M; Njuguna, Irene N; Mugo, Cyrus; Gatimu, John; Stern, Joshua; Walson, Judd L; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Oyugi, Julius; Wamalwa, Dalton; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-10-12

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. Hospitalized, HIV-infected children ≤12 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to poststabilization ART initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation. At enrollment, sputum or gastric aspirates (GA) were collected for TB culture and Xpert, stool for Xpert, and urine for lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM ). When possible, a second sputum/GA culture was obtained. Stool Xpert and urine LAM performance were compared to reference sputum/GA culture. Among 165 HIV-infected children, median age was 24 months (IQR 13-58), median CD4% was 14.3% (IQR 8.9-22.0%), and 114 (69.5%) had severe immunosuppression. Thirteen (7.9%) children had confirmed TB (positive culture and/or Xpert). Sputum/GA Xpert, Stool Xpert, and urine LAM sensitivities were 60% (95% CI 26-88%), 63% (95% CI 25-92%), and 43% (95% CI 10-82%), respectively. Specificity was 98% (95% CI 94-100%) for sputum/GA Xpert, 99% (95% CI 95-100%) for stool Xpert, 91% (95% CI 84-95%) for urine LAM . Stool Xpert and urine LAM sensitivity increased among children with severe immunosuppression (80% [95% CI 28-100] and 60% [95% Cl 15-95%]). Stool Xpert had similar performance compared to sputum/GA Xpert to detect TB . Urine LAM had lower sensitivity and specificity, but was higher among children with severe immunosuppression. Stool Xpert and urine LAM can aid rapid detection of TB in HIV-infected children using easily accessible samples .

  11. Slicing COSMOS with SC4K: the evolution of typical Lyα emitters and the Lyα escape fraction from Z ˜ 2 to Z ˜ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, David; Santos, Sérgio; Matthee, Jorryt; Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Ribeiro, Bruno; Calhau, João; Khostovan, Ali A.

    2018-02-01

    We present and explore deep narrow- and medium-band data obtained with the Subaru and the Isaac Newton telescopes in the ˜2 deg2 COSMOS field. We use these data as an extremely wide, low-resolution (R ˜ 20 - 80) IFU survey to slice through the COSMOS field and obtain a large sample of ˜4000 Lyα emitters (LAEs) from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 6 in 16 redshift slices (SC4K). We present new Lyα luminosity functions (LFs) covering a co-moving volume of ˜108 Mpc3. SC4K extensively complements ultra-deep surveys, jointly covering over 4 dex in Lyα luminosity and revealing a global (2.5 3.5, likely linked with the evolution of the AGN population. The Lyα luminosity density rises by a factor ˜2 from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 3 but is then found to be roughly constant (1.1^{+0.2}_{-0.2}× 10^{40} erg s-1 Mpc-3) to z ˜ 6, despite the ˜0.7 dex drop in UV luminosity density. The Lyα/UV luminosity density ratio rises from 4 ± 1% to 30 ± 6% from z ˜ 2.2 to z ˜ 6. Our results imply a rise of a factor of ≈2 in the global ionisation efficiency (ξion) and a factor ≈4 ± 1 in the Lyα escape fraction from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 6, hinting for evolution in both the typical burstiness/stellar populations and even more so in the typical ISM conditions allowing Lyα photons to escape.

  12. Type I interferon signaling regulates Ly6C(hi monocytes and neutrophils during acute viral pneumonia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Uk Seo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN-I plays a critical role in the homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells and influences neutrophil influx to the site of inflammation. IFN-I receptor knockout (Ifnar1⁻/⁻ mice develop significant defects in the infiltration of Ly6C(hi monocytes in the lung after influenza infection (A/PR/8/34, H1N1. Ly6C(hi monocytes of wild-type (WT mice are the main producers of MCP-1 while the alternatively generated Ly6C(int monocytes of Ifnar1⁻/⁻ mice mainly produce KC for neutrophil influx. As a consequence, Ifnar1⁻/⁻ mice recruit more neutrophils after influenza infection than do WT mice. Treatment of IFNAR1 blocking antibody on the WT bone marrow (BM cells in vitro failed to differentiate into Ly6C(hi monocytes. By using BM chimeric mice (WT BM into Ifnar1⁻/⁻ and vice versa, we confirmed that IFN-I signaling in hematopoietic cells is required for the generation of Ly6C(hi monocytes. Of note, WT BM reconstituted Ifnar1⁻/⁻ chimeric mice with increased numbers of Ly6C(hi monocytes survived longer than influenza-infected Ifnar1⁻/⁻ mice. In contrast, WT mice that received Ifnar1⁻/⁻ BM cells with alternative Ly6C(int monocytes and increased numbers of neutrophils exhibited higher mortality rates than WT mice given WT BM cells. Collectively, these data suggest that IFN-I contributes to resistance of influenza infection by control of monocytes and neutrophils in the lung.

  13. Type I interferon signaling regulates Ly6C(hi) monocytes and neutrophils during acute viral pneumonia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Uk; Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Byun, Young-Ho; Seong, Baik Lin; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2011-02-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays a critical role in the homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells and influences neutrophil influx to the site of inflammation. IFN-I receptor knockout (Ifnar1⁻/⁻) mice develop significant defects in the infiltration of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the lung after influenza infection (A/PR/8/34, H1N1). Ly6C(hi) monocytes of wild-type (WT) mice are the main producers of MCP-1 while the alternatively generated Ly6C(int) monocytes of Ifnar1⁻/⁻ mice mainly produce KC for neutrophil influx. As a consequence, Ifnar1⁻/⁻ mice recruit more neutrophils after influenza infection than do WT mice. Treatment of IFNAR1 blocking antibody on the WT bone marrow (BM) cells in vitro failed to differentiate into Ly6C(hi) monocytes. By using BM chimeric mice (WT BM into Ifnar1⁻/⁻ and vice versa), we confirmed that IFN-I signaling in hematopoietic cells is required for the generation of Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Of note, WT BM reconstituted Ifnar1⁻/⁻ chimeric mice with increased numbers of Ly6C(hi) monocytes survived longer than influenza-infected Ifnar1⁻/⁻ mice. In contrast, WT mice that received Ifnar1⁻/⁻ BM cells with alternative Ly6C(int) monocytes and increased numbers of neutrophils exhibited higher mortality rates than WT mice given WT BM cells. Collectively, these data suggest that IFN-I contributes to resistance of influenza infection by control of monocytes and neutrophils in the lung.

  14. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE. V. THE IMPACT OF NEUTRAL ISM KINEMATICS AND GEOMETRY ON Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E.; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Adamo, Angela [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Orlitová, Ivana [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); Verhamme, Anne; Schaerer, Daniel [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC–INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 106, B. C. 22800 Ensenada (Mexico); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel, E-mail: trive@astro.su.se [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2015-05-20

    We present high-resolution far-UV spectroscopy of the 14 galaxies of the Lyα Reference Sample; a sample of strongly star-forming galaxies at low redshifts (0.028 < z < 0.18). We compare the derived properties to global properties derived from multi-band imaging and 21 cm H i interferometry and single-dish observations, as well as archival optical SDSS spectra. Besides the Lyα line, the spectra contain a number of metal absorption features allowing us to probe the kinematics of the neutral ISM and evaluate the optical depth and and covering fraction of the neutral medium as a function of line of sight velocity. Furthermore, we show how this, in combination with the precise determination of systemic velocity and good Lyα spectra, can be used to distinguish a model in which separate clumps together fully cover the background source, from the “picket fence” model named by Heckman et al. We find that no one single effect dominates in governing Lyα radiative transfer and escape. Lyα escape in our sample coincides with a maximum velocity-binned covering fraction of ≲0.9 and bulk outflow velocities of ≳50 km s{sup −1}, although a number of galaxies show these characteristics and yet little or no Lyα escape. We find that Lyα peak velocities, where available, are not consistent with a strong backscattered component, but rather with a simpler model of an intrinsic emission line overlaid by a blueshifted absorption profile from the outflowing wind. Finally, we find a strong anticorrelation between Hα equivalent width and maximum velocity-binned covering factor, and propose a heuristic explanatory model.

  15. Deep Learning of Quasar Spectra to Discover and Characterize Damped Lyα Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, David; Xavier Prochaska, J.; Dong, Shawfeng; Cai, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    We have designed, developed, and applied a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture using multi-task learning to search for and characterize strong HI Lyα absorption in quasar spectra. Without any explicit modeling of the quasar continuum nor application of the predicted line-profile for Lyα from quantum mechanics, our algorithm predicts the presence of strong HI absorption and estimates the corresponding redshift zabs and HI column density NHI, with emphasis on damped Lyα systems (DLAs, absorbers with NHI ≥ 2 × 1020 cm-2). We tuned the CNN model using a custom training set of DLAs injected into DLA-free quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), data release 5 (DR5). Testing on a held-back validation set demonstrates a high incidence of DLAs recovered by the algorithm (97.4% as DLAs and 99% as an HI absorber with NHI > 1019.5 cm-2) and excellent estimates for zabs and NHI. Similar results are obtained against a human-generated survey of the SDSS DR5 dataset. The algorithm yields a low incidence of false positives and negatives but is challenged by overlapping DLAs and/or very high NHI systems. We have applied this CNN model to the quasar spectra of SDSS-DR7 and the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS, data release 12) and provide catalogs of 4,913 and 50,969 DLAs respectively (including 1,659 and 9,230 high-confidence DLAs that were previously unpublished). This work validates the application of deep learning techniques to astronomical spectra for both classification and quantitative measurements.

  16. Constraints on Lyα Blob Number Densities at 2.1 and 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Ciardullo, R.; Feldmeier, J. J.; Gronwall, C.; Hagen, A.; MUSYC Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Ly-alpha blobs are thought to be associated with regions over dense in compact Lyα emitters (LAEs) at the intersection of dark matter filaments, and may be the progenitors of today's galaxy clusters. Thus, a blob census can help explain the structure and formation history of these rare objects. We report the results of a deep narrow-band survey for Lyα blobs in three ~0.3 deg^2 fields: the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (at z = 2.06 and z = 3.1), the Extended Hubble Deep Field South (at z = 2.06 and z = 3.12) and the MUSYC field SDSS 1030+05 (at z = 2.06). Our surveys cover a total volume of 0.923 x 10^6 Mpc^3 at z = 2.06, and 0.871 x 10^6 Mpc^3 at z = 3.1; they are sensitive to blobs which have rest-frame equivalent widths greater than 30 Angstrom, and resolved blobs whose isophotal areas, defined using a surface brightnesses limit equivalent to a value of 5.5 x 10^{-18 ergs/cm^2/s/arcsec^2 at z = 2.3, exceed a specified limit. We search for blobs expected in SDSS 1030+05 based on an observed over density of compact LAEs in the field (Gronwall et al, in prep.), and we use our results to place limits on the number density of low surface brightness blobs outside of clusters.

  17. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit fruit extract and its effect on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Basavegowda

    2015-02-01

    It can be concluded that the fruit of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul E. coli, and Streptobacillus. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  18. The physical properties of Lyα emitting galaxies: not just primeval galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Giallongo, E.; Salimbeni, S.; Santini, P.

    2009-02-01

    Aims: We have analyzed a sample of Lyman break galaxies from z ~ 3.5 to z ~ 6 selected from the GOODS-S field as B, V, and i-dropouts, and with spectroscopic observations showing that they have the Lyα line in emission. Our main aim is to investigate their physical properties and their dependence on the emission line characteristic and to shed light on the relation between galaxies with Lyα emission and the general LBG population. Methods: The objects were selected from their optical continuum colors and then spectroscopically confirmed by the GOODS collaboration and other campaigns. From the public spectra we derived the main properties of the Lyα emission such as total flux and rest frame EW. We then used complete photometry, from U band to mid-infrared from the GOODS-MUSIC database, and through standard spectro-photometric techniques we derived the physical properties of the galaxies, such as total stellar mass, stellar ages, star formation rates, and dust content. Finally we investigated the relation between emission line and physical properties. Results: Although most galaxies are fit by young stellar populations, a small but non negligible fraction has SEDs that cannot be represented well by young models and require considerably older stellar component, up to ~1 Gyr. There is no apparent relation between age and EW: some of the oldest galaxies have high line EW, and should be also selected in narrow-band surveys. Therefore not all Lyα emitting galaxies are primeval galaxies in the very early stages of formation, as is commonly assumed. We also find a range of stellar populations, with masses from 5 × 108 M_⊙ to 5 × 1010 M_⊙ and SFR from few to 60 M_⊙ yr-1. Although there is no net correlation between mass and EW, we find a significant lack of massive galaxies with high EW, which could be explained if the most massive galaxies were either dustier and/or if they contained more neutral gas than less massive objects. Finally we find that more than

  19. Minihalo model for the low-redshift Lyα absorbers revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalović A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We reconsider the basic properties of the classical minihalo model of Rees and Milgrom in light of the new work, both observational (on 'dark galaxies' and masses of baryonic haloes and theoretical (on the cosmological mass function and the history of star formation. In particular, we show that more detailed models of ionized gas in haloes of dark matter following isothermal and Navarro-Frenk-White density profile can effectively reproduce particular aspects of the observed column density distribution function in a heterogeneous sample of low- and intermediate-redshift Lyα forest absorption lines.

  20. A comparison of metal and Ly-α absorption in galactic haloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The metallicity structure of galactic haloes is one of the major unknowns in modern galactic astrophysics and observational cosmology. Hereby we outline a very simple method for obtaining at least a crude picture of gas abundances, based on recent important statistical determination of the relationship between neutral hydrogen absorbing column density and galaxy impact parameter. It is a fine illustration of the great theoretical and observational power of low-redshift Lyα absorption studies. Future detailed analyses of large samples of absorption-selected galaxies will certainly provide us with more data on the abundance structure of extended gaseous component of galaxies.

  1. Experimental Parameter Effect on Ceramic Coating Film on LY12 Alloy by Micro-arc Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Yang, J. H.; Wang, X. H.

    2017-09-01

    Ceramic coatings were fabricated on the surface of LY12 aluminum alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) method in NaSiO3-NaOH solution. Effect of experimental parameter on the MAO film was investigated. The results show that the ceramic layers formed on the surface of the alloy show different surface morphologies, and thickness of MAO film increases with the increase of voltage and oxidation time. These films contain two layers, an outer porous layer and an inner barrier layer, which consists mainly of γ-Al2O3 phase and a small amount of α-Al2O3 phase..

  2. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  3. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. The Role of PPAR Receptors and Leukotriene B4 Receptors in Mediating the Effects of LY293111 in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease in which current therapies are inadequate. Separate lines of research have identified the 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene B4 receptor pathway and the PPAR pathway as potential targets for prevention or treatment of this disease. LY293111 was originally designed as a potent leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist for treatment of inflammatory conditions. LY293111 was also known to have inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase, which is upstream of the production of leukotrienes. LY293111 was shown to have potent anticancer effects in pancreatic cancer and several other solid malignancies, where it caused cell cycle arrest and marked apoptosis. Subsequently, it came to light that LY293111 exhibited PPAR agonist activity in addition to its effects on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. This raises the question of which of the two targets is of greatest importance with regard to the anticancer effects of this agent. The evidence to date is not conclusive, but suggests that the effects of LY293111 may be mediated by both LTB4 receptors and PPAR.

  5. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT2A receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L.; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C.; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24 mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5 mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [3H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT2A receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD. PMID:23333599

  6. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical dampening of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-19

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6C(hi) monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6C(hi) monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6C(hi) monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6C(hi) monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  9. Periodic differential equations an introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and allied functions

    CERN Document Server

    Arscott, Felix M; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1964-01-01

    Periodic Differential Equations: An Introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and Allied Functions covers the fundamental problems and techniques of solution of periodic differential equations. This book is composed of 10 chapters that present important equations and the special functions they generate, ranging from Mathieu's equation to the intractable ellipsoidal wave equation.This book starts with a survey of the main problems related to the formation of periodic differential equations. The subsequent chapters deal with the general theory of Mathieu's equation, Mathieu functions of integral order, and

  10. Aislamiento e identificación de volátiles de Physalis philadelphica LAM

    OpenAIRE

    Humberta G. Calyecac Cortero

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue aislar e identificar los componentes volátiles del tomate de cáscara Physalis philadelphica Lam. Por lavado con hexano, aireación dinámica (AD) y micro extracción en fase sólida (MEFS) se aislaron volátiles de P. philadelphica, los cuales se analizaron e identificaron por cromatografía de gases (CG) y CG acoplada a espectrometría de masas (CG-EM). Los compuestos recolectados por AD y MEFS se identificaron como salicilato de metilo, β-cariofileno, β-pi...

  11. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitory potential of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammad Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the antimicrobial, antiradical and urease inhibitory potential along with photochemical investigation of the crude extracts of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam. Phytochemical screening of both the crude (hot/cold) alcoholic and aqueous extracts of C. digitatum showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. The crude methanolic extract (hot/cold) exhibited good antioxidant activity, while the aqueous extract was a weak antioxidant. The crude methanolic extract was found to be more active against Bacillus subtilis, while both the extracts showed moderate antifungal potential, the methanolic crude extract showed good urease inhibitory activity compared with the aqueous crude extract.

  12. Composition of the essential oil of Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. leaves from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, J D; Boligon, A A; Machado, M M; Athayde, M L

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Buddleja thyrsoides Lam leaves from south Brazil. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the detection of 12 components, representing 91.4% of the total oil composition. Germacrene D (27.16%), 1,10-di-epi-Cubenol (13.37%), α-Cadinol (12.95%), Bicyclogermacrene (9.00%), Globulol (8.59%) and caryophylene E (5.26%) were the main components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition of essential oil of the B. thyrsoides collected in Brazil.

  13. Evaluation of Two Moringa oleifera Lam Varieties Using Different Substrates in Nursery Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisela Pacheco Veiga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A nursery study was made on brown soil with typical carbonate to evaluate agroproductive behavior of Plain and Supergenious Moringa oleifera Lam varieties, using different substrates. Three substrates were studied (worm castings, decomposed cattle manure and compost, using a randomized block experimental design, with 8 treatments and three replicas. The evaluation included the amount of leaves 30 days after germination, plant height until transplantation every ten days and at 30 days, stem diameter, and root length and diameter. The best results were achieved with soil + wormcast in the two varieties.

  14. LAM add-on ADV combination therapy or ETV monotherapy for CHB patients with suboptimal response to ADV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongyu; Ding, Feng; Chen, Jianyang; Zhang, Yimin; Xiang, Dairong; Lian, Jiangshan; Zeng, Linyan; Yu, Liang; Hu, Jianhua; Li, Yongtao; Lu, Yingfeng; Liu, Yuanchun; Zheng, Lin; Li, Lanjuan; Yang, Yida

    2015-01-01

    Among the available nucleos(t)ide analogues adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is relatively cheap and widely used in rural area in China. However, there are insufficient data on recommendation for patients with suboptimal response to ADV after 48 weeks of treatment in order to reduce the resistance rate in the long term. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of LAM add-on combination therapy versus ETV monotherapy for patients with suboptimal response to ADV. 136 patients with suboptimal response to ADV were randomly assigned to the add-on LAM with ADV combination therapy (68 patients) group and the ETV monotherapy (68 patients) group. Patients in the add-on group were prescribed 100 mg LAM and 10 mg ADV per day, while the monotherapy group received 0.5 mg ETV per day for 48 weeks. Tests for liver and kidney function, HBV serum markers, HBV DNA load, were performed every 3 months. The mean patient age in LAM add-on group and ETV monotherapy was 38.59 ± 7.65 and 37.56 ± 8.67 years respectively. The HBV DNA undetectable rate in the LAM add-on group and the ETV group were not significant difference at week 4, 12 and 24 (P > 0.05). However, the HBV undetectable rate in the ETV group was higher than that in the LAM add-on group at week 36 and 48 (P = 0.043 for week 36 and P = 0.038 for week 48). There was no significant difference both for HBeAg loss and HBeAg seroconversion between two groups (P > 0.05) at 48 weeks. Meanwhile, our study also demonstrated that the mean eGFR levels in LAM add-on group was decreased from 99.6 ± 8.71 at baseline to 86.4 ± 9.83 at the end of 48 weeks, which was significantly higher than that in the ETV monotherapy group (P add-on group experienced eGFR reduction by 20-30% from baseline at 48 weeks. No patients developed hyposphosphatemia in our study. Our study clearly showed that switch to ETV monotherapy was the more effective and more safe than that of LAM add-on combination therapy for patients with suboptimal response

  15. Modelling the gas kinematics of an atypical Ly α emitting compact dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Gronke, Max; Remolina-Gutiérrez, Maria Camila; Garavito-Camargo, Nicolás; Dijkstra, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Star-forming compact dwarf galaxies (CDGs) resemble the expected pristine conditions of the first galaxies in the Universe and are the best systems to test models on primordial galaxy formation and evolution. Here, we report on one of such CDGs, Tololo 1214-277, which presents a broad, single peaked, highly symmetric Ly α emission line that had evaded theoretical interpretation so far. In this paper, we reproduce for the first time these line features with two different physically motivated kinematic models: an interstellar medium composed by outflowing clumps with random motions and an homogeneous gaseous sphere undergoing solid body rotation. The multiphase model requires a clump velocity dispersion of 54.3 ± 0.6 km s-1 with outflows of 54.3 ± 5.1 km s-1 , while the bulk rotation velocity is constrained to be 348^{+75}_{-48} km s-1. We argue that the results from the multiphase model provide a correct interpretation of the data. In that case, the clump velocity dispersion implies a dynamical mass of 2 × 109 M⊙, 10 times its baryonic mass. If future kinematic maps of Tololo 1214-277 confirm the velocities suggested by the multiphase model, it would provide additional support to expect such kinematic state in primordial galaxies, opening the opportunity to use the models and methods presented in this paper to constrain the physics of star formation and feedback in the early generation of Ly α -emitting galaxies.

  16. Multispecies Analysis of Expression Pattern Diversification in the Recently Expanded Insect Ly6 Gene Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kohtaro; Hazbun, Alexis; Hijazi, Assia; Vreede, Barbara; Sucena, Élio

    2015-01-01

    Gene families often consist of members with diverse expression domains reflecting their functions in a wide variety of tissues. However, how the expression of individual members, and thus their tissue-specific functions, diversified during the course of gene family expansion is not well understood. In this study, we approached this question through the analysis of the duplication history and transcriptional evolution of a rapidly expanding subfamily of insect Ly6 genes. We analyzed different insect genomes and identified seven Ly6 genes that have originated from a single ancestor through sequential duplication within the higher Diptera. We then determined how the original embryonic expression pattern of the founding gene diversified by characterizing its tissue-specific expression in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, and the mosquito Anopheles stephensi and those of its duplicates in three higher dipteran species, representing various stages of the duplication history (Megaselia abdita, Ceratitis capitata, and Drosophila melanogaster). Our results revealed that frequent neofunctionalization episodes contributed to the increased expression breadth of this subfamily and that these events occurred after duplication and speciation events at comparable frequencies. In addition, at each duplication node, we consistently found asymmetric expression divergence. One paralog inherited most of the tissue-specificities of the founder gene, whereas the other paralog evolved drastically reduced expression domains. Our approach attests to the power of combining a well-established duplication history with a comprehensive coverage of representative species in acquiring unequivocal information about the dynamics of gene expression evolution in gene families. PMID:25743545

  17. Discovery of Scattering Polarization in the Hydrogen Ly α Line of the Solar Disk Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, R.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Bando, T.; Katsukawa, Y.; Kubo, M.; Giono, G.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Bueno, J. Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38205 (Spain); Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K. [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Auchère, F. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris Sud, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay (France); Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Tsuneta, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ichimoto, K. [Hida Observatory, Kyoto University, Takayama, Gifu 506-1314 (Japan); Goto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Belluzzi, L., E-mail: ryouhei.kano@nao.ac.jp [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, CH-6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); and others

    2017-04-10

    There is a thin transition region (TR) in the solar atmosphere where the temperature rises from 10,000 K in the chromosphere to millions of degrees in the corona. Little is known about the mechanisms that dominate this enigmatic region other than the magnetic field plays a key role. The magnetism of the TR can only be detected by polarimetric measurements of a few ultraviolet (UV) spectral lines, the Ly α line of neutral hydrogen at 121.6 nm (the strongest line of the solar UV spectrum) being of particular interest given its sensitivity to the Hanle effect (the magnetic-field-induced modification of the scattering line polarization). We report the discovery of linear polarization produced by scattering processes in the Ly α line, obtained with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) rocket experiment. The Stokes profiles observed by CLASP in quiet regions of the solar disk show that the Q / I and U / I linear polarization signals are of the order of 0.1% in the line core and up to a few percent in the nearby wings, and that both have conspicuous spatial variations with scales of ∼10 arcsec. These observations help constrain theoretical models of the chromosphere–corona TR and extrapolations of the magnetic field from photospheric magnetograms. In fact, the observed spatial variation from disk to limb of polarization at the line core and wings already challenge the predictions from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical models of the upper solar chromosphere.

  18. Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} line emission from nitrogen plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S. S.; Miloshevsky, G. V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-{alpha}) and 2.88 nm (He-{alpha}) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} radiation.

  19. Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-α and He-α line emission from nitrogen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, S. S.; Miloshevsky, G. V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-α) and 2.88 nm (He-α) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-α and He-α spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-α and He-α radiation.

  20. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI⁺] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Pampeno

    Full Text Available The laminin receptor (LamR is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C. Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI⁺] and [psi⁻]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI⁺] strains. The presence of [PSI⁺] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI⁺] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI⁺] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases.

  1. First Spectroscopic Confirmations of z ∼ 7.0 Ly α Emitting Galaxies in the LAGER Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Weida; Wang, Junxian; Kang, Wenyong; Kong, Xu; Yang, Huan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Jiang, Chunyan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai 200030 (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Gonzalez, Alicia; Tilvi, Vithal [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Institution for Science, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Walker, Alistair R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Jiang, Linhua [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hibon, Pascale [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Barrientos, L. Felipe; Galaz, Gaspar [Centro de Astroingeniería, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Finkelstein, Steven [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Zheng, XianZhong, E-mail: urverda@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhengzy@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu, E-mail: linfante@carnegiescience.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-08-20

    Narrowband imaging is a highly successful approach for finding large numbers of high-redshift Ly α emitting galaxies (LAEs) up to z ∼ 6.6. However, at z ≳ 7 there are as of yet only three narrowband selected LAEs with spectroscopic confirmations (two at z ∼ 6.9–7.0, one at z ∼ 7.3), which hinders extensive studies on cosmic reionization and galaxy evolution at this key epoch. We have selected 23 candidate z ∼ 6.9 LAEs in COSMOS field with the large area narrowband survey Lyman-Alpha Galaxies at the End of Reionization (LAGER). In this work, we present spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 candidates using the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on Magellan. For nine of these, the observations are sufficiently deep to detect the expected lines. Ly α emission lines are identified in six sources (yielding a success rate of 2/3), including three luminous LAEs with Ly α luminosities of L {sub Lyα} ∼ 10{sup 43.5} erg s{sup −1}, the highest among known spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at ≳7.0. This triples the sample size of spectroscopically confirmed narrowband selected LAEs at z ≳ 7, and confirms the bright-end bump in the Ly α luminosity function we previously derived based on the photometric sample, supporting a patchy reionization scenario. Two luminous LAEs appear physically linked with a projected distance of 1.1 pMpc and velocity difference of ∼170 km s{sup −1}. They likely sit in a common ionized bubble produced by themselves or with close neighbors, which reduces the intergalactic medium attenuation of Ly α . A tentative narrow N v λ 1240 line is seen in one source, hinting at activity of a central massive black hole with metal-rich line-emitting gas.

  2. A FLUX-LIMITED SAMPLE OF z {approx} 1 Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, A. J.; Wold, I. G. B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowie, L. L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    We describe a method for obtaining a flux-limited sample of Ly{alpha} emitters from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism data. We show that the multiple GALEX grism images can be converted into a three-dimensional (two spatial axes and one wavelength axis) data cube. The wavelength slices may then be treated as narrowband images and searched for emission-line galaxies. For the GALEX NUV grism data, the method provides a Ly{alpha} flux-limited sample over the redshift range z = 0.67-1.16. We test the method on the Chandra Deep Field South field, where we find 28 Ly{alpha} emitters with faint continuum magnitudes (NUV > 22) that are not present in the GALEX pipeline sample. We measure the completeness by adding artificial emitters and measuring the fraction recovered. We find that we have an 80% completeness above a Ly{alpha} flux of 10{sup -15} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We use the UV spectra and the available X-ray data and optical spectra to estimate the fraction of active galactic nuclei in the selection. We report the first detection of a giant Ly{alpha} blob at z < 1, though we find that these objects are much less common at z = 1 than at z = 3. Finally, we compute limits on the z {approx} 1 Ly{alpha} luminosity function and confirm that there is a dramatic evolution in the luminosity function over the redshift range z = 0-1.

  3. Ly6Chigh Monocytes Oscillate in the Heart During Homeostasis and After Myocardial Infarction-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Maximilian J; Hilby, Michael; Nitz, Katrin; Guillamat Prats, Raquel; Ferraro, Bartolo; Leoni, Giovanna; Soehnlein, Oliver; Kessler, Thorsten; He, Wenyan; Luckow, Bruno; Horckmans, Michael; Weber, Christian; Duchene, Johan; Steffens, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    Circadian regulation of neutrophil homeostasis affects myocardial infarction (MI) healing. It is unknown whether diurnal variations of monocyte counts exist in the heart and whether this affects their cardiac infiltration in response to MI. Murine blood and organs were harvested at distinct times of day and analyzed by flow cytometry. Ly6Chigh monocyte surface expression levels of chemokine receptors (CCR) were ≈2-fold higher at the beginning of the active phase, Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 13 compared with ZT5. This was because of enhanced receptor surface expression at ZT13, whereas no significant changes in total cellular protein levels were found. Most blood Ly6Chigh monocytes were CCR2high, whereas only a minority was CCR1high and CCR5high. We also found diurnal changes of classical monocyte blood counts in humans, being higher in the evening, while exhibiting enhanced CCR2 surface expression in the morning. In support of monocyte oscillations between blood and tissue, murine cardiac Ly6Chigh monocyte counts were highest at ZT13, accompanied by an upregulation of cardiac CC chemokine ligand 2 mRNA. Mice subjected to MI at ZT13 had an even higher upregulation of CCR2 surface expression on circulating monocytes compared with noninfarcted mice and more elevated cardiac CC chemokine ligand 2 protein expression and more pronounced Ly6Chigh monocyte infiltration compared with ZT5-infarcted mice. Concomitantly, CCR2 antagonism only inhibited the excessive cardiac Ly6Chigh monocyte infiltration after ZT13 MI but not ZT5 MI. CCR2 surface expression on Ly6Chigh monocytes changes in a time-of-day-dependent manner, which crucially affects cardiac monocyte recruitment after an acute ischemic event. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Stress polishing of E-ELT segment at LAM: full-scale demonstrator status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Rousselet, Nicolas; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Floriot, Johan; Vivès, Sébastien; Lemaitre, Gérard; Carré, Jean François; Cayrel, Marc

    2011-10-01

    The Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) is involved in the prototyping of a full scale demonstrator for stress polishing of segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). Stress polishing method is developed at LAM since more than 40 years, and this mature technology has recently been used with success for VLT instruments. Stress polishing is now considered as a promising manufacturing method for mass production of large off axis mirrors, specifically for ELT segments. This powerful method, based on elasticity theory, allows the generation of super-smooth off-axis aspherics with a minimal amount of high spatial frequency ripples by spherically polishing a warped blank with a full-sized tool. Thanks to the simple spherical polishing, the operation time can be strongly reduced compared to the time-consuming sub-aperture tool methods of grinding and polishing. The goal is to rapidly converge to less than 1 micron RMS of optical quality on a circular blank which will be finally cut hexagonally and finished using Ion Beam Finishing. In this paper we will present the status of the demonstrator and the design of the warping harness prototype that must be able to precisely warp the circular blank.

  5. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical and biomolecular characterization of Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important ingredient of the alpine liqueur "Genepi".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiolo, Patrizia; Matteodo, Maura; Bicchi, Carlo; Appendino, Giovanni; Gnavi, Giorgio; Bertea, Cinzia; Maffei, Massimo

    2009-05-13

    Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important alpine plant used for the preparation of flavored beverages, showed a remarkable intraspecific variability, at both genomic and gene product (secondary metabolites) levels. The variability of A. umbelliformis Lam. currently cultivated in Piedmont (Italy, Au1) and in Switzerland (Au2) was investigated by combining the chemical analysis of essential oil and sesquiterpene lactones and the molecular characterization of the 5S-rRNA-NTS gene by PCR and PCR-RFLP. Marked differences were observed between the two plants. Au1 essential oil contained alpha- and beta-thujones as the main components, whereas Au2 contained 1,8-cineole, borneol, and beta-pinene. Au1 sesquiterpene lactone fractions contained cis-8-eudesmanolide derivatives and Au2 the trans-6-germacranolide costunolide. Specific A. umbelliformis Au1 and Au2 primers were designed on the sequence of the 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. Furthermore, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied using RsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Chemical and biomolecular data contributed to the characterization of A. umbeliformis chemotypes.

  7. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Helena; Ferlazzo, Gabriella; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Kirubi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Wanjala, Stephen; Sitienei, Joseph; Bonnet, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB). Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture) diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation. Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474), 21.6% (76/352), 29.1% (102/350) and 39.7% (92/232) of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4-55.6) to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3-89.4%), when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1-69.8) to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1-87.7), when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8-81.0) to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6-92.5), when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5-4.9). LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4LAM allows same day treatment initiation in patients at higher risk of death and in those not able to produce sputum.

  8. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Huerga

    Full Text Available Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB.Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or with Body Mass Index<17Kg/m2 and hospitalized symptomatic HIV-positive adults in Kenya. Incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation.Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4<200cells/μl, 59.9% had initiated ART, 23.2% could not produce sputum. LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474, 21.6% (76/352, 29.1% (102/350 and 39.7% (92/232 of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4-55.6 to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3-89.4%, when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1-69.8 to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1-87.7, when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8-81.0 to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6-92.5, when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5-4.9.LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or hospitalized. LAM allows same day treatment initiation in patients at

  9. Translational Pharmacology of the Metabotropic Glutamate 2 Receptor-Preferring Agonist LY2812223 in the Animal and Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Christian C; Schober, Douglas A; Tu, Yuan; Quets, Anne; Xiao, Hongling; Watt, Marla; Siuda, Ed; Nisenbaum, Eric; Xiang, Chuanxi; Heinz, Beverly; Prieto, Lourdes; McKinzie, David L; Monn, James A

    2017-04-01

    LY2812223 [(1 R ,2 S ,4 R ,5 R ,6 R )-2-amino-4-(1 H -1,2,4-triazol-3-ylsulfanyl)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid] was identified via structure-activity studies arising from the potent metabotropic glutamate mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY354740 [(+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0] hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid] as an mGlu2-preferring agonist. This pharmacology was determined using stably transfected cells containing either the human mGlu2 or mGlu3 receptor. We extended the pharmacological evaluation of LY2812223 to native brain tissues derived from relevant species used for preclinical drug development as well as human postmortem brain tissue. This analysis was conducted to ensure pharmacological translation from animals to human subjects in subsequent clinical studies. A guanosine 5'- O -(3-[ 35 S]thio)triphosphate (GTP γ S) functional binding assay, a method for measuring G i -coupled signaling that is inherent to the group 2 mGlu receptors, was used to evaluate LY2812223 pharmacology of native mGlu receptors in mouse, rat, nonhuman primate, and human cortical brain tissue samples. In native tissue membranes, LY2812223 unexpectedly acted as a partial agonist across all species tested. Activity of LY2812223 was lost in cortical membranes collected from mGlu2 knockout mice, but not those from mGlu3 knockout mice, providing additional support for mGlu2-preferring activity. Other signal transduction assays were used for comparison with the GTP binding assay (cAMP, calcium mobilization, and dynamic mass redistribution). In ectopic cell line-based assays, LY2812223 displayed near maximal agonist responses at the mGlu2 receptor across all assay formats, while it showed no functional agonist activity at the mGlu3 receptor except in the cAMP assay. In native brain slices or membranes that express both mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors, LY2812223 displayed unexpected partial agonist activity, which may suggest a functional interplay between these receptor subtypes in the brain

  10. Three Lyα emitters at z~6 : early GMOS/Gemini data from the GLARE project

    OpenAIRE

    Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bunker, Andrew J.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Hook, Isobel; Rhoads, James Ely; McCarthy, Pat; Boyle, Brian; Colless, Matthew; Crampton, David; Couch, Warrick; Jrgensen, Inger; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Murowinski, Rick; Roth, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    We report spectroscopic detection of three z ∼ 6 Lyα-emitting galaxies, in the vicinity of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, from the early data of the Gemini Lyman Alpha at Reionisation Era (GLARE) project. Two objects, GLARE 3001 (z = 5.79) and GLARE 3011 (z = 5.94), are new detections and are fainter in z′ (z = 26.37 and 27.15) than any Lyman break galaxy previously detected in Lyα. A third object, GLARE 1042 (z = 5.83), has previously been detected in line emission from the ground; we report h...

  11. Qualidade de jaca (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. desidratada sob diferentes condições de processo Quality of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. dehydrated under different processing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice Freiman de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos da jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. são consumidos na forma in natura pelas mais diversas camadas da população e sua alta perecibilidade leva a um índice elevado de perda pós-colheita, acarretando prejuízos para os produtores dessa frutífera. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura de secagem (50, 60 e 70 °C e do teor de umidade final (20 e 25% sobre as características químicas e sensoriais da jaca desidratada. Foram realizadas análises de matéria seca, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, carboidratos, além da avaliação sensorial. Os resultados globais obtidos mostraram que a jaca desidratada possui teor de matéria seca de 74,2 a 80,9%, cinzas de 3,1 a 3,8%, proteínas de 3,2 a 6,6%, lipídeos de 0,09 a 1,2% e carboidratos de 89,8 a 92,4%. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que o produto de maior aceitação (média de 5,95 foi aquele desidratado a 50 °C e com 20% de umidade final, demonstrando que este pode ser uma alternativa alimentar para as regiões produtoras de jaca.Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. are consumed in natura by the most diverse sectors of the population, and their high perishability lead to high indexes of postharvest losses, leading to prejudice for the producers of this fruit. Thus the objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of the drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C and the final moisture content (20 and 25% on the chemical and sensory characteristics of dried jackfruit. The overall results obtained showed that the dehydrated jackfruit had a dry matter content of from 74.2 to 80.9%, ash content from 3.1 to 3.8%, protein content from 3.2 to 6.6%, fat content from 0.09 to 1.2% and carbohydrate content from 89.8 to 92.4%. The sensory evaluation showed that the most accepted product (average of 5.95 was dehydrated at 50 °C, with a final moisture content of 20%, showing that this could be a food alternative for areas producing jackfruit.

  12. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9 ± 3.6-85.6 ± 0.9) and trehalose (62.3 ± 0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1 ± 1.4-39.8 ± 1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61 ± 2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding.

  13. Identification of acetates in elasmopalpulus lignosellus pheromone glands using a newly created mass spectral database and kóvats retention indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulab N. Jham

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a specially created mass spectral database utilizing 23 tetradecenyl and 22 hexadecenyl acetate standards along with Kóvats retention indices obtained on a very polar stationary phase [poly (biscyanopropyl siloxane] (SP 2340, (Z-9-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (E-8-hexadecenyl acetate were identified in active pheromone extracts of Elasmopalpus lignosellus. This identification was more efficient than our previous study using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a dimethyl disulfide derivative where we could only identify the first two acetates. The acetate composition of the pheromone gland differed from region to region in Brazil and from that from the Tifton (GA, USA population, suggesting polymorphism or a different sub-species.

  14. Evolution of Lyα Forest in Redshift Range 0.5

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We collect 23 spectral data from literature, which is regarded as a relatively sufficient sample. The evolution index γ was calculated to study the evolution of Lyα line density of Lyα forest. This paper discusses the relationship between the evolution with the redshift in different inter- val threshold of column density.

  15. Randomized double-blind phase II trial comparing gemcitabine plus LY293111 versus gemcitabine plus placebo in advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif; Oettle, H.; Vervenne, W. L.; Thomas, J. P.; Spitzer, G.; Visseren-Grul, C.; Enas, N.; Richards, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    LY293111 (LY) is a novel oral anticancer agent with leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist properties, producing promising results alone and in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer xenograft models. A phase I study proved that the

  16. Understanding the susceptibility to HIV of female and male students case study of LAMS school in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissezounnon, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This research project aims to understand the factors that influence susceptibility to HIV for female and male students in LAMS (Lycee Agricole Meidji o Sekou in Benin), in order to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon. The results of questionnaires, group discussions and interviews show the

  17. Arabinosylated lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM) mediated intracellular mechanisms against tuberculosis infection: involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shibali; Bhattacharjee, Oindrila; Goswami, Avranil; Pal, Nishith K; Majumdar, Subrata

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis causes severe immunosuppression thereby ensuring the loss of the host protective immune responses. During Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, the pathogen modulates TLR-2 receptor down-stream signaling, indicating the possible involvement of TLR-2 in the regulation of the host immune response. Moreover, different PKC isoforms are also involved in the course of infection. Arabinosylated lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM) possesses immuno-modulatory properties which induce the pro-inflammatory responses via induction of TLR-2-mediated signaling. Here, we found that pretreatment of M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages with Ara-LAM caused a significant increase in the conventional PKC expression along with their active association with TLR-2. This association activated the TLR-2 -mediated downstream signaling, facilitating the activation of MAP kinase P38. All these events culminated in the up-regulation of proinflammatory response, which was abrogated by treatment with PKC-α and P38 inhibitors. Moreover, pretreatment of macrophages with Ara-LAM abrogated the IL-10 production while restored MHC-II expression in the infected macrophages. This study demonstrates that Ara-LAM confers protection against tuberculosis via TLR-2/PKC signaling crosstalk which is responsible for the induction of host protective immune response against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A study on the economic effects of the current VAT rates structure: Addendum: Country Analyses ; Final Report ; Study on behalf of the European Commission, TAXUD ; in consortium with CAPP, CASE, DEPII, ETLA, IFO, IFS

    OpenAIRE

    Müllbacher, Sandra; Hyee, Raphaela; Bettendorf, Leon; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo; Veenendaal, Paul; Baldini, Massimo; Barbone, Luca; Bonch-Osmolovskiy, Mikhail; Adam, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    from the Table of Contents: Preface; Belgium; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Denmark; Germany; Estonia; Greece; Spain; France; Ireland; Italy; Cyprus; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Hungary; Malta; Netherlands; Austria; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Slovenia; Slovakia; Finland; Sweden; United Kingdom; A short guide for the use of the result spreadsheets (Estonia); Assumptions for VAT Rates Application;

  19. Clinical validation of the C-VAT 2.0 assessment tool for gaming disorder: a sensitivity analysis of the proposed DSM-5 criteria and the clinical characteristics of young patients with ‘video game addiction’.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Clinicians struggle with the identification of video gaming problems. To address this issue, a clinical assessment tool (C-VAT 2.0) was developed and tested in a clinical setting. The instrument allows exploration of the validity of the DSM-5 proposal for ‘internet gaming disorder’. Method:

  20. Magnetic moment and plasma environment of HD 209458b as determined from Ly$\\alpha$ observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kislyakova, K G; Lammer, H; Odert, P; Khodachenko, M L

    2014-01-01

    Transit observations of HD 209458b in the stellar Lyman-$\\alpha$ (Ly$\\alpha$) line revealed strong absorption in both blue and red wings of the line interpreted as hydrogen atoms escaping from the planet's exosphere at high velocities. The following sources for the absorption were suggested: acceleration by the stellar radiation pressure, natural spectral line broadening, charge exchange with stellar wind. We reproduce the observation by means of modelling that includes all aforementioned processes. Our results support a stellar wind with a velocity of $\\approx400$ km$\\times$s$^{-1}$ at the time of the observation and a planetary magnetic moment of $\\approx 1.6 \\times 10^{26}$ A$\\times$m$^2$.

  1. Lyčių vaidmenys ir įvaizdžiai internetiniuose portaluose

    OpenAIRE

    Vaičiūnaitė, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Lytis yra vienas esminių skirtumų tarp tos pačios rūšies individų, apibrėžiamas pagal jų anatominį sudėjimą ir reprodukcinę funkciją, pagal genetiškai nulemtus tam tikrus individo požymius. Tačiau lytis nėra vien tik fiziologinis faktorius, tai ir socialinis konstruktas, pastoviai kuriamas ir perkuriamas socialinių sąveikų metu. Prie lyčių vaidmenų bei įvaizdžių kūrimo, jų suvokimo, diegimo ir ugdymo proceso stipriai prisideda socializacijos agentai – šeimos nariai, švietimo institucijos, ben...

  2. About the wall which was the river. Mihály Kornis The Jewish Danube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Piotrowiak-Junkiert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article, the author presents a few crucial political and historical events which have an association with the situation of the in 1944-45 Budapest. The politics of the Arrow Cross Party, very similar to German Nazis, led to the mass execution of Jewish citizens on the Danube river. The main purpose of the article is to analyse a short story by the Hungarian writer Mihály Kornis. In The Jewish Danube he raises the thorny issue of the memory of the murdered people, and in doing so creates a blasphemous and provocative text, in which he tries to break the taboo subject of genocide.

  3. Target specificity, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of the putative STAT3 inhibitor LY5 in osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Y Yu

    Full Text Available STAT3 is a transcription factor involved in cytokine and receptor kinase signal transduction that is aberrantly activated in a variety of sarcomas, promoting metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel putative STAT3 inhibitor, LY5.An in silico fragment-based drug design strategy was used to create LY5, a small molecule inhibitor that blocks the STAT3 SH2 domain phosphotyrosine binding site, inhibiting homodimerization. LY5 was evaluated in vitro demonstrating good biologic activity against rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma cell lines at high nanomolar/low micromolar concentrations, as well as specific inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation without effects on other STAT3 family members. LY5 exhibited excellent oral bioavailability in both mice and healthy dogs, and drug absorption was enhanced in the fasted state with tolerable dosing in mice at 40 mg/kg BID. However, RNAi-mediated knockdown of STAT3 did not phenocopy the biologic effects of LY5 in sarcoma cell lines. Moreover, concentrations needed to inhibit ex vivo metastasis growth using the PuMA assay were significantly higher than those needed to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation in vitro. Lastly, LY5 treatment did not inhibit the growth of sarcoma xenografts or prevent pulmonary metastasis in mice.LY5 is a novel small molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations. LY5 demonstrates good oral bioavailability in mice and dogs. However LY5 did not decrease tumor growth in xenograft mouse models and STAT3 knockdown did not induce concordant biologic effects. These data suggest that the anti-cancer effects of LY5 identified in vitro were not mediated through STAT3 inhibition.

  4. Mida teie oma tervise heaks teete? / Ly Jagor, Ülle Mihhailova, Ene Pill, Katrin Käbin...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Pärnu Õppenõustamiskeskuse psühholoog Ly Jagor, Maasika lasteaia juhataja asetäitja Ülle Mihhailova, Tallinna Perekeskuse ja Tähetorni lastekeskuse psühholoog Ene Pill, Tallinna Nõmme Noortemaja väikelaste ringijuht Katrin Käbin, Tääksi Põhikooli õpetaja Silva Kolk

  5. Subchronic administration of LY354740 does not modify ketamine-evoked behavior and neuronal activity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imre, Gabor; Fokkema, Dirk S.; Ter Horst, Gert J.

    2006-01-01

    Acute treatment with LY354740 {1S,2S,5R,6S-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylate monohydrate}, a potent and selective agonist for group 11 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2/3), has previously been shown to block some schizophrenia-like effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor

  6. The discovery of six Ly{alpha} emitters near a radio galaxy at z {approx} 5.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venemans, B P; Rottgering, H A; Overzier, R A; Miley, G K; De Breuck, C; Kurk, J D; van Breugel, W; Carilli, C L; Ford, H; Heckman, T; McCarthy, P; Pentericci, L

    2004-09-15

    The authors present the results of narrow-band and broad-band imaging with the Very Large Telescope of the field surrounding the radio galaxy TN J0924-2201 at z = 5.2. 14 candidate Ly{alpha} emitters with an observed equivalent width of at least 124 {angstrom} were detected. Spectroscopy of 8 of these objects revealed 6 having redshifts similar to that of the radio galaxy. The density of emitters near the radio galaxy is a factor 3-4 higher than in the field, and comparable to the density of Ly{alpha} emitters in the protocluster 1338-1942 at z = 4.1. The Ly{alpha} emitters near TN J0924-2201 could therefore be part of a structure that will evolve into a 10{sup 15} M{sub {circle_dot}} cluster. These observations confirm that substantial clustering of Ly{alpha} emitters occur at z > 5 and strengthen the idea that radio galaxies in the early Universe pinpoint regions of high density.

  7. Circulating Ly-6C+ myeloid precursors migrate to the CNS and play a pathogenic role during autoimmune demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Irah L; Dickendesher, Travis L; Segal, Benjamin M

    2009-04-02

    Mature myeloid cells (macrophages and CD11b(+) dendritic cells) form a prominent component of neuroinflammatory infiltrates in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The mechanism by which these cells are replenished during relapsing and chronic neuroinflammation is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that CD11b(+)CD62L(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes with colony-forming potential are mobilized into the bloodstream by a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent pathway immediately before EAE relapses. Circulating Ly6C(hi) monocytes traffic across the blood-brain barrier, up-regulate proinflammatory molecules, and differentiate into central nervous system dendritic cells and macrophages. Enrichment of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the circulating pool is associated with an earlier onset and increased severity of clinical EAE. Our studies indicate that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-driven release of Ly6C(hi) precursors from the bone marrow prevents exhaustion of central nervous system myeloid populations during relapsing or chronic autoimmune demyelination, suggesting a novel pathway for therapeutic targeting.

  8. The Ly-6A (Sca-1) GFP transgene is expressed in all adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Ma (Xiaoqian); C.I. Robin; K. Ottersbach (Katrin); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe Sca-1 cell surface glycoprotein is used routinely as a marker of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), allowing a >100-fold enrichment of these rare cells from the bone marrow of the adult mouse. The Sca-1 protein is encoded by the Ly-6A/E gene, a small 4-exon gene

  9. Anemia predicts thromboembolic events, bleeding complications and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation : insights from the RE-LY trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. D.; Alings, M.; Connolly, S. J.; Eikelboom, J.; Ezekowitz, M. D.; Oldgren, J.; Yang, S.; Pongue, J.; Yusuf, S.; Wallentin, L.; van Gilst, W. H.

    BackgroundAnemia may predispose to thromboembolic events or bleeding in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). ObjectivesTo investigate whether anemia is associated with thromboembolic events and bleeding in patients with AF. Patients and methodsWe retrospectively analyzed the RE-LY

  10. Recursos genéticos del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. en Cuba. Especies silvestres

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    Oscar Leopoldo Parrado Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presentan los resultados de la valoración de los recursos genéticos del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam a partir del estudio de material de herbario y fuentes bibliográficas teniendo en consideración el criterio de grupo taxón de Maxted de acuerdo con el cual en Cuba se reporta la presencia de los grupos siguientes: Grupo Taxón 2 – misma serie o sección que el cultivo (7 especies; Grupo Taxón 3 – mismo subgénero que el cultivo Eriospermum (45 especies dentro de este grupo se encuentran 21 especies endémicas y el Grupo Taxón 4 – mismo género que el cultivo (57 especies lo que potencia a Cuba como un centro de diversidad importante para Ipomoea batatas en Latinoamérica y el Caribe . Se ofrece una descripción sucinta de las especies tratadas que incluye distribución, fenología, datos etnobotánicos y el material de herbario consultado. Genetic resources of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. lam. in Cuba. Wild species. ABSTRACT The results of the evaluation of the genetic resources of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam are presented from the study of herbarium material and bibliographic sources taking into account the criterion of Maxted´s taxon group according to which in Cuba is reported the presence of the following groups : Taxon group 2 - same series or section cultivation (7 species Taxon group 3 - same subgenus Eriospermum the crop (45 species within this group are 21 endemic species and Taxon group 4 - same genus as the crop (57 species that fact potenciate to Cuba as an important center of diversity for Ipomoea batatas in Latin America and the Caribbean. A brief description of the treated species including distribution, phenology, ethnobotanical data and herbarium material consulted is provided. A brief description of the treated species including distribution, phenology, ethnobotanical data and herbarium material consulted is provided.

  11. Reduced expression of miR-200 family members contributes to antiestrogen resistance in LY2 human breast cancer cells.

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    Tissa T Manavalan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The role of miRNAs in acquired endocrine-resistant breast cancer is not fully understood. One hallmark of tumor progression is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, characterized by a loss of cell adhesion resulting from reduced E-cadherin and increased cell mobility. miR-200 family members regulate EMT by suppressing expression of transcriptional repressors ZEB1/2. Previously we reported that the expression of miR-200a, miR-200b, and miR-200c was lower in LY2 endocrine-resistant, mesenchymal breast cancer cells compared to parental, endocrine sensitive, epithelial MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Here we investigated the regulation of miR-200 family members and their role in endocrine-sensitivity in breast cancer cells. RESULTS: miR-200 family expression was progressively reduced in a breast cancer cell line model of advancing endocrine/tamoxifen (TAM resistance. Concomitant with miR-200 decrease, there was an increase in ZEB1 mRNA expression. Overexpression of miR-200b or miR-200c in LY2 cells altered cell morphology to a more epithelial appearance and inhibited cell migration. Further, miR-200b and miR-200c overexpression sensitized LY2 cells to growth inhibition by estrogen receptor (ER antagonists TAM and fulvestrant. Knockdown of ZEB1 in LY2 cells recapitulated the effect of miR-200b and miR-200c overexpression resulting in inhibition of LY2 cell proliferation by TAM and fulvestrant, but not the aromatase inhibitor exemestane. Demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA increased miR-200b and miR-200c in LY2 cells. Concomitant with the increase in miR-200b and miR-200c, ZEB1 expression was decreased and cells appeared more epithelial in morphology and were sensitized to TAM and fulvestrant inhibition. Likewise, knockdown of ZEB1 increased antiestrogen sensitivity of LY2 cells resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data

  12. Evidence That Ly6C(hi) Monocytes are Protective in Acute Ischemic Stroke by Promoting M2 Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hannah X; Broughton, Brad R S; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Seyoung; Drummond, Grant R; Sobey, Christopher G

    2015-07-01

    Ly6C(hi) monocytes are generally thought to exert a proinflammatory role in acute tissue injury, although their impact after injuries to the central nervous system is poorly defined. CC chemokine receptor 2 is expressed on Ly6C(hi) monocytes and plays an essential role in their extravasation and transmigration into the brain after cerebral ischemia. We used a selective CC chemokine receptor 2 antagonist, INCB3344, to assess the effect of Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruited into the brain early after ischemic stroke. Male C57Bl/6J mice underwent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1 hour followed by 23 hours of reperfusion. Mice were administered either vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/carboxymethylcellulose) or INCB3344 (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg IP) 1 hour before ischemia and at 2 and 6 hours after ischemia. At 24 hours, we assessed functional outcomes, infarct volume, and quantified the immune cells in blood and brain by flow cytometry or immunofluorescence. Gene expression of selected inflammatory markers was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Ly6C(hi) monocytes were increased 3-fold in the blood and 10-fold in the brain after stroke, and these increases were selectively prevented by INCB3344 in a dose-dependent manner. Mice treated with INCB3344 exhibited markedly worse functional outcomes and larger infarct volumes, in association with reduced M2 polarization and increased peroxynitrite production in macrophages, compared with vehicle-treated mice. Our data suggest that Ly6C(hi) monocytes exert an acute protective effect after ischemic stroke to limit brain injury and functional deficit that involves promotion of M2 macrophage polarization. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj G. Jain

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.

  14. Calculation of carbon sequestration and soil fauna associated with Moringa oleifera Lam. in living fences

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    Oscar Loyola Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was completed under edaphoclimatic conditions in Camagüey during one year. The objective was to determine the carbon retention and the soil fauna associated with Moringa oleifera Lam, used for living fences, specifically a one-year-old fence, built on a typical brown soil without carbonate. The approximate carbon sequestration and the soil fauna associated with the species were calculated. The results indicated the advantages of using M. oleifera for living fences, due to their positive environmental effect when sequestring high levels of carbon dioxide (the carbon stored by this species is of 68 kg/a, which is closely equal to 45,35 t of C/km, and they also create a favorable environment for soil fauna. In the assessed period, the worms and the coleopterons were the main groups found, which are also important for maintaning a healthy ecosystem.

  15. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadi, Ravindra V; Gadge, Navneet B; Alagawadi, K R; Savadi, Rudraprabhu V

    2006-04-21

    In India, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)) is commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied in male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats was also significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment using aqueous and alcoholic extracts. The results indicate that the root-wood of Moringa oleifera is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity.

  16. Biosorption and removal of chromium from water by using moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Meneghel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of chromium from contaminated aqueous solutions by using Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm calculated to be 3.191 mg g-1 for the biosorbent. Activated carbon was used for comparison purposes in addition to the biosorbent. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model for both adsorbents. The average desorption value indicated that both the biosorbent and activated carbon have a strong interaction with the metal. The results showed that the biosorbent has advantages owing to its low cost and efficiency in Cr3+ removal from contaminated waters.

  17. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam)--a valuable medicinal food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Remya; Sivasankar, Subha

    2014-07-01

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food.

  18. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  20. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera.

  1. DIFFERENT SUBSTRATA EFFECTS IN THE GERMINATION OF Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM. URB. (BOMBACACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of different substrata in the germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae. The experiment was conducted in delineation randomized with three treatments (substratum and four repetitions of 25 seeds. The following substrata had been tested: sand + vermiculite (1:1; vermiculite and, sand + shavings (1:1. The effect of substrata through the percentage of germination of the seeds, average time of germination and index of germination speed (IGS were evaluated. There had been significant difference between the treatments in of all the observed variable. The seeds, when conditioned in vermiculite, had presented the biggest tax of germination, greatest speed and lowest germination time.

  2. Chemotherapeutic potential of the volatile oils from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Saulo L; Figueiredo, Patrícia M S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2007-12-08

    In this work, the anti-tumor properties of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves and some terpenes (alpha-humulene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice with 20 mg/kg of the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene for 4 days has significantly increased survival, whereas administration of alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were ineffective in affording protection. Volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene exhibited little direct activity against Ehrlich tumor cells in vitro, while alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene did not such activity. Investigation of the effects of the volatile oil (and terpenes) treatment on total natural killer cells (NK cell) activity from tumor-bearing mice as a possible mechanism of these compounds in vivo revealed that volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene significantly improved NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1, a Moloney virus-induced mouse T-cell lymphoma of A/SN origin and Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene reversed this effect when mice were treated with 20-mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. Summing up, volatile oil exhibits anti-tumor efficacy and significative immunomodulatory action in vivo, which may be related to beta-caryophyllene associated to the synergism of other natural compounds presented in volatile oil from Z. rhoifolium Lam leaves.

  3. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam as a natural sensitizer

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    Christian G. Garcia

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Jambolão (java plum, Eugenia jambolana Lam, was used as a natural sensitizer of a wide band-gap semiconductor (TiO2 in photoelectrochemical solar cells. The natural dye, adsorbed onto the semiconductor surface, absorbs visible light and promotes electron transfer across the dye/semiconductor interface. Photogenerated current and voltage as high as 2.3 mA and 711 mV, respectively, were obtained and effective conversion of visible light into electricity was achieved. The use of a natural product as the semiconductor sensitizer enables a faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmentally friendly solar cells.O extrato de Jambolão, Eugenia jambolana Lam, foi utilizado como um sensibilizador natural de um semicondutor com separação grande de bandas (TiO2 nas células solares fotoeletroquímica. O corante natural, adsorvido na superfície do semicondutor, absorve luz visível e promove transferência eletrônica na interface corante/semicondutor. A corrente e o potencial fotogerados tão altos como 2,3 mA e 711 mV, respectivamente, foram obtidos observando-se conversão eficiente de luz visível em eletricidade. O uso de um produto natural como o sensibilizador de semicondutor possibilita uma produção mais rápida e simples de células solares mais baratas que não agridem o meio ambiente.

  4. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  5. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

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    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  6. Retention Of Phenolics, Carotenoids, And Antioxidant Activity In The Taiwanese Sweet Potato ( Ipomoea batatas Lam.) Cv Tainong 66 Subjected To Different Drying Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duvivier, P; Hsieh, P.C; Lai, P.Y; Charles, A.L

    2010-01-01

    ...) of Tainong 66 cultivar sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas Lam.) were investigated. Roots of 12 batches of freshly harvested tuberous root were washed in tap water, allowed to dry, peeled and cut into small pieces...

  7. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

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    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  8. Diversidade funcional em sistemas de montado: fluxo de nutrientes em Quercus rotundifolia Lam. Functional diversity in “montado” systems: nutrients fluxes in Quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes dos ciclos de nutrientes em montados de Quercus rotundifolia Lam., relacionados com a precipitação foram estudados na região de Évora, de Novembro de 1996 a Dezembro de 2000. A precipitação bruta, o gotejo a diferentes distâncias do tronco e o escorrimento ao longo do tronco das árvores foram quantificados de modo contínuo, sendo colhidas amostras semanalmente para se proceder à respectiva caracterização química. A quantidade de nutrientes transferidos para o solo através das diferentes soluções foi também determinada. Verificou-se um acréscimo da concentração das espécies iónicas no gotejo em relação à precipitação bruta, o qual foi ainda mais manifesto no escorrimento ao longo do tronco. Estudaram-se, igualmente, as características físico-químicas do solo sob e fora da influência da copa destas árvores, num montado relativamente esparso. Além disso, também se avaliou a quantidade das camadas orgânicas e a quantidade de nutrientes aí retidos. As características físicas e químicas do solo apresentaram, de um modo geral, uma diferenciação positiva em resultado da presença das árvores. Avaliou-se a taxa de mineralização de N nas áreas sob e fora da acção do coberto das árvores, tendo-se observado uma mais elevada disponibilidade deste nutriente nas áreas do sob coberto.Nutrient cycling in Quercus rotundifolia Lam. systems, regarding precipitation was studied at Évora (Southern Portugal, since November of 1996 until December of 2000. The amounts of gross rainfall, throughfall (at different distances from the tree trunk and stemflow were measured continuously and samples for chemical analysis were collected weekly. The concentration of nutrients was higher in the throughfall than in the gross rainfall, especially in the areas closer to the tree trunk. Nutrients transferred to soil, through bulk rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were quantified. The highest concentration of nutrients

  9. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. Pathogenity evaluation on Solanum quitoense Lam. Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.Presence of plant disease caused by pathogens on 42 clones of Solanum quitoense Lam. were evaluated in the north-western region of Popayán, Colombia. The seed of the clons were planted in plastic bags during three weeks and afterwards transplanted to the field. The statistical design

  10. Identities of P2 and P3 Residues of H-2Kb-Bound Peptides Determine Mouse Ly49C Recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa A Marquez

    Full Text Available Ly49 receptors can be peptide selective in their recognition of MHC-I-peptide complexes, affording them a level of discrimination beyond detecting the presence or absence of specific MHC-I allele products. Despite this ability, little is understood regarding the properties that enable some peptides, when bound to MHC-I molecules, to support Ly49 recognition, but not others. Using RMA-S target cells expressing MHC-I molecules loaded with individual peptides and effector cells expressing the ectodomain of the inhibitory Ly49C receptor, we found that two adjacent amino acid residues, P2 and P3, both buried in the peptide binding groove of H-2Kb, determine mouse Ly49C specificity. If both are aliphatic residues, this is supportive. Whereas, small amino acids at P2 and aromatic amino acids at the P3 auxiliary anchor residue are detrimental to Ly49C recognition. These results resemble those with a rat Ly49 where the identity of a peptide anchor residue determines recognition, suggesting that dependence on specific peptide residues buried in the MHC-I peptide-binding groove may be fundamental to Ly49 peptide selectivity and recognition.

  11. Disposition and metabolism of LY2603618, a Chk-1 inhibitor following intravenous administration in patients with advanced and/or metastatic solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R; Hynes, Scott M; Palmieri, Margo D; Mitchell, Malcolm I; Abraham, Trent L; Rehmel, Jessica Fayer; Chana, Emilie; Jost, Lorenz M; Cassidy, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    The disposition and metabolism of a Chk-1 inhibitor (LY2603618) was characterized following a 1-h intravenous administration of a single 250-mg dose of [14C]LY2603618 (50 µCi) to patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors. LY2603618 was well tolerated with no clinically significant adverse events. Study was limited to three patients due to challenges of conducting ADME studies in patients with advanced cancer. Plasma, urine and feces were analyzed for radioactivity, LY2603618 and metabolites. LY2603618 had a half-life of 10.5 h and was the most abundant entity in plasma, accounting for approximately 69% of total plasma radioactivity. The second most abundant metabolites, H2 and H5, accounted for radioactivity. The major route of clearance was via CYP450 metabolism. The mean total recovery of radioactivity was 83%, with approximately 72% of the radioactivity recovered in the feces and approximately 11% in the urine. LY2603618 represented approximately 6% and 3% of the administered dose in feces and urine, respectively. A total of 12 metabolites were identified. In vitro phenotyping indicated that CYP3A4 was predominantly responsible for the metabolic clearance of LY2603618. Additionally, aldehyde oxidase was involved in the formation of a unique human and non-human primate metabolite, H5.

  12. Can Point-of-Care Urine LAM Strip Testing for Tuberculosis Add Value to Clinical Decision Making in Hospitalised HIV-Infected Persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jonathan G.; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan

    2013-01-01

    Background The urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) strip-test (Determine®-TB) can rapidly rule-in TB in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. However, given high rates of empiric treatment amongst hospitalised patients in high-burden settings (∼50%) it is unclear whether LAM can add any value to clinical decision making, or identify a subset of patients with unfavourable outcomes that would otherwise have been missed by empiric treatment. Methods 281 HIV-infected hospitalised patients with suspected TB received urine LAM strip testing, and were categorised as definite (culture-positive), probable-, or non-TB. Both the proportion and morbidity of TB cases identified by LAM testing, early empiric treatment (initiated prior to test result availability) and a set of clinical predictors were compared across groups. Results 187/281 patients had either definite- (n = 116) or probable-TB (n = 71). As a rule-in test for definite and probable-TB, LAM identified a similar proportion of TB cases compared to early empiric treatment (85/187 vs. 93/187, p = 0.4), but a greater proportion than classified by a set of clinical predictors alone (19/187; pLAM-positive patients who had either definite- or probable-TB were missed by early empiric treatment, and of these 25/39 (64%) would also have been missed by smear microscopy. Thus, 25/187 (8%) of definite- or probable-TB patients with otherwise delayed initiation of TB treatment could be detected by the LAM strip test. LAM-positive patients missed by early empiric treatment had a lower median CD4 count (p = 0.008), a higher median illness severity score (p = 0.001) and increased urea levels (p = 0.002) compared to LAM-negative patients given early empiric treatment. Conclusions LAM strip testing outperformed TB diagnosis based on clinical criteria but in day-to-day practice identified a similar proportion of patients compared to early empiric treatment. However, compared to empiric treatment, LAM

  13. Strong Field-to-field Variation of Lyα Nebulae Populations at z ~= 2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujin; Zabludoff, Ann; Eisenstein, Daniel; Davé, Romeel

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the nature of distant Lyα nebulae, aka "blobs," and connecting them to their present-day descendants requires constraining their number density, clustering, and large-scale environment. To measure these basic quantities, we conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey in four different fields, Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN), and two COSMOS subfields, for a total survey area of 1.2 deg2. We discover 25 blobs at z = 2.3 with Lyα luminosities of L Lyα= (0.7-8) × 1043 erg s-1 and isophotal areas of A iso = 10-60 sq arcsec. The transition from compact Lyα emitters (LAEs; A iso ~ a few sq arcsec) to extended Lyα blobs (A iso > 10 sq arcsec) is continuous, suggesting a single family perhaps governed by similar emission mechanisms. Surprisingly, most blobs (16/25) are in one survey field, the CDFS. The six brightest, largest blobs with L Lyα gsim 1.5×1043 erg s-1 and A iso > 16 sq arcsec lie only in the CDFS. These large, bright blobs have a field-to-field variance of σ v >~ 1.5 (150%) about their number density n ~1.0+1.8 -0.6× 10-5 Mpc-3. This variance is large, significantly higher than that of unresolved LAEs (σ v ~ 0.3 or 30%), and can adversely affect comparisons of blob number densities and luminosity functions (LFs) among different surveys. Our deep, blind survey allows us to construct a reliable blob LF. We compare the statistics of our blobs with dark matter halos in a 1 h -1 Gpc cosmological N-body simulation. At z = 2.3, n implies that each bright, large blob could occupy a halo of M halo gsim1013 M sun if most halos have detectable blobs. The predicted variance in n is consistent with that observed and corresponds to a bias of ~7. Blob halos lie at the high end of the halo mass distribution at z = 2.3 and are likely to evolve into the ~1014 M sun halos typical of galaxy clusters today. On larger scales of ~10 comoving Mpc, blobs cluster where compact LAEs cluster, indicating that blobs lie in coherent

  14. Fertility and developmental toxicity assessment in rats and rabbits with LY500307, a selective estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbish, Kim G; Breslin, William J; Johnson, Jason T; Sloter, Eddie D

    2013-10-01

    LY500307 is a selective estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) agonist that was developed for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The in vitro functional selectivity of LY500307 for ERβ agonist activity is 32-fold above the activity at the alpha receptor (ERα). LY500307 was evaluated in a series of male (M) and female (F) rat fertility and rat and rabbit embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies, using 20 or 25 animals/group. LY500307 was administered daily by oral gavage starting 2 weeks (F) or 10 weeks (M) before mating, during cohabitation, until necropsy (M) or through gestation day (GD) 6 (F) in the fertility studies and from GD 6 to 17 (rats) or GD 7 to 19 (rabbits) in the EFD studies. Dosage levels of LY500307 ranged from 0.03 to 10 mg/kg/day for rats and from 1 to 25 mg/kg/day for rabbits. Fertility, estrous, maternal reproductive endpoints, conceptus viability, sperm parameters, organ weights, and histopathology were evaluated in the fertility studies. Maternal reproductive endpoints and fetal viability, weight, and morphology were evaluated in the EFD studies. Toxicokinetics were assessed in satellite animals. At 10 mg/kg/day in the male fertility study, findings included decreased body weight (BW); food consumption (FC); fertility, mating, and conception indices; sperm concentration; and reproductive tissue weight (associated with atrophic histologic changes). In the female fertility study, effects included decreased BW and FC at ≥0.3 mg/kg/day and persistent diestrus, delayed mating, and reduced fertility/conception indices at 3 mg/kg/day. In the rat EFD study, findings included decreased maternal BW and FC and increased incidences of adverse clinical signs, abortion, maternal mortality/moribundity, postimplantation loss, and fetal skeletal variations at 3 mg/kg/day. Effects in the rabbit EFD study were limited to decreases in maternal BW and FC at 25 mg/kg/day. In general, systemic maternal exposure increased proportionally with dosage in rats, but

  15. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves Avaliação citotóxica do óleo volátil extraído das folhas do Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo Luis da Silva; Patrícia Maria Figueiredo; Tomomasa Yano

    2007-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool) were also tested to ve...

  16. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  17. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  18. Karakterisasi Simplisia dan Analisis Kalium, Kalsium, Natrium dan Magnesium pada Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Eka Yulia

    2016-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a plant which is classified to the family of Moringaceae and it can grow quickly. Moringa leave is useful. It has very good nutrients contents, and it also has a sufficient amount of minerals and vitamins. Moringa leaves can be consumed by being cooked, eaten raw, or dried up into moringa leaves powder. Moringa leaves powder has higher amount of nutrients content than fresh moringa leaves. Characterization of the Moringa leaves is not liste...

  19. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human ...

  20. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory activity and melanogenesis inhibition of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeva Nayak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. belongs to Moraceae family and is endemic to Western Ghats and Kerala in India. This species is found to be effective in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer diarrhea and pimples. However extensive biological evaluation on each component of this specific species rarely appears in the literature which restricts its applicability as medicinal herb. The leaf bark and wood of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. were separately extracted with hot ethanol. The wood extract was further fractionated to isolate major active molecule whose structure was determined from its NMR spectra and LCMS analysis. All the extracts of A. hirsutus Lam. were then studied in vitro to evaluate their potential on tyrosinase inhibition free radical scavenging activity by 11-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl DPPH method and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC. Furthermore their effects on melanogenesis inhibition were also evaluated by using murine melanoma cells. Activity guided fractionation of wood extract yielded a pure molecule that was characterized as oxyresveratrol. It was observed that antioxidant activity was higher in wood extract compared to the leaf and bark extracts. Isolated pure oxyresveratrol exhibited a significant antioxidant potential with ORAC value of 366532570 mol Trolox equivalentg and having an IC50 of 4.3 gmL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This molecule was found to be effective for the tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.1 gmL and melanogenesis inhibition in cultured melanoma cells by 44.62 at 0.2 gmL. Oxyresveratrol also exhibited significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide LPS induced tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF-amp945 secretion from J774A1 murine macrophage cell lines. This study provides substantial evidence for the presence of oxyresveratrol in the wood of A. hirsutus Lam. with promising anti-inflammatory antioxidant and skin lightening property.

  1. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    MELO NETO, BERNARDO; LEITÃO, JOSEANA M.S.R.; OLIVEIRA, LUCIANO G.C.; SANTOS, SÉRGIO E.M.; CARNEIRO, SABRINA M.P.; RODRIGUES, KLINGER A.F.; CHAVES, MARIANA H.; ARCANJO, DANIEL D.R.; CARVALHO, FERNANDO A.A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated ...

  2. Analisis Kandungan Mangan dan Zink Pada Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Kering dan Rebus Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Faza, Afina

    2017-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is included in the family Moringaceae, the utilizaation of moringa plant in indonesia society has been a long a time, but moringa’s leaves is the most common used to be dietary fiber. Moringa contains excess nutrients for body needed, one of them is mineral such as calcium, cromium, cupri, flour, iron, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum, phosphor, potasium, sodium, selenium, sulphur, and zinc. The aim of this study is to determine the differentiation content of m...

  3. Uji Aktivitas Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Terhadap Kaki Tikus Jantan yang Diinduksi λ-Karagenan

    OpenAIRE

    Sipayung, Presty

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex process, which is often associated with pain and involve events such as increased vascular permeability, increased protein denaturation and membrane changes. One of the medicinal plants used for the treatment of inflammatory / anti-inflammatory is the leaves of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.). Moringa leaves have the potential to be developed into an anti-inflammatory medicine because it contains polyphenols, saponins and essential oils. This study aims to determine ...

  4. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Pankla Sranujit, Rungnapa; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human...

  5. Efectos del ataque de fitófagos perforadores en el fruto de la encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Cano Sánchez, Esperanza; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1996-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizan pruebas de germinación de frutos de encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) afectadas por los fitófagos Curculio elephas Gyll. (COL., CURCULIONIDAE) y las especies del género Cydia, C. penkleriana (D. & Schiff.) y C. fagiglandana (Zel.) (LER, TORTRICIDAE). También recoge una serie de mediciones del fruto cuya finalidad es valorar los daños directos de estas especies.

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  7. Copernicus observations of Ly-alpha and Mg II emission from HR 1099 /V711 Tauri/ and UX Ari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of two RS CVn binaries obtained with Copernicus are described. High-resolution (0.05 A) U1 observations indicate that both HR 1099 and UX Ari display broad Ly-alpha emission. The Ly-alpha emission strength from HR 1099 is variable and seems to be correlated with orbital phase, while the UX Ari results indicate no significant variation. Moderate resolution (0.51 A) V2 scans of both systems show variable Mg II h and k emission-line profiles which usually matched the velocity of the more active star in each binary. Additionally, displaced emission components were seen at velocities of up to + or - 250 km/s, indicative of high-velocity gas motions. The radial velocities of these emission features from HR 1099 are marginally correlated with orbital phase. Highly active and variable chromospheric phenomena are found to be the most consistent explanation of these results.

  8. The Impact of Ly49-NK Cell-Dependent Recognition of MCMV Infection on Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Pyzik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental data indicate that a subset of innate lymphocytes, natural killer (NK cells, plays a crucial role in the response against herpesviruses, especially cytomegaloviruses (CMV. Indeed, in mice, NK cells, due to the expression of germline encoded Ly49 receptors, possess multiple mechanisms to recognize CMV infection. Classically, this results in NK cell activation and the destruction of the infected cells. More recently, however, this unique host-pathogen interaction has permitted the discovery of novel aspects of NK cell biology, implicating them in the regulation of adaptive immune responses as well as in the development of immunological memory. Here, we will concisely review the newly acquired evidence pertaining to NK cell Ly49-dependent recognition of MCMV-infected cell and the ensuing NK cell regulatory responses.

  9. EXCITATION TEMPERATURE OF THE WARM NEUTRAL MEDIUM AS A NEW PROBE OF THE Lyα RADIATION FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Claire E.; Lindner, Robert R.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Pingel, Nickolas M.; Lawrence, Allen; Babler, Brian L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Goss, W. M.; Jencson, Jacob [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dickey, John [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Hennebelle, Patrick, E-mail: cmurray@astro.wisc.edu [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-02-01

    We use the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to conduct a high-sensitivity survey of neutral hydrogen (H I) absorption in the Milky Way. In combination with corresponding H I emission spectra obtained mostly with the Arecibo Observatory, we detect a widespread warm neutral medium component with excitation temperature 〈T{sub s}〉=7200{sub −1200}{sup +1800} K (68% confidence). This temperature lies above theoretical predictions based on collisional excitation alone, implying that Lyα scattering, the most probable additional source of excitation, is more important in the interstellar medium (ISM) than previously assumed. Our results demonstrate that H I absorption can be used to constrain the Lyα radiation field, a critical quantity for studying the energy balance in the ISM and intergalactic medium yet notoriously difficult to model because of its complicated radiative transfer, in and around galaxies nearby and at high redshift.

  10. SLEEPLESS, a Ly-6/neurotoxin family member, regulates the levels, localization and activity of Shaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mark N; Joiner, William J; Dean, Terry; Yue, Zhifeng; Smith, Corinne J; Chen, Dechun; Hoshi, Toshinori; Sehgal, Amita; Koh, Kyunghee

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is a whole-organism phenomenon accompanied by global changes in neural activity. We previously identified SLEEPLESS (SSS) as a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein required for sleep in Drosophila. Here we found that SSS is critical for regulating the sleep-modulating potassium channel Shaker. SSS and Shaker shared similar expression patterns in the brain and specifically affected each other's expression levels. sleepless (sss) loss-of-function mutants exhibited altered Shaker localization, reduced Shaker current density and slower Shaker current kinetics. Transgenic expression of sss in sss mutants rescued defects in Shaker expression and activity cell-autonomously and suggested that SSS functions in wake-promoting, cholinergic neurons. In heterologous cells, SSS accelerated the kinetics of Shaker currents and was co-immunoprecipitated with Shaker, suggesting that SSS modulates Shaker activity via a direct interaction. SSS is predicted to belong to the Ly-6/neurotoxin superfamily, suggesting a mechanism for regulation of neuronal excitability by endogenous toxin-like molecules.

  11. Direct measurement of interstellar extinction toward young stars using atomic hydrogen Lyα absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Matthew; France, Kevin; Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. C. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Herczeg, Gregory J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hillenbrand, Lynne [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC105-24, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schindhelm, Eric [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Edwards, Suzan, E-mail: matthew.mcjunkin@colorado.edu [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Interstellar reddening corrections are necessary to reconstruct the intrinsic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of accreting protostellar systems. The stellar SED determines the heating and chemical processes that can occur in circumstellar disks. Measurement of neutral hydrogen absorption against broad Lyα emission profiles in young stars can be used to obtain the total H I column density (N(H I)) along the line of sight. We measure N(H I) with new and archival ultraviolet observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of 31 classical T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars. The H I column densities range from log{sub 10}(N(H I)) ≈19.6-21.1, with corresponding visual extinctions of A{sub V} =0.02-0.72 mag, assuming an R{sub V} of 3.1. We find that the majority of the H I absorption along the line of sight likely comes from interstellar rather than circumstellar material. Extinctions derived from new HST blue-optical spectral analyses, previous IR and optical measurements, and new X-ray column densities on average overestimate the interstellar extinction toward young stars compared to the N(H I) values by ∼0.6 mag. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy in the context of a protoplanetary disk geometry.

  12. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Moringa oleifera Lam. EM DIFERENTES SUSTRATOS E TEMPERATURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLEANE TARGINO OLIVEIRA PEREIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. is an exotic species, from the Indian Northeast, the Moringaceae family and has significant economic importance, with many applications in industry and medi-cine. This species spreads mainly by seed, so obtaining information on the behavior of different temperature and substrate on germination becomes essential since there is no standardized methodology for installation of the germination test. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the influence of substrate and temperature on germination and vigor of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid (UFERSA. The statistical design was completely randomized in a 5x2 factorial scheme (temperature x substrate, totaling ten treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds. The substrates were tested roll paper and vermiculite. Then the seeds were incubated at room Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D. at constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and 20-30 °C alternating with a photoperiod of 8 hours. We evaluated the percentage, the average time and the germination speed index and the shoot length and root and total dry weight of seedlings. The roll paper substrate at temperatures of 25 to 30 °C, as well as vermiculite of 30 °C temperature are the most suitable combinations to evaluate germination and vigor of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.

  13. Adsorption of a textile dye 'Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4)' from aqueous solutions onto smectite-rich clayey rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaari, Islem, E-mail: chaari_islem@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Georessources, CERTE BP 95, 2050 Hamam-Lif (Tunisia); Feki, Mongi [Unite de chimie industrielle I, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Medhioub, Mounir [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Bouzid, Jalel [Laboratoire Eau Energie et Environnement, departement de genie geologique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Emna; Jamoussi, Fakher [Laboratoire de Georessources, CERTE BP 95, 2050 Hamam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2009-12-30

    The adsorption of a textile dye, namely, Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4) onto smectite-rich clayey rock (AYD) and its sulphuric acid-activated products (AYDS) in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH, and temperature. The adsorbents employed were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area, cation exchange capacity and point of zero charge were also estimated. The effect of contact time on dye adsorption showed that the equilibrium was reached after a contact time of 40 min for the both adsorbents. The optimum pH for dye retention was found 6.0 for AYDS and 7.3 for AYD. The equilibrium adsorption data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacities (Q{sub m}) for AYD and AYDS were found 13.92 mg/g and 17.85 mg/g, respectively. The effect of temperature on the adsorption was also investigated; adsorption of Indanthrene Blue RS is an endothermic process. This study demonstrates that all the considered adsorbents can be used as an alternative emerging technology for water treatment.

  14. Selected Aspects of the Copenhagen Economics Study on Reduced VAT Rates in the Current Conditions of the Moravian-Silesian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Randová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a long-debated issue of the application of value added tax rates to labour-intensive services. The level of value added tax rates has a dominant influence on the tax liability of suppliers of these services and subsequently on the amount of available funds that they could use for development of their business. The aim of this paper is a presentation of results of the student grant Quantification of Impacts of Application of Reduced Value Added Tax Rate to Locally Supplied Services on the Suppliers of these Services”, which is focused on selected aspects of the “Study on reduced VAT applied to goods and services in the Member States of the European Union” in the conditions of the providers of these services from the Moravian-Silesian Region. For this paper the methods of regression analysis and analysis of variance – ANOVA were used. The deductive method and method of analysis have also been used.

  15. A first-in-human phase I dose-escalation, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic evaluation of intravenous LY2090314, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor, administered in combination with pemetrexed and carboplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jhanelle E; Infante, Jeffrey R; Brail, Les H; Simon, George R; Cooksey, Jennifer F; Jones, Suzanne F; Farrington, Daphne L; Yeo, Adeline; Jackson, Kimberley A; Chow, Kay H; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J; Burris, Howard A

    2015-12-01

    LY2090314 (LY) is a glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor with preclinical efficacy in xenograft models when combined with platinum regimens. A first-in-human phase 1 dose-escalation study evaluated the combination of LY with pemetrexed/carboplatin. Forty-one patients with advanced solid tumors received single-dose LY monotherapy lead-in and 37 patients received LY (10-120 mg) plus pemetrexed/carboplatin (500 mg/m(2) and 5-6 AUC, respectively) across 8 dose levels every 21 days. Primary objective was maximum tolerated dose (MTD) determination; secondary endpoints included safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics, and beta-catenin pharmacodynamics. MTD of LY with pemetrexed/carboplatin was 40 mg. Eleven dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred in ten patients. DLTs during LY monotherapy occurred at ≥ 40 mg: grade 2 visual disturbance (n = 1) and grade 3/4 peri-infusional thoracic pain during or shortly post infusion (n = 4; chest, upper abdominal, and back pain). Ranitidine was added after de-escalation to 80 mg LY to minimize peri-infusional thoracic pain. Following LY with pemetrexed/carboplatin therapy, DLTs included grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia (n = 4) and grade 4 neutropenia (n = 1). Best overall response by RECIST included 5 confirmed partial responses (non-small cell lung cancer [n = 3], mesothelioma, and breast cancer) and 19 patients having stable disease. Systemic LY exposure was approximately linear over dose range studied. Transient upregulation of beta-catenin measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) occurred at 40 mg LY. The initial safety profile of LY2090314 was established. MTD LY dose with pemetrexed/carboplatin is 40 mg IV every 3 weeks plus ranitidine. Efficacy of LY plus pemetrexed/carboplatin requires confirmation in randomized trials.

  16. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY CONFIRMS CENTRAL POWERING IN A Lyα NEBULA AT z = 3.09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Melanie; Scarlata, Claudia; Jones, Terry J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hayes, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Dijkstra, Mark, E-mail: beck@astro.umn.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2016-02-20

    We present a follow-up study to the imaging polarimetry performed by Hayes et al. on LAB1 in the SSA22 protocluster region. Arguably the most well-known Lyα “blob,” this radio-quiet emission-line nebula likely hosts a galaxy that either is undergoing significant star formation or hosts an active galactic nucleus, or both. We obtain deep, spatially resolved spectropolarimetry of the Lyα emission and detect integrated linear polarization of 9%–13% ± 2%–3% at a distance of approximately 15 kpc north and south of the peak of the Lyα surface brightness with polarization vectors lying tangential to the galactic central source. In these same regions, we also detect a wavelength dependence in the polarization that is low at the center of the Lyα line profile and rises substantially in the wings of the profile. These polarization signatures are easily explained by a weak outflowing shell model. The spectral dependence of the polarization presented here provides a framework for future observations and interpretations of the southern portion of LAB1 in that any model for this system must be able to reproduce this particular spectral dependence. However, questions still remain for the northernmost spur of LAB1. In this region we detect total linear polarization of between 3% and 20% at the 5% significance level. Simulations predict that polarization should increase with radius for a symmetric geometry. That the northern spur does not suggests either that this region is not symmetric (which is likely) and exhibits variations in columns density or that it is kinematically distinct from the rest of LAB1 and powered by another mechanism altogether.

  17. Estrogen receptor beta agonist LY500307 fails to improve symptoms in men with enlarged prostate secondary to benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrborn, C G; Spann, M E; Myers, S L; Serviss, C R; Hu, L; Jin, Y

    2015-03-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of LY500307, a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist, on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with enlarged prostate secondary to BPH. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel phase 2, efficacy and safety study, eligible patients with moderate to severe LUTS and prostatic enlargement (⩾30 ml) were randomized to placebo or LY500307 at 1, 3, 10 and 25 mg once daily for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy end point was change in total International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) after 24 weeks. Secondary end points included changes in total prostate volume (TPV) that served as a proof of concept end point, as well as IPSS quality of life, maximum peak urine flow rate (Qmax) and PSA and safety (adverse events, laboratory test). A total of 414 patients were randomized when the study was terminated because of insufficient TPV reduction, based on a priori defined interim analysis. The IPSS mean change from baseline to end point was -3.4±6.8 in the placebo group and -1.3±6.6, -2.6±7.0, -3.7±6.7 and -4.4±5.7 in the 1, 3, 10 and 25 mg LY500307-treated groups, respectively (P>0.05). Similarly, no treatment effect was observed for any of the secondary efficacy measures. Incidence of adverse events was comparable between treatment groups, and no clinically meaningful changes in laboratory tests were observed. LY500307 was well tolerated in BPH patients with LUTS at doses up to 25 mg once daily for 24 weeks. The study was terminated early because of inadequate efficacy.

  18. , “I have released wing in- ains some k by vari- nd of the ly prosaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27 Jan 2006 ... “I have released wing in- ains some k by vari- nd of the ly prosaic oetry: “In was freed ourse (…) he said it him as a soil of Af-. ” (387). f the poet- r you, the joy. As a e liked to osa texts. academic no biblio- an index ce and re- e style is indulgent nd beau- and pur- ount Ma- ust for ac- st of their. ” (108).

  19. Androgüüni kummaline pilk : fotograaf Ly Lestberg uurib androgüüni motiivi kaudu inimese hinge / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    1999-01-01

    Kunstnik-fotograafi Ly Lestbergi näitus "Insomnia" Raatuse galeriis ja Cafe Anglais: 9 mustvalget suureformaadilist fotot noorest naisest. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Avanenud ruum / Kärt Hellerma. Tallinn, 2006, lk. 232-234

  20. Clinical validation of the C-VAT 2.0 assessment tool for gaming disorder: A sensitivity analysis of the proposed DSM-5 criteria and the clinical characteristics of young patients with 'video game addiction'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van de Mheen, Dike

    2017-01-01

    Clinicians struggle with the identification of video gaming problems. To address this issue, a clinical assessment tool (C-VAT 2.0) was developed and tested in a clinical setting. The instrument allows exploration of the validity of the DSM-5 proposal for 'internet gaming disorder'. Using C-VAT 2.0, the current study provides a sensitivity analysis of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in a clinical youth sample (13-23years old) in treatment for video gaming disorder (N=32). The study also explores the clinical characteristics of these patients. The patients were all male and reported spending extensive amounts of time on video games. At least half of the patients reported playing online games (n=15). Comorbid problems were common (n=22) and included (social) anxiety disorders, PDD NOS, ADHD/ADD, Parent-Child relationship problem, and various types of depressive mood problems. The sensitivity of the test was good: results further show that the C-VAT correctly identified 91% of the sample at the proposed cut-off score of at least 5 out of 9 of the criteria. As our study did not include healthy, extreme gamers, we could not assess the specificity of the tool: future research should make this a priority. Using the proposed DSM-5 cut-off score, the C-VAT 2.0 shows preliminary validity in a sample of gamers in treatment for gaming disorder, but the discriminating value of the instrument should be studied further. In the meantime, it is crucial that therapists try to avoid false positives by using expert judgment of functional impairment in each case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A 52 hours VLT/FORS2 spectrum of a bright z ~ 7 HUDF galaxy: no Ly-α emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, E.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Nonino, M.; Cristiani, S.; Zamorani, G.; Vignali, C.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We aim to determine the redshift of GDS_1408, the most solid z ~ 7 galaxy candidate lying in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Methods: We have used all the VLT spectra for GDS_1408 that has been collected by two other groups with FORS2 at VLT and by us in the last five years for a total integration time of 52 h. The combined spectrum is the deepest ever obtained of a galaxy in the reionization epoch. Results: We do not detect any emission line or continuum up to 10 100 Å. Based on an accurate set of simulations, we are able to put a stringent upper limit of f(Lyα) theory and the observed upper limit provides a limit on the effective Lyα escape fraction of fesceff(Lyα) ELT are necessary to make decisive progresses. Currently, the increased redshift accuracy obtained with this kind of analysis makes ALMA an interesting option for the redshift confirmation. This work is based on data collected at ESO VLT (prog.ID 084.A-0951(A), 086.A-0968(A), 088.A-1013(A) and 088.A-1008(A)) and at NASA HST.

  2. CD177: A member of the Ly-6 gene superfamily involved with neutrophil proliferation and polycythemia vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinotti Maria

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genes in the Leukocyte Antigen 6 (Ly-6 superfamily encode glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored glycoproteins (gp with conserved domains of 70 to 100 amino acids and 8 to 10 cysteine residues. Murine Ly-6 genes encode important lymphocyte and hematopoietic stem cell antigens. Recently, a new member of the human Ly-6 gene superfamily has been described, CD177. CD177 is polymorphic and has at least two alleles, PRV-1 and NB1. CD177 was first described as PRV-1, a gene that is overexpressed in neutrophils from approximately 95% of patients with polycythemia vera and from about half of patients with essential thrombocythemia. CD177 encodes NB1 gp, a 58–64 kD GPI gp that is expressed by neutrophils and neutrophil precursors. NB1 gp carries Human Neutrophil Antigen (HNA-2a. Investigators working to identify the gene encoding NB1 gp called the CD177 allele they described NB1. NB1 gp is unusual in that neutrophils from some healthy people lack the NB1 gp completely and in most people NB1 gp is expressed by a subpopulation of neutrophils. The function of NB1 gp and the role of CD177 in the pathogenesis and clinical course of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia are not yet known. However, measuring neutrophil CD177 mRNA levels has become an important marker for diagnosing the myeloproliferative disorders polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.

  3. MHC class I Dk locus and Ly49G2+ NK cells confer H-2k resistance to murine cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuefang; Stadnisky, Michael D; Brown, Michael G

    2009-06-01

    Essential NK cell-mediated murine CMV (MCMV) resistance is under histocompatibility-2(k) (H-2(k)) control in MA/My mice. We generated a panel of intra-H2(k) recombinant strains from congenic C57L.M-H2(k/b) (MCMV resistant) mice for precise genetic mapping of the critical interval. Recombination breakpoint sites were precisely mapped and MCMV resistance/susceptibility traits were determined for each of the new lines to identify the MHC locus. Strains C57L.M-H2(k)(R7) (MCMV resistant) and C57L.M-H2(k)(R2) (MCMV susceptible) are especially informative; we found that allelic variation in a 0.3-megabase interval in the class I D locus confers substantial difference in MCMV control phenotypes. When NK cell subsets responding to MCMV were examined, we found that Ly49G2(+) NK cells rapidly expand and selectively acquire an enhanced capacity for cytolytic functions only in C57L.M-H2(k)(R7). We further show that depletion of Ly49G2(+) NK cells before infection abrogated MCMV resistance in C57L.M-H2(k)(R7). We conclude that the MHC class I D locus prompts expansion and activation of Ly49G2(+) NK cells that are needed in H-2(k) MCMV resistance.

  4. Three Lyα Emitters at z ~ 6: Early GMOS/Gemini Data from the GLARE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bunker, Andrew J.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Hook, Isobel; Rhoads, James; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Boyle, Brian; Colless, Matthew; Crampton, David; Couch, Warrick; Jørgensen, Inger; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Murowinski, Rick; Roth, Kathy; Savaglio, Sandra; Tsvetanov, Zlatan

    2004-03-01

    We report spectroscopic detection of three z~6 Lyα-emitting galaxies, in the vicinity of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, from the early data of the Gemini Lyman Alpha at Reionisation Era (GLARE) project. Two objects, GLARE 3001 (z=5.79) and GLARE 3011 (z=5.94), are new detections and are fainter in z' (z'AB=26.37 and 27.15) than any Lyman break galaxy previously detected in Lyα. A third object, GLARE 1042 (z=5.83), has previously been detected in line emission from the ground; we report here a new spectroscopic continuum detection. Gemini/GMOS-South spectra of these objects, obtained using nod and shuffle, are presented together with a discussion of their photometric properties. All three objects were selected for spectroscopy via the i-drop Lyman break technique, the two new detections from the GOODS version 1.0 imaging data. The red i'-z' colors and high equivalent widths of these objects suggest a high-confidence z>5 Lyα identification of the emission lines. This brings the total number of known z>5 galaxies within 9' of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to four, of which three are at the same redshift (z=5.8 within 2000 km s-1), suggesting the existence of a large-scale structure at this redshift.

  5. Evaluation of [{sup 3}H]LY341495 for labeling group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rikki N. E-mail: rnw7@columbia.edu; Schmidt, Mark E.; Sultana, Abida; Schoepp, Darryle D.; Wheeler, William J.; Mozley, P. David; Laruelle, Marc

    2003-02-01

    New glutamatergic drugs are being developed as potential therapies for neurodegenerative disorders, anxiety disorders, and psychoses. The development of effective mGluR radiotracers would provide essential tools with which to probe these sites in living humans, providing critical information about certain disease processes involving the glutamaterigic system and its regulation in humans. As a first step towards this goal, the tritiated form of the high affinity group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist LY341495 [K{sub D} (mGluR{sub 2}) = 1.67{+-}0.20 nM, K{sub D} (mGluR{sub 3})=0.75{+-}0.43 nM] was evaluated to determine its potential to label mGluRs in vivo. Dissection analysis of the regional brain distribution over time of [{sup 3}H]LY341495 in male rats revealed low brain uptake and no significant demonstrable saturable binding of this tracer. A group II mGluR tracer possessing higher affinity than [{sup 3}H]LY341495 and an absence of carboxylic acid groups is likely required for in vivo PET imaging purposes.

  6. Spectroscopic properties of luminous Ly α emitters at z ≈ 6-7 and comparison to the Lyman-break population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Sobral, David; Darvish, Behnam; Santos, Sérgio; Mobasher, Bahram; Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Röttgering, Huub; Alegre, Lara

    2017-11-01

    We present spectroscopic follow-up of candidate luminous Ly α emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7-6.6 in the SA22 field with VLT/X-SHOOTER. We confirm two new luminous LAEs at z = 5.676 (SR6) and z = 6.532 (VR7), and also present HST follow-up of both sources. These sources have luminosities LLy α ≈ 3 × 1043 erg s-1, very high rest-frame equivalent widths of EW0 ≳ 200 Å and narrow Ly α lines (200-340 km s-1). VR7 is the most UV-luminous LAE at z > 6.5, with M1500 = -22.5, even brighter in the UV than CR7. Besides Ly α, we do not detect any other rest-frame UV lines in the spectra of SR6 and VR7, and argue that rest-frame UV lines are easier to observe in bright galaxies with low Ly α equivalent widths. We confirm that Ly α line widths increase with Ly α luminosity at z = 5.7, while there are indications that Ly α lines of faint LAEs become broader at z = 6.6, potentially due to reionization. We find a large spread of up to 3 dex in UV luminosity for >L⋆ LAEs, but find that the Ly α luminosity of the brightest LAEs is strongly related to UV luminosity at z = 6.6. Under basic assumptions, we find that several LAEs at z ≈ 6-7 have Ly α escape fractions ≳ 100 per cent, indicating bursty star formation histories, alternative Ly α production mechanisms, or dust attenuating Ly α emission differently than UV emission. Finally, we present a method to compute ξion, the production efficiency of ionizing photons, and find that LAEs at z ≈ 6-7 have high values of log10(ξion/Hz erg-1) ≈ 25.51 ± 0.09 that may alleviate the need for high Lyman-Continuum escape fractions required for reionization.

  7. Ly6C(hi) Monocytes and Their Macrophage Descendants Regulate Neutrophil Function and Clearance in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubardt, Nadine; Vugman, Milena; Mouhadeb, Odelia; Caliari, Gabriele; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Reuveni, Debby; Zigmond, Ehud; Brazowski, Eli; David, Eyal; Chappell-Maor, Lousie; Jung, Steffen; Varol, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMF) play a pivotal role in the resolution of acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). Timely termination of neutrophil activity and their clearance are essential for liver regeneration following injury. Here, we show that infiltrating Ly6C(hi) monocytes, their macrophage descendants, and neutrophils spatially and temporally overlap in the centrilobular necrotic areas during the necroinflammatory and resolution phases of AILI. At the necroinflammatory phase, inducible ablation of circulating Ly6C(hi) monocytes resulted in reduced numbers and fractions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing neutrophils. In alignment with this, neutrophils sorted from monocyte-deficient livers exhibited reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 2. Moreover, human CD14(+) monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or hepatocyte apoptotic bodies directly induced ROS production by cocultured neutrophils. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling of neutrophils from Ly6C(hi) monocyte-deficient versus normal livers revealed 449 genes that were differentially expressed with at least twofold change (p ≤ 0.05). In the absence of Ly6C(hi) monocytes, neutrophils displayed gene expression alterations associated with decreased innate immune activity and increased cell survival. At the early resolution phase, Ly6C(hi) monocytes differentiated into ephemeral Ly6C(lo) MoMF and their absence resulted in significant accumulation of late apoptotic neutrophils. Further gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of a specific repertoire of bridging molecules and receptors involved with apoptotic cell clearance during the transition from Ly6C(hi) monocytes to MoMF. Collectively, our findings establish a phase-dependent task division between liver-infiltrating Ly6C(hi) monocytes and their MoMF descendants with the former regulating innate immune functions and cell survival of neutrophils and the later neutrophil clearance.

  8. Moderate-Level Resistance to Glycopeptide LY333328 Mediated by Genes of the vanA and vanB Clusters in Enterococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Michel; Depardieu, Florence; Reynolds, Peter; Courvalin, Patrice

    1999-01-01

    Three of five natural plasmids carrying a wild-type vanA gene cluster did not confer LY333328 glycopeptide resistance on Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 (MIC = 2 μg/ml). The two remaining plasmids conferred resistance to the drug (MIC, 8 μg/ml). The vanB gene cluster did not confer resistance to LY333328, since this antibiotic was not an inducer. Mutations in the vanSB sensor gene that allowed induction by teicoplanin or constitutive expression of the vanB cluster led to LY333328 resistance (MIC, 8 to 16 μg/ml). Overproduction of the VanH, VanA, and VanX proteins for d-alanyl-d-lactate (d-Ala-d-Lac) synthesis and d-Ala-d-Ala hydrolysis was sufficient for resistance to LY333328 (MIC, 16 μg/ml). Mutations in the host d-Ala:d-Ala ligase contributed to LY333328 resistance in certain VanA- and VanB-type strains, but the MICs of the antibiotic did not exceed 16 μg/ml. Addition of d-2-hydroxybutyrate in the culture medium of mutants that did not produce the VanH d-lactate dehydrogenase led to incorporation of this d-2-hydroxy acid at the C-terminal ends of the peptidoglycan precursors and to LY333328 resistance (MIC, 64 μg/ml). The vanZ gene of the vanA cluster conferred resistance to LY333328 (MIC, 8 μg/ml) by an unknown mechanism. These data indicate that VanA- and VanB-type enterococci may acquire moderate-level resistance to LY333328 (MIC ≤ 16 μg/ml) in a single step by various mechanisms. PMID:10428906

  9. Assessment of roles for the Rho-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor Ly-GDI in platelet function: a spatial systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh T P; Thierheimer, Marisa L D; Babur, Özgün; Rocheleau, Anne D; Huang, Tao; Pang, Jiaqing; Rigg, Rachel A; Mitrugno, Annachiara; Theodorescu, Dan; Burchard, Julja; Nan, Xiaolin; Demir, Emek; McCarty, Owen J T; Aslan, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    On activation at sites of vascular injury, platelets undergo morphological alterations essential to hemostasis via cytoskeletal reorganizations driven by the Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA. Here we investigate roles for Rho-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor proteins (RhoGDIs) in platelet function. We find that platelets express two RhoGDI family members, RhoGDI and Ly-GDI. Whereas RhoGDI localizes throughout platelets in a granule-like manner, Ly-GDI shows an asymmetric, polarized localization that largely overlaps with Rac1 and Cdc42 as well as microtubules and protein kinase C (PKC) in platelets adherent to fibrinogen. Antibody interference and platelet spreading experiments suggest a specific role for Ly-GDI in platelet function. Intracellular signaling studies based on interactome and pathways analyses also support a regulatory role for Ly-GDI, which is phosphorylated at PKC substrate motifs in a PKC-dependent manner in response to the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein (GP) VI-specific agonist collagen-related peptide. Additionally, PKC inhibition diffuses the polarized organization of Ly-GDI in spread platelets relative to its colocalization with Rac1 and Cdc42. Together, our results suggest a role for Ly-GDI in the localized regulation of Rho GTPases in platelets and hypothesize a link between the PKC and Rho GTPase signaling systems in platelet function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Kinetic modeling of 11C-LY2795050, a novel antagonist radiotracer for PET imaging of the kappa opioid receptor in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Mika; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Henry, Shannan; Lin, Shu-Fei; Ropchan, Jim; Labaree, David; Tauscher, Johannes; Neumeister, Alexander; Carson, Richard E; Huang, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    11C-LY2795050 is a novel kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The purpose of this first-in-human study was to determine the optimal kinetic model for analysis of 11C-LY2795050 imaging data. Sixteen subjects underwent baseline scans and blocking scans after oral naltrexone. Compartmental modeling and multilinear analysis-1 (MA1) were applied using the arterial input functions. Two-tissue compartment model and MA1 were found to be the best models to provide reliable measures of binding parameters. The rank order of 11C-LY2795050 distribution volume (VT) matched the known regional KOR densities in the human brain. Blocking scans with naltrexone indicated no ideal reference region for 11C-LY2795050. Three methods for calculation of the nondisplaceable distribution volume (VND) were assessed: (1) individual VND estimated from naltrexone occupancy plots, (2) mean VND across subjects, and (3) a fixed fraction of cerebellum VT. Approach (3) produced the lowest intersubject variability in the calculation of binding potentials (BPND, BPF, and BPP). Therefore, binding potentials of 11C-LY2795050 can be determined if the specific binding fraction in the cerebellum is presumed to be unchanged by diseases and experimental conditions. In conclusion, results from the present study show the suitability of 11C-LY2795050 to image and quantify KOR in humans. PMID:25182664

  11. Indication of the Hanle Effect by Comparing the Scattering Polarization Observed by CLASP in the Ly α and Si iii 120.65 nm Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, R.; Kubo, M.; Kano, R.; Narukage, N.; Bando, T.; Katsukawa, Y.; Giono, G.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Science, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Bueno, J. Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Goto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Cirtain, J. [University of Virginia, Department of Astronomy, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Champey, P. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); and others

    2017-05-20

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter is a sounding rocket experiment that has provided the first successful measurement of the linear polarization produced by scattering processes in the hydrogen Ly α line (121.57 nm) radiation of the solar disk. In this paper, we report that the Si iii line at 120.65 nm also shows scattering polarization and we compare the scattering polarization signals observed in the Ly α and Si iii lines in order to search for observational signatures of the Hanle effect. We focus on four selected bright structures and investigate how the U / I spatial variations vary between the Ly α wing, the Ly α core, and the Si iii line as a function of the total unsigned photospheric magnetic flux estimated from Solar Dynamics Observatory /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observations. In an internetwork region, the Ly α core shows an antisymmetric spatial variation across the selected bright structure, but it does not show it in other more magnetized regions. In the Si iii line, the spatial variation of U / I deviates from the above-mentioned antisymmetric shape as the total unsigned photospheric magnetic flux increases. A plausible explanation of this difference is the operation of the Hanle effect. We argue that diagnostic techniques based on the scattering polarization observed simultaneously in two spectral lines with very different sensitivities to the Hanle effect, like Ly α and Si iii, are of great potential interest for exploring the magnetism of the upper solar chromosphere and transition region.

  12. Utility of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in diagnosing tuberculosis and predicting mortality with and without HIV: prospective TB cohort from the Thailand Big City TB Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Kawkitinarong, Kamon; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Gatechompol, Sivaporn; Ohata, Pirapon June; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Iampornsin, Thatri; Katerattanakul, Pairaj; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the applicability and accuracy of the urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test in tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infected patients and HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB. Frozen urine samples obtained at baseline from patients in the TB research cohort with proven culture-positive TB were selected for blinded urine LAM testing. One hundred and nine patients were categorized into four groups: (1) HIV-positive patients with TB; (2) HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB; (3) HIV-negative immunocompromised patients with TB; and (4) patients with diseases other than TB. The sensitivity of urine LAM testing for culture-positive TB, specificity of urine LAM testing for patients without TB, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed. The sensitivity of the urine LAM test in group 1 patients with a CD4 T-cell count of >100, ≤100, and ≤50 cells/mm3 was 38.5%, 40.6%, and 45%, respectively. The specificity and PPV of the urine LAM test were >80%. The sensitivity of the test was 20% in group 2 and 12.5% in group 3, and the specificity and PPV were 100% for both groups. A positive urine LAM test result was significantly associated with death. This promising diagnostic tool could increase the yield of TB diagnosis and may predict the mortality rate of TB infection, particularly in TB/HIV co-infected patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Early morning urine collection to improve urinary lateral flow LAM assay sensitivity in hospitalised patients with HIV-TB co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina, Phindile; Randall, Philippa J; Muchinga, Tapuwa E; Pooran, Anil; Meldau, Richard; Peter, Jonny G; Dheda, Keertan

    2017-05-12

    Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included. Thus paired sample were collected from the same patient, LF-LAM was graded using the pre-January 2014, with grade 1 and 2 manufacturer-designated cut-points (the latter designated grade 1 after January 2014). Single sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and/or TB culture positivity served as the reference standard (definite TB). Those treated for TB but not meeting this standard were designated probable TB. 123 HIV-infected patients commenced anti-TB treatment and provided matched random and EMU samples. 33% (41/123) and 67% (82/123) had definite and probable TB, respectively. Amongst those with definite TB LF-LAM sensitivity (95%CI), using the grade 2 cut-point, increased from 12% (5-24; 5/43) to 39% (26-54; 16/41) with random versus EMU, respectively (p = 0.005). Similarly, amongst probable TB, LF-LAM sensitivity increased from 10% (5-17; 8/83) to 24% (16-34; 20/82) (p = 0.001). LF-LAM specificity was not determined. This proof of concept study indicates that EMU could improve the sensitivity of LF-LAM in hospitalised TB-HIV co-infected patients. These data have implications for clinical practice.

  14. Effects of naltrexone and LY255582 on ethanol maintenance, seeking, and relapse responding by alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaher, Ronnie; Toalston, Jamie E; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; McKinzie, David L; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2012-02-01

    Research indicates opioid antagonists can reduce alcohol drinking in rodents. However, tests examining the effects of opioid antagonists on ethanol seeking and relapse behavior have been limited. The present study examined the effects of two opioid antagonists on ethanol maintenance, seeking, and relapse responding by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult P rats were self-trained in two-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% (vol/vol) ethanol on a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) versus water on a FR1 concurrent schedule of reinforcement in daily 1-h sessions. After 10 weeks, rats underwent extinction training, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages. Rats were then returned to the operant chambers without ethanol or water to measure responses on the ethanol and water levers for four sessions. After a subsequent 2 weeks in the home cage, without access to ethanol, rats were returned to the operant chambers with ethanol and water available. Effects of antagonists on maintenance responding were tested after several weeks of daily 1-h sessions. Naltrexone (NAL; 1-10mg/kg, subcutaneously [s.c.]; n=8/dose), LY255582 (LY; 0.03-1mg/kg, s.c.; n=8/dose), or vehicle were injected 30min before the first session (in the absence of ethanol), following 2 weeks in their home cages, and for four consecutive sessions of ethanol self-administration under maintenance and relapse conditions. Both NAL and LY reduced responses on the ethanol lever without any fluids present, and ethanol self-administration under relapse and on-going drinking conditions, with LY being more potent than NAL. Both NAL and LY were less effective in reducing responding in the absence of ethanol than in reducing ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results indicate that the opioid system is involved in mediating ethanol seeking, and ethanol self-administration under relapse and on-going alcohol drinking, but that different neurocircuits may underlie these behaviors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Amali Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  16. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLÂNTULAS DE MORINGA oleifera Lam

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    Naedja Nara Araújo Neves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró - RN, for screening the effect of substrate for germination of seeds and seedling growth of Moringa oleifera Lam. It was utilized a completely randomized design with four treatments (substrates: T1= 75% sand + 25% bovine manure, T2= 100% washed sand, T3= 75% sand + 25% worm castings and T4= 75% sand + 25% sawdust and four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in the substrates contained in wooden boxes (7,5 cm long x 23,5 cm wide x 39 cm deep. Each box was filled with approximately 6 kg of substrate. The substrates were irrigated once a day (until the tenth day, then twice a day until the end experiment (19 th day. Seedling height, root length, number of leaves, whole seedling fresh and dry matter weights, germination velocity index and germination percent were evaluated. It was concluded that the mix 75% sand + 25% worm castings was the most suitable for the initial growth of moringa and the substrate containing 100% sand provided the best germination index for this species.

  17. Influence of shade on the biomass and essential oil production of Lippia citriodora (Lam., Brazil

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    Ernane Ronie Martins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shading on the production of essential oil and biomass in Lippia citriodora (Lam. – known as cidrão – in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of four levels of photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR using “Sombrite” black shade netting of 25, 50, 70% of light and full sunlight as the control. The variables root dryness, shoot dryness, number of flowers, total dry weight, root/shoot ratio, and production and content of essential oil were analyzed. Statistically significant differences were observed for the root and shoot dry masses and total dry mass, number of flowers, total dry weight, root/shoot ratio, oil production and trichome number, but not for the oil content. The results showed that at full sunlight the biomass production and trichome number of cidrão were altered, but that the content of essential oil was unaffected.

  18. MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. IDENTIFICATION OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE BRAZILIAN MARKET THROUGH PATENT LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS

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    Gennaro Gama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. is an arboreal species originated from the northwest if the Indian subcontinent. This species is cultivated due to its high protein content, its perceived medicinal use, and multiple other applications, including as forage plant. More recently, moringa has been recognized as a potential source of drop-in biodiesel and of biodiesel stabilizing agents. Given these and other characteristics, moringa has great economic potential and possible applicability in many areas. This work presents a brief introduction to the plant itself and its uses. In order to investigate its potential and current uses, with an eye for encumbrances to, and opportunities for, their implementation in the Brazilian market, an intellectual property (IP landscape analysis was carried out. Sources of data used were the EPO (Europe, USPTO (US, WIPO, INPI (Brazil, CPTO (China and TIPO (Taiwan. Of especial interest are those applications for which patent protection does not exist at all or, at least, IP protection in Brazil has not been sought.

  19. Clinical Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Stems Bark in Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common problem in clinical practice. Usually they are asymptomatic and are commonly present with distressing symptoms like pain and burning sensation on urination. Antibiotics are widely used to treat UTIs; however, they have their own limitations like resistance, reinfection, and relapses. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the value of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark as a potential medicine for UTIs. Study Design. 30 patients with UTI were randomly divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. Shigru bark was given to patients of the first group (trial group) and modern medicines were prescribed to the other group of patients. At least three follow-ups are taken in both groups at the end of every week of treatment. Results. After treatment 66.67 % were cured, 13.33 % improved, 13.33% patients have no change, and 6.67% relapsed in trial group and in control group 46.67% were cured, 26.66% improved, 6.67% patients have no change, and 20% relapsed. Interpretation and Conclusion. The trial drug is significant in the management of UTI. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a long time.

  20. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity.

  1. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E; Kolapo, Adelodun L; Folarin, Akintomiwa O

    2012-04-01

    Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (PMoringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles.

  2. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves aqueous extract therapy on hyperglycemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Dolly; Kumar Rai, Prashant; Kumar, Amit; Mehta, Shikha; Watal, Geeta

    2009-06-25

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, Moringa oleifera Lam. Syn. Moringa pterygosperma Gaerth (Moringaceae) is commonly used as healing herb to treat diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of M. oleifera leaves aqueous extract therapy on glycemic control, haemoglobin, total protein, urine sugar, urine protein and body weight. Variable doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) of aqueous extract were administered orally by gavage for evaluating their hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and post prandial glucose (PPG) of normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced sub, mild and severely diabetic rats. The dose of 200 mg kg(-1) decreases blood glucose level (BGL) of normal animals by 26.7 and 29.9% during FBG and OGTT studies respectively. In sub and mild diabetic animals the same dose produced a maximum fall of 31.1 and 32.8% respectively, during OGTT. In case of severely diabetic animals FBG and PPG levels were reduced by 69.2 and 51.2% whereas, total protein, body weight and haemoglobin were increased by 11.3, 10.5 and 10.9% respectively after 21 days of treatment. Significant reduction was found in urine sugar and urine protein levels from +4 and +2 to nil and trace, respectively. The study validates scientifically the widely claimed use of M. oleifera as an ethnomedicine to treat diabetes mellitus.

  4. Moringa oleifera Lam prevents acetaminophen induced liver injury through restoration of glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I; Nanthini, U

    2008-08-01

    Initiation of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicities is believed to be promoted by oxidative stress during the event of overdosage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO), an Asian plant of high medicinal value, against a single high dose of APAP. Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-administered with MO (200 and 800 mg/kg) prior to a single dose of APAP (3g/kg body weight; p.o). Silymarin was used as an established hepatoprotective drug against APAP induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of MO extract was observed following significant histopathological analysis and reduction of the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in groups pretreated with MO compared to those treated with APAP alone. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione (GSH) was found to be restored in MO-treated animals compared to the groups treated with APAP alone. These observations were comparable to the group pretreated with silymarin prior to APAP administration. Group that was treated with APAP alone exhibited high level of transaminases and ALP activities besides reduction in the GSH level. The histological hepatocellular deterioration was also evidenced. The results from the present study suggested that the leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP induced through preventing the decline of glutathione level.

  5. Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thoms. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, V J; Latha, P G; Shyamal, S; Suja, S R; Anuja, G I; Sini, S; Pradeep, S; Rajasekharan, S

    2009-09-07

    Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thoms. (Menispermaceae), locally called 'Padathaali/Padakizhangu' is used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat peptic ulcer. To evaluate the gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activity of Cyclea peltata. The ethanolic extract of Cyclea peltata root was used to evaluate its gastric antisecretory and antiulcer effect in the pylorus-ligated rat model and gastric lesions induced by ethanol or ethanol and indomethacin respectively in rats. The levels of gastric wall mucus, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde, protein and catalase activity in the stomach samples of Cyclea peltata treated and control groups of rats were also quantified. The ethanolic extract of Cyclea peltata roots showed significant antisecretory activity as evidenced by decreased pepsin secretion, gastric juice volume and acid output in pylorus-ligated rats. Pretreatment with Cyclea peltata extract provided significant protection against the peptic ulceration caused by ethanol administered individually, or in combination with indomethacin. Our studies also revealed that pretreatment with Cyclea peltata significantly increased the gastric protein and catalase concentration of ethanol treated rats. Further, it showed significant gastroprotective effects on the stomach wall of ethanol or ethanol and indomethacin treated rats by decreasing malondialdehyde level, increasing the gastric wall mucus and non-protein sulfhydryl groups. The present findings demonstrate that Cyclea peltata ethanolic extract has potent antisecretory and antiulcer effects and justify the traditional/ethnic usage of this herb to treat peptic ulcers and consequent stomach ache.

  6. Identification of volatile compound markers during the ripening and senescence of lulo (Solanum quitoenseLam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas Iguarán, Eduardo; Taborda Ocampo, Gonzalo; Tapasco Alzate, Omar

    2018-01-01

    Lulo ( Solanum quitoense Lam.) is an exotic fruit cultivated in Colombia. During ripening and senescence, this climactic fruit undergoes biochemical processes that produce the volatiles responsible for its aroma. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the volatile content during the ripening and senescence of lulo. Analysis of the volatile composition of lulo harvested in each of its five ripening stages and during its senescence time when stored at 18 ± 2 °C was performed using HS-SPME with GC-MS. Throughout ripening, the most notable change was the transformation of alcohols such as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-penten-3-ol to afford esters such as (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and ketones such as 1-penten-3-one. Some acids reacted with alcohols to produce acetate and hexanoate esters, concentrations which increased more than sixfold between stage one and five. Moreover, all the major compounds were C 6 straight chain compounds related to the lipoxygenase pathway. During senescence, majority of compounds were methyl esters, which increased in concentration consistently until day eight. Remarkably, the content of methyl butanoate increased from 0.9% of the total amount of volatiles on day two up to 76.4% on day eight. Some of these volatiles are probably contributors to the "off flavor" during senescence.

  7. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spermidine Derivatives in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Fruit: Sensory (Taste) versus Biofunctional (ACE-Inhibition) Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diana Paola; Masatani, Chieko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Peterson, Devin G; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-07-06

    The bitterness in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit is increased during processing (juicing or drying). To identify the bitter-active compounds, the ethanolic fruit pulp extract was subjected to RP-18 solid-phase extraction, and then sensory-guided fractionated by HPLC. Two spermidine derivatives, N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine and N(1),N(8)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine, were isolated and their structures confirmed by analysis of their HPLC-ESI/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine was synthesized and used as an authentic sample to unequivocally confirm the structure of this compound and to quantitate it in both fresh and dried fruit. In silico analyses demonstrated that spermidine derivatives identified in lulo pulp exhibited a strong ACE-I (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) inhibitory activity. Subsequently, these results were confirmed by in vitro analyses and showed the potential use of lulo fruit pulp as an ingredient of functional foods related to the prevention of blood hypertension.

  9. Activity of pectic enzymes involved in the ripening process of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Nieto Jeimmy Marcela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the ripening process of the lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. physicochemical changes are produced by pectics enzymes as Polygalacturonase (PG, Pectinesterase (PE and Pectateliase (PL that acting on pectics substrates of plant tissue, being responsible of the physiological alteration of cells and tissues that results in the fruit softening and the beginning of the premature senescence period. This research explores the foundations of the softening enzymes behavior of lulo epicarp for the activity measurement of PL, PG and PE of fruit´s epicarp and determining their relationship with the softening process during the ripening and senescence process of fruits through follow up of the enzyme expression, the ripening index and instrumental hardness during the lulo fruit ripening under three storage treatments: 1 Control (18° C, 57 days, 2 Refrigeration (18° C, 1 day; 4° C, 14 days; 18° C, 42 days and 3 Pre-cooling heat shock (27° C, 1 day; 4° C, 14 days; 18° C, 42 days found that the enzymes expression and softening is reduced by heat treatment, compared with the control group; however, the cold storage inhibit the fruit softening process but chilling injuries was produced, while heat shock, in addition to inhibiting the enzymes expression, inhibited the fruit softening process and protect against chilling injuries prolonging the shelf life in 10 days, showing that it´s the best post-harvest treatment for this type of fruit.

  10. Identifying carotenoids and phenolic compounds in naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam. var. Puyo hybrid), an Andean fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancel, Anne-Laure; Alter, Pascaline; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Ruales, Jenny; Vaillant, Fabrice

    2008-12-24

    The naranjilla or lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a little known fruit that originated in the Andes. Commonly consumed as a fresh drink, it is particularly appreciated for its aroma. Besides its organoleptic qualities, the naranjilla also seems to have good antioxidant properties. We therefore studied the physicochemical characteristics of variety "Puyo hybrid"; determined its juice composition; identified its carotenoids and phenolic compounds, using HPLC-DAD and HPLC/ESI-MS, respectively, in each fruit part; and measured the antioxidant capacities of each part, using the ORAC and DPPH methods. We found the following bioactive compounds: all-trans-beta-carotene, 13-cis-beta-carotene, and 9-cis-beta-carotene and the lutein (carotenoids); chlorogenic acids and their hexosides in the flesh and placental tissues, and flavonol glycosides in the skin (phenolic compounds); and many dihydrocaffeoyl spermidines in all three parts of the fruit. The naranjilla appeared to be a fruit with good nutritional potential that can provide the basis for a new fruit-drink flavor or other fruit derived-products.

  11. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was the most effective method on antioxidant activities of extracts and extraction yield of phenolic compounds compared to other extraction techniques. Protective effect of methanol-water extract of jujube leaf obtained with ultrasound-assisted extraction (ULMW) at 500 and 700 ppm in stability of sunflower oil was compared to synthetic antioxidants by measuring total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes (CD), and trienes values (CT). Results showed ULMW at 700 ppm had higher stabilization efficiency than synthetic antioxidants.

  12. Cytoprotective effect against mercury chloride and bioinsecticidal activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam.

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    Celestina E. Sobral-Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often utilized in genetic research, and in the last decades, it has become one of best organisms for studies of human diseases and toxicological research. Mercury chloride (HgCl2, the main representative of mercury compounds, is the target of numerous investigations, not only because of its intrinsic toxicity but also because it accounts for the toxicity of elemental mercury since the latter is converted to Hg+2 by oxidation. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Myrtaceae, known in Brazil as “jambolão”, is of great interest because of its medicinal applications, especially its leaves and fruits. The aim of this work was to characterize, by CG–MS, the chemical constituents of the essential oil of Eugenia jambolana and to evaluate its bioinsecticidal action in the Drosophila melanogaster model, as well as to determine the cytoprotective and chelating effect of the extract of E. jambolana. The results obtained here point to the potential of essential oils as a source in biological prospecting for bioinsecticides. Because of their biodegradability, essential oils can be important tools in the biological control of pests. The results demonstrated that the extract has an allelopathic effect on lettuce seeds and that its interaction with mercury chloride allows a greater growth of the radicle and plumule of Lactuta sativa seedlings, showing that this plant can provide an alternative solution to the problem of contamination by heavy metals, besides having cytoprotective potential and moderate chelating activity.

  13. Antifilarial activity of gum from Moringa oleifera Lam. on human lymphatic filaria Brugia malayi

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    V Kushwaha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Currently available antifilarial drugs diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole and their combinations, are not able to control lymphatic filariasis. Therefore, a better antifilarial agent is urgently required for proper management of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antifilarial activity of gum extract of plant Moringa oleifera Lam. against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using adult worms and microfilariae (mf in two in vitro assays (motility and inhition in MTT reduction for viability and two animal models, primary (Meriones unguiculatus implanted with B. malayi adult worms in the peritoneal cavity and secondary (subcutaneous B. malayi infective larvae induced Mastomys coucha, the model closer to the natural human filarial infection screens. Results: The gum extract inhibited 100% motility (irreversible loss of motility of mf and inhibited more than 56% MTT reduction potential of the adult female worms. The extract was safe in cytotoxicity test using Vero cell line, therefore followed in vivo in primary and secondary screens. In primary screen, the extract (5×500 mg/kg caused 69% macrofilaricidal and 83% sterilization of female worms and 44% macrofilaricidal activity in secondary screen (5 × 1000 mg/kg by oral route. Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that the gum of the plant is macrofilaricidal in both in vitro and in vivo and may provide valuable leads for design and development of new antifilarial agents. This is the first ever report on the antifilarial efficacy of M. oleifera.

  14. First chemical constituents from Cordia exaltata Lam and antimicrobial activity of two neolignans.

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    de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Tiago Bezerra; de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Raquel Bezerra; E Silva, Davi Antas; Tavares, Josean Fechine; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; da Silva Maciel, Jéssica Karina; de Souza Fernandes, Milen Maria Magalhães; de Medeiros, Fernando Antônio; do Socorro Ferreira Rodrigues Sarquis, Rosangela; Filho, Raimundo Braz; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

    2013-09-10

    The phytochemical study of Cordia exaltata Lam. (Boraginaceae) led to the isolation, through chromatographic techniques, of nineteen secondary metabolites: 8,8'dimethyl-3,4,3',4'-dimethylenedioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (1), 8,8'-dimethyl-4,5-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenodioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (2), sitosterol (3a), stigmasterol (3b), sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4a), stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4b), phaeophytin A (5), 13²-hydroxyphaeophytin A (6), 17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (7), 13²-hydroxy-17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (8), m-methoxy-p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (9), (E)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-propenoic acid (10), 1-benzopyran-2-one (11), 7-hydroxy-1-benzopyran-2-one (12), 2,5-bis-(3',4'-methylenedioxiphenyl)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (13), 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan (14), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol (15), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (16), 5,8-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (17), kaempherol 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-6''-α-L-ramnopyranoside (18) and kaempherol 3,7-di-O-α-L-ramnopyranoside (19). Their structures were identified by ¹H and ¹³C-NMR using one and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of compounds 1, 2, 13 and 14 against bacteria and fungi are reported here for the first time.

  15. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. – A Kazakh and Uygur ethnomedicinal plant

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    Yun Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae is an annual or perennial herb or subshrub widely distributed from the Mediterranean to central Asia and Afghanistan. In Xinjiang, China, the whole herb has been used in traditional Kazakh and Uygur medicines as anti-febrile and detoxicating drug. Aims: To characterize macroscopical, microscopically of the overground part of the Z. clinopodioides, explore and establish the macro-morphology, micro-morphology, quality and physicochemical parameters standards for this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigations were conducted in terms of macroscopic, microscopic and preliminary phytochemical parameters. Results: The vegetable material can be identified by structural features of the flowers, structural characteristics of the stem, specific pale brown hesperidin can be regarded as identification character. This crude drug showed the characteristic physicochemical values like total ash (7%, insoluble ash (1.3%, water soluble ash (3.7%, moisture (7.5%. The ethanolic extract contained flavonoids, organic acids, alkaloids, and glycosides. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostical characters that observed in this study can be an effective supplement to further research of this ethnomedicinal plant. Meanwhile, the results of this paper deal with pharmacognostical studies on the Ziziphora clinopodioides in an attempt to mitigate the adulteration to the crude drug.

  16. Physicochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. pulp.

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    Zhu, Kexue; Zhang, Yanjun; Nie, Shaoping; Xu, Fei; He, Shuzhen; Gong, Deming; Wu, Gang; Tan, Lehe

    2017-01-02

    A water-soluble polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) pulp (JFP-Ps) was purified and its physicochemical properties were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant activities of JFP-Ps was evaluated by measuring DPPH and OH radicals scavenging activities, as well as reducing power. The results showed that JFP-Ps contained 79.12% of total sugar, 5.83% of protein, 15.65% of uronic acid, and 15 kinds of amino acids with high levels of Asp, Glu, Val, Leu and Lys. JFP-Ps was mainly composed of Rha, Ara, Gal, Glc, Xyl and GalA, with an average molecular weight of 1668kDa. FT-IR results showed the bands at the range of 1200-850cm -1 suggested the presence of carbohydrates in JFP-Ps. The results of antioxidant activities showed that JFP-Ps exhibited strong DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities, with a relatively lower reducing power, suggesting that JFP-Ps can be exploited as effective natural antioxidant applications in medical and food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

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    Shyamalamma, S; Chandra, S B C; Hegde, M; Naryanswamy, P

    2008-07-22

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated, eight were selected for screening of genotypes based on the number and quality of polymorphic fragments produced. These primer combinations produced 5976 bands, 1267 (22%) of which were polymorphic. Among the jackfruit accessions, the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.137 to 0.978; the accessions also shared a large number of monomorphic fragments (78%). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis grouped all jackfruit genotypes into three major clusters. Cluster I included the genotypes grown in a jackfruit region of Karnataka, called Tamaka, with very dry conditions; cluster II contained the genotypes collected from locations having medium to heavy rainfall in Karnataka; cluster III grouped the genotypes in distant locations with different environmental conditions. Strong coincidence of these amplified fragment length polymorphism-based groupings with geographical localities as well as morphological characters was observed. We found moderate genetic diversity in these jackfruit accessions. This information should be useful for tree breeding programs, as part of our effort to popularize jackfruit as a commercial crop.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

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    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  19. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

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    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

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    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  1. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

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    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  2. Fatty acids and physiological quality of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica Lam. seed during natural ageing

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    Juan M Pichardo-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In México, 44 thousand hectares are planted with tomatillo or husk tomato (Physalis philadelphica Lam., which occupies fourth place among the country's vegetable species. However, research on this species is scarce, especially that related to the process of seed deterioration. We studied the effects of deterioration in tomatillo seed, var. CHF1-Chapingo, stored from 2-mo up to 7 yr with no climate control, 18.2 ± 5 °C and 41 ± 10% relative humidity, on physiological and biochemical variables during germination. It was found that germination, vigor, and respiratory activity decrease significantly from the first year of storage; thus, after 7 yr, germination and vigor decreased 99%, and respiratory activity of seed after 48 h imbibition decreased 78%. Linoleic acid (unsaturated content correlated positively with germination (R = 0.78** and with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.79**. Germination correlated with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.99** and with respiratory activity after 48 h of imbibition (R = 0.79**. Both respiratory activity and fatty acid content are involved in natural deterioration of tomatillo seed.

  3. Identification of Ellagitannins and Flavonoids from Eugenia brasilienses Lam. (Grumixama) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

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    Teixeira, Luciane de Lira; Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto

    2015-06-10

    The grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), also known as Brazilian cherry, is a fruit native to Brazil. This study identified the flavonoids in the flesh and seeds and ellagitannin in the flesh of purple and yellow varieties. The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of these fruits were also evaluated. Anthocyanins and flavonols were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (32-180 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (13-41 mg 100 g(-1) FW), respectively. The major flavonoids identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin aglycone. Furthermore, ellagitannins were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (82-243 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (92 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and seeds (2220-2905 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW). The ellagitannin profiles of both varieties were first characterized in which pedunculagin isomers, strictinin isomers, and ellagic acid galloyl hexoside were the major ellagitannins identified. In summary, both varieties of the grumixama fruit as well as the seeds could be good sources of bioactive compounds, mainly ellagitannins.

  4. Contribuição para o estudo da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam

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    R. J. de Siqueira-Jaccoud

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor, após tecer rápidas considerações sôbre Phytomonas da planta em questão e do gênero Manihot, passa a dar: métodos por êle empregados na confecção da presente nota; sucinta descrição da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam. e suas variedades; nomes vulgares por que é a mesma conhecida no Brasil; resultado negativo, por êle encontrado, nas pesquisas de alcalóide e, finalmente, descrição anatômica da fôlha e caule. Fôlha. a - limbo: epidermes com cutícula e estoma, uma camada de células paliçadicas, tecido lacunoso, ramificações dos tubos laticiferos e bainha dos feixes bem desenvolvida. b - nervura principal: epidermes com cutícula, uma camada de tecido paliçadico, bainha dos feixes em semicírculo, xilema, floema e parênquima. Caule - Epiderme com cutícula, colênquima, parênquima cortical, tubos laticíferos, esclerócitos, floema, câmbio e fibras do lenho (inclusive gelatinosas, vasos e, finalmente, parênquima fundamental.

  5. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

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    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen.

  6. In vitro wound healing potential and identification of bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

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    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  7. Aproveitamento da torta da Moringa oleifera Lam para tratamento de água produzida

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    Daiane Farias Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de coagulantes ambientalmente corretos apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável na separação água/óleo. A polpa da semente do polímero natural conhecido como Moringa oleifera Lam atua como agente clarificante de águas devido à presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água. O objetivo neste trabalho foi estudar o tratamento de água produzida, obtida na extração de petróleo, utilizando o coagulante extraído das sementes moringa em meio salino e em aquoso. Os resultados mostraram que se obteve 96% de eficiência na remoção de óleo, utilizando 0,5 mL/L do coagulante extraído em meio salino; e 76%, usando 2,5 mL do coagulante extraído em meio aquoso. Isso indica que o extrato da moringa pode ser uma excelente alternativa para o tratamento da água produzida na extração do petróleo.

  8. The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication

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    Fitrien Husin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus.

  9. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

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    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  10. Semi-viviparous embryo development and dehydrin expression in the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata Lam.

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    Ismail, Flora Abdulrahman; Nitsch, Lisette M C; Wolters-Arts, Mieke M C; Mariani, Celestina; Derksen, Jan W M

    2010-06-01

    Rhizophora mucronata Lam. is a tropical mangrove with semi-viviparous (cotyledon body protrusion before shedding), non-quiescent and non-desiccating (recalcitrant) seeds. As recalcitrance has been thought to relate to the absence of desiccation-related proteins such as dehydrins, we for the first time systematically described and classified embryogenesis in R. mucronata and assessed the presence of dehydrin-like proteins. Embryogenesis largely follows the classic pattern till stage eight, the torpedo stage, with the formation of a cotyledonary body. Ovule and embryo express radical adaptations to semi-vivipary in the saline environment: (1) A large, highly vacuolated and persistent endosperm without noticeable food reserves that envelopes the developing embryo. (2) Absence of vascular tissue connections between embryo and maternal tissue, but, instead, transfer layers in between endosperm and integument and endosperm and embryo. Dehydrin-like proteins (55-65 kDa) were detected by the Western analysis, in the ovules till stage 10 when the integuments are dehisced. An additional 50 kDa band was detected at stages 6-8. Together these results suggest a continuous flow of water with nutrients from the integument via the endosperm to the embryo, circumventing the vascular route and probably suppressing the initially induced dehydrin expression.

  11. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

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    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  12. Reaction of genotypes of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. to Meloidogyne spp. under field conditions

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    Claudia Salazar-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, root-knot nematodes Meloidog yne spp. are considered as one of the main constraints in lulo crop production . These nematodes can cause root damage resulting in low production. The aim of this study was to evaluate under field conditions the reaction of 16 genotypes of lulo, Solanum quitoense Lam. (Solanaceae, of the Castilla variety and the species S. hirtum Vahl., previously selected in a greenhouse experiment and categorized as moderately resistant and resistant to the attack by Meloidog yne sp. A chemical treatment and a control treatment, the latter based on the most susceptible genotype in greenhouse experiments were also included. The experiment was conducted in a lulo grove naturally infested with root-knot nematodes under a randomized complete block design with three replications and nine plants per experimental unit. The response variables were incidence, severity and yield. The incidence was higher than 80 % in all cases, but the severity varied because of their genetic condition; BR03 and BR01 being genotypes with lower rates of severity, with values of 1.0 % and 0.8 %, respectively. The yield analysis of variance showed significant differences, indicating that genotypes SQBR01 and SQLF04, reached the highest values with 4.77 and 4.74 t/ha in a total of three harvests.

  13. Biochemical characterization of an enantioselective esterase from Brevundimonas sp. LY-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Mengjun; Yu, Die; Yin, Jingang; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Xing

    2017-06-19

    Lactofen, a member of the diphenylether herbicides, has high activity and is commonly used to control broadleaf weeds. As a post-emergent herbicide, it is directly released to the environment, and easily caused the pollution. This herbicide is degraded in soil mainly by microbial activity, but the functional enzyme involved in the biodegradation of lactofen is still not clear now. A novel esterase gene lacH, involved in the degradation of lactofen, was cloned from the strain Brevundimonas sp. LY-2. The gene contained an open reading frame of 921 bp, and a putative signal peptide at the N-terminal was identified with the most likely cleavage site between Ala 28 and Ala 29. The encoded protein, LacH, could catalyze the hydrolysis of lactofen to form acifluorfen. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LacH belong to family V of bacterial lipolytic enzymes. Biochemical characterization analysis showed that LacH was a neutral esterase with an optimal pH of 7.0 and an optimal temperature of 40 °C toward lactofen. Besides, the activity of LacH was strongly inhibited by Hg 2+ and Zn 2+ . LacH preferred short chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C 2 -C 6 ), exhibited maximum activity toward p-nitrophenyl acetate. Furthermore, the enantioselectivity of LacH during lactofen hydrolysis was also studied, and the results show that R-(-)-lactofen was degraded faster than S-(+)-lactofen, indicating the occurrence of enantioselectivity in the enzymatic reaction. Our studies characterized a novel esterase involved in the biodegradation of diphenylether herbicide lactofen. The esterase showed enantioselectivity during lactofen degradation, which revealed the occurrence of enzyme-mediated enantioselective degradation of chiral herbicides.

  14. The Mean Metal-line Absorption Spectrum of Damped Lyα Systems in BOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Ge, Jian

    2017-09-01

    We study the mean absorption spectrum of the Damped Lyα (DLA) population at z ˜ 2.6 by stacking normalized, rest-frame-shifted spectra of ˜27,000 DLA systems from the DR12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)/SDSS-III. We measure the equivalent widths of 50 individual metal absorption lines in five intervals of DLA hydrogen column density, five intervals of DLA redshift, and overall mean equivalent widths for an additional 13 absorption features from groups of strongly blended lines. The mean equivalent width of low-ionization lines increases with N H i , whereas for high-ionization lines the increase is much weaker. The mean metal line equivalent widths decrease by a factor ˜1.1-1.5 from z ˜ 2.1 to z ˜ 3.5, with small or no differences between low- and high-ionization species. We develop a theoretical model, inspired by the presence of multiple absorption components observed in high-resolution spectra, to infer mean metal column densities from the equivalent widths of partially saturated metal lines. We apply this model to 14 low-ionization species and to Al iii, S iii, Si iii, C iv, Si iv, N v, and O vi. We use an approximate derivation for separating the equivalent width contributions of several lines to blended absorption features, and infer mean equivalent widths and column densities from lines of the additional species N i, Zn ii, C ii*, Fe iii, and S iv. Several of these mean column densities of metal lines in DLAs are obtained for the first time; their values generally agree with measurements of individual DLAs from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra when they are available.

  15. Joint Bayesian Estimation of Quasar Continua and the Lyα Forest Flux Probability Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Anna-Christina; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2017-08-01

    We present a new Bayesian algorithm making use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling that allows us to simultaneously estimate the unknown continuum level of each quasar in an ensemble of high-resolution spectra, as well as their common probability distribution function (PDF) for the transmitted Lyα forest flux. This fully automated PDF regulated continuum fitting method models the unknown quasar continuum with a linear principal component analysis (PCA) basis, with the PCA coefficients treated as nuisance parameters. The method allows one to estimate parameters governing the thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM), such as the slope of the temperature-density relation γ -1, while marginalizing out continuum uncertainties in a fully Bayesian way. Using realistic mock quasar spectra created from a simplified semi-numerical model of the IGM, we show that this method recovers the underlying quasar continua to a precision of ≃ 7 % and ≃ 10 % at z = 3 and z = 5, respectively. Given the number of principal component spectra, this is comparable to the underlying accuracy of the PCA model itself. Most importantly, we show that we can achieve a nearly unbiased estimate of the slope γ -1 of the IGM temperature-density relation with a precision of +/- 8.6 % at z = 3 and +/- 6.1 % at z = 5, for an ensemble of ten mock high-resolution quasar spectra. Applying this method to real quasar spectra and comparing to a more realistic IGM model from hydrodynamical simulations would enable precise measurements of the thermal and cosmological parameters governing the IGM, albeit with somewhat larger uncertainties, given the increased flexibility of the model.

  16. The Lyα properties of faint galaxies at z ∼ 2-3 with systemic redshifts and velocity dispersions from Keck-MOSFIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erb, Dawn K. [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Steidel, Charles C.; Trainor, Ryan F.; Strom, Allison L.; Konidaris, Nicholas P.; Matthews, Keith [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bogosavljević, Milan [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Shapley, Alice E.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Mace, Gregory; McLean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kulas, Kristin R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Bldg. 211, Room 112, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Law, David R. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Rudie, Gwen C. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Reddy, Naveen A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Pettini, Max, E-mail: erbd@uwm.edu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    We study the Lyα profiles of 36 spectroscopically detected Lyα-emitters (LAEs) at z ∼ 2-3, using Keck MOSFIRE to measure systemic redshifts and velocity dispersions from rest-frame optical nebular emission lines. The sample has a median optical magnitude R=26.0, and ranges from R≃23 to R>27, corresponding to rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M {sub UV} ≅ –22 to M {sub UV} > –18.2. Dynamical masses range from M {sub dyn} < 1.3 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} to M {sub dyn} = 6.8 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with a median value of M {sub dyn} = 6.3 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. Thirty of the 36 Lyα emission lines are redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity with at least 1σ significance, and the velocity offset with respect to systemic Δv {sub Lyα} is correlated with the R-band magnitude, M {sub UV}, and the velocity dispersion measured from nebular emission lines with >3σ significance: brighter galaxies with larger velocity dispersions tend to have larger values of Δv {sub Lyα}. We also make use of a comparison sample of 122 UV-color-selected R<25.5 galaxies at z ∼ 2, all with Lyα emission and systemic redshifts measured from nebular emission lines. Using the combined LAE and comparison samples for a total of 158 individual galaxies, we find that Δv {sub Lyα} is anti-correlated with the Lyα equivalent width with 7σ significance. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which the Lyα profile is determined primarily by the properties of the gas near the systemic redshift; in such a scenario, the opacity to Lyα photons in lower mass galaxies may be reduced if large gaseous disks have not yet developed and if the gas is ionized by the harder spectrum of young, low metallicity stars.

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF THREE z-DROPOUT GALAXIES AT z = 6.844-7.213: DEMOGRAPHICS OF Ly{alpha} EMISSION IN z {approx} 7 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko, E-mail: ono@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S. [National Optical Astronomical Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Penner, Kyle [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Spinrad, Hyron [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of our ultra-deep Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of z-dropout galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey's northern field. For 3 out of 11 objects, we detect an emission line at {approx}1 {mu}m with a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}10. The lines show asymmetric profiles with high weighted skewness values, consistent with being Ly{alpha}, yielding redshifts of z = 7.213, 6.965, and 6.844. Specifically, we confirm the z = 7.213 object in two independent DEIMOS runs with different spectroscopic configurations. The z = 6.965 object is a known Ly{alpha} emitter, IOK-1, for which our improved spectrum at a higher resolution yields a robust skewness measurement. The three z-dropouts have Ly{alpha} fluxes of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and rest-frame equivalent widths EW{sup Ly{alpha}}{sub 0} = 33-43 A. Based on the largest spectroscopic sample of 43 z-dropouts, which is the combination of our and previous data, we find that the fraction of Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxies (EW{sup Ly{alpha}}{sub 0} > 25 A) is low at z {approx} 7; 17% {+-} 10% and 24% {+-} 12% for bright (M{sub UV} {approx_equal} -21) and faint (M{sub UV} {approx_equal} -19.5) galaxies, respectively. The fractions of Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxies drop from z {approx} 6 to 7 and the amplitude of the drop is larger for faint galaxies than for bright galaxies. These two pieces of evidence would indicate that the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium increases from z {approx} 6 to 7 and that the reionization proceeds from high- to low-density environments, as suggested by an inside-out reionization model.

  18. Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway for the Treatment of Melanoma--Application of LY2090314, a Novel Selective Inhibitor of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Atkinson

    Full Text Available It has previously been observed that a loss of β-catenin expression occurs with melanoma progression and that nuclear β-catenin levels are inversely proportional to cellular proliferation, suggesting that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway may provide benefit for melanoma patients. In order to further probe this concept we tested LY2090314, a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor with activity against GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms. In a panel of melanoma cell lines, nM concentrations of LY2090314 stimulated TCF/LEF TOPFlash reporter activity, stabilized β-catenin and elevated the expression of Axin2, a Wnt responsive gene and marker of pathway activation. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that melanoma cell lines are very sensitive to LY2090314 in vitro (IC50 ~10 nM after 72hr of treatment in contrast to other solid tumor cell lines (IC50 >10 uM as evidenced by caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Cell lines harboring mutant B-RAF or N-RAS were equally sensitive to LY2090314 as were those with acquired resistance to the BRAF inhibitor Vemurafenib. shRNA studies demonstrated that β-catenin stabilization is required for apoptosis following treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor since the sensitivity of melanoma cell lines to LY290314 could be overcome by β-catenin knockdown. We further demonstrate that in vivo, LY2090314 elevates Axin2 gene expression after a single dose and produces tumor growth delay in A375 melanoma xenografts with repeat dosing. The activity of LY2090314 in preclinical models suggests that the role of Wnt activators for the treatment of melanoma should be further explored.

  19. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    OpenAIRE

    Jain,Pankaj G.; Savita D Patil; Nitin G. Haswani; Girase, Manoj V.; Sanjay J. Surana

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

  20. VAT refund according to the Eight VAT Directive / Tomas Davidonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidonis, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Nõukogu kaheksandast direktiivist (79/1072/EMÜ) kumuleeruvate käibemaksudega seotud liikmesriikide õigusaktide ühtlustamise kohta - välismaal asuvatele maksukohustuslastele käibemaksu tagastamise korrast