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Sample records for vat ly lam

  1. LAM (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / LAM LAM Also known as Lymphangioleiomyomatosis LAM, or lymphangioleiomyomatosis, is ... look for LAM cells . Procedures that look for LAM cells If lung function, imaging, or blood VEGF- ...

  2. VAT on Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    The VAT classification of services provided in connection with arbitration proceedings will be illustrated on the basis of the law and practice in Denmark, Germany and Sweden. Since VAT is a tax that has been harmonised in the EU, the VAT position ought to be the same for similar services in all...... they are not regarded as subject to VAT. For the background to why VAT is not levied on services connected with arbitration proceedings in Denmark, it is necessary to look at some past rulings of the Danish VAT Tribunal (Momsnævn). These decisions were made prior to the amendment of the Danish VAT Act in 1994 and so...

  3. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  4. VAT on domestic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Ian; Smith, Stephen; Webb, Steven.

    1993-01-01

    This publication traces the background to the imposition of VAT on domestic energy, and considers the current patterns of spending. Results of a simulation of the effects of imposition of 17.5% VAT on domestic fuels are presented, and policy measures to offset the impact on poorer households are considered. (UK)

  5. Classifying VAT Legislation for Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    The paper offers a framework for partitioning articles in legal documents pertaining to value added tax (VAT) into categories suitable for subsequent integration in computerized systems for automatically deriving VAT rates. The importance of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system supporting...... 2006 on the common system of value added tax is presented. The classification of VAT articles is important in order to allow for easier VAT modeling for ERP systems. Better VAT modeling should eventually lead to lower cost of implementing changes in VAT legislature....

  6. The Right for Deducting VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania must comply with the VAT Directive, the judgments of the Court of Justice of theEuropean Union and the European Court of Human Rights on VAT matter, that includes the matterof VAT deduction. The right to deduct VAT, in principle, cannot be limited for a taxable person andit is an abuse of law made by tax authorities when refusing this right. There are exceptions though,when the substantive and/or formal requirements are not met, the taxable person was involved in aVAT fraud or its supplier incorrectly drawn-up the invoice. The substantive requirements are: thepurchases must be from a taxable person and must be used for taxable activities. The formalrequirements are the obligations relating to accounting, invoicing and tax declarations. If taxauthorities discover a VAT fraud or/and that a VAT liability has not been declared they must takeimmediate measures, impose compliance and collect the corresponding sums from the responsibleperson.

  7. Lam lam o lam (6/4 e)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Laulun sanat: Lam, lam o lam, Så undersan, Förtryckt, försökt; Dock likväl älskadt högt! Mitt hjerta är ej mitt, Men ditt: Din lön, Guds Lam, För hån och skam, För sårens flod Och för ditt kors och blod.

  8. New European approach to combat VAT fraud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, M.; Hel - van Dijk, van der E.C.J.M. (Lisette)

    2014-01-01

    The Member States of the European Union (EU) are missing billions of Euros each year as a result of cross-border VAT fraud. After its introduction, the current VAT system appeared to contain flaws and proved to be vulnerable to fraud. Tackling VAT fraud since then has become serious business within

  9. VAT EVASION INLEBANON: CASES AND MAIN CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Value Added Tax (VAT is a very important source oftreasuryrevenuesinLebanon. It was initially introduced inLebanon in order to reduce the budgetdeficit and help contain the debt. However, VAT evasion growth inLebanon isleading to significant VAT revenue losses because of its size and frequency.In this paper, we will highlight the contribution of VAT to the treasury revenue. Inaddition, our research has led to figure out the most significant VAT evasion casesand the way tax payers evade paying their required VAT or try to have an illegalrefund. From these tax evasion cases, we will pinpoint the main causes of suchevasions and propose solutions to limit as much as possible VAT evasion inLebanon.

  10. Single port VATS: recent developments in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peter S Y; Capili, Freddie; Ng, Calvin S H

    2016-03-01

    Single port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is the most recent evolution in minimally invasive thoracic surgery. With increasing global popularity, the single port VATS approach has been adopted by experienced thoracic surgeons in many Asian countries. From initial experience of single port VATS lobectomy to the more complex sleeve resection procedures now forming part of daily practice in some Asia institutes, the region has been the proving ground for single port VATS approaches' feasibility and safety. In addition, certain technical refinements in single port VATS lung resection and lymph node dissection have also sprung from Asia. Novel equipment designed to facilitate single port VATS allowing further reduce access trauma are being realized by the partnership between surgeons and the industries. Advanced thoracoscopes and staplers that are narrower and more maneuverable are particularly important in the smaller habitus of patients from Asia. These and similar new generation equipment are being applied to single port VATS in novel ways. As dedicated thoracic surgeons in the region continue to striving for excellence, innovative ideas in single incision access including subxiphoid and embryonic natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (e-NOTES) have been explored. Adjunct techniques and technology used in association with single port VATS such as non-intubated surgery, hybrid operating room image guidance and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy are all in rapid development in Asia.

  11. Electronic LAM GRADER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoul, J.-C.

    1978-04-01

    The electronic LAM GRADER is a 1/25 width CAMAC module intended for use with the CCA crate controller specified in EUR 4600. The input to the LAM GRADER is a 23 bit pattern coming from CCA and representing the 23 L lines of the crate. The output is a 24 bit pattern which is the result of the grading process inside the LAM GRADER. The grading process is programmed. This module may be plugged in anyone of the 23 module positions of a crate [fr

  12. VATS Lobectomy: Surgical Evolution from Conventional VATS to Uniportal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonzalez-Rivas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no standardized technique for the VATS lobectomy, though most centres use 2 ports and add a utility incision. However, the procedure can be performed by eliminating the two small ports and using only the utility incision with similar outcomes. Since 2010, when the uniportal approach was introduced for major pulmonary resection, the technique has been spreading worldwide. The single-port technique provides a direct view to the target tissue. The conventional triple port triangulation creates a new optical plane with genesis of dihedral or torsional angle that is not favorable with standard two-dimension monitors. The parallel instrumentation achieved during single-port approach mimics inside the maneuvers performed during open surgery. Furthermore, it represents the less invasive approach possible, and avoiding the use of trocar, we minimize the compression of the intercostal nerve. Further development of new technologies like sealing devices for all vessels and fissure, robotic arms that open inside the thorax, and wireless cameras will facilitate the uniportal approach to become the standard surgical procedure for pulmonary resection in most thoracic departments.

  13. LY-354740 (Eli Lilly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Lilly is developing LY-354740, the lead compound in a series of derivatives of the metabotropic glutamate receptor group II agonist L-CCG-1, for the potential treatment of anxiety [212536], [276941], [276942].

  14. REFORM OF RULES ON EU VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In January 2018 the EU has released two proposal designed to simplify the VAT system, specifically around reduced rates, and to reduce compliance costs of smaller businesses in respect of VAT. The EU's common rules on VAT rates do not treat Member States equally. More than 250 exemptions allow several Member States much more flexibility in setting VAT rates than others. While these derogations are due to expire once the reformed VAT system comes into place, the rates proposal will ensure that all Member States have the same flexibility and a uniform structure in which to set their own VAT rates. The second proposal is designed to make trading in other EU member states easier for smaller businesses. Currently, small businesses may benefit from generous thresholds in their state of establishment, but zero thresholds exist for nonestablished businesses, meaning higher compliance costs. The intended proposals will provide simplification measures (around invoicing, record keeping etc. for businesses with a turnover not exceeding €2 million and will allow member states to apply thresholds to non-established businesses with a turnover not exceeding €100,000.

  15. VAT Cashing System: between Myth and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana ISPAS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The value added tax (VAT collection system, which is applied to any company with a turnover of up to 500,000 Euros, has become optional from 1 January 2014. Since January 1, 2014, taxpayers may choose the optional introduction of new system of VAT collection anytime during the year 2014 by filing a notice from the IRS, SELF removal from the register of taxable persons applying this system. By making changes and deregistration itself, taxpayers will continue to apply the system of VAT collection.For operations whose VAT chargeable event occurred until 31 December 2013 for the invoices issued before that date, in the event that the 90th calendar day from the date of invoice or the date set imitates the chargeability of tax occurs on full or partial consideration receipt of goods delivered or services rendered. Changing the Tax Code is provided in GEO no. 111/2013, published in Official Gazette no. 809 of 19 December. New tax rules allow taxpayers to decide if they want apply VAT at collection system, this decision targeting about half a million taxpayers from Romania.

  16. The VAT in the bank system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Biernacki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The bank system in the European Union plays an important role as a significant sector of the economy. Implementing in the last century -VAT exemption also for services performed by banks generates extra tax inflows, but decreases international competitiveness of this sector. However, VAT is a perfect consumption tax, alternatives were created for banks’ services taxation. As the paper shows, many of them are used in other then EU countries and provide smaller distortions in taxation. The aim of this article is to shortly present the dominant model of VAT taxation in the EU with a particular reference to banks’ services and describe an alternative method of taxating them. The analysis will also refer to introducing a new Financial Transaction Tax since 2014.

  17. VAT COLLECTION TO COLLECTION: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA ISPAS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the major changes in the payment system of value added tax (VAT. Through the Government Ordinance no. 15/2012 amending and supplementing Law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal Code, there was introduced, with effect from 01.01.2013, the payment of the value added tax (VAT on cashing the whole or partial counter value of the supply of goods or provision of services. There are detailed the most important data on the topic, but also information about the risks and benefits resulting from the new legal provisions.

  18. Transfer pricing principles in VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    2011-01-01

    The main part of the article is devoted to a critical analysis of the optional transfer pricing provisions in the EC VAT Directive in the light of the principle of fiscal neutrality. As an integrated part of this analysis, the VAT transfer pricing regime is considered in the light of the well......-known principles for transfer pricing in the area of income tax law, as set out in Art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. The last part of the article contains a brief discussion of to which extent it is desirable to harmonize the two tax systems´ transfer pricing rules....

  19. Lam'e Instantons

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Gerald V.; Rao, Kumar

    1999-01-01

    We perform a precise analytic test of the instanton approximation by comparing the exact band spectrum of the periodic Lam\\'e potential to the tight-binding, instanton and WKB approximations. The instanton result gives the correct leading behavior in the semiclassical limit, while the tight-binding approximation does even better. WKB is off by an overall factor of $\\sqrt{e/\\pi}$.

  20. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case for Value Added Tax (VAT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    amended based on destination principle to impose VAT on imported services rendered ... It was the view of Popoola (2009) that Nigeria tax administration and practice be structured ..... have low VAT rates, e.g. Nigeria, India and Malaysia.

  1. VAT teatril kaks uut noortelavastust / Tiiu Talvist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvist, Tiiu

    2010-01-01

    VAT teater panustab sel hooajal uutesse laste- ja noortelavastustesse: lisaks itaallaste Nino d’Introna ja Giacomo Ravicchio teksti põhjal valminud seiklusloole „Robinson & Crusoe” (lavastaja Aare Toikka), esietendub aprillis Mare Sabolotny noorte probleemidest kõnelev lavalugu „Kirjaklambritest vöö”. Lavastaja Rein Agur

  2. Crossing the bridge to VATS lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherveniakov, P; Bogdan, C; Chaudhuri, N

    2017-11-01

    Introduction The impact of the introduction of video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) on the management of lung cancer 20 years ago has been well documented. However, the uptake of VATS lobectomy in surgical practice worldwide has been slower than expected. We believe that this is partly due to a lack of consensus on how this procedure should be integrated into training programmes. We present our initial experience with a newly developed training model, which could help bridge the divide between open and VATS lobectomy. Methods Two surgical registrars were initiated into this model, supervised by a single consultant. All cases were performed using a standardised three-port anterior approach with systematic lymph node dissection. Both registrars were scrubbed for each case, alternating as first surgeon and assistant, with the supervising consultant operating the camera. Results Over a 6-month period, 22 lung resections for non-small cell lung carcinoma were performed as VATS lobectomies. Thirteen of them were upper lobectomies. There were no emergency conversions to open surgery. The mean operative time for the registrars was 155 minutes compared with 140 minutes for consultant-led operations (p=0.22). There was no perioperative mortality. The most common postoperative complications were atrial fibrillation (4 cases) and prolonged air leak (3 cases). Conclusions VATS lobectomy involves a team approach. Especially in upper lobectomies, the assistant surgeon plays a significant role in the operation, often helping with the dissection as well as stapling of the bronchial and vascular structures. With a team consisting of two trainees and a supervising surgeon, the teaching process becomes more intuitive and is accelerated. This should reduce the learning curve considerably and improve safety during training.

  3. LY-293558. Eli Lilly & Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilron, I

    2001-09-01

    Lilly is developing the racemic compound LY-215490, a selective and competitive AMPA antagonist, as a potential treatment for cerebral infarction, cerebrovascular ischemia, epilepsy and as an analgesic [135089], [158980], [254029], [278691]. By January 2000, LY-293558 was undergoing phase II trials for pain [414000].

  4. Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízia De Oliveira Alvino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of different substrata in the germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae. The experiment was conducted in delineation randomized with three treatments (substratum and four repetitions of 25 seeds. The following substrata had been tested: sand + vermiculite (1:1; vermiculite and, sand + shavings (1:1. The effect of substrata through the percentage of germination of the seeds, average time of germination and index of germination speed (IGS were evaluated. There had been significant difference between the treatments in of all the observed variable. The seeds, when conditioned in vermiculite, had presented the biggest tax of germination, greatest speed and lowest germination time.

  5. Kalevipoeg ja Mumm-Summ VAT Teatri moodi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    VAT Teatris esietendub 5. dets. M. Kampuse lavastatud jõuluetendus "Lihtsalt ... Mesilane" C. Vogli lugude "Väike mesilane Mumm-Summ" ainetel. VAT Teatri ja Markus Zohneri koostööprojektina esietendus 30. nov. Tallinna Linnateatris rahvuseepose "Kalevipoeg" motiividel loodud M. Zohneri lavaversioon

  6. VATS anatomic lung resections-the European experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, Sofina; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has undergone significant evolution over several decades. Although endoscopic instruments continued to improve, it was not until 1992 that the first VATS lobectomy for lung cancer was performed. Despite significant seeding of such procedure in several...

  7. „WELL TEMPERED " VAT - BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SĂLCEANU ALEXANDRU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT represents an indirect tax due to the state budget that includes all phases of the economic circuit, namely manufacturing, services and distribution, up to sales to final consumers. VAT collection is done fractionally, according to the value added at each stage of the economic circuit. Introduced in our country in 1993, VAT has been continuously improved and since Romania has been a member of the European Union (EU since 2007, WATT has been harmonized with the European Community directives. Today, Romania encounters serious difficulties in collecting the VAT, being atop of the countries with tax arrears. This is why it is required a more effective collaboration between the parliament, which adopts laws, the government, that implements and business environment, where the added value is obtained, in order to achieve a more efficient and robust VAT system against fraud that can contribute to fiscal consolidation by increasing public budget revenues.

  8. Achillea filipendulina Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Из этанольного экстракта надземных частей Achillea filipendulina Lam., собранных в период массового цветения, методом колоночной хроматографии выделено кристаллическое вещество (I) состава C30H50O2 с температурой плавления 210-212 °С (из водного этанола). При омылении вещество образует соединение (II) состава C28H48O с температурой плавления 179-180 °С (из водного этанола). На основании химических и спектральных (ИК-1, 1Н, 13С, Dept. 135 ЯМР спектров) данных I и II установлено строение исслед...

  9. The Problem of VAT Credit on Expired Goods: An Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available VAT paid on certain goods acquired does not allow the deducting of the Turkish tax system. One of them is the loss of goods VAT. There is no clear definition in the law is wasted. Therefore, there are certain problems in practice. The problems, in particular, focused on the VAT on expired or valueless goods. Current opinion on the subject of the tax administration is inconvenient regarding tax justice. Both states of the solution to the problem should be developed as well as an objective approach to protecting taxpayers.

  10. Nonintubated uniportal VATS pulmonary anatomical resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Carlos; Navarro-Martinez, Jose; Bolufer, Sergio; Lirio, Francisco; Sesma, Julio; Corcoles, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Nonintubated procedures have widely developed during the last years, thus nowadays major anatomical resections are performed in spontaneously breathing patients in some centers. In an attempt for combining less invasive surgical approaches with less aggressive anesthesia, nonintubated uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomies and segmentectomies have been proved feasible and safe, but there are no comparative trials and the evidence is still poor. A program in nonintubated uniportal major surgery should be started in highly experienced units, overcoming first a learning period performing minor procedures and a training program for the management of potential crisis situations when operating on these patients. A multidisciplinary approach including all the professionals in the operating room (OR), emergency protocols and a comprehensive knowledge of the special physiology of nonintubated surgery are mandatory. Some concerns about regional analgesia, vagal block for cough reflex control and oxygenation techniques, combined with some specific surgical tips can make safer these procedures. Specialists must remember an essential global concept: all the efforts are aimed at decreasing the invasiveness of the whole procedure in order to benefit patients' intraoperative status and postoperative recovery.

  11. Comparison study between bacteriological aetiology and outcome of VAT & VAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr H. Kahlil

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: From the study we concluded that VAT infection is as severe as VAP and it needs more attention to prevent its presence as, once present, it usually progress to VAP increasing mortality rate in ICU.

  12. Kivirähk VAT Teatris / Meelis Kapstas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kapstas, Meelis, 1963-

    1999-01-01

    VAT Teatri hooaja repertuaar. A. Kivirähki näidend "Sibulad ja šokolaad". Järgmise aasta jaanuaris saab teater oma statsionaarse lava - amfiteatri põhimõttel tehtud kammersaali Rahvusraamatukogus

  13. The reduced VAT rate for small business in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dimitrić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the potential effects of introduction of the reduced VAT rate for small business, based on the EU VAT legislation development. The analysis includes effects on prices, sales, shadow economy and employment. It starts with the assumption of no substantial effect. Survey for Croatia is done by small business owners’ interviews and encompasses descriptive and inferential statistics based on parametric tests. The EU expected existence of a link between VAT reduction, price reduction, sales increase and positive effects on employment (as well as decline in the shadow economy is proved even in this research. However, the pass-through to prices is very moderate as well as other effects. The reduced VAT rate could have some positive results for the restaurants and bars only. There exists also some possibility for construction of housing and construction services related to housing as well as some other labour intensive services.

  14. VAT-teater vaatab 30 aastat tulevikku / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2010-01-01

    VAT Teater toob S. Becketti "Krappi viimase lindi" lavale ebatavalisel moel. Festivalil "Draama 2010" Tartus toimub 8. septembril esimene avalik lindistus "...viimane lint / Saare esimene lint". Kontseptsioon: Tanel Saar ja Co. Esitus: Tanel Saar ja Hanna Allsaar. Näitejuhid-konsultandid: Rait Avestik ja Aare Toikka. "Krappi viimane lint" esietendub VAT Teatri ja Tanel Saare esituses 2040. a. sügisel. Festivali "Draama 2010" kavast

  15. Institutional paradoxes of vat under developing economy of transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy G. Bachurin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the characteristics of the destructive impact of VAT taxation on the socioeconomic situation of the Russian Federation. Methods the research is based on the complex economic and legal methodology including the institutional approach with the account of the national socioeconomic and legal realities determining the conditions of functioning of branches and particular enterprises in the Russian economy. Results the conditions and characteristics of the introduction of VAT in the Russian Federation are viewed the reasons are revealed for the formation and development of the problemcausing VAT in the domestic tax system the socioeconomic implications of VAT are analyzed the viability of replacing VAT for a turnover tax is demonstrated. Scientific novelty for the first time the conceptual position is articulated that under the realities of the reformed Russian economy the normativelegal outline of the VAT complements the accumulated destructive potential blocking the way to the industrial growth in the national economy enhances the asymmetry of conditions of different forms of ownership while the actual conditions of the transition period in Russia do not correspond to the main idea and purpose of VAT as an institution aimed at the efficient relocation of a significant part of the newly created value added to the social sectors and at the modernizing effect on the productive forces for technological improvement in industry. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the article can be used when discussing issues on the need for the VAT reform in the Russian Federation including switching to the turnover tax. nbsp

  16. Impact of standard rate of VAT on tax mix in EU 27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Šinkyříková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Value Added Tax (VAT is one of the key resources within tax collection and therefore VAT effectiveness and VAT complexity represent one of the current world topics. Standard rates of VAT may and may not be the simple key to define whether VAT is important in the tax mix or not. This paper focuses on the question whether the amount of the VAT rate has an impact on the share of VAT in the tax mix. The VAT share on total taxes is studied in connection of average and median standard rates applied so as to answer the question: “Do the countries with higher share of VAT in the tax mix set its standard rates of VAT beyond the average of EU 27?” The paper examines this issue using data EU member countries, especially EU 27, in years 1995–2010.

  17. Comparative Short-Term Clinical Outcomes of Mediastinum Tumor Excision Performed by Conventional VATS and Single-Port VATS

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ching-Feng; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Wen, Chih-Tsung; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yin-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wu, Ching-Yang; Chen, Wei-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely applied recently. However, there are still only few reports describing its use in mediastinum tumor resection. We present the technique of single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinum tumor resection and compare it with conventional VATS with regard to short-term outcome. We retrospectively enrolled 105 patients who received mediastinum surgery in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Sixteen patients received st...

  18. VAT ON E-SERVICES: HOW NEW RULES AFFECT BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina TRANDAFIR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1st January 2015, in the European Unionwill enter into force a new VAT regime for business-to-consumer suppliers of telecoms, broadcasting and electronic services. This regime will have an impact on businesses engaged in the supply of certain products and services over the Internet. This article is a literature review. It is aimed to provide an analysis of the European VAT regime applicable to electronic services and clarify some key issues like: what are e-services, what are the changes and how the businesses are affected by these new rules. The paper also approaches issues such as: the change of the rules regarding VAT place of supplying and the introduction of the VAT Mini One Stop Shop (MOSS. The main conclusion is that the change in the place of supplying rules will serve to negate the VAT advantages associated with Internet companies which locate their invoicing functions in a Member State that is different from where they locate their substantial activities.

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  20. Transfer Pricing Principles VAT/GST v. Direct Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    2009-01-01

    Convention, [2] including an examination of whether it is appropriate to base transfer pricing rules on the same principles in the two different areas of tax law. [1] Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 on the common system of value added tax, OJ L 347 of 11 December 2006, pp. 1-118 (EC VAT......In this paper the optional transfer pricing provisions in the EC VAT Directive [1] are subject to a more detailed analysis, with a view to considering them in the light of the well-known principles for transfer pricing in the area of income tax law, as set out in Art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax...... Directives are to be construed as references to the EC VAT Directive and should be read in accordance with the correlation table in Annex XII. [2] OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital (OECD Model Tax Convention)....

  1. Estimated revenues of VAT and fuel tax on aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteland, M.; Faber, J.

    2013-07-15

    International aviation is exempt from VAT, both on their inputs (e.g. on fuel or aircraft) and on their revenues (e.g. on tickets). In the EU, aviation fuel is also exempt from the minimum fuel excise tariffs. This report calculates the potential revenues of VAT on tickets and fuel tax on jet fuel. If VAT were to be levied on tickets while other aviation taxes were simultaneously abolished, this would yield revenues in the order of EUR 7 billion. Excise duty on jet fuel would raise revenues in the order of EUR 20 billion. These figures do not take into account the impact of the cost increases on demand for aviation into account. Since higher costs will reduce demand, the estimates can be considered an upper bound.

  2. Reimbursement of VAT on written-off Receivables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florentsen, Bjarne; Møller, Michael; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2003-01-01

    In many OECD countries, a seller has a right to reimbursement of VAT (RVAT) she has paid on goods sold, but for which she has not yet received payment. Such reimbursement of VAT on receivables is economically inefficient. It leads to:@* Distortion of credit markets, by subsidizing direct credit...... at the cost of financial intermediaries.@* Price discrimination, by subsidizing buyers with low creditworthiness.@* A less efficient collection of bad debts, as trade with bad debts is made extremely expensive.The finance literature presents several `good' arguments in favor of trade credits, e.g. transaction...

  3. A progenitor of the outer membrane LamB trimer.

    OpenAIRE

    Stader, J; Silhavy, T J

    1988-01-01

    During its localization to the outer membrane, LamB possesses distinctive biochemical properties as it passes through the cytoplasmic membrane. Because LamB entered this dynamic state with an attached signal sequence and leaves after cleavage, we call this export-related form of LamB the early-translocation form (et-LamB).

  4. Biological features produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Mendez Ribo, Macarena; Pedersen, David Bue

    2017-01-01

    of micro biological features by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes. The study characterizes the additive manufacturing processes for polymeric micro part productions using the vat photopolymerization method. A specifically designed vat photopolymerization AM machine suitable for precision printing...

  5. Stoppage - Vat Return and Accounting Practice in Re-Delivery of a Delivery Subject to Stoppage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yanık

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is calculated based on the goods and service delivery costs realized by the corporations. Unless this VAT is subject to stoppage, seller takes the VAT from the purchaser in delivery of goods or services and then the corporate pays this amount to the tax office or sets off through the VAT he paid for his service or goods procurement. However, in some cases, Ministry of Finance holds not those providing the delivery or service but those purchasing or procuring the goods or services responsible partly or fully for the tax calculated based on the delivery or service fee. The purpose of this paper is to reveal VAT stoppage, accounting entries with regards to the corporation accepting the delivery and re-delivering it, VAT set off and VAT return in the re-delivery of a delivery subject to stoppage pursuant to General Communiqué of VAT Serial No 117

  6. The value-added tax (VAT) rate of international natural gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botter, E.

    2008-01-01

    Since January 1, 2005, international gas trades are controlled by common right derogatory VAT rules. Transfrontier exchanges do not obey to the classical territory rules of exchange of goods but to a particular VAT regime. Moreover, the access to networks and the transportation of natural gas are subjected to particular VAT regulations. This article explains these particularities. (J.S.)

  7. An Analysis on Combating Vat Fraud in The European Union Using New IT Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixăndroiu R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available European VAT fraud has been growing at an alarming rate [2]. The level of VAT losses for one year is between €60bn and €100bn for all member states. This level of fraud has created an urgent need for Europe to address the issue of the reform of the VAT system.

  8. Radiation dosimetry of [(18)F]VAT in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Morvarid; Tu, Zhude; Yue, Xuyi; Zhang, Xiang; Jin, Hongjun; Perlmutter, Joel S; Laforest, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the radiation dosimetry of a novel radiotracer for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (-)-(1-((2R,3R)-8-(2-[(18)F]fluoro-ethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)-methanone ([(18)F]VAT) based on PET imaging in nonhuman primates. [(18)F]VAT has potential for investigation of neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Three macaque fascicularis (two males, one female) received 185.4-198.3 MBq [(18)F]VAT prior to whole-body imaging in a MicroPET-F220 scanner. Time activity curves (TACs) were created from regions of interest (ROIs) that encompassed the entire small organs or samples with the highest activity within large organs. Organ residence times were calculated based on the TACs. We then used OLINDA/EXM 1.1 to calculate human radiation dose estimates based on scaled organ residence times. Measurements from directly sampled arterial blood yielded a residence time of 0.30 h in agreement with the residence time of 0.39 h calculated from a PET-generated time activity curve measured in the left ventricle. Organ dosimetry revealed the liver as the critical organ (51.1 and 65.4 μGy/MBq) and an effective dose of 16 and 19 μSv/MBq for male and female, respectively. The macaque biodistribution data showed high retention of [(18)F]VAT in the liver consistent with hepatobiliary clearance. These dosimetry data support that relatively safe doses of [(18)F]VAT can be administered to obtain imaging in humans.

  9. TensorLy: Tensor Learning in Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Tensor methods are gaining increasing traction in machine learning. However, there are scant to no resources available to perform tensor learning and decomposition in Python. To answer this need we developed TensorLy. TensorLy is a state of the art general purpose library for tensor learning.

  10. The Impact of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union on VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard, Karina Kim Egholm

    2016-01-01

    The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union became legally binding following its entry into force with the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009, and it has the same legal value as the EU Treaties. Since then, the EU fundamental rights aspect of VAT law has not been subject to much academic...... discussion or particular attention from VAT practitioners. This article contributes to further development of research in the area of EU fundamental rights and VAT law by examining; when the Charter is relevant in VAT law and if so how the Charter manifests itself in EU VAT case law, and what special...

  11. The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NT Azaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability of a value-added tax (VAT system, particularly in developing countries.  The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST. Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countries gain revenue from the presence of VAT, it is significantly more in developed countries, although the dummy VAT variable interacted with trace openness enters positively for the lower- and upper middle-income groups.  This proves the importance of trade for VAT revenues, but also that VAT combined with interaction variables is conducive to higher tax revenues.

  12. Changes in VAT rates during the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Široký

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the current economical crisis, there are used various tools of economic policy. Some of them are changes in taxes, particularly changes in the value added tax due to its importance.Value added tax is the most harmonized tax in the single internal market of the European Communities. Although community law defines the basic legal constraints of VAT rules in individual countries, the Council Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value added tax, as amended, leaves some areas open for the Member States. One of the main characteristics of VAT is its tax rates which are – while maintaining specified minimal borders – in competency of Member States.Paper illustrates and evaluates the changes in tax rates of individual Member States during the economic crisis and points to their context and consequences.

  13. Tutorial on Modeling VAT Rules Using OWL-DL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    . In an ERP setting such a model could reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and increase the quality of the system. We have selected OWL-DL because we believe that description logic is suited for modeling VAT rules due to the decidability of important inference problems that are key to the way we plan...... to use the model and because OWL-DL is relatively intuitive to use....

  14. The Lyα Reference Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostlin, Goran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral...... are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ~ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present......) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate outflow in the neutral interstellar medium (probed by low ionization stage absorption features) and Lyα emission with an asymmetric profile. Radiative transfer...

  15. Hypotensive Activity of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2015; 14(5): 823-830 ... Purpose: To explore the hypotensive activity and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) ...... essential oil from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

  16. Present status of LAM-80ET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The present report briefly describes major aspects of a quasielastic neutron scattering spectrometer installed at KEK (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Japan). It is a latticed array mirror (LAM) spectrometer for measuring the neutron TOF which employs the KENS spallation cold neutron source and crystal analyzer mirror. This spectrometer is a very useful device to study diffusive motion or the relaxation process in molecular science and in many other fields. By measuring the quasielastic neutron scattering, one can obtain useful information for the analysis of temporal and spatial properties of atoms and molecules which are in random motion with a characteristic time of 10 -12 to 10 -9 seconds. The report then outlines major design considerations and some details of down-scattering crystal spectrometer LAM-80ET which uses a mica analyzer. Its configuration is shown and discussed. The LAM-80ET spectrometer incorporates a LAM-type analyzer mirror. Its performance is then outlined focusing on its resolution. The LAM-80ET spectrometer has demonstrated a satisfactory performance particularly in tunneling study of N-oxy γ picoline. Usefulness of the 20 K methane pulsed cold source has also been demonstrated. (N.K.)

  17. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  18. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The...

  19. The role of diagnostic VATS in penetrating thoracic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guasti Guido

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penetrating chest injuries account for 1–13% of thoracic trauma hospital admissions and most of these are managed with a conservative approach. Nevertheless, 18–30% of cases managed only with tube thoracostomy have residual clotted blood, considered the major risk factor for the development of fibrothorax and empyema. In addition, 4–23% of chest injury patients present persistent pneumothorax and 15–59% present an injury to the diaphragm, which is missed in 30% of cases. In order to make a correct diagnosis, reduce the number of missed injuries, chronic sequelae and late mortality we propose performing surgical exploration of all patients with a penetrating injury of the pleural cavity. Methods 1270 patients who sustained thoracic trauma were admitted to our hospital between 1994 and 2004. Of these, 16 patients had penetrating injuries: thirteen were surgically explored by means of Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS, and 3 with thoracotomy due to hemodynamic instability or suspected lesion of the heart or great vessels. Results In the 13 patients who underwent VATS, 5 injuries to the diaphragm, 3 lesions to an intercostal artery, and 1 lesion to the diaphragmatic artery were detected. In 12 of these patients a laceration of the pulmonary parenchyma was also present. A conversion to thoracotomy was necessary due to a broad laceration of the diaphragm and due to hemostasis of an intercostal artery. In all but one case, which was later converted, diagnostic imaging missed the diagnosis of laceration of the diaphragm. There was no intra- or postoperative mortality, and average hospital stay was five days. Conclusion VATS is a safe and effective way to diagnose and manage penetrating thoracic injuries, and its extensive use leads to a reduction in the number of missed, potentially fatal lesions as well as in chronic sequelae.

  20. VATS intraoperative tattooing to facilitate solitary pulmonary nodule resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS has become routine and widely accepted for the removal of solitary pulmonary nodules of unknown etiology. Thoracosopic techniques continue to evolve with better instruments, robotic applications, and increased patient acceptance and awareness. Several techniques have been described to localize peripheral pulmonary nodules, including pre-operative CT-guided tattooing with methylene blue, CT scan guided spiral/hook wire placement, and transthoracic ultrasound. As pulmonary surgeons well know, the lung and visceral pleura may appear featureless on top of a pulmonary nodule. Case description This paper presents a rapid, direct and inexpensive approach to peripheral lung lesion resection by marking the lung parenchyma on top of the nodule using direct methylene blue injection. Methods In two patients with peripherally located lung nodules (n = 3 scheduled for VATS, we used direct methylene blue injection for intraoperative localization of the pulmonary nodule. Our technique was the following: After finger palpation of the lung, a spinal 25 gauge needle was inserted through an existing port and 0.1 ml of methylene blue was used to tattoo the pleura perpendicular to the localized nodule. The methylene blue tattoo immediately marks the lung surface over the nodule. The surgeon avoids repeated finger palpation, while lining up stapler, graspers and camera, because of the visible tattoo. Our technique eliminates regrasping and repalpating the lung once again to identify a non marked lesion. Results Three lung nodules were resected in two patients. Once each lesion was palpated it was marked, and the area was resected with security of accurate localization. All lung nodules were resected in totality with normal lung parenchymal margins. Our technique added about one minute to the operative time. The two patients were discharged home on the second postoperative day, with no morbidity. Conclusion

  1. VAT Teater toob külakosti Hiiumaa lastele ja noortele / Tiiu Talvist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvist, Tiiu

    2009-01-01

    VAT Teater esineb Hiiumaal lastelavastusega "Varblase Priidu" (autor Rudolf Herfurtner, lavastaja Mart Kampus) ja noortelavastusega "Kas sulle meeldib porno?" (autor Klas Abrahamsson, lavastaja Margo Teder)

  2. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  3. [Flexible endoscope in thoracic surgery: CITES or cVATS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouad, J; Fénane, H; Masmoudi, H; Giol, M; Karsenti, A; Gounant, V; Grunenwald, D

    2013-10-01

    Early pain and persistent parietal disorders remains a major unresolved problem in thoracic surgery. Thoracotomy and the use of multiple ports in most Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) procedures are the major cause of this persistent pain. For the last decade, a few publications describing the use of either single incision VATS and cervical thoracic approaches have been reported without significant results in comparison with current used techniques. Intercostals compression during surgery and early after by intercostals chest tube placement, are probably the major cause of postoperative pain. Flexible endoscope is currently used in several surgeries and will take more and more importance in our daily use in thoracic surgery. Instrument flexibility allows its use through minimally invasive approaches and offers a very interesting intra-thoracic navigation. We describe here the first use in France of a flexible endoscope in thoracic surgery through a single cervical incision to perform simultaneous exploration and biopsies of the mediastinum and right pleura using the original approach of Cervical Incision Thoracic Endoscopic Surgery (CITES). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. CONTROVERSIES ON THE APPLICATION OF THE VAT SPLIT PAYMENT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the urgent need to attract additional amounts to the state budget to cover the increased budget expenditures involved in the implementation of the government program, by the end of August 2017, the Government of Romania adopted an ordinance obliging the entities to apply, starting on January 1st 2018, the VAT split payment mechanism, system which no longer allows them to use the value added tax cashed affently to the delivery of goods and provision of services, which is why these amounts are to be cashed in separate accounts opened by entities in the state treasury or credit institutions. Only that, later, through the draft of Law on the approval of that ordinance, the Senate made changes to the legislative act, so that the VAT split payment would only apply to companies in insolvency or that register delays in payment of the tax. Although this measure aims at combating the tax evasion and fraud by increasing the voluntary compliance and tax collection degree, the measure can prove to be unfounded, which violates the legislative technique and, in particular, the Community provisions by being inappropriate. In this context, the main objective of this scientific approach is to identify the special situations that arise at the level of entities as a result of the application of the breakdown mechanism of value added tax and to determine the possible advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Implementation of a biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Baldini, Gessica; Silvestri, Gloria; Butta, Alessandro; Clementi, Francesca

    2012-09-01

    The traditional process for vat dyeing with woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) basically relies on microbial reduction of indigo to its soluble form, leucoindigo, through a complex fermentative process. In the 19th century, cultivation of woad went into decline and use of synthetic indigo dye and chemical reduction agents was established, with a consequent negative impact on the environment due to the release of polluting wastewaters by the synthetic dyeing industry. Recently, the ever-growing demand for environmentally friendly dyeing technologies has led to renewed interest in ecological textile traditions. In this context, this study aims at developing an environmentally friendly biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad to replace use of polluting chemical reduction agents. Two simple broth media, containing yeast extract or corn steep liquor (CSL), were comparatively evaluated for their capacity to sustain the growth and reducing activity of the strain Clostridium isatidis DSM 15098(T). Subsequently, the dyeing capacity of the CSL medium added with 140 g L⁻¹ of woad powder, providing 2.4 g L⁻¹ of indigo dye, was evaluated after fermentation in laboratory bioreactors under anaerobic or microaerophilic conditions. In all fermentations, a sufficiently negative oxidation/reduction potential for reduction of indigo was reached as early as 24 h and maintained up to the end of the monitoring period. However, clearly faster indigo dye reduction was seen in the broth cultures fermented under strict anaerobiosis, thus suggesting the suitability of the N₂ flushing strategy for enhancement of bacterial-driven indigo reduction.

  6. A Review on Fabricating Tissue Scaffolds using Vat Photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrain, Nicholas A; Williams, Christopher B; Whittington, Abby R

    2018-05-09

    Vat Photopolymerization (stereolithography, SLA), an Additive Manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing technology, holds particular promise for the fabrication of tissue scaffolds for use in regenerative medicine. Unlike traditional tissue scaffold fabrication techniques, SLA is capable of fabricating designed scaffolds through the selective photopolymerization of a photopolymer resin on the micron scale. SLA offers unprecedented control over scaffold porosity and permeability, as well as pore size, shape, and interconnectivity. Perhaps even more significantly, SLA can be used to fabricate vascular networks that may encourage angio and vasculogenesis. Fulfilling this potential requires the development of new photopolymers, the incorporation of biochemical factors into printed scaffolds, and an understanding of the effects scaffold geometry have on cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation. This review compares SLA to other scaffold fabrication techniques, highlights significant advances in the field, and offers a perspective on the field's challenges and future directions. Engineering de novo tissues continues to be challenging due, in part, to our inability to fabricate complex tissue scaffolds that can support cell proliferation and encourage the formation of developed tissue. The goal of this review is to first introduce the reader to traditional and Additive Manufacturing scaffold fabrication techniques. The bulk of this review will then focus on apprising the reader of current research and provide a perspective on the promising use of vat photopolymerization (stereolithography, SLA) for the fabrication of complex tissue scaffolds. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. TensorLy: Tensor Learning in Python

    OpenAIRE

    Kossaifi, Jean; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Tensors are higher-order extensions of matrices. While matrix methods form the cornerstone of machine learning and data analysis, tensor methods have been gaining increasing traction. However, software support for tensor operations is not on the same footing. In order to bridge this gap, we have developed \\emph{TensorLy}, a high-level API for tensor methods and deep tensorized neural networks in Python. TensorLy aims to follow the same standards adopted by the main projects of the Python scie...

  8. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo (Norway); Jaskot, Anne [Smith College, Northampton, MA (United States); Zheng, Zhenya, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  9. Vat leaching of gold ores and utilization of the tailings; Kinkoseki no vat leaching to koshi no yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosooka, T. [Nippon Clay Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyagawa, H. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-25

    Mitsui Kushikino Mine previously processed two gold ores from Kushikino and Iwato ore deposits by the all slime cyanidation method, where the ores were ground to fine size smaller than 75 {mu}m and leached with sodium, cyanide. A large amount of slimes were produced as waste and discarded in tailings ponds. To save the costs of grinding and waste treatment it is desirable to process coarse sized ores. The Iwato ore is gold and silver bearing silicified porous rock. As most gold and silver in the Iwato ore are concentrated in the pores, leaching of coarse sized ore is expected to be possible. Laboratory tests and pilot plant tests of vat leaching for the Iwato ore were carried out using 0.15-8.0 mm feed. These results showed that the gold dissolution rate was similar to that by the all slime cyanidation and the decrease in gold recovery was a few %. The properties of these tailings can be used in fine aggregate of concrete. Based on the results vat leaching of the Iwato ore was adopted in the plant. The tailings are sold and used as fine aggregate. Utilization of slime tailings from the other ores was also developed and they are used as flux in copper smelters. Now, there is no tailings pond at Mitsui Kushikino Mine. 9 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Geometrical shape assessment of additively manufactured features by direct light processing vat polymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Péreza, Lucia C. Díaz; Davoudinejad, Ali; Quagliotti, Danilo

    The importance of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in the field of micro manufacturing is increasing. Vat Polymerization Methods are one of the lead AM technologies to produce polymer micro parts. In the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), a vat photopolymerization AM machine able to print features...

  11. V. Monitoring the stability of coumaphos acaricide in field cattle dipping vats by using HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Gonzalez, J.; Rodriguez, F.; Barrera, R.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of coumaphos in four field cattle dipping vats and its distribution at different depths in the suspension and in the sediment was monitored over 12 to 48 weeks. The residual concentration of coumaphos and degradation products was determined by HPLC. Coumaphos was extracted from the suspension by shaking with equal volume of methanol and 90% of coumaphos was extracted by this method. A reverse phase C-18 column (25 cm x 0.4 cm) was used in the HPLC and the eluent was a mixture of methanol+ water (80+20,v/v). The initial concentration of coumaphos was 200 mg/L. However, it steadily decreased in all four vats with time. The final concentration was reduced to 39% of the concentration at zero time in vat number 1 after 12 week 17% after 18 weeks in vat number 2, 29% after 19 weeks in vat number 3 and 23% after 48 weeks in vat number 4. The concentration in the sediment increased from 165 mg/kg at zero time to 1960 mg/kg after 18 weeks in vat number 1 and 152 mg/kg to 2020 mg/kg after 48 weeks in vat number 4. The concentration of coumaphos in the suspension ranged between 28 to 81 mg/L at the surface, 46 to 115 mg/L at 20 cm and 86 to 147 mg/L at 100 cm depth. (author)

  12. The direct and immediate link test regarding deduction of input VAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    It follows explicitly from the EC VAT Directive that the deduction of input VAT depends on a positive link between on the one hand the incurred expenses and on the other hand the planned or actually completed taxed output transactions. In theory and in practice the deeper nature of this link...

  13. Contracting out: Dutch municipalities reject the solution for the VAT-distortion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradus, R.H.J.M.; Dijkgraaf, E.; Wassenaar, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the Dutch government introduced a VAT-compensation fund in order to create a level playing field for local governments with respect to Value Added Tax (VAT). This fund eliminates the effect of the tax difference between local governments that supply services themselves and local governments

  14. Lyα Profile, Dust, and Prediction of Lyα Escape Fraction in Green Pea Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Dijkstra, Mark; Tilvi, V.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-08-01

    We studied Lyman-α (Lyα) escape in a statistical sample of 43 Green Peas with HST/COS Lyα spectra. Green Peas are nearby star-forming galaxies with strong [O III]λ5007 emission lines. Our sample is four times larger than the previous sample and covers a much more complete range of Green Pea properties. We found that about two-thirds of Green Peas are strong Lyα line emitters with rest-frame Lyα equivalent width > 20 \\mathringA . The Lyα profiles of Green Peas are diverse. The Lyα escape fraction, defined as the ratio of observed Lyα flux to intrinsic Lyα flux, shows anti-correlations with a few Lyα kinematic features—both the blue peak and red peak velocities, the peak separations, and the FWHM of the red portion of the Lyα profile. Using properties measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we found many correlations—the Lyα escape fraction generally increases at lower dust reddening, lower metallicity, lower stellar mass, and higher [O III]/[O II] ratio. We fit their Lyα profiles with the H I shell radiative transfer model and found that the Lyα escape fraction is anti-correlated with the best-fit N H I . Finally, we fit an empirical linear relation to predict {f}{esc}{Lyα } from the dust extinction and Lyα red peak velocity. The standard deviation of this relation is about 0.3 dex. This relation can be used to isolate the effect of intergalactic medium (IGM) scatterings from Lyα escape and to probe the IGM optical depth along the line of sight of each z> 7 Lyα emission-line galaxy in the James Webb Space Telescope era.

  15. Comparative Short-Term Clinical Outcomes of Mediastinum Tumor Excision Performed by Conventional VATS and Single-Port VATS: Is It Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Feng; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Wen, Chih-Tsung; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yin-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wu, Ching-Yang; Chen, Wei-Hsun

    2015-11-01

    Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely applied recently. However, there are still only few reports describing its use in mediastinum tumor resection. We present the technique of single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinum tumor resection and compare it with conventional VATS with regard to short-term outcome.We retrospectively enrolled 105 patients who received mediastinum surgery in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Sixteen patients received sternotomy or thoracotomy, 29 patients received single-port VATS, and 60 patients received conventional VATS (3 ports). The operative time, blood loss, postoperation day 1 pain score, discharge day pain score, and postoperative hospital stay were compared. In order to establish a well balanced cohort study, we also use propensity scores match (1:1) to compare the short-term clinical outcome in 2 groups.No operative deaths occurred in this study. Single-port VATS was associated with shorter operative time, lower postoperation day 1 pain score, and shorter postoperation hospital stay in our cohort study (P = 0.001, short-term outcome not inferior to conventional VATS in our cohort study. The long-term oncology outcome may require time and more enrolled patients to be further evaluated.

  16. Impact of VAT on the Profitability and the Cash Flow of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The options available to taxpayers make tax systems attractive and give them an opportunity to choose one system or another after a careful analysis of the fiscal advantages and disadvantages of each choice. A small or medium company has to explore the options available, whether that is VAT registration or de-registration or choosing the best VAT special scheme. VAT optimisation is particularly interesting because of the high cash flow involved and because of the cash flow benefits that can be obtained. This paper presents an analysis of VAT costs and their impact on profitability and cash flow of small and medium enterprises. We also analysed specific mechanisms to improve profitability and cash flow through VAT optimisation.

  17. IMPACT OF VAT ON THE PROFITABILITY AND THE CASH FLOW OF ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTREPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The options available to taxpayers make tax systems attractive and give them an opportunity to choose one system or another after a careful analysis of the fiscal advantages and disadvantages of each choice. A small or medium company has to explore the options available, whether that is VAT registration or de-registration or choosing the best VAT special scheme. VAT optimisation is particularly interesting because of the high cash flow involved and because of the cash flow benefits that can be obtained. This paper presents an analysis of VAT costs and their impact on profitability and cash flow of small and medium enterprises. We also analysed specific mechanisms to improve profitability and cash flow through VAT optimisation.

  18. Changes in the Strength of the Polymer Concrete Used in the Electroplating Vats Under Operational Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radna Lidia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the strong and aggressive electrolyte media and thermal load, design of the electroplating vats in the copper industry often relies on the resin concrete. The article presents the results of the strength tests of the polymer concrete based on the "Derakane" resin, used in the construction of electroplating vats. Samples were taken from the real vats - both new and 17-year old. Strength tests included compression and bending tensile strength test. To assess the effect of operational conditions the tests were performed on the same-age vats, some of which were never used while others were subjected to the operational load. During the operation, the vats sustained load of the anode and cathode weights, cyclic electrolyte loading with a temperatures up to 60°C. As a result, it was noted that the operational conditions led to the increased strength of the polymer concrete material.

  19. Changes in the Strength of the Polymer Concrete Used in the Electroplating Vats Under Operational Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radna, Lidia; Sakharov, Volodymyr

    2017-12-01

    Due to the strong and aggressive electrolyte media and thermal load, design of the electroplating vats in the copper industry often relies on the resin concrete. The article presents the results of the strength tests of the polymer concrete based on the "Derakane" resin, used in the construction of electroplating vats. Samples were taken from the real vats - both new and 17-year old. Strength tests included compression and bending tensile strength test. To assess the effect of operational conditions the tests were performed on the same-age vats, some of which were never used while others were subjected to the operational load. During the operation, the vats sustained load of the anode and cathode weights, cyclic electrolyte loading with a temperatures up to 60°C. As a result, it was noted that the operational conditions led to the increased strength of the polymer concrete material.

  20. Ly α and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Jiang, Tianxing [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wofford, Aida, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu [National Autonomous University of Mexico, Institute of Astronomy (Mexico)

    2017-03-20

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly α -emitting galaxies (LAEs). To probe their Ly α escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly α and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope . We extract the spatial profiles of Ly α emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of the UV continuum from both 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly α emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum, in most Green Peas. The deconvolved full width at half maximum of the Ly α spatial profile is about 2–4 times that of the UV continuum, in most cases. Because Green Peas are analogs of high z LAEs, our results suggest that most high- z LAEs probably have larger Ly α sizes than UV sizes. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly α photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find that the blue wing of the Ly α line has a larger spatial extent than the red wing in four Green Peas with comparatively weak blue Ly α line wings. We show that Green Peas and MUSE z = 3–6 LAEs have similar Ly α and UV continuum sizes, which probably suggests that starbursts in both low- z and high- z LAEs drive similar gas outflows illuminated by Ly α light. Five Lyman continuum (LyC) leakers in this sample have similar Ly α to UV continuum size ratios (∼1.4–4.3) to the other Green Peas, indicating that their LyC emissions escape through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  1. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie Strange, MD...regarding imatinib mesylate (imatinib) in the treatment of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis ( LAM ) sufficient to power and design a phase 3 imatinib vs. placebo...clinical trial. The hypothesis is that imatinib will be equivalent to rapamycin in short term efficacy and safety. Currently, most LAM patients are

  2. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLIEFERA. LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K.N. Venkataswera; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Loganathan, V.; Nathan, S. Shanmuganathan

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant. PMID:22556890

  3. On LAM's and SAM's for Halley's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peale, Stanton J.

    1992-01-01

    Non principal axis rotation for comet Halley is inferred from dual periodicities evident in the observations. The modes where the spin axis precesses around the axis of minimum moment of inertia (long axis mode or LAM) and where it precesses around the axis of maximum moment of inertia (short axis mode or SAM) are described from an inertial point of view. The currently favored LAM model for Halley's rotation state satisfies observational and dynamical constraints that apparently no SAM can satisfy. But it cannot reproduce the observed post perihelion brightening through seasonal illumination of localized sources on the nucleus, whereas a SAM can easily produce post or pre perihelion brightening by this mechanism. However, the likelihood of a LAM rotation for elongated nuclei of periodic comets such as Halley together with Halley's extreme post perihelion behavior far from the Sun suggest that Halley's post perihelion brightening may be due to effects other than seasonal illumination of localized sources, and therefore such brightening may not constrain its rotation state.

  4. Features of VAT Accounting and Fiscality – History, Practices and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The value-added tax (VAT is an indirect tax, supported by the final consumer of the good/service that it is applied. During the productive and commercial cycle, the companies pay VAT according to the value added on the good/service. Quite recently appeared in the fiscal system of different states, VAT has a big spreading area. The taxation rates are different from a country to another, according to the economic conditions and the fiscal law (in EU, from 15% for Cyprus and Luxembourg to 27% for Hungary, and outside EU, from 3% for Iran, to 25% for Norway. In Romania, the rates are: the standard rate of 24% and the reduced rates of 9% and 5%, the payment term being monthly or quarterly, according to the company turnover. In the accounting and fiscality area, VAT presents special features, conditioned by the type of activity and the company size. In order to support the small companies, starting with 01.01.2013 the “VAT Encashment System” was introduced, that relates the VAT payability to the encashment moment of the invoice. The VAT impact on the profitability is an aspect that must be considered when we discuss about: costs, cash-flow, results, liquidity, solvency or efficiency rates.

  5. Efficiency of a single-rate and broad-based VAT system: the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Antić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the performance and efficiency of the VAT system in B&H and explore the effects of internal and external factors influencing VAT collection. The VAT system in B&H is a consumption-type, single-rate and broad-based system. Ever since its implementation, VAT collection in B&H has been subject to strong oscillations, from an extremely high performance in the first two years after the introduction, to a sharp drop at the beginning of the crisis. After a temporary recovery, VAT collection declined in the last quarter of 2012 and has been negative ever since, although a weak recovery of the B&H economy was observed in 2013. The key hypothesis is that the high efficiency of the broadbased and single-rate structured VAT system may be neutralized by the country’s specific circumstances and VAT policy design. Applying a set of indicators for VAT efficiency analysis, developed by IMF, OECD and EU, we find a deterioration of the components of the policy gap caused by derogations of the VAT Law, and an increasing compliance gap, due to an increase of the VAT debt and tax evasion, in consequence of poor policy design in the field of excises. As a result of the influence of the country’s specific circumstances and its VAT policy design the identifiable current net losses on VAT in 2013 amount to 4% of net VAT collection or 0.4% of GDP. The analysis presented in the paper proves the main hypothesis that a VAT design, even when it is close to theoretically ideal concept, cannot on its own produce a high level of VAT efficiency and performance.

  6. Lam\\'e polynomials, hyperelliptic reductions and Lam\\'e band structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    The band structure of the Lam\\'e equation, viewed as a one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger equation with a periodic potential, is studied. At integer values of the degree parameter l, the dispersion relation is reduced to the l=1 dispersion relation, and a previously published l=2 dispersion relation is shown to be partially incorrect. The Hermite-Krichever Ansatz, which expresses Lam\\'e equation solutions in terms of l=1 solutions, is the chief tool. It is based on a projection from a genus-l hype...

  7. Using virtual reality simulation to assess competence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2017-01-01

    for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. METHODS: Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim(®)) and introduced to the steps of the procedure...... % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices...

  8. What is the physical origin of strong Lyα emission? I. Demographics of Lyα emitter structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ouchi, Masami; Yuma, Suraphong; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Mori, Masao; Umemura, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of structure analyses for a large sample of 426 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z ∼ 2.2 that are observed with the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFC3-IR during deep extra-galactic legacy surveys. We confirm that the merger fraction and the average ellipticity of LAE's stellar component are 10%-30% and 0.4-0.6, respectively, that are comparable with previous study results. We successfully identify that some LAEs have a spatial offset between Lyα and stellar-continuum emission peaks, δ Lyα , by ∼2.5-4 kpc beyond our statistical errors. To uncover the physical origin of strong Lyα emission found in LAEs, we investigate the Lyα equivalent width (EW) dependences of three structural parameters: merger fraction, δ Lyα , and ellipticity of stellar distribution in the range of EW(Lyα) = 20-250 Å. Contrary to expectations, we find that the merger fraction does not significantly increase with Lyα EW. We reveal an anti-correlation between δ Lyα and EW(Lyα) using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test. There is a trend that the LAEs with a large Lyα EW have a small ellipticity. This is consistent with the recent theoretical claims that Lyα photons can more easily escape from face-on disks having a small ellipticity, due to less inter-stellar gas along the line of sight, although our K-S test indicates that this trend is not statistically significant. Our results of Lyα-EW dependence generally support the idea that an H I column density is a key quantity determining Lyα emissivity.

  9. VAT-69, a software system for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furr, A.K.; Roscoe, B.A.; Parkinson, T.F.

    1979-01-01

    The software system was originally developed solely for neutron activation analysis. Its usefulness has been enhanced by adding modules that allow processing of gamma spectra from natural radioisotopes and from fission products. It allows: (1) separation of overlapping peaks, allowing retrieval of a peak of interest in the presence of an interfering peak, (2) calibration of each gamma spectrum for energy and peak width, using criteria based on gamma peak data internal to the individual spectrum, (3) correction for errors due to rapidly changing dead times during the counting interval, permitting accurate count data for samples containing mixed short-, medium-, and long-lived isotopes. One disadvantage of the original software was that it produced more output information than desired. The modifications that have been implemented to produce final concentration values include: (1) computation of a weighted-average concentration of the ith element where two or more gamma peaks are available, (2) rejection of gamma peaks when the difference in energies of the located peak and library peak exceeds a preset value, (3) rejection of concentration values based on gamma peaks which do not satisfy preselected criteria for irradiation time and wait time, (4) computation of the error in concentration of the ith element, and (5) correction of sample concentration for trace elements in the irradiation vials. Overall performance of the software system is checked periodically by analyzing standards. Several thousand spectra are processed each year with VAT-69, with typically 25 to 40 elements quantitatively determined

  10. VAT-teatris mõtiskletakse allasurutud pingete üle / Mari Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari

    2006-01-01

    13. apr. esietendus VAT Teatris Amélie Nothombi "Vaenlase kosmeetika", tõlkija, lavastaja ja muusikaline kujundaja Peeter Raudsepp, kunstnik Hardi Volmer. Tükki mängitakse rahvusraamatukogu teatrisaalis

  11. A Self-Peeling Vat for Improved Release Capabilities During DLP Materials Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue; Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2016-01-01

    for an eased release of the manufactured part from the vat by means of a flexible membrane system. A membrane of fluorinated ethylene polymer will through elastic deformation automatically peel off the part as the part is lifted during layer changes. Peeling has been qualified by means of a truncated inverted...... cone as test geometry. As the cross-sectional diameter of the cone increase throughout the build-job, the geometry will release from the glass based build platform at the point where the peeling force exceed the adhesion force between platform and part. At failure point the lateral surface area...... of the top and bottom of the truncated cone is used as a measure of the performance of the vat with respect to release-capability. This has been tested at increasing manufacturing rates. The new self-peeling vat outperformed industrial state-of-the-art vats by 814% percent....

  12. Evaluation of polymer micro parts produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro manufacturing scale feature production by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes for the direct production of miniaturized polymer components is analysed in this work. The study characterizes the AM processes for polymer micro parts productions using the vat photopolymerization method...

  13. Resignation from the VAT exemption of sales of residential premises by the developer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Koziollek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax institutions should be construed in a rational manner, in order so as to not restrict economic turnover excessively. The regulations concerning the possibility to resign from the VAT exemption of sales of residential premises by the developer characterizes by the high level of formalism which affects in a negative manner the sales process performed by the developer. This paper is devoted to the fragment of the polish Act on the goods and services tax governing the issue of resignation from the VAT exemption of sales of residential premises, which implies in a certain extent to appeal to the regulation of exemptions stipulated in this Act. The subject matter of this analysis is to examine the correctness of transposition of the Directive 112 into polish legal system in the field of real estate exemptions from VAT, the conditions for exercising the optional exemption, as well as the benefit of the resignation from the VAT exemption by the taxpayer.

  14. The impact of VAT introduction on UK residential energy demand: an investigation using the cointegration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Over a two-year period, which started in April 1994, the real price of energy to UK households was expected to rise by 17.5% as a result of value-added tax (VAT) introduction. The regressive nature of the tax forced the government to limit VAT on residential fuel to 8%. Using a cointegration approach, to take account of the non-stationarity fuel consumption time series, this paper estimates real energy and fuel specific price and income elasticities for the period 1974:1-1994:1. They suggest that natural gas has a positive real energy price elasticity indicating that, as real price of energy rises, households scrap inefficient heaters and invest in more efficient ones, principally natural gas. These estimates enable projections to be made of the impact of the introduction of VAT and imply a rise in natural gas consumption as a result of the additional VAT, although at the expense of other less efficient fuels. (author)

  15. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy using a standardized anterior approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Christensen, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Lobectomy using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) still is a controversial operation despite its many observed benefits. The controversy may be due to difficulties performing the procedure. This study addresses a standardized anterior approach facilitating the operation....

  16. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... applications, strength and stiffness are crucial factors to a successful implementation of cured photopolymer thermosets. Hence, fiber-reinforced polymers have recently been introduced. The behavior and especially orientation of fibers during the vat photopolymerization process has yet not been fully...

  17. The Vat Exemption for Health Care: Eu Law and its Impact on Swedish law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Påhlsson Robert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The general rule in EU law is that value-added tax (VAT is to be levied on all goods and services. There are a number of exceptions, however, one of which applies to certain medical services. This paper examines the legal basis for tax exemptions in EU VAT law and in Swedish law, with particular attention to the extent to which the rapidly growing private health-care sector is covered by these tax exemptions.

  18. The Intertemporal Substitution and Income Effects of a VAT Rate Increase: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    David CASHIN; UNAYAMA Takashi

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest political issues in Japan is an increase in the rate of value added tax (VAT). In this paper, we evaluate its impact on household expenditure, using Japan's April 1997 VAT rate increase from three to five percent as a case study. A rate increase induces price hikes, and provided this increase in price levels is anticipated, households should engage in intertemporal substitution of purchases. In addition, if households are not compensated for the rate increase, it has the po...

  19. The Role of Laparoscopic-Assisted Myomectomy (LAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhat, Ceana H.; Nezhat, Farr.; Nezhat, Camran

    2001-01-01

    Laparoscopic myomectomy has recently gained wide acceptance. However, this procedure remains technically highly demanding and concerns have been raised regarding the prolonged time of anesthesia, increased blood loss, and possibly a higher risk of postoperative adhesion formation. Laparoscopic-assisted myomectomy (LAM) is advocated as a technique that may lessen these concerns regarding laparoscopic myomectomy while retaining the benefits of laparoscopic surgery, namely, short hospital stay, lower costs, and rapid recovery. By decreasing the technical demands, and thereby the operative time, LAM may be more widely offered to patients. In carefully selected cases, LAM is a safe and efficient alternative to both laparoscopic myomectomy and myomectomy by laparotomy. These cases include patients with numerous large or deep intramural myomas. LAM allows easier repair of the uterus and rapid morcellation of the myomas. In women who desire a future pregnancy, LAM may be a better approach because it allows meticulous suturing of the uterine defect in layers and thereby eliminates excessive electrocoagulation. PMID:11719974

  20. STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF CASH ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR VAT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cash accounting system for VAT has been implemented in Romania as of 1 January 2013 and now turns one year of application in Romania. Since its implementation the system has sparked controversy, being harshly criticised by professional accountants in Romania and elsewhere. Criticisms mainly concerned the following issues: no possibility to choose to apply the system, breach of the VAT neutrality principles, maximum period of 90 days to postpone the chargeability of VAT for unpaid deliveries, while VAT deduction was subject to payment of the value of goods and services invoiced without specifying any term. In this article we would like to examine the extent to which the legislative changes that came into effect as of 1 January 2014 improve the cash accounting system for VAT in Romania. We will also analyse to what extent the system applied in 2013 has brought advantages/disadvantages to the economic entities in Romania based on a survey carried out on a heterogeneous sample of companies in the county of Gorj, regarded as nationally representative. Finally, we intend to compare the cash accounting system for VAT in Romania with its UK counterpart.

  1. THE VAT SPLIT-PAYMENT MECHANISM, MEASURE FOR COMBATING TAX EVASION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUT - GHEORGHE CARAUS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to improve the methods of collecting and detecting value-added tax amounts is an increasingly difficult process for tax authorities. In this respect, a rigorous analysis of the ways in which the state manages to prevent or combat VAT evasion, in the context in which VAT fraud accounts for about 60% of Romania's total tax evasion, is required. Therefore, the new provisions concerning the VAT split payments, applicable from January 1, 2018 for all categories of taxpayers, can contribute significantly to the efficiency of collection, of the amounts derived from the VAT, as well as to reduce tax evasion in the field of value added tax and providing a fair competitive environment, by eliminating benefits for economic operators with incorrect tax behavior who do not pay VAT to the State budget. Also, through these measures taken by the state, the main motivation for the introduction of the value added tax splitpayments mechanism, contributes to the increase of the voluntary compliance degree by providing the financial resources for the payment of VAT due to the State budget.

  2. Early-type semidetached system LY Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.F.; Leung, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to resolve a controversy regarding the configuration, mass ratio, and evolutionary status of the early-type close binary system LY Aur, the six bandpass OAO 2 observations of Heap and the ground-based observations combined by Eaton were analyzed. The Wilson and Devinney approach was used. The system is found to be semidetached, with the cooler and less massive component filling its Roche lobe, while the hotter component is close to its Roche surface. The system is not an early-type zero-age contact, as was suspected earlier. 20 references

  3. A z = 3 Lyα BLOB ASSOCIATED WITH A DAMPED Lyα SYSTEM PROXIMATE TO ITS BACKGROUND QUASAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Kollmeier, Juna; Zheng Zheng

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a bright Lyα blob associated with the z = 3 quasar SDSS J124020.91+145535.6 which is also coincident with strong damped Lyα absorption from a foreground galaxy (a so-called proximate damped Lyα (PDLA) system). The one-dimensional spectrum acquired by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) shows a broad Lyα emission line with a FWHM ≅500 km s -1 and a luminosity of L Lyα = 3.9 x 10 43 erg s -1 superposed on the trough of the PDLA. Follow-up observations using the Keck/LRIS spectrometer confirm that this source has a Lyα nebula with spatial extent exceeding 5'', corresponding to a proper size >39 kpc. Mechanisms for powering the large Lyα luminosity in this nebula are discussed. We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation to investigate the possibility that the line emission is fluorescent recombination radiation from a kpc-scale PDLA galaxy powered by the ionizing flux of the quasar, but find that the predicted Lyα flux is several orders of magnitude lower than observed. We conclude that the Lyα emission is not associated with the PDLA galaxy at all, but instead is intrinsic to the quasar's host and similar to the extended Lyα f uzzwhich is detected around many active galactic nuclei. PDLAs are natural coronagraphs that block their background quasar at Lyα and we discuss how systems similar to SDSS J124020.91+145535.6 might be used to image the neutral hydrogen in the PDLA galaxy in silhouette against the screen of extended Lyα emission from the background quasar.

  4. Using virtual reality simulation to assess competence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Konge, Lars

    2017-06-01

    The societies of thoracic surgery are working to incorporate simulation and competency-based assessment into specialty training. One challenge is the development of a simulation-based test, which can be used as an assessment tool. The study objective was to establish validity evidence for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim ® ) and introduced to the steps of the procedure for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy. The participants performed two VATS lobectomies on the simulator with a 5-min break between attempts. Nineteen pre-defined simulator metrics were recorded. Fifty-three participants from nine different countries were included. High internal consistency was found for the metrics with Cronbach's alpha coefficient for standardized items of 0.91. Significant test-retest reliability was found for 15 of the metrics (p-values 50 VATS lobectomies performed). A pass/fail level defined as approximately one standard deviation from the mean metric scores for experienced surgeons passed none of the novices (0 % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices and experienced surgeons and pass/fail criteria for the test were set with acceptable consequences. This test can be used as a first step in assessing thoracic surgery trainees' VATS lobectomy competency.

  5. DETERMINING VAT PRO RATE. CASE STUDY AT A PAWNSHOP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE ECOBICI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Determining VAT pro rate entails in terms of theory the calculation of the share of taxable transactions made by an entity in total transactions. Thus, the entities that use VAT mixed regimes will be able to deduct the VAT related to operations afferent to the transactions with deductibility right and without deduction right, just in the same proportion with calculated pro rata. Also, regulations and adjustments will be made using the final pro rate applied for the entire ending year in the last statement of every year. By the 25th of the first month of the financial year, any entity must declare the provisional pro rate for the coming year to the tax administration body, which is equal to that determined for the ended year. The method used for capturing the main practical tax and accounting problems inherent to determine the VAT pro rate is the case study made at a pawn shop in Romania over the year 2016. Thus, given the multiplicity of operations carried out by pawnshops (pawnshop with gold and silver goods, pawnshop with electronics, selling goods unclaimed at the expiration of the pawn contracts, melting gold and silver and sale in the form of ingots or bars etc., in this article there will be discussed the main problems which may occur in practice on the VAT pro rata, using the example of an entity of this kind in Romania for 2016.

  6. The taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a Comparative Law approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Villanueva Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the definitions of the main taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a comparative approach to thelegislation of different countries (Spain, Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In this regard, it analyzes which legislations offer definitions according to the principles of generality, fiscal neutrality and legal certainty for VAT. Moreover, it points out that the VAT systems of those countries do not require as a condition for the configuration of the taxable events that the transactions involve a «value added» or a final consumption. In the specificcase of «supplies of goods», the VAT systems have a similar definition of the taxable event, although there are a few differences. However, in the case of«supplies of services», which is the most important taxable event for VAT, there are important differences at the time each country defines it. This is not a desirable effect for the international trade of services, since the lack of harmonization produces double taxation or double non taxation.

  7. The LAM space active optics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  8. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  9. Crystal Structure of the FGFR4/LY2874455 Complex Reveals Insights into the Pan-FGFR Selectivity of LY2874455.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daichao; Guo, Ming; Philips, Michael A; Qu, Lingzhi; Jiang, Longying; Li, Jun; Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhuchu; Chen, Lin; Chen, Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant FGFR4 signaling has been documented abundantly in various human cancers. The majority of FGFR inhibitors display significantly reduced potency toward FGFR4 compared to FGFR1-3. However, LY2874455 has similar inhibition potency for FGFR1-4 with IC50 less than 6.4 nM. To date, there is no published crystal structure of LY2874455 in complex with any kinase. To better understand the pan-FGFR selectivity of LY2874455, we have determined the crystal structure of the FGFR4 kinase domain bound to LY2874455 at a resolution of 2.35 Å. LY2874455, a type I inhibitor for FGFR4, binds to the ATP-binding pocket of FGFR4 in a DFG-in active conformation with three hydrogen bonds and a number of van der Waals contacts. After alignment of the kinase domain sequence of 4 FGFRs, and superposition of the ATP binding pocket of 4 FGFRs, our structural analyses reveal that the interactions of LY2874455 to FGFR4 are largely conserved in 4 FGFRs, explaining at least partly, the broad inhibitory activity of LY2874455 toward 4 FGFRs. Consequently, our studies reveal new insights into the pan-FGFR selectivity of LY2874455 and provide a structural basis for developing novel FGFR inhibitors that target FGFR1-4 broadly.

  10. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... understood. Research indicates an orientation within the manufacturing layer and efforts have been made to achieve a more uniform orientation within the part. A vat polymerization machine consisting of a resin vat and a moving build plate has been simulated using the fluid flow module of Comsol Multiphysics...... photopolymer resin. The prediction can be used to identify potential clusters or misalignment of fibers and in the future allow for optimization of the machine design and manufacturing process....

  11. In pursuit of tax equity: lessons from VAT rate structure adjustment in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Świstak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, in the aftermath of the economic crisis, Poland increased its value added tax rates. Despite an already large VAT policy gap, further rate differentiation was used to address distributional concerns and to protect the most vulnerable households. We find that the changes to the VAT rate structure hardly improved the overall progressivity of the VAT and the tax system as a whole. While providing only minimal relief to the poor, taxation of food products at a super reduced rate greatly subsidized the richer households. With a small change to the income tax structure, the government could have secured more progressivity at a lower cost in terms of revenue foregone.

  12. INTRODUCTION OF VAT SPLIT PAYMENT MECHANISM IN ROMANIA – COMPULSORY VERSUS OPTIONALLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the implications of introducing the VAT split payment mechanism in Romania, as it is regulated, as a compulsory system, through GO 23/2017 respectively, as well as in the case of the modification of the regulation in the sense of replacing the compulsory by optionality. We will analyze the effects of Ordinance 23/2017 of the Romanian Government regarding the mandatory distinctly payment of VAT for Romanian legal persons, registered or not for VAT purposes, as well as the result which the Government hopes to obtain as a result of the application of this provision, on the one hand. On the other hand, we will discuss the effects of a change in regulation for the optionally application of the VAT split payment mechanism, as of January 1, 2018, as compared with the amendments already approved by the Romanian Senate on October 31st, 2017. The structure of the article includes the following main sections: a briefly presents of the VAT split payment mechanism, as it was originally regulated by GO 23/2017; the second part includes the analysis of the implications of introducing the VAT split payment mechanism on legal entities and the state, in the initial phase of the Ordinance; the third part is devoted to the presentation of the amendments approved at the end of October 2017, respectively to the recommendations on amendments needed to be taken into account by the Chamber of Deputies, and the last part will include the conclusions and recommendations.

  13. Single-staged uniportal VATS in the supine position for simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo

    2017-05-15

    Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP) is rare, but requires surgery on both sides, in patients with definite bilateral bullae to prevent life-threatening conditions. Recently, uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely accepted as a less invasive technique for the treatment of pneumothorax. Thus, we introduced single-staged uniportal VATS technique in the supine position, for the management of two cases of SBPSP. A 17-year-old boy presented with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and he underwent single-staged uniportal VATS in the supine position. Single wide draping in consecutive bilateral approaches removes the needs of changing patients' position. Whole thoracoscopic procedure for wedge resection of bullae lesions was conducted without difficulty. The total operation time took 65 min and the patient discharged 3 days after the operation. The patient was followed for 24 months without recurrence of both sides. Another 18-year-old boy was admitted with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and single-staged uniportal VATS was also performed in the supine position. The total operation time took 79 min and the patient discharged on postoperative day 4. He was followed for 19 months without recurrence of both sides. Single-staged uniportal VATS approach yielded satisfactory results from simplicity that not requires position change compared to conventional multi-ports VATS in the lateral position, and with better cosmetics. This technique is thought to be a feasible procedure in selective patients with SBPSP or with contralateral bullae for preventive role.

  14. How early should VATS be performed for retained haemothorax in blunt chest trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsing-Lin; Huang, Wen-Yen; Yang, Chyan; Chou, Shih-Min; Chiang, Hsin-I; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Lin, Tsung-Ying; Chou, Yi-Pin

    2014-09-01

    Blunt chest injury is not uncommon in trauma patients. Haemothorax and pneumothorax may occur in these patients, and some of them will develop retained pleural collections. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become an appropriate method for treating these complications, but the optimal timing for performing the surgery and its effects on outcome are not clearly understood. In this study, a total of 136 patients who received VATS for the management of retained haemothorax from January 2003 to December 2011 were retrospectively enrolled. All patients had blunt chest injuries and 90% had associated injuries in more than two sites. The time from trauma to operation was recorded and the patients were divided into three groups: 2-3 days (Group 1), 4-6 days (Group 2), and 7 or more days (Group 3). Clinical outcomes such as the length of stay (LOS) at the hospital and intensive care unit (ICU), and duration of ventilator and chest tube use were all recorded and compared between groups. The mean duration from trauma to operation was 5.9 days. All demographic characteristics showed no statistical differences between groups. Compared with other groups, Group 3 had higher rates of positive microbial cultures in pleural collections and sputum, longer duration of chest tube insertion and ventilator use. Lengths of hospital and ICU stay in Groups 1 and 2 showed no statistical difference, but were longer in Group 3. The frequency of repeated VATS was lower in Group 1 but without statistically significant difference. This study indicated that an early VATS intervention would decrease chest infection. It also reduced the duration of ventilator dependency. The clinical outcomes were significantly better for patients receiving VATS within 3 days under intensive care. In this study, we suggested that VATS might be delayed by associated injuries, but should not exceed 6 days after trauma. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical Characteristics of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor; Cac dac trung vat ly lo cua lo phan ung hat nhan Da Lat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huy, Ngo Quang [ed.; Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    The operation of the TRIGA MARK II reactor of nominal power 250 KW has been stopped as all the fuel elements have been dismounted and taken away in 1968. The reconstruction of the reactor was accomplished with Russian technological assistance after 1975. The nominal power of the reconstructed reactor is of 500 KW. The recent Dalat reactor is unique of its kind in the world: Russian-designed core combined with left-over infrastructure of the American-made TRIGA II. The reactor was loaded in November 1983. It has reached physical criticality on 1/11/1983 (without central neutron trap) and on 18/12/1983 (with central neutron trap). The power start up occurred in February 1984 and from 20/3/1984 the reactor began to be operated at the nominal power 500 KW. The selected reports included in the proceedings reflect the start up procedures and numerous results obtained in the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and the Centre of Nuclear Techniques on the determination of different physical characteristics of the reactor. These characteristics are of the first importance for the safe operation of the Dalat reactor.

  16. METHODOLOGICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE VAT COLLECTION SYSTEM Case study made in a company operating in the construction sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN OANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of the collected VAT on a company acting in the construction field in the current economic environmnet; the study is based on data provided by the company before and after applying the VAT collection system. The research reflects the VAT payable on State Budget three times: before its entry into the system, its activity during the application system and its situation in 2014 when the company can choose between staying in the system or getting out of it. The research method consisted in reviewing approaches made in the literature, articles and specialized studies in national and international journals. We followed a detailed approach of the effects generated by the VAT collection system among companies acting in the construction filed and we made a case study based on the activity of the construction companies before applying the system and their option to stay or exit the VAT collection system.

  17. Effect of beta-agonists on LAM progression and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kang; Steagall, Wendy K; Stylianou, Mario; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Darling, Thomas N; Vaughan, Martha; Moss, Joel

    2018-01-30

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare disease of women, is associated with cystic lung destruction resulting from the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells with mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 and/or TSC2 The mutant genes and encoded proteins are responsible for activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is inhibited by sirolimus (rapamycin), a drug used to treat LAM. Patients who have LAM may also be treated with bronchodilators for asthma-like symptoms due to LAM. We observed stabilization of forced expiratory volume in 1 s over time in patients receiving sirolimus and long-acting beta-agonists with short-acting rescue inhalers compared with patients receiving only sirolimus. Because beta-agonists increase cAMP and PKA activity, we investigated effects of PKA activation on the mTOR pathway. Human skin TSC2 +/- fibroblasts or LAM lung cells incubated short-term with isoproterenol (beta-agonist) showed a sirolimus-independent increase in phosphorylation of S6, a downstream effector of the mTOR pathway, and increased cell growth. Cells incubated long-term with isoproterenol, which may lead to beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization, did not show increased S6 phosphorylation. Inhibition of PKA blocked the isoproterenol effect on S6 phosphorylation. Thus, activation of PKA by beta-agonists increased phospho-S6 independent of mTOR, an effect abrogated by beta-agonist-driven receptor desensitization. In agreement, retrospective clinical data from patients with LAM suggested that a combination of bronchodilators in conjunction with sirolimus may be preferable to sirolimus alone for stabilization of pulmonary function.

  18. Expression of the Ly-6 family proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H in the rat brain is compartmentalized, cell-type specific, and developmentally regulated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Cinar, Betül; Jensen, Majbrit Myrup

    2014-01-01

    regarding the distribution and developmental regulation of these proteins in the brain. We use protein cross-linking and synaptosomal fractions to demonstrate that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H are membrane-bound proteins in the brain, which are present on the cell surface and localize to synaptic...... demonstrate that Lynx1 and Ly6H are expressed in cultured neurons, but not cultured micro- or astroglial cultures. In addition, Lynx1, but not Ly6H was detected in the CSF. Finally, we show that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1, Lynx2, Ly6H, and PSCA, display distinct expression patterns during postnatal development...

  19. A Comparison of Some Properties of Vat-Heated and Dry Skim Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some properties, namely; viscosity, flavour, acidity, texture, aroma and palatability of cultured yoghurt made from milk previously heated to 90OC for 30 minutes in a Vat were studied and the results compared to those of yoghurt fortified by addition of dry skim milk powder. The results showed no significant difference (P ...

  20. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uniform heating. The inner liner shall be minimum 16 gauge stainless steel or other equally corrosion... jacket. The outer jacket shall be constructed of stainless steel or other metal which can be kept clean... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58...

  1. Impact of Electronic Tax Registers on VAT Compliance: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of use of Electronic Tax Registers (ETRs ) on Value Added Tax (VAT) compliance among private business firms in Kisumu city, Kenya. A sample of 233 private firms was selected from a population of 590 private firms using stratified sampling technique. The data was ...

  2. The compliance costs of VAT in the hotel industry in Mauritius | Pillai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost of complying with tax legislation has stimulated much controversy recently and the survey conducted by Sandford (1973) suggested that the essential characteristics of a successful VAT system are clarify and simplicity. This article lays down facts and figures that arise from a survey carried out in July 1999 in the ...

  3. THE LINE POLARIZATION WITHIN A GIANT Lyα NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Smith, Paul S.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Dey, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical work has suggested that Lyα nebulae could be substantially polarized in the Lyα emission line, depending on the geometry, kinematics, and powering mechanism at work. Polarization observations can therefore provide a useful constraint on the source of ionization in these systems. In this Letter, we present the first Lyα polarization measurements for a giant Lyα nebula at z∼ 2.656. We do not detect any significant linear polarization of the Lyα emission: P Lyα = 2.6% ± 2.8% (corrected for statistical bias) within a single large aperture. The current data also do not show evidence for the radial polarization gradient predicted by some theoretical models. These results rule out singly scattered Lyα (e.g., from the nearby active galactic nucleus, AGN) and may be inconsistent with some models of backscattering in a spherical outflow. However, the effects of seeing, diminished signal-to-noise ratio, and angle averaging within radial bins make it difficult to put strong constraints on the radial polarization profile. The current constraints may be consistent with higher density outflow models, spherically symmetric infall models, photoionization by star formation within the nebula or the nearby AGN, resonant scattering, or non-spherically symmetric cold accretion (i.e., along filaments). Higher signal-to-noise ratio data probing to higher spatial resolution will allow us to harness the full diagnostic power of polarization observations in distinguishing between theoretical models of giant Lyα nebulae.

  4. VAT: a computational framework to functionally annotate variants in personal genomes within a cloud-computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Lukas; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Chen, David Z; Khurana, Ekta; Sboner, Andrea; Harmanci, Arif; Rozowsky, Joel; Clarke, Declan; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2012-09-01

    The functional annotation of variants obtained through sequencing projects is generally assumed to be a simple intersection of genomic coordinates with genomic features. However, complexities arise for several reasons, including the differential effects of a variant on alternatively spliced transcripts, as well as the difficulty in assessing the impact of small insertions/deletions and large structural variants. Taking these factors into consideration, we developed the Variant Annotation Tool (VAT) to functionally annotate variants from multiple personal genomes at the transcript level as well as obtain summary statistics across genes and individuals. VAT also allows visualization of the effects of different variants, integrates allele frequencies and genotype data from the underlying individuals and facilitates comparative analysis between different groups of individuals. VAT can either be run through a command-line interface or as a web application. Finally, in order to enable on-demand access and to minimize unnecessary transfers of large data files, VAT can be run as a virtual machine in a cloud-computing environment. VAT is implemented in C and PHP. The VAT web service, Amazon Machine Image, source code and detailed documentation are available at vat.gersteinlab.org.

  5. Locus specificity in the mutability of mouse lymphoma strain LY-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.H.; Mencl, J.; Horng, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse lymphoma L5178Y strains, LY-R and LY-S, are closely related but differ in their sensitivity to the lethal effects of radiation and various chemicals. Strain LY-S was originally isolated in 1961 following a spontaneous change in the sensitivity of cultured LY-R cells to ionizing radiation. The authors previously reported that, although strain LY-S is more sensitive to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and alkylating agents than strain LY-R, it is markedly less mutable than strain LY-R at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus. The isolated sublines of strains LY-R and LY-S which are heterozygous at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. The LY-S TK+/- heterozygote, like its TK+/+ parent, is more sensitive to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and alkylating agents and less mutable at the HGPRT locus by these agents than the LY-R TK+/- heterozygote. However, the LY-S heterozygote is 100 times more mutable by these agents at the TK locus than at the HGRT locus. In contrast to LY-R, the majority of the spontaneous and induced LY-S TK-/- mutants form small colonies in the presence of trifluorothymidine, indicating that in the LY-S heterozygote, the inactivation of the TK gene is accompanied by damage to, or rearrangement of neighboring genes

  6. Computer-Aided Grading of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) using HRCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Avila, Nilo; Dwyer, Andrew; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Hathaway, Olanda M.; Moss, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disorder associated with proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells, which leads to destruction of lung parenchyma. Subjective grading of LAM on HRCT is imprecise and can be arduous especially in cases with severe involvement. We propose a computer-aided evaluation system that grades LAM involvement based on analysis of lung texture patterns. A committee of support vector machines is employed for classification. The system was tested on 36 patients. The computer grade demonstrates good correlation with subjective radiologist grade (R=0.91, p<0.0001) and pulmonary functional tests (R=0.85, p<0.0001). The grade also provides precise progression assessment of disease over time. PMID:21625320

  7. Hipanto e tubo estaminal em Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Marilda C.; Castro, Marília de M.; Kinoshita, Luiza S.; Semir, João

    1998-01-01

    (Hipanto e tubo estaminal em Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae)). Observou-se, em corte longitudinal de flores de cinco espécies de Xylopia, um anel lenhoso ao redor dos carpelos e sobre ele, inserido de forma espiralada, o conjunto de estames e estaminódios. Para elucidar a natureza desta estrutura, foi realizado um estudo anatômico em flores adultas de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart., particularmente da vascularização desde a base do receptáculo até os estames, estaminódios e carpel...

  8. Dissipation of coumaphos acaricide in model cattle dipping vats and soil columns under sub-tropical climate of Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jindal, T.; Singh, D.K.; Agarwal, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    The stability of coumaphos was studied in model dipping vats under field conditions using 14 C-labelled and unlabelled coumaphos, with or without additives. Four vats were used each containing 50 litre of water treated with 3.7 MBq 14 C and 10 g (AI) unlabelled coumaphos in 25 mL acetone. Vat 1 was control. Vat 2 and 3 were maintained at pH 5 by addition of superphosphate initially and at regular intervals as required. Vat 3 and 4 were treated with bacteriostat copper sulphate at 0.01 g per litre. The pH of vat 1 and 4 gradually increased with time from initial value of 7 to 8.47 and 7.57 respectively. In vat 1 and 4 the concentration of coumaphos declined from about initial concentration of 200 μg/mL to about 9 μg/mL in 255 days after initial treatment, whereas the persistence of coumaphos was more in vats 2 and 3. The stability of coumaphos in model vats increased significantly by maintaining a pH of 5 by addition of superphosphate. The pesticide residues consisted of 80 % or more of unchanged coumaphos. In addition potasan, chlorferon and 4 - methylumbelliferone were detected in small proportions. In another experiment the effect of pH was studied. Coumaphos was most stable at pH 5 as also observed in model vats under field conditions. Coumaphos did not leach below 10 cm in all the four cases. Dissipation, degradation and bound residue formation was more in case of alkali treated coumaphos than normal coumaphos. Aged residues of vat 3 were reasonably stable as copper sulphate inhibited the degradation of coumaphos in soil by microorganisms. Coumaphos along with the the above three metabolises were detected in the extractable insecticide residues from the soil, though the proportion of metabolises was much more than found in model vats. Again treatment of coumaphos with alkali further increased its metabolism and the soil bound residues were double as compared to untreated coumaphos

  9. Regulation of Akt and Wnt signaling by the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist LY341495 and agonist LY379268.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Laurie P; Rushlow, Walter J

    2011-06-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 (mGlu(2/3)) have been implicated in schizophrenia and as a novel treatment target for schizophrenia. The current study examined whether mGlu(2/3) regulates Akt (protein kinase B) and Wnt (Wingless/Int-1) signaling, two cascades associated with schizophrenia and modified by antipsychotics. Western blotting revealed increases in phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (pGSK-3) following acute and repeated treatment of LY379268 (mGlu(2/3) agonist), whereas increases in dishevelled-2 (Dvl-2), dishevelled-3 (Dvl-3), GSK-3 and β-catenin were only observed following repeated treatment. LY341495 (mGlu(2/3) antagonist) induced the opposite response compared with LY379268. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed an association between the mGlu(2/3) complex and Dvl-2 providing a possible mechanism to explain how the mGlu(2/3) can mediate changes in Wnt signaling. However, there was no association between the mGlu(2/3) complex and Akt suggesting that changes in Akt signaling following LY341495 and LY379268 treatments may not be directly mediated by the mGlu(2/3) . Finally, an increase in locomotor activity induced by LY341495 treatment correlated with increased pAkt and pGSK-3 levels and was attenuated by the administration of the GSK-3 inhibitor, SB216763. Overall, the results suggest that mGlu(2/3) regulates Akt and Wnt signaling and LY379268 treatment has overlapping effects with D(2) dopamine receptor antagonists (antipsychotic drugs). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Giant Ly α Nebulae in the Illustris Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronke, Max [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Bird, Simeon, E-mail: maxbg@astro.uio.no [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Several “giant” Ly α nebulae with an extent ≳300 kpc and observed Ly α luminosity of ≳10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} have recently been detected, and it has been speculated that their presence hints at a substantial cold gas reservoir in small cool clumps not resolved in modern hydrodynamical simulations. We use the Illustris simulation to predict the Ly α emission emerging from large halos ( M > 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ⊙}) at z ∼ 2 and thus test this model. We consider both active galactic nucleus (AGN) and star driven ionization, and compare the simulated surface brightness maps, profiles, and Ly α spectra to a model where most gas is clumped below the simulation resolution scale. We find that with Illustris, no additional clumping is necessary to explain the extents, luminosities, and surface brightness profiles of the “giant Ly α nebulae” observed. Furthermore, the maximal extents of the objects show a wide spread for a given luminosity and do not correlate significantly with any halo properties. We also show how the detected size depends strongly on the employed surface brightness cutoff, and predict that further examples of such objects will be found in the near future.

  11. Video-assisted Thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for lung cancer does not induce a procoagulant state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background: Changes in the coagulation system in patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer have been sparsely investigated and the impact of the surgical trauma on the coagulation system is largely unknown in these patients. An increased knowledge could potentially improve the thromboprophylaxis...... regimes. The aim of this study was to assess the coagulation profile evoked in patients undergoing curative surgery by Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) lobectomy for primary lung cancer. Methods: Thirty-one patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer undergoing VATS lobectomy were prospectively...... thrombography. Patients did not receive thromboprophylactic treatment. Data was analyzed using repeated measures one-way ANOVA. Results: The standard coagulation parameters displayed only subtle changes after surgery and the ROTEM® and thrombin generation results remained largely unchanged. Conclusions...

  12. THE IMPACT OF VAT ON THE ECONOMY IN RELATION TO OTHER TAXES IN SOUTH EAST EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre BREZEANU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Through this article, we aim to create a multifactorial model of linear regression by which we discover the impact of the most important taxes in an economy in the economies of the countries of Southeastern Europe. We have selected South East Europe to include and Romania in the empirical analysis. So for building the model, we considered it opportune to choose the following independent variables: VAT, Excise, Income Tax. The economy as a whole was considered to be well defined by the Gross Domestic Product it produces, which is why GDP has been selected as a variable. The chosen period spans a sample of 20 years. In conclusion, this study will try to highlight how fiscal pillars, such as VAT, ACIs and income taxes, affect the GDP. In the light of the results obtained, we will try to interpret the coefficients obtained through a fiscal policy that is dominant or not at this level.

  13. Three-dimensional (3D)- computed tomography bronchography and angiography combined with 3D-video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) versus conventional 2D-VATS anatomic pulmonary segmentectomy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yun-Bin; Xu, Chun; Li, Chang; Ding, Cheng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Compared to the pulmonary lobe, the anatomical structure of the pulmonary segment is relatively complex and prone to variation, thus the risk and difficulty of segmentectomy is increased. We compared three-dimensional computed tomography bronchography and angiography (3D-CTBA) combined with 3D video-assisted thoracic surgery (3D-VATS) to perform segmentectomy to conventional two-dimensional (2D)-VATS for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively reviewed the data of randomly selected patients who underwent 3D-CTBA combined with 3D-VATS (3D-CTBA-VATS) or 2D-VATS at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University Hospital, from January 2014 to May 2017. The operative duration of 3D group was significantly shorter than the 2D group (P 0.05). The extent of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative drainage in the 3D group was significantly lower than in the 2D group (P 3D group was shorter than in the 2D group (P 0.05). However, hemoptysis and pulmonary air leakage (>3d) occurred significantly less frequently in the 3D than in the 2D group (P 3D-CTBA-VATS is a more accurate and smooth technique and leads to reduced intraoperative and postoperative complications. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Performance Simulation and Verification of Vat Photopolymerization Based, Additively Manufactured Injection Molding Inserts with Micro-Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Hofstätter, Thomas; Michailidou, Ifigeneia

    2017-01-01

    Injection molding soft tooling inserts manufactured additively with vat photopolymerization represent a valid technology for prototyping and pilot production of polymer parts. However, a significant drawback is the low heat conductivity of photopolymers influencing cycletime and part quality...

  15. Ly49Q, a member of the Ly49 family that is selectively expressed on myeloid lineage cells and involved in regulation of cytoskeletal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko; Tsujimura, Yusuke; Maruya, Mikako; Onoda, Atsuko; Kubota, Toshiyuki; Koyasu, Shigeo; Inaba, Kayo; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    Here, we identified and characterized a Ly49 family member, designated as Ly49Q. The Ly49q gene encodes a 273-aa protein with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) at the N terminus of its cytoplasmic domain. We show that the ITIM of Ly49Q can recruit SHP-2 and SHP-1 in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. In contrast to other known members of the Ly49 family, Ly49Q was found not to be expressed on NK1.1+ cells, but instead was detectable on virtually all Gr-1+ cells, such as myeloid precursors in bone marrow. Monocytes/macrophages also expressed low levels of Ly49Q, and the expression was enhanced by the treatment of cells with IFN-γ. Treatment of activated macrophages with anti-Ly49Q mAb induced rapid formation of polarized actin structures, showing filopodia-like structure on one side and lamellipodial-like structure on the other side. A panel of proteins became tyrosine-phosphorylated in myeloid cells when treated with the mAb. Induction of the phosphorylation depends on the ITIM of Ly49Q. Thus, Ly49Q has unique features different from other known Ly49 family members and appears to be involved in regulation of cytoskeletal architecture of macrophages through ITIM-mediated signaling. PMID:14732700

  16. extracts of senna siamea (lam) on pseudomonas aeruginosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2009-05-30

    May 30, 2009 ... psedomonal potential of the leaves of Senna siamea Lam leaf may be due to the phytochemical compounds present in the leaf extracts, which were found to be tannins, saponnins and steroids. However aqueous extract proved to be a more suitable candidate for use in the treatment of diseases cause by ...

  17. Extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam . showing inhibitory activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is one of the many medicinal plants employed by herbalist to treat or manage people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in African Traditional Medicine (ATM) and there are many claims to the fact that it improves quality of life and reverses the course of the HIV/AIDS disease progression.

  18. Nutritional characterization of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. moringaceae) is a highly valued plant that is mostly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. It is used for food, medication and industrial purposes. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional value of Moringa leaves of the South African ecotype. Proximate and Van Soest methods ...

  19. Anti-proliferative effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro anti-proliferative effect and mechanism of action of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on human colon carcinoma HCT116 cell line. Methods: M. oleifera leaves were extracted with methanol. It was fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Several fractions were identified ...

  20. Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma. Mutasim M. Khalafalla, Eltayb Abdellatef, Hussain Mohammed Dafalla, Amr A. Nassrallah, Khalid M. Aboul-Enein, David A. Lightfoot, Fadl E. El-Deeb, Hany A. El-Shemy ...

  1. (Chlorophyta) biomass production using Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorella sorokiniana Shih. et Krauss, a unicellular green alga was assayed to assess its to promotion potentials response of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. C. sorokiniana grown in 200 ml aliquots of modified basal medium for two weeks: was treated with the aqueous and ethanolic extracts at ...

  2. Hypotensive Activity of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the hypotensive activity and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) roots. Methods: The fresh roots of M. oleifera was cut into small pieces and successively extracted with petroleum ether (PE) and dichloromethane (DC). PE extract was further divided into MRP and MRP -1.

  3. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Acacia nilotica Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    that had maximum bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates, but showed < 30 % host cell cytotoxicity. Conclusion: The lysate of Acacia nilotica ... cytotoxic effects on human cells. EXPERIMENTAL. Plant material. Acacia nilotica Lam .... a detergent that permeabilizes eukaryotic cells and results in HBMEC damage.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive – Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative – Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study. PMID:22556699

  5. Når TV-kokken ofrer lam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    programmet Jamie’s Italian Escape (Channel 4, 2006) og det franske madprogram Le Chef en France (M6, 2012) med kokken Cyril Lignac. De to analyseeksempler har det til fælles, at det i begge tilfælde er lam, der slås ihjel og tilberedes. I artiklen analyseres, hvordan slagtningerne i disse madprogrammer...

  6. Genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeats markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. from Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing City and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. 100 primers were carried out on 22 wild populations, 14 could produce highly ...

  7. Genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. from Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing City and. Guangxi Zhuang autonomous Region in China. 10 primer combinations were carried out on 180 different individuals ...

  8. VAP/VAT: video analytics platform and test bed for testing and deploying video analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichy, Dmitry O.; Dubrofsky, Elan

    2010-04-01

    Deploying Video Analytics in operational environments is extremely challenging. This paper presents a methodological approach developed by the Video Surveillance and Biometrics Section (VSB) of the Science and Engineering Directorate (S&E) of the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) to resolve these problems. A three-phase approach to enable VA deployment within an operational agency is presented and the Video Analytics Platform and Testbed (VAP/VAT) developed by the VSB section is introduced. In addition to allowing the integration of third party and in-house built VA codes into an existing video surveillance infrastructure, VAP/VAT also allows the agency to conduct an unbiased performance evaluation of the cameras and VA software available on the market. VAP/VAT consists of two components: EventCapture, which serves to Automatically detect a "Visual Event", and EventBrowser, which serves to Display & Peruse of "Visual Details" captured at the "Visual Event". To deal with Open architecture as well as with Closed architecture cameras, two video-feed capture mechanisms have been developed within the EventCapture component: IPCamCapture and ScreenCapture.

  9. Enhanced recovery pathways in thoracic surgery from Italian VATS Group: perioperative analgesia protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioni, Federico; Segat, Matteo; Falini, Stefano; Umari, Marzia; Putina, Olga; Cavaliere, Lucio; Ragazzi, Riccardo; Massullo, Domenico; Taurchini, Marco; Del Naja, Carlo; Droghetti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a minimally invasive technique that allows a faster recovery after thoracic surgery. Although enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) principles seem reasonably applicable to thoracic surgery, there is little literature on the application of such a strategy in this context. In regard to pain management, ERAS pathways promote the adoption of a multimodal strategy, tailored to the patients. This approach is based on combining systemic and loco-regional analgesia to favour opioid-sparing strategies. Thoracic paravertebral block is considered the first-line loco-regional technique for VATS. Other techniques include intercostal nerve block and serratus anterior plane block. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol are essential part of the multimodal treatment of pain. Also, adjuvant drugs can be useful as opioid-sparing agents. Nevertheless, the treatment of postoperative pain must take into account opioid agents too, if necessary. All above is useful for careful planning and execution of a multimodal analgesic treatment to enhance the recovery of patients. This article summarizes the most recent evidences from literature and authors' experiences on perioperative multimodal analgesia principles for implementing an ERAS program after VATS lobectomy.

  10. Effect of Introducing Second Reduced Rate of VAT on Consumer Purchase Behaviour with Gluten‑free Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Šálková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess the effect of introducing the second reduced rate of VAT of 10 % since 1 January 2015 on consumer behaviour when purchasing gluten‑free food. Monitoring the effect of the VAT rate reduction on selected gluten‑free food and products was a part of a research focused on gluten‑free consumer preferences when eating in restaurants (960 respondents were interviewed. Further research which was focused on the effect of the VAT rate reduction and which surveyed the consumer criteria when purchasing gluten‑free products addressed a total of 160 respondents with a gluten‑free diet. According to the respondents’ experience, the introduction of the second reduced VAT rate of 10 % has not significantly affected the prices for the final consumers. The reason for that may be the fact that the second reduced VAT rate applies mostly to ingredients used in gluten‑free production and only a few final products. A large group of coeliacs is not even aware of or has not registered the VAT change.

  11. The Impact of Taxation of the Domestic Economic Transactions on the Vat Collection Through Electronic Fiscal Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of collecting tax resources to the consolidated budget has determined and still determines difficulties which cannot be neglected in all the former socialist countries of the Central and Eastern Europe. From the Members States of the European Union, Romania is the country with the highest VAT Gap between EU Member States: 41%, compared to a European average of 15.2%. One solution tried to solve this problem was the regulation of mandatory use of electronic cash registers with fiscal memory. In this way, it was considered that a better highlight and also a tighter control of economic transactions will be achieved, from a fiscal point of view. In our study, we analyze, for the Romanian context in the postEU accession, whether the mandatory introduction of these devices in recording commercial transactions has had a significant impact on VAT collection. The study includes two stages of the analysis: in the first stage we estimated the influence of VAT rate variation on the degree of the VAT collection. Then we used the residual component to test the influence of EFDs’ mandatory introduction on VAT collection or on fiscal efficiency. The results indicate an improvement in the collection of VAT but also a decrease in the efficiency of fiscal collection.

  12. For-LySa: UML for Authentication Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Montangero, Carlo; Perrone, Lara

    2005-01-01

    The DEGAS project aims at enriching standard UML-centred development environments in such a way that the developers of global applications can exploit automated formal analyses with minimal overhead. In this paper, we present For-LySa, an instantiation of the DEGAS approach for authentication...... analysis, which exploits an existing analysis tool developed for the process calculus LySa. We discuss what information is needed for the analysis, and how to build the UML model of an authentication protocol in such a way that the needed information can be extracted from the model. We then present our...

  13. THE VALUE ADDED TAX AND THE EVASION CHAIN OF INTRA-COMMUNITARIAN VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliman Eugen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship IRS taxpayer runs the risk of turning into a psychological war in which, however, given the positions held, the IRS is by far on a favorable footing. Between the apparently excessively formal position held by the IRS, which seems to conceal behind the laws, and the sometimes forced interpretation of the laws, by the taxpayer, there are the courts of law, also disturbed by the legislative changes which appear to have entered a perpetual motion. The objective of the fiscal administration regarding the value added tax is to combat tax evasion and fraud. It is very important to combat evasion in the VAT field because it represents the indirect tax of the largest share in the consolidated general budget. VAT evasion represents the intention of not paying the tax, withholding or not declaring it, or requesting its refund which would not be fit, due to the exaggeration of the deductible amount of the VAT. The essential aim of the IRS inspector is to verify the correctness of the declared amount of the value added tax. It should also be observed whether the incorrectness is deliberate or whether it was due to misunderstanding, carelessness or the ignorance of the payer. In all cases judgment is necessary, as for the cases of negligence the amount to be paid must be corrected and accompanied by applying fines and / or penalties, and in the cases of intended fraud legal actions are to be applied in order to obtain a conviction. Deceitful deductions represent other methods for tax evasion and are undertaken based on fake invoices, invoices often used several times for deduction, or invoices related to purchases that have never been made. Thus there are examples of economic agents who have practiced the right to deduct the VAT due to the acquisition of goods which consisted in the property of other economic agents. In other cases noticed was the deduction of VAT on goods or services that were not included in the activities of the economic

  14. BROADBAND IMAGING SEGREGATION OF z ∼ 3 Lyα EMITTING AND Lyα ABSORBING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The spectral properties of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) offer a means to isolate pure samples displaying either dominant Lyα in absorption or Lyα in emission using broadband information alone. We present criteria developed using a large z ∼ 3 LBG spectroscopic sample from the literature that enables large numbers of each spectral type to be gathered in photometric data, providing good statistics for multiple applications. In addition, we find that the truncated faint, blue-end tail of z ∼ 3 LBG population overlaps and leads directly into an expected Lyα emitter (LAE) population. As a result, we present simple criteria to cleanly select large numbers of z ∼ 3 LAEs in deep broadband surveys. We present the spectroscopic results of 32r' ∼< 25.5 LBGs and r' ∼< 27.0 LAEs at z ∼ 3 preselected in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey that confirm these criteria.

  15. Linfangioleimiomatose pulmonar - LAM. Um caso de associação de LAM e angiomiolipoma renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mendonça

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Relatase o caso clínico de uma jovem mulber, que é submetida a uma nefrectomia radical por volumoso tumor à direita, tendo verificado tratarse dum angiomiolipoma. Até então sem qualquer queixa, sinal ou sintoma do foro respiratório. No decurso do pós-operatório, fez complicação aparatosa no contexto da qual foi identificado um pneumotorax espontâneo bilateral. Após a alta hospitalar, foram observados e registados vários episódios de pneumotorax espontâneo, unilateral. A partir do episodio inicial desenvolve, lenta e progressivamente, um quadro clínico de dispneia. Apresenta-se a evolução clínica e alguns parâmetros caracterizadores das alterações funcionais respiratórias, ao longo de seis anos, bem como a documentação de TAC-HR do tórax e histológica, que permitiram fundamentar o diagnóstico desta associação de entidades raras. SUMMARY: We present the case report of a young woman submited to a radical nefrectomy of the right kidney due to the presence of a large tumor diagnosed as an angiomyolipoma. Until such time no respiratory signs and symptoms were referred. Complications during post-op led to the identification of a bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. After being released from the hospital the patient returned several times due to unilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. After the first of these episodes she developed slowly progressive dyspnea. We present the clinical evolution and respiratory function parameters for a six year follow-up as well as thoracic HR-CT scan documentation and histologic studies that permit the diagnosis of these associated and rare entities. Palavras chave: Linfangioleirniomatose pulmonar - LAM, angiomiolipoma, pneumotorax espontâneo bilateral, : Key -words, Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis - LAM, angiomyolipoma, Bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces

  16. Proteomic analysis and food-grade enzymes of Moringa oleifer Lam. a Lam. flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanan; Wang, Xuefeng; Huang, Aixiang

    2018-08-01

    Moringa oleifer Lam. flower contain high-proteins and function nutrients. Many advances have been made to it, but there is still no proteomic information of this species. Total protein from the flowers applied shotgun 2DLC-MS/MS proteomic identified 9443 peptides corresponding to 4004 high-confidence proteins by Proteome Discoverer™ Software 2.1. These proteins were mostly distributed ranging between 40 and 70 kDa. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the largest of the proteins were cytoplasm 72.7%, catalytic activity 61.5% and macromolecule metabolism 43.7%, and KEGG analysis revealed that the largest group of 129 proteins was involved in Ribosome to directing protein synthesis (translation). Moreover, a number of commercially important food-grade enzymes were commented, 261 proteins were annotated as carbohydrate-active enzymes, 16 protease, 22 proteins are assigned to the citrate cycle, which the top proteins were assigned to GH family, cysteine synthase and serine/threonine-protein phosphatase. These enzymes indicated that is a new source with potential use for fermentation and brewing industry, fruit and vegetable storage and the development of function peptides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Material-Dependent Implant Artifact Reduction Using SEMAC-VAT and MAVRIC: A Prospective MRI Phantom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filli, Lukas; Jud, Lukas; Luechinger, Roger; Nanz, Daniel; Andreisek, Gustav; Runge, Val M; Kozerke, Sebastian; Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the degree of artifact reduction in magnetic resonance imaging achieved with slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) in combination with view angle tilting (VAT) and multiacquisition variable resonance image combination (MAVRIC) for standard contrast weightings and different metallic materials. Four identically shaped rods made of the most commonly used prosthetic materials (stainless steel, SS; titanium, Ti; cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, CoCr; and oxidized zirconium, oxZi) were scanned at 3 T. In addition to conventional fast spin-echo sequences, metal artifact reduction sequences (SEMAC-VAT and MAVRIC) with varying degrees of artifact suppression were applied at different contrast weightings (T1w, T2w, PDw). Two independent readers measured in-plane and through-plane artifacts in a standardized manner. In addition, theoretical frequency-offset and frequency-offset-gradient maps were calculated. Interobserver agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.86-0.99). Stainless steel caused the greatest artifacts, followed by CoCr, Ti, and oxZi regardless of the imaging sequence. While for Ti and oxZi rods scanning with weak SEMAC-VAT showed some advantage, for SS and CoCr, higher modes of SEMAC-VAT or MAVRIC were necessary to achieve artifact reduction. MAVRIC achieved better artifact reduction than SEMAC-VAT at the cost of longer acquisition times. Simulations matched well with the apparent geometry of the frequency-offset maps. For Ti and oxZi implants, weak SEMAC-VAT may be preferred as it is faster and produces less artifact than conventional fast spin-echo. Medium or strong SEMAC-VAT or MAVRIC modes are necessary for significant artifact reduction for SS and CoCr implants.

  18. Cathepsin K in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: LAM Cell-Fibroblast Interactions Enhance Protease Activity by Extracellular Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Arundhati; Clements, Debbie; Fisher, Andrew J; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in which LAM cells and fibroblasts form lung nodules and it is hypothesized that LAM nodule-derived proteases cause cyst formation and tissue damage. On protease gene expression profiling in whole lung tissue, cathepsin K gene expression was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lung tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry confirmed cathepsin K protein was expressed in LAM but not control lungs. Cathepsin K gene expression and protein and protease activity were detected in LAM-associated fibroblasts but not the LAM cell line 621-101. In lung nodules, cathepsin K immunoreactivity predominantly co-localized with LAM-associated fibroblasts. In vitro, fibroblast extracellular cathepsin K activity was minimal at pH 7.5 but significantly enhanced at pH 7 and 6. 621-101 cells reduced extracellular pH with acidification dependent on 621-101 mechanistic target of rapamycin activity and net hydrogen ion exporters, particularly sodium bicarbonate co-transporters and carbonic anhydrases, which were also expressed in LAM lung tissue. In LAM cell-fibroblast co-cultures, acidification paralleled cathepsin K activity, and both were reduced by sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (P ≤ 0.0001) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (P = 0.0021). Our findings suggest that cathepsin K activity is dependent on LAM cell-fibroblast interactions, and inhibitors of extracellular acidification may be potential therapies for LAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius, Marli T. F.; Carvalho, Mário G. de; Silva, Tania M. S. da; Alves, Cassia C. F.; Siston, Ana P. N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant'Anna, Carlos M. R.; Neto, Mario B.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→5)-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans- coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solama...

  20. Agronomic and forage characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Manríquez-Mendoza, Leonor Yalid; López-Ortíz, Silvia; Pérez-Hernández, Ponciano; Ortega- Jiménez, Eusebio; López-Tecpoyotl, Zenón Gerardo; Villarruel-Fuentes, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Native trees are an important source of forage for livestock, particularly in regions having prolonged dry periods. Some tree species have fast growth rates, good nutritional quality, and the ability to produce forage during dry periods when the need for forage is greater. Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. is a tree native to tropical America that has a high forage potential. This species is mentioned in a number of studies assessing the forage potential of trees in a diverse array of environments and v...

  1. Direct fabrication of bio-inspired gecko-like geometries with vat polymerization additive manufacturing method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, A.; M. Ribo, M.; Pedersen, D. B.

    2018-01-01

    on. The geometry and fabrication of these surfaces are still under research. In this study, the feasibility of using direct fabrication of microscale features by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes was investigated. The investigation was carried out using a specifically designed vat...... photopolymerization AM machine-tool suitable for precision manufacturing at the micro dimensional scale which has previously been developed, built and validated at the Technical University of Denmark. It was shown that it was possible to replicate a simplified surface inspired by the Tokay gecko, the geometry...

  2. Operation of Small Radio Telescope (SRT) recorded 21 cm spectral line of Hydrogen at VATLY Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Dong; Pham Tuan Anh; Pham Ngoc Diep; Pham Thi Tuyet Nhung; Nguyen Van Hiep

    2013-01-01

    A small radio telescope (SRT) has been installed on the roof of the Hanoi astrophysics laboratory VATLY. It is equipped with a 2.6 m diameter mobile parabolic dish remotely controlled in elevation and azimuth and with super-heterodyne detection around the 21 cm hydrogen line. They demonstrate the high quality of the telescope performance and are used to evaluate lobe size, signal to noise ratios, anthropogenic interferences and measurement accuracies. Particular attention is given to the measurement of the pointing accuracy. First results of observations of the Sun and of the centre of the Milky Way are presented. (author)

  3. Animal Models of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Animal models of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are highly desired to enable detailed investigation of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Multiple rats and mice have been generated in which a mutation similar to that occurring in TSC patients is present in an allele of Tsc1 or Tsc2. Unfortunately, these mice do not develop pathologic lesions that match those seen in LAM or TSC. However, these Tsc rodent models have been useful in confirming the two-hit model of tumor development in TSC, and in providing systems in which therapeutic trials (e.g., rapamycin) can be performed. In addition, conditional alleles of both Tsc1 and Tsc2 have provided the opportunity to target loss of these genes to specific tissues and organs, to probe the in vivo function of these genes, and attempt to generate better models. Efforts to generate an authentic LAM model are impeded by a lack of understanding of the cell of origin of this process. However, ongoing studies provide hope that such a model will be generated in the coming years. PMID:20235887

  4. Preparation of iron-deposited graphite surface for application as cathode material during electrochemical vat-dyeing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbu Kulandainathan, M.; Kiruthika, K.; Christopher, G.; Babu, K. Firoz; Muthukumaran, A.; Noel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Iron-deposited graphite surfaces were prepared, characterized and employed as cathode materials for electrochemical vat-dyeing process containing very low concentration of sodium dithionite. The electrodeposition, in presence of ammonium thiocyanate and gelatin or animal glue as binding additives, were found to give finer iron deposits for improved electrochemical dyeing application. The electrodeposits were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods, before and after electrochemical dyeing process. The electrochemical activity of the iron-deposited graphite electrodes always stored in water seems to depend on the surface-bound Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ redox species. Vat dyes like C.I. Vat Violet 1, C.I. Vat Green 1 and C.I. Vat Blue 4 could be efficiently dyed employing these above electrode materials. The colour intensity and washing fastness of the dyed fabrics were found to be equal with conventionally dyed fabrics. The electrodes could also be reused for the dyeing process

  5. Mutations that alter the transport function of the LamB protein in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M

    1982-01-01

    Some Escherichia coli K-12 lamB mutants, those producing reduced amounts of LamB protein (one-tenth the wild type amount), grow normally on dextrins but transport maltose when present at a concentration of 1 microM at about one-tenth the normal rate. lamB Dex- mutants were found as derivatives of these strains. These Dex- mutants are considerably impaired in the transport of maltose at low concentrations (below 10 microM), and they have a structurally altered LamB protein which is impaired in...

  6. The Effect of VAT e-Service Quality on Taxpayers’ Satisfaction in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alipour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of e-government websites with improper service quality is one of the common problems in the contemporary era. Users’ perceptions of e-service quality are affected by their perceived service content and delivery quality. In this study, based on the model of e-government service quality, first we identify the factors of service content and delivery related to Value Added Tax (VAT system in Iran. Then, we develop a conceptual model that depicts the influence of these factors on service quality and users’ satisfaction.  Data gathering is performed through electronic questionnaire and the case study of taxpayers using VAT services. The results show that transactional performance and accessibility respectively, have the greatest impact on quality of service content and delivery. In addition, the users’ positive perceptions of service content and delivery quality influence their positive perceptions of overall service quality. This study offers the design of a user-centric governmental website with effective service quality to improve users’ satisfaction and also to encourage the adoption and continuance use of these services.

  7. VAT regime affecting the acquisition of electronic information sources in Slovenia and in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilen Mandelj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax legislation system in the Republic of Slovenia as well as that of the European Union does not keep pace with the rapid technological development. A lot of problems arise in the field of purchasing and providing access to electronic information sources, namely electronic journals which are very important to disseminate research results. Problems arising from the application of the EC Directive 2006/112 in the Slovenian legislation system are described. The goal that the Value Added Tax (VAT would not affect the international competitiveness of the EU Member states was not met. Different levels of general and reduced tax rates and even different levels of taxation of electronic information sources put Member States in unequal positions. Tax regimes in Member States and their responses to the problem of VAT are discussed. The article shows the complexity of electronic information sources which can partly be taxed as services and party as goods in electronic form. A simulation of expenditure on electronic information sources at different tax rates and possible changes of tax legislation are presented.

  8. What is the physical origin of strong Lyα emission? II. Gas kinematics and distribution of Lyα emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nakajima, Kimihiko; Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Goto, Ryosuke [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Rauch, Michael [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gauthier, Jean-Rene [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mori, Masao; Umemura, Masayuki, E-mail: shibyatk@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for Computational Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-06-10

    We present a statistical study of velocities of Lyα, interstellar (IS) absorption, and nebular lines and gas covering fraction for Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z ≅ 2. We make a sample of 22 LAEs with a large Lyα equivalent width (EW) of ≳ 50 Å based on our deep Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) observations, in conjunction with spectroscopic data from the Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph program and the literature. We estimate the average velocity offset of Lyα from a systemic redshift determined with nebular lines to be Δv {sub Lyα} = 234 ± 9 km s{sup –1}. Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we confirm the previous claim of Hashimoto et al. that the average Δv {sub Lyα} of LAEs is smaller than that of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). Our LRIS data successfully identify blueshifted multiple IS absorption lines in the UV continua of four LAEs on an individual basis. The average velocity offset of IS absorption lines from a systemic redshift is Δv {sub IS} = 204 ± 27 km s{sup –1}, indicating LAEs' gas outflow with a velocity comparable to typical LBGs. Thus, the ratio R{sub IS}{sup Lyα}≡Δv{sub Lyα}/Δv{sub IS} of LAEs is around unity, suggestive of low impacts on Lyα transmission by resonant scattering of neutral hydrogen in the IS medium. We find an anti-correlation between Lyα EW and the covering fraction, f{sub c} , estimated from the depth of absorption lines, where f{sub c} is an indicator of average neutral hydrogen column density, N {sub H} {sub I}. The results of our study support the idea that N {sub H} {sub I} is a key quantity determining Lyα emissivity.

  9. Ly-alpha polarimeter design for CLASP rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M.; Watanabe, H.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Bando, T.; Kano, R.; Tsuneta, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Ichimoto, K.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Song, D.

    2011-12-01

    A sounding-rocket program called the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is proposed to be launched in the Summer of 2014. CLASP will observe the upper solar chromosphere in Ly-alpha (121.567 nm), aiming to detect the linear polarization signal produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect for the first time. The CLASP needs a rotating half-waveplate and a polarization analyzer working at the Ly-alpha wavelength to measure the linear polarization signal. We select Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2) as a material of the optical components because of its birefringent property and high transparency at UV wavelength. We have confirmed that the reflection at the Brewster's Angle of MgF2 plate is a good polarization analyzer for the Ly-alpha line by deriving its ordinary refractive index and extinction coefficient along the ordinary and extraordinary axes. These optical parameters are calculated with a least-square fitting in such a way that the reflectance and transmittance satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relation. The reflectance and transmittance against oblique incident angles for the s-polarized and the p-polarized light are measured using the synchrotron beamline at the Ultraviolet Synchrotron Orbital Radiation Facility (UVSOR). We have also measured a retardation of a zeroth-order waveplate made of MgF2. The thickness difference of the waveplate is 14.57 um.This waveplate works as a half-waveplate at 121.74 nm. From this measurement, we estimate that a waveplate with the thickness difference of 15.71 um will work as a half-waveplate at the Ly-alpha wavelength. We have developed a rotating waveplate - polarization analyzer system called a prototype of CLASP polarimeter, and input the perfect Stokes Q and U signals. The modulation patterns that are consistent with the theoretical prediction are successfully obtained in both cases.

  10. The diagnosis efficacy and safety of video-assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS) in undefined interstitial lung diseases: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qun; Han, Qian; Chen, Xiaobo; Xie, Jiaxing; Wu, Lulu; Chen, Rongchang

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lung biopsies by video-assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS) in the diagnosis of undefined interstitial lung disease (ILD). The retrospective analysis was performed in 32 who patients underwent VATS for the diagnosed with ILD from Jan 2007 to Dec 2011. The main reason for VATS for all the patients was due to no specific diagnosis could be obtained after non-invasive methods, transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) examination and the consultation with pulmonologist, radiologist and pathologist. The clinical profiles, chest high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), laboratory profile, TBLB as well as the diagnosis of before and after the VATS were analyzed. The surgery site, biopsy number, duration of the thoracic drain, post-operative complications were also recorded. The 30- and 90-day post-operative mortality rates were calculated. The risk factors associated with the incidence of post-operative complications were assessed. The specific diagnosis could be established in all patients after VATS lung biopsies, with change from previous ones in 27 (84.4%). Among 20 cases (62.5%) diagnosed as unclassified ILD before the surgery, 14 (70.0%) were diagnosed as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 3 (15.0%) as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and 3 (15.0%) as connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD). Among the 7 cases with complete change of diagnosis after VATS, 4 (57.1%) were cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). The number of site of biopsy had no significant impact on the diagnostic efficacy. There were no significant change of vital sign and lung function after the VATS. 21 (65.6%) patients had post-operative complications, including pulmonary infection (56.3%), pulmonary atelectasis (28.1%) and pneumothorax (25.0%). The 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 0 and 5.2% respectively. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the incidence of post-operative complications, and no significant difference was found

  11. Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Air dan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor (Moringa Oleifera LAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizkayanti, Rizkayanti; Diah, Anang Wahid M; Jura, Minarni Rama

    2017-01-01

    Moringa (moringa oleifera Lam) leaves contains many molecules as inhibitors for free radicals such as phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, lignans, stilbenes, tannins), nitrogen compounds (alkaloids, amines, betalain), vitamins, terpenoids (including carotenoids), and several other endogenous metabolites as antioxidants. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant potency of water and ethanol extracts of moringa (moringa oleifera Lam) leave obtained by macera...

  12. Solutions of several coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The models discussed are: coupled Salerno model,; coupled Ablowitz–Ladik model,; coupled 4 model and; coupled 6 model. In all these cases we show that the coefficients of the Lamé polynomials are such that the Lamé polynomials can be re-expressed in terms of Chebyshev polynomials of the relevant Jacobi elliptic ...

  13. Retention Rates, Graduates, and LAM-Series Completers for the Legal Assistant Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John

    In February 1996, Gainesville College, in Georgia, conducted a study of students in its Legal Assistant Management (LAM) Program to determine retention rates, numbers of graduates, and course pass rates. Retention and graduation rates were calculated for 175 students who enrolled in at least one LAM course from spring 1991 to fall 1995. In…

  14. Removal of nitrobenzene from aqueous solution by a novel lipoid adsorption material (LAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Qinxue [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); Chen, Zhiqiang, E-mail: czq0521@tom.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); Lian, Jiaxiang; Feng, Yujie; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized a novel adsorbent-lipoid adsorption material (LAM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the adsorption behavior isotherms of nitrobenzene on LAM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the adsorption kinetics of nitrobenzene on LAM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proved that the reaction is spontaneous and is an exothermic reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal efficiency of LAM was higher than that of GAC. - Abstract: In this study, a novel adsorbent referred to as a lipoid adsorption material (LAM) was synthesized with a hydrophobic nucleolus (triolein) and hydrophilic membrane structure (polyamide). The LAM was applied to the adsorption and removal of nitrobenzene from aqueous systems. Experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption behavior of nitrobenzene on LAM, including the development of adsorption isotherms, the determination of adsorption kinetics, and to explore the influence of adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and the initial concentration of nitrobenzene on adsorption. The performance of LAM was compared with equal amounts of granular activated carbon (GAC) for adsorption. The adsorption isotherms for LAM were found to be described by the Linear equation, while the adsorption isotherms for granular activated carbon (GAC) were described by the Freundlich equation. Results indicated that the adsorption of nitrobenzene by LAM occurred mainly due to the partition function caused by the triolein nucleolus. Two kinetics models, pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were used to fit the experimental data for LAM adsorption. By comparing the correlation coefficients, it was found that the pseudo-first-order model was most suitable to describe the adsorption of nitrobenzene on LAM. The results also indicated that the factors that affect the adsorption rate would be either the nitrobenzene concentration or the character of the adsorbent

  15. Removal of nitrobenzene from aqueous solution by a novel lipoid adsorption material (LAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Qinxue; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lian, Jiaxiang; Feng, Yujie; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We synthesized a novel adsorbent-lipoid adsorption material (LAM). ► We investigate the adsorption behavior isotherms of nitrobenzene on LAM. ► We investigate the adsorption kinetics of nitrobenzene on LAM. ► We proved that the reaction is spontaneous and is an exothermic reaction. ► The removal efficiency of LAM was higher than that of GAC. - Abstract: In this study, a novel adsorbent referred to as a lipoid adsorption material (LAM) was synthesized with a hydrophobic nucleolus (triolein) and hydrophilic membrane structure (polyamide). The LAM was applied to the adsorption and removal of nitrobenzene from aqueous systems. Experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption behavior of nitrobenzene on LAM, including the development of adsorption isotherms, the determination of adsorption kinetics, and to explore the influence of adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and the initial concentration of nitrobenzene on adsorption. The performance of LAM was compared with equal amounts of granular activated carbon (GAC) for adsorption. The adsorption isotherms for LAM were found to be described by the Linear equation, while the adsorption isotherms for granular activated carbon (GAC) were described by the Freundlich equation. Results indicated that the adsorption of nitrobenzene by LAM occurred mainly due to the partition function caused by the triolein nucleolus. Two kinetics models, pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were used to fit the experimental data for LAM adsorption. By comparing the correlation coefficients, it was found that the pseudo-first-order model was most suitable to describe the adsorption of nitrobenzene on LAM. The results also indicated that the factors that affect the adsorption rate would be either the nitrobenzene concentration or the character of the adsorbent. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the adsorption of nitrobenzene on LAM was spontaneous and was an exothermic reaction. With

  16. Comparing the Antiseizure and Neuroprotective Efficacy of LY293558, Diazepam, Caramiphen, and LY293558-Caramiphen Combination against Soman in a Rat Model Relevant to the Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apland, James P.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H.; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I.; Rossetti, Katia

    2018-01-01

    The currently Food and Drug Administration–approved anticonvulsant for the treatment of status epilepticus (SE) induced by nerve agents is the benzodiazepine diazepam; however, diazepam does not appear to offer neuroprotective benefits. This is of particular concern with respect to the protection of children because, in the developing brain, synaptic transmission mediated via GABAA receptors, the target of diazepam, is weak. In the present study, we exposed 21-day-old male rats to 1.2 × LD50 soman and compared the antiseizure, antilethality, and neuroprotective efficacy of diazepam (10 mg/kg), LY293558 (an AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist; 15 mg/kg), caramiphen (CRM, an antimuscarinic with NMDA receptor-antagonistic properties; 50 mg/kg), and LY293558 (15 mg/kg) + CRM (50 mg/kg), administered 1 hour after exposure. Diazepam, LY293558, and LY293558 + CRM, but not CRM alone, terminated SE; LY293558 + CRM treatment acted significantly faster and produced a survival rate greater than 85%. Thirty days after soman exposure, neurodegeneration in limbic regions was most severe in the CRM-treated group, minimal to severe—depending on the region—in the diazepam group, absent to moderate in the LY293558-treated group, and totally absent in the LY293558 + CRM group. Amygdala and hippocampal atrophy, a severe reduction in spontaneous inhibitory activity in the basolateral amygdala, and increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field and acoustic startle response tests were present in the diazepam and CRM groups, whereas the LY293558 and LY293558 + CRM groups did not differ from controls. The combined administration of LY293558 and CRM, by blocking mainly AMPA, GluK1, and NMDA receptors, is a very effective anticonvulsant and neuroprotective therapy against soman in young rats. PMID:29467308

  17. Comparing the Antiseizure and Neuroprotective Efficacy of LY293558, Diazepam, Caramiphen, and LY293558-Caramiphen Combination against Soman in a Rat Model Relevant to the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apland, James P; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I; Rossetti, Katia; Braga, Maria F M

    2018-05-01

    The currently Food and Drug Administration-approved anticonvulsant for the treatment of status epilepticus (SE) induced by nerve agents is the benzodiazepine diazepam; however, diazepam does not appear to offer neuroprotective benefits. This is of particular concern with respect to the protection of children because, in the developing brain, synaptic transmission mediated via GABA A receptors, the target of diazepam, is weak. In the present study, we exposed 21-day-old male rats to 1.2 × LD 50 soman and compared the antiseizure, antilethality, and neuroprotective efficacy of diazepam (10 mg/kg), LY293558 (an AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist; 15 mg/kg), caramiphen (CRM, an antimuscarinic with NMDA receptor-antagonistic properties; 50 mg/kg), and LY293558 (15 mg/kg) + CRM (50 mg/kg), administered 1 hour after exposure. Diazepam, LY293558, and LY293558 + CRM, but not CRM alone, terminated SE; LY293558 + CRM treatment acted significantly faster and produced a survival rate greater than 85%. Thirty days after soman exposure, neurodegeneration in limbic regions was most severe in the CRM-treated group, minimal to severe-depending on the region-in the diazepam group, absent to moderate in the LY293558-treated group, and totally absent in the LY293558 + CRM group. Amygdala and hippocampal atrophy, a severe reduction in spontaneous inhibitory activity in the basolateral amygdala, and increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field and acoustic startle response tests were present in the diazepam and CRM groups, whereas the LY293558 and LY293558 + CRM groups did not differ from controls. The combined administration of LY293558 and CRM, by blocking mainly AMPA, GluK1, and NMDA receptors, is a very effective anticonvulsant and neuroprotective therapy against soman in young rats. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  18. Las Webquest en la docencia universitaria: aprendizaje colaborativo con LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Holgado Sáez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las WebQuest son un recurso didáctico basado en el aprendizaje constructivista y en la metodología colaborativa que está teniendo mucho éxito en las etapas de Infantil, Primaria y Secundaria. En el presente artículo pretendemos ofrecer una propuesta de utilización de este recurso en la etapa universitaria con LAMS -Sistema de Control de Actividades de Aprendizaje- a través de entornos virtuales de aprendizaje, como Moodle.

  19. Embryogenesis in sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, A.; Mini, P.

    1997-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) ranks sixth among the cultivated crops of the world. In fact, it represents a major staple food in many tropical countries. Recently this crop has been proposed as a source of starch for industrial utilization. Somatic embryogenesis could prove useful as an alternative to traditional propagation by cuttings, which is labour intensive and can transmit diseases. Somatic embryos are reported to originate from single cells, so that, if regenerated from mutagenized tissues, should give rise to solid mutants. 2 refs

  20. Embryogenesis in sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnino, A; Mini, P [ENEA - Technological Innovation Dept., Sector of Biotechnology and Agriculture, Trisaia Research Center, Policoro (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) ranks sixth among the cultivated crops of the world. In fact, it represents a major staple food in many tropical countries. Recently this crop has been proposed as a source of starch for industrial utilization. Somatic embryogenesis could prove useful as an alternative to traditional propagation by cuttings, which is labour intensive and can transmit diseases. Somatic embryos are reported to originate from single cells, so that, if regenerated from mutagenized tissues, should give rise to solid mutants. 2 refs.

  1. VAT TAXATION OF INTRA-COMMUNITY SUPPLIES AND ACQUISITIONS OF SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonescu Ligia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As of January 1st, 2010, as a result of the transposition in the national legislation of the Council Directive 2008/8/CE of 12.02.2008 for the amendment of the Directive 2006/112/CE regarding the place of the supply of services, new notions of tax law have arisen, namely intra-community acquisitions of services and intra-community supply of services. The transposition in the national legislation of the new CE directives in the field of the VAT aims not only at the way the place of the supply of services is determined, but also at the changes regarding the person subject to taxation, tax registration, declarative obligations, etc.

  2. Dosimetric optimization of worksite involving the installation of VATS containing highly active effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.; Busani, J.; Madigand, Y.; Pailloux, J.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of safety improvements at the CEA, CEA-FAR, concerned to formalize the ALARA initiative, has carried out for information and training purpose and to create awareness a dosimetric assessment of the worksite where new storage vats for highly active effluents are to be installed. The approach used for this worksite is global. Techniques used were all complementary, ensuring constant elaboration, experiment follow-up and feedback of a worksite at a relatively low dosimetric cost (an estimated 36 men.mSv brought down to 30 men.mSv through implementation of the ALARA principle). This type of global conception of radioprotection involving all the employees (head of project, project managers, companies, radioprotection employees...) which today proves its worth on a modest worksite must now be extended to worksites of a broader scope (several hundreds of men.mSv) where fulfillment of the dosimetric objectives is a major stake. (author)

  3. Changes in the VAT Burden on Expenses of Selected Households in the Czech Republic (2007–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Střílková Regína

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic is a typical representative EU Member State which has several times changed VAT rates during the analyzed period 2007–2014 in an effort to consolidate the public budget. These changes are reflected in household spending, which were analyzed by means of the consumer basket, the composition of which is also undergoing changes. Another factor that has an impact on household expenditures is the transfer of commodities between the reduced and standard rate of VAT. The final factor used is the differentiation of households according to their income levels. The aim of this paper is to determine how these changes took effect in the Czech Republic in the share of consumption of commodities included in the standard and reduced VAT rates and in exempt transactions according to household income groups in the analyzed period 2007–2014 and to determine the impact of these changes on the tax burden on selected households by value added tax and confirmation of the assumption of VAT regressivity.

  4. Persistence of wild Streptococcus thermophilus strains on wooden vat and during the manufacture of a traditional Caciocavallo type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, L; Di Grigoli, A; Tornambé, G; Bellina, V; Francesca, N; Moschetti, G; Bonanno, A

    2012-04-02

    The present work was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the wooden dairy plant equipment on the microbiological characteristics of curd to be transformed into Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese. Traditional raw milk productions were performed concomitantly with standard cheese making trials carried out in stainless steel vat inoculated with a commercial starter. Milk from two different farms (A and B) was separately processed. The wooden vat was found to be a reservoir of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while unwanted (spoilage and/or pathogenic) microorganisms were not hosted or were present at very low levels. All microbial groups were numerically different in bulk milks, showing higher levels for the farm B. LAB, especially thermophilic cocci, dominated the whole cheese making process of all productions. Undesired microorganisms decreased in number or disappeared during transformation, particularly after curd stretching. LAB were isolated from the wooden vat surface and from all dairy samples, subjected to phenotypic and genetic characterization and identification. Streptococcus thermophilus was the species found at the highest concentration in all samples analyzed and it also dominated the microbial community of the wooden vat. Fourteen other LAB species belonging to six genera (Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Weissella) were also detected. All S. thermophilus isolates were genetically differentiated and a consortium of four strains persisted during the whole traditional production process. As confirmed by pH and the total acidity after the acidification step, indigenous S. thermophilus strains acted as a mixed starter culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and validation of a theoretical test of proficiency for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savran, Mona M; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Horsleben Petersen, René

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testing stimulates learning, improves long-term retention, and promotes technical performance. No purpose-orientated test of competence in the theoretical aspects of VATS lobectomy has previously been presented. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to develop and gather validity...... performed significantly better than the novices (p better than the novices (p

  6. ‘Do You Want a Receipt?’ Combating VAT and RST Evasion with Lottery Tickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C. Hemels (Sigrid); M. Fabbri (Marco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractGovernments both in developed and developing countries are facing the problem of value added tax (VAT) and retail sales tax (RST) evasion. This explains a growing interest in policies alternative to the traditional methods of deterrence. This paper describes the achievements resulting

  7. Synthesis of multidrug resistance modulator LY335979 labeled with deuterium and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeskis, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    DIDEUTERO AND DITRITIOISOTOPOMERS OF THE MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE MODULATOR LY335979 WERE PREPARED BY INITIAL BROMINATION OF 5-HYDROXYQUINOLINE UNDER ACIDIC CONDITIONS FOLLOWED BY MITSUNOBU COUPLING OF 6,8-DIBROMO-5-HYDROXYQUINOLINE WITH (S)-GLYCIDOL. OPENING OF THE RESULTING EPOXIDE WITH DIBENZOSUBERYLPIPERAZINE LY335995 RESULTED IN DIBROMOANALOG OF LY335979, WHICH WAS FINALLY REDUCTIVELY DEBROMINATED WITH DEUTERIUM OR TRITIUM IN THE PRESENCE OF PALLADIUM ON CARBON. (AUTHOR)

  8. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF Lyα EMISSION AT z ∼ 4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Finkelstein, Keely D.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Ryan, Russell E.; Hathi, Nimish P.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Anderson, Jay; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    We present the highest redshift detections of resolved Lyα emission, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F658N narrowband-imaging data taken in parallel with the Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science program in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. We detect Lyα emission from three spectroscopically confirmed z = 4.4 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs), more than doubling the sample of LAEs with resolved Lyα emission. Comparing the light distribution between the rest-frame ultraviolet continuum and narrowband images, we investigate the escape of Lyα photons at high redshift. While our data do not support a positional offset between the Lyα and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission, the half-light radius in one out of the three galaxies is significantly (>1σ) larger in Lyα than in the rest-frame UV continuum. Stacking the three LAEs in both the narrowband and UV continuum images, we find that the Lyα light appears larger than the rest-frame UV at 4.2σ significance. This Lyα flux detected with HST is a factor of 4-10 less than observed in similar filters from the ground. These results together imply that the Lyα emission is not strictly confined to its indigenous star-forming regions. Rather, for at least one object the Lyα emission is more extended, with the missing HST flux possibly existing in a diffuse outer halo. This suggests that the radiative transfer of Lyα photons in high-redshift LAEs is complicated, with the interstellar-medium geometry and/or outflows playing a significant role in galaxies at these redshifts.

  9. Comparison of VATS and Robotic Approaches For Clinical Stage I and II NSCLC Using the STS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Brian E.; Wilson, Jennifer L.; Kim, Sunghee; Cerfolio, Robert J.; Park, Bernard J.; Farivar, Alexander S.; Vallières, Eric; Aye, Ralph W.; Burfeind, William R.; Block, Mark I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from selected centers show that robotic lobectomy (RL) is safe, effective and has comparable 30-day mortality to video assisted lobectomy (VATS). However, widespread adoption of RL is controversial. We used the STS-GTS-Database to evaluate quality metrics for these two minimally invasive lobectomy techniques. Methods A database query for primary clinical stage I or II NSCLC at high volume centers from 2009 to 2013 identified 1,220 RLs and 12,378 VATS. Quality metrics evaluated included operative morbidity, 30-day mortality and nodal upstaging (NU), defined as cN0 to pN1. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate NU. Results RL patients were older, less active, less likely to be an ever smoker, and had higher BMI (all p<0.05). They were also more likely to have coronary heart disease or hypertension (all p<0.001) and to have had preoperative mediastinal staging (p<0.0001). RL operative times were longer (median 186 vs 173 min, p<0.001); all other operative parameters were similar. All postoperative outcomes were similar including complications and 30-day mortality (RL 0.6% vs VATS 0.8%, p=0.4). Median length of stay was 4 days for both, but a higher proportion of RLs stayed < 4 days: 48% vs 39%, p<0.001. NU overall was similar (p=0.6), but with trends favoring VATS in the cT1b group, and RL in the cT2a group. Conclusions RL patients had more co-morbidities and RL operative times were longer, but quality outcome measures including complications, hospital stay, 30-day mortality, and NU suggest RL and VATS are equivalent. PMID:27209613

  10. Identication of potivirus present in lulo (solanum quitoense lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vaca

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceous fruit Solanum quitoense Lam, is originally from Andean región of South America. This fruit has commercial prospective. The Leaf Yellowing Disease in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam was first described by Zuluaga in 1991. It causes economically losses and has been associated with a virus attack. The disease's symptoms included stunting, yellow streaking or mosaic patterns in leaves, often with a curling of the leaf margins. In order to diagnostic the presence of virus, we applied two different strategies. The first one consisted of a modified technique of RNA double strand isolation (Morris and Dodds, 1979. The second one consisted on applying RT-PCR system using specific "primers" designed to amplify cDNA fragments spaning the 3'-terminal part of the Nlb cistron and the 5'-terminal part of the potyvirus CP cistron (Langeveld et al 1991. By applying the modified method of Morris and Dodds, it was possible to observe characteristic bands of double strand RNA. Amplification with "primers" POT1 and POT2 yielded a fragment of about 1 Kpb, whose length was in agreement with the known sequences of potyvirus. Here we report by the first time a potyvirus presence in Lulo plants affected with leaf yellowing disease, identified by dsRNA analysis and RT-PCR procedure.

  11. Changing Traditions and Village Development in Kalotaszentkirály

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Kraft

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of village traditions depends on the stability and cohesion of village communities. Since the opening of Transylvania after the fall of Nicolae Ceauşescu, there has been a sort of revival of Hungarian village dance and music, on the one hand, but, on the longer term, the communities themselves are threatened by economic challenges and by consequent demographic changes. This essay is based on field research conducted in Kalotaszentkirály (Sincraiu from 1995 to 2010.

  12. Materiály pro superkondenzátory

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Tato dizertační práce se zabývá elektrodovými materiály, kapalnými a gelovými elektrolyty vhodnými pro superkondenzátory. V oblasti elektrodových materiálů byly zkoumány uhlíkové materiály na bázi uhlíkových sazí, expandovaného a mikromletého grafitu vhodné pro superkondenzátory pracující na principu dvojvrstvy. Další oblastí, které se tato práce věnuje, jsou kapalné aprotické elektrolyty připravené z vhodných typů solí a bezvodných organických rozpouštědel. Poslední část této práce je zaměře...

  13. Therapeutic options for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): where we are and where we are going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steagall, Wendy K; Moss, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease affecting predominantly premenopausal and middle-aged women, causes progressive respiratory failure due to cystic lung destruction and is associated with lymphatic and kidney tumors. In the past, the treatment of LAM comprised exclusively anti-estrogen and related hormonal therapies. These treatments, however, have not been proven effective. In this article, we discuss new findings regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of LAM cell growth, which may offer opportunities to develop effective and targeted therapeutic agents. PMID:20948684

  14. Anne-Ly Võlli: Iga inimene ja asutus vajab omamoodi lähenemist / Anne-Ly Võlli ; intervjueerinud Jaanika Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võlli, Anne-Ly, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    MTÜ Jõgevamaa Omavalitsuste Aktiviseerimiskeskus kinnitas avaliku konkursi tulemusel juhatuse liikmeks Anne-Ly Võlli, kelle ülesandeks on keskuse tegevuse juhtimine ja koostöö arendamine partneromavalitsuste ja teiste koostööpartnerite vahel

  15. Apex-to-Cupola Distance Following VATS Predicts Recurrence in Patients With Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Lai, Wu-Wei; Yen, Yi-Ting; Tseng, Yau-Lin; Chen, Ying-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Ho; Chen, Wei; Light, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our study sought to determine whether the size of the residual apical pleural space in young patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is associated with the risk of recurrence. We retrospectively reviewed patients (≤30 years’ old) with primary spontaneous pneumothorax following thoracoscopic surgery (2002–2010) in a university-affiliated hospital. The size of residual apical pleural space was estimated by measuring the apex-to-cupola distance on a postoperative chest radiograph at 2 time windows: first between postoperative day (POD) 0 and 3, and second between POD 4 and 14. A total of 149 patients were enrolled with a median follow-up of 11.2 months (interquartile range, 0.95–29.5 months), of whom 141 (94.6%) were male with a mean age of 20 years. The postoperative recurrence rate was 11.4%. Comparing the characteristics between the patients with and without recurrent pneumothorax, the patients with recurrence were younger (18.2 + 2.4 vs 20.7 + 3.7 years, P = 0.008), with a lower rate of pleurodesis (35% vs1 69%, P = 0.037), longer apex-to-cupola distance at POD 0 to 3 (22.41 ± 19.56 vs 10.07 ± 10.83 mm, P pneumothorax, age 10 mm (P = 0.027, OR: 5.319), and no pleurodesis during VATS (P = 0.022, OR: 5.042) were independent risk factors for recurrent pneumothorax. The recurrence rate was not low (11.4%) in young patients with PSP following VATS. Residual apical pleural space with apex-to-cupola distance of 10 mm or greater at POD 0 to 3, younger age, and no pleurodesis would increase postoperative recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. PMID:26376396

  16. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  17. A Faint Flux-limited Ly α Emitter Sample at z ∼ 0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wold, Isak G. B.; Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Barger, Amy J.; Rosenwasser, Benjamin [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowie, Lennox L., E-mail: wold@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We present a flux-limited sample of z ∼ 0.3 Ly α emitters (LAEs) from Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ) grism spectroscopic data. The published GALEX z ∼ 0.3 LAE sample is pre-selected from continuum-bright objects and thus is biased against high equivalent width (EW) LAEs. We remove this continuum pre-selection and compute the EW distribution and the luminosity function of the Ly α emission line directly from our sample. We examine the evolution of these quantities from z ∼ 0.3 to 2.2 and find that the EW distribution shows little evidence for evolution over this redshift range. As shown by previous studies, the Ly α luminosity density from star-forming (SF) galaxies declines rapidly with declining redshift. However, we find that the decline in Ly α luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.3 may simply mirror the decline seen in the H α luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.4, implying little change in the volumetric Ly α escape fraction. Finally, we show that the observed Ly α luminosity density from AGNs is comparable to the observed Ly α luminosity density from SF galaxies at z = 0.3. We suggest that this significant contribution from AGNs to the total observed Ly α luminosity density persists out to z ∼ 2.2.

  18. The matter power spectrum from the Ly alpha forest : an optical depth estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S; Nusser, A; Haehnelt, M; Kim, TS; Viel, M.

    2006-01-01

    We measure the matter power spectrum from 31 Ly alpha spectra spanning the redshift range of 1.6-3.6. The optical depth, tau, for Ly alpha absorption of the intergalactic medium is obtained from the flux using the inversion method of Nusser & Haehnelt. The optical depth is converted to density by

  19. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Rocha, Juliana C.B.; Mello, Joao C.P. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: mello@uem.br; Almeida, Glalber C. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 {mu}L and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  20. Nutraceutical or Pharmacological Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Biao; Olayanju, Julia B; Drake, Justin M; Chen, Ning

    2018-03-12

    Moringa oleifera Lam. ( M. oleifera ), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a perennial deciduous tropical tree, and native to the south of the Himalayan Mountains in northern India. M. oleifera is rich in proteins, vitamin A, minerals, essential amino acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids, as well as isothiocyanates. The extracts from M. oleifera exhibit multiple nutraceutical or pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and blood lipid-reducing functions. The beneficial functions of M. oleifera are strongly associated with its phytochemicals such as flavonoids or isothiocyanates with bioactivity. In this review, we summarize the research progress related to the bioactivity and pharmacological mechanisms of M. oleifera in the prevention and treatment of a series of chronic diseases-including inflammatory diseases, neuro-dysfunctional diseases, diabetes, and cancers-which will provide a reference for its potential application in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases or health promotion.

  1. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)LY186126, an analogue of indolidan (LY195115), to cardiac membranes enriched in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, R.F.; Utterback, B.G.; Robertson, D.W.

    1989-05-01

    LY186126 was found to be a potent inhibitor of type IV cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of canine cardiac muscle. This compound, a close structural analogue of indolidan (LY195115), was prepared in high specific activity, tritiated form to study the positive inotropic receptor(s) for cardiotonic phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as indolidan and milrinone. A high-affinity binding site for (/sup 3/H)LY186126 was observed (Kd = 4 nM) in purified preparations of canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Binding was proportional to vesicle protein, was inactivated by subjecting membranes to proteolysis or boiling, and was dependent on added Mg2+. Scatchard analysis suggested the presence of a single class of binding sites in the membrane preparation. Indolidan, milrinone, and LY186126 (all at 1 microM) produced essentially complete displacement of bound (/sup 3/H)LY186126, while nifedipine, propranolol, and prazosin had little or no effect at this concentration. This represents the first reported use of a radioactive analogue to label the inotropic receptor for cardiotonic phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The results suggest that (/sup 3/H)LY186126 is a useful radioligand for examining the subcellular site(s) responsible for positive inotropic effects of these drugs.

  2. Specific binding of [3H]LY186126, an analogue of indolidan (LY195115), to cardiac membranes enriched in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.F.; Utterback, B.G.; Robertson, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    LY186126 was found to be a potent inhibitor of type IV cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of canine cardiac muscle. This compound, a close structural analogue of indolidan (LY195115), was prepared in high specific activity, tritiated form to study the positive inotropic receptor(s) for cardiotonic phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as indolidan and milrinone. A high-affinity binding site for [ 3 H]LY186126 was observed (Kd = 4 nM) in purified preparations of canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Binding was proportional to vesicle protein, was inactivated by subjecting membranes to proteolysis or boiling, and was dependent on added Mg2+. Scatchard analysis suggested the presence of a single class of binding sites in the membrane preparation. Indolidan, milrinone, and LY186126 (all at 1 microM) produced essentially complete displacement of bound [ 3 H]LY186126, while nifedipine, propranolol, and prazosin had little or no effect at this concentration. This represents the first reported use of a radioactive analogue to label the inotropic receptor for cardiotonic phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The results suggest that [ 3 H]LY186126 is a useful radioligand for examining the subcellular site(s) responsible for positive inotropic effects of these drugs

  3. Extinction Correction Significantly Influences the Estimate of the Lyα Escape Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fang Xia; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Hao, Cai-Na; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Yang

    2017-02-01

    The Lyα escape fraction is a key measure to constrain the neutral state of the intergalactic medium and then to understand how the universe was fully reionized. We combine deep narrowband imaging data from the custom-made filter NB393 and the {{{H}}}2S1 filter centered at 2.14 μm to examine the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at the same redshift z = 2.24. The combination of these two populations allows us to determine the Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24. Over an area of 383 arcmin2 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), 124 Lyα emitters are detected down to NB393 = 26.4 mag at the 5σ level, and 56 Hα emitters come from An et al. Of these, four have both Lyα and Hα emissions (LAHAEs). We also collect the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at z = 2.24 in the COSMOS field from the literature, and increase the number of LAHAEs to 15 in total. About one-third of them are AGNs. We measure the individual/volumetric Lyα escape fraction by comparing the observed Lyα luminosity/luminosity density to the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity/luminosity density. We revisit the extinction correction for Hα emitters using the Galactic extinction law with color excess for nebular emission. We also adopt the Calzetti extinction law together with an identical color excess for stellar and nebular regions to explore how the uncertainties in extinction correction affect the estimate of individual and global Lyα escape fractions. In both cases, an anti-correlation between the Lyα escape fraction and dust attenuation is found among the LAHAEs, suggesting that dust absorption is responsible for the suppression of the escaping Lyα photons. However, the estimated Lyα escape fraction of individual LAHAEs varies by up to ˜3 percentage points between the two methods of extinction correction. We find the global Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24 to be (3.7 ± 1.4)% in the ECDFS. The variation in the color excess of the extinction causes a discrepancy of ˜1 percentage point

  4. Analysis of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patent tomograms: Stereology and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, V.; Wing, G.M.; Winter, L.; Zahrt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an insidious disease of young women which attacks the lungs and if untreated results in death. Treatment is radical. Currently a woman diagnosed as having LAM (usually by computed tomography (CT) of the lung) is run through an exhausting set of tests and exercises to determine the extent of the disease. Image processing techniques have been able to quantify the tomograms by providing a histogram of the number of cyst intercepts of a given area. The images are digital, so the data are discrete, and the areas are in terms of square pixels. It is hoped that by analyzing the data and by recovering the probability density of the cysts themselves one can provide a set of parameters that will aid in the early diagnosis of the disease and that will correlate well with the physiology. The desire to invert the data, that is to determine the probability density of the cysts from the probability density of the circular intersections of the cysts with the tomographic plane, led to a re-examination of the Wicksell equation. In Section 2, the authors transform Wicksell's equation in diameter (a generalized Abel equation) into an equation in areas (the original Abel equation). In Section 3 they present the adjoint equation in several equivalent forms. Analytic solutions of the adjoint equation necessary for later use are developed in Section 4. Outside of the framework of integral equations they have done some modeling of the data. They find that, to a very high degree of reliability, the data follows a simple power law. The distribution of spheres likewise follows a simple power law. These considerations are given in Section 5. Then in Section 6 they explore the exponential model as an alternative. Section 7 solves the Wicksell equation and uses the Golberg device, via the adjoint, to solve a related problem. They finally get to the number of cysts and their average size in Section 8. Their conclusions are in Section 9

  5. Synthesis of[11C]LY186126, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenant, C.; Crouzel, C.; Comar, D.; Robertson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    LY186126 [1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-5-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-4-methyl-6-oxo-3-pyriddazinyl)-2H-indol-2-one ], an analogue of the cardiotonic agent indolidan, is a potent, selective and competitive inhibitor of an isozymic form of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. LY186126 was labelled with carbon-11 to permit pharmacological studies in the dog myocardium by positron emission tomography. Alkylation with [ 11 C]methyl iodide of N-norLY186126 (LY-197055) allowed the production of 1.7 GBq (50mCi) of [ 11 C]LY-186126 in 40 min. The product, was purified by HPLC. (author)

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Flovonoids from the Flowers of Butea Monosperma Lam (Pauk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Aye Tun; Aye Mya Hlaing; Hnin Pwint Aung; Maung Maung Htay

    2004-05-01

    Four flavonoids, namely, butein (1), monospermoside (2), isobutrin (3) and butrin (4)were isolated from the dried flowers of Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze. The structures of compounds have been elucidated by UV, IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy

  7. Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module (R-LAM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R-LAM (Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module), promises a new generation of both integrated navigation modules and stand-alone navigation subsystems including...

  8. Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Randová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

  9. Decolorization of a textile vat dye by adsorption on waste ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIODRAG ŠMELCEROVIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An adsorption process using cheap adsorbents could be described as a simple, selective and low cost alternative for the treatment of colored waste water compared to conventional physical and chemical processes. In this study the use of a natural waste adsorbent–ash was investigated for the removal of a textile vat dye Ostanthren blue GCD remaining after the dyeing of cotton textile. The ash obtained as a waste material during the burning of brown coal in the heating station of Leskovac (Serbia was used for the treatment of waste waters from the textile industry, i.e., waste water after the dyeing process. The effect of ash quantity, initial dye concentration, pH and agitation time on adsorption was studied. The Langmuir model was used to describe the adsorption isotherm. Based on the analytical expression of the Langmuir model, the adsorption constants, such as adsorption capacity and adsorption energy, were found. Pseudo first and second order kinetic models were studied to evaluate the kinetic data.

  10. Anesthesia and fast-track in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS): from evidence to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Marzia; Falini, Stefano; Segat, Matteo; Zuliani, Michele; Crisman, Marco; Comuzzi, Lucia; Pagos, Francesco; Lovadina, Stefano; Lucangelo, Umberto

    2018-03-01

    In thoracic surgery, the introduction of video-assisted thoracoscopic techniques has allowed the development of fast-track protocols, with shorter hospital lengths of stay and improved outcomes. The perioperative management needs to be optimized accordingly, with the goal of reducing postoperative complications and speeding recovery times. Premedication performed in the operative room should be wisely administered because often linked to late discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Inhalatory anesthesia, when possible, should be preferred based on protective effects on postoperative lung inflammation. Deep neuromuscular blockade should be pursued and carefully monitored, and an appropriate reversal administered before extubation. Management of one-lung ventilation (OLV) needs to be optimized to prevent not only intraoperative hypoxemia but also postoperative acute lung injury (ALI): protective ventilation strategies are therefore to be implemented. Locoregional techniques should be favored over intravenous analgesia: the thoracic epidural, the paravertebral block (PVB), the intercostal nerve block (ICNB), and the serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) are thoroughly reviewed and the most common dosages are reported. Fluid therapy needs to be administered critically, to avoid both overload and cardiovascular compromisation. All these practices are analyzed singularly with the aid of the most recent evidences aimed at the best patient care. Finally, a few notes on some of the latest trends in research are presented, such as non-intubated video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and intravenous lidocaine.

  11. Variability of Bacterial Biofilms of the “Tina” Wood Vats Used in the Ragusano Cheese-Making Process▿

    OpenAIRE

    Licitra, G.; Ogier, J. C.; Parayre, S.; Pediliggieri, C.; Carnemolla, T. M.; Falentin, H.; Madec, M. N.; Carpino, S.; Lortal, S.

    2007-01-01

    Ragusano cheese is a “protected denomination of origin” cheese made in the Hyblean region of Sicily from raw milk using traditional wooden tools, without starter. To explore the Ragusano bacterial ecosystem, molecular fingerprinting was conducted at different times during the ripening and biofilms from the wooden vats called “tinas” were investigated. Raw milks collected at two farm sites, one on the mountain and one at sea level, were processed to produce Ragusano cheese. Raw milk, curd befo...

  12. Moringa oleifera Lam. improves lipid metabolism during adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, I; Vanella, L; Distefano, A; Nicolosi, D; Maravigna, A; Lazzarino, G; Di Rosa, M; Tibullo, D; Acquaviva, R; Li Volti, G

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including inflammation, cancer and metabolic disorders. We investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism and cellular antioxidant systems. We showed that Moringa oleifera Lam. treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α). In addition, Moringa oleifera Lam. induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a well established protective and antioxidant enzyme. Finally Moringa oleifera Lam. significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that Moringa oleifera Lam. may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis.

  13. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  14. LAM-1 and FAT Genes Control Development of the Leaf Blade in Nicotiana sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, NA

    1993-01-01

    Leaf primordia of the lam-1 mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris grow normally in length but remain bladeless throughout development. The blade initiation site is established at the normal time and position in lam-1 primordia. Anticlinal divisions proceed normally in the outer L1 and L2 layers, but the inner L3 cells fail to establish the periclinal divisions that normally generate the middle mesophyll core. The lam-1 mutation also blocks formation of blade mesophyll from distal L2 cells. This suggests that LAM-1 controls a common step in initiation of blade tissue from the L2 and L3 lineage of the primordium. Another recessive mutation (fat) was isolated in N. sylvestris that induces abnormal periclinal divisions in the mesophyll during blade initiation and expansion. This generates a blade approximately twice its normal thickness by doubling the number of mesophyll cell layers from four to approximately eight. Presumably, the fat mutation defines a negative regulator involved in repression of periclinal divisions in the blade. The lam-1 fat double mutant shows radial proliferation of mesophyll cells at the blade initiation site. This produces a highly disorganized, club-shaped blade that appears to represent an additive effect of the lam-1 and fat mutations on blade founder cells. PMID:12271096

  15. Myostatin antibody (LY2495655) in older weak fallers: a proof-of-concept, randomised, phase 2 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Myostatin inhibits skeletal muscle growth. The humanised monoclonal antibody LY2495655 (LY) binds and neutralises myostatin. We aimed to test whether LY increases appendicular lean body mass (aLBM) and improves physical performance in older individuals who have had recent falls and low m...

  16. Reflection of the Change in VAT Rates on Selected Household Expenditures in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic (2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Široký

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union in the period of years 2007–2013 increased the rate of value added tax several times in an attempt to consolidate public budgets. While the Czech Republic is a typical representative of country changing VAT rates several times, Slovakia made practically only one change in the VAT rate. On the other hand, the Slovak Republic is a country where the reduced rate is applied only to the minimum of commodities. Changes in VAT are naturally reflected in household expenditures which are analyzed by the consumer basket, whose composition is also a subject of changes. Another factor that has an impact on household spending is swapping commodities between the rates of VAT.The aim of this paper is, based on the analytic-synthetic methods, to determine how are these changes differently manifested in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic in reference to the share of commodity consumption included in the standard and reduced VAT rates and to the exempt transactions, and, in particular, to determine how they affected the VAT burden of the hypothetical household in both countries.

  17. Effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Extract on Physico-Chemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract on the physicochemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages during storage at 10°C for 4 wk. Treatments were as follows: (C, control; T1, sodium ascorbate 0.05%; T2, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.05%; T3, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1%; T4, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.2%; T5, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1% + sodium ascorbate 0.05%). The values of pH, moisture content, lightness, redness, and sensory attributes were all significantly decreased, while the yellowness, chroma, hue angle, and texture properties were increased during storage with increase of the Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract added. In addition, the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity in the sausages displayed significant increases (psausages, it could be applied to meat products as a natural preservatives. PMID:28515651

  18. Spectroscopy of z ~ 6 i-Dropout Galaxies: Frequency of Lyα Emission and the Sizes of Lyα-emitting Galaxies1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow-Hygelund, C. C.; Holden, B. P.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; van der Wel, A.; Franx, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Ford, H.; Rosati, P.; Magee, D.; Zirm, A.

    2007-05-01

    We report on deep spectroscopy, using LRIS on Keck I and FORS2 on the VLT, of a sample of 22 candidate z~6 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected by the i775-z850>1.3 dropout criterion. Redshifts could be measured for eight objects. These redshifts are all in the range z=5.5-6.1, confirming the efficiency of the i775-z850 color selection technique. Six of the confirmed galaxies show Lyα emission. Assuming that the 14 objects without redshifts are z~6 LBGs that lack detectable Lyα emission lines, we infer that the fraction of Lyα-emitting LBGs with Lyα equivalent widths greater than 20 Å among z~6 LBGs is ~30%, similar to that found at z~3. Every Lyα-emitting object in our sample is compact, with half-light radii rhldropout sample (332 candidate z~6 objects). We can reject the hypothesis that the Lyα-emitting population is a subset of the rest of the z~6 LBG population at >97% confidence. We speculate that the small sizes of the Lyα-emitting LBGs are due to these objects being less massive than other LBGs at z~6. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 7817, 9270, 9301, 9583, and 9803. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (LP166.A-0701 and 169.A-045).

  19. Positive regulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function via Ly49Q recognition of class I MHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Lee-Hwa; Goulet, Marie-Line; Belanger, Simon; Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko; Fodil-Cornu, Nassima; Vidal, Silvia M.; Troke, Angela D.; McVicar, Daniel W.; Makrigiannis, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are an important source of type I interferon (IFN) during initial immune responses to viral infections. In mice, pDCs are uniquely characterized by high-level expression of Ly49Q, a C-type lectin-like receptor specific for class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Despite having a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif, Ly49Q was found to enhance pDC function in vitro, as pDC cytokine production in response to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 agonist CpG-oligonucleotide (ODN) could be blocked using soluble monoclonal antibody (mAb) to Ly49Q or H-2Kb. Conversely, CpG-ODN–dependent IFN-α production by pDCs was greatly augmented upon receptor cross-linking using immobilized anti-Ly49Q mAb or recombinant H-2Kb ligand. Accordingly, Ly49Q-deficient pDCs displayed a severely reduced capacity to produce cytokines in response to TLR7 and TLR9 stimulation both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, TLR9-dependent antiviral responses were compromised in Ly49Q-null mice infected with mouse cytomegalovirus. Thus, class I MHC recognition by Ly49Q on pDCs is necessary for optimal activation of innate immune responses in vivo. PMID:19075287

  20. The Diversity of Diffuse Ly α Nebulae around Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Rui; Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Hong, Sungryong [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88001 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    We report the detection of diffuse Ly α emission, or Ly α halos (LAHs), around star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 3.78 and 2.66 in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. Our samples consist of a total of ∼1400 galaxies, within two separate regions containing spectroscopically confirmed galaxy overdensities. They provide a unique opportunity to investigate how the LAH characteristics vary with host galaxy large-scale environment and physical properties. We stack Ly α images of different samples defined by these properties and measure their median LAH sizes by decomposing the stacked Ly α radial profile into a compact galaxy-like and an extended halo-like component. We find that the exponential scale-length of LAHs depends on UV continuum and Ly α luminosities, but not on Ly α equivalent widths or galaxy overdensity parameters. The full samples, which are dominated by low UV-continuum luminosity Ly α emitters ( M {sub UV} ≳ −21), exhibit LAH sizes of 5–6 kpc. However, the most UV- or Ly α- luminous galaxies have more extended halos with scale-lengths of 7–9 kpc. The stacked Ly α radial profiles decline more steeply than recent theoretical predictions that include the contributions from gravitational cooling of infalling gas and from low-level star formation in satellites. However, the LAH extent matches what one would expect for photons produced in the galaxy and then resonantly scattered by gas in an outflowing envelope. The observed trends of LAH sizes with host galaxy properties suggest that the physical conditions of the circumgalactic medium (covering fraction, H i column density, and outflow velocity) change with halo mass and/or star formation rates.

  1. Ly49Q, an ITIM-bearing NK receptor, positively regulates osteoclast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Mikihito; Nakashima, Tomoki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Makrigiannis, Andrew P.; Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Osteoclasts, multinucleated cells that resorb bone, play a key role in bone remodeling. Although immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-mediated signaling is critical for osteoclast differentiation, the significance of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) has not been well understood. Here we report the function of Ly49Q, an Ly49 family member possessing an ITIM motif, in osteoclastogenesis. Ly49Q is selectively induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) stimulation in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells (BMMs) among the Ly49 family of NK receptors. The knockdown of Ly49Q resulted in a significant reduction in the RANKL-induced formation of tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells, accompanied by a decreased expression of osteoclast-specific genes such as Nfatc1, Tm7sf4, Oscar, Ctsk, and Acp5. Osteoclastogenesis was also significantly impaired in Ly49Q-deficient cells in vitro. The inhibitory effect of Ly49Q-deficiency may be explained by the finding that Ly49Q competed for the association of Src-homology domain-2 phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) with paired immunoglobulin-like receptor-B (PIR-B), an ITIM-bearing receptor which negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation. Unexpectedly, Ly49Q deficiency did not lead to impaired osteoclast formation in vivo, suggesting the existence of a compensatory mechanism. This study provides an example in which an ITIM-bearing receptor functions as a positive regulator of osteoclast differentiation.

  2. Deep Submillimeter and Radio Observations in the SSA22 Field. I. Powering Sources and the Lyα Escape Fraction of Lyα Blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Henkel, C.; Iono, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Geach, J.; Hatsukade, B.; Hayes, M.; Hine, N. K.; Kato, Y.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Kubo, M.; Lehnert, M.; Malkan, M.; Menten, K. M.; Nagao, T.; Norris, R. P.; Ouchi, M.; Saito, T.; Tamura, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Umehata, H.; Weiss, A.

    2017-12-01

    We study the heating mechanisms and Lyα escape fractions of 35 Lyα blobs (LABs) at z ≈ 3.1 in the SSA22 field. Dust continuum sources have been identified in 11 of the 35 LABs, all with star formation rates (SFRs) above 100 M ⊙ yr-1. Likely radio counterparts are detected in 9 out of 29 investigated LABs. The detection of submillimeter dust emission is more linked to the physical size of the Lyα emission than to the Lyα luminosities of the LABs. A radio excess in the submillimeter/radio-detected LABs is common, hinting at the presence of active galactic nuclei. Most radio sources without X-ray counterparts are located at the centers of the LABs. However, all X-ray counterparts avoid the central regions. This may be explained by absorption due to exceptionally large column densities along the line-of-sight or by LAB morphologies, which are highly orientation dependent. The median Lyα escape fraction is about 3% among the submillimeter-detected LABs, which is lower than a lower limit of 11% for the submillimeter-undetected LABs. We suspect that the large difference is due to the high dust attenuation supported by the large SFRs, the dense large-scale environment as well as large uncertainties in the extinction corrections required to apply when interpreting optical data.

  3. Regulation of expression of two LY-6 family genes by intron retention and transcription induced chimerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallya Meera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of the expression of particular genes can rely on mechanisms that are different from classical transcriptional and translational control. The LY6G5B and LY6G6D genes encode LY-6 domain proteins, whose expression seems to be regulated in an original fashion, consisting of an intron retention event which generates, through an early premature stop codon, a non-coding transcript, preventing expression in most cell lines and tissues. Results The MHC LY-6 non-coding transcripts have shown to be stable and very abundant in the cell, and not subject to Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD. This retention event appears not to be solely dependent on intron features, because in the case of LY6G5B, when the intron is inserted in the artificial context of a luciferase expression plasmid, it is fully spliced but strongly stabilises the resulting luciferase transcript. In addition, by quantitative PCR we found that the retained and spliced forms are differentially expressed in tissues indicating an active regulation of the non-coding transcript. EST database analysis revealed that these genes have an alternative expression pathway with the formation of Transcription Induced Chimeras (TIC. This data was confirmed by RT-PCR, revealing the presence of different transcripts that would encode the chimeric proteins CSNKβ-LY6G5B and G6F-LY6G6D, in which the LY-6 domain would join to a kinase domain and an Ig-like domain, respectively. Conclusion In conclusion, the LY6G5B and LY6G6D intron-retained transcripts are not subjected to NMD and are more abundant than the properly spliced forms. In addition, these genes form chimeric transcripts with their neighbouring same orientation 5' genes. Of interest is the fact that the 5' genes (CSNKβ or G6F undergo differential splicing only in the context of the chimera (CSNKβ-LY6G5B or G6F-LY6G6C and not on their own.

  4. The Lyα reference sample. I. Survey outline and first results for Markarian 259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Marquart, Thomas; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Guaita, Lucia; Micheva, Genoveva; Orlitová, Ivana; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen A.; Gruyters, Pieter; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral line in use for characterizing high-redshift (z) galaxies. This paper presents an overview of the survey, its selection function, and HST imaging observations. The sample was selected from the combined GALEX+Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog at z = 0.028-0.19, in order to allow Lyα to be captured with combinations of long-pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard HST. In addition, LARS utilizes Hα and Hβ narrowband and u, b, i broadband imaging with ACS and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lyα photons are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ∼ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present the reduction steps used to obtain the Lyα images, including our LARS eXtraction software (LaXs), which utilizes pixel-by-pixel spectral synthesis fitting of the energy distribution to determine and subtract the continuum at Lyα. We demonstrate that the use of SBC long-pass-filter combinations increase the signal-to-noise ratio by an order of magnitude compared to the nominal Lyα filter available in SBC. To exemplify the science potential of LARS, we also present some first results for a single galaxy, Mrk 259 (LARS #1). This irregular galaxy shows bright and extended (indicative of resonance scattering) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate

  5. The Lyα reference sample. I. Survey outline and first results for Markarian 259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Marquart, Thomas; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Guaita, Lucia; Micheva, Genoveva [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Oscar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden); Orlitová, Ivana [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Gruyters, Pieter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Herenz, Edmund Christian [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), innoFSPEC, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique Paris, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologa (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofsica, POB 78, E-28691, Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Instituto de Astronoma, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Apdo. Postal 106, Ensenada B. C. 22800 (Mexico); and others

    2014-12-10

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral line in use for characterizing high-redshift (z) galaxies. This paper presents an overview of the survey, its selection function, and HST imaging observations. The sample was selected from the combined GALEX+Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog at z = 0.028-0.19, in order to allow Lyα to be captured with combinations of long-pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard HST. In addition, LARS utilizes Hα and Hβ narrowband and u, b, i broadband imaging with ACS and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lyα photons are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ∼ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present the reduction steps used to obtain the Lyα images, including our LARS eXtraction software (LaXs), which utilizes pixel-by-pixel spectral synthesis fitting of the energy distribution to determine and subtract the continuum at Lyα. We demonstrate that the use of SBC long-pass-filter combinations increase the signal-to-noise ratio by an order of magnitude compared to the nominal Lyα filter available in SBC. To exemplify the science potential of LARS, we also present some first results for a single galaxy, Mrk 259 (LARS #1). This irregular galaxy shows bright and extended (indicative of resonance scattering) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate

  6. Atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz Antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Braz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz pertence a família Crassulaceae e é conhecida vulgarmente como coirama, folha-da-fortuna, ou folha-do-ar, sendo usada popularmente como antifúngico, no tratamento da hipertensão, em úlceras e em inflamações. O presente estudo objetivou analisar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz em modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por indometacina em Rattus norvegicus, machos (150 a 250 g com idade de 70 dias. Os animais receberam por via oral: água, extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (1 e 2 g Kg-1 ou ranitidina (60 mg Kg-1 , fármaco com ação gastroprotetora conhecida que atua bloqueando os receptores de histamina H2. Após uma hora dos tratamentos, todos animais receberam indometacina via intraperitoneal. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz possui ação gastroprotetora; na dose de 1 g Kg-1 inibiu 45,49% o índice de ulceração induzido pela indometacina, e, na dose de 2 g Kg-1, inibiu 49,50%. Sugere-se o envolvimento de vários mecanismos na ação gastroprotetora dessa planta e não somente uma possível participação das prostaglandinas nesse efeito. Estudos futuros com diferentes modelos de indução de úlcera gástrica tornam-se necessários para melhor avaliar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz belongs to the family Crassulaceae, is popularly known as "coirama", "folha-da-fortuna", or "folha-do-ar" and has been commonly used as antifungal, in the treatment of hypertension, ulcers and inflammation. The present study aimed to analyze the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in Rattus norvegicus, males (150-250 g aged 70 days old. The animals received by the oral route: water, aqueous extract from

  7. Study of Antipyretic Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to screen the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. as per the method discribed by Bhalla et.al, (1971. Thirty six healthy rats weighing between 200-250gms were divided into six groups of six animals each, with 50% sex ratio. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 3 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 15% of brewer’s yeast and 2% gum acacia in normal saline sub-cutaneously below the nape of neck @ 1ml/100gm of animal weight. The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The extract showed marked antipyretic activity in a dose dependent manner. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 215-216

  8. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant' Anna, Carlos M.R., E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  9. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant'Anna, Carlos M.R.; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete 1 H and 13 C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  10. Emergency contraceptive pills as a backup for lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) of contraception: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Omar M; Hassen, Shaimaa G; Nour, Sanna A; Kames, Mervat A; Yones, Entsar M

    2013-03-01

    The use of breastfeeding as a method of birth spacing occasionally ends in "unplanned pregnancy." This is due to unexpected expiration of one or more of the lactation amenorrhea method (LAM) prerequisites. The current study tests a new concept that the in-advance provision of single packet of progestogen emergency contraception (EC) pills during the postpartum LAM counseling may decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy during breastfeeding. This was a registered two-armed randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929). Women intending to breastfeed and to postpone pregnancy for 1 year or more were approached. They received adequate postpartum contraceptive counseling. Women intending to use LAM were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The LAM-only group received the proper LAM counseling and did not receive counseling about EC. The LAM-EC group received counseling for both LAM and EC with in-advance provision of one packet of EC pills. They were advised to use these pills if one of the prerequisites of LAM expires and sexual relation has occurred before the initiation of another regular contraceptive protection. All the participants were advised that they need to use another regular method upon expiration of any of the LAM prerequisites. Eligible women were 1158 parturients randomized into two equal groups. Forty-four percent of the women provided with EC used them. Significantly more women in the LAM-EC group initiated regular contraception within or shortly after the first 6 months postpartum when compared with those in the LAM-only group (30.5% vs. 7.3%, respectively; p=.0004). Pregnancy occurred in 5% of the LAM-only group as compared with 0.8% in the LAM-EC group (p=.005). Minimal side effects were reported after EC use. In-advance provision of EC pills can increase the rate of initiation of regular contraception once one or more of the prerequisites of LAM expire. Consequently, the use of EC pills as a temporary backup of LAM can decrease the incidence

  11. Predictive and prognostic properties of TB-LAM among HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elia, Alexander; Evans, Denise; McNamara, Lynne; Berhanu, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Lönnermark, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment ART initiation, we measured the CD4 response at 6 months on ART. Of the 274 patients without TB at ART initiation, 65% were female with median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm(3). Among the 14 (5.1%) patients who developed active TB, none were urine LAM +ve at baseline. LAM had poor sensitivity (0.0% 95% CI 0.00-23.2) to predict incident TB within 6 months of initiation. We analyzed 22 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis at initiation separately. Of these, LAM +ve patients (27%) showed lower CD4 gains compared to LAM negative patients (median increase 103 vs 199 cells/mm(3); p = 0.08). LAM has limited value for accurately predicting incident TB in patients with higher CD4 counts after ART initiation. LAM may help identify TB/HIV co-infected patients at ART initiation who respond more slowly to treatment and require targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes. Larger studies with longer patient follow-up are needed.

  12. Ly6G-mediated depletion of neutrophils is dependent on macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Kevin W; Dekitani, Ken; Nielsen, Travis B; Pantapalangkoor, Paul; Spellberg, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils is commonly used to study neutropenia. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies deplete neutrophils have not been well defined. We noticed that mice deficient in complement and macrophages had blunted neutrophil depletion in response to anti-Ly6G monoclonal antibody (MAb) treatment. In vitro, exposure of murine neutrophils to anti-Ly6G MAb in the presence of plasma did not result in significant depletion of cells, either in the presence or absence of complement. In vivo, anti-Ly6G-mediated neutrophil depletion was abrogated following macrophage depletion, but not complement depletion, indicating a requirement for macrophages to induce neutropenia by this method. These results inform the use and limitations of anti-Ly6G antibody as an experimental tool for depleting neutrophils in various immunological settings.

  13. Observation of solar hydrogen Ly-αline with the K-10-12 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshio, Takafumi; Masuoka, Toshio; Tono, Ichiro; Watanabe, Norihiko.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the observation is to perform the absolute irradiance measurement of the solar hydrogen Ly-α line (1216 A 0 ) in the exosphere. The solar hydrogen Ly-α line is emitted from the chromosphere, and contributes to the ionization in the lower ionosphere. The ionization chamber was used for the detection of the solar hydrogen Ly-α line. The K-10-9 rocket was launched on Jan. 18, 1976. The irradiance of the solar hydrogen Ly-α line was measured in the exosphere, and the height distribution of O 2 density was studied on the basis of the absorbancy of the HLy-α line. The result was in good agreement with the previously observed results. (Yoshimori, M.)

  14. Trahv? Herned klassinurgas? Või hoopis ihunuhtlus? / Pilme, Lea; Kivistik, Ly; Sirgmets, Raili; Part, Aivar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Suhtumisest koolijuhtidele trahvimisõiguse andmise ideesse vestlevad Rakvere Põhikooli direktor Lea Pilme, Uhtna Põhikooli direktor Ly Kivistik, Väike-Maarja Gümnaasiumi direktor Raili Sirgmets ja Rakvere Gümnaasiumi direktor Aivar Part

  15. The properties of the brightest Lyα emitters at z=5.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, C.; Hayes, M.; Jones, D. H.; Schaerer, D.; Westra, E.; Tapken, C.; Meisenheimer, K.; Verhamme, A.

    2012-03-01

    We use deep Very Large Telescope (VLT) optical and near-infrared spectroscopy and deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging to examine the properties of two of the most luminous Lyα emitters at z= 5.7. The continuum redward of the Lyα line is clearly detected in both objects, thus facilitating a relatively accurate measurement (10-20 per cent uncertainties) of the observed rest-frame equivalent widths, which are around 160 Å for both objects. Through detailed modelling of the profile of the Lyα line with a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we estimate the intrinsic rest-frame equivalent width of Lyα and find values that are around 300 Å, which is at the upper end of the range allowed for very young, moderately metal-poor star-forming galaxies. However, the uncertainties are large and values as high as 700 Å are permitted by the data. Both Lyα emitters are detected at 3.6 ?m in deep images taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We use these measurements, the measurement of the continuum redward of Lyα and other photometry to constrain the spectral energy distributions of these very luminous Lyα emitters and to compare them with three similar Lyα emitters from the literature. The contribution from nebular emission is included in our models: excluding it results in significantly higher masses. Four of the five Lyα emitters have masses of the order of ˜109 M⊙ and fairly high specific star formation rates (≳10-100 Gyr-1). While our two Lyα emitters appear similar in terms of the observed Lyα rest-frame equivalent width, they are quite distinct from each other in terms of age, mass and star formation history. Evidence for dust is found in all objects, and emission from nebular lines often makes a dominant contribution to the rest-frame 3.6 ?m flux. Rich in emission lines, these objects are prime targets for the next generation of extremely large telescopes, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). a Initial 2σ lower

  16. THE REST-FRAME OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF LY α -EMITTERS AT z  ∼ 2.5: THE PHYSICAL ORIGINS OF STRONG LY α EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, Ryan F. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Strom, Allison L.; Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, MC 249-17, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rudie, Gwen C., E-mail: trainor@berkeley.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectroscopic properties of 60 faint ( R {sub AB} ∼ 27; L ∼ 0.1 L {sub *}) Ly α -selected galaxies (LAEs) at z  ≈ 2.56. These LAEs also have rest-UV spectra of their Ly α emission line morphologies, which trace the effects of interstellar and circumgalactic gas on the escape of Ly α photons. We find that the LAEs have diverse rest-optical spectra, but their average spectroscopic properties are broadly consistent with the extreme low-metallicity end of the populations of continuum-selected galaxies selected at z  ≈ 2–3. In particular, the LAEs have extremely high [O iii] λ 5008/H β ratios (log([O iii]/H β ) ∼ 0.8) and low [N ii] λ 6585/H α ratios (log([N ii]/H α ) < 1.15). Coupled with a detection of the [O iii] λ 4364 auroral line, these measurements indicate that the star-forming regions in faint LAEs are characterized by high electron temperatures (T{sub e} ≈ 1.8 × 10{sup 4} K), low oxygen abundances (12 + log(O/H) ≈ 8.04, Z{sub neb} ≈ 0.22 Z {sub ⊙}), and high excitations with respect to their more luminous continuum-selected analogs. Several of our faintest LAEs have line ratios consistent with even lower metallicities, including six with 12 + log(O/H) ≈ 6.9–7.4 (Z {sub neb} ≈ 0.02–0.05 Z{sub ⊙}). We interpret these observations in light of new models of stellar evolution (including binary interactions) that have been shown to produce long-lived populations of hot, massive stars at low metallicities. We find that strong, hard ionizing continua are required to reproduce our observed line ratios, suggesting that faint galaxies are efficient producers of ionizing photons and important analogs of reionization-era galaxies. Furthermore, we investigate the physical trends accompanying Ly α emission across the largest current sample of combined Ly α and rest-optical galaxy spectroscopy, including both the 60 KBSS-Ly α LAEs and 368 more luminous galaxies at similar redshifts. We

  17. A New Method to Measure the Post-reionization Ionizing Background from the Joint Distribution of Lyα and Lyβ Forest Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Frederick B.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Eilers, Anna-Christina; Lukić, Zarija

    2018-03-01

    The amplitude of the ionizing background that pervades the intergalactic medium (IGM) at the end of the epoch of reionization provides a valuable constraint on the emissivity of the sources that reionized the universe. While measurements of the ionizing background at lower redshifts rely on a simulation-calibrated mapping between the photoionization rate and the mean transmission of the Lyα forest, at z ≳ 6 the IGM becomes increasingly opaque and transmission arises solely in narrow spikes separated by saturated Gunn–Peterson troughs. In this regime, the traditional approach of measuring the average transmission over large ∼50 Mpc/h regions is less sensitive and suboptimal. In addition, the five times smaller oscillator strength of the Lyβ transition implies that the Lyβ forest is considerably more transparent at z ≳ 6, even in the presence of contamination by foreground z ∼ 5 Lyα forest absorption. In this work we present a novel statistical approach to analyze the joint distribution of transmission spikes in the cospatial z ∼ 6 Lyα and Lyβ forests. Our method relies on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), which circumvents the necessity of computing the intractable likelihood function describing the highly correlated Lyα and Lyβ transmission. We apply ABC to mock data generated from a large-volume hydrodynamical simulation combined with a state-of-the-art model of ionizing background fluctuations in the post-reionization IGM and show that it is sensitive to higher IGM neutral hydrogen fractions than previous techniques. As a proof of concept, we apply this methodology to a real spectrum of a z = 6.54 quasar and measure the ionizing background from 5.4 ≤ z ≤ 6.4 along this sightline with ∼0.2 dex statistical uncertainties. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the

  18. Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, S.S.; Bhatnagar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the hepatoprotective effects of the methanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), in Wistar albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Materials and Methods: Liver damage in rats treated with CCl4 (1ml/kg/Bw, administered subcutaneously, on alternate days for one week) was studied by assessing parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and bilirubin (total and direct). The effect of co-administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) on the above parameters was investigated. These biochemical observations were supplemented by weight and histological examination of liver sections. Liv.52® was used as positive control. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by Scheff's/Dunnett's test. Results: Administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) significantly prevented carbon tetrachloride induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, ACP and bilirubin (total and direct) level. Histological examination of the liver section revealed hepatic regeneration, after administration of various doses of Eugenia jambolana Lam. The results were comparable to that of Liv.52®. Conclusion: The study suggests preventive action of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity. Hepatic cell regeneration process was dose dependent. PMID:20177577

  19. Damped Lyα system toward QSO1854+116: A new type of absorber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A puzzle of the low-redshift damped Lyα absorption system toward QSO 1854+116 is presented. Problems which conventional intepretation of damped Lyα systems encounters in this case are sketched and a possible explanation, based on transience of the phenomenon, is suggested. It is shown that the detailed Hα tomography can observationally resolve the controversy in the very near future.

  20. SPATIALLY RESOLVED GAS KINEMATICS WITHIN A Lyα NEBULA: EVIDENCE FOR LARGE-SCALE ROTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun, E-mail: mkmprescott@dark-cosmology.dk [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We use spatially extended measurements of Lyα as well as less optically thick emission lines from an ≈80 kpc Lyα nebula at z ≈ 1.67 to assess the role of resonant scattering and to disentangle kinematic signatures from Lyα radiative transfer effects. We find that the Lyα, C IV, He II, and C III] emission lines all tell a similar story in this system, and that the kinematics are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation. First, the observed surface brightness profiles are similar in extent in all four lines, strongly favoring a picture in which the Lyα photons are produced in situ instead of being resonantly scattered from a central source. Second, we see low kinematic offsets between Lyα and the less optically thick He II line (∼100-200 km s{sup –1}), providing further support for the argument that the Lyα and other emission lines are all being produced within the spatially extended gas. Finally, the full velocity field of the system shows coherent velocity shear in all emission lines: ≈500 km s{sup –1} over the central ≈50 kpc of the nebula. The kinematic profiles are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation in a gas disk that is at least partially stable against collapse. These observations suggest that the Lyα nebula represents accreting material that is illuminated by an offset, hidden active galactic nucleus or distributed star formation, and that is undergoing rotation in a clumpy and turbulent gas disk. With an implied mass of M(

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the cathepsin S inhibitor, LY3000328, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher D; Deeg, Mark A; Chan, Melanie; Tan, Lai Hock; LaBell, Elizabeth Smith; Shen, Tong; DeBrota, David J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LY3000328 when administered as single escalating doses to healthy volunteers. This was a phase 1, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study with LY3000328 in 21 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were administered escalating LY3000328 doses up to 300 mg with food in this single dose study. Blood samples were collected at set times post-dose for the assessment of LY3000328 pharmacokinetics and the measurement of cathepsin S (CatS) activity, CatS mass and calculated CatS specific activity. All doses of LY3000328 were well tolerated, with linear pharmacokinetics up to the 300 mg dose. The pharmacodynamic activity of LY3000328 was measured ex vivo showing a biphasic response to LY3000328, where CatS activity declines, then returns to baseline, and then increases to a level above baseline. CatS mass was also assessed post-dose which increased in a dose-dependent manner, and continued to increase after LY3000328 had been cleared from the body. CatS specific activity was additionally calculated to normalize CatS activity for changes in CatS mass. This demonstrated the increase in CatS activity was attributable to the increase in CatS mass detected in plasma. A specific inhibitor of CatS which is cleared quickly from plasma may produce a transient decrease in plasma CatS activity which is followed by a more prolonged increase in plasma CatS mass which may have implications for the future clinical development of inhibitors of CatS. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. A Faint Flux-limited Lyα Emitter Sample at z ˜ 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Isak G. B.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Rosenwasser, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    We present a flux-limited sample of z ˜ 0.3 Lyα emitters (LAEs) from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism spectroscopic data. The published GALEX z ˜ 0.3 LAE sample is pre-selected from continuum-bright objects and thus is biased against high equivalent width (EW) LAEs. We remove this continuum pre-selection and compute the EW distribution and the luminosity function of the Lyα emission line directly from our sample. We examine the evolution of these quantities from z ˜ 0.3 to 2.2 and find that the EW distribution shows little evidence for evolution over this redshift range. As shown by previous studies, the Lyα luminosity density from star-forming (SF) galaxies declines rapidly with declining redshift. However, we find that the decline in Lyα luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.3 may simply mirror the decline seen in the Hα luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.4, implying little change in the volumetric Lyα escape fraction. Finally, we show that the observed Lyα luminosity density from AGNs is comparable to the observed Lyα luminosity density from SF galaxies at z = 0.3. We suggest that this significant contribution from AGNs to the total observed Lyα luminosity density persists out to z ˜ 2.2. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  3. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

  4. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with Ly α and 21 cm Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneka, Caroline [Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    We study 21 cm and Ly α fluctuations, as well as H α , while distinguishing between Ly α emission of galactic, diffuse, and scattered intergalactic medium (IGM) origin. Cross-correlation information about the state of the IGM is obtained, testing neutral versus ionized medium cases with different tracers in a seminumerical simulation setup. In order to pave the way toward constraints on reionization history and modeling beyond power spectrum information, we explore parameter dependencies of the cross-power signal between 21 cm and Ly α , which displays a characteristic morphology and a turnover from negative to positive correlation at scales of a couple Mpc{sup −1}. In a proof of concept for the extraction of further information on the state of the IGM using different tracers, we demonstrate the use of the 21 cm and H α cross-correlation signal to determine the relative strength of galactic and IGM emission in Ly α . We conclude by showing the detectability of the 21 cm and Ly α cross-correlation signal over more than one decade in scale at high signal-to-noise ratio for upcoming probes like SKA and the proposed all-sky intensity mapping satellites SPHEREx and CDIM, while also including the Ly α damping tail and 21 cm foreground avoidance in the modeling.

  5. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Lyα NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2012-01-01

    Giant Lyα nebulae (or Lyα 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Lyα nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Lyα nebulae at 2 ∼ 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. With a total survey comoving volume of ≈10 8 h –3 70 Mpc 3 , this is the largest volume survey for Lyα nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Lyα nebula.

  6. THE NATURE OF Lyα BLOBS: POWERED BY EXTREME STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Renyue; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    We present a new model for the observed Lyα blobs (LABs) within the context of the standard cold dark matter model. In this model, LABs are the most massive halos with the strongest clustering (protoclusters) undergoing extreme starbursts in the high-z universe. Aided by calculations of detailed radiative transfer of Lyα photons through ultrahigh resolution (159 pc), large-scale (≥30 Mpc) adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with galaxy formation, this model is shown to be able to, for the first time, reproduce simultaneously the global Lyα luminosity function and the luminosity-size relation of the observed LABs. Physically, a combination of dust attenuation of Lyα photons within galaxies, clustering of galaxies, and the complex propagation of Lyα photons through the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium gives rise to the large sizes and the irregular isophotal shapes of LABs that are frequently observed. A generic and unique prediction of this model is that there should be strong far-infrared (FIR) sources within each LAB with the most luminous FIR source likely representing the gravitational center of the protocluster, not necessarily the apparent center of the Lyα emission of the LAB or the most luminous optical source. Upcoming ALMA observations should unambiguously test this prediction. If verified, LABs will provide very valuable laboratories for studying the formation of galaxies in the most overdense regions of the universe at a time when the global star formation was the most vigorous

  7. The Nature of Lyα Blobs: Powered by Extreme Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-10-01

    We present a new model for the observed Lyα blobs (LABs) within the context of the standard cold dark matter model. In this model, LABs are the most massive halos with the strongest clustering (protoclusters) undergoing extreme starbursts in the high-z universe. Aided by calculations of detailed radiative transfer of Lyα photons through ultrahigh resolution (159 pc), large-scale (>=30 Mpc) adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with galaxy formation, this model is shown to be able to, for the first time, reproduce simultaneously the global Lyα luminosity function and the luminosity-size relation of the observed LABs. Physically, a combination of dust attenuation of Lyα photons within galaxies, clustering of galaxies, and the complex propagation of Lyα photons through the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium gives rise to the large sizes and the irregular isophotal shapes of LABs that are frequently observed. A generic and unique prediction of this model is that there should be strong far-infrared (FIR) sources within each LAB with the most luminous FIR source likely representing the gravitational center of the protocluster, not necessarily the apparent center of the Lyα emission of the LAB or the most luminous optical source. Upcoming ALMA observations should unambiguously test this prediction. If verified, LABs will provide very valuable laboratories for studying the formation of galaxies in the most overdense regions of the universe at a time when the global star formation was the most vigorous.

  8. The physical properties and evolution of Lyα emitting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.

    2009-05-01

    A significant fraction of high redshift starburst galaxies presents strong Lyα emission. Understanding the nature of these galaxies is important to assess the role they played in the early Universe and to shed light on the relation between the narrow band selected Lyα emitters and the Lyman break galaxies: are the Lyα emitters a subset of the general LBG population? or do they represent the youngest galaxies in their early phases of formation? We studied a sample of UV continuum selected galaxies from z~2.5 to z~6 (U, B, V and i-dropouts) from the GOODS-South survey, that have been observed spectroscopically. Using the GOODS-MUSIC catalog we investigated their physical properties, such as total masses, ages, SFRs, extinction etc as determined from a spectrophotometric fit to the multi-wavelength (U band to mid-IR) SEDs, and their dependence on the emission line characteristics. In particular we determined the nature of the LBGs with Lyα in emission and compared them to the properties of narrow band selected Lyα emitters. For U and B-dropouts we also compared the properties of LBGs with and without the Lyα emission line.

  9. Physical start up of the Dalat nuclear research reactor with the core configuration having a central neutron trap; Khoi dong vat ly lo phan ung hat nhan Da Lat voi cau hinh vung hoat co bay notron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, Pham Duy; Huy, Ngo Quang; Long, Vu Hai; Mai, Tran Khanh [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    After the reactor has reached physical criticality with the core configuration exempt from central neutron trap on 1 November 1983, the core configuration with a central neutron trap has been arranged in the reactor and the reactor has reached physical criticality with this core configuration at 17h48 on 18 December 1983. The integral worths of different control rods are determined with accuracy. 2 refs., 24 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Physical start up of the Dalat nuclear research reactor with the core configuration exempt from neutron trap; Khoi dong vat ly lo phan ung hat nhan Da Lat voi cau hinh vung hoat khong co bay notron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, Pham Duy; Huy, Ngo Quang; Long, Vu Hai; Mai, Tran Khanh [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    The nominal power of the reconstructed Dalat reactor is of 500 KW. After a meticulous preparation the Russian and Vietnamese teams have proceeded to the physical reactor start-up in November 1983 with the core configuration exempt from the neutron trap. The reactor has reached the physical criticality at 19h50 on 1 November 1983. The report delineates different steps of the start-up procedure. 2 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Short-run Distributional Effects of VAT Rate Change: Evidence from a consumption tax rate increase in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    David CASHIN; UNAYAMA Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Households will purchase more items than usual prior to a value added tax (VAT) rate increase in order to avoid taxation. Since this type of arbitrage requires resources such as shopping time and storage space, the impacts of tax increases vary across households, which has brought distributional effects in the short-run. Using the case of a consumption tax rate increase in Japan in 1997, we show that households who are non-working, with non-working spouses and residing in larger houses, benef...

  12. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  13. The de Bono LAMS Sequence Series: Template Designs as Knowledge-Mobilising Strategy for 21st Century Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the five interlocking de Bono LAMS sequences are introduced as a new form of generic template designs. This transdisciplinary knowledge-mobilising strategy is based on Edward de Bono's attention-directing ideas and thinking skills, commonly known as the CoRT tools. The development of the de Bono LAMS sequence series is an important…

  14. LyGDI expression in HeLa cells increased its sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xinwen; Xu Yaxiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In order to confirm whether LyGDI has apoptotic signal transduction function and can increase the apoptotic rate of radiation-induced cell death, the lyGDI and mutant D19lyGDI gene, which constructed with the pCDNA3. 1 His A, were transfected into no-endogenous lyGDI HeLa cells. Methods Transient expressions of lyGDI and D19lyGDI in HeLa cells were analyzed by Western blot using anti-mono antibody of LyGDI and Xpress tag. Cell apoptosis was assayed with Annexin V-FITC apoptosis kit. To select stable clone, the transferred HeLa cells had been maintained in G418 medium for 3 weeks, then a cell line, which stably expressed LyGDI and mutant D19lyGDI, was selected. The selected cell line was irradiated with 12 Gy 60 Co y-rays. Caspase-3 activity of the cells was determined by Western blot and cell viability by clone-forming assay after 48 hours post-irradiation culture. Results: Western blot and Annexin V-FITC apoptotic analysis revealed that lyGDI and D19lyGDI transient expressions in HeLa cells induced apoptosis; Caspase-3 activity measurement and clone-forming assay showed that lyGDI increased sensitivity to radiation-induced cell apoptosis. Conclusions: lyGDI performs function in apoptosis signal transduction, its expression in HeLa cells can increase the sensitivity to radiation-induced cell apoptosis. (authors)

  15. [Scope of the latest RE-LY substudies: clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Giménez Arrieta, N

    2012-03-01

    The approval of the use of dabiatran in stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrilation (NVAF) is based on the results of the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial, one of the largest studies to date in this entity. In this trial, dabigatran showed similar safety and efficacy to warfarin in primary and secondary prevention of stroke in patients with AF. At a dose of 150 mg twice daily, dabigatran was superior to warfarin in the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism and the 110 mg dose twice daily showed similar efficacy and greater safety, given the lower incidence of hemorrhage. These results were consistently found in the various subanalyses, with some slight differences of interest for clinical practice. The ideal candidates for dabiatran are patients with NVAF suitable for cardioversion, who require short periods of anticoagulation, patients in remote geographical areas with difficulty in achieving good anticoagulation control or good control with anti-vitamin K treatment due to IRN fluctuations, and patients with a low risk of hemorrhage and a CHADS score ≥ 3 and/or with prior stroke, whenever there are no contraindications. The choice of dabigatran dose should be evaluated according to the patient's individual characteristics (caution must be exercised when prescribing this drug in the elderly and in renal insufficiency) and embolic and/or hemorrhagic risk. Studies of the long-term safety of this drug, pharmacoeconomic analyses in Spain and post-commercialization pharmacovigilance data are required before the definitive uses of this drug can be established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Coagulation of some humic acid solutions by Moringa oleifera lam seeds: effect on chlorine requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Bawa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to study humic acid solutions and surface waters coagulation by Moringa oleifera Lam seeds aqueous extract. High amounts of such extract (up to 10 g/L were required to clarify humic acid solutions whereas 0.5 g/L were used to remove 90% of initial turbidity of a surface water. The treatment of water with low turbidity (Moringa oleifera Lam seeds extract released a high amount of organic compounds in treated solutions leading to a high chlorine requirement.

  17. ON THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE Lyα ESCAPE FRACTION AND THE DUST CONTENT OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Matthew; Schaerer, Daniel; Oestlin, Goeran; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The Lyα emission line has been proven to be a powerful tool for studying evolving galaxies at the highest redshift. However, in order to use Lyα as a physical probe of galaxies, it becomes vital to know the Lyα escape fraction (f Lyα esc ). Unfortunately, due to the resonant nature of Lyα, f Lyα esc may vary unpredictably and requires empirical measurement. Here, we compile Lyα luminosity functions (LFs) between redshifts z = 0 and 8 and, combined with Hα and ultraviolet data, assess how f Lyα esc evolves with redshift. We find a strong upward evolution in f Lyα esc over the range z = 0.3-6, which is well fit by the power law f Lyα esc ∝(1 + z) ξ with ξ = (2.57 +0.19 -0.12 ). This predicts that f Lyα esc should reach unity at z = 11.1. By comparing f Lyα esc and E B-V in individual galaxies we derive an empirical relationship between f Lyα esc and E B-V , which includes resonance scattering and can explain the redshift evolution of f Lyα esc between z = 0 and 6 purely as a function of the evolution in the dust content of galaxies. Beyond z ∼ 6.5, f Lyα esc drops more substantially, an effect attributed to either ionizing photon leakage, or an increase in the neutral gas fraction of the intergalactic medium. While distinguishing between these two scenarios may be extremely challenging, by framing the problem this way we remove the uncertainty of the halo mass from Lyα-based tests of reionization. We finally derive a new method by which to estimate the dust content of galaxies, based purely upon the observed Lyα and UV LFs. These data are characterized by an exponential with an e-folding scale of z EBV ∼ 3.4.

  18. Insight into the bacterial diversity of fermentation woad dye vats as revealed by PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Vesna; Osimani, Andrea; Taccari, Manuela; Garofalo, Cristiana; Butta, Alessandro; Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2017-07-01

    The bacterial diversity in fermenting dye vats with woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) prepared and maintained in a functional state for approximately 12 months was examined using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent PCR-DGGE analyses and next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. An extremely complex ecosystem including taxa potentially contributing to both indigo reduction and formation, as well as indigo degradation was found. PCR-DGGE analyses revealed the presence of Paenibacillus lactis, Sporosarcina koreensis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus thermoamylovorans, while Bacillus thermolactis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium were also identified but with sequence identities lower than 97%. Dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by pyrosequencing included Clostridium ultunense, Tissierella spp., Alcaligenes faecalis, Erysipelothrix spp., Enterococcus spp., Virgibacillus spp. and Virgibacillus panthothenicus, while sub-dominant OTUs included clostridia, alkaliphiles, halophiles, bacilli, moderately thermophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, aerobes, and even photosynthetic bacteria. Based on the current knowledge of indigo-reducing bacteria, it is considered that indigo-reducing bacteria constituted only a small fraction in the unique microcosm detected in the natural indigo dye vats.

  19. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  20. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae Leaf morphoanatomy of Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Donato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. são usadas na medicina popular como hipoglicemiantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfológica e anatomicamente as folhas desta planta, de modo que os dados obtidos possam ser utilizados como referência em exames de controle de qualidade de amostras de fármacos, com vistas a verificar a autenticidade. Folhas inteiras foram diafanizadas e coradas para o estudo da nervação. Secções transversais do pecíolo e transversais e paradérmicas da lâmina foliar foram analisadas em microscópio óptico (MO e a superfície do limbo foi observada, também, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Foram aplicados testes histoquímicos em material fresco, para identificação e localização de glicídios, amido, taninos, lignina, cristais e sílica. Morfologicamente, a folha é simples, oval-elíptica, com margem inteira, base aguda, ápice acuminado e textura cartácea. A venação é do tipo camptódromo-broquidódromo. Anatomicamente, a folha é hipostomática, com mesofilo compacto e dorsiventral, com três estratos de parênquima paliçádico. A epiderme é uniestratificada, silicificada em algumas regiões e as células exibem paredes anticlinais retas. Em posição subepidérmica ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais e acompanhados por séries cristalíferas. Os dados obtidos são comparados com os de outras espécies de Myrtaceae e conclui-se que as características morfológicas e anatômicas de M. multiflora contribuem para a diagnose.Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. leaves have been used in folk medicine as hypoglycemic. The aim of this work is to describe morphoanatomically the leaves of this plant in order to use the obtained data as reference in quality control tests of drug samples, investigating their authenticity. Whole leaves were diaphanized and stained for venation study. Petiole transverse sections and leaf blade

  1. THE Lyα LINE PROFILES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: FAST WINDS AND LYMAN CONTINUUM LEAKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Wong, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029, 0858 Oslo (Norway); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Soto, Kurt T. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Danforth, Charles W., E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding −1000 km s{sup −1} in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1–1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  2. The Ly49E receptor inhibits the immune control of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Filtjens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT cells, is triggered by uPA. Therefore, we compared wild type (WT to Ly49E knockout (KO mice for their control of experimental T. cruzi infection. Our results show that young, i.e. 4- and 6-week-old, Ly49E KO mice control the infection better than WT mice, indicated by a lower parasite load and less cachexia. The beneficial effect of Ly49E depletion is more obvious in 4-week-old male than in female mice and weakens in 8-week-old mice. In young mice, the lower T. cruzi parasitemia in Ly49E KO mice is paralleled by higher IFN-γ production compared to their WT controls. Our data indicate that Ly49E receptor expression inhibits the immune control of T. cruzi infection. This is the first demonstration that the inhibitory Ly49E receptor can interfere with the immune response to a pathogen in vivo.

  3. Specific Depletion of Ly6Chi Inflammatory Monocytes Prevents Immunopathology in Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, Janina M.; Biswas, Aindrila; Djie-Maletz, Andrea; Limmer, Andreas; van Rooijen, Nico; Mack, Matthias; Hoerauf, Achim; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), we depleted in vivo Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2), Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G) or both cell types (by anti-Gr1) during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg). Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes. PMID:25884830

  4. Specific depletion of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes prevents immunopathology in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumak, Beatrix; Klocke, Katrin; Kuepper, Janina M; Biswas, Aindrila; Djie-Maletz, Andrea; Limmer, Andreas; van Rooijen, Nico; Mack, Matthias; Hoerauf, Achim; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), we depleted in vivo Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2), Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G) or both cell types (by anti-Gr1) during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg). Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes.

  5. Physical properties of z ~ 4 LBGs: differences between galaxies with and without Lyα emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Santini, P.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:We analysed the physical properties of z ˜4 Lyman Break Galaxies observed in the GOODS-S survey, in order to investigate possible differences between galaxies where the Lyα is present in emission, and those where the line is absent or in absorption. Methods: The objects were selected from their optical color and then spectroscopically confirmed by Vanzella et al. (2005). From the public spectra we assessed the nature of the Lyα emission and divided the sample into galaxies with Lyα in emission and objects without a Lyα line (i.e. either absent or in absorption). We then used complete photometry, from U band to mid-infrared from the GOODS-MUSIC database, to study the observational properties of the galaxies, such as UV spectral slopes and optical to mid-infrared colors, and the possible differences between the two samples. Lastly, we used standard spectral fitting techniques to determine the physical properties of the galaxies, such as total stellar mass, stellar ages and so on, and again we looked at the possible differences between the two samples. Results: Our results indicate that LBG with Lyα in emission are on average a much younger and less massive population than the LBGs without Lyα emission. Both populations are forming stars very actively and are relatively dust free, although those with line emission seem to be even less dusty on average. We briefly discuss these results in the context of recent models for the evolution of Lyman break galaxies and Lyα emitters.

  6. Unlocking the Full Potential of Extragalactic Lyα through Its Polarization Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Marius B.; Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark; Hayes, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    Lyα is a powerful astrophysical probe. Not only is it ubiquitous at high redshifts, it is also a resonant line, making Lyα photons scatter. This scattering process depends on the physical conditions of the gas through which Lyα propagates, and these conditions are imprinted on observables such as the Lyα spectrum and its surface brightness profile. In this work, we focus on a less-used observable capable of probing any scattering process: polarization. We implement the density matrix formalism of polarization into the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code tlac. This allows us to treat it as a quantum mechanical process where single photons develop and lose polarization from scatterings in arbitrary gas geometries. We explore static and expanding ellipsoids, biconical outflows, and clumpy multiphase media. We find that photons become increasingly polarized as they scatter and diffuse into the wings of the line profiles, making scattered Lyα polarized in general. The degree and orientation of Lyα polarization depends on the kinematics and distribution of the scattering H I gas. We find that it generally probes spatial or velocity space asymmetries and aligns itself tangentially to the emission source. We show that the mentioned observables, when studied separately, can leave similar signatures for different source models. We conclude by revealing how a joint analysis of the Lyα spectra, surface brightness profiles, and polarization can break these degeneracies and help us extract unique physical information on galaxies and their environments from their strongest, most prominent emission line.

  7. Specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes prevents immunopathology in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Schumak

    Full Text Available Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb, we depleted in vivo Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2, Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G or both cell types (by anti-Gr1 during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg. Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes.

  8. Molecular Mechanism of Enhanced Anticancer Effect of Nanoparticle Formulated LY2835219 via p16-CDK4/6-pRb Pathway in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LY2835219 is a dual inhibitor to CDK4 and CDK6. This study was to prepare LY2835219-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CNP/LY and LY2835219-loaded hyaluronic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (HACNP/LY and revealed their anticancer effect and influence on p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway against colon cell line. The nanoparticle sizes of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were approximately 195±39.6 nm and 217±31.1 nm, respectively. The zeta potentials of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were 37.3±1.5 mV and 30.3±2.2 mV, respectively. And the preparation process showed considerable drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency. LY2835219, CNP/LY, and HACNP/LY inhibited HT29 cell proliferation with 0.68, 0.54, and 0.30 μM of IC50, respectively. G1 phase was arrested by LY2835219 and its formulations. Furthermore, inhibition of CDK4/6 by LY2835219 formulations induced CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, and pRb decrease and p16 increase at both protein and mRNA levels. Overall, nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could enhance the cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest, and HACNP/LY strengthened the trend furtherly compared to CNP/LY. It is the first time to demonstrate the anticancer effect and mechanism against HT29 by LY2835219 and its nanoparticles. The drug and its nanoparticle formulations delay the cell growth and arrest cell cycle through p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway, while the nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could strengthen the process.

  9. MAPPING THE POLARIZATION OF THE RADIO-LOUD Ly α NEBULA B3 J2330+3927

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Chang; Zabludoff, Ann; Smith, Paul; Jannuzi, Buell [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yang, Yujin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunchong; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 88226 (Korea, Republic of); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, 1320 Frenger Mall, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi, E-mail: yyang@kasi.re.kr [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    Ly α nebulae, or “Ly α blobs,” are extended (up to ∼100 kpc), bright (L{sub Lyα}  ≳ 10{sup 43} erg s{sup −1}) clouds of Ly α emitting gas that tend to lie in overdense regions at z  ∼ 2–5. The origin of the Ly α emission remains unknown, but recent theoretical work suggests that measuring the polarization might discriminate among powering mechanisms. Here we present the first narrowband imaging polarimetry of a radio-loud Ly α nebula, B3 J2330+3927, at z = 3.09, with an embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN). The AGN lies near the blob’s Ly α emission peak, and its radio lobes align roughly with the blob’s major axis. With the SPOL polarimeter on the 6.5 m MMT telescope, we map the total (Ly α + continuum) polarization in a grid of circular apertures of a radius of 0.″6 (4.4 kpc), detecting a significant (>2 σ ) polarization fraction P {sub %} in nine apertures and achieving strong upper limits (as low as 2%) elsewhere. P{sub %} increases from <2% at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 17% at ∼15–25 kpc. The detections are distributed asymmetrically, roughly along the nebula’s major axis. The polarization angles θ are mostly perpendicular to this axis. Comparing the Ly α flux to that of the continuum and conservatively assuming that the continuum is highly polarized (20%–100%) and aligned with the total polarization, we place lower limits on the polarization of the Ly α emission P{sub %,Lyα} ranging from no significant polarization at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 3%–17% at 10–25 kpc. Like the total polarization, the Ly α polarization detections occur more often along the blob’s major axis.

  10. MAPPING THE POLARIZATION OF THE RADIO-LOUD Ly α NEBULA B3 J2330+3927

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Chang; Zabludoff, Ann; Smith, Paul; Jannuzi, Buell; Yang, Yujin; Kim, Eunchong; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Ly α nebulae, or “Ly α blobs,” are extended (up to ∼100 kpc), bright (L Lyα  ≳ 10 43 erg s −1 ) clouds of Ly α emitting gas that tend to lie in overdense regions at z  ∼ 2–5. The origin of the Ly α emission remains unknown, but recent theoretical work suggests that measuring the polarization might discriminate among powering mechanisms. Here we present the first narrowband imaging polarimetry of a radio-loud Ly α nebula, B3 J2330+3927, at z = 3.09, with an embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN). The AGN lies near the blob’s Ly α emission peak, and its radio lobes align roughly with the blob’s major axis. With the SPOL polarimeter on the 6.5 m MMT telescope, we map the total (Ly α + continuum) polarization in a grid of circular apertures of a radius of 0.″6 (4.4 kpc), detecting a significant (>2 σ ) polarization fraction P % in nine apertures and achieving strong upper limits (as low as 2%) elsewhere. P % increases from <2% at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 17% at ∼15–25 kpc. The detections are distributed asymmetrically, roughly along the nebula’s major axis. The polarization angles θ are mostly perpendicular to this axis. Comparing the Ly α flux to that of the continuum and conservatively assuming that the continuum is highly polarized (20%–100%) and aligned with the total polarization, we place lower limits on the polarization of the Ly α emission P %,Lyα ranging from no significant polarization at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 3%–17% at 10–25 kpc. Like the total polarization, the Ly α polarization detections occur more often along the blob’s major axis.

  11. Anomalous Temporal Behaviour of Broadband Ly Alpha Observations During Solar Flares from SDO/EVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyman-alpha (Ly-alpha) emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Ly-alpha emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10 percent). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV (Extreme Ultra-Violet) Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) now provides broadband, photometric Ly-alpha data at 10-second cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (H-alpha, Ly-beta, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Ly-alpha lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Ly-alpha observations during flares from SORCE / SOLSTICE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment / Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines andor continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting

  12. Constraint on neutrino masses from SDSS-III/BOSS Ly$\\alpha$ forest and other cosmological probes

    CERN Document Server

    Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Lesgourgues, Julien; Rossi, Graziano; Borde, Arnaud; Viel, Matteo; Aubourg, Eric; Kirkby, David; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, James; Roe, Natalie; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Weinberg, David

    2015-02-27

    We present constraints on the parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model in the presence of massive neutrinos, using the one-dimensional Ly$\\alpha$ forest power spectrum obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2013), complemented by additional cosmological probes. The interpretation of the measured Ly$\\alpha$ spectrum is done using a second-order Taylor expansion of the simulated power spectrum. BOSS Ly$\\alpha$ data alone provide better bounds than previous Ly$\\alpha$ results, but are still poorly constraining, especially for the sum of neutrino masses $\\sum m_\

  13. DIFFUSE Lyα EMITTING HALOS: A GENERIC PROPERTY OF HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Bogosavljevic, Milan; Shapley, Alice E.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Erb, Dawn K.; Pettini, Max

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 92 UV continuum-selected, spectroscopically identified galaxies with (z) = 2.65, all of which have been imaged in the Lyα line with extremely deep narrow-band imaging, we examine galaxy Lyα emission profiles to very faint surface brightness limits. The galaxy sample is representative of spectroscopic samples of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at similar redshifts in terms of apparent magnitude, UV luminosity, inferred extinction, and star formation rate and was assembled without regard to Lyα emission properties. Approximately 45% (55%) of the galaxy spectra have Lyα appearing in net absorption (emission), with ≅ 20% satisfying commonly used criteria for the identification of 'Lyα emitters' (LAEs; W 0 (Lyα) ≥ 20 A). We use extremely deep stacks of rest-UV continuum and continuum-subtracted Lyα images to show that all sub-samples exhibit diffuse Lyα emission to radii of at least 10'' (∼80 physical kpc). The characteristic exponential scale lengths for Lyα line emission exceed that of the λ 0 = 1220 A UV continuum light by factors of ∼5-10. The surface brightness profiles of Lyα emission are strongly suppressed relative to the UV continuum light in the inner few kpc, by amounts that are tightly correlated with the galaxies' observed spectral morphology; however, all galaxy sub-subsamples, including that of galaxies for which Lyα appears in net absorption in the spectra, exhibit qualitatively similar diffuse Lyα emission halos. Accounting for the extended Lyα emission halos, which generally would not be detected in the slit spectra of individual objects or with typical narrow-band Lyα imaging, increases the total Lyα flux (and rest equivalent width W 0 (Lyα)) by an average factor of ∼5, and by a much larger factor for the 80% of LBGs not classified as LAEs. We argue that most, if not all, of the observed Lyα emission in the diffuse halos originates in the galaxy H II regions but is scattered in our direction by H I gas in the

  14. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  15. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize.

  16. POLARIZED EXTENDED Ly{alpha} EMISSION FROM A z = 2.3 RADIO GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, A. [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Vernet, J.; Fosbury, R. A. E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Villar-Martin, M. [Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Di Serego Alighieri, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Cimatti, A., E-mail: andrew.humphrey@astro.up.pt [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    We present spatially resolved spectropolarimetric measurements of the 100 kpc scale gaseous environment of the z = 2.34 radio galaxy TXS 0211-122. The polarization level of the narrow Ly{alpha} emission is low centrally (P < 5%), but rises to P = 16.4% {+-} 4.6% in the eastern part of the nebula, indicating that the nebula is at least partly powered by the scattering of Ly{alpha} photons by H I. Not only is this the first detection of polarized Ly{alpha} around a radio-loud active galaxy, it is also the second detection to date for any kind of Ly{alpha} nebula. We also detect a pair of diametrically opposed UV continuum sources along the slit, at the outer edges of the Ly{alpha} nebula, which we suggest may be the limb of a dusty shell, related to the large-scale H I absorbers often associated with high-z radio galaxies.

  17. WARM GAS IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER. I. DISTRIBUTION OF Lyα ABSORBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joo Heon; Putman, Mary E.; Bryan, Greg L.; Thom, Christopher; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The first systematic study of the warm gas (T = 10 4–5 K) distribution across a galaxy cluster is presented using multiple background QSOs in and around the Virgo Cluster. We detect 25 Lyα absorbers (N HI = 10 13.1–15.4 cm –2 ) in the Virgo velocity range toward 9 of 12 QSO sightlines observed with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph, with a cluster impact parameter range of 0.36-1.65 Mpc (0.23-1.05 R vir ). Including 18 Lyα absorbers previously detected by STIS or GHRS toward 7 of 11 background QSOs in and around the Virgo Cluster, we establish a sample of 43 absorbers toward a total of 23 background probes for studying the incidence of Lyα absorbers in and around the Virgo Cluster. With these absorbers, we find (1) warm gas is predominantly in the outskirts of the cluster and avoids the X-ray-detected hot intracluster medium (ICM). Also, Lyα absorption strength increases with cluster impact parameter. (2) Lyα-absorbing warm gas traces cold H I-emitting gas in the substructures of the Virgo Cluster. (3) Including the absorbers associated with the surrounding substructures, the warm gas covering fraction (100% for N HI > 10 13.1 cm –2 ) is in agreement with cosmological simulations. We speculate that the observed warm gas is part of large-scale gas flows feeding the cluster both in the ICM and galaxies.

  18. Studies on Inhibition of Proliferation of Enterovirus-71 by Compound YZ-LY-0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingzhan; Jie, Qing; Shaw, Neil; Li, Lei; Rao, Zihe; Yin, Zheng; Lou, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which is caused by Enteroviruses, has emerged as a serious illness. It affects mainly children under the age of five and results in high fatality rates. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of HFMD in China and currently there are no effective anti-viral drugs available to treat HFMD. In the present study, we screened compounds for inhibition of proliferation of EV71. Compound YZ-LY-0 stalled the life cycle of EV71. The inhibitor exhibited EC50 value of 0.29 μm against SK-EV006 strain of EV71. Notably, YZ-LY-0 had low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μM) and a high selectivity index (over 300) in Vero and RD cells. YZ-LY-0 in combination with an EV71 RdRp inhibitor or an entry inhibitor showed an antagonistic effect at very low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the inhibitors exhibited a synergistic effect in inhibiting viral replication. Preliminary results on investigation of the mechanism of inhibition indicate that YZ-LY-0 does not block the entry of the virus in the host cell, but instead inhibits an early stage of EV71 replication. Our studies provide a potential clinical therapeutic option against EV71 infections and suggest that a combined application of YZ-LY-0 with other inhibitors could be more effective in the treatment of HFMD.

  19. Effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Extract on Physico-Chemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract on the physicochemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages during storage at 10°C for 4 wk. Treatments were as follows: (C, control; T1, sodium ascorbate 0.05%; T2, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.05%; T3, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1%; T4, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.2%; T5, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1% + sodium ascorbate 0.05%). The values of pH, moisture content, lightness, redness, and sensory attributes were all significantly decreased, while the yellowness, chroma, hue angle, and texture properties were increased during storage with increase of the Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract added. In addition, the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity in the sausages displayed significant increases ( p <0.05). Therefore, although it was concluded that the addition of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract is not effective for improvement of the physical properties compared to chemical additives in sausages, it could be applied to meat products as a natural preservatives.

  20. Lawsonia inermis L. Syn. L. alba LamK. (Mehndi or Henna Hindi) of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawsonia inermis L. Syn. L. alba. LamK. (Mehndi or Henna Hindi) of. Lythraceae is a small-sized and much branched tree which is largely cultivated and groomed in the form of hedges. Flowers are white or rose-coloured, fragrant and borne on pyramidal bunches. Fruits bear numerous seeds. Hair dye is prepared from the ...

  1. Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. of Moraceae is a large evergreen tree with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. of Moraceae is a large evergreen tree with milky latex. This species occurs wild and is also cultivated for its fruit, which is edible. Leaves are simple and dark green. The branchlets are covered with rust-brown hairs. Inflorescence is axillary. The female inflorescence is globose with individualjlowers ...

  2. Effets des aliments contenant les folioles de Moringa oleifera Lam et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zootechniques et économiques) et à la qualité de la viande des lapins nourris aux aliments à base de folioles de Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) ou aux aliments commerciaux. Au total 144 lapereaux de race locale âgés de 35 à 40 jours dont 79 ...

  3. Effect of Moringa oleifera lam . leaves powder on the evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) leaves have exceptional nutritional qualities and they are used against malnutrition in Africa and Asia. The deficiency corrected by M. oleifera leaves powder administration into daily meal of HIV positive and negative patients has been determined during 14 weeks nutritional recovery by ...

  4. Performance of a Press-Lam bridge : a 5-year load-testing and monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Gromala; R. C. Moody; M. M. Sprinkel

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of load tests on an experimental highway bridge erected and put into service on the George Washington National Forest in Virginia in 1977. The bridge, made entirely of Press-Lam, a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) product, was load tested 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after erection. The bridge continues to perform quite well and,...

  5. Test and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) for a Large Aircraft Maintenance Shelter (LAMS) Baseplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    37  Figure 16. Offsetting Grain Orientation ............................................................................ 46  Figure 17. LAMS...selectively dispensed through a nozzle or orifice (ASTM International, 2012: 1). Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an example of material extrusion and...gains as a result of ultrasonic welding. Proper ultrasonic welding results in uniformity, reduction in void space, and optimal grain orientation

  6. LamLum : a tool for evaluating the financial feasibility of laminated lumber plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John F. Hunt

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based computer program called LamLum was created to analyze the economics of value- added laminated lumber manufacturing facilities. Such facilities manufacture laminations, typically from lower grades of structural lumber, then glue these laminations together to make various types of higher value laminated lumber products. This report provides the...

  7. Basic Density and Strength Properties Variations in Cordia Africana (Lam) Grown Under Agroforestry in Arumeru, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahonge, C.P.I.

    2007-01-01

    Variations in basic density and strength properties of Cordia africana (lam) grown under agroforestry in Arumeru district Arusha Tanzania were determined. Tree sampling procedure and data collection based on standard methods (ISO 3129.of 1975). The main results indicated that basic density increased

  8. Khellin and visnagin, furanochromones from Amni visnaga (L.) Lam., as potential bioherbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants constitute a source of novel and structurally diverse phytotoxic compounds to be explored in searching for effective and environmentally safe herbicides. From screening nearly 2400 plant extracts for their phytotoxicity, a dichloromethane extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. was selected for fur...

  9. Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) attenuates Aluminium phosphide-induced acute cardiac toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Ahmed S; El-Nabarawy, Nagla A; Ibrahim, Samah F

    2018-01-01

    Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) has many antioxidant and protective properties. Objective: to investigate the antioxidant activities of Lam in counteracting the high oxidative stress caused by acute sub-lethal aluminium phosphide (AlP) intoxication in rat heart. These activities will be detected by histopathological examination and some oxidative stress biomarkers. a single sub-lethal dose of Alp (2 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, and Lam was given orally at a dose (100 mg/kg body weight) one hour after receiving AlP to rats. aluminium phosphide caused significant cardiac histopathological changes with a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA); lipid peroxidation marker; and a significant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione reductase). However, treatment with Lam protected efficiently the cardiac tissue of intoxicated rats by increasing antioxidants levels with slight decreasing in MDA production compared to untreated group. This study suggested that Moringa oleifera extract could possibly restore the altered cardiac histopathology and some antioxidant power in AlP intoxicated rats, and it could even be used as adjuvant therapy against AlP-induced cardiotoxicity.

  10. Nicosulfuron Biodegradation by a Novel Cold-Adapted Strain Oceanisphaera psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan; Song, Jinlong; Dong, Weiwei; Mu, Yingchun; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Ziwen; Wang, Yanwei; Kong, Delong; Zhou, Yiqing; Jiang, Xu; Zhao, Bin; Han, Gang; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2017-11-29

    Nicosulfuron is a common environmental pollutant, posing a great threat to aquatic systems and causing significant damage to crops. This study reported a cold-adapted strain Oceanisphaera psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC, which efficiently degrades nicosulfuron over a wide range of temperatures (5 to 40 °C). The Box-Behnken design method was used to optimize the degradation conditions. O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC can degrade 92.4% and 74.6% of initially supplemented 100 mg/L nicosulfuron under the optimum and low temperature of 18.1 and 5 °C, respectively, within 7 days. O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC was found to be highly efficient in degrading cinosulfuron, chlorsulfuron, rimsulfuron, bensulfuron methyl, and ethametsulfuron methyl. Metabolites from nicosulfuron degradation were identified by UPLC-MS, and a possible degradation pathway was proposed. Furthermore, O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC can also degrade nicosulfuron in soil; 78.6% and 67.4% of the initial nicosulfuron supplemented at 50 mg/kg were removed at 18.1 and 5 °C, respectively, within 15 days.

  11. Chemoselective N-arylation of aminobenzamides via copper catalysed Chan-Evans-Lam reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Zu, Weisai; Zhang, Jinli; Xu, Liang

    2017-11-15

    Chemoselective N-arylation of unprotected aminobenzamides was achieved via Cu-catalysed Chan-Evans-Lam cross-coupling with aryl boronic acids for the first time. Simple copper catalysts enable the selective arylation of amino groups in ortho/meta/para-aminobenzamides under open-flask conditions. The reactions were scalable and compatible with a wide range of functional groups.

  12. Stochasticity in the Expression of LamB and its Affect on λ phage Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Emily; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2006-03-01

    λ phage binds to E. Coli's lamB protein and injects its DNA into the cell. The phage quickly replicates and after a latent period the bacteria bursts, emitting mature phages. We developed a mathematical model based on the known physical events that occur when a λ phage infects an E.Coli cell. The results of these models predict that the bacteria and phage populations become extinct unless the parameters of the model are very finely tuned, which is untrue in the nature. The lamB protein is part of the maltose regulon and can be repressed to minimal levels when grown in the absence of inducer. Therefore, a cell that is not expressing any lamB protein at that moment is resistant against phage infection. We studied the dynamic relationship between λ phage and E. Coli when the concentration of phage greatly outnumbers the concentration of bacteria. We study how the stochasticity of the expression of lamB affects the percentage of cells that the λ phage infects. We show that even in the case when the maltose regulon is fully induced a percentage of cells continue to persist against phage infection.

  13. Coumaphos dissipation, degradation and binding to sediment in a model laboratory vat system using 14C-labelled acaricide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Behki, R.

    1997-01-01

    Dissipation and degradation of 14 C-labelled coumaphos in suspension and binding to sediment was studied in a model laboratory glass vat was studied. The water in the vat was treated with a mixture of 14 C-labelled and unlabelled coumaphos and initial concentration determined. Two weeks later 50 g soil was added to the suspension and 3 x 25 mL samples taken and analysis. The procedure was repeated every two weeks for 44 weeks. pH was also recorded at each sampling time. At the end of the experiment soil was extracted by using Soxhlet apparatus and by supercritical fluid extraction and concentrations of free and bound coumaphos and metabolites were determined. Very little dissipation of total 14 C occurred and 88% of the initial concentration was still present at the end of 44 weeks. The 14 C content in the filtrate declined to 20% but there was a corresponding increase in the 14 C content of the sediment mixed with emulsion. The pH of the suspension steadily decreased with time. HPLC analysis of the filtrate, soil wash and Soxhlet extract indicated the presence of coumaphos and three metabolites chlorferon, potasan and oxygen analogue of coumaphos. Analysis of supercritical fluid extract of the sediment-bound radioactivity showed the presence of coumaphos but no metabolites. In another study filtered and washed soil from the tank was incubated with an EPTC-degrading bacterial strain, Rhodococcus TE1 to study the effect on the metabolism of coumaphos. About 10.9% of 14 C was released in the incubation mixture and it contained mostly chlorferon with some oxygen analogue of coumaphos. Exposure of 14 C-labelled coumaphos to U.V. and sun lamp, to study photolysis, resulted in the formation of a brown precipitate. While the 14 C content in the filtrate decreased, its concentration in the precipitate increased. The filtrate contained primarily coumaphos, whereas, the precipitate contained coumaphos, chlorferon and potasan. These findings suggest that in the field vat the

  14. Decreased expression of LamB and Odp1 complex is crucial for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang-min; Yang, Man-jun; Li, Hui; Wang, Chao; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2014-02-26

    We previously revealed a negative regulation of LamB in chlortetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli strain. In the present study, we first showed that the negative regulation, which was characterized by decreased abundance of LamB with elevated growth of its gene-deleted mutant in medium with antibiotics, was a general response in resistance to different classes of antibiotics using 2-DE based proteomics or/and genetically gene-deletion mutant of LamB. Then, we revealed the interaction of LamB and Odp1 which catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO2, and found the decrease of the complex in antibiotic-resistant strains with a minimum inhibitory concentration dose-dependent manner. Further spectrofluorometry assay indicated that LamB served as a porin to influx an antibiotic. Finally, we showed that the decreased expression of LamB and Odp1 was detected in almost of all 34 multidrug-resistant strains, which suggested that LamB and Odp1 were biomarkers for identification of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. Our results indicated that the interaction of an outer membrane protein with an energy metabolic enzyme constructed an efficient pathway to resist antibiotics. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Our data indicate that the negative regulation by LamB is widely detected in antibiotic-resistant E. coli. LamB serves as a porin to influx an antibiotic and is interacted with Odp1. The complex decreases in antibiotic-resistant strains with a MIC dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that interaction of outer membrane protein with energy metabolic enzyme constructs an efficient pathway to resist antibiotics and provides novel insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain W Chalmers

    Full Text Available The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29 containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study. While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a and SmLy6D (Sm29 induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored.Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K. Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively, these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7% for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to rising Ig

  16. Export-defective lamB protein is a target for translational control caused by ompC porin overexpression.

    OpenAIRE

    Click, E M; Schnaitman, C A

    1989-01-01

    Overexpression of OmpC protein from an inducible plasmid vector reduced the amount of the precursor form of LamB protein in LamB signal sequence mutants. The stability of the precursor form of LamB protein was not affected, indicating that the effect of OmpC overexpression was on the synthesis of the precursor rather than on degradation. These results indicate that a functional signal sequence is not required on an outer membrane protein for it to be a target for translational control.

  17. Neutral ISM, Ly α , and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. Emil; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Puschnig, Johannes, E-mail: trive@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-01

    Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Ly α line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Ly α , but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si ii. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium.

  18. A submillimeter galaxy illuminating its circumgalactic medium: Lyα scattering in a cold, clumpy outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geach, J. E.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Smith, D. J. B. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Bower, R. G.; Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bremer, M. N. [School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Chapin, E. L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunlop, J. S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Michałowski, M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Department of Physics, MC 0435, 910 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Robson, E. I. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Van der Werf, P., E-mail: j.geach@herts.ac.uk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-20

    We report the detection at 850 μm of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal 'Lyman-α Blob' (LAB), a 100 kpc scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z = 3.1. The flux density of the source, S {sub 850} = 4.6 ± 1.1 mJy, implies the presence of a galaxy or group of galaxies with a total luminosity of L {sub IR} ≈ 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}. The position of an active source at the center of a ∼50 kpc radius ring of linearly polarized Lyα emission detected by Hayes et al. suggests that the central source is leaking Lyα photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in H I clouds at a large galactocentric radius. The Lyα morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of a biconical outflow, and the average Lyα line profiles of the two 'lobes' are dominated by a red peak, which is expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Lyα emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Lyα: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?.

  19. Natural killer cell receptor genes in the family Equidae: not only Ly49.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Futas

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for

  20. Natural Killer Cell Receptor Genes in the Family Equidae: Not only Ly49

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of

  1. Neutral ISM, Ly α , and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. Emil; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Puschnig, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Ly α line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Ly α , but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si ii. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium.

  2. DESCOMPOSICIÓN Y LIBERACIÓN DE NITRÓGENO Y MATERIA ORGÁNICA EN HOJAS DE Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Y Moringa oleifera Lam. EN UN BANCO MIXTO DE FORRAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Petit-Aldana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las tasas de descomposición, la liberación de N y MO en hojas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. y Moringa oleifera Lam. en un banco mixto de forraje en Yucatán, México, en las épocas de lluvias y sequía, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Se llenaron 120 bolsas con hojas frescas de las especies colectadas, y se colocaron en cada unidad experimental. Se evaluaron tres periodos de incubación para cada tratamiento: cuatro, ocho, y 16 semanas por cada época. A finales del experimento se observó que el proceso de descomposición fue más rápido en la temporada de lluvias. La pérdida de peso y la liberación de N y MO fueron más aceleradas en M. oleifera en monocultivo y en la asociación L. leucocephala con M. oleifera. Los patrones de descomposición de todas las especies siguieron el modelo exponencial simple, con más del 80 % de la masa inicial incorporada al final del periodo de estudio. Se concluye que L. leucocephala, G. ulmifolia y M. oleifera en monocultivo y asociadas, demostraron su capacidad para producir considerables cantidades de materia orgánica y liberar importantes cantidades de N en cortos periodos.

  3. The mGlu2/3 Receptor Agonists LY354740 and LY379268 Differentially Regulate Restraint-Stress-Induced Expression of c-Fos in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3 receptors have emerged as potential therapeutic targets due to the ability of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists to modulate excitatory transmission at specific synapses. LY354740 and LY379268 are selective and potent mGlu2/3 receptor agonists that show both anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects in animal models. We compared the efficacy of LY354740 and LY379268 in attenuating restraint-stress-induced expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos in the rat prelimbic (PrL and infralimbic (IL cortex. LY354740 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. showed statistically significant and dose-related attenuation of stress-induced increase in c-Fos expression, in the rat cortex. By contrast, LY379268 had no effect on restraint-stress-induced c-Fos upregulation (0.3–10 mg/kg, i.p.. Because both compounds inhibit serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR-induced c-Fos expression, we hypothesize that LY354740 and LY379268 have different in vivo properties and that 5-HT2AR activation and restraint stress induce c-Fos through distinct mechanisms.

  4. The detection and settlement of VAT fraud in four countries : Addendum to the report value-added tax fraud in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronowitz, A.A.; Laagland, D.C.G.; Paulides, G.

    1996-01-01

    This addendum to the report 'Value-added tax fraud in the European Union' gives additional information on the detection and settlement of VAT fraud in Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. See link to the report at: More information.

  5. IMPLICAÇÕES DA ANÁLISE V-A-T DA TEORIA DAS RESTRIÇÕES NA GESTÃO DA CADEIA DE SUPRIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto de Jesus Pacheco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa é identificar o impacto da análise V-A-T da Teoria das Restrições na gestão estratégica de materiais à luz da Matriz de Posicionamento Estratégico dos Materiais (MPEM. A partir de dois estudos de caso, buscou-se verificar: i em qual classificação cada empresa se enquadrava dentro da lógica V-A-T, e ii se a gestão estratégica de materiais a partir da abordagem da MPEM pode ser considerada semelhante ou não nos casos investigados. Os resultados da pesquisa apontaram que a classificação V-A-T no caso da empresa S é do tipo A e no caso da empresa K é do tipo V. Já a análise da gestão estratégica de materiais a partir da MPEM, evidenciou que no caso S pertence ao quadrante não crítico e no caso K pertence ao quadrante estratégico. Identificou-se que a classificação V-A-T tende a impactar na gestão de materiais e no controle de estoques.

  6. Novel LY Converter Topologies for High Gain Transfer Ratio - A New Breed of XY Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, M.S.; Padmanaban, S.; Kulkarni, R.

    2016-01-01

    gain and minimum internal resistance; such as a photovoltaic MLI system, high voltage applications and electrical drives. The conspicuous features of proposed LY converter topologies are i) Single power control switch ii) Single Input source iii) Inverting output voltage iv) Transformer-less converter...... topologies v) High inverting voltage gain with moderate duty ratio vi) Less number of power devices and components. The proposed topologies have minimum internal resistance and its effect on voltage gain of LY converter is also discussed in detail. The simulation results are presented and the result...

  7. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family. PMID:26517715

  8. LY294002 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced COX-2 gene expression in cardiomyocytes through a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-independent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haipeng; Xu Beibei; Sheveleva, Elena; Chen, Qin M.

    2008-01-01

    Glucocorticoids induce COX-2 expression in rat cardiomyocytes. While investigating whether phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) plays a role in corticosterone (CT)-induced COX-2, we found that LY294002 (LY29) but not wortmannin (WM) attenuates CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p85 subunit of PI3K failed to inhibit CT from inducing COX-2 expression. CT did not activate PI3K/AKT signaling pathway whereas LY29 and WM decreased the activity of PI3K. LY303511 (LY30), a structural analogue and a negative control for PI3K inhibitory activity of LY29, also suppressed COX-2 induction. These data suggest PI3K-independent mechanisms in regulating CT-induced COX-2 expression. LY29 and LY30 do not inhibit glucocorticoid receptor transactivity. Both compounds have been reported to inhibit Casein Kinase 2 activity and modulate potassium and calcium levels independent of PI3K, while LY29 has been reported to inhibit mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), and DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK). Inhibitor of Casein Kinase 2 (CK2), mTOR or DNA-PK failed to prevent CT from inducing COX-2 expression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a potassium channel blocker, and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, both attenuated CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. CT was found to increase intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, which can be inhibited by LY29, TEA or nimodipine. These data suggest a possible role of calcium instead of PI3K in CT-induced COX-2 expression in cardiomyocytes

  9. HI column density distribution function at z=0 : Connection to damped Ly alpha statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Martin; Verheijen, MAW; Briggs, FH

    We present a measurement of the HI column density distribution function f(N-HI) at the present epoch for column densities > 10(20) cm(-2). These high column densities compare to those measured in damped Ly alpha lines seen in absorption against background quasars. Although observationally rare, it

  10. Extended and broad Ly α emission around a BAL quasar at z ˜ 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginolfi, M.; Maiolino, R.; Carniani, S.; Arrigoni Battaia, F.; Cantalupo, S.; Schneider, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we report deep MUSE observations of a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar at z ˜ 5, revealing a Ly α nebula with a maximum projected linear size of ˜60 kpc around the quasar (down to our 2σ SB limit per layer of ˜ 9× 10^{-19} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} arcsec^{-2} for a 1 arcsec2 aperture). After correcting for the cosmological surface brightness dimming, we find that our nebula, at z ˜ 5, has an intrinsically less extended Ly α emission than nebulae at lower redshift. However, such a discrepancy is greatly reduced when referring to comoving distances, which take into account the cosmological growth of dark matter (DM) haloes, suggesting a positive correlation between the size of Ly α nebulae and the sizes of DM haloes/structures around quasars. Differently from the typical nebulae around radio-quiet non-BAL quasars, in the inner regions (˜10 kpc) of the circumgalactic medium of our source, the velocity dispersion of the Ly α emission is very high (FWHM > 1000 km s-1), suggesting that in our case we may be probing outflowing material associated with the quasar.

  11. Spectral Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, and H{alpha} line shapes for the H atom in the presence of a magnetic field in a plasma; Profils des raies spectrales Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, et H{alpha} de l'atome H en presence d'un champ magnetique dans un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H; Herman, L [Laboratoire de Recherches Physiques, Faculte des sciences, 9 Quai Saint Bernard, 75 - Paris (France); Drawin, H W [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-15

    This report contains numerical data of the line shapes of Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, and H{alpha} for the following parameters: 1. 10{sup 2} {<=} H [gauss] {<=} 1.2. 10{sup 5} 1. 10{sup 15}{<=} N [cm{sup -3}] {<=} 1. 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} 1. 10{sup 4} {<=} T [deg. K] {<=} 4. 10{sup 4} where H = magnetic field strength, K = density of plasma ions, T = electron temperature. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport, on donne les valeurs numeriques des contours des raies spectrales Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, et H{alpha} pour les valeurs suivantes des parametres H, N et T 1. 10{sup 2} {<=} H [gauss] {<=} 1.2. 10{sup 5} 1. 10{sup 15}{<=} N [cm{sup -3}] {<=} 1. 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} 1. 10{sup 4} {<=} T [deg. K] {<=} 4. 10{sup 4} ou H intensite du champ magnetique, N = densite des ions, T = temperature electronique. (auteurs)

  12. Interaktiivne võrguõpik "Võnkumised ja lained" / Ly Sõõrd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõõrd, Ly

    2000-01-01

    Interaktiivne võrguõpik "Võnkumised ja lained" on mõeldud gümnaasiumi 10. kl. füüsikakursuse osa "Mehaanilised võnkumised ja lained" õppimiseks iseseisvalt interneti vahendusel ning asub aadressil : http://www.physic.ut.ee/̃ly/xklass/opik.html

  13. Nonclassical Ly6C− Monocytes Drive the Development of Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Misharin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different subsets and/or polarized phenotypes of monocytes and macrophages may play distinct roles during the development and resolution of inflammation. Here, we demonstrate in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis that nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes are required for the initiation and progression of sterile joint inflammation. Moreover, nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes differentiate into inflammatory macrophages (M1, which drive disease pathogenesis and display plasticity during the resolution phase. During the development of arthritis, these cells polarize toward an alternatively activated phenotype (M2, promoting the resolution of joint inflammation. The influx of Ly6C− monocytes and their subsequent classical and then alternative activation occurs without changes in synovial tissue-resident macrophages, which express markers of M2 polarization throughout the course of the arthritis and attenuate joint inflammation during the initiation phase. These data suggest that circulating Ly6C− monocytes recruited to the joint upon injury orchestrate the development and resolution of autoimmune joint inflammation.

  14. In vitro activity of a new 'higher-Iactam' antibacterial agent LY 193239

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-16

    Mar 16, 1991 ... penicillin. Antimicrobial agents. Solutions of LY 193239 (supplied by Eli Lilly) and tetracycline were freshly prepared in sterile distilled water. Rifampicin was dissolved in dimethyl sul- phoxide and diluted in water. Ampicillin and penicillin were prepared in 0,05M phosphate buffer with final pH 7,0. MICs.

  15. Polymeric Nano-Micelles as Novel Cargo-Carriers for LY2157299 Liver Cancer Cells Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemany Abdelhamid Nemany Hanafy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available LY2157299 (LY, which is very small molecule bringing high cancer diffusion, is a pathway antagonist against TGFβ. LY dosage can be diluted by blood plasma, can be captured by immune system or it might be dissolved during digestion in gastrointestinal tract. The aim of our study is to optimize a “nano-elastic” carrier to avoid acidic pH of gastrointestinal tract, colon alkaline pH, and anti-immune recognition. Polygalacturonic acid (PgA is not degradable in the gastrointestinal tract due to its insolubility at acidic pH. To avoid PgA solubility in the colon, we have designed its conjugation with Polyacrylic acid (PAA. PgA-PAA conjugation has enhanced their potential use for oral and injected dosage. Following these pre-requisites, novel polymeric nano-micelles derived from PgA-PAA conjugation and loading LY2157299 are developed and characterized. Efficacy, uptake and targeting against a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HLF have also been demonstrated.

  16. CHEMISTRY OF A PROTOPLANETARY DISK WITH GRAIN SETTLING AND Lyα RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bethell, Thomas J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Calvet, Nuria; Semenov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a model of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks. In our models, we directly calculate the changing propagation and penetration of a high energy radiation field with Lyα radiation included. We also explore the effect on our models of including dust grain settling. We find that, in agreement with earlier studies, the evolution of dust grains plays a large role in determining how deep the UV radiation penetrates into the disk. Significant grain settling at the midplane leads to much smaller freeze-out regions and a correspondingly larger molecular layer, which leads to an increase in column density for molecular species such as CO, CN, and SO. The inclusion of Lyα radiation impacts the disk chemistry through specific species that have large photodissociation cross sections at 1216 A. These include HCN, NH 3 , and CH 4 , for which the column densities are decreased by an order of magnitude or more due to the presence of Lyα radiation in the UV spectrum. A few species, such as CO 2 and SO, are enhanced by the presence of Lyα radiation, but rarely by more than a factor of a few.

  17. The Abundance of Low-Luminosity Lyα Emitters at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Michael R.; Ellis, Richard S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Kuijken, Konrad

    2004-05-01

    We derive the luminosity function of high-redshift Lyα-emitting sources from a deep, blind, spectroscopic survey that utilized strong-lensing magnification by intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. We observed carefully selected regions near nine clusters, consistent with magnification factors generally greater than 10 for the redshift range 4.5account our varying intrinsic Lyα line sensitivity as a function of wavelength and sky position. By virtue of the strong magnification factor, we provide constraints on the Lyα luminosity function to unprecedented limits of 1040 ergs s -1, corresponding to a star formation rate of 0.01 Msolar yr-1. Our cumulative z~=5 Lyα luminosity function is consistent with a power-law form n(>L)~L-1 over 1041-1042.5 ergs s-1. When combined with the results of other surveys, limited at higher luminosities, our results suggest evidence for the suppression of star formation in low-mass halos, as predicted in popular models of galaxy formation. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  18. More than Solfège and Hand Signs: Philosophy, Tools, and Lesson Planning in the Authentic Kodály Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, James

    2015-01-01

    Four components of the Kodály concept are delineated here: philosophy, objectives, essential tools, and lesson planning process. After outlining the tenets of the Kodály philosophy and objectives, the article presents the Kodály concept's essential tools, including singing, movable "do" solfège, rhythm syllables, hand signs, singing on…

  19. TRANSITING THE SUN. II. THE IMPACT OF STELLAR ACTIVITY ON Lyα TRANSITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llama, J.; Shkolnik, E. L., E-mail: joe.llama@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    High-energy observations of the Sun provide an opportunity to test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of transiting exoplanets in the presence of stellar activity. Here we insert the transit of a hot Jupiter into continuous disk integrated data of the Sun in Lyα from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory/EVE instrument to assess the impact of stellar activity on the measured planet-to-star radius ratio (R{sub p}/R{sub ⋆}). In 75% of our simulated light curves, we measure the correct radius ratio; however, incorrect values can be measured if there is significant short-term variability in the light curve. The maximum measured value of R{sub p}/R{sub ⋆} is 50% larger than the input value, which is much smaller than the large Lyα transit depths that have been reported in the literature, suggesting that for stars with activity levels comparable to the Sun, stellar activity alone cannot account for these deep transits. We ran simulations without a transit and found that stellar activity cannot mimic the Lyα transit of 55 Cancari b, strengthening the conclusion that this planet has a partially transiting exopshere. We were able to compare our simulations to more active stars by artificially increasing the variability in the Solar Lyα light curve. In the higher variability data, the largest value of R{sub p}/R{sub ⋆} we measured is <3× the input value, which again is not large enough to reproduce the Lyα transit depth reported for the more active stars HD 189733 and GJ 436, supporting the interpretation that these planets have extended atmospheres and possible cometary tails.

  20. TRANSITING THE SUN. II. THE IMPACT OF STELLAR ACTIVITY ON Lyα TRANSITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llama, J.; Shkolnik, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    High-energy observations of the Sun provide an opportunity to test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of transiting exoplanets in the presence of stellar activity. Here we insert the transit of a hot Jupiter into continuous disk integrated data of the Sun in Lyα from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory/EVE instrument to assess the impact of stellar activity on the measured planet-to-star radius ratio (R p /R ⋆ ). In 75% of our simulated light curves, we measure the correct radius ratio; however, incorrect values can be measured if there is significant short-term variability in the light curve. The maximum measured value of R p /R ⋆ is 50% larger than the input value, which is much smaller than the large Lyα transit depths that have been reported in the literature, suggesting that for stars with activity levels comparable to the Sun, stellar activity alone cannot account for these deep transits. We ran simulations without a transit and found that stellar activity cannot mimic the Lyα transit of 55 Cancari b, strengthening the conclusion that this planet has a partially transiting exopshere. We were able to compare our simulations to more active stars by artificially increasing the variability in the Solar Lyα light curve. In the higher variability data, the largest value of R p /R ⋆ we measured is <3× the input value, which again is not large enough to reproduce the Lyα transit depth reported for the more active stars HD 189733 and GJ 436, supporting the interpretation that these planets have extended atmospheres and possible cometary tails

  1. Eclipsing damped Lyα systems in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathivavsari, H.; Petitjean, P.; Jamialahmadi, N.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Rahmani, H.; Finley, H.; Noterdaeme, P.; Pâris, I.; Srianand, R.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of our automatic search for proximate damped Lyα absorption (PDLA) systems in the quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We constrain our search to those PDLAs lying within 1500 km s-1 from the quasar to make sure that the broad DLA absorption trough masks most of the strong Lyα emission from the broad line region (BLR) of the quasar. When the Lyα emission from the BLR is blocked by these so-called eclipsing DLAs, narrow Lyα emission from the host galaxy could be revealed as a narrow emission line (NEL) in the DLA trough. We define a statistical sample of 399 eclipsing DLAs with log N(H I) ≥ 21.10. We divide our statistical sample into three subsamples based on the strength of the NEL detected in the DLA trough. By studying the stacked spectra of these subsamples, we found that absorption from high ionization species are stronger in DLAs with stronger NEL in their absorption core. Moreover, absorption from the excited states of species like Si II are also stronger in DLAs with stronger NEL. We also found no correlation between the luminosity of the Lyα NEL and the quasar luminosity. These observations are consistent with a scenario in which the DLAs with stronger NEL are denser and physically closer to the quasar. We propose that these eclipsing DLAs could be the product of the interaction between infalling and outflowing gas. High resolution spectroscopic observation would be needed to shed some light on the nature of these eclipsing DLAs.

  2. 64Cu-Labeled LyP-1-Dendrimer for PET-CT Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify macrophage accumulation can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information for atherosclerotic plaque. We have previously shown that LyP-1, a cyclic 9-amino acid peptide, binds to p32 proteins on activated macrophages, facilitating the visualization of atherosclerotic plaque with PET. Yet, the in vivo plaque accumulation of monomeric [18F]FBA-LyP-1 was low (0.31 ± 0.05%ID/g). To increase the avidity of LyP-1 constructs to p32, we synthesized a dendritic form of LyP-1 on solid phase using lysine as the core structural element. Imaging probes (FAM or 6-BAT) were conjugated to a lysine or cysteine on the dendrimer for optical and PET studies. The N-terminus of the dendrimer was further modified with an aminooxy group in order to conjugate LyP-1 and ARAL peptides bearing a ketone. Oxime ligation of peptides to both dendrimers resulted in (LyP-1)4- and (ARAL)4-dendrimers with optical (FAM) and PET probes (6-BAT). For PET-CT studies, (LyP-1)4- and (ARAL)4-dendrimer-6-BAT were labeled with 64Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h) and intravenously injected into the atherosclerotic (ApoE–/–) mice. After two hours of circulation, PET-CT coregistered images demonstrated greater uptake of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-64Cu than the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-64Cu in the aortic root and descending aorta. Ex vivo images and the biodistribution acquired at three hours after injection also demonstrated a significantly higher uptake of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-64Cu (1.1 ± 0.26%ID/g) than the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-64Cu (0.22 ± 0.05%ID/g) in the aorta. Similarly, subcutaneous injection of the LyP-1-dendrimeric carriers resulted in preferential accumulation in plaque-containing regions over 24 h. In the same model system, ex vivo fluorescence images within aortic plaque depict an increased accumulation and penetration of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-FAM as compared to the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-FAM. Taken together, the results suggest that the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer can be applied for in

  3. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The results showed that Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract had antidiabetic activity with IC50 less than 100 ppm. However, the activity is lesser than quercetin.

  4. The output least-squares approach to estimating Lamé moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockenbach, Mark S.

    2007-12-01

    The Lamé moduli of a heterogeneous, isotropic, planar membrane can be estimated by observing the displacement of the membrane under a known edge traction, and choosing estimates of the moduli that best predict the observed displacement under a finite-element simulation. This algorithm converges to the exact moduli given pointwise measurements of the displacement on an increasingly fine mesh. The error estimates that prove this convergence also show the instability of the inverse problem.

  5. Two new cassane diterpene lactams from the fruits of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dewen; Xia, Guanghui; Li, Yuanping; Liang, Xuesong; Zhang, Lanjun; Wang, Liqin

    2018-04-01

    Two new cassane ditepenoid lactams, caesmimotam A (1) and B (2), along with eight known compounds (3-10) were isolated from the fruits of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive.

  6. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  7. Pseudoneutropenia in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patients receiving sirolimus: evaluation in a 100 patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Vissagan; Jones, Amanda M; Julien-Williams, Patricia; Machado, Tania; Danner, Robert L; Swigris, Jeffrey J; Paine, Robert; Lozier, Jay N; Moss, Joel

    2018-01-01

    In lymphangioleiomyomatosis patients receiving sirolimus treatment, transient leukopenia in the morning may be due to circadian rhythm, with leukocyte counts recovering later in the day, indicating that a decrease in drug dose may not be warranted http://ow.ly/jPFz30iysgV.

  8. INTEGRATING LMSs IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS:Greek Teachers’ Initial Perceptions about LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros PAPADAKIS,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students’ motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits. This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the integration of LAMS, a Learning Activity Management System, in the educational praxis. Through a multifaceted research method, involving a small scale participatory action research, the research team attempted to investigate the preconditions required to integrate LAMS in the everyday lesson. Two tutorial workshops were organized with the participation of 46 educators from geographically diverse urban areas, from K-12 to Tertiary Education. Results indicated that teachers have developed a positive attitude towards LAMS and the use of collaborative online tools during the educational process. Although teachers have certain objections on integrating LMSs, which stem mainly from the current status of the Greek educational system, they accept relative advantages of integrating online collaborative approaches over the traditional face-to-face approach. Well-organized and carefully implemented tutorial workshops can spark teachers’ interest and bring about change in the educational process. Small scale interventions such as these can prove to foster dialogue among teachers of various backgrounds and set the foundations to create online communities of practice for innovative teachers.

  9. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...In this rule, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to revise the existing Authorization Validated End-User (VEU) listings for four VEUs in the People's Republic of China (PRC). Specifically, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to part 748 of the EAR to update VEU Advanced Micro Devices China Inc.'s (AMD China) current list of eligible destinations. BIS also amends the authorization of VEU Lam Research Corporation (Lam) by updating the addresses of ten eligible destinations and reformatting the list of Lam's existing eligible destinations into groups associated with specific eligible items. BIS also updates the EAR to amend the addresses and lists of eligible items for VEUs SK hynix Semiconductor (China) Ltd. and SK hynix Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd. Finally, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to part 748 of the EAR to include language reminding exporters that the language in the Supplement does not supersede other requirements in the EAR. These amendments to the authorizations of the named VEUs are not the result of activities of concern. The respective changes were prompted by factors arising from the companies' normal course of business or are being done at the request of the companies.

  10. New Results from the Magellan IMACS Spectroscopic Lyα Survey: NICMOS Observations of Lyα Emitters at z = 5.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Sawicki, Marcin

    2010-08-01

    We present NICMOS J 110 (rest-frame 1200-2100 Å) observations of the three z = 5.7 Lyα emitters discovered in the blind multislit spectroscopic survey by Martin et al. These images confirm the presence of the two sources that were previously only seen in spectroscopic observations. The third source, which is undetected in our J 110 observations, has been detected in narrowband imaging of the Cosmic Origins Survey, so our non-detection implies a rest-frame equivalent width >146 Å (3σ). The two J 110-detected sources have more modest rest-frame equivalent widths of 30-40 Å, but all three are typical of high-redshift Lyα emitters. In addition, the J 110-detected sources have UV luminosities that are within a factor of 2 of L*UV, and sizes that appear compact (r hl~ 0farcs15) in our NIC2 images—consistent with a redshift of 5.7. We use these UV-continuum and Lyα measurements to estimate the i 775-z 850 colors of these galaxies and show that at least one and possibly all three would be missed by the i-dropout Lyman break galaxy selection. These observations help demonstrate the utility of multislit narrowband spectroscopy as a technique for finding faint emission-line galaxies. This work is based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal 11183.

  11. A novel small molecular STAT3 inhibitor, LY5, inhibits cell viability, cell migration, and angiogenesis in medulloblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Jou, David; Wu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Wenying; Li, Chenglong; Houghton, Peter J; Lin, Jiayuh

    2015-02-06

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is persistently activated and could contribute to tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. Numerous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the persistent STAT3 signaling pathway results in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in human cancer cells, indicating that STAT3 is a viable molecular target for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated a novel non-peptide, cell-permeable small molecule, named LY5, to target STAT3 in medulloblastoma cells. LY5 inhibited persistent STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cell lines expressing constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation. The inhibition of STAT3 signaling by LY5 was confirmed by down-regulating the expression of the downstream targets of STAT3, including cyclin D1, bcl-XL, survivin, and micro-RNA-21. LY5 also inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, and leukemia inhibitory factor in medulloblastoma cells, but did not inhibit STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation stimulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and EGF, respectively. In addition, LY5 blocked the STAT3 nuclear localization induced by IL-6, but did not block STAT1 and STAT5 nuclear translocation mediated by IFN-γ and EGF, respectively. A combination of LY5 with cisplatin or x-ray radiation also showed more potent effects than single treatment alone in the inhibition of cell viability in human medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, LY5 demonstrated a potent inhibitory activity on cell migration and angiogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate LY5 inhibits persistent and inducible STAT3 phosphorylation and suggest that LY5 is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for medulloblastoma by inhibiting persistent STAT3 signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Lyα EMITTERS AT z ∼ 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee; Okamura, Sadanori

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z ≅ 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including Hα on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Lyα line, Δv Lyα , and LIS absorption lines, Δv abs , with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z ∼ 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain Δv Lyα = 175 ± 35 km s –1 , which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), Δv Lyα ≅ 400 km s –1 . The stacked FUV spectrum gives Δv abs = –179 ± 73 km s –1 , comparable to that of LBGs. These positive Δv Lyα and negative Δv abs suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' Δv Lyα is as small as |Δv abs |, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Lyα emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Lyα equivalent width (EW) and Δv Lyα in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small Δv Lyα values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Lyα transmissivity may need to be revised.

  13. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: thashimoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, 3-7-2 Kajino-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including H{alpha} on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Ly{alpha} line, {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}}, and LIS absorption lines, {Delta}v {sub abs}, with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z {approx} 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} = 175 {+-} 35 km s{sup -1}, which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} {approx_equal} 400 km s{sup -1}. The stacked FUV spectrum gives {Delta}v {sub abs} = -179 {+-} 73 km s{sup -1}, comparable to that of LBGs. These positive {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} and negative {Delta}v {sub abs} suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} is as small as |{Delta}v {sub abs}|, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Ly{alpha} emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) and {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Ly{alpha} transmissivity may need to be revised.

  14. A Faraday rotation search for magnetic fields in quasar damped Ly alpha absorption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Abraham L.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a Faraday rotation survey of 61 radio-bright QSOs conducted at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The Galactic contribution to the Faraday rotation is estimated and subtracted to determine the extragalactic rotation measure (RRM) for each source. Eleven of these QSOs are known to exhibit damped Ly alpha absorption. The rate of incidence of significant Faraday rotation of these 11 sources is compared to the remaining 50 and is found to be higher at the 99.8% confidence level. However, as this is based upon only two detections of Faraday rotation in the damped Ly alpha sample, the result is only tentative. If the two detections in the damped Ly alpha sample are dug to the absorbing systems, then the inferred rotation measure induced by these systems is roughly 250 rad/sq m. The two detections were for the two lowest redshift absorbers in the sample. We find that a rotation measure of 250 rad/sq m would have gone undetected for any other absorber in the damped Ly alpha sample due to the 1/(1 + 2) squared dilution of the observed RRM with redshift. Thus the data are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is a generic property of damped Ly alpha absorbers. We do not confirm the suggestion that the amplitude of RRMs increases with redshift. Rather, the data are consistent with no redshift evolution. We find that the uncertainty in the estimation of the Galactic rotation measure (GRM) is a more serious problem than previously realized for extra-galactic Faraday rotation studies of QSO absorbers. A careful analysis of current methods for estimating GRM indicate that it can be determined to an accuracy of about 15 - 20 rad/sq m. Previous studies underestimated this uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. Due to this uncertainty, rotation measures such as we suspect are associated with damped Ly alpha absorption systems can only be detected at redshifts less than z approximately

  15. Prevention and management of intraoperative crisis in VATS and open chest surgery: how to avoid emergency conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdie, Fernando M; Sanchez, Manuel Villa; Sarkaria, Inderpal S

    2017-01-01

    Video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has become a routinely utilized approach to complex procedures of the chest, such as pulmonary resection. It has been associated with decreased postoperative pain, shorter length of stay and lower incidence of complications such as pneumonia. Limitations to this modality may include limited exposure, lack of tactile feedback, and a two-dimensional view of the surgical field. Furthermore, the lack of an open incision may incur technical challenges in preventing and controlling operative misadventures leading to major hemorrhage or other intraoperative emergencies. While these events may occur in the best of circumstances, prevention strategies are the primary means of avoiding these injuries. Unplanned conversions for major intraoperative bleeding or airway injury during general thoracic surgical procedures are relatively rare and often can be avoided with careful preoperative planning, review of relevant imaging, and meticulous surgical technique. When these events occur, a pre-planned, methodical response with initial control of bleeding, assessment of injury, and appropriate repair and/or salvage procedures are necessary to maximize outcomes. The surgeon should be well versed in injury-specific incisions and approaches to maximize adequate exposure and when feasible, allow completion of the index operation. Decisions to continue with a minimally invasive approach should consider the comfort and experience level of the surgeon with these techniques, and the relative benefit gained against the risk incurred to the patient. These algorithms may be expected to shift in the future with increasing sophistication and capabilities of minimally invasive technologies and approaches.

  16. Inspection with non destructive assay techniques of the aluminium coating of the TRIGA Mark III reactor vat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes A, A.I.; Gonzalez M, A.; Castaneda J, G.; Rivera M, H.; Sandoval G, I.

    2001-01-01

    In June 2000, the Reactor Department assigned to the Scientific Research Direction of the National Institute of Nuclear Research requested to the Non-destructive Assays Laboratory (LEND), assigned to the Materials Science Management, the inspection and measurement of thickness of the aluminium coating (liner) of the TRIGA Mark III reactor vat with non-destructive assay techniques, due to that the aluminium coating is exposed mainly to undergo slimming on its back side due to corrosion phenomena. Activity that was able to be carried out from april until august 2001. It is worth pointing out that this type of inspection with these techniques was realized by first time. The non-destructive assays (NDA) are techniques which use indirect physical methods for inspecting the sanitation of components in process or in service, for detect lack of continuity or defects which affect their quality or usefulness. The application of those do not alter the physical, chemical, mechanical or dimensional properties of the part subject of inspection. The results of the application of the ultrasound inspection techniques, industrial radiography and penetrating liquids are presented. (Author)

  17. Remediation of uranium-contaminated soil using the Segmented Gate System and containerized vat leaching techniques: a cost effectiveness study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, M.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. Until now, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended upon manual screening and analysis of samples, a costly and impractical approach, particularly with large volumes of heterogeneously contaminated soil. The baseline approach for the remediation of soils containing radioactive waste is excavation, pretreatment, containerization, and disposal at a federally permitted landfill. However, disposal of low-level radioactive waste is expensive and storage capacity is limited. ThermoNuclean's Segmented Gate System (SGS) removes only the radioactively contaminated soil, in turn greatly reducing the volume of soils that requires disposal. After processing using the SGS, the fraction of contaminated soil is processed using the containerized vat leaching (CVL) system developed at LANL. Uranium is leached out of the soil in solution. The uranium is recovered with an ion exchange resin, leaving only a small volume of liquid low-level waste requiring disposal. The reclaimed soil can be returned to its original location after treatment with CVL

  18. VAT application in travel services pursuant to the Czech and EU legislations and a proposal for amendments in the Czech value-added tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domain of value-added tax has been already fully harmonized. Its regulation dwells on the Council Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value-added tax, and all member countries of the European Union are obliged to provide for the implementation of this Directive into their national legislations similarly as the Czech Republic, which entered the European Union on 1 May 2004. The Act no. 235/2004 Coll. on the value-added tax as amended (hereinafter „value-added tax law“ should be therefore in line with the Directive. In reality however, some issues in the VAT law have not been fully harmonized yet. One of these issues is for example the application of a special routine for travel services according to §89 of the VAT law, which is in essential contradiction with the Directive in question, the controversial point being definition of the person of customer whom the Directive understands in a different way than the VAT law. Thus, the characterization of the problem based on the Czech and EU legislations with respect to jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the European Community forms a framework of the paper. Based on a comparative analysis of the application of special and ordinary routines in providing travel services to the customer by the taxpayer, tax incidence in his assessment base is determined. At the same time, the paper also includes a proposal for the change of the definition of customer in the VAT law so that the application of the given routine is fully in line with the EU Directive.

  19. C-VAT – Clinical Video game Addiction Test: een diagnostisch instrument voor het herkennen van gameverslaving in de klinische praktijk.

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, A.J. van; Duin, L. van; Frielink, N.; DeFuentes-Merillas, L.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    In de Nederlandse verslavingszorg worden hulpverleners in toenemende mate geconfronteerd met een hulpvraag op het gebied van ‘gameverslaving’. Tot nu toe is er echter geen diagnostisch instrument dat gebruikt kan worden om het probleem goed in kaart te brengen. Dit artikel bespreekt de ontwikkeling van een dergelijk instrument, de Clinical Video game Addiction Test (C-VAT). De lijst bestaat uit drie introductievragen, negen kernvragen en aanbevelingen gericht op het ontdekken van comorbide pr...

  20. [A Paired Case Controlled Study Comparing the Short-term Outcomes of Da Vinci RATS and VATS Approach for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Feng; Xu, Shiguang; Xu, Wei; Ding, Renquan; Liu, Bo; Meng, Hao; Kang, Yunteng; Meng, Xiangrui; Lin, Jie; Wang, Shumin

    2018-03-20

    Da Vinci Surgical System is one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, which represents the development direction of the precise minimally invasive surgical techniques, the aim of this study was to comparing the short-term outcomes between da Vinci robot-assisted lobectomy and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer. 45 pairs of non-small cell lung cancer patients underwent pulmonary lobectomy with da Vinci Robotic assisted thoracoscopic (RATS) and VATS approach during the same period from January 2014 to January 2017. The operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), total number and total groups of dissected lymph nodes, postoperative duration of drainage, the first day volume of drainage, total volume of drainage were compared. No perioperative death and convertion to thoracotomy occured in both groups. There were significant difference between RATS group and VATS group in EBL [(50.30±32.33) mL vs (208.60±132.63) mL], the first day volume of drainage [(275.00±145.42) mL vs (347.60±125.80) mL], the dissected total number [(22.67±9.67) vs (15.51±5.41)] and total team [(6.31±1.43) vs (4.91±1.04)] of lymph node. There were no significant difference in other outcomes. RATS is safe and effective and took better short-outcomes than VATS in non-small cell lung cancer.

  1. Identification of acetates in elasmopalpulus lignosellus pheromone glands using a newly created mass spectral database and kóvats retention indices

    OpenAIRE

    Jham, Gulab N.; Silva, Alexsandro A. da; Lima, Eraldo R.; Viana, Paulo A.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a specially created mass spectral database utilizing 23 tetradecenyl and 22 hexadecenyl acetate standards along with Kóvats retention indices obtained on a very polar stationary phase [poly (biscyanopropyl siloxane)] (SP 2340), (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (E)-8-hexadecenyl acetate were identified in active pheromone extracts of Elasmopalpus lignosellus. This identification was more efficient than our previous study using gas chromatography/mass spectrome...

  2. The Distinction between Direct and General Costs with Regard to the Deduction of Input VAT - The Case of Acquisition, Holding and Sale of Shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of distinguishing between direct and general costs. On the other hand the aim is to describe and analyse the law as it stands regarding the treatment of shares in the EU VAT system, with a special focus on the right to deduct input VAT on costs re-lating to transactions in shares. As a part of this analysis the aim......In revealing the conditions for the deduction of input VAT, the essential questions concern the nature of the so-called ‘direct and immediate link’ test and thus also the criteria for the important distinction between direct costs and general costs. The ‘direct and immediate link’ test...... is of general importance to all types of costs, but judged from the case law of the ECJ it has especially materialised itself when it comes to costs related to the acquisition, holding or sales of shares. The purpose of this article is therefore twofold. On the one hand it deals with the difficult question...

  3. The Ar{sup 17+} Ly{sub {alpha}2}/Ly{sub {alpha}1} ratio in Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J E; Reinke, M L; Ince-Cushman, A C; Podpaly, Y A [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ashbourn, J M A [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gu, M F [SSL, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Bitter, M; Hill, K [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Rachlew, E, E-mail: rice@psfc.mit.edu [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-28

    High-quality spectra of hydrogen-like Ar{sup 17+} have been obtained from Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasmas using a spatially imaging high-resolution x-ray spectrometer system in an extensive study of the underlying high-n satellite lines. The ratio of Ly{sub {alpha}2} (1S{sub 1/2}-2P{sub 1/2}) to Ly{sub {alpha}1} (1S{sub 1/2}-2P{sub 3/2}) was found to be {approx}0.52 regardless of plasma parameters, which is somewhat greater than the ratio of the statistical weights of the upper n = 2 levels, 0.5. This difference is mainly due to the effects of collisional excitation of fine-structure sub-levels. For the observations presented here, electron densities were in an extended range from 3x10{sup 19} to 4x10{sup 20} m{sup -3} with electron and ion temperatures between 1 and 4 keV. Experimental results are compared to calculations from COLRAD, a collisional-radiative modelling code, and good agreement is shown.

  4. The microstructural mechanism for mechanical property of LY2 aluminum alloy after laser shock processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Kai-yu; Lu, Jin-zhong; Zhang, Ling-feng; Zhong, Jun-wei; Guan, Hai-bing; Qian, Xiao-ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper described nanoindentation techniques for measuring thin films mechanical properties, including elastic modulus and nano-hardness. The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on elastic modulus and nano-hardness of the sample manufactured by LY2 aluminum alloy were experimentally investigated by nanoindentation techniques. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations of the microstructures in different regions after LSP are carried out. Experimental results showed that the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus in the laser-shocked region were obviously increased by 58.13% and 61.74% compared to those in the non-shocked region, respectively. The influences of LSP on microstructure and grain size of LY2 aluminum alloy were discussed, and the enhancement mechanism of LSP on nano-hardness and elastic modulus was also addressed.

  5. Stacking the Cosmic Web in fluorescent Ly α emission with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sofia G.; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Lilly, Simon; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Pezzulli, Gabriele; Schaye, Joop; Wisotzki, Lutz; Bacon, Roland; Inami, Hanae; Akhlaghi, Mohammad; Tacchella, Sandro; Richard, Johan; Bouche, Nicolas F.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Carollo, Marcella

    2018-04-01

    Cosmological simulations suggest that most of the matter in the Universe is distributed along filaments connecting galaxies. Illuminated by the cosmic UV background (UVB), these structures are expected to glow in fluorescent Ly α emission with a surface brightness (SB) that is well below current limits for individual detections. Here, we perform a stacking analysis of the deepest MUSE/VLT data using three-dimensional regions (subcubes) with orientations determined by the position of neighbouring Ly α galaxies at 3 < z < 4. Our method increase the probability of detecting filamentary Ly α emission, provided that these structures are Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). By stacking 390 oriented subcubes we reach a 2σ sensitivity level of SB ≈ 0.44 × 10-20 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 in an aperture of 1 arcsec2 × 6.25 Å, three times below the expected fluorescent Ly α signal from the Haardt & Madau UVB at z ˜ 3.5. No detectable emission is found on intergalactic scales, implying that at least two thirds of our subcubes do not contain oriented LLSs. On the other hand, significant emission is detected in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) in the direction of the neighbours. The signal is stronger for galaxies with a larger number of neighbours and appears to be independent of any other galaxy properties. We estimate that preferentially oriented satellite galaxies cannot contribute significantly to this signal, suggesting instead that gas densities in the CGM are typically larger in the direction of neighbouring galaxies on cosmological scales.

  6. Lyα EMITTING GALAXIES AS EARLY STAGES IN GALAXY FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Hu, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of two samples of Galaxy Evolution Explorer grism selected Lyα emitters (LAEs): one at z = 0.195-0.44 and the other at z = 0.65-1.25. We have also observed a comparison sample of galaxies in the same redshift intervals with the same UV magnitude distributions but with no detected Lyα. We use the optical spectroscopy to eliminate active galactic nuclei and to obtain the optical emission-line properties of the samples. We compare the luminosities of the LAEs in the two redshift intervals and show that there is dramatic evolution in the maximum Lyα luminosity over z = 0-1. Focusing on the z = 0.195-0.44 samples alone, we show that there are tightly defined relations between all of the galaxy parameters and the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of Hα. The higher EW(Hα) sources all have lower metallicities, bluer colors, smaller sizes, and less extinction, consistent with their being in the early stages of the galaxy formation process. We find that 75% ± 12% of the LAEs have EW(Hα) >100 A and, conversely, that 31% ± 13% of galaxies with EW(Hα) >100 A are LAEs. We correct the broadband magnitudes for the emission-line contributions and use spectral synthesis fits to estimate the ages of the galaxies. We find a median age of 1.1 x 10 8 yr for the LAE sample and 1.4 x 10 9 yr for the UV-continuum sample without detected Lyα. The median metallicity of the LAE sample is 12 + log (O/H) = 8.24, or about 0.4 dex lower than the UV-continuum sample.

  7. Rational design of a fibroblast growth factor 21-based clinical candidate, LY2405319.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Kharitonenkov

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a novel hormonal regulator with the potential to treat a broad variety of metabolic abnormalities, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disease. Human recombinant wild type FGF21 (FGF21 has been shown to ameliorate metabolic disorders in rodents and non-human primates. However, development of FGF21 as a drug is challenging and requires re-engineering of its amino acid sequence to improve protein expression and formulation stability. Here we report the design and characterization of a novel FGF21 variant, LY2405319. To enable the development of a potential drug product with a once-daily dosing profile, in a preserved, multi-use formulation, an additional disulfide bond was introduced in FGF21 through Leu118Cys and Ala134Cys mutations. FGF21 was further optimized by deleting the four N-terminal amino acids, His-Pro-Ile-Pro (HPIP, which was subject to proteolytic cleavage. In addition, to eliminate an O-linked glycosylation site in yeast a Ser167Ala mutation was introduced, thus allowing large-scale, homogenous protein production in Pichia pastoris. Altogether re-engineering of FGF21 led to significant improvements in its biopharmaceutical properties. The impact of these changes was assessed in a panel of in vitro and in vivo assays, which confirmed that biological properties of LY2405319 were essentially identical to FGF21. Specifically, subcutaneous administration of LY2405319 in ob/ob and diet-induced obese (DIO mice over 7-14 days resulted in a 25-50% lowering of plasma glucose coupled with a 10-30% reduction in body weight. Thus, LY2405319 exhibited all the biopharmaceutical and biological properties required for initiation of a clinical program designed to test the hypothesis that administration of exogenous FGF21 would result in effects on disease-related metabolic parameters in humans.

  8. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF Ly α BLOB 1: HALO SUBSTRUCTURE ILLUMINATED FROM WITHIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geach, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Narayanan, D. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, PA 19041 (United States); Matsuda, Y.; Ao, Y.; Kubo, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hayes, M. [Stockholm University, Dept. of Astronomy and Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Mas-Ribas, Ll.; Dijkstra, M. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Steidel, C. C. [California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Feldmann, R. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Avison, A. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Manchester (United Kingdom); Agertz, O. [Dept. of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH, Surrey (United Kingdom); Birkinshaw, M.; Bremer, M. N. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Farrah, D. [Dept. of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Harrison, C. M. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Dept. of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Michałowski, M. J., E-mail: j.geach@herts.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-20

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 850 μ m continuum observations of the original Ly α Blob (LAB) in the SSA22 field at z = 3.1 (SSA22-LAB01). The ALMA map resolves the previously identified submillimeter source into three components with a total flux density of S {sub 850} = 1.68 ± 0.06 mJy, corresponding to a star-formation rate of ∼150 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup -1}. The submillimeter sources are associated with several faint ( m ≈ 27 mag) rest-frame ultraviolet sources identified in Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) clear filter imaging ( λ ≈ 5850 Å). One of these companions is spectroscopically confirmed with the Keck Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration to lie within 20 projected kpc and 250 km s{sup -1} of one of the ALMA components. We postulate that some of these STIS sources represent a population of low-mass star-forming satellites surrounding the central submillimeter sources, potentially contributing to their growth and activity through accretion. Using a high-resolution cosmological zoom simulation of a 10{sup 13} M {sub ⊙} halo at z = 3, including stellar, dust, and Ly α radiative transfer, we can model the ALMA+STIS observations and demonstrate that Ly α photons escaping from the central submillimeter sources are expected to resonantly scatter in neutral hydrogen, the majority of which is predicted to be associated with halo substructure. We show how this process gives rise to extended Ly α emission with similar surface brightness and morphology to observed giant LABs.

  9. Inspiraling halo accretion mapped in Ly α emission around a z ˜ 3 quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni Battaia, Fabrizio; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Obreja, Aura; Buck, Tobias; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2018-01-01

    In an effort to search for Ly α emission from circum- and intergalactic gas on scales of hundreds of kpc around z ∼ 3 quasars, and thus characterize the physical properties of the gas in emission, we have initiated an extensive fast survey with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE): Quasar Snapshot Observations with MUse: Search for Extended Ultraviolet eMission (QSO MUSEUM). In this work, we report the discovery of an enormous Ly α nebula (ELAN) around the quasar SDSS J102009.99+104002.7 at z = 3.164, which we followed-up with deeper MUSE observations. This ELAN spans ∼297 projected kpc, has an average Ly α surface brightness SBLy α ∼ 6.04 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2(within the 2σ isophote) and is associated with an additional four previously unknown embedded sources: two Ly α emitters and two faint active galactic nuclei (one type-1 and one type-2 quasar). By mapping at high significance, the line-of-sight velocity in the entirety of the observed structure, we unveiled a large-scale coherent rotation-like pattern spanning ∼300 km s-1 with a velocity dispersion of <270 km s-1, which we interpret as a signature of the inspiraling accretion of substructures within the quasar's host halo. Future multiwavelength data will complement our MUSE observations and are definitely needed to fully characterize such a complex system. None the less, our observations reveal the potential of new sensitive integral-field spectrographs to characterize the dynamical state of diffuse gas on large scales in the young Universe, and thereby witness the assembly of galaxies.

  10. Comparison of Solar Fine Structure Observed Simultaneously in Lyα and Mg II h

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, D.; Sukhorukov, A. V.; De Pontieu, B.; Leenaarts, J.; Bethge, C.; Winebarger, A.; Auchère, F.; Bando, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Kano, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Narukage, N.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) observed the Sun in H I Lyα during a suborbital rocket flight on 2015 September 3. The Interface Region Imaging Telescope (IRIS) coordinated with the CLASP observations and recorded nearly simultaneous and co-spatial observations in the Mg II h and k lines. The Mg II h and Lyα lines are important transitions, energetically and diagnostically, in the chromosphere. The canonical solar atmosphere model predicts that these lines form in close proximity to each other and so we expect that the line profiles will exhibit similar variability. In this analysis, we present these coordinated observations and discuss how the two profiles compare over a region of quiet Sun at viewing angles that approach the limb. In addition to the observations, we synthesize both line profiles using a 3D radiation-MHD simulation. In the observations, we find that the peak width and the peak intensities are well correlated between the lines. For the simulation, we do not find the same relationship. We have attempted to mitigate the instrumental differences between IRIS and CLASP and to reproduce the instrumental factors in the synthetic profiles. The model indicates that formation heights of the lines differ in a somewhat regular fashion related to magnetic geometry. This variation explains to some degree the lack of correlation, observed and synthesized, between Mg II and Lyα. Our analysis will aid in the definition of future observatories that aim to link dynamics in the chromosphere and transition region.

  11. Noise estimates for measurements of weak lensing from the Ly α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, R. Benton; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro

    2018-06-01

    Lensing changes the apparent separation between pixels in the Ly α forest of separate quasars or high-redshift objects by changing their observed positions on the sky. This changes the implied correlations in the absorption and in particular makes the Ly α forest correlation function, or power spectrum, locally anisotropic in the plane of the sky. We have proposed a method for measuring weak lensing using this effect. Here, we estimate the noise expected in weak lensing maps and power spectra for different sets of observational parameters. We find that surveys of the size and quality of the ones being done today and ones planned for the future will be able to measure the lensing power spectrum at a source redshift of z ≃ 2.5 with high precision and even be able to image the distribution of foreground matter with high fidelity on degree scales. For example, we predict that Ly α forest lensing measurements from the DESI and WEAVE surveys should yield the mass fluctuation amplitude with a statistical error of ˜3 per cent, eBOSS ˜6 per cent. and the proposed MSE survey less than 1 per cent. By dividing the redshift range into multiple bins, some tomographic lensing information should be accessible as well. This would allow for cosmological lensing measurements at higher redshift than are accessible with galaxy shear surveys and correspondingly better constraints on the evolution of dark energy at relatively early times.

  12. High-Velocity Ly(Alpha) Emission from SMR 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Eli; McCray, Richard; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Pun, Chu S. J.; Sonneborn, George

    1998-01-01

    The high-velocity Ly(Alpha) emission from SN 1987A observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) evidently comes from a reverse shock formed where the outer envelope of SN 1987A strikes ionized gas inside the inner circumstellar ring. The observations can be explained by a simple kinematic model, in which the Ly(Alpha) emission comes from hydrogen atoms with radial velocity approximately 15,000 km s(exp -1) crossing a reverse shock in the shape of a slightly prolate ellipsoid with equatorial radius 4.8 x 10(exp 17) cm or approximately 80% of the distance to the inner surface of the inner ring. N v double Lambda 1239, 1243 emission, if present, has a net luminosity approximately less than 30% times that of the Ly(Alpha) emission. Future STIS observations should enable us to predict the time of impact with the inner ring and to determine unambiguously whether or not N v emission is present. These observations will offer a unique opportunity to probe the structure of SN 1987A's circumstellar environment and the hydrodynamics and kinetics of very fast shocks.

  13. Comparison of Solar Fine Structure Observed Simultaneously in Ly α and Mg ii h

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, D. [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Sukhorukov, A. V.; Leenaarts, J. [Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); De Pontieu, B. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Building 252, 3176 Porter Drive, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Bethge, C.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Auchère, F. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay (France); Bando, T.; Kano, R.; Narukage, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ishikawa, R. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Bueno, J. Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2017-10-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) observed the Sun in H i Ly α during a suborbital rocket flight on 2015 September 3. The Interface Region Imaging Telescope ( IRIS ) coordinated with the CLASP observations and recorded nearly simultaneous and co-spatial observations in the Mg ii h and k lines. The Mg ii h and Ly α lines are important transitions, energetically and diagnostically, in the chromosphere. The canonical solar atmosphere model predicts that these lines form in close proximity to each other and so we expect that the line profiles will exhibit similar variability. In this analysis, we present these coordinated observations and discuss how the two profiles compare over a region of quiet Sun at viewing angles that approach the limb. In addition to the observations, we synthesize both line profiles using a 3D radiation-MHD simulation. In the observations, we find that the peak width and the peak intensities are well correlated between the lines. For the simulation, we do not find the same relationship. We have attempted to mitigate the instrumental differences between IRIS and CLASP and to reproduce the instrumental factors in the synthetic profiles. The model indicates that formation heights of the lines differ in a somewhat regular fashion related to magnetic geometry. This variation explains to some degree the lack of correlation, observed and synthesized, between Mg ii and Ly α . Our analysis will aid in the definition of future observatories that aim to link dynamics in the chromosphere and transition region.

  14. Absorption and disposition of LY127210, an orally effective hypotensive agent, in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.C.; White, J.F.; Sullivan, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The disposition, pharmacokinetics, and metabolic fate of LY127210, 7,8-dimethoxy-(1H)-3-benzazepin-2-amine hydrochloride, have been studied in mice, rats, dogs and monkeys. Pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in dogs and monkeys showed it to be well absorbed orally with maximum plasma levels of drug obtained within 4 hr. Following administration of 14 C-LY127210, the plasma half-lives of parent and radiocarbon in rat were 11 hr and 45 hr (β-phase), respectively. In dogs and monkeys parent half-lives were 11 hr (β-phase) and 5.2 hr (monophasic) while half-lives of total radiocarbon were 145 hr (β-phase) and 299 hr (β-phase), respectively. Plasma concentrations of parent compound in rat, dog, and monkey following oral administration accounted for approximately 15% of circulating radiocarbon. Renal excretion was the major route of elimination. The major urinary species was LY127210; metabolic mechanisms included oxidative O-demethylation and deamination, aliphatic oxidation, and reduction. Radiocarbon tissue level studies in rat indicated wide distribution of drug and/or metabolites. Similar studies in monkeys indicated that the half-life of radiocarbon in tissues was equal to or greater than that in plasma and red blood cells. The long half-life of radiocarbon in blood was due to irreversible dose dependent binding of drug and/or metabolites to plasma albumin and to cellular hemoglobin

  15. PREDICTING Lyα AND Mg II FLUXES FROM K AND M DWARFS USING GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Rolph, Kristina A.; Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis S.

    2014-01-01

    A star's ultraviolet (UV) emission can greatly affect the atmospheric chemistry and physical properties of closely orbiting planets with the potential for severe mass loss. In particular, the Lyα emission line at 1216 Å, which dominates the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum, is a major source of photodissociation of important atmospheric molecules such as water and methane. The intrinsic flux of Lyα, however, cannot be directly measured due to the absorption of neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium and contamination by geocoronal emission. To date, reconstruction of the intrinsic Lyα line based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra has been accomplished for 46 FGKM nearby stars, 28 of which have also been observed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Our investigation provides a correlation between published intrinsic Lyα and GALEX far- and near-ultraviolet (NUV) chromospheric fluxes for K and M stars. The negative correlations between the ratio of the Lyα to the GALEX fluxes reveal how the relative strength of Lyα compared to the broadband fluxes weakens as the FUV and NUV excess flux increase. We also correlate GALEX fluxes with the strong NUV Mg II h+k spectral emission lines formed at lower chromospheric temperatures than Lyα. The reported correlations provide estimates of intrinsic Lyα and Mg II fluxes for the thousands of K and M stars in the archived GALEX all-sky surveys. These will constrain new stellar upper atmosphere models for cool stars and provide realistic inputs to models describing exoplanetary photochemistry and atmospheric evolution in the absence of UV spectroscopy

  16. Protection against amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity toward striatal dopamine neurons in rodents by LY274614, an excitatory amino acid antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, R W; Hemrick-Luecke, S K; Ornstein, P L

    1992-10-01

    LY274614, 3SR,4aRS,6SR,8aRS-6-[phosphonomethyl]decahydr oisoquinoline-3- carboxylic acid, has been described as a potent antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor. Here its ability to antagonize the prolonged depletion of dopamine in the striatum by amphetamine in iprindole-treated rats is reported. A single 18.4 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of (+/-)-amphetamine hemisulfate, given to rats pretreated with iprindole, resulted in persistent depletion of dopamine in the striatum 1 week later. This prolonged depletion of dopamine in the striatum was antagonized by dizocilpine (MK-801, a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors) or by LY274614 (a competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors). The protective effect of LY274614 was dose-dependent, being maximum at 10-40 mgkg (i.p.). A 10 mg/kg dose of LY274614 was effective in antagonizing the depletion of dopamine in the striatum, when given as long as 8 hr prior to amphetamine but not when given 24 hr prior to amphetamine. Depletion of dopamine in the striatum was also antagonized when LY274614 was given after the injection of amphetamine; LY274614 protected when given up to 4 hr after but not when given 8 or 24 hr after amphetamine. The prolonged depletion of dopamine in the striatum in mice, given multiple injections of methamphetamine, was also antagonized dose-dependently and completely by LY274614. The data strengthen the evidence that the neurotoxic effect of amphetamine and related compounds toward nigrostriatal dopamine neurons involves NMDA receptors and that LY274614 is an NMDA receptor antagonist with long-lasting in vivo effects in rats.

  17. Interaction of LY171883 and other peroxisome proliferators with fatty-acid-binding protein isolated from rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J R; Eacho, P I

    1991-01-01

    Fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) is a 14 kDa protein found in hepatic cytosol which binds and transports fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands throughout the cell. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether LY171883, a leukotriene D4 antagonist, and other peroxisome proliferators bind to FABP and displace an endogenous fatty acid. [3H]Oleic acid was used to monitor the elution of FABP during chromatographic purification. [14C]LY171883 had a similar elution profile when substituted in the purification, indicating a common interaction with FABP. LY171883 and its structural analogue, LY189585, as well as the hypolipidaemic peroxisome proliferators clofibric acid, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and WY14,643, displaced [3H]oleic acid binding to FABP. Analogues of LY171883 that do not induce peroxisome proliferation only weakly displaced oleate binding. [3H]Ly171883 bound directly to FABP with a Kd of 10.8 microM, compared with a Kd of 0.96 microM for [3H]oleate. LY171883 binding was inhibited by LY189585, clofibric acid, ciprofibrate and bezafibrate. These findings demonstrate that peroxisome proliferators, presumably due to their structural similarity to fatty acids, are able to bind to FABP and displace an endogenous ligand from its binding site. Interaction of peroxisome proliferators with FABP may be involved in perturbations of fatty acid metabolism caused by these agents as well as in the development of the pleiotropic response of peroxisome proliferation. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1747111

  18. The HETDEX pilot survey. V. The physical origin of Lyα emitters probed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Chonis, Taylor; Jogee, Shardha; Livermore, Rachael [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bridge, Joanna; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fabricius, Maximilian; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Salmon, Brett, E-mail: mmsong@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); and others

    2014-08-10

    We present the results from a Very Large Telescope/SINFONI and Keck/NIRSPEC near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 16 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.1-2.5 in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields discovered from the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Pilot Survey. We detect rest-frame optical nebular lines (Hα and/or [O III] λ5007) for 10 of the LAEs and measure physical properties, including the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity, gas mass fraction, and Lyα velocity offset. We find that LAEs may lie below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift. The LAEs all show velocity shifts of Lyα relative to the systemic redshift ranging between +85 and +296 km s{sup –1} with a mean of +180 km s{sup –1}. This value is smaller than measured for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The Lyα velocity offsets show a moderate correlation with the measured SFR (2.5σ), but no significant correlations are seen with the SFR surface density, specific SFR, stellar mass, or dynamical mass (≲1.5σ). Exploring the role of dust, kinematics of the interstellar medium (ISM), and geometry on the escape of Lyα photons, we find no signature of selective quenching of resonantly scattered Lyα photons. However, we also find no evidence that a clumpy ISM is enhancing the Lyα equivalent width. Our results suggest that the low metallicity in LAEs may be responsible for yielding an environment with a low neutral hydrogen column density and less dust, easing the escape of Lyα photons over that in continuum-selected star-forming galaxies.

  19. THE MUSCLES TREASURY SURVEY. II. INTRINSIC LY α AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF K AND M DWARFS WITH EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459-0123 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wood, Brian E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Froning, Cynthia [Dept. of Astronomy C1400, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4 (France); Rugheimer, Sarah [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Irvine Building, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); Walkowicz, Lucianne, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [The Adler Planetarium, 1300 S Lakeshore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of low-mass (K- and M-type) stars play a critical role in the heating and chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres, but are not observationally well-constrained. Direct observations of the intrinsic flux of the Ly α line (the dominant source of UV photons from low-mass stars) are challenging, as interstellar H i absorbs the entire line core for even the closest stars. To address the existing gap in empirical constraints on the UV flux of K and M dwarfs, the MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey has obtained UV observations of 11 nearby M and K dwarfs hosting exoplanets. This paper presents the Ly α and extreme-UV spectral reconstructions for the MUSCLES targets. Most targets are optically inactive, but all exhibit significant UV activity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to correct the observed Ly α profiles for interstellar absorption, and we employ empirical relations to compute the extreme-UV SED from the intrinsic Ly α flux in ∼100 Å bins from 100–1170 Å. The reconstructed Ly α profiles have 300 km s{sup −1} broad cores, while >1% of the total intrinsic Ly α flux is measured in extended wings between 300 and 1200 km s{sup −1}. The Ly α surface flux positively correlates with the Mg ii surface flux and negatively correlates with the stellar rotation period. Stars with larger Ly α surface flux also tend to have larger surface flux in ions formed at higher temperatures, but these correlations remain statistically insignificant in our sample of 11 stars. We also present H i column density measurements for 10 new sightlines through the local interstellar medium.

  20. The HETDEX pilot survey. V. The physical origin of Lyα emitters probed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Chonis, Taylor; Jogee, Shardha; Livermore, Rachael; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bridge, Joanna; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P.; Fabricius, Maximilian; Gawiser, Eric; Salmon, Brett

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from a Very Large Telescope/SINFONI and Keck/NIRSPEC near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 16 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.1-2.5 in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields discovered from the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Pilot Survey. We detect rest-frame optical nebular lines (Hα and/or [O III] λ5007) for 10 of the LAEs and measure physical properties, including the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity, gas mass fraction, and Lyα velocity offset. We find that LAEs may lie below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift. The LAEs all show velocity shifts of Lyα relative to the systemic redshift ranging between +85 and +296 km s –1 with a mean of +180 km s –1 . This value is smaller than measured for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The Lyα velocity offsets show a moderate correlation with the measured SFR (2.5σ), but no significant correlations are seen with the SFR surface density, specific SFR, stellar mass, or dynamical mass (≲1.5σ). Exploring the role of dust, kinematics of the interstellar medium (ISM), and geometry on the escape of Lyα photons, we find no signature of selective quenching of resonantly scattered Lyα photons. However, we also find no evidence that a clumpy ISM is enhancing the Lyα equivalent width. Our results suggest that the low metallicity in LAEs may be responsible for yielding an environment with a low neutral hydrogen column density and less dust, easing the escape of Lyα photons over that in continuum-selected star-forming galaxies.

  1. Probing natural killer cell education by Ly49 receptor expression analysis and computational modelling in single MHC class I mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Johansson

    Full Text Available Murine natural killer (NK cells express inhibitory Ly49 receptors for MHC class I molecules, which allows for "missing self" recognition of cells that downregulate MHC class I expression. During murine NK cell development, host MHC class I molecules impose an "educating impact" on the NK cell pool. As a result, mice with different MHC class I expression display different frequency distributions of Ly49 receptor combinations on NK cells. Two models have been put forward to explain this impact. The two-step selection model proposes a stochastic Ly49 receptor expression followed by selection for NK cells expressing appropriate receptor combinations. The sequential model, on the other hand, proposes that each NK cell sequentially expresses Ly49 receptors until an interaction of sufficient magnitude with self-class I MHC is reached for the NK cell to mature. With the aim to clarify which one of these models is most likely to reflect the actual biological process, we simulated the two educational schemes by mathematical modelling, and fitted the results to Ly49 expression patterns, which were analyzed in mice expressing single MHC class I molecules. Our results favour the two-step selection model over the sequential model. Furthermore, the MHC class I environment favoured maturation of NK cells expressing one or a few self receptors, suggesting a possible step of positive selection in NK cell education. Based on the predicted Ly49 binding preferences revealed by the model, we also propose, that Ly49 receptors are more promiscuous than previously thought in their interactions with MHC class I molecules, which was supported by functional studies of NK cell subsets expressing individual Ly49 receptors.

  2. Discovery and characterization of LY2784544, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of JAK2V617F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L; Clayton, J R; Walgren, R A; Zhao, B; Evans, R J; Smith, M C; Heinz-Taheny, K M; Kreklau, E L; Bloem, L; Pitou, C; Shen, W; Strelow, J M; Halstead, C; Rempala, M E; Parthasarathy, S; Gillig, J R; Heinz, L J; Pei, H; Wang, Y; Stancato, L F; Dowless, M S; Iversen, P W; Burkholder, T P

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the prevalence of the JAK2V617F mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), its constitutive activity, and ability to recapitulate the MPN phenotype in mouse models, JAK2V617F kinase is an attractive therapeutic target. We report the discovery and initial characterization of the orally bioavailable imidazopyridazine, LY2784544, a potent, selective and ATP-competitive inhibitor of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) tyrosine kinase. LY2784544 was discovered and characterized using a JAK2-inhibition screening assay in tandem with biochemical and cell-based assays. LY2784544 in vitro selectivity for JAK2 was found to be equal or superior to known JAK2 inhibitors. Further studies showed that LY2784544 effectively inhibited JAK2V617F-driven signaling and cell proliferation in Ba/F3 cells (IC 50 =20 and 55 nM, respectively). In comparison, LY2784544 was much less potent at inhibiting interleukin-3-stimulated wild-type JAK2-mediated signaling and cell proliferation (IC 50 =1183 and 1309 nM, respectively). In vivo, LY2784544 effectively inhibited STAT5 phosphorylation in Ba/F3-JAK2V617F-GFP (green fluorescent protein) ascitic tumor cells (TED 50 =12.7 mg/kg) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) Ba/F3-JAK2V617F-GFP tumor burden in the JAK2V617F-induced MPN model (TED 50 =13.7 mg/kg, twice daily). In contrast, LY2784544 showed no effect on erythroid progenitors, reticulocytes or platelets. These data suggest that LY2784544 has potential for development as a targeted agent against JAK2V617F and may have properties that allow suppression of JAK2V617F-induced MPN pathogenesis while minimizing effects on hematopoietic progenitor cells

  3. CLASP/SJ Observations of Rapid Time Variations in the Ly α Emission in a Solar Active Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252–5210 (Japan); Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Ishikawa, Ryohko; Bando, Takamasa [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Trujillo Bueno, Javier [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Auchère, Frédéric, E-mail: s.ishikawa@solar.isas.jaxa.jp [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Bätiment 121, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2017-09-10

    The Chromospheric Ly α SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket experiment launched on 2015 September 3 to investigate the solar chromosphere and transition region. The slit-jaw (SJ) optical system captured Ly α images with a high time cadence of 0.6 s. From the CLASP/SJ observations, many variations in the solar chromosphere and transition region emission with a timescale of <1 minute were discovered. In this paper, we focus on the active region within the SJ field of view and investigate the relationship between short (<30 s) temporal variations in the Ly α emission and the coronal structures observed by Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). We compare the Ly α temporal variations at the coronal loop footpoints observed in the AIA 211 Å (≈2 MK) and AIA 171 Å (≈0.6 MK) channels with those in the regions with bright Ly α features without a clear association with the coronal loop footpoints. We find more short (<30 s) temporal variations in the Ly α intensity in the footpoint regions. Those variations did not depend on the temperature of the coronal loops. Therefore, the temporal variations in the Ly α intensity at this timescale range could be related to the heating of the coronal structures up to temperatures around the sensitivity peak of 171 Å. No signature was found to support the scenario that these Ly α intensity variations were related to the nanoflares. Waves or jets from the lower layers (lower chromosphere or photosphere) are possible causes for this phenomenon.

  4. DISCOVERY OF MASSIVE, MOSTLY STAR FORMATION QUENCHED GALAXIES WITH EXTREMELY LARGE Lyα EQUIVALENT WIDTHS AT z ∼ 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Scoville, Nick Z.; Capak, Peter L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Toft, Sune [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Renzini, Alvio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovač, Katarina [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: tani@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2015-08-10

    We report a discovery of six massive galaxies with both extremely large Lyα equivalent widths (EWs) and evolved stellar populations at z ∼ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lyα emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lyα emitters (LAEs) with 12 optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the spectral energy distribution fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame EWs of EW{sub 0} (Lyα) ∼ 100–300 Å, (2) M{sub ⋆} ∼ 10{sup 10.5}–10{sup 11.1} M{sub ⊙}, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M{sub ⋆} ∼ 0.03–1 Gyr{sup −1}. Three of the six MAESTLOs have extended Lyα emission with a radius of several kiloparsecs, although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for active galactic nuclei, the observed extended Lyα emission is likely to be caused by a star formation process including the superwind activity. We suggest that this new class of LAEs, MAESTLOs, provides a missing link from star-forming to passively evolving galaxies at the peak era of the cosmic star formation history.

  5. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit fruit extract and its effect on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Basavegowda

    2015-02-01

    It can be concluded that the fruit of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul E. coli, and Streptobacillus. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  6. An Intercomparison Study of Two Proximate Damped Lyα Systems with Residual Flux upon the Lyα Absorption Trough toward Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Hongyan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng; Shi, Xiheng; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Wu, Shengmiao; Zhong, Zhihao

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present an intercomparison study of two quasars, SDSS J145618.32+340037.2 and SDSS J215331.50–025514.1, which have proximate damped Lyα systems (PDLAs) with residual flux upon the Lyα absorption trough. Though they both have residual flux as luminous as 1043 erg s‑1, their PDLAs are quite different in, e.g., neutral hydrogen column density, metal line absorption strength, high-ionization absorption lines as well as residual flux strength. For J1456+3400, the H I column density is log(N H I /cm–2) = 20.6 ± 0.2, with z abs = 2.3138, nearly identical to the quasar redshift (z = 2.3142) determined from the [O III] emission line. The metallicity of this system is typical of DLAs and there is high ionization therein, suggesting that the PDLA system is multiphase, putting it in the quasar environment. For J2153–0255, we measure the H I column density to be log(N H I /cm–2) = 21.5 ± 0.1 at z abs = 3.511, slightly redshifted with respect to the quasar (z = 3.490) measured from C III]. The metallicity of this system is quite low and there is a lack of significant high-ionization absorption lines therein, suggesting that the system is beyond the quasar host galaxy. The residual flux is wide (∼1000 km s‑1) in J1456, with a significance of ∼8σ, while also wide (∼1500 km s‑1) but with a smaller significance of ∼3σ in J2153. Among many explanations, we find that Lyα fuzz or resonant scattering can be used to explain the residual flux in the two sources while partial coverage cannot be excluded for J1456. By comparing these two cases, together with a similar case reported previously, we suggest that the strength of the residual flux is related to properties such as metallicity and high-ionization absorption lines of PDLAs. The residual flux recorded upon the PDLA absorption trough opens a window for us to see the physical conditions and processes of the quasar environment, and their profile and strength further remind us of their

  7. Variability of bacterial biofilms of the "tina" wood vats used in the ragusano cheese-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, G; Ogier, J C; Parayre, S; Pediliggieri, C; Carnemolla, T M; Falentin, H; Madec, M N; Carpino, S; Lortal, S

    2007-11-01

    Ragusano cheese is a "protected denomination of origin" cheese made in the Hyblean region of Sicily from raw milk using traditional wooden tools, without starter. To explore the Ragusano bacterial ecosystem, molecular fingerprinting was conducted at different times during the ripening and biofilms from the wooden vats called "tinas" were investigated. Raw milks collected at two farm sites, one on the mountain and one at sea level, were processed to produce Ragusano cheese. Raw milk, curd before and after cooking, curd at stretching time (cheese 0 time), and cheese samples (4 and 7 months) were analyzed by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) and by classical enumeration microbiology. With the use of universal primers, PCR-TTGE revealed many differences between the raw milk profiles, but also notable common bands identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Enterococcus faecium. After the stretching, TTGE profiles revealed three to five dominant species only through the entire process of ripening. In the biofilms of the two tinas used, one to five species were detected, S. thermophilus being predominant in both. Biofilms from five other tinas were also analyzed by PCR-TTGE, PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis, specific PCR tests, and sequencing, confirming the predominance of lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and the presence of a few high-GC-content species, like coryneform bacteria. The spontaneous acidification of raw milks before and after contact with the five tinas was followed in two independent experiments. The lag period before acidification can be up to 5 h, depending on the raw milk and the specific tina, highlighting the complexity of this natural inoculation system.

  8. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  9. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  11. Phytochemical Studies on Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Hardwickia binata Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Sharanabasappa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phytochemical studies on Bauhinia racemosa Lam., Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Hardwickia binata Roxb. The phytochemical study of three plants involve preliminary phytochemical studies, physico-chemical studies, quantitative estimation of primary and secondary metabolites, TLC study and HPLC fingerprint study of ethanolic extract of leaves of three plants. In HPLC fingerprint study, the three peaks at a retention time of 15 min, 17 min and 19 min were identical in B. racemosa and B. purpurea which was confirmed by overlaid spectra. The generated data may be useful in suggesting chemotaxonomical interrelation between three plants.

  12. Composition of the essential oil of Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. leaves from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, J D; Boligon, A A; Machado, M M; Athayde, M L

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Buddleja thyrsoides Lam leaves from south Brazil. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the detection of 12 components, representing 91.4% of the total oil composition. Germacrene D (27.16%), 1,10-di-epi-Cubenol (13.37%), α-Cadinol (12.95%), Bicyclogermacrene (9.00%), Globulol (8.59%) and caryophylene E (5.26%) were the main components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition of essential oil of the B. thyrsoides collected in Brazil.

  13. TREATMENT OF SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTEWATER USING Moringa oleifera LAM SEEDS AS COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Dagoberto Morales Avelino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Both the solution and the suspension of grinded and soaked seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam, were used in order to reduce the absorbance (turbidity of wastewater from a slaughterhouse. The minimum reaction time obtained was 5 minutes with an absorbancy reduction of 25% for wastewater from the septic tank, and 82% of absorbancy reduction for the wastewater from the pond. In relation to the coagulant dose (seeds suspension, although 25 g/l was more efficient (up to 78% of absorbancy reduction, it was no significative different to the dose of 10 g/l which reached an absorbance removal of 61%.

  14. Periodic differential equations an introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and allied functions

    CERN Document Server

    Arscott, Felix M; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1964-01-01

    Periodic Differential Equations: An Introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and Allied Functions covers the fundamental problems and techniques of solution of periodic differential equations. This book is composed of 10 chapters that present important equations and the special functions they generate, ranging from Mathieu's equation to the intractable ellipsoidal wave equation.This book starts with a survey of the main problems related to the formation of periodic differential equations. The subsequent chapters deal with the general theory of Mathieu's equation, Mathieu functions of integral order, and

  15. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decr...

  16. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitory potential of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammad Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the antimicrobial, antiradical and urease inhibitory potential along with photochemical investigation of the crude extracts of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam. Phytochemical screening of both the crude (hot/cold) alcoholic and aqueous extracts of C. digitatum showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. The crude methanolic extract (hot/cold) exhibited good antioxidant activity, while the aqueous extract was a weak antioxidant. The crude methanolic extract was found to be more active against Bacillus subtilis, while both the extracts showed moderate antifungal potential, the methanolic crude extract showed good urease inhibitory activity compared with the aqueous crude extract.

  17. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. : propagación in vitro a partir de segmentos nodales

    OpenAIRE

    Gattusso, Susana; Scandizzi, Angel; Busilacchi, Héctor; Di Sapio, Osvaldo; Severin, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. conocida con el nombre vulgar de “marcela”, es intensamente utilizada en la medicina popular por sus propiedades medicinales. En el presente trabajo, se describe una técnica que permite la regeneración de plantas de A. satureioides mediante el cultivo in vitro de segmentos uninodales. Para la regeneración de brotes se empleó un medio semisólido conteniendo ¾ de la concentración de sales minerales y vitaminas del medio de cultivo de Murashige y Sko...

  18. A Naturally Encoded Dipeptide Handle for Bioorthogonal Chan-Lam Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Jun; Zeng, Yimeng; Segatori, Laura; Ball, Zachary T

    2018-04-03

    Manipulation of biomacromolecules is ideally achieved through unique and bioorthogonal chemical reactions of genetically encoded, naturally occurring functional groups. The toolkit of methods for site-specific conjugation is limited by selectivity concerns and a dearth of naturally occurring functional groups with orthogonal reactivity. We report that pyroglutamate amide N-H bonds exhibit bioorthogonal copper-catalyzed Chan-Lam coupling at pyroglutamate-histidine dipeptide sequences. The pyroglutamate residue is readily incorporated into proteins of interest by natural enzymatic pathways, allowing specific bioconjugation at a minimalist dipeptide tag. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Goat’s rue (Galega orientalis Lam., a potential pasture legume for temperate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Varis

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a perennial legume Galega orientalis Lam. (goat’s rue, is presented. This unselected forage legume originating from regions with a Mediterranean climate, grows well in North-European conditions in Finland. It seems to be very persistent and produces yields that equal or even exceed those of red clover in quantity and quality. The trials on management practices and feeding carried out at the University of Helsinki are reported here. The research will be continued on mass selection for low alcaloid and fiber contents, seed production and use of grass-mixtures for making hay or silage.

  20. Lamé Parameter Estimation from Static Displacement Field Measurements in the Framework of Nonlinear Inverse Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubmer, Simon; Sherina, Ekaterina; Neubauer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    . The main result of this paper is the verification of a nonlinearity condition in an infinite dimensional Hilbert space context. This condition guarantees convergence of iterative regularization methods. Furthermore, numerical examples for recovery of the Lam´e parameters from displacement data simulating......We consider a problem of quantitative static elastography, the estimation of the Lam´e parameters from internal displacement field data. This problem is formulated as a nonlinear operator equation. To solve this equation, we investigate the Landweber iteration both analytically and numerically...... a static elastography experiment are presented....

  1. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI⁺] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Pampeno

    Full Text Available The laminin receptor (LamR is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C. Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI⁺] and [psi⁻]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI⁺] strains. The presence of [PSI⁺] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI⁺] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI⁺] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases.

  2. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE. V. THE IMPACT OF NEUTRAL ISM KINEMATICS AND GEOMETRY ON Lyα ESCAPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E.; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Adamo, Angela; Orlitová, Ivana; Verhamme, Anne; Schaerer, Daniel; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Cannon, John M.; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Atek, Hakim; Herenz, E. Christian; Kunth, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution far-UV spectroscopy of the 14 galaxies of the Lyα Reference Sample; a sample of strongly star-forming galaxies at low redshifts (0.028 < z < 0.18). We compare the derived properties to global properties derived from multi-band imaging and 21 cm H i interferometry and single-dish observations, as well as archival optical SDSS spectra. Besides the Lyα line, the spectra contain a number of metal absorption features allowing us to probe the kinematics of the neutral ISM and evaluate the optical depth and and covering fraction of the neutral medium as a function of line of sight velocity. Furthermore, we show how this, in combination with the precise determination of systemic velocity and good Lyα spectra, can be used to distinguish a model in which separate clumps together fully cover the background source, from the “picket fence” model named by Heckman et al. We find that no one single effect dominates in governing Lyα radiative transfer and escape. Lyα escape in our sample coincides with a maximum velocity-binned covering fraction of ≲0.9 and bulk outflow velocities of ≳50 km s −1 , although a number of galaxies show these characteristics and yet little or no Lyα escape. We find that Lyα peak velocities, where available, are not consistent with a strong backscattered component, but rather with a simpler model of an intrinsic emission line overlaid by a blueshifted absorption profile from the outflowing wind. Finally, we find a strong anticorrelation between Hα equivalent width and maximum velocity-binned covering factor, and propose a heuristic explanatory model

  3. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE. V. THE IMPACT OF NEUTRAL ISM KINEMATICS AND GEOMETRY ON Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E.; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Adamo, Angela [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Orlitová, Ivana [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); Verhamme, Anne; Schaerer, Daniel [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC–INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 106, B. C. 22800 Ensenada (Mexico); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel, E-mail: trive@astro.su.se [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2015-05-20

    We present high-resolution far-UV spectroscopy of the 14 galaxies of the Lyα Reference Sample; a sample of strongly star-forming galaxies at low redshifts (0.028 < z < 0.18). We compare the derived properties to global properties derived from multi-band imaging and 21 cm H i interferometry and single-dish observations, as well as archival optical SDSS spectra. Besides the Lyα line, the spectra contain a number of metal absorption features allowing us to probe the kinematics of the neutral ISM and evaluate the optical depth and and covering fraction of the neutral medium as a function of line of sight velocity. Furthermore, we show how this, in combination with the precise determination of systemic velocity and good Lyα spectra, can be used to distinguish a model in which separate clumps together fully cover the background source, from the “picket fence” model named by Heckman et al. We find that no one single effect dominates in governing Lyα radiative transfer and escape. Lyα escape in our sample coincides with a maximum velocity-binned covering fraction of ≲0.9 and bulk outflow velocities of ≳50 km s{sup −1}, although a number of galaxies show these characteristics and yet little or no Lyα escape. We find that Lyα peak velocities, where available, are not consistent with a strong backscattered component, but rather with a simpler model of an intrinsic emission line overlaid by a blueshifted absorption profile from the outflowing wind. Finally, we find a strong anticorrelation between Hα equivalent width and maximum velocity-binned covering factor, and propose a heuristic explanatory model.

  4. "Ma vannun tema niuete kui paleuse nimel ..." : [luuletused] / tlk. Andres Ehin, tlk. Ly Seppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "Ma vannun tema niuete kui paleuse nimel ..." ; "Ta on nagu kuu, kelle kuma kõik kummuli kukutab ..." ; "Kuu südaöösel ennustab me jäävat lahkujääma ..." ; "Ei hinda naisterahvas kasinuse mulli ..." ; "Ta nõtket kaela kutsun ligemale ..." ; "Meid ühte heitma tõmbab armuköis ..." ; "Meil kahel pole mõtet lahku minna ..." ; "Ei kuuga saa võrrelda sind, sest et kuu läheb looja ..." ; "Allah ise su ilude hoob on ja kang ..." ; "Kui meesterahvale läeb korda meesterahvas ..." ; "Ja kuis ka kiremöll tal südames ei hulla ..." ; "Teie jaoks ei ole minu võlurohke kallike ..." ; "Oli see vast poisike, nägu ilu täis ..." ; "Aeg tagasi kalli las toob, et mind suisa salvata ...". Tundmatute autorite kirjutatud luuletused jutukogust "1001 ööd" (9. - 10. saj)

  5. Lyα-Lyman continuum connection in 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 4.3 star-forming galaxies from the VUDS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, F.; Pentericci, L.; Guaita, L.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.; Castellano, M.; Ribeiro, B.; Garilli, B.; Fèvre, O. Le; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassata, P.; Durkalec, A.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.

    2018-06-01

    Context. To identify the galaxies responsible for the reionization of the Universe, we must rely on the investigation of the Lyman continuum (LyC) properties of z ≲ 5 star-forming galaxies, where we can still directly observe their ionizing radiation. Aims: The aim of this work is to explore the correlation between the LyC emission and some of the proposed indirect indicators of LyC radiation at z 4 such as a bright Lyα emission and a compact UV continuum size. Methods: We selected a sample of 201 star-forming galaxies from the Vimos Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) at 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 4.3 in the COSMOS, ECDFS, and VVDS-2h fields, including only those with reliable spectroscopic redshifts, a clean spectrum in the LyC range and clearly not contaminated by bright nearby sources in the same slit. For all galaxies we measured the Lyα EW, the Lyα velocity shift with respect to the systemic redshift, the Lyα spatial extension and the UV continuum effective radius. We then selected different sub-samples according to the properties predicted to be good LyC emission indicators: in particular we created sub-samples of galaxies with EW(Lyα) ≥ 70 Å, Lyαext ≤ 5.7 kpc, rUV ≤ 0.30 kpc and |ΔvLyα|≤ 200 km s-1. We stacked all the galaxies in each sub-sample and measured the flux density ratio (fλ(895)/fλ(1470)), that we considered to be a proxy for LyC emission. We then compared these ratios to those obtained for the complementary samples. Finally, to estimate the statistical contamination from lower redshift inter-lopers in our samples, we performed dedicated Monte Carlo simulations using an ultradeep U-band image of the ECDFS field. Results: We find that the stacks of galaxies which are UV compact (rUV ≤ 0.30 kpc) and have bright Lyα emission (EW(Lyα) ≥ 70 Å), have much higher LyC fluxes compared to the rest of the galaxy population. These parameters appear to be good indicators of LyC radiation in agreement with theoretical studies and previous observational

  6. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Helena; Ferlazzo, Gabriella; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Kirubi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Wanjala, Stephen; Sitienei, Joseph; Bonnet, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB). Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or with Body Mass Index<17Kg/m2) and hospitalized symptomatic HIV-positive adults in Kenya. Incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture) diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation. Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4<200cells/μl, 59.9% had initiated ART, 23.2% could not produce sputum. LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474), 21.6% (76/352), 29.1% (102/350) and 39.7% (92/232) of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4-55.6) to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3-89.4%), when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1-69.8) to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1-87.7), when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8-81.0) to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6-92.5), when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5-4.9). LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl) or hospitalized. LAM allows same day treatment initiation in patients at

  7. STACKED REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF Lyα-EMITTING AND CONTINUUM-SELECTED GALAXIES AT 2 < z < 3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Michael; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia; Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold; Treister, Ezequiel; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl

    2012-01-01

    We present properties of individual and composite rest-UV spectra of continuum- and narrowband-selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at a redshift of 2 Lyα > 20 Å, the canonical limit to be classified as an Lyα-emitting galaxy. We divide our data set into subsamples based on properties that we are able to measure for each individual galaxy: Lyα equivalent width, rest-frame UV colors, and redshift. Among our subsample of galaxies with R Lyα > 20 Å have bluer UV continua, weaker low-ionization interstellar absorption lines, weaker C IV absorption, and stronger Si II* nebular emission than those with W Lyα –1 between Lyα emission and low-ionization absorption, which does not vary substantially among any of our subsamples. We find that the interstellar component, as opposed to the stellar component, dominates the high-ionization absorption line profiles. We find that the low- and high-ionization Si ionization states have similar kinematic properties, yet the low-ionization absorption is correlated with Lyα emission and the high-ionization absorption is not. These trends are consistent with outflowing neutral gas being in the form of neutral clouds embedded in ionized gas as previously suggested by Steidel et al. Moreover, our galaxies with bluer UV colors have stronger Lyα emission, weaker low-ionization absorption, and more prominent nebular emission line profiles. From a redshift of 2.7 Lyα Lyα > 20 Å exhibit weaker Lyα emission at lower redshifts, although we caution that this could be caused by spectroscopic confirmation of low Lyα equivalent width galaxies being harder at z ∼ 3 than z ∼ 2.

  8. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Case of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) discovered during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Mika; Okura, Nahomi; Kashii, Tomoko; Matsushita, Mitsuji; Mori, Masanobu; Yoshida, Masayo; Tsujimura, Shigehisa

    2014-02-01

    We experienced a case of scheduled cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in a patient with LAM which had been missed in spite of preoperative medical examination and consultation with specialists but discovered because of perioperative hypoxia A 35-year-old woman, Gravida 1 Para 0, with breech presentation was scheduled to undergo cesarean section under spinal anesthesia at 38 weeks of gestation. She had no history of asthma or abnormal findings at annual medical examination. She had suffered from dry cough and nocturnal dyspnea for 7 weeks and an inhaled bronchodilator was administered with diagnosis of inflammatory airway disease by her respiratory physicians. Spinal anesthesia was performed with bupivacaine 12.5 mg. At the beginning of anesthesia SPO2 was 97% in supine position, but it rapidly decreased to less than 90% and 3 l x min(-1) oxygen was supplied with a facial mask. The anesthetic level was thoracal 4 bilaterally and her breathing was stable. The circulatory state, Apgar score and other vital signs were within normal ranges. Postoperative chest X-ray showed bilateral numerous grained spots and computed tomography scans showed multiple thin-walled cysts. The characteristic history and the fluoroscopic data gave her clinical diagnosis of LAM.

  10. Estrutura de uma Floresta Tropical com Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Pau Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderes Bento Sarnaglia Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura da vegetação do componente arbóreo em um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Densa das Terras Baixas com populações naturais de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil no município de Aracruz (ES. Foram instaladas 10 parcelas de 10 x 50 m, de modo sistemático, totalizando 0,5 ha de área amostral. Todos os indivíduos com DAP (Diâmetro à Altura do Peito  ≥10 cm foram amostrados. Amostraram-se 259 indivíduos distribuídos em 119 espécies. As famílias com maior riqueza de espécies foram Leguminosae (22, Sapotaceae (9 e Myrtaceae (9. As espécies com os mais altos valores de importância foram Eriotheca macrophylla (K. Schum. A. Robyns, Caesalpinia echinata Lam. e Astrocaryum aculeatissimum (Schott Burret. O índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 4,51 e a equabilidade (J’ foi de 0,94.  O fragmento apresenta sinais de perturbações antrópicas, porém os altos valores de diversidade e riqueza mostram a importância da conservação, assim como para a preservação de C. echinata.

  11. Eupatorium capilifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae, REKAMAN BARU UNTUK FLORA JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Surya Dwipa Irsyam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sebanyak 227 jenis tumbuhan Asteraceae terdapat di Pulau Jawa berdasarkan Flora of Java. Namun, suku Asteraceae di Pulau Jawa belum banyak ditinjau kembali sejak buku tersebut terbit 51 tahun yang lalu, sehingga memungkinkan adanya jenis-jenis tambahan yang belum terekam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi adanya jenis tambahan yang terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di Labuan (Banten, Bogor (Jawa Barat, Malang, dan Situbondo (Jawa Timur. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton merupakan rekaman baru yang dapat melengkapi flora Jawa. Jenis tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam puak Eupatorieae. Abstract There are 227 species of Asteraceae in Java Island recorded in the Flora of Java. However, only few review of this family for Java since Flora of Java has published 51 years ago. Some possibilities of unrecorded species may occur after this Flora of Java published. This research was conducted to provide information on additional species in Java Island. This research was carried out using exploration method in Labuan (Banten, Bogor (West Java, Malang and Situbondo (East Java. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton is a new record for completing the flora of Java Island. This species belongs to Eupatorieae tribe.   

  12. Deep learning of quasar spectra to discover and characterize damped Lyα systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, David; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Dong, Shawfeng; Cai, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    We have designed, developed, and applied a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture using multi-task learning to search for and characterize strong H I Lyα absorption in quasar spectra. Without any explicit modelling of the quasar continuum or application of the predicted line profile for Lyα from quantum mechanics, our algorithm predicts the presence of strong H I absorption and estimates the corresponding redshift zabs and H I column density N_{H I}, with emphasis on damped Lyα systems (DLAs, absorbers with N_{H I}≥ 2 × 10^{20} cm^{-2}). We tuned the CNN model using a custom training set of DLAs injected into DLA-free quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), data release 5 (DR5). Testing on a held-back validation set demonstrates a high incidence of DLAs recovered by the algorithm (97.4 per cent as DLAs and 99 per cent as an H I absorber with N_{H I}> 10^{19.5} cm^{-2}) and excellent estimates for zabs and N_{H I}. Similar results are obtained against a human-generated survey of the SDSS DR5 data set. The algorithm yields a low incidence of false positives and negatives but is challenged by overlapping DLAs and/or very high N_{H I} systems. We have applied this CNN model to the quasar spectra of SDSS DR7 and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (data release 12) and provide catalogues of 4913 and 50 969 DLAs, respectively (including 1659 and 9230 high-confidence DLAs that were previously unpublished). This work validates the application of deep learning techniques to astronomical spectra for both classification and quantitative measurements.

  13. CONSTRAINING DUST AND MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES IN Lyα BLOBS AT z ∼ 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yujin; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Leipski, Christian; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl M.; Dey, Arjun; Chapman, Scott C.; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Neri, Roberto; Borys, Colin; Matsuda, Yuichi; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki; Tapken, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In order to constrain the bolometric luminosities, dust properties, and molecular gas content of giant Lyα nebulae, the so-called Lyα blobs, we have carried out a study of dust continuum and CO line emission in two well-studied representatives of this population at z ∼ 3: an Lyα blob discovered by its strong Spitzer Multiband Infrared Photometer 24 μm detection (LABd05) and the Steidel blob 1 (SSA22-LAB01). We find that the spectral energy distribution of LABd05 is well described by an active-galactic-nucleus-starburst composite template with L FIR = (4.0 ± 0.5) × 10 12 L ☉ , comparable to high-z submillimeter galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. New Large APEX Bolometer Camera 870 μm measurements rule out the reported Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array detection of the SSA22-LAB01 (S 850μm = 16.8 mJy) at the >4σ level. Consistent with this, ultradeep Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations with ∼2'' spatial resolution also fail to detect any 1.2 mm continuum source down to ≈0.45 mJy beam –1 (3σ). Combined with the existing (sub)millimeter observations in the literature, we conclude that the FIR luminosity of SSA22-LAB01 remains uncertain. No CO line is detected in either case down to integrated flux limits of S ν ΔV ∼ –1 , indicating a modest molecular gas reservoir, M(H 2 ) 10 M ☉ . The non-detections exclude, with high significance (12σ), the previous tentative detection of a CO J = 4-3 line in the SSA22-LAB01. The increased sensitivity afforded by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be critical in studying molecular gas and dust in these interesting systems.

  14. Minihalo model for the low-redshift Lyα absorbers revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalović A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We reconsider the basic properties of the classical minihalo model of Rees and Milgrom in light of the new work, both observational (on 'dark galaxies' and masses of baryonic haloes and theoretical (on the cosmological mass function and the history of star formation. In particular, we show that more detailed models of ionized gas in haloes of dark matter following isothermal and Navarro-Frenk-White density profile can effectively reproduce particular aspects of the observed column density distribution function in a heterogeneous sample of low- and intermediate-redshift Lyα forest absorption lines.

  15. BROAD Lyα EMISSION FROM THREE NEARBY BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Perlman, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    We present far-UV HST/COS spectra of four nearby BL Lac objects. BL Lac spectra are dominated by a smooth, power-law continuum which arises in a relativistic jet. However, the spectra are not necessarily featureless; weak, broad- and/or narrow-line emission is sometimes seen in high-quality optical spectra. We present detections of Lyα emission in HST/COS spectra of Mrk 421 (z = 0.030) and PKS 2005-489 (z = 0.071) as well as an archival HST/GHRS observation of Mrk 501 (z = 0.0337). Archival HST/STIS observations of PKS 2155-304 (z = 0.116) show no Lyα emission to a very low upper limit. Using the assumption that the broad-line region (BLR) clouds are symmetrically placed around the active galactic nucleus (AGN), we use these measured Lyα emission features to constrain either the relativistic Γ values for the ionizing continuum produced by the jet (in the ionization-bounded case) or the mass of warm gas (in the density-bounded case). While realistic Γ values can be obtained for all four cases, the values for Mrk 421 and PKS 2155-304 are high enough to suggest that covering factors of BLR clouds of ∼1%-2% might be required to provide consistency with earlier values of Doppler boosting and viewing angles suggested for this class of BL Lacs. This discrepancy also exists in the case of M 87, where the amount of Doppler boosting in our direction is expected to be minimal, again suggestive of a small covering factor of BLR clouds. If, as these small covering factors might suggest, the assumptions of a density-bounded model could be more correct, then the observed Lyα luminosities require that BL Lac/FR 1 nuclei possess very little warm gas (10 -4 to 10 -5 M sun ) as suggested by Guilbert et al. If these clouds are in pressure balance with a hotter (∼10 6 K) gas, the BLR contains too little mass to power the AGN by accretion alone.

  16. The physical properties of Lyα emitting galaxies: not just primeval galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Giallongo, E.; Salimbeni, S.; Santini, P.

    2009-02-01

    Aims: We have analyzed a sample of Lyman break galaxies from z ~ 3.5 to z ~ 6 selected from the GOODS-S field as B, V, and i-dropouts, and with spectroscopic observations showing that they have the Lyα line in emission. Our main aim is to investigate their physical properties and their dependence on the emission line characteristic and to shed light on the relation between galaxies with Lyα emission and the general LBG population. Methods: The objects were selected from their optical continuum colors and then spectroscopically confirmed by the GOODS collaboration and other campaigns. From the public spectra we derived the main properties of the Lyα emission such as total flux and rest frame EW. We then used complete photometry, from U band to mid-infrared from the GOODS-MUSIC database, and through standard spectro-photometric techniques we derived the physical properties of the galaxies, such as total stellar mass, stellar ages, star formation rates, and dust content. Finally we investigated the relation between emission line and physical properties. Results: Although most galaxies are fit by young stellar populations, a small but non negligible fraction has SEDs that cannot be represented well by young models and require considerably older stellar component, up to ~1 Gyr. There is no apparent relation between age and EW: some of the oldest galaxies have high line EW, and should be also selected in narrow-band surveys. Therefore not all Lyα emitting galaxies are primeval galaxies in the very early stages of formation, as is commonly assumed. We also find a range of stellar populations, with masses from 5 × 108 M_⊙ to 5 × 1010 M_⊙ and SFR from few to 60 M_⊙ yr-1. Although there is no net correlation between mass and EW, we find a significant lack of massive galaxies with high EW, which could be explained if the most massive galaxies were either dustier and/or if they contained more neutral gas than less massive objects. Finally we find that more than

  17. Targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin squamous cell carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Ge, Minggai; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-08-19

    Abnormal activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling is detected in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). LY3023414 is a novel, potent, and orally bio-available PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitor. Its activity against human skin SCC cells was tested. We demonstrated that LY3023414 was cytotoxic when added to established (A431 line) and primary (patient-derived) human skin SCC cells. LY3023414 induced G0/1-S arrest and inhibited proliferation of skin SCC cells. Moreover, LY3023414 induced activation of caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis in skin SCC cells. Intriguingly, LY3023414 was yet non-cytotoxic nor pro-apoptotic to normal human skin cells (melanocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts). At the molecular level, LY3023414 blocked PI3K-AKT-mTOR activation in skin SCC cells, as it dephosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR substrates: P85, AKT and S6K1. In vivo studies showed that oral administration of LY3023414 at well-tolerated doses inhibited A431 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. AKT-mTOR activation in LY3023414-treated tumors was also largely inhibited. Together, these results suggest that targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin SCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo, establishing the rationale for further clinical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anticonvulsant actions of LY 367385 ((+)-2-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine) and AIDA ((RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A G; Yip, P K; Yap, J S; Quinn, L P; Tang, E; Harris, J R; Meldrum, B S

    1999-02-26

    We have studied the effects in three rodent models of generalised convulsive or absence epilepsy of two antagonists of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors that are selective for the mGlu1 receptor. LY 367385 ((+)-2-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine) and AIDA ((RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid) have been administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to DBA/2 mice and lethargic mice (lh/lh), and focally into the inferior colliculus of genetically epilepsy prone rats (GEPR). In DBA/2 mice both compounds produce a rapid, transient suppression of sound-induced clonic seizures (LY 367385: ED50 = 12 nmol, i.c.v., 5 min; AIDA: ED50 = 79 nmol, i.c.v., 15 min). In lethargic mice both compounds significantly reduce the incidence of spontaneous spike and wave discharges on the electroencephalogram, from 150 min after the administration of AIDA, 500 nmol, i.c.v., and from 30 to >150 min after the administration of LY 367385, 250 nmol, i.c.v. LY 367385, 50 nmol, suppresses spontaneous spike and wave discharges from 30 to 60 min. In genetically epilepsy prone rats both compounds reduce sound-induced clonic seizures. LY 367385, 160 nmol bilaterally, fully suppresses clonic seizures after 2-4 h. AIDA is fully effective 30 min after 100 nmol bilaterally. It is concluded that antagonists of mGlu1 receptors are potential anticonvulsant agents and that activation of mGlu1 receptors probably contributes to a variety of epileptic syndromes.

  19. Chemical dampening of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-19

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6C(hi) monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6C(hi) monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6C(hi) monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6C(hi) monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals.

  20. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT2A receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L.; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C.; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24 mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5 mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [3H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT2A receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD. PMID:23333599

  2. Mouse NK cell-mediated rejection of bone marrow allografts exhibits patterns consistent with Ly49 subset licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Alvarez, Maite; Ames, Erik; Barao, Isabel; Chen, Mingyi; Longo, Dan L; Redelman, Doug; Murphy, William J

    2012-02-09

    Natural killer (NK) cells can mediate the rejection of bone marrow allografts and exist as subsets based on expression of inhibitory/activating receptors that can bind MHC. In vitro data have shown that NK subsets bearing Ly49 receptors for self-MHC class I have intrinsically higher effector function, supporting the hypothesis that NK cells undergo a host MHC-dependent functional education. These subsets also play a role in bone marrow cell (BMC) allograft rejection. Thus far, little in vivo evidence for this preferential licensing across mouse strains with different MHC haplotypes has been shown. We assessed the intrinsic response potential of the different Ly49(+) subsets in BMC rejection by using β2-microglobulin deficient (β2m(-/-)) mice as donors. Using congenic and allogeneic mice as recipients and depleting the different Ly49 subsets, we found that NK subsets bearing Ly49s, which bind "self-MHC" were found to be the dominant subset responsible for β2m(-/-) BMC rejection. This provides in vivo evidence for host MHC class I-dependent functional education. Interestingly, all H2(d) strain mice regardless of background were able to resist significantly greater amounts of β2m(-/-), but not wild-type BMC than H2(b) mice, providing evidence that the rheostat hypothesis regarding Ly49 affinities for MHC and NK-cell function impacts BMC rejection capability.

  3. The Role of PPAR Receptors and Leukotriene B4 Receptors in Mediating the Effects of LY293111 in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease in which current therapies are inadequate. Separate lines of research have identified the 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene B4 receptor pathway and the PPAR pathway as potential targets for prevention or treatment of this disease. LY293111 was originally designed as a potent leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist for treatment of inflammatory conditions. LY293111 was also known to have inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase, which is upstream of the production of leukotrienes. LY293111 was shown to have potent anticancer effects in pancreatic cancer and several other solid malignancies, where it caused cell cycle arrest and marked apoptosis. Subsequently, it came to light that LY293111 exhibited PPAR agonist activity in addition to its effects on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. This raises the question of which of the two targets is of greatest importance with regard to the anticancer effects of this agent. The evidence to date is not conclusive, but suggests that the effects of LY293111 may be mediated by both LTB4 receptors and PPAR.

  4. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9 ± 3.6-85.6 ± 0.9) and trehalose (62.3 ± 0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1 ± 1.4-39.8 ± 1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61 ± 2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding.

  5. Qualidade de jaca (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. desidratada sob diferentes condições de processo Quality of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. dehydrated under different processing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice Freiman de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos da jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. são consumidos na forma in natura pelas mais diversas camadas da população e sua alta perecibilidade leva a um índice elevado de perda pós-colheita, acarretando prejuízos para os produtores dessa frutífera. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura de secagem (50, 60 e 70 °C e do teor de umidade final (20 e 25% sobre as características químicas e sensoriais da jaca desidratada. Foram realizadas análises de matéria seca, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, carboidratos, além da avaliação sensorial. Os resultados globais obtidos mostraram que a jaca desidratada possui teor de matéria seca de 74,2 a 80,9%, cinzas de 3,1 a 3,8%, proteínas de 3,2 a 6,6%, lipídeos de 0,09 a 1,2% e carboidratos de 89,8 a 92,4%. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que o produto de maior aceitação (média de 5,95 foi aquele desidratado a 50 °C e com 20% de umidade final, demonstrando que este pode ser uma alternativa alimentar para as regiões produtoras de jaca.Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. are consumed in natura by the most diverse sectors of the population, and their high perishability lead to high indexes of postharvest losses, leading to prejudice for the producers of this fruit. Thus the objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of the drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C and the final moisture content (20 and 25% on the chemical and sensory characteristics of dried jackfruit. The overall results obtained showed that the dehydrated jackfruit had a dry matter content of from 74.2 to 80.9%, ash content from 3.1 to 3.8%, protein content from 3.2 to 6.6%, fat content from 0.09 to 1.2% and carbohydrate content from 89.8 to 92.4%. The sensory evaluation showed that the most accepted product (average of 5.95 was dehydrated at 50 °C, with a final moisture content of 20%, showing that this could be a food alternative for areas producing jackfruit.

  6. Understanding the susceptibility to HIV of female and male students case study of LAMS school in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissezounnon, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This research project aims to understand the factors that influence susceptibility to HIV for female and male students in LAMS (Lycee Agricole Meidji o Sekou in Benin), in order to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon. The results of questionnaires, group discussions and interviews show the

  7. Sulfonato-imino copper(ii) complexes: fast and general Chan-Evans-Lam coupling of amines and anilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin Duparc, V; Schaper, F

    2017-10-14

    Sulfonato-imine copper complexes with either chloride or triflate counteranions were prepared in a one-step reaction followed by anion-exchange. They are highly active in Chan-Evans-Lam couplings under mild conditions with a variety of amines or anilines, in particular with sterically hindered substrates. No optimization of reaction conditions other than time and/or temperature is required.

  8. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 36-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment Manufacturing); Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, CA An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of San Jose, grantee of...

  9. Modelling the gas kinematics of an atypical Ly α emitting compact dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Gronke, Max; Remolina-Gutiérrez, Maria Camila; Garavito-Camargo, Nicolás; Dijkstra, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Star-forming compact dwarf galaxies (CDGs) resemble the expected pristine conditions of the first galaxies in the Universe and are the best systems to test models on primordial galaxy formation and evolution. Here, we report on one of such CDGs, Tololo 1214-277, which presents a broad, single peaked, highly symmetric Ly α emission line that had evaded theoretical interpretation so far. In this paper, we reproduce for the first time these line features with two different physically motivated kinematic models: an interstellar medium composed by outflowing clumps with random motions and an homogeneous gaseous sphere undergoing solid body rotation. The multiphase model requires a clump velocity dispersion of 54.3 ± 0.6 km s-1 with outflows of 54.3 ± 5.1 km s-1 , while the bulk rotation velocity is constrained to be 348^{+75}_{-48} km s-1. We argue that the results from the multiphase model provide a correct interpretation of the data. In that case, the clump velocity dispersion implies a dynamical mass of 2 × 109 M⊙, 10 times its baryonic mass. If future kinematic maps of Tololo 1214-277 confirm the velocities suggested by the multiphase model, it would provide additional support to expect such kinematic state in primordial galaxies, opening the opportunity to use the models and methods presented in this paper to constrain the physics of star formation and feedback in the early generation of Ly α -emitting galaxies.

  10. Dihydropyridazinone cardiotonics: discovery of LY195115 and elucidation of structural features necessary for optimal inotropic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krushinski, J.H.; Hayes, J.S.; Beedle, E.E.; Pollock, G.D.; Wilson, H.; Robertson, D.W.

    1986-03-05

    A series of 4,5-dihydro-6-aryl-3(/sup 2/H)-pyridazinones has been examined for inotropic activity. The optimal compound of the series, LY195115 (1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-3-pyridazinyl)-/sup 2/H-indol-2-one), is one of the most potent and long-acting oral inotropes described to date. ED/sub 50/'s of LY195115, CI-914 and milrinone after i.v. administration to pentobarbital anesthetized dogs were 6.8, 46 and 37 ..mu..g/kg, respectively. ED/sub 50/'s after oral administration to conscious dogs were 25, 1000 and 500 ..mu..g/kg, respectively. For optimal positive inotropic activity and oral bioavailability in this series, the following structural features are necessary: (1) dihydropyridazinone ring with the nitrogen unsubstituted; (2) a hydrogen-bond acceptor substituent with a sigma value of ca 0.0 para to the dihydropyridazinone moiety; and (3) additional sterically undemanding lipophilic substituents adjacent to the hydrogen-bond acceptor site.

  11. Dihydropyridazinone cardiotonics: discovery of LY195115 and elucidation of structural features necessary for optimal inotropic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushinski, J.H.; Hayes, J.S.; Beedle, E.E.; Pollock, G.D.; Wilson, H.; Robertson, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    A series of 4,5-dihydro-6-aryl-3( 2 H)-pyridazinones has been examined for inotropic activity. The optimal compound of the series, LY195115 (1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-3-pyridazinyl)- 2 H-indol-2-one), is one of the most potent and long-acting oral inotropes described to date. ED 50 's of LY195115, CI-914 and milrinone after i.v. administration to pentobarbital anesthetized dogs were 6.8, 46 and 37 μg/kg, respectively. ED 50 's after oral administration to conscious dogs were 25, 1000 and 500 μg/kg, respectively. For optimal positive inotropic activity and oral bioavailability in this series, the following structural features are necessary: (1) dihydropyridazinone ring with the nitrogen unsubstituted; (2) a hydrogen-bond acceptor substituent with a σ value of ca 0.0 para to the dihydropyridazinone moiety; and (3) additional sterically undemanding lipophilic substituents adjacent to the hydrogen-bond acceptor site

  12. Discovery of Scattering Polarization in the Hydrogen Ly α Line of the Solar Disk Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, R.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Bando, T.; Katsukawa, Y.; Kubo, M.; Giono, G.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y.; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Auchère, F.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Ichimoto, K.; Goto, M.; Belluzzi, L.

    2017-01-01

    There is a thin transition region (TR) in the solar atmosphere where the temperature rises from 10,000 K in the chromosphere to millions of degrees in the corona. Little is known about the mechanisms that dominate this enigmatic region other than the magnetic field plays a key role. The magnetism of the TR can only be detected by polarimetric measurements of a few ultraviolet (UV) spectral lines, the Ly α line of neutral hydrogen at 121.6 nm (the strongest line of the solar UV spectrum) being of particular interest given its sensitivity to the Hanle effect (the magnetic-field-induced modification of the scattering line polarization). We report the discovery of linear polarization produced by scattering processes in the Ly α line, obtained with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) rocket experiment. The Stokes profiles observed by CLASP in quiet regions of the solar disk show that the Q / I and U / I linear polarization signals are of the order of 0.1% in the line core and up to a few percent in the nearby wings, and that both have conspicuous spatial variations with scales of ∼10 arcsec. These observations help constrain theoretical models of the chromosphere–corona TR and extrapolations of the magnetic field from photospheric magnetograms. In fact, the observed spatial variation from disk to limb of polarization at the line core and wings already challenge the predictions from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical models of the upper solar chromosphere.

  13. Discovery of Scattering Polarization in the Hydrogen Ly α Line of the Solar Disk Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, R.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Bando, T.; Katsukawa, Y.; Kubo, M.; Giono, G.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Bueno, J. Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38205 (Spain); Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K. [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Auchère, F. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris Sud, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay (France); Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Tsuneta, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ichimoto, K. [Hida Observatory, Kyoto University, Takayama, Gifu 506-1314 (Japan); Goto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Belluzzi, L., E-mail: ryouhei.kano@nao.ac.jp [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, CH-6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); and others

    2017-04-10

    There is a thin transition region (TR) in the solar atmosphere where the temperature rises from 10,000 K in the chromosphere to millions of degrees in the corona. Little is known about the mechanisms that dominate this enigmatic region other than the magnetic field plays a key role. The magnetism of the TR can only be detected by polarimetric measurements of a few ultraviolet (UV) spectral lines, the Ly α line of neutral hydrogen at 121.6 nm (the strongest line of the solar UV spectrum) being of particular interest given its sensitivity to the Hanle effect (the magnetic-field-induced modification of the scattering line polarization). We report the discovery of linear polarization produced by scattering processes in the Ly α line, obtained with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) rocket experiment. The Stokes profiles observed by CLASP in quiet regions of the solar disk show that the Q / I and U / I linear polarization signals are of the order of 0.1% in the line core and up to a few percent in the nearby wings, and that both have conspicuous spatial variations with scales of ∼10 arcsec. These observations help constrain theoretical models of the chromosphere–corona TR and extrapolations of the magnetic field from photospheric magnetograms. In fact, the observed spatial variation from disk to limb of polarization at the line core and wings already challenge the predictions from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical models of the upper solar chromosphere.

  14. T cell antigen receptor expression by subsets of Ly-2-L3T4- (CD8-CD4-) thymocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, A; Ewing, T; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    . No positive cells were detected among Ly-2-L3T4- thymocytes from V beta 8-negative SJL mice. In contrast to the adult thymus, Ly-2-L3T4- cells from embryonic CBA thymus lacked F23.1-positive cells. Subsets of adult CBA Ly-2-L3T4- thymocytes were separated to determine which expressed V beta 8. The major...... B2A2-M1/69- and Pgp-1+ all included strongly F23.1-positive cells. A minor subset, negative for most markers except Pgp-1 and presumed on the basis of this phenotype and some reconstitution studies to include the earliest intrathymic precursors, contained 28% F23.1-positive cells. However, no F.23...

  15. The MUSE-Wide survey: a measurement of the Ly α emitting fraction among z > 3 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Joseph; Wisotzki, Lutz; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Kerutt, Josephine; Urrutia, Tanya; Schmidt, Kasper Borello; Bouwens, Rychard; Brinchmann, Jarle; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Carollo, Marcella; Diener, Catrina; Drake, Alyssa; Garel, Thibault; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Richard, Johan; Saust, Rikke; Schaye, Joop; Verhamme, Anne

    2018-01-01

    We present a measurement of the fraction of Lyman α (Ly α) emitters (XLy α) amongst HST continuum-selected galaxies at 3 Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the VLT. Making use of the first 24 MUSE-Wide pointings in GOODS-South, each having an integration time of 1 h, we detect 100 Ly α emitters and find XLy α ≳ 0.5 for most of the redshift range covered, with 29 per cent of the Ly α sample exhibiting rest equivalent widths (rest-EWs) ≤ 15 Å. Adopting a range of rest-EW cuts (0-75 Å), we find no evidence of a dependence of XLy α on either redshift or ultraviolet luminosity.

  16. Study of liquid scintillator in detecting the PMN-CL, Ly-CL and extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianxing; Cao Rui; Liang Qizhong; Zou Xiaowei

    1997-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and lymphocyte(Ly) in blood of patients with cirrhosis has two peaks. Basic peak value of PMN-CL and Ly-CL is increased, the maximal peak values of Zym-PMN and PHA-Ly are decreased, phagolyosis and opsonic function is also decreased, extracellular matrix (ECM) is all increased, HA is positively correlated with 'child' sort (r = 0.96, A>B>C). It suggests that OR is produced and released during CL and superoxide phosphatides is produced by OR in ECM of cirrhosis. It injures the membrane of cells and tissue. Analysis of CL is aided to study the development mechanism of liver fibrosis

  17. Reduce chest pain using modified silicone fluted drain tube for chest drainage after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hu, Bin; Miao, Jinbai; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, efficacy and safety of a modified silicone fluted drain tube after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung resection. The prospective randomized study included 50 patients who underwent VATS lung resection between March 2015 and June 2015. Eligible patients were randomized into two groups: experimental group (using the silicone fluted drain tubes for chest drainage) and control group (using standard drain tubes for chest drainage). The volume and characteristics of drainage, postoperative (PO) pain scores and hospital stay were recorded. All patients received standard care during hospital admission. In accordance with the exit criteria, three patients were excluded from study. The remaining 47 patients included in the final analysis were divided into two groups: experiment group (N=24) and control group (N=23). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, sex, height, weight, clinical diagnosis and type of surgical procedure. There was a trend toward less PO pain in experimental group on postoperative day (POD) 1, with a statistically significant difference. Patients in experimental group had a reduced occurrence of fever [temperature (T) >37.4 °C] compared to the control group. The silicone fluted drain tube is feasible and safe and may relieve patient PO pain and reduce occurrence of fever without the added risk of PO complications.

  18. First Spectroscopic Confirmations of z ∼ 7.0 Ly α Emitting Galaxies in the LAGER Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Weida; Wang, Junxian; Kang, Wenyong; Kong, Xu; Yang, Huan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Jiang, Chunyan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai 200030 (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Gonzalez, Alicia; Tilvi, Vithal [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Institution for Science, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Walker, Alistair R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Jiang, Linhua [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hibon, Pascale [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Barrientos, L. Felipe; Galaz, Gaspar [Centro de Astroingeniería, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Finkelstein, Steven [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Zheng, XianZhong, E-mail: urverda@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhengzy@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu, E-mail: linfante@carnegiescience.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-08-20

    Narrowband imaging is a highly successful approach for finding large numbers of high-redshift Ly α emitting galaxies (LAEs) up to z ∼ 6.6. However, at z ≳ 7 there are as of yet only three narrowband selected LAEs with spectroscopic confirmations (two at z ∼ 6.9–7.0, one at z ∼ 7.3), which hinders extensive studies on cosmic reionization and galaxy evolution at this key epoch. We have selected 23 candidate z ∼ 6.9 LAEs in COSMOS field with the large area narrowband survey Lyman-Alpha Galaxies at the End of Reionization (LAGER). In this work, we present spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 candidates using the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on Magellan. For nine of these, the observations are sufficiently deep to detect the expected lines. Ly α emission lines are identified in six sources (yielding a success rate of 2/3), including three luminous LAEs with Ly α luminosities of L {sub Lyα} ∼ 10{sup 43.5} erg s{sup −1}, the highest among known spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at ≳7.0. This triples the sample size of spectroscopically confirmed narrowband selected LAEs at z ≳ 7, and confirms the bright-end bump in the Ly α luminosity function we previously derived based on the photometric sample, supporting a patchy reionization scenario. Two luminous LAEs appear physically linked with a projected distance of 1.1 pMpc and velocity difference of ∼170 km s{sup −1}. They likely sit in a common ionized bubble produced by themselves or with close neighbors, which reduces the intergalactic medium attenuation of Ly α . A tentative narrow N v λ 1240 line is seen in one source, hinting at activity of a central massive black hole with metal-rich line-emitting gas.

  19. Lyα EMITTERS IN HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION. II. ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EQUIVALENT WIDTH DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Totani, Tomonori; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions of the UV continuum luminosity function (UV LF) and Lyα equivalent width (EW) distribution of Lyα emitters (LAEs) in the framework of the hierarchical clustering model of galaxy formation. The model parameters for the LAEs were determined by fitting to the observed Lyα LF at z = 5.7 in our previous study, and the fit indicates that extinction of Lyα photons by dust is significantly less effective than that of UV continuum photons, implying a clumpy dust distribution in the interstellar medium. We then compare the predictions about UV LFs and EW distributions with a variety of observations at z∼ 3-6, allowing no more free parameters and paying careful attention to the selection conditions of LAEs in each survey. We find that the predicted UV LFs and EW distributions are in nice agreement with observed data, and especially, our model naturally reproduces the existence of large EW LAEs (∼> 240 A) without introducing Pop III stars or top-heavy initial mass function. We show that both the stellar population (young age and low metallicity) and extinction by clumpy dust are the keys to reproducing large EW LAEs. The evidence of EW enhancement by clumpy dust is further strengthened by the quantitative agreement between our model and recent observations about a positive correlation between EW and extinction. The observed trend that brighter LAEs in the UV continuum tend to have smaller mean EW is also reproduced, and the clumpy dust plays an important role again for this trend. We suggested in our previous study that the transmission of the intergalactic medium for Lyα emission rapidly decreases from z ∼ 6 to 7 by fitting to Lyα LFs, and this evidence is quantitatively strengthened by the comparison with the UV LF and EW distribution at z ∼ 6.6.

  20. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of yield contributing characters in sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.D.; Rabbani, M.G.; Mollah, M.L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of 30 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) genotypes for yield contributing characters and tuber yield per plant revealed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and GCV, respectively) for number of tubers per plant, average tuber weight and tuber yield per plant. The heritability and genetic advance were higher for tuber yield per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant. These three characters also reflected high heritability as well as high genetic advance. As high positive significant correlation, as well as positive direct effect of average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant on tuber yield per plant were found, these characters should be given prime importance for selecting high yielding sweet potato genotypes. (author)

  2. KARAKTERISTIK PROKSIMAT DAN ORGANOLEPTIK UBI JALAR MERAH (IPOMEA BATATAS (L. LAM. PADA BERBAGAI PROSES PEMASAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Febriantini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L. Lam. is one of functional foods that can maintain and improve human health. Due to the very hard texture of red sweet potato, it cannot be consumed directly. Therefore, it requires various cooking methods in order to be more suitable for consumption. This study aimed at determining effects of various cooking methods on the proximate and sensory properties of red sweet potato. The research covers various cooking methods of red sweet potato through boiling, frying, baking, steaming, and one treatment without cooking process (fresh which was used as a control. The results show that various cooking methods affect almost all testing parameters significantly, except for ash content. Baked red sweet potato has the lowest moisture content (38,75% and the highest sugar value as sucrose (17,17%. Sensory properties test results show that the most preferred red sweet potato is fried red sweet potato.

  3. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera.

  4. Estimated sedimentation rate by radionuclide techniques at Lam Phra Phloeng dam, Northeastern of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasimonton Moungsrijun; Kanitha Srisuksawad; Kosit Lorsirirat; Tuangrak Nantawisarakul

    2009-01-01

    The Lam Phra Phloeng dam is located in Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern of Thailand. Since it was constructed in 1963, the dam is under severe reduction of its water storage capacity caused by deforestation to agricultural land at the upper catchment. Sediment cores were collected using a gravity corer. Sedimentation rates were estimated from the vertical distribution of unsupported Pb-210 in sediment cores. Total Pb-210 was determined by measuring Po-210 activities. The Po-210 and Ra-226 activities were used to determine the rate of sediment by using alpha and gamma spectrometry. The sedimentation rate was estimated using the Constant Initial Concentration model (CIC), the sedimentation rate crest dam 0.265 gcm -2 y -1 and the upstream 0.213 gcm -2 y -1 (Author)

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the root, stem bark and seed extracts of moringa oleifera lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoti Ondicho, J.; Mutai, C.; Rukunga, G.; Oketch, P.; Bii, C.

    2009-01-01

    Organic extracts (Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol) and the aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam or horseradish (root, stem bark and seed) were tested against five bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method and against three fungal strains. The water extracts of the seed was active against a wide range of organisms tested. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark exhibited moderate activity. Of the fifteen extracts screened, five (33.3 percent) showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and against Trichophyton mentagrophytes while two were active against Microsporum gypseum. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the water extracts ranged from 6.25 to 50 mg/ml. The good activity observed on the water extract explains the success in traditional use of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of infectious diseases.(author)

  6. Antimicrobial activity of the root, stem bark and seed extracts of moringa oleifera lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoti Ondicho, J; Mutai, C; Rukunga, G; Oketch, P [Centre for Tradicional Medicine and Drug Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi (Kenya); Bii, C [Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-07-01

    Organic extracts (Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol) and the aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam or horseradish (root, stem bark and seed) were tested against five bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method and against three fungal strains. The water extracts of the seed was active against a wide range of organisms tested. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark exhibited moderate activity. Of the fifteen extracts screened, five (33.3 percent) showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and against Trichophyton mentagrophytes while two were active against Microsporum gypseum. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the water extracts ranged from 6.25 to 50 mg/ml. The good activity observed on the water extract explains the success in traditional use of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of infectious diseases.(author)

  7. NGRI LAM-MC-ICPMS National Facility: reproducibility of Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar Rao, Y.J.; Vijaya Gopal, B.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; Sukumaran, N.P.; Sreenivas, B.; Vijaya Kumar, T.; Krishna, K.V.S.S.; Tomson, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory facility was established at the NGRI, primarily to support research in Isotope Geochemistry and Geochronology. Central to this facility are a Multiple Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS: Nu Plasma HR, Nu Instruments, UK) and a 213 nm Nd-YAG UV Laser Ablation Microprobe (LAM: UP-213, New Wave Research, USA) and a clean chemistry laboratory for dissolution and chromatographic extraction of a range of elements. This article presents a summary of the accuracy and precision of MC-ICPMS Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic measurements (solution mode) on Standard Reference Materials: SRM-987, JNd i and JMC-475 respectively, measured between October 2007 and August 2009

  8. Characterization of monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam.), a potential new crop for arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitrit, Yaron; Loison, Stephanie; Ninio, Racheli; Dishon, Eran; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2003-10-08

    The green monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam., Loganiaceae), a tree indigenous to tropical and subtropical Africa, produces juicy, sweet-sour, yellow fruits containing numerous hard brown seeds. The species has recently been introduced into Israel as a potential new commercial crop. However, little is known about its agronomical performance, fruit development and ripening, or postharvest physiology. The current study shows that during ripening in storage, the peel color changes from green to yellow, accompanied by a climacteric burst of ethylene and carbon dioxide emission. Total soluble solids slightly increased during storage, whereas total titratable acidity and pH did not change significantly. The major sugars that accumulated during ripening in storage were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, and the main acids, citric and malic acids. The main volatiles present in the peel of ripe fruits were phenylpropanoids, trans-isoeugenol being the major compound.

  9. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

  10. DIFFERENT SUBSTRATA EFFECTS IN THE GERMINATION OF Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM. URB. (BOMBACACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of different substrata in the germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae. The experiment was conducted in delineation randomized with three treatments (substratum and four repetitions of 25 seeds. The following substrata had been tested: sand + vermiculite (1:1; vermiculite and, sand + shavings (1:1. The effect of substrata through the percentage of germination of the seeds, average time of germination and index of germination speed (IGS were evaluated. There had been significant difference between the treatments in of all the observed variable. The seeds, when conditioned in vermiculite, had presented the biggest tax of germination, greatest speed and lowest germination time.

  11. Copper-Catalyzed Chan-Lam Cyclopropylation of Phenols and Azaheterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Joseph; O'Duill, Miriam L; Holcomb, Matthew; Boulous, Mark N; Patman, Ryan L; Wang, Fen; Tran-Dubé, Michelle; McAlpine, Indrawan; Engle, Keary M

    2018-04-06

    Small molecules containing cyclopropane-heteroatom linkages are commonly needed in medicinal chemistry campaigns yet are problematic to prepare using existing methods. To address this issue, a scalable Chan-Lam cyclopropylation reaction using potassium cyclopropyl trifluoroborate has been developed. With phenol nucleophiles, the reaction effects O-cyclopropylation, whereas with 2-pyridones, 2-hydroxybenzimidazoles, and 2-aminopyridines the reaction brings about N-cyclopropylation. The transformation is catalyzed by Cu(OAc) 2 and 1,10-phenanthroline and employs 1 atm of O 2 as the terminal oxidant. This method is operationally convenient to perform and provides a simple, strategic disconnection toward the synthesis of cyclopropyl aryl ethers and cyclopropyl amine derivatives bearing an array of functional groups.

  12. Identification and screening of active components from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. in regulating autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan-Ming; An, Dong-Qing; Guo, Long-Long; Yang, Ning-Hui; Zhang, Hua

    2018-04-03

    This study investigated the flavonoid constituents of a traditional Chinese medical plant Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry and screened the active components in regulating autophagy.Normal rat kidney (NRK) cells transfected with green fluorescent protein- microtubule-associated protein 1 light Chain 3(GFP-LC3) were treated with Z. clinopodioides flavonoids and its chemical compositions. After 4 h of treatment, the auto-phagy spot aggregation in NRK cells was photographed and observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The following 10 flavonoid components of Z. clinopodioides were identified: baicalein(1), quercetin(2), hyperoside(3), quercetin3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside(4), apigenin(5), kaempferol(6), chrysin(7), diosimin(8), linarin(9) and rutin(10). Among these flavonoids, chrysin, apigenin and quercetin were identified as the active principles in activating autophagy. This research may provide a reference for further developing and utilizing Z. clinopodioides.

  13. Changes in polyphenolics during maturation of Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestario, Lydia Ninan; Howard, Luke R; Brownmiller, Cindi; Stebbins, Nathan B; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O

    2017-10-01

    Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.) is a rich source of polyphenolics with many purported health benefits, but the effect of maturation on polyphenolic content is unknown. Freeze-dried samples of Java plum from seven different maturity stages were analyzed for anthocyanin, flavonol, flavanonol and hydrolysable tannin composition by HPLC. Anthocyanins were first detected at the green-pink stage of maturity and increased throughout maturation with the largest increase occurring from the dark purple to black stages of maturation. Levels of gallotannins, ellagitannins, flavonols, gallic acid and ellagic acid were highest at early stages of maturation and decreased as the fruit ripened. For production of antioxidant-rich nutraceutical ingredients, fruit should be harvested immature to obtain extracts rich in hydrolysable tannins and flavonols. The exceptional anthocyanin content of black fruit may prove useful as a source of a natural colorant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CARACTERÃSTICAS AGRONÓMICAS Y FORRAJERAS DE Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Manríquez Mendoza; S. Lopez; P. Perez; E. Ortega; Z. Lopez; M. Villaruel

    2011-01-01

    Los árboles nativos son una fuente importante de forraje para el ganado, sobre todo en regiones con época de estiaje prolongada. Algunas especies arbóreas son de rápido crecimiento y buena calidad nutricional, además de tener la capacidad de producir forraje durante la época seca, cuando la necesidad de forraje es mayor. El guácimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.) es un árbol nativo de América tropical que tiene un alto potencial forrajero y del que aún se conoce poco sobre su manejo agronÃ...

  15. A potential germ cell-specific marker in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: identification and characterization of lymphocyte antigen 75 (Ly75/CD205)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Qinghua; Ma, Daoyuan; Song, Zongchen; Li, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Some germ cell marker genes, such as vasa, nanos, and dead end (dnd), have been identified in fish. Recently, lymphocyte antigen 75 (Ly75/CD205) has been identified as a mitotic germ cell-specific cell-surface marker in several fish species. In this study, the Japanese flounder ly75 homolog (ly75) was cloned and its expression pattern in gonads was analyzed. The full-length cDNA of ly75 was 7 346 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 5 229 bp. The ORF encoded a protein containing 1 742 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 196.89 kDa. In adult tissues, ly75 transcripts were detected in all analyzed tissues but abundantly in the testis. In in-situ hybridization analyses, ly75 mRNA was predominantly localized in oocytes in the ovary and spermatogonia in the testis, but ly75 mRNA was not detected in oogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, or spermatozoa. These results indicated that ly75 could be a potential germ cell-specific marker in P. olivaceus, as in other fishes.

  16. Safety and efficacy of LY3015014, a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9): a randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 2 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, John J. P.; Nissen, Steven E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Wang, Ming-Dauh; Shen, Tong; Krueger, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of LY3015014 (LY), a neutralizing antibody of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), administered every 4 or 8 weeks in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia, when added to a background of

  17. Effect of intrathecal non-NMDA EAA receptor antagonist LY293558 in rats: a new class of drugs for spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bergen, Nicholas H; Subieta, Alberto; Brennan, Timothy J

    2002-07-01

    Excitatory amino acid receptors are important for both sensory and motor function in the spinal cord. We studied the effects of intrathecal LY293558, a competitive non-N-methyl-D-aspartate excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, on motor and sensory function in rats to determine whether drugs blocking these receptors could potentially be used as alternative agents to local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia. Rats were tested before and 15-240 min after intrathecal injection of 5 nmol (in 10 microl) LY293558. Sensory function was tested at the hind paw using withdrawal response to pin prick and withdrawal to pinch with sharp forceps. Motor performance (ambulation, placing reflex, and Rotorod time), blood pressure, and heart rate were also evaluated. Some tests were repeated the next day. Responses after LY293558 were compared to injection of 40 microl bupivacaine, 0.75%. Pin-prick responses at the forepaw, chest, abdomen, hind leg, and hind paw were also examined after intrathecal LY293558. Intrathecal LY293558 blocked both sensory and motor responses through 180 min; complete recovery was present the following day. No change in blood pressure or heart rate occurred. The effects of LY293558 were more pronounced and sustained than those of bupivacaine. Segmental blockade of the response to pin prick was present after LY293558. Drugs like LY293558 that block alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors may be an alternative to local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia in humans.

  18. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam as a natural sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Garcia

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Jambolão (java plum, Eugenia jambolana Lam, was used as a natural sensitizer of a wide band-gap semiconductor (TiO2 in photoelectrochemical solar cells. The natural dye, adsorbed onto the semiconductor surface, absorbs visible light and promotes electron transfer across the dye/semiconductor interface. Photogenerated current and voltage as high as 2.3 mA and 711 mV, respectively, were obtained and effective conversion of visible light into electricity was achieved. The use of a natural product as the semiconductor sensitizer enables a faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmentally friendly solar cells.O extrato de Jambolão, Eugenia jambolana Lam, foi utilizado como um sensibilizador natural de um semicondutor com separação grande de bandas (TiO2 nas células solares fotoeletroquímica. O corante natural, adsorvido na superfície do semicondutor, absorve luz visível e promove transferência eletrônica na interface corante/semicondutor. A corrente e o potencial fotogerados tão altos como 2,3 mA e 711 mV, respectivamente, foram obtidos observando-se conversão eficiente de luz visível em eletricidade. O uso de um produto natural como o sensibilizador de semicondutor possibilita uma produção mais rápida e simples de células solares mais baratas que não agridem o meio ambiente.

  19. Limited Area Predictability: Is There A Limit To The Operational Usefulness of A Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, F.

    The issue of the limited area predictability in the context of the operational experience of the Eta Model, driven by the LBCs of the NCEP global spectral (Avn) model, is examined. The traditional view is that "the contamination at the lateral boundaries ... limits the operational usefulness of the LAM beyond some forecast time range". In the case of the Eta this contamination consists not only of the lower resolution of the Avn LBCs and the much discussed mathematical "lateral boundary error", but also of the use of the LBCs of the previous Avn run, at 0000 and 1200 UTC estimated to amount to about an 8 h loss in accuracy. Looking for the signs of the Eta accuracy in relative terms falling behind that of the Avn we have examined the trend of the Eta vs Avn precipitation scores, the rms fits to raobs of the two models as a function of time, and the errors of these models at extended forecast times in placing the centers of major lows. In none of these efforts, some including forecasts out to 84 h, we were able to notice signs of the Eta accuracy being visibly affected by the inflow of the lateral boundary errors. It is therefore hypothesized that some of the Eta design features compensate for the increasing influence of the Avn LBC errors. Candidate features are discussed, with the eta coordinate being a contender to play a major role. This situation being possible for the pair of models discussed, existence of a general limit for the operational usefulness of a LAM seems questionable.

  20. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  1. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  2. CONSTRAINING DUST AND MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES IN Ly{alpha} BLOBS AT z {approx} 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yujin; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg (Germany); Dannerbauer, Helmut; Le Floc' h, Emeric [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Chapman, Scott C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Neri, Roberto [IRAM-Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Borys, Colin [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Yamada, Toru [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hayashino, Tomoki [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tapken, Christian [Leibnitz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-01-10

    In order to constrain the bolometric luminosities, dust properties, and molecular gas content of giant Ly{alpha} nebulae, the so-called Ly{alpha} blobs, we have carried out a study of dust continuum and CO line emission in two well-studied representatives of this population at z {approx} 3: an Ly{alpha} blob discovered by its strong Spitzer Multiband Infrared Photometer 24 {mu}m detection (LABd05) and the Steidel blob 1 (SSA22-LAB01). We find that the spectral energy distribution of LABd05 is well described by an active-galactic-nucleus-starburst composite template with L{sub FIR} = (4.0 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }, comparable to high-z submillimeter galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. New Large APEX Bolometer Camera 870 {mu}m measurements rule out the reported Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array detection of the SSA22-LAB01 (S{sub 850{mu}m} = 16.8 mJy) at the >4{sigma} level. Consistent with this, ultradeep Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations with {approx}2'' spatial resolution also fail to detect any 1.2 mm continuum source down to Almost-Equal-To 0.45 mJy beam{sup -1} (3{sigma}). Combined with the existing (sub)millimeter observations in the literature, we conclude that the FIR luminosity of SSA22-LAB01 remains uncertain. No CO line is detected in either case down to integrated flux limits of S{sub {nu}}{Delta}V {approx}< 0.25-1.0 Jy km s{sup -1}, indicating a modest molecular gas reservoir, M(H{sub 2}) < (1-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The non-detections exclude, with high significance (12{sigma}), the previous tentative detection of a CO J = 4-3 line in the SSA22-LAB01. The increased sensitivity afforded by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be critical in studying molecular gas and dust in these interesting systems.

  3. Correlations between the anatomical traits of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. in heartwood and sapwood of early- and latewood zones of growth rings

    OpenAIRE

    Jokanović Dušan; Vilotić Dragica; Mitrović Suzana; Miljković Danijela; Rebić Milan; Stanković Dragica; Nikolić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows correlations between vessel characteristics and differences in growth-ring width in heartwood and sapwood. Analyzed samples were from an iron-wood tree (Gymnocladus canadensis Lam.) that grew in the Mužljanski Rit area, of the Srpska Crnja municipality in Serbia. According to previous research, it was deduced that Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. belongs to ring-porous species with big vessel lumen in the earlywood zone and thicker cell walls in...

  4. Diversidade funcional em sistemas de montado: fluxo de nutrientes em Quercus rotundifolia Lam. Functional diversity in “montado” systems: nutrients fluxes in Quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes dos ciclos de nutrientes em montados de Quercus rotundifolia Lam., relacionados com a precipitação foram estudados na região de Évora, de Novembro de 1996 a Dezembro de 2000. A precipitação bruta, o gotejo a diferentes distâncias do tronco e o escorrimento ao longo do tronco das árvores foram quantificados de modo contínuo, sendo colhidas amostras semanalmente para se proceder à respectiva caracterização química. A quantidade de nutrientes transferidos para o solo através das diferentes soluções foi também determinada. Verificou-se um acréscimo da concentração das espécies iónicas no gotejo em relação à precipitação bruta, o qual foi ainda mais manifesto no escorrimento ao longo do tronco. Estudaram-se, igualmente, as características físico-químicas do solo sob e fora da influência da copa destas árvores, num montado relativamente esparso. Além disso, também se avaliou a quantidade das camadas orgânicas e a quantidade de nutrientes aí retidos. As características físicas e químicas do solo apresentaram, de um modo geral, uma diferenciação positiva em resultado da presença das árvores. Avaliou-se a taxa de mineralização de N nas áreas sob e fora da acção do coberto das árvores, tendo-se observado uma mais elevada disponibilidade deste nutriente nas áreas do sob coberto.Nutrient cycling in Quercus rotundifolia Lam. systems, regarding precipitation was studied at Évora (Southern Portugal, since November of 1996 until December of 2000. The amounts of gross rainfall, throughfall (at different distances from the tree trunk and stemflow were measured continuously and samples for chemical analysis were collected weekly. The concentration of nutrients was higher in the throughfall than in the gross rainfall, especially in the areas closer to the tree trunk. Nutrients transferred to soil, through bulk rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were quantified. The highest concentration of nutrients

  5. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. Pathogenity evaluation on Solanum quitoense Lam. Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.Presence of plant disease caused by pathogens on 42 clones of Solanum quitoense Lam. were evaluated in the north-western region of Popayán, Colombia. The seed of the clons were planted in plastic bags during three weeks and afterwards transplanted to the field. The statistical design

  6. Target specificity, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of the putative STAT3 inhibitor LY5 in osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Y Yu

    Full Text Available STAT3 is a transcription factor involved in cytokine and receptor kinase signal transduction that is aberrantly activated in a variety of sarcomas, promoting metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel putative STAT3 inhibitor, LY5.An in silico fragment-based drug design strategy was used to create LY5, a small molecule inhibitor that blocks the STAT3 SH2 domain phosphotyrosine binding site, inhibiting homodimerization. LY5 was evaluated in vitro demonstrating good biologic activity against rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma cell lines at high nanomolar/low micromolar concentrations, as well as specific inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation without effects on other STAT3 family members. LY5 exhibited excellent oral bioavailability in both mice and healthy dogs, and drug absorption was enhanced in the fasted state with tolerable dosing in mice at 40 mg/kg BID. However, RNAi-mediated knockdown of STAT3 did not phenocopy the biologic effects of LY5 in sarcoma cell lines. Moreover, concentrations needed to inhibit ex vivo metastasis growth using the PuMA assay were significantly higher than those needed to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation in vitro. Lastly, LY5 treatment did not inhibit the growth of sarcoma xenografts or prevent pulmonary metastasis in mice.LY5 is a novel small molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations. LY5 demonstrates good oral bioavailability in mice and dogs. However LY5 did not decrease tumor growth in xenograft mouse models and STAT3 knockdown did not induce concordant biologic effects. These data suggest that the anti-cancer effects of LY5 identified in vitro were not mediated through STAT3 inhibition.

  7. Target specificity, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of the putative STAT3 inhibitor LY5 in osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Heather L; Roberts, Ryan; Cam, Hakan; Hariharan, Seethalakshmi; Ren, Ling; LeBlanc, Amy K; Xiao, Hui; Lin, Jiayuh; Guttridge, Denis C; Mo, Xiaokui; Bennett, Chad E; Coss, Christopher C; Ling, Yonghua; Phelps, Mitch A; Houghton, Peter; London, Cheryl A

    2017-01-01

    STAT3 is a transcription factor involved in cytokine and receptor kinase signal transduction that is aberrantly activated in a variety of sarcomas, promoting metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel putative STAT3 inhibitor, LY5. An in silico fragment-based drug design strategy was used to create LY5, a small molecule inhibitor that blocks the STAT3 SH2 domain phosphotyrosine binding site, inhibiting homodimerization. LY5 was evaluated in vitro demonstrating good biologic activity against rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma cell lines at high nanomolar/low micromolar concentrations, as well as specific inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation without effects on other STAT3 family members. LY5 exhibited excellent oral bioavailability in both mice and healthy dogs, and drug absorption was enhanced in the fasted state with tolerable dosing in mice at 40 mg/kg BID. However, RNAi-mediated knockdown of STAT3 did not phenocopy the biologic effects of LY5 in sarcoma cell lines. Moreover, concentrations needed to inhibit ex vivo metastasis growth using the PuMA assay were significantly higher than those needed to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation in vitro. Lastly, LY5 treatment did not inhibit the growth of sarcoma xenografts or prevent pulmonary metastasis in mice. LY5 is a novel small molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations. LY5 demonstrates good oral bioavailability in mice and dogs. However LY5 did not decrease tumor growth in xenograft mouse models and STAT3 knockdown did not induce concordant biologic effects. These data suggest that the anti-cancer effects of LY5 identified in vitro were not mediated through STAT3 inhibition.

  8. Structural analysis of the phytophagous insect guilds associated with the roots of Centaurea maculosa Lam. C. diffusa Lam., and C. vallesiaca Jordan in Europe: : I. Field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Heinz

    1989-01-01

    During extensive field surveys in central and eastern Europe, 21 herbivorous root insect species were found on Centaurea maculosa ssp. rhenana Boreau, 12 species on C. diffusa Lam. and 11 species on C. vallesiaca Jordan, representing 12 families in 4 orders. The large geographic distribution (species-area function), the high number of Centaurea spp. present (host speciation rate), and the high apparency of the rosettes and the rich food resources offered by the roots during winter, together with their poor accessibility, correlate with the high number of specialist feeders associated with the roots of C. maculosa and C. diffusa. The members of the taxonomically diverse root entomofauna exploit specific structures of the tap root (food niches). Interspecific competition among members of food niches, as well as species-specific responses to different phenological stages (for oviposition) and tissues (for larval development) are thought to be responsible for the high predictability in guild structure. The relatively low levels of host plant attack (two thirds of the roots were unattacked) and the fact that food niches remained unoccupied in most of the regions suggest, however, that the majority of the studied guilds do not represent equilibrium assemblages. Ecological (different habitats), climatic (transitional zone) and historical (ancient pre-Pleistocene communities) factors could account for the highest values of species diversity, infestation levels, species packing and food niche utilization, which are found on C. maculosa in E. Austria/NW. Hungary, compared to other regions. A positive correlation between species packing (number of root-feeding species per population) and infestation rates (percent of roots attacked) was only found for the more stable, semi-natural habitats. A comparative analysis of the regional root insect guilds of C. maculosa with corresponding data for the phytophagous insects associated with the flower heads revealed distinct taxonomical

  9. Subchronic administration of LY354740 does not modify ketamine-evoked behavior and neuronal activity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imre, Gabor; Fokkema, Dirk S.; Ter Horst, Gert J.

    2006-01-01

    Acute treatment with LY354740 {1S,2S,5R,6S-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylate monohydrate}, a potent and selective agonist for group 11 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2/3), has previously been shown to block some schizophrenia-like effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor

  10. Mida teie oma tervise heaks teete? / Ly Jagor, Ülle Mihhailova, Ene Pill, Katrin Käbin...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Pärnu Õppenõustamiskeskuse psühholoog Ly Jagor, Maasika lasteaia juhataja asetäitja Ülle Mihhailova, Tallinna Perekeskuse ja Tähetorni lastekeskuse psühholoog Ene Pill, Tallinna Nõmme Noortemaja väikelaste ringijuht Katrin Käbin, Tääksi Põhikooli õpetaja Silva Kolk

  11. Anemia predicts thromboembolic events, bleeding complications and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation : insights from the RE-LY trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. D.; Alings, M.; Connolly, S. J.; Eikelboom, J.; Ezekowitz, M. D.; Oldgren, J.; Yang, S.; Pongue, J.; Yusuf, S.; Wallentin, L.; van Gilst, W. H.

    BackgroundAnemia may predispose to thromboembolic events or bleeding in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). ObjectivesTo investigate whether anemia is associated with thromboembolic events and bleeding in patients with AF. Patients and methodsWe retrospectively analyzed the RE-LY

  12. DETECTION OF A HYDROGEN CORONA IN HST Ly α IMAGES OF EUROPA IN TRANSIT OF JUPITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Lorenz; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Schlatter, Nicola [KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Retherford, Kurt D.; Becker, Tracy M.; Grava, Cesare [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Strobel, Darrell F. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We report far-ultraviolet observations of Europa in transit of Jupiter obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope on six occasions between 2014 December and 2015 March. Absorption of Jupiter’s bright hydrogen Ly α dayglow is detected in a region several moon radii above the limb in all observations. The observed extended absorption provides the first detection of an atomic hydrogen corona around Europa. Molecular constituents in Europa’s global sputtered atmosphere are shown to be optically thin to Ly α . The observations are consistent with a radially escaping H corona with maximum densities at the surface in the range of (1.5–2.2) × 10{sup 3} cm{sup −3}, confirming the abundances predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we search for anomalies around the limb of Europa from absorption by localized high H{sub 2}O abundances from active plumes. No significant local absorption features are detected. We find that an H{sub 2}O plume with line-of-sight column density in the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, as inferred by Roth et al. would not be detectable based on the statistical fluctuations of the transit measurements, and hence is not excluded or further constrained. The presence of plumes with line-of-sight column densities of >2 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} can be excluded at a 3- σ level during five of our six observations.

  13. Physical and morphological properties of z ~ 3 Lyman break galaxies: dependence on Lyα line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Scarlata, C.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Giallongo, E.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the physical and morphological properties of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift ~2.5 to ~3.5, to determine if and how they depend on the nature and strength of the Lyα emission. Methods: We selected U-dropout galaxies from the z-detected GOODS-MUSIC catalog by adapting the classical Lyman break criteria on the GOODS filter set. We kept only those galaxies with spectroscopic confirmation, mainly from VIMOS and FORS public observations. Using the full multi-wavelength 14-bands information (U to IRAC), we determined the physical properties of the galaxies through a standard spectral energy distribution fitting procedure with the updated Charlot & Bruzual (2009) templates. We also added other relevant observations of the GOODS field, i.e. the 24 μm observations from Spitzer/MIPS and the 2 MSec Chandra X-ray observations. Finally, using non parametric diagnostics (Gini, Concentration, Asymmetry, M20 and ellipticity), we characterized the rest-frame UV morphologies of the galaxies. We then analyzed how these physical and morphological properties correlate with the presence of the Lyα emission line in the optical spectra. Results: We find that unlike at higher redshift, the dependence of physical properties on the Lyα line is milder: galaxies without Lyα in emission tend to be more massive and dustier than the rest of the sample, but all other parameters, ages, star formation rates (SFR), X-ray emission and UV morphology do not depend strongly on the presence of the Lyα emission. A simple scenario where all LBGs have intrinsically high Lyα emission, but where the dust and neutral hydrogen content (which shapes the final appearance of the Lyα) depend on the mass of the galaxies, is able to reproduce the majority of the observed properties at z˜3. Some modification might be needed to account for the observed evolution of these properties with cosmic epoch, which is also discussed.

  14. The synthesis of (-)-4-methyl-8-chloro-trans-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,10b-octahydrobenzo-[f]-quinolin-3-one-[3-14C] (LY300502-[14C]) via a circuitous route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fengjiun Kuo; Wheeler, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of the C-14 labeled isotopomer of LY300502, a potent 5α-reductase inhibitor has been accomplished in four radiochemical steps. The route involves the synthesis of LY300502-[ 14 C] from LY300502 via a circuitous route; the label was introduced with ethyl chloroformate-[carbonyl- 14 C]. (author)

  15. Evidence That Ly6C(hi) Monocytes are Protective in Acute Ischemic Stroke by Promoting M2 Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hannah X; Broughton, Brad R S; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Seyoung; Drummond, Grant R; Sobey, Christopher G

    2015-07-01

    Ly6C(hi) monocytes are generally thought to exert a proinflammatory role in acute tissue injury, although their impact after injuries to the central nervous system is poorly defined. CC chemokine receptor 2 is expressed on Ly6C(hi) monocytes and plays an essential role in their extravasation and transmigration into the brain after cerebral ischemia. We used a selective CC chemokine receptor 2 antagonist, INCB3344, to assess the effect of Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruited into the brain early after ischemic stroke. Male C57Bl/6J mice underwent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1 hour followed by 23 hours of reperfusion. Mice were administered either vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/carboxymethylcellulose) or INCB3344 (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg IP) 1 hour before ischemia and at 2 and 6 hours after ischemia. At 24 hours, we assessed functional outcomes, infarct volume, and quantified the immune cells in blood and brain by flow cytometry or immunofluorescence. Gene expression of selected inflammatory markers was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Ly6C(hi) monocytes were increased 3-fold in the blood and 10-fold in the brain after stroke, and these increases were selectively prevented by INCB3344 in a dose-dependent manner. Mice treated with INCB3344 exhibited markedly worse functional outcomes and larger infarct volumes, in association with reduced M2 polarization and increased peroxynitrite production in macrophages, compared with vehicle-treated mice. Our data suggest that Ly6C(hi) monocytes exert an acute protective effect after ischemic stroke to limit brain injury and functional deficit that involves promotion of M2 macrophage polarization. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Delayed K562 cell apoptosis promoted by cleaved LyGDI after 60Co γ-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Huali; Duan Weiming; Shao Yanyan; Xiao Hainan; Zhou Xinwen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the function and regulatory mechanism of LyGDI involved delayed cell death in the human K562 cells and HL-60 cells induced by 60 Co γ-rays. Methods: Erythrosine B cells staining was used to count the apoptosis rate. PI staining and flow cytometry were applied to check the cell cycle. The expression of LYGDI and Rac1 was resolved by Western blot by using monoclonal antibody of LyGDI and Rac1. The distribution of Rac1 protein in cells was observed with immunofluorescence by using the confocal microscope. Results: The K562 cells showed G 2 /M phase arrest and the percent age was 71.3%. The apoptosis rate was very low at early post-irradiation stage in the K562 cells. The apoptosis rate was 14% in the K562 cells at 24 h post-irradiation with 8 Gy of γ-rays, and delayed cell apoptosis was present. LyGDI was cleaved in the K562 cells irradiated by 4 Gy 60 Co γ-rays after 24 hours post-irradiation. The expression of Rac1 protein was not altered at all, but the distribution was changed in the irradiated cells while the Rac1 protein moved to cell membrane and a little in cell nucleus. The Rac1 was activated with the losing the binding affinity with the LyGDI. Conclusion: LyGDI could promote the delayed cell apoptosis, which is through the activation of the Rac1. (authors)

  17. The CALYMHA survey: Lyα escape fraction and its dependence on galaxy properties at z = 2.23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Sobral, David; Oteo, Iván; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Röttgering, Huub; Paulino-Afonso, Ana

    2016-05-01

    We present the first results from our CAlibrating LYMan α with Hα (CALYMHA) pilot survey at the Isaac Newton Telescope. We measure Lyα emission for 488 Hα selected galaxies at z = 2.23 from High-z Emission Line Survey in the COSMOS and UDS fields with a specially designed narrow-band filter (λc = 3918 Å, Δλ = 52 Å). We find 17 dual Hα-Lyα emitters [fLyα > 5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2, of which five are X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGN)]. For star-forming galaxies, we find a range of Lyα escape fractions (fesc, measured with 3 arcsec apertures) from 2 to 30 per cent. These galaxies have masses from 3 × 108 M⊙ to 1011 M⊙ and dust attenuations E(B - V) = 0-0.5. Using stacking, we measure a median escape fraction of 1.6 ± 0.5 per cent (4.0 ± 1.0 per cent without correcting Hα for dust), but show that this depends on galaxy properties. The stacked fesc tends to decrease with increasing star formation rate and dust attenuation. However, at the highest masses and dust attenuations, we detect individual galaxies with fesc much higher than the typical values from stacking, indicating significant scatter in the values of fesc. Relations between fesc and UV slope are bimodal, with high fesc for either the bluest or reddest galaxies. We speculate that this bimodality and large scatter in the values of fesc is due to additional physical mechanisms such as outflows facilitating fesc for dusty/massive systems. Lyα is significantly more extended than Hα and the UV. fesc continues to increase up to at least 20 kpc (3σ, 40 kpc [2σ]) for typical star-forming galaxies and thus the aperture is the most important predictor of fesc.

  18. CD11b⁺, Ly6G⁺ cells produce type I interferon and exhibit tissue protective properties following peripheral virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Fischer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the innate immune system is containment of a pathogen at the site of infection prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. However, effector mechanisms must be kept in check to combat the pathogen while simultaneously limiting undesirable destruction of tissue resulting from these actions. Here we demonstrate that innate immune effector cells contain a peripheral poxvirus infection, preventing systemic spread of the virus. These innate immune effector cells are comprised primarily of CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁻ monocytes that accumulate initially at the site of infection, and are then supplemented and eventually replaced by CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells. The phenotype of the CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells resembles neutrophils, but the infiltration of neutrophils typically occurs prior to, rather than following, accumulation of monocytes. Indeed, it appears that the CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells that infiltrated the site of VACV infection in the ear are phenotypically distinct from the classical description of both neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages. We found that CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells produce Type I interferons and large quantities of reactive oxygen species. We also observed that depletion of Ly6G⁺ cells results in a dramatic increase in tissue damage at the site of infection. Tissue damage is also increased in the absence of reactive oxygen species, although reactive oxygen species are typically thought to be damaging to tissue rather than protective. These data indicate the existence of a specialized population of CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells that infiltrates a site of virus infection late and protects the infected tissue from immune-mediated damage via production of reactive oxygen species. Regulation of the action of this population of cells may provide an intervention to prevent innate immune-mediated tissue destruction.

  19. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  20. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  1. Spectroscopic Studies of the Chan-Lam Amination: A Mechanism-Inspired Solution to Boronic Ester Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantourout, Julien C; Miras, Haralampos N; Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Sproules, Stephen; Watson, Allan J B

    2017-04-05

    We report an investigation of the Chan-Lam amination reaction. A combination of spectroscopy, computational modeling, and crystallography has identified the structures of key intermediates and allowed a complete mechanistic description to be presented, including off-cycle inhibitory processes, the source of amine and organoboron reactivity issues, and the origin of competing oxidation/protodeboronation side reactions. Identification of key mechanistic events has allowed the development of a simple solution to these issues: manipulating Cu(I) → Cu(II) oxidation and exploiting three synergistic roles of boric acid has allowed the development of a general catalytic Chan-Lam amination, overcoming long-standing and unsolved amine and organoboron limitations of this valuable transformation.

  2. [Treatment-refractory-dental-extraction-associated pyothorax involving infection by 2 species of oral originated bacteria requires surgical debridement by video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kammei; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yonei, Toshiro; Sato, Toshio

    2008-09-01

    Cases of septic pulmonary embolism (SPE) diagnosed clinically by CT after dental extraction rarely include verification of bacteria from the local infection site. We report the case of a 70-year-old man without background disease suffering severe pyothrax after dental extraction. We detected two species of oral bacteria from his pleural effusion. Treatment was so difficult that it required surgical debridement by video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), even after the appropriate administration of antibiotics. According to the American Heart Association (AHA) prophylaxis guidelines for preventing infective endocarditis indicate that it is uncommon to prescribe antibiotics to patients without background disease after dental extraction. No appropriate Japanese guidelines exist considering the prevention of SPE causing severe pyothorax as in our case. The hematogenous spread of bacteria such as SPE caused by sepsis after tooth extraction thus requires more attended careful consideration in clinical practice if patients are to be properly protected against potentially serious complications.

  3. Identification of acetates in elasmopalpulus lignosellus pheromone glands using a newly created mass spectral database and kóvats retention indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulab N. Jham

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a specially created mass spectral database utilizing 23 tetradecenyl and 22 hexadecenyl acetate standards along with Kóvats retention indices obtained on a very polar stationary phase [poly (biscyanopropyl siloxane] (SP 2340, (Z-9-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (E-8-hexadecenyl acetate were identified in active pheromone extracts of Elasmopalpus lignosellus. This identification was more efficient than our previous study using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a dimethyl disulfide derivative where we could only identify the first two acetates. The acetate composition of the pheromone gland differed from region to region in Brazil and from that from the Tifton (GA, USA population, suggesting polymorphism or a different sub-species.

  4. Clinical validation of the C-VAT 2.0 assessment tool for gaming disorder: a sensitivity analysis of the proposed DSM-5 criteria and the clinical characteristics of young patients with ‘video game addiction’.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Clinicians struggle with the identification of video gaming problems. To address this issue, a clinical assessment tool (C-VAT 2.0) was developed and tested in a clinical setting. The instrument allows exploration of the validity of the DSM-5 proposal for ‘internet gaming disorder’. Method:

  5. Phytochemical screening and studies of analgesic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark extract on experimental animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Shumaia Parvin; Md. Abu Shuaib Rafshanjani; Md. Abdul Kader; Most. Afia Akhtar; Tahmida Sharmin

    2014-01-01

    The work has been done for the phytochemical investigation and study of analgesic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. ethanolic stem bark extract using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing method. The effect of extract was tested for qualitative chemical analysis which reveals the presence of alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, carbohydrate etc. For peripheral analgesic effect acetic acid induced writhing test was used and for this stem bark extract was administered intraperitoneally at...

  6. Efectos del ataque de fitófagos perforadores en el fruto de la encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Cano Sánchez, Esperanza; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1996-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizan pruebas de germinación de frutos de encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) afectadas por los fitófagos Curculio elephas Gyll. (COL., CURCULIONIDAE) y las especies del género Cydia, C. penkleriana (D. & Schiff.) y C. fagiglandana (Zel.) (LER, TORTRICIDAE). También recoge una serie de mediciones del fruto cuya finalidad es valorar los daños directos de estas especies.

  7. Strong solutions to a Navier–Stokes–Lamé system on a domain with a non-flat boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukavica, Igor; Ziane, Mohammed; Tuffaha, Amjad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a Navier–Stokes–Lamé system modeling a fluid–structure interaction. For a general domain, we establish local well-posedness for strong solutions in which initial velocity u 0 belongs to H 1 while the initial data (w 0 , w 1 ) for the elasticity equation belongs to (H 3/2+k , H 1/2+k ) for any k in (0, k 0 ) where k 0 is an explicit positive constant

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  9. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory activity and melanogenesis inhibition of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. extracts

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    Mahadeva Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. belongs to Moraceae family and is endemic to Western Ghats and Kerala in India. This species is found to be effective in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer diarrhea and pimples. However extensive biological evaluation on each component of this specific species rarely appears in the literature which restricts its applicability as medicinal herb. The leaf bark and wood of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. were separately extracted with hot ethanol. The wood extract was further fractionated to isolate major active molecule whose structure was determined from its NMR spectra and LCMS analysis. All the extracts of A. hirsutus Lam. were then studied in vitro to evaluate their potential on tyrosinase inhibition free radical scavenging activity by 11-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl DPPH method and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC. Furthermore their effects on melanogenesis inhibition were also evaluated by using murine melanoma cells. Activity guided fractionation of wood extract yielded a pure molecule that was characterized as oxyresveratrol. It was observed that antioxidant activity was higher in wood extract compared to the leaf and bark extracts. Isolated pure oxyresveratrol exhibited a significant antioxidant potential with ORAC value of 366532570 mol Trolox equivalentg and having an IC50 of 4.3 gmL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This molecule was found to be effective for the tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.1 gmL and melanogenesis inhibition in cultured melanoma cells by 44.62 at 0.2 gmL. Oxyresveratrol also exhibited significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide LPS induced tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF-amp945 secretion from J774A1 murine macrophage cell lines. This study provides substantial evidence for the presence of oxyresveratrol in the wood of A. hirsutus Lam. with promising anti-inflammatory antioxidant and skin lightening property.

  10. The NHLBI LAM Registry: Prognostic physiological and radiological biomarkers emerge from a 15-year prospective longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishant; Lee, Hye-Seung; Ryu, Jay H; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Beck, Gerald J; Lee, Jar-Chi; McCarthy, Kevin; Finlay, Geraldine A; Brown, Kevin K; Ruoss, Stephen J; Avila, Nilo A; Moss, Joel; McCormack, Francis X

    2018-06-22

    The natural history of lymphangioleiomyomatosis is mainly derived from retrospective cohort analyses and remains incompletely understood. A National Institutes of Health LAM Registry was established to define the natural history and identify prognostic biomarkers that can help guide management and decision-making in patients with LAM. A linear mixed effects model was employed to compute the rate of decline of FEV1, and identify variables impacting FEV1 decline among 217 registry patients who enrolled from 1998-2001. Prognostic variables associated with progression to death/lung transplantation were identified using a Cox proportional hazard model. Mean annual decline of FEV1 was 89±53 ml/year, and remained remarkably constant regardless of baseline lung function. FEV1 decline was more rapid in those with greater cyst profusion on CT scan (p=0.02), and in premenopausal subjects (118ml/year) compared to postmenopausal subjects (74ml/year), (p=0.003). There were 26 deaths and 43 lung transplants during the evaluation period. Estimated 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year transplant-free survival rates were 95%, 85%, 75%, and 64%, respectively. Postmenopausal status (hazard ratio 0.30, p=0.0002) and higher baseline FEV1 (hazard ratio 0.97, p=0.008) or DLCO (hazard ratio 0.97, p=0.001) were independently associated with a lower risk of progression to death or lung transplantation. The median transplant-free survival in patients with LAM is greater than 20 years. Menopausal status as well as structural and physiological markers of disease severity significantly affect the rate of decline of FEV1 and progression to death or lung transplantation in LAM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Identities of P2 and P3 Residues of H-2Kb-Bound Peptides Determine Mouse Ly49C Recognition.

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    Elsa A Marquez

    Full Text Available Ly49 receptors can be peptide selective in their recognition of MHC-I-peptide complexes, affording them a level of discrimination beyond detecting the presence or absence of specific MHC-I allele products. Despite this ability, little is understood regarding the properties that enable some peptides, when bound to MHC-I molecules, to support Ly49 recognition, but not others. Using RMA-S target cells expressing MHC-I molecules loaded with individual peptides and effector cells expressing the ectodomain of the inhibitory Ly49C receptor, we found that two adjacent amino acid residues, P2 and P3, both buried in the peptide binding groove of H-2Kb, determine mouse Ly49C specificity. If both are aliphatic residues, this is supportive. Whereas, small amino acids at P2 and aromatic amino acids at the P3 auxiliary anchor residue are detrimental to Ly49C recognition. These results resemble those with a rat Ly49 where the identity of a peptide anchor residue determines recognition, suggesting that dependence on specific peptide residues buried in the MHC-I peptide-binding groove may be fundamental to Ly49 peptide selectivity and recognition.

  12. Utility of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in diagnosing tuberculosis and predicting mortality with and without HIV: prospective TB cohort from the Thailand Big City TB Research Network.

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    Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Kawkitinarong, Kamon; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Gatechompol, Sivaporn; Ohata, Pirapon June; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Iampornsin, Thatri; Katerattanakul, Pairaj; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the applicability and accuracy of the urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test in tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infected patients and HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB. Frozen urine samples obtained at baseline from patients in the TB research cohort with proven culture-positive TB were selected for blinded urine LAM testing. One hundred and nine patients were categorized into four groups: (1) HIV-positive patients with TB; (2) HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB; (3) HIV-negative immunocompromised patients with TB; and (4) patients with diseases other than TB. The sensitivity of urine LAM testing for culture-positive TB, specificity of urine LAM testing for patients without TB, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed. The sensitivity of the urine LAM test in group 1 patients with a CD4 T-cell count of >100, ≤100, and ≤50 cells/mm 3 was 38.5%, 40.6%, and 45%, respectively. The specificity and PPV of the urine LAM test were >80%. The sensitivity of the test was 20% in group 2 and 12.5% in group 3, and the specificity and PPV were 100% for both groups. A positive urine LAM test result was significantly associated with death. This promising diagnostic tool could increase the yield of TB diagnosis and may predict the mortality rate of TB infection, particularly in TB/HIV co-infected patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Five-year efficacy and safety of tenofovir-based salvage therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B who previously failed LAM/ADV therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy; Thompson, Alexander; Patterson, Scott; George, Jacob; Strasser, Simone; Lee, Alice; Sievert, William; Nicoll, Amanda; Desmond, Paul; Roberts, Stuart; Marion, Kaye; Bowden, Scott; Locarnini, Stephen; Angus, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant HBV continues to be an important clinical problem. The TDF-109 study demonstrated that TDF±LAM is an effective salvage therapy through 96 weeks for LAM-resistant patients who previously failed ADV add-on or switch therapy. We evaluated the 5-year efficacy and safety outcomes in patients receiving long-term TDF±LAM in the TDF-109 study. A total of 59 patients completed the first phase of the TDF-109 study and 54/59 were rolled over into a long-term prospective open-label study of TDF±LAM 300 mg daily. Results are reported at the end of year 5 of treatment. At year 5, 75% (45/59) had achieved viral suppression by intent-to-treat analysis. Per-protocol assessment revealed 83% (45/54) were HBV DNA undetectable. Nine patients remained HBV DNA detectable, however 8/9 had very low HBV DNA levels (<264IU/mL) and did not meet virological criteria for virological breakthrough (VBT). One patient experienced VBT, but this was in the setting of documented non-compliance. The response was independent of baseline LAM therapy or mutations conferring ADV resistance. Four patients discontinued TDF, one patient was lost to follow-up and one died from hepatocellular carcinoma. Long-term TDF treatment appears to be safe and effective in patients with prior failure of LAM and a suboptimal response to ADV therapy. These findings confirm that TDF has a high genetic barrier to resistance is active against multidrug-resistant HBV, and should be the preferred oral anti-HBV agent in CHB patients who fail treatment with LAM and ADV. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity and Chromatographic Analysis of Extracts from Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. Tubers

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    Ritiel Corrêa da Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against a range of microorganisms. The most active extracts were submitted to chromatographic analysis. Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (70%, fractions of it, and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against several bacteria, yeasts and molds, furnishing the corresponding inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal minimal concentration values. The most active extracts were submitted to GC-MS investigation. Results: The strongest effects against different strains of microorganisms, such as Gram-positive and negative bacteria, Candida spp. and dermatophytes were observed for the essential oil and the chloroform fraction, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs well below 200 µg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that the major essential oil constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, while the chloroform fraction is constituted of BITC, amides, sulfur, fatty acids and its esters, all compounds that may be related to the demonstrated activity. Conclusions: Overall, the results support the popular use of the plant for the treatment of skin infections, and revealed the main active compounds.

  15. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

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    Shyamalamma, S; Chandra, S B C; Hegde, M; Naryanswamy, P

    2008-07-22

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated, eight were selected for screening of genotypes based on the number and quality of polymorphic fragments produced. These primer combinations produced 5976 bands, 1267 (22%) of which were polymorphic. Among the jackfruit accessions, the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.137 to 0.978; the accessions also shared a large number of monomorphic fragments (78%). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis grouped all jackfruit genotypes into three major clusters. Cluster I included the genotypes grown in a jackfruit region of Karnataka, called Tamaka, with very dry conditions; cluster II contained the genotypes collected from locations having medium to heavy rainfall in Karnataka; cluster III grouped the genotypes in distant locations with different environmental conditions. Strong coincidence of these amplified fragment length polymorphism-based groupings with geographical localities as well as morphological characters was observed. We found moderate genetic diversity in these jackfruit accessions. This information should be useful for tree breeding programs, as part of our effort to popularize jackfruit as a commercial crop.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

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    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  17. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Response of two populations of holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) to sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Rodríguez, J; Sanz, J M; Merino, J

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with seedlings of Quercus rotundifolia Lam., an evergreen schlerophyllous tree typical of the Spanish Mediterranean climate environments. Fruits were collected in two distant (800 km) populations located in the center (southern Spain) and northern border (northern Spain) of the area of distribution of the species. One-month-old potted plants were grown for 130 days in an enriched atmosphere of SO2 (0.23 ppm, 14 h/day) in controlled (growth chamber) conditions. Both northern and southern plants underwent a significant decrease in growth rate as a consequence of the treatment. Even so, plants appear to be quite resistant to SO2 compared with either more temperate or more productive species. The southern population was more sensitive to the treatment, as reflected by the bigger decrease in both growth and photosynthetic rates. Differences in resistance appear to be related to the biogeographic origin of the populations studied, which underlines the importance of biogeographic aspects in studies of resistance to air pollutants.

  19. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

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    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  20. Volatiles of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi Leaves Influencing Attraction of Two Generalist Insect Herbivores.

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    Sarkar, Nupur; Karmakar, Amarnath; Barik, Anandamay

    2016-10-01

    Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. The profiles of volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 48 hr continuous feeding of adult females of either E. vigintioctopunctata or A. foveicollis, by adults of both species, and after mechanical damaging were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Thirty two compounds were detected in volatiles of all treatments. In all plants, methyl jasmonate was the major compound. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays under laboratory conditions, both insect species showed a significant preference for complete volatile blends from insect damaged plants, compared to those of undamaged plants. Neither E. vigintioctopunctata nor A. foveicollis showed any preference for volatiles released by heterospecifically damaged plants vs. conspecifically damaged plants or plants attacked by both species. Epilachna vigintioctopunctata and A. foveicollis showed attraction to three different synthetic compounds, linalool oxide, nonanal, and E-2-nonenal in proportions present in volatiles of insect damaged plants. Both species were attracted by a synthetic blend of 1.64 μg linalool oxide + 3.86 μg nonanal + 2.23 μg E-2-nonenal, dissolved in 20 μl methylene chloride. This combination might be used as trapping tools in pest management strategies.

  1. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Flindersine isolated from the traditional medicinal plant, Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S

    2009-06-25

    The leaves and root of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae) are widely used as a folk medicine in India. Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of Toddalia asiatica leaves and isolated compound Flindersine were tested against bacteria and fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested against bacteria and fungi using disc-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The compound was confirmed using X-ray crystallography technique. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in ethyl acetate extract. One active principle Flindersine (2,6-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-5H-pyrano [3,2-c] quinoline-5-one-9cl) was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. The MIC values of the compound against bacteria Bacillus subtilis (31.25 microg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (62.5 microg/ml), Staphylococcus epidermidis (62.5 microg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis (31.25 microg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (250 microg/ml), Acinetobacter baumannii (125 microg/ml) and fungi Trichophyton rubrum 57 (62.5 microg/ml), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (62.5 microg/ml), Trichophyton simii (62.5 microg/ml), Epidermophyton floccosum (62.5 microg/ml), Magnaporthe grisea (250 microg/ml) and Candida albicans (250 microg/ml) were determined. Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity and isolated compound Flindersine showed moderate activity against bacteria and fungi.

  2. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam..

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    Caroline Roullier

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., Convolvulaceae counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  3. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  4. Characterization, biological activities, and authentication of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam oil

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    Rohman, A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam oil (RFO is one of high value edible oils having many functional advantages for health. P. conoideus is a native plant from Papua province, Republic of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. RFO is good for diets and served as preventive agents for various diseases such as cancer and coronary disease so that RFO can be considered as functional edible oils. Because of its high quality, in Indonesia fats and oils market, RFO has a more expensive price (10-15 times than other common edible oils like palm oil and corn oil. This fact attracts some unethical player to adulterate RFO with other lower priced-oils such as palm oil and corn oil. As a consequence, the authentication of RFO from any oil adulterants becomes important to ensure the quality and the authenticity of RFO. This article report some biological advantages of RFO and the characterization of RFO. FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibrations has been reported as a powerful technique for the authentication of RFO from other oils and is the most reported techniques in some literature.

  5. First chemical constituents from Cordia exaltata Lam and antimicrobial activity of two neolignans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Tiago Bezerra; de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Raquel Bezerra; E Silva, Davi Antas; Tavares, Josean Fechine; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; da Silva Maciel, Jéssica Karina; de Souza Fernandes, Milen Maria Magalhães; de Medeiros, Fernando Antônio; do Socorro Ferreira Rodrigues Sarquis, Rosangela; Filho, Raimundo Braz; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

    2013-09-10

    The phytochemical study of Cordia exaltata Lam. (Boraginaceae) led to the isolation, through chromatographic techniques, of nineteen secondary metabolites: 8,8'dimethyl-3,4,3',4'-dimethylenedioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (1), 8,8'-dimethyl-4,5-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenodioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (2), sitosterol (3a), stigmasterol (3b), sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4a), stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4b), phaeophytin A (5), 13²-hydroxyphaeophytin A (6), 17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (7), 13²-hydroxy-17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (8), m-methoxy-p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (9), (E)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-propenoic acid (10), 1-benzopyran-2-one (11), 7-hydroxy-1-benzopyran-2-one (12), 2,5-bis-(3',4'-methylenedioxiphenyl)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (13), 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan (14), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol (15), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (16), 5,8-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (17), kaempherol 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-6''-α-L-ramnopyranoside (18) and kaempherol 3,7-di-O-α-L-ramnopyranoside (19). Their structures were identified by ¹H and ¹³C-NMR using one and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of compounds 1, 2, 13 and 14 against bacteria and fungi are reported here for the first time.

  6. Khellin and Visnagin, Furanochromones from Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam., as Potential Bioherbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Maria L; Sosa, Gustavo M; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Walter, Helmut; Cantrell, Charles L; Carrillo, Nestor J; Dayan, Franck E; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-12-21

    Plants constitute a source of novel phytotoxic compounds to be explored in searching for effective and environmentally safe herbicides. From a previous screening of plant extracts for their phytotoxicity, a dichloromethane extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. was selected for further study. Phytotoxicity-guided fractionation of this extract yielded two furanochromones, khellin and visnagin, for which herbicidal activity had not been described before. Khellin and visnagin were phytotoxic to model species lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and duckweed (Lemna paucicostata), with IC 50 values ranging from 110 to 175 μM. These compounds also inhibited the growth and germination of a diverse group of weeds at 0.5 and 1 mM. These weeds included five grasses [ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyardgrass (Echinocloa crus-galli), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), foxtail (Setaria italica), and millet (Panicum sp.)] and two broadleaf species [morningglory (Ipomea sp.) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)]. During greenhouse studies visnagin was the most active and showed significant contact postemergence herbicidal activity on velvetleaf and crabgrass at 2 kg active ingredient (ai) ha -1 . Moreover, its effect at 4 kg ai ha -1 was comparable to the bioherbicide pelargonic acid at the same rate. The mode of action of khellin and visnagin was not a light-dependent process. Both compounds caused membrane destabilization, photosynthetic efficiency reduction, inhibition of cell division, and cell death. These results support the potential of visnagin and, possibly, khellin as bioherbicides or lead molecules for the development of new herbicides.

  7. Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet by GC-MS Method

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    Vivekraj P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet (Malvaceae commonly known as Vadathuthi. It is used as one of the most important drugs in traditional system of medicine to treat various ailments. The plant is used for to its various properties as demulcent, diuretics, anti-diabetics, anthelmintic, laxative, wound healing properties, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The present study revealed the presence of phytochemicals like Diethyl Phthalate (19.171%,Benzaldehyde 4-propyl (5.219%,Methoxyacetic acid 3-tridecyl ester (5.196%,Sulfurous acid dodecyl 2-propyl ester (0.455%,Sulfurous acid, butyl dodecyl ester (0.442%etc., from the chloroform extracts of leaves in A. hirtum. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the phytochemical present in the extracts in the preliminary level by using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The study will provide information for the correct identification of the crude drug. This will be further considered for pharmacological activities and isolation of individual components would however, help to find new drugs.The results are reported for the first time in A. hirtum.

  8. Characterization of dietary constituents and antioxidant capacity of Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bona, Gicele S; Boschetti, Wiliam; Bortolin, Rafael C; Vale, Maria G R; Moreira, José C F; de Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional content and antioxidant capacity of the tubers, leaves and, flowers of the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. The three parts of the plant were analyzed by physicochemical methods, atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques. The tubers, leaves, and flowers exhibited significant differences in all parameters evaluated. The leaves showed significantly higher values of protein (16.28 ± 0.02 g/100 g), total dietary fiber (27.78 ± 0.15 g/100 g) and quercetin (3798.61 ± 37.57 µg/g) when compared to the tubers and flowers. The study revealed a potential content of the protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum , when compared with the sweet potatoes leaves ( Ipomoea batatas L.). In addition, the antioxidant activities of leaves and flowers were also higher measured by ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and TRAP (total radical-trapping antioxidant potential) methods. Tropaeolum pentaphyllum have high nutritional potential that can be exploited to improve nutritional value of various food products.

  9. Cytotoxic Properties of Three Isolated Coumarin-hemiterpene Ether Derivatives from Artemisia armeniaca Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Delazar, Abbas; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Considering multiple reports on cytotoxic activity of the Artemisia genus and its phytochemicals, in the current study A. armeniaca Lam. and the three components isolated from the plant were subjected to cytotoxic studies. Analytical fractionation of A. armeniaca aerial parts for the first time was directed to the isolation of 7-hydroxy-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy) comarin (armenin), 8-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy) comarin (isoarmenin) and deoxylacarol. Cytotoxicity assessed with alamalBlue® assay and apoptosis was detected by PI staining and western blot analysis of Bax and PARP proteins. Extracts and all compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against apoptosis-proficient HL-60 and apoptosis-resistant K562 cells, with the lowest cytotoxic activity on J774 cell line as non-malignant cell. Armenin as the most potent component decreased the viability of cell with IC50 of 22.5 and 71.1 µM for K562 and HL-60 cells respectively and selected for further mechanistic study. Armenin increased the sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of HL-60 and K562 treated cells and increase in the amount of Bax protein and the cleavage of PARP in comparison with the control after treatment for 48 h in K562 treated cells verified the apoptotic activity of the armenin. Taken together, according to the finding of this study armenin was introduced as a novel cytotoxic compound with apoptotic activity, which is encouraging for further mechanistic and clinical studies.

  10. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLÂNTULAS DE MORINGA oleifera Lam

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    Naedja Nara Araújo Neves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró - RN, for screening the effect of substrate for germination of seeds and seedling growth of Moringa oleifera Lam. It was utilized a completely randomized design with four treatments (substrates: T1= 75% sand + 25% bovine manure, T2= 100% washed sand, T3= 75% sand + 25% worm castings and T4= 75% sand + 25% sawdust and four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in the substrates contained in wooden boxes (7,5 cm long x 23,5 cm wide x 39 cm deep. Each box was filled with approximately 6 kg of substrate. The substrates were irrigated once a day (until the tenth day, then twice a day until the end experiment (19 th day. Seedling height, root length, number of leaves, whole seedling fresh and dry matter weights, germination velocity index and germination percent were evaluated. It was concluded that the mix 75% sand + 25% worm castings was the most suitable for the initial growth of moringa and the substrate containing 100% sand provided the best germination index for this species.

  11. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

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    Abubakar Amali Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  12. The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication

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    Fitrien Husin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus.

  13. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. – A Kazakh and Uygur ethnomedicinal plant

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    Yun Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae is an annual or perennial herb or subshrub widely distributed from the Mediterranean to central Asia and Afghanistan. In Xinjiang, China, the whole herb has been used in traditional Kazakh and Uygur medicines as anti-febrile and detoxicating drug. Aims: To characterize macroscopical, microscopically of the overground part of the Z. clinopodioides, explore and establish the macro-morphology, micro-morphology, quality and physicochemical parameters standards for this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigations were conducted in terms of macroscopic, microscopic and preliminary phytochemical parameters. Results: The vegetable material can be identified by structural features of the flowers, structural characteristics of the stem, specific pale brown hesperidin can be regarded as identification character. This crude drug showed the characteristic physicochemical values like total ash (7%, insoluble ash (1.3%, water soluble ash (3.7%, moisture (7.5%. The ethanolic extract contained flavonoids, organic acids, alkaloids, and glycosides. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostical characters that observed in this study can be an effective supplement to further research of this ethnomedicinal plant. Meanwhile, the results of this paper deal with pharmacognostical studies on the Ziziphora clinopodioides in an attempt to mitigate the adulteration to the crude drug.

  14. Fatty acids and physiological quality of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica Lam. seed during natural ageing

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    Juan M Pichardo-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In México, 44 thousand hectares are planted with tomatillo or husk tomato (Physalis philadelphica Lam., which occupies fourth place among the country's vegetable species. However, research on this species is scarce, especially that related to the process of seed deterioration. We studied the effects of deterioration in tomatillo seed, var. CHF1-Chapingo, stored from 2-mo up to 7 yr with no climate control, 18.2 ± 5 °C and 41 ± 10% relative humidity, on physiological and biochemical variables during germination. It was found that germination, vigor, and respiratory activity decrease significantly from the first year of storage; thus, after 7 yr, germination and vigor decreased 99%, and respiratory activity of seed after 48 h imbibition decreased 78%. Linoleic acid (unsaturated content correlated positively with germination (R = 0.78** and with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.79**. Germination correlated with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.99** and with respiratory activity after 48 h of imbibition (R = 0.79**. Both respiratory activity and fatty acid content are involved in natural deterioration of tomatillo seed.

  15. Reaction of genotypes of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. to Meloidogyne spp. under field conditions

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    Claudia Salazar-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, root-knot nematodes Meloidog yne spp. are considered as one of the main constraints in lulo crop production . These nematodes can cause root damage resulting in low production. The aim of this study was to evaluate under field conditions the reaction of 16 genotypes of lulo, Solanum quitoense Lam. (Solanaceae, of the Castilla variety and the species S. hirtum Vahl., previously selected in a greenhouse experiment and categorized as moderately resistant and resistant to the attack by Meloidog yne sp. A chemical treatment and a control treatment, the latter based on the most susceptible genotype in greenhouse experiments were also included. The experiment was conducted in a lulo grove naturally infested with root-knot nematodes under a randomized complete block design with three replications and nine plants per experimental unit. The response variables were incidence, severity and yield. The incidence was higher than 80 % in all cases, but the severity varied because of their genetic condition; BR03 and BR01 being genotypes with lower rates of severity, with values of 1.0 % and 0.8 %, respectively. The yield analysis of variance showed significant differences, indicating that genotypes SQBR01 and SQLF04, reached the highest values with 4.77 and 4.74 t/ha in a total of three harvests.

  16. Physicochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kexue; Zhang, Yanjun; Nie, Shaoping; Xu, Fei; He, Shuzhen; Gong, Deming; Wu, Gang; Tan, Lehe

    2017-01-02

    A water-soluble polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) pulp (JFP-Ps) was purified and its physicochemical properties were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant activities of JFP-Ps was evaluated by measuring DPPH and OH radicals scavenging activities, as well as reducing power. The results showed that JFP-Ps contained 79.12% of total sugar, 5.83% of protein, 15.65% of uronic acid, and 15 kinds of amino acids with high levels of Asp, Glu, Val, Leu and Lys. JFP-Ps was mainly composed of Rha, Ara, Gal, Glc, Xyl and GalA, with an average molecular weight of 1668kDa. FT-IR results showed the bands at the range of 1200-850cm -1 suggested the presence of carbohydrates in JFP-Ps. The results of antioxidant activities showed that JFP-Ps exhibited strong DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities, with a relatively lower reducing power, suggesting that JFP-Ps can be exploited as effective natural antioxidant applications in medical and food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of volatile compound markers during the ripening and senescence of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas Iguarán, Eduardo; Taborda Ocampo, Gonzalo; Tapasco Alzate, Omar

    2018-01-01

    Lulo ( Solanum quitoense Lam.) is an exotic fruit cultivated in Colombia. During ripening and senescence, this climactic fruit undergoes biochemical processes that produce the volatiles responsible for its aroma. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the volatile content during the ripening and senescence of lulo. Analysis of the volatile composition of lulo harvested in each of its five ripening stages and during its senescence time when stored at 18 ± 2 °C was performed using HS-SPME with GC-MS. Throughout ripening, the most notable change was the transformation of alcohols such as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-penten-3-ol to afford esters such as (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and ketones such as 1-penten-3-one. Some acids reacted with alcohols to produce acetate and hexanoate esters, concentrations which increased more than sixfold between stage one and five. Moreover, all the major compounds were C 6 straight chain compounds related to the lipoxygenase pathway. During senescence, majority of compounds were methyl esters, which increased in concentration consistently until day eight. Remarkably, the content of methyl butanoate increased from 0.9% of the total amount of volatiles on day two up to 76.4% on day eight. Some of these volatiles are probably contributors to the "off flavor" during senescence.

  18. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

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    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  19. EXCITATION TEMPERATURE OF THE WARM NEUTRAL MEDIUM AS A NEW PROBE OF THE Lyα RADIATION FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Claire E.; Lindner, Robert R.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Pingel, Nickolas M.; Lawrence, Allen; Babler, Brian L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Goss, W. M.; Jencson, Jacob [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dickey, John [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Hennebelle, Patrick, E-mail: cmurray@astro.wisc.edu [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-02-01

    We use the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to conduct a high-sensitivity survey of neutral hydrogen (H I) absorption in the Milky Way. In combination with corresponding H I emission spectra obtained mostly with the Arecibo Observatory, we detect a widespread warm neutral medium component with excitation temperature 〈T{sub s}〉=7200{sub −1200}{sup +1800} K (68% confidence). This temperature lies above theoretical predictions based on collisional excitation alone, implying that Lyα scattering, the most probable additional source of excitation, is more important in the interstellar medium (ISM) than previously assumed. Our results demonstrate that H I absorption can be used to constrain the Lyα radiation field, a critical quantity for studying the energy balance in the ISM and intergalactic medium yet notoriously difficult to model because of its complicated radiative transfer, in and around galaxies nearby and at high redshift.

  20. The Kinematics of Multiple-peaked Lyα Emission in Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 2-3

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    Kulas, Kristin R.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Zheng, Zheng; Steidel, Charles C.; Hainline, Kevin N.

    2012-01-01

    We present new results on the Lyα emission-line kinematics of 18 z ~ 2-3 star-forming galaxies with multiple-peaked Lyα profiles. With our large spectroscopic database of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at these redshifts, we have determined that ~30% of such objects with detectable Lyα emission display multiple-peaked emission profiles. These profiles provide additional constraints on the escape of Lyα photons due to the rich velocity structure in the emergent line. Despite recent advances in modeling the escape of Lyα from star-forming galaxies at high redshifts, comparisons between models and data are often missing crucial observational information. Using Keck II NIRSPEC spectra of Hα (z ~ 2) and [O III]λ5007 (z ~ 3), we have measured accurate systemic redshifts, rest-frame optical nebular velocity dispersions, and emission-line fluxes for the objects in the sample. In addition, rest-frame UV luminosities and colors provide estimates of star formation rates and the degree of dust extinction. In concert with the profile sub-structure, these measurements provide critical constraints on the geometry and kinematics of interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies. Accurate systemic redshifts allow us to translate the multiple-peaked Lyα profiles into velocity space, revealing that the majority (11/18) display double-peaked emission straddling the velocity-field zero point with stronger red-side emission. Interstellar absorption-line kinematics suggest the presence of large-scale outflows for the majority of objects in our sample, with an average measured interstellar absorption velocity offset of langΔv absrang = -230 km s-1. A comparison of the interstellar absorption kinematics for objects with multiple- and single-peaked Lyα profiles indicate that the multiple-peaked objects are characterized by significantly narrower absorption line widths. We compare our data with the predictions of simple models for outflowing and infalling gas distributions around