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Sample records for vasopressin mrna polya

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in vasopressin neurons of familial diabetes insipidus model mice: aggregate formation and mRNA poly(A) tail shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hiroshi; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Hayashi, Masayuki; Oiso, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, which binds to newly synthesized secretory and transmembrane proteins to facilitate protein folding. BiP mRNA is expressed in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons in the supraoptic nucleus of wild-type mice even in basal conditions, and the expression levels increase in response to dehydration. These data suggest that AVP neurons are subjected to ER stress. Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is caused by mutations in the gene locus of AVP. The mutant proteins could accumulate in the ER and possibly increase ER stress in the AVP neurons. We bred mice possessing a mutation causing FNDI, which manifested progressive polyuria, as do the patients with FNDI. Electron microscopic analyses demonstrated that aggregates accumulated in the ER of AVP neurons in FNDI mice. Despite polyuria, which could potentially induce dehydration, AVP mRNA expression was decreased in the supraoptic nucleus, and the AVP mRNA poly(A) tail length was shortened in FNDI mice compared with wild-type mice. Incubation of hypothalamic explants of wild-type mice with ER stressors caused shortening of the poly(A) tail length of AVP mRNA, accompanied by decreases in the expression. These data revealed a mechanism by which ER stress decreases poly(A) tail length of AVP mRNA, and this reduces the load of unfolded proteins that form the aggregates in ER of the AVP neurons in FNDI mice.

  2. pEVL: A Linear Plasmid for Generating mRNA IVT Templates With Extended Encoded Poly(A Sequences

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    Alexandra E Grier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for large-scale synthesis of in vitro transcribed (IVT mRNA is being driven by the increasing use of mRNA for transient gene expression in cell engineering and therapeutic applications. An important determinant of IVT mRNA potency is the 3′ polyadenosine (poly(A tail, the length of which correlates with translational efficiency. However, present methods for generation of IVT mRNA rely on templates derived from circular plasmids or PCR products, in which homopolymeric tracts are unstable, thus limiting encoded poly(A tail lengths to ≃120 base pairs (bp. Here, we have developed a novel method for generation of extended poly(A tracts using a previously described linear plasmid system, pJazz. We find that linear plasmids can successfully propagate poly(A tracts up to ≃500 bp in length for IVT mRNA production. We then modified pJazz by removing extraneous restriction sites, adding a T7 promoter sequence upstream from an extended multiple cloning site, and adding a unique type-IIS restriction site downstream from the encoded poly(A tract to facilitate generation of IVT mRNA with precisely defined encoded poly(A tracts and 3′ termini. The resulting plasmid, designated pEVL, can be used to generate IVT mRNA with consistent defined lengths and terminal residue(s.

  3. Rrp6p controls mRNA poly(a) tail length and its decoration with poly(a) binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Manfred; Poulsen, Mathias Bach; Olszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Poly(A) (pA) tail binding proteins (PABPs) control mRNA polyadenylation, stability, and translation. In a purified system, S. cerevisiae PABPs, Pab1p and Nab2p, are individually sufficient to provide normal pA tail length. However, it is unknown how this occurs in more complex environments. Here we....... This is because Rrp6p can interact with Nab2p and displace it from pA tails, potentially leading to RNA turnover, as evidenced for certain pre-mRNAs. We suggest that a nuclear mRNP surveillance step involves targeting of Rrp6p by Nab2p-bound pA-tailed RNPs and that pre-mRNA abundance is regulated at this level...

  4. Different positioning elements select poly(A) sites at the 3'-end of GCN4 mRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvel, K; Braus, G H

    1999-12-15

    Cleavage and polyadenylation of eukaryotic mRNA requires efficiency and positioning elements in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the mRNA. Specific point mutations were introduced into the yeast GCN4 3'-UTR to detect sequence motifs which are involved in the positioning of the poly(A) site. 3'-End proces-sing activities of different GCN4 3'-UTR alleles were measured in an in vivo test system. Point mutations in an AAGAA motif defocussed selection of the poly(A) sites of the GCN4 3'-UTR to various additional poly(A) sites instead of the single site of the wild-type GCN4 3'-UTR. A strain with an intact wild-type GCN4 3'-UTR but impaired in RNA15 encoding an RNA-binding processing factor showed a similar defocussed pattern of poly(A) site selection. Remarkably, two additional sequence motifs upstream of the AAGAA motif which resemble yeast efficiency motifs independently affected poly(A) site positioning but not efficiency of 3'-end processing. Mutations in one motif resulted in an additional upstream poly(A) site. Alterations of the other motif shifted the poly(A) sites exclusively to two downstream poly(A) sites. These data suggest several contact points between the precursor mRNA and the polyadenylation machinery in yeast.

  5. The 5'-poly(A leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation.

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    Pragyesh Dhungel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The poly(A leader at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs. These poly(A leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5'-poly(A leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. A constitutive and uninterrupted 5'-poly(A leader with 12 residues was optimal. Because the most frequent lengths of the 5'-poly(A leaders are 8-12 residues, the result suggests that the poly(A leader has been evolutionarily optimized to boost poxvirus protein production. A 5'-poly(A leader also could increase protein production in the bacteriophage T7 promoter-based expression system of vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of poxviruses. Interestingly, although vaccinia virus post-replicative mRNAs do have 5'- methylated guanosine caps and can use cap-dependent translation, in vaccinia virus-infected cells, mRNA with a 5'-poly(A leader could also be efficiently translated in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation. However, the translation was not mediated through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES. These results point to a fundamental mechanism poxvirus uses to efficiently translate its post-replicative mRNAs.

  6. The 5'-poly(A) leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Pragyesh; Cao, Shuai; Yang, Zhilong

    2017-08-01

    The poly(A) leader at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs). These poly(A) leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5'-poly(A) leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. A constitutive and uninterrupted 5'-poly(A) leader with 12 residues was optimal. Because the most frequent lengths of the 5'-poly(A) leaders are 8-12 residues, the result suggests that the poly(A) leader has been evolutionarily optimized to boost poxvirus protein production. A 5'-poly(A) leader also could increase protein production in the bacteriophage T7 promoter-based expression system of vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of poxviruses. Interestingly, although vaccinia virus post-replicative mRNAs do have 5'- methylated guanosine caps and can use cap-dependent translation, in vaccinia virus-infected cells, mRNA with a 5'-poly(A) leader could also be efficiently translated in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation. However, the translation was not mediated through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). These results point to a fundamental mechanism poxvirus uses to efficiently translate its post-replicative mRNAs.

  7. Poly-A+ mRNA and defeminization of sexual behavior and gonadotropin secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, C; Yahr, P

    1987-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that testosterone (T) sexually differentiates gonadotropin secretion and sexual behavior by inducing synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA), newborn female rats received intrahypothalamic infusions of saline or cordycepin, an adenosine analogue that preferentially inhibits synthesis of polyadenylated mRNA, an hour before they received T propionate (TP) systemically. As adults, controls were anovulatory and did not become sexually receptive when given estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Cordycepin-treated females obtained lordosis quotients (LQs) three times those of controls and most of them ovulated. Cordycepin also curtailed the defeminizing effects of some doses of moxestrol, an artificial estrogen; thus it does not simply block aromatization. Some groups were retested for lordosis using EB and methysergide to bypass P receptors. Methysergide increased LQs in one group that received moxestrol + cordycepin as neonates and that was moderately responsive to P, but it did not increase sexual receptivity among the saline-treated controls. These data suggest that defeminization of sexual behaviour involves more than defeminization of P receptor synthesis.

  8. The 5'-poly(A) leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Pragyesh; Cao, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    The poly(A) leader at the 5’-untranslated region (5’-UTR) is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs). These poly(A) leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5’-poly(A) leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. A constitutive and uninterrupted 5’-poly(A) leader with 12 residues was optimal. Because the most frequent lengths of the 5’-poly(A) leaders are 8–12 residues, the result suggests that the poly(A) leader has been evolutionarily optimized to boost poxvirus protein production. A 5’-poly(A) leader also could increase protein production in the bacteriophage T7 promoter-based expression system of vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of poxviruses. Interestingly, although vaccinia virus post-replicative mRNAs do have 5’- methylated guanosine caps and can use cap-dependent translation, in vaccinia virus-infected cells, mRNA with a 5’-poly(A) leader could also be efficiently translated in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation. However, the translation was not mediated through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). These results point to a fundamental mechanism poxvirus uses to efficiently translate its post-replicative mRNAs. PMID:28854224

  9. Chronic social stress alters levels of corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin mRNA in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albeck, D S; McKittrick, C R; Blanchard, D C; Blanchard, R J; Nikulina, J; McEwen, B S; Sakai, R R

    1997-06-15

    In the visible burrow system model of chronic social stress, male rats housed in mixed-sex groups quickly form a dominance hierarchy in which the subordinates appear to be severely stressed. A subgroup of subordinates have an impaired corticosterone response after presentation of a novel restraint stressor, leading to their designation as nonresponsive subordinates. To examine the mechanism underlying the blunted corticosterone response in these animals, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to quantify corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA expression in the brain. In two separate visible burrow system experiments, the nonresponsive subordinates expressed a significantly lower average number of CRF mRNA grains per cell in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared with stress-responsive subordinates, dominants (DOM), or cage-housed control (CON) rats. The number of CRF mRNA labeled cells was also significantly lower in nonresponders than in responsive subordinates or DOM. In the central amygdala, CRF mRNA levels were increased in both groups of subordinates compared with CON rats, whereas responsive subordinates exhibited higher levels than the DOM rats as well. AVP mRNA levels did not vary with behavioral rank in any subdivision of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. In the medial amygdala, the number of cells expressing AVP mRNA was significantly greater in CON rats compared with both groups of subordinates, although the average number of AVP mRNA grains per cell did not vary with rank. In addition, the number of AVP-positive cells significantly correlated with plasma testosterone level.

  10. The construction of a recombinant cDNA library representative of the poly(A)+ mRNA population from normal human lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, D; Crampton, J; Clarke, B; Williamson, R

    1980-01-01

    A recombinant library has been constructed using the plasmid pAT153 and double stranded cDNA prepared from normal human lymphocyte poly(A)+ RNA. Transformation conditions were optimized to yield approximately 200,000 recombinants per microgram of double stranded cDNA. Statistical analysis as well as sequence complexity analysis of the inserted sequences indicates that the cDNA library is representative of > 99% of the poly(A)+ RNA present in the normal human lymphocyte.

  11. Biosynthesis of human acute-phase serum amyloid A protein (A-SAA) in vitro: the roles of mRNA accumulation, poly(A) tail shortening and translational efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, D M; Rogers, J T; DeBeer, M C; DeBeer, F C; Whitehead, A S

    1993-05-01

    Human 'acute-phase' serum amyloid A protein (A-SAA) is a major acute-phase reactant (APR) and an apolipoprotein of high density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3). We have examined several parameters of A-SAA biosynthesis in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells in response to monocyte conditioned medium (MoCM) and dual treatment with interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 (IL-1 beta + IL-6). Treatment of PLC/PRF/5 cells with MoCM or IL-1 beta + IL-6 caused a dramatic and rapid increase in A-SAA mRNA and protein synthesis; A-SAA mRNA was first detectable at 3 h, with peak levels reached by 24 h. A-SAA mRNA accumulation is accompanied by a gradual and homogeneous decrease in the length of the A-SAA poly(A) tail; the poly(A) tail shortening does not apparently affect the intrinsic stability of A-SAA mRNA. Analysis of RNA isolated from the ribonucleoprotein, monosome and polysome fractions of cytokine-treated PLC/PRF/5 cells showed that most A-SAA mRNA was associated with small polyribosomes, regardless of time post-stimulus, suggesting that the translational efficiency of A-SAA mRNA is constant throughout cytokine-driven induction. Moreover, the transit time of A-SAA protein out of the cell is also constant throughout the time course of induction. These data provide evidence of a paradox with regard to the transcriptional upregulation of A-SAA by IL-1 beta + IL-6 and the relative synthesis of A-SAA protein and suggest a role for post-transcriptional control of A-SAA biosynthesis during the acute phase.

  12. Dragon polya spotter: Predictor of poly(A) motifs within human genomic DNA sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal M.

    2011-11-15

    Motivation: Recognition of poly(A) signals in mRNA is relatively straightforward due to the presence of easily recognizable polyadenylic acid tail. However, the task of identifying poly(A) motifs in the primary genomic DNA sequence that correspond to poly(A) signals in mRNA is a far more challenging problem. Recognition of poly(A) signals is important for better gene annotation and understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms. In this work, we present one such poly(A) motif prediction method based on properties of human genomic DNA sequence surrounding a poly(A) motif. These properties include thermodynamic, physico-chemical and statistical characteristics. For predictions, we developed Artificial Neural Network and Random Forest models. These models are trained to recognize 12 most common poly(A) motifs in human DNA. Our predictors are available as a free web-based tool accessible at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dps. Compared with other reported predictors, our models achieve higher sensitivity and specificity and furthermore provide a consistent level of accuracy for 12 poly(A) motif variants. The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Dragon PolyA Spotter: predictor of poly(A) motifs within human genomic DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkatawi, Manal; Rangkuti, Farania; Schramm, Michael; Jankovic, Boris R; Kamau, Allan; Chowdhary, Rajesh; Archer, John A C; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of poly(A) signals in mRNA is relatively straightforward due to the presence of easily recognizable polyadenylic acid tail. However, the task of identifying poly(A) motifs in the primary genomic DNA sequence that correspond to poly(A) signals in mRNA is a far more challenging problem. Recognition of poly(A) signals is important for better gene annotation and understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms. In this work, we present one such poly(A) motif prediction method based on properties of human genomic DNA sequence surrounding a poly(A) motif. These properties include thermodynamic, physico-chemical and statistical characteristics. For predictions, we developed Artificial Neural Network and Random Forest models. These models are trained to recognize 12 most common poly(A) motifs in human DNA. Our predictors are available as a free web-based tool accessible at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dps. Compared with other reported predictors, our models achieve higher sensitivity and specificity and furthermore provide a consistent level of accuracy for 12 poly(A) motif variants. vladimir.bajic@kaust.edu.sa Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Characterization of genes encoding poly(A polymerases in plants: evidence for duplication and functional specialization.

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    Lisa R Meeks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poly(A polymerase is a key enzyme in the machinery that mediates mRNA 3' end formation in eukaryotes. In plants, poly(A polymerases are encoded by modest gene families. To better understand this multiplicity of genes, poly(A polymerase-encoding genes from several other plants, as well as from Selaginella, Physcomitrella, and Chlamydomonas, were studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using bioinformatics tools, poly(A polymerase-encoding genes were identified in the genomes of eight species in the plant lineage. Whereas Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was found to possess a single poly(A polymerase gene, other species possessed between two and six possible poly(A polymerase genes. With the exception of four intron-lacking genes, all of the plant poly(A polymerase genes (but not the C. reinhardtii gene possessed almost identical intron positions within the poly(A polymerase coding sequences, suggesting that all plant poly(A polymerase genes derive from a single ancestral gene. The four Arabidopsis poly(A polymerase genes were found to be essential, based on genetic analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants. GFP fusion proteins containing three of the four Arabidopsis poly(A polymerases localized to the nucleus, while one such fusion protein was localized in the cytoplasm. The fact that this latter protein is largely pollen-specific suggests that it has important roles in male gametogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that poly(A polymerase genes have expanded from a single ancestral gene by a series of duplication events during the evolution of higher plants, and that individual members have undergone sorts of functional specialization so as to render them essential for plant growth and development. Perhaps the most interesting of the plant poly(A polymerases is a novel cytoplasmic poly(A polymerase that is expressed in pollen in Arabidopsis; this is reminiscent of spermatocyte-specific cytoplasmic poly(A polymerases in

  15. The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on corticotrophin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin, and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of the cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, S; Farley, A; Reid, R L; Foster, W G; Van Vugt, D A

    2001-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has profound deleterious effects on development and reproduction. TCDD may act at one or more levels to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TCDD modulates neuroendocrine systems by altering gene expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), or pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), which are important neuroregulators of the HPA and HPG axes. Four groups of female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were administered daily oral doses of gelatin capsule containing TCDD (0, 1, 5, or 25 ng/kg body weight) mixed with glucose 5 days a week for 1 year. At the end of the dosing period, animals were euthanized and brains were harvested. CRH, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels were semiquantified by in situ hybridization histochemistry on 30-microm coronal sections of the brain. Blood collected on the day of euthanasia was assayed for cortisol and progesterone. CRH mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were significantly increased by the 2 higher TCDD doses (5 and 25 ng/kg/day) compared to controls (p HPA axis by a central effect involving CRH, but had no effect on the HPG axis at the doses tested.

  16. Prediction of Poly(A Sites by Poly(A Read Mapping.

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    Thomas Bonfert

    Full Text Available RNA-seq reads containing part of the poly(A tail of transcripts (denoted as poly(A reads provide the most direct evidence for the position of poly(A sites in the genome. However, due to reduced coverage of poly(A tails by reads, poly(A reads are not routinely identified during RNA-seq mapping. Nevertheless, recent studies for several herpesviruses successfully employed mapping of poly(A reads to identify herpesvirus poly(A sites using different strategies and customized programs. To more easily allow such analyses without requiring additional programs, we integrated poly(A read mapping and prediction of poly(A sites into our RNA-seq mapping program ContextMap 2. The implemented approach essentially generalizes previously used poly(A read mapping approaches and combines them with the context-based approach of ContextMap 2 to take into account information provided by other reads aligned to the same location. Poly(A read mapping using ContextMap 2 was evaluated on real-life data from the ENCODE project and compared against a competing approach based on transcriptome assembly (KLEAT. This showed high positive predictive value for our approach, evidenced also by the presence of poly(A signals, and considerably lower runtime than KLEAT. Although sensitivity is low for both methods, we show that this is in part due to a high extent of spurious results in the gold standard set derived from RNA-PET data. Sensitivity improves for poly(A sites of known transcripts or determined with a more specific poly(A sequencing protocol and increases with read coverage on transcript ends. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the approach in a high read coverage scenario by a re-analysis of published data for herpes simplex virus 1. Thus, with current trends towards increasing sequencing depth and read length, poly(A read mapping will prove to be increasingly useful and can now be performed automatically during RNA-seq mapping with ContextMap 2.

  17. Characterization of the Role of Hexamer AGUAAA and Poly(A) Tail in Coronavirus Polyadenylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hui; Lin, Ching-Houng; Lin, Chao-Nan; Lo, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Hung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Similar to eukaryotic mRNA, the positive-strand coronavirus genome of ~30 kilobases is 5'-capped and 3'-polyadenylated. It has been demonstrated that the length of the coronaviral poly(A) tail is not static but regulated during infection; however, little is known regarding the factors involved in coronaviral polyadenylation and its regulation. Here, we show that during infection, the level of coronavirus poly(A) tail lengthening depends on the initial length upon infection and that the minimum length to initiate lengthening may lie between 5 and 9 nucleotides. By mutagenesis analysis, it was found that (i) the hexamer AGUAAA and poly(A) tail are two important elements responsible for synthesis of the coronavirus poly(A) tail and may function in concert to accomplish polyadenylation and (ii) the function of the hexamer AGUAAA in coronaviral polyadenylation is position dependent. Based on these findings, we propose a process for how the coronaviral poly(A) tail is synthesized and undergoes variation. Our results provide the first genetic evidence to gain insight into coronaviral polyadenylation.

  18. Short poly(A) tails are a conserved feature of highly expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sarah Azoubel; Chipman, Laura B; Nicholson, Angela L; Chen, Ying-Hsin; Yee, Brian A; Yeo, Gene W; Coller, Jeff; Pasquinelli, Amy E

    2017-12-01

    Poly(A) tails are important elements in mRNA translation and stability, although recent genome-wide studies have concluded that poly(A) tail length is generally not associated with translational efficiency in nonembryonic cells. To investigate whether poly(A) tail size might be coupled to gene expression in an intact organism, we used an adapted TAIL-seq protocol to measure poly(A) tails in Caenorhabditis elegans. Surprisingly, we found that well-expressed transcripts contain relatively short, well-defined tails. This attribute appears to be dependent on translational efficiency, as transcripts enriched for optimal codons and ribosome association had the shortest tail sizes, whereas noncoding RNAs retained long tails. Across eukaryotes, short tails were a feature of abundant and well-translated mRNAs. This seems to contradict the dogma that deadenylation induces translational inhibition and mRNA decay and suggests that well-expressed mRNAs accumulate with pruned tails that accommodate a minimal number of poly(A)-binding proteins, which may be ideal for protective and translational functions.

  19. Hormonal stimulation of starfish oocytes induces partial degradation of the 3' termini of cyclin B mRNAs with oligo(U) tails, followed by poly(A) elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Hiroe; Chiba, Kazuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    In yeast, plant, and mammalian somatic cells, short poly(A) tails on mRNAs are subject to uridylation, which mediates mRNA decay. Although mRNA uridylation has never been reported in animal oocytes, maternal mRNAs with short poly(A) tails are believed to be translationally repressed. In this study, we found that 96% of cyclin B mRNAs with short poly(A) tails were uridylated in starfish oocytes. Hormonal stimulation induced poly(A) elongation of cyclin B mRNA, and 62% of long adenine repeats did not contain uridine residues. To determine whether uridylated short poly(A) tails destabilize cyclin B mRNA, we developed a method for producing RNAs with the strict 3' terminal sequences of cyclin B, with or without oligo(U) tails. When we injected these synthetic RNAs into starfish oocytes prior to hormonal stimulation, we found that uridylated RNAs were as stable as nonuridylated RNAs. Following hormonal stimulation, the 3' termini of short poly(A) tails of synthesized RNAs containing oligo(U) tails were trimmed, and their poly(A) tails were subsequently elongated. These results indicate that uridylation of short poly(A) tails in cyclin B mRNA of starfish oocytes does not mediate mRNA decay; instead, hormonal stimulation induces partial degradation of uridylated short poly(A) tails in the 3'-5' direction, followed by poly(A) elongation. Oligo(U) tails may be involved in translational inactivation of mRNAs. © 2016 Ochi and Chiba; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  20. Poly(A) motif prediction using spectral latent features from human DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Jankovic, Boris R; Bajic, Vladimir B; Song, Le; Gao, Xin

    2013-07-01

    Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to an RNA molecule. Identifying DNA sequence motifs that signal the addition of poly(A) tails is essential to improved genome annotation and better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms and stability of mRNA. Existing poly(A) motif predictors demonstrate that information extracted from the surrounding nucleotide sequences of candidate poly(A) motifs can differentiate true motifs from the false ones to a great extent. A variety of sophisticated features has been explored, including sequential, structural, statistical, thermodynamic and evolutionary properties. However, most of these methods involve extensive manual feature engineering, which can be time-consuming and can require in-depth domain knowledge. We propose a novel machine-learning method for poly(A) motif prediction by marrying generative learning (hidden Markov models) and discriminative learning (support vector machines). Generative learning provides a rich palette on which the uncertainty and diversity of sequence information can be handled, while discriminative learning allows the performance of the classification task to be directly optimized. Here, we used hidden Markov models for fitting the DNA sequence dynamics, and developed an efficient spectral algorithm for extracting latent variable information from these models. These spectral latent features were then fed into support vector machines to fine-tune the classification performance. We evaluated our proposed method on a comprehensive human poly(A) dataset that consists of 14 740 samples from 12 of the most abundant variants of human poly(A) motifs. Compared with one of the previous state-of-the-art methods in the literature (the random forest model with expert-crafted features), our method reduces the average error rate, false-negative rate and false-positive rate by 26, 15 and 35%, respectively. Meanwhile, our method makes ~30% fewer error predictions relative to the other string kernels

  1. Vasopressin and Vasopressin Antagonists in Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram-Nielsen, Julie K; Gustafsson, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Despite the introduction of multiple new pharmacological agents over the past three decades in the field of heart failure (HF), overall prognosis remains poor. Hyponatremia is prevalent in HF patients and has been suggested as a contributor to poor response to standard therapy. Elevated levels...... by the V2 receptors in the renal collecting tubules. The optimal use of VRAs is yet to be determined, especially in patients with congestive HF. Although long-term effects on improvement in mortality have not been shown in the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan...

  2. Polycystic Kidney Disease and the Vasopressin Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Maatje D. A.; Torres, Vicente E.

    Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis. Increased vasopressin concentrations, measured by its surrogate copeptin, have been associated with disease severity as well as disease progression in polycystic kidney

  3. Behavior of adsorbed Poly-A onto sodium montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino-Aquino, Nayeli [Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Negrón-Mendoza, Alicia, E-mail: negron@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    The adsorption of Poly-A (a polynucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose and a phosphate group), onto a clay mineral, was studied to investigate the extent of adsorption, the site of binding, and the capacity of the clay to protect Poly-A, while it is adsorbed onto the clay, from external sources of energy. The results showed that Poly-A presented a high percentage of adsorption at the edges of the clay and that the survival of the polynucleotide was superior to irradiating the polymer in the absence of the clay.

  4. Role of fructose and fructokinase in acute dehydration-induced vasopressin gene expression and secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song 宋志林, Zhilin; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Lanaspa-Garcia, Miguel A; Oppelt, Sarah A; Kuwabara, Masanari; Jensen, Thomas; Milagres, Tamara; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Ishimoto, Takuji; Garcia, Gabriela E; Johnson, Ginger; MacLean, Paul S; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela; Tolan, Dean R; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Fructose stimulates vasopressin in humans and can be generated endogenously by activation of the polyol pathway with hyperosmolarity. We hypothesized that fructose metabolism in the hypothalamus might partly control vasopressin responses after acute dehydration. Wild-type and fructokinase-knockout mice were deprived of water for 24 h. The supraoptic nucleus was evaluated for vasopressin and markers of the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway. The posterior pituitary vasopressin and serum copeptin levels were examined. Hypothalamic explants were evaluated for vasopressin secretion in response to exogenous fructose. Water restriction increased serum and urine osmolality and serum copeptin in both groups of mice, although the increase in copeptin in wild-type mice was larger than that in fructokinase-knockout mice. Water-restricted, wild-type mice showed an increase in vasopressin and aldose reductase mRNA, sorbitol, fructose and uric acid in the supraoptic nucleus. In contrast, fructokinase-knockout mice showed no change in vasopressin or aldose reductase mRNA, and no changes in sorbitol or uric acid, although fructose levels increased. With water restriction, vasopressin in the pituitary of wild-type mice was significantly less than that of fructokinase-knockout mice, indicating that fructokinase-driven vasopressin secretion overrode synthesis. Fructose increased vasopressin release in hypothalamic explants that was not observed in fructokinase-knockout mice. In situ hybridization documented fructokinase mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Acute dehydration activates the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the hypothalamus and partly drives the vasopressin response. Exogenous fructose increases vasopressin release in hypothalamic explants dependent on fructokinase. Nevertheless, circulating vasopressin is maintained and urinary concentrating is not impaired. This study increases our understanding of the

  5. Individual differences in allocation of funds in the dictator game associated with length of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor RS3 promoter region and correlation between RS3 length and hippocampal mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, A; Israel, S; Darvasi, A; Bachner-Melman, R; Uzefovsky, F; Cohen, L; Feldman, E; Lerer, E; Laiba, E; Raz, Y; Nemanov, L; Gritsenko, I; Dina, C; Agam, G; Dean, B; Bornstein, G; Ebstein, R P

    2008-04-01

    Human altruism is a widespread phenomenon that puzzled evolutionary biologists since Darwin. Economic games illustrate human altruism by showing that behavior deviates from economic predictions of profit maximization. A game that most plainly shows this altruistic tendency is the Dictator Game. We hypothesized that human altruistic behavior is to some extent hardwired and that a likely candidate that may contribute to individual differences in altruistic behavior is the arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) receptor that in some mammals such as the vole has a profound impact on affiliative behaviors. In the current investigation, 203 male and female university students played an online version of the Dictator Game, for real money payoffs. All subjects and their parents were genotyped for AVPR1a RS1 and RS3 promoter-region repeat polymorphisms. Parents did not participate in online game playing. As variation in the length of a repetitive element in the vole AVPR1a promoter region is associated with differences in social behavior, we examined the relationship between RS1 and RS3 repeat length (base pairs) and allocation sums. Participants with short versions (308-325 bp) of the AVPR1a RS3 repeat allocated significantly (likelihood ratio = 14.75, P = 0.001, df = 2) fewer shekels to the 'other' than participants with long versions (327-343 bp). We also implemented a family-based association test, UNPHASED, to confirm and validate the correlation between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and monetary allocations in the dictator game. Dictator game allocations were significantly associated with the RS3 repeat (global P value: likelihood ratio chi(2) = 11.73, df = 4, P = 0.019). The association between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and altruism was also confirmed using two self-report scales (the Bardi-Schwartz Universalism and Benevolence Value-expressive Behavior scales). RS3 long alleles were associated with higher scores on both measures. Finally, long AVPR1a RS3 repeats were associated with

  6. Dehydration-induced modulation of kappa-opioid inhibition of vasopressin neurone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victoria; Bishop, Valerie R; Leng, Gareth; Brown, Colin H

    2009-12-01

    Dehydration increases vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) secretion from the posterior pituitary gland to reduce water loss in the urine. Vasopressin secretion is determined by action potential firing in vasopressin neurones, which can exhibit continuous, phasic (alternating periods of activity and silence), or irregular activity. Autocrine kappa-opioid inhibition contributes to the generation of activity patterning of vasopressin neurones under basal conditions and so we used in vivo extracellular single unit recording to test the hypothesis that changes in autocrine kappa-opioid inhibition drive changes in activity patterning of vasopressin neurones during dehydration. Dehydration increased the firing rate of rat vasopressin neurones displaying continuous activity (from 7.1 +/- 0.5 to 9.0 +/- 0.6 spikes s(1)) and phasic activity (from 4.2 +/- 0.7 to 7.8 +/- 0.9 spikes s(1)), but not those displaying irregular activity. The dehydration-induced increase in phasic activity was via an increase in intraburst firing rate. The selective -opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine increased the firing rate of phasic neurones in non-dehydrated rats (from 3.4 +/- 0.8 to 5.3 +/- 0.6 spikes s(1)) and dehydrated rats (from 6.4 +/- 0.5 to 9.1 +/- 1.2 spikes s(1)), indicating that kappa-opioid feedback inhibition of phasic bursts is maintained during dehydration. In a separate series of experiments, prodynorphin mRNA expression was increased in vasopressin neurones of hyperosmotic rats, compared to hypo-osmotic rats. Hence, it appears that dynorphin expression in vasopressin neurones undergoes dynamic changes in proportion to the required secretion of vasopressin so that, even under stimulated conditions, autocrine feedback inhibition of vasopressin neurones prevents over-excitation.

  7. DAZL relieves miRNA-mediated repression of germline mRNAs by controlling poly(A tail length in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Takeda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During zebrafish embryogenesis, microRNA (miRNA miR-430 contributes to restrict Nanos1 and TDRD7 to primordial germ cells (PGCs by inducing mRNA deadenylation, mRNA degradation, and translational repression of nanos1 and tdrd7 mRNAs in somatic cells. The nanos1 and tdrd7 3'UTRs include cis-acting elements that allow activity in PGCs even in the presence of miRNA-mediated repression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a GFP reporter mRNA that was fused with tdrd7 3'UTR, we show that a germline-specific RNA-binding protein DAZ-like (DAZL can relieve the miR-430-mediated repression of tdrd7 mRNA by inducing poly(A tail elongation (polyadenylation in zebrafish. We also show that DAZL enhances protein synthesis via the 3'UTR of dazl mRNA, another germline mRNA targeted by miR-430. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present study indicated that DAZL acts as an "anti-miRNA factor" during vertebrate germ cell development. Our data also suggested that miRNA-mediated regulation can be modulated on specific target mRNAs through the poly(A tail control.

  8. On Polya's inequality for torsional rigidity and first Dirichlet eigenvalue

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, M. van den; Ferone, V.; Nitsch, C.; Trombetti, C.

    2016-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be an open set in Euclidean space with finite Lebesgue measure $|\\Omega|$. We obtain some properties of the set function $F:\\Omega\\mapsto \\R^+$ defined by $$ F(\\Omega)=\\frac{T(\\Omega)\\lambda_1(\\Omega)}{|\\Omega|} ,$$ where $T(\\Omega)$ and $\\lambda_1(\\Omega)$ are the torsional rigidity and the first eigenvalue of the Dirichlet Laplacian respectively. We improve the classical P\\'olya bound $F(\\Omega)\\le 1,$ and show that $$F(\\Omega)\\le 1- \

  9. Increase in Alzheimer's related markers preceeds memory disturbances: studies in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, János; Klausz, Barbara; Domokos, Ágnes; Kálmán, Sára; Pákáski, Magdolna; Szűcs, Szabina; Garab, Dénes; Zvara, Ágnes; Puskás, László; Kálmán, János; Tímár, Júlia; Bagdy, György; Zelena, Dóra

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. For more effective therapy early diagnostic markers could be beneficial. Therefore we compared one year old rats with adults and examined if changes in possible brain markers of AD preceeded memory decline. We also tested if vasopressin-deficient animals were useful model of AD as vasopressin has well known positive effect on memory and AD patient has decreased vasopressin production. We compared adult (3 month) and old (12 month), normal and vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats. To receive a comprehensive picture about their memory we examined their social discrimination, object discrimination and conditioned learning abilities (shuttle box). Amyloid precursor protein (APP), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), β-actin and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (TDO2) mRNA levels was measured by quantitative PCR. There was no difference between the memory of adult and aged groups. The vasopressin-deficient rats at both ages showed a weaker performance in the course of social and object discrimination tests and a higher escape failure during the shuttle box experiment. The brain marker mRNAs of the elder animals were higher than the levels of the adults, but the absence of vasopressin had no influence on them. Thus, the one year old rats showed elevated levels of AD-related markers, but memory deficits were observable only in vasopressin deficient animals. Vasopressin does not seem to have pathogenic role in AD. Changes in the studied markers might predict later symptoms, although further studies are required for confirmation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Capped poly(A) leaders of variable lengths at the 5' ends of vaccinia virus late mRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, B.Y.; Moss, B.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence for capped poly(A) leaders of variable lengths located immediately upstream of the translation initiation codon was obtained by direct analyses of a major late mRNA species. A decapping-recapping method was used to specifically substitute a radioactively labeled phosphate for an unlabeled one within the cap structure. RNase H-susceptible sites were made by hybridizing synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides to the mRNA encoding a late major structural protein of 11 kilodaltons. Sequences of the type m/sup 7/G(5')pppAmp (Ap)/sub n/UpG /hor elipsis/, where n varies from a few to more than 40 nucleotides, were deduced by analysis of the length and sequence of RNase, H, RNase T/sub 1/, and RNase U2 digestion products.

  11. [Vasopressin for treatment of hemodynamic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukauskiene, Dalia; Sirvinskas, Edmundas; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2008-01-01

    Vasopressin is a 9-amino acid peptide synthesized by magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus and released from posterior pituitary gland. The primary physiological role of vasopressin is the maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In this review, the classification of vasopressin receptors, namely V1 vascular, V2 renal, V3 pituitary, oxytocin receptors, and purinergic receptors, and the effects of vasopressin on vascular smooth muscles, the heart, and the kidneys are discussed. Mortality rates of vasodilatory (or distributive), for example septic shock, are high. The use of vasopressin is an alternative therapy for vasodilatory shock with better outcome. Vasopressin is effective in resuscitation of adults after ventricular fibrillation or pulseless tachycardia, when epinephrine is not effective.

  12. Sign changes in linear combinations of derivatives and convolutions of Polya frequency functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Nahmias

    1979-01-01

    combinations of derivatives and convolutions of Polya frequency functions using the variation diminishing properties of totally positive functions. These constitute extensions of earlier results of Karlin and Proschan.

  13. Sex differences in vasopressin V2 receptor expression and vasopressin-induced antidiuresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Zheng, Wei; Ji, Hong; Tam, Helen; Wu, Xie; Manigrasso, Michaele B.; Sandberg, Kathryn; Verbalis, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    The renal vasopressin V2 receptor (V2R) plays a critical role in physiological and pathophysiological processes associated with arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced antidiuresis. Because clinical data suggests that females may be more prone to hyponatremia from AVP-mediated antidiuresis, we investigated whether there are sex differences in the expression and function of the renal V2R. In normal Sprague-Dawley rat kidneys, V2R mRNA and protein expression was 2.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively, in females compared with males. To investigate the potential physiological implications of this sex difference, we studied changes in urine osmolality induced by the AVP V2R agonist desmopressin. In response to different doses of desmopressin, there was a graded increase in urine osmolality and decrease in urine volume during a 24-h infusion. Females showed greater mean increases in urine osmolality and greater mean decreases in urine volume at 0.5 and 5.0 ng/h infusion rates. We also studied renal escape from antidiuresis produced by water loading in rats infused with desmopressin (5.0 ng/h). After 5 days of water loading, urine osmolality of both female and male rats escaped to the same degree physiologically, but V2R mRNA and protein in female kidneys was reduced to a greater degree (−63% and −73%, respectively) than in males (−32% and −48%, respectively). By the end of the 5-day escape period, renal V2R mRNA and protein expression were reduced to the same relative levels in males and females, thereby abolishing the sex differences in V2R expression seen in the basal state. Our results demonstrate that female rats express significantly more V2R mRNA and protein in kidneys than males, and that this results physiologically in a greater sensitivity to V2R agonist administration. The potential pathophysiological implications of these results are that females may be more susceptible to the development of dilutional hyponatremia because of a greater sensitivity to

  14. Vasopressin – Emerging Importance in Sepsis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    currently being used in CPR, Septic shock, Post CPB shock and in other areas requiring a vasopressor. Vasopressin and Sepsis. Vasopressin's use in sepsis stemmed originally from Landry's observation in 1994 that patients in vasodilatory septic shock were very sensitive to the vasopressor action of infused Vaso- pressin.

  15. Translatability of rat kidney mRNA after mercury administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, S; Kuliszewski, M J; Girgis, G R; Nicholls, D M

    1985-09-01

    Young male rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg HgCl2/kg body weight and 16 h later the kidneys were removed and homogenized to prepare the polysomal fraction from which the poly(A)+ RNA was obtained. The activity of this fraction was assessed by translating the poly(A)+ RNA in a mRNA-dependent rabbit reticulocyte lysate and the activity was markedly elevated relative to preparations from control rat kidneys. The incorporation of labelled leucine and cysteine, but not phenylalanine, into a low molecular weight protein (approximately 10 000 as judged by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) accounted for the increased mRNA activity. The mobility during electrophoresis of the denatured labelled product and carboxymethylated product, as well as their acidic isoelectric points, provided evidence that it is metallothionein mRNA which exhibits increased translatability in preparations derived from mercury-treated rats.

  16. Distinct 5-methylcytosine profiles in poly(A) RNA from mouse embryonic stem cells and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amort, Thomas; Rieder, Dietmar; Wille, Alexandra; Khokhlova-Cubberley, Daria; Riml, Christian; Trixl, Lukas; Jia, Xi-Yu; Micura, Ronald; Lusser, Alexandra

    2017-01-05

    Recent work has identified and mapped a range of posttranscriptional modifications in mRNA, including methylation of the N6 and N1 positions in adenine, pseudouridylation, and methylation of carbon 5 in cytosine (m5C). However, knowledge about the prevalence and transcriptome-wide distribution of m5C is still extremely limited; thus, studies in different cell types, tissues, and organisms are needed to gain insight into possible functions of this modification and implications for other regulatory processes. We have carried out an unbiased global analysis of m5C in total and nuclear poly(A) RNA of mouse embryonic stem cells and murine brain. We show that there are intriguing differences in these samples and cell compartments with respect to the degree of methylation, functional classification of methylated transcripts, and position bias within the transcript. Specifically, we observe a pronounced accumulation of m5C sites in the vicinity of the translational start codon, depletion in coding sequences, and mixed patterns of enrichment in the 3' UTR. Degree and pattern of methylation distinguish transcripts modified in both embryonic stem cells and brain from those methylated in either one of the samples. We also analyze potential correlations between m5C and micro RNA target sites, binding sites of RNA binding proteins, and N6-methyladenosine. Our study presents the first comprehensive picture of cytosine methylation in the epitranscriptome of pluripotent and differentiated stages in the mouse. These data provide an invaluable resource for future studies of function and biological significance of m5C in mRNA in mammals.

  17. Therapeutic applications of vasopressin in pediatric patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agrawal, Amit; Singh, Vishal K; Varma, Amit; Sharma, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    ...”, “shock”, “septic shock”, “vasodilatory shock”, “cardiac arrest”, and “resuscitation” for reports on vasopressin/terlipressin use in children and manual review of article bibliographies...

  18. The 25 kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im Is a RNA-binding protein that interacts with the poly(A polymerase in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Pezet-Valdez

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25 from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25 was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A polymerase (EhPAP that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3' end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite.

  19. Involvement of hGLD-2 in cytoplasmic polyadenylation of human p53 mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Norrild, Bodil

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a post-transcriptional mechanism regulating mRNA stability and translation. The human p53 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) contains two regions similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) just upstream of the poly(A) hexanucleotide. Evaluation of the p53 CPE......-like elements was performed by luciferase reporter assays, qPCR, and poly(A) assays. Herein, we report the down regulation of a luciferase reporter fused to the p53 3'-UTR, when human CPE-binding protein 1 (hCPEB1) is overexpressed. This inhibition is partially rescued when hCPEB1fused to hGLD-2 [a human...... cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase] is overexpressed instead. The stability of a luciferase mRNA containing the p53 3'-UTR downstream, is decreased when hCPEB1 is overexpressed as seen by qPCR. Expression of hGLD-2 restores the mRNA stability. This is due to elongation of the poly(A) tail as seen by a PCR...

  20. Optimal pricing using online auction experiments: A P\\'olya tree approach

    OpenAIRE

    George, Edward I.; Hui, Sam K.

    2012-01-01

    We show how a retailer can estimate the optimal price of a new product using observed transaction prices from online second-price auction experiments. For this purpose we propose a Bayesian P\\'olya tree approach which, given the limited nature of the data, requires a specially tailored implementation. Avoiding the need for a priori parametric assumptions, the P\\'olya tree approach allows for flexible inference of the valuation distribution, leading to more robust estimation of optimal price t...

  1. The role of the poly(A) binding protein in the assembly of the Cap-binding complex during translation initiation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Translation initiation in eukaryotes requires the involvement of multiple initiation factors (eIFs) that facilitate the binding of the 40 S ribosomal subunit to an mRNA and assemble the 80 S ribosome at the correct initiation codon. eIF4F, composed of eIF4E, eIF4A, and eIF4G, binds to the 5′-cap structure of an mRNA and prepares an mRNA for recruitment of a 40 S subunit. eIF4B promotes the ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity of eIF4A and eIF4F needed to unwind secondary structure present in a 5′-leader that would otherwise impede scanning of the 40 S subunit during initiation. The poly(A) binding protein (PABP), which binds the poly(A) tail, interacts with eIF4G and eIF4B to promote circularization of an mRNA and stimulates translation by promoting 40 S subunit recruitment. Thus, these factors serve essential functions in the early steps of protein synthesis. Their assembly and function requires multiple interactions that are competitive in nature and determine the nature of interactions between the termini of an mRNA. In this review, the domain organization and partner protein interactions are presented for the factors in plants which share similarities with those in animals and yeast but differ in several important respects. The functional consequences of their interactions on factor activity are also discussed. PMID:26779409

  2. Bortezomib induces the formation of nuclear poly(A) RNA granules enriched in Sam68 and PABPN1 in sensory ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casafont, Iñigo; Berciano, Maria T; Lafarga, Miguel

    2010-02-01

    The ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system (UPS) is the major pathway responsible for selective nuclear and cytoplasmic protein degradation. Bortezomib, a boronic acid dipeptide, is a reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor used as novel anticancer drug, particularly in the treatment of multiple myeloma and certain lymphomas. Bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN) is a widely recognized dose-limiting neurotoxicity of this proteasome inhibitor, which causes a significant negative impact on the quality of life. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying bortezomib neurotoxicity are little known. In this study a rat was used as our animal model to investigate the bortezomib-induced nuclear changes in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Our results indicate that this neuronal population is an important target of bortezomib neurotoxicity. Nuclear changes include accumulation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, reduction of transcriptional activity, and nuclear retention of poly(A) RNAs in numerous spherical or ring-shaped dense granules. They also contained the RNA-binding proteins PABPN1 (poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1) and Sam68, but lacked the mRNA nuclear export factors REF and Y14. At the cytoplasmic level, most neurons exhibited chromatolysis, supporting the inhibition of mRNA translation. Our results indicate that bortezomib interferes with transcription, nuclear processing and transport, and cytoplasmic translation of mRNAs in DRG neurons. They also support that this neuronal dysfunction is an essential pathogenic mechanism in the BIPN, which is characterized by sensory impairment including sensory ataxia.

  3. Biochemical changes in progressive muscular dystrophy. XIV. Skeletal muscle myosin mRNA translatability in dystrophic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, U S; Sugden, E A; Majumdar, P K; Thakur, M L; Bhatnagar, G M

    1987-09-01

    Variations in the content and translatability of the poly(A)+ RNA and mRNA molecules coding for myosin (M) were studied in the hind leg muscles of genetically dystrophic mice. The poly(A)+ RNA content of total skeletal muscle failed to increase normally during progression of the disease. M mRNA, isolated from dystrophic normally during progression of the disease. M mRNA, isolated from dystrophic murine muscle poly(A)+ RNA, was mostly found to be associated with the 26S RNA species. The translation of M mRNA in an in vitro heterologous wheat germ system was lower at 8 and 16 weeks in the dystrophic group as compared with the controls. Analysis of the translation products via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, autoradiography, and densitometric autoradiographic tracing demonstrated the gradual disappearance of a protein band corresponding to M, the major component of skeletal muscle. cDNA was synthesized, using M mRNA that was isolated and purified from normal and dystrophic mouse muscle as a template. Total radioactivity was measured in some cDNA fractions produced from normal and dystrophic mouse muscle, while other fractions were utilized for separation and sizing of cDNA by disc gel electrophoresis. The cDNA from normal muscle was hybridized with M mRNA from normal and 16-week-old dystrophic mouse muscles. The cDNA probe, hybridization experiments, and studies involving the content and synthesis of M mRNA suggest that murine muscular dystrophy elicited a shorter species of mRNA or shorter sequences of the same species of mRNA coding for M. Not all poly(A)+ mRNA sequences coding for M, found in control mice, were present in their dystrophic counterparts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Correct immunoglobulin alpha mRNA processing depends on specific sequence in the C alpha 3-alpha M intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, J H; Lebman, D A

    2000-04-01

    The maturation of IgM-expressing B cells to IgM-secreting plasma cells is associated with both an increase in mu mRNA and the ratio of secreted to membrane forms of mu mRNA which differ at the 3' termini. In contrast, both in vitro and in vivo the secreted form of alpha mRNA is predominant at all stages in the development of a secretory IgA response. Previous studies demonstrated that preferential usage of the alpha s poly(A) site does not result from transcription termination and is independent of either the poly(A) sites or the 3' splice site associated with the exon encoding the membrane exon of IgA (alpha M). The present study demonstrates that a 349-bp region located 774 bp 3' to the alpha s poly(A) site is required for the preferential usage of the alpha s terminus. This region, which is the first isotype-specific cis-acting regulatory sequence not immediately adjacent to a secretory poly(A) site to be identified, contains regulatory elements that increase the efficiency of polyadenylation/cleavage. A ubiquitous, approximately 58-kDa RNA-binding protein interacts specifically with this regulatory region. These studies support the premise that cis-acting elements unique to each CH gene can impinge upon a common mechanism regulating Ig mRNA processing.

  5. Comparison of ex vivo stability of copeptin and vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Judith E; Boesten, Lianne S M; Ettema, Esmée M; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Zittema, Debbie

    BACKGROUND: Copeptin, part of the vasopressin precursor, is increasingly used as marker for vasopressin and is claimed to have better ex vivo stability. However, no study has directly compared the ex vivo stability of copeptin and vasopressin. METHODS: Blood of ten healthy volunteers was collected

  6. Validation of artificial microRNA expression by poly(A) tailing-based RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Rui Shi, Chenmin Yang, Ronald Sederoff & Vincent Chiang ### Abstract Here we describe a protocol for validating expression of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) by poly(A) tailing-based RT-PCR. Total RNAs, including amiRNA, are poly(A) tailed using E.coli. poly(A) polymerase. Poly(A) tailed amiRNA can be converted into cDNA along with mRNAs in a reverse transcription reaction primed by a standard poly(T) anchor adaptor. AmiRNA can then be amplified and quantitated by real-time PC...

  7. Cholinergic regulation of the vasopressin neuroendocrine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the physical and functional relationship between the cholinergic system, and the neurodocrine cells of the supraoptic nucleus, a combination of experiments on receptor binding, localization and function were carried out. The putative nicotinic receptor probe (/sup 125/I)alpha bungarotoxin ((/sup 125/I)alpha BTX) bound with high affinity and specificity to the vasopressin and oxytocin magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus, nucleus circularis, and paraventricular nucleus. Binding of (/sup 125/I)alpha BTX within the neural lobe was very low. In contrast, the muscarinic cholinergic receptor probe (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) did not bind to magnocellular vasopressin and oxytocin cell groups. The median eminence, which contains the neurosecretory axons, and the neural lobe of the pituitary contain low levels of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding. The physiological significance of these cholinergic receptors in regulation of vasopressin release was tested using an in vitro preparation of the supraoptic - neural lobe system.

  8. Endosymbiont gene functions impaired and rescued by polymerase infidelity at poly(A) tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Wernegreen, Jennifer J.; Nystedt, Björn; Kauppinen, Seth N.; Darby, Alistair C.; Gomez-Valero, Laura; Lundin, Daniel; Poole, Anthony M.; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Among host-dependent bacteria that have evolved by extreme reductive genome evolution, long-term bacterial endosymbionts of insects have the smallest (160–790 kb) and most A + T-rich (>70%) bacterial genomes known to date. These genomes are riddled with poly(A) tracts, and 5–50% of genes contain tracts of 10 As or more. Here, we demonstrate transcriptional slippage at poly(A) tracts within genes of Buchnera aphidicola associated with aphids and Blochmannia pennsylvanicus associated with ants. Several tracts contain single frameshift deletions; these apparent pseudogenes showed patterns of constraint consistent with purifying selection on the encoded proteins. Transcriptional slippage yielded a heterogeneous population of transcripts with variable numbers of As in the tract. Across several frameshifted genes, including B. aphidicola cell wall biosynthesis genes and a B. pennsylvanicus histidine biosynthesis gene, 12–50% of transcripts contained corrected reading frames that could potentially yield full-length proteins. In situ immunostaining confirmed the production of the cell wall biosynthetic enzyme UDP-N-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide synthase encoded by the frameshifted murF gene. Simulation studies indicated an overrepresentation of poly(A) tracts in endosymbiont genomes relative to other A + T-rich bacterial genomes. Polymerase infidelity at poly(A) tracts rescues the functionality of genes with frameshift mutations and, conversely, reduces the efficiency of expression for in-frame genes carrying poly(A) regions. These features of homopolymeric tracts could be exploited to manipulate gene expression in small synthetic genomes. PMID:18815381

  9. Comparison of ex vivo stability of copeptin and vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Judith E; Boesten, Lianne S M; Ettema, Esmée M; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Franssen, Casper F M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Zittema, Debbie

    2017-06-27

    Copeptin, part of the vasopressin precursor, is increasingly used as marker for vasopressin and is claimed to have better ex vivo stability. However, no study has directly compared the ex vivo stability of copeptin and vasopressin. Blood of ten healthy volunteers was collected in EDTA tubes. Next, we studied the effect of various pre-analytical conditions on measured vasopressin and copeptin levels: centrifugation speed, short-term storage temperature and differences between whole blood and plasma, long-term storage temperature and repeated freezing and thawing. The acceptable change limit (ACL), indicating the maximal percentage change that can be explained by assay variability, was used as cut-off to determine changes in vasopressin and copeptin. The ACL was 25% for vasopressin and 19% for copeptin. Higher centrifugation speed resulted in lower vasopressin levels, whereas copeptin concentration was unaffected. In whole blood, vasopressin was stable up to 2 h at 25°C and 6 h at 4°C. In plasma, vasopressin was stable up to 6 h at 25°C and 24 h at 4°C. In contrast, copeptin was stable in whole blood and plasma for at least 24h at both temperatures. At -20°C, vasopressin was stable up to 1 month and copeptin for at least 4 months. Both vasopressin and copeptin were stable after 4 months when stored at -80°C and -150°C. Vasopressin concentration decreased after four freeze-thaw cycles, whereas copeptin concentration was unaffected. Vasopressin levels were considerably affected by pre-analytical conditions, while copeptin levels were stable. Therefore, a strict sample handling protocol for measurement of vasopressin is recommended.

  10. Estimation of Plasma Arginine Vasopressin Concentration Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    increase in plasma osmolality and increase in ADH and thirst. The purpose of this study was to estimate plasma arginine vasopressin (PAVP) using thirst perception (TP) and plasma osmolality (POSM) values before and at 60 minutes in control or euhydrate (group A, 0.0 ml/kg body weight of distilled water), hydrated (group ...

  11. Vasopressin in perioperative management of congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perioperative care of infants with diaphragmatic hernias can be a challenge because of pulmonary hypertension and systemic hypotension. The objective of this study was to report the usefulness of vasopressin infusion in improving pulmonary and systemic haemodynamics in an infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

  12. Inappropriate Vasopressin Secretion (SIADH) in Burned Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    et al.: Role of vasopressin in his colleagues have once again set a very high standard for us the impaired water excretion of glucocorticoid ...were unable to define, that set in motion this persistent anti- diuresis . Subsequently, Leaf, Bartter, Santos, and Wrong DR. KHAN Z. SHIRANI

  13. Poly(A) motif prediction using spectral latent features from human DNA sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Bo

    2013-06-21

    Motivation: Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to an RNA molecule. Identifying DNA sequence motifs that signal the addition of poly(A) tails is essential to improved genome annotation and better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms and stability of mRNA.Existing poly(A) motif predictors demonstrate that information extracted from the surrounding nucleotide sequences of candidate poly(A) motifs can differentiate true motifs from the false ones to a great extent. A variety of sophisticated features has been explored, including sequential, structural, statistical, thermodynamic and evolutionary properties. However, most of these methods involve extensive manual feature engineering, which can be time-consuming and can require in-depth domain knowledge.Results: We propose a novel machine-learning method for poly(A) motif prediction by marrying generative learning (hidden Markov models) and discriminative learning (support vector machines). Generative learning provides a rich palette on which the uncertainty and diversity of sequence information can be handled, while discriminative learning allows the performance of the classification task to be directly optimized. Here, we used hidden Markov models for fitting the DNA sequence dynamics, and developed an efficient spectral algorithm for extracting latent variable information from these models. These spectral latent features were then fed into support vector machines to fine-tune the classification performance.We evaluated our proposed method on a comprehensive human poly(A) dataset that consists of 14 740 samples from 12 of the most abundant variants of human poly(A) motifs. Compared with one of the previous state-of-the-art methods in the literature (the random forest model with expert-crafted features), our method reduces the average error rate, false-negative rate and false-positive rate by 26, 15 and 35%, respectively. Meanwhile, our method makes ?30% fewer error predictions relative to the other

  14. Deadenylation of mRNA by the CCR4-NOT complex in Drosophila: molecular and developmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eTemme

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Controlled shortening of the poly(A tail of mRNAs is the first step in eukaryotic mRNA decay and can also be used for translational inactivation of mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex is the most important among a small number of deadenylases, enzymes catalyzing poly(A tail shortening. Rates of poly(A shortening differ between mRNAs as the CCR4-NOT complex is recruited to specific mRNAs by means of either sequence-specific RNA binding proteins or miRNAs. This review summarizes our current knowledge concerning the subunit composition and deadenylation activity of the Drosophila CCR4-NOT complex and the mechanisms by which the complex is recruited to particular mRNAs. We discuss genetic data implicating the complex in the regulation of specific mRNAs, in particular in the context of development.

  15. The vasopressin V1b receptor modulates plasma corticosterone responses to dehydration-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E M; Pope, G R; Newson, M J F; Lolait, S J; O'Carroll, A-M

    2011-01-01

    Vasopressin V1b receptor knockout (V1b⁻/⁻) mice were used to investigate a putative role for the V1b receptor (V1bR) in fluid regulation and in the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to osmotic stress induced by water deprivation (WD). Male wild-type and V1b⁻/⁻ mice were housed in metabolic cages to allow determination of water intake and urine volume and osmolality. When provided with food and water ad lib., spontaneous urine volume and urine osmolality did not differ between genotypes. Similarly, WD for 24 h caused comparable decreases in urine volume and increases in urine osmolality irrespective of genotype. WD resulted in an increase in plasma corticosterone concentration in wild-type animals; however, this WD-induced increase in plasma corticosterone was significantly attenuated in V1b⁻/⁻ mice. Comparable increases in neuronal activation, indicated by increased c-fos mRNA expression, and in vasopressin mRNA expression occurred in both the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of wild-type and V1b⁻/⁻ mice following WD; however, the WD-induced decrease in corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression seen in the PVN of wild-type mice was not observed in the PVN of V1b⁻/⁻ mice. These data suggest that, although the vasopressin V1bR is not required for normal HNS function, it is necessary for a full HPA-axis response to the osmotic stress of WD. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. How to-Count-An Exposition of Polya's Theory of Enumeration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 9. How to Count – An Exposition of Polya's Theory of Enumeration. Shriya Anand. General Article Volume 7 Issue 9 September 2002 pp 19-35. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Effect of Polya Problem-Solving Model on Senior Secondary School Students' Performance in Current Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Ademola Olatide; Omosewo, Esther O.; Nwankwo, Levi I.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the Effect of Polya Problem-Solving Model on Senior School Students' Performance in Current Electricity. It was a quasi experimental study of non- randomized, non equivalent pre-test post-test control group design. Three research questions were answered and corresponding three research hypotheses were tested…

  18. The Effects of Polya's Heuristic and Diary Writing on Children's Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensberry, Karina K. R.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed at increasing students' problem-solving skills. Polya's (1985) heuristic for problem solving was used and students were required to articulate their thought processes through the use of a structured diary. The diary prompted students to answer questions designed to engage them in the phases of…

  19. Interaction of a vasopressin antagonist with vasopressin receptors in the septum of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsa, D.M.; Brot, M.D.; Shewey, L.M.; Meyers, K.M.; Szot, P.; Miller, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of d(CH2)5-Tyr(Me)-arginine-8-vasopressin, an antagonist of peripheral pressoric (V1-type) vasopressin receptors, to label vasopressin binding sites in the septum of the rat brain was evaluated. Using crude membrane preparations from the septum, /sup 3/H-arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) specifically labels a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 2.9 nM and maximum binding site concentration of 19.8 fmole/mg protein. /sup 3/H-Antag also labels a single class of membrane sites but with higher affinity (Kd = 0.47 nM) and lower capacity (10.1 fmole/mg protein) than /sup 3/H-AVP. The rank order of potency of various competitor peptides for /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag binding was similar. Oxytocin was 100-1,000 fold less potent than AVP in competing for binding with both ligands. /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag showed similar labeling patterns when incubated with septal tissue slices. Unlabeled Antag also effectively antagonized vasopressin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in septal tissue slices.

  20. Oxytocin and vasopressin: distinct receptors in myometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, G.; Balestre, M.N.; Roberts, J.M.; Bottari, S.P.

    1987-06-01

    The binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)oxytocin (( /sup 3/H)OT) and (/sup 3/H)lysine vasopressin (( /sup 3/H)LVP) to nonpregnant human myometrium were investigated. Binding of both radioligands was saturable, time dependent, and reversible. Whereas (/sup 3/H)OT was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity (Kd, 1.5 +/- 0.4 (+/- SEM) nM) and low capacity (maximum binding (Bmax), 34 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein), (/sup 3/H)LVP bound to two classes of sites, one with high affinity (Kd, 2.2 +/- 0.1 nM) and low capacity (Bmax, 198 +/- 7 fmol/mg protein) and another with low affinity (Kd, 655 +/- 209 nM) and high capacity (Bmax, 5794 +/- 1616 fmol/mg protein). The binding of the labeled peptides also displayed a marked difference in sensitivity to Mg2+ and guanine nucleotides. These differences in binding characteristics as well as the differences in potency of analogs in competing for (/sup 3/H)OT and (/sup 3/H)LVP binding indicate the presence of distinct receptors for OT and vasopressin in human myometrium. Pharmacological characterization of the high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)LVP indicated that these are of the V1 subtype. Although, as suggested by others, vasopressin and OT can bind to the same sites, the presence of distinct receptors for both peptides provides an explanation for the previously reported difference in myometrial responsiveness to OT and vasopressin.

  1. Arginine Vasopressin and Copeptin in Perinatology

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Katrina Suzanne; Wellmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a major role in the homeostasis of fluid balance, vascular tonus, and the regulation of the endocrine stress response. The measurement of AVP levels is difficult due to its short half-life and laborious method of detection. Copeptin is a more stable peptide derived from the same precursor molecule, is released in an equimolar ratio to AVP, and has a very similar response to osmotic, hemodynamic, and stress-related stimuli. In fact, copeptin has been propagated...

  2. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS.

  3. A Population Model of Vasopressin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Durie, Ruth Frances

    2008-01-01

    Computer modelling is a powerful tool for clarifying and testing theory. In neuroscience, this often means replicating firing patterns. Models need evaluation functions to quantify the significance of features in the firing patterns, but usually the effect of firing is insufficiently understood. The magnocellular vasopressin neurons of the hypothalamus do have an output that is both well understood and quantifiable: they secrete a hormone into the bloodstream in proportion to blood osmol...

  4. Vasopressin and the Output of the Hypothalamic Biological Clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, A.; Fliers, E.; Hofman, M. A.; Swaab, D. F.; Buijs, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    The physiological effects of vasopressin as a peripheral hormone were first reported more than 100 years ago. However, it was not until the first immunocytochemical studies were carried out in the early 1970s, using vasopressin antibodies, and the discovery of an extensive distribution of

  5. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten Morill; Hansen, Pernille Bl

    2011-01-01

    It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP m......RNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT. Water deprivation resulted in lower urine osmolality, higher plasma...... osmolality in COX-2(-/-) mice irrespective of gender. Hypothalamic AVP mRNA level increased and was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. AVP peptide content was higher in COX-2(-/-) compared with WT. At baseline, plasma AVP concentration was elevated in conscious chronically catheterized COX-2...

  6. Human Neuroimaging of Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Caroline F; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have increasingly been identified as modulators of human social behaviors and associated with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as autism. Identifying the human brain regions that are impacted by oxytocin and vasopressin in a social context is essential to fully characterize the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in complex human social cognition. Advances in human non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and genetics have enabled scientists to begin to elucidate the neurobiological basis of the influence of oxytocin and vasopressin on human social behaviors. Here we review the findings to-date from investigations of the acute and chronic effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on neural activity underlying social cognitive processes using “pharmacological fMRI” and “imaging genetics”, respectively. PMID:22326707

  7. Bayesian inference for logistic models using Polya-Gamma latent variables

    OpenAIRE

    Polson, Nicholas G.; Scott, James G.; Windle, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new data-augmentation strategy for fully Bayesian inference in models with binomial likelihoods. The approach appeals to a new class of Polya-Gamma distributions, which are constructed in detail. A variety of examples are presented to show the versatility of the method, including logistic regression, negative binomial regression, nonlinear mixed-effects models, and spatial models for count data. In each case, our data-augmentation strategy leads to simple, effective methods for p...

  8. Tdd-3, a tRNA gene-associated poly(A) retrotransposon from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, T; Tschepke, C; de Hostos, E L; Jendretzke, A; Dingermann, T

    1998-04-01

    The full-length 5218-bp sequence of the mobile genetic element Tdd-3 from Dictyostelium discoideum is described. Tdd-3 encodes two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) flanked by non-redundant, untranslated regions. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF2 is homologous to reverse transcriptases (RTs) encoded by the class of poly(A) retrotransposons. ORF2 also encodes a putative protein domain related to the family of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases, whose retroelement-encoded homologs have recently been proposed to represent the integrase function of poly(A) retrotransposons. Comparison of several genomic Tdd-3 copies revealed that element insertion is orientation specific and occurs about 100 bp downstream of tRNA genes in the D. discoideum genome. These properties of Tdd-3 suggest that the element is a tRNA gene-associated poly(A) retroelement present in the D. discoideum genome. Analysis of several cloned cDNAs derived from Tdd-3-specific plus strand RNAs indicate that the element is transcribed and polyadenylated during the growth of D. discoideum cells.

  9. Omni-PolyA: a method and tool for accurate recognition of Poly(A) signals in human genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana-Mora, Arturo; Kalkatawi, Manal; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2017-08-15

    Polyadenylation is a critical stage of RNA processing during the formation of mature mRNA, and is present in most of the known eukaryote protein-coding transcripts and many long non-coding RNAs. The correct identification of poly(A) signals (PAS) not only helps to elucidate the 3'-end genomic boundaries of a transcribed DNA region and gene regulatory mechanisms but also gives insight into the multiple transcript isoforms resulting from alternative PAS. Although progress has been made in the in-silico prediction of genomic signals, the recognition of PAS in DNA genomic sequences remains a challenge. In this study, we analyzed human genomic DNA sequences for the 12 most common PAS variants. Our analysis has identified a set of features that helps in the recognition of true PAS, which may be involved in the regulation of the polyadenylation process. The proposed features, in combination with a recognition model, resulted in a novel method and tool, Omni-PolyA. Omni-PolyA combines several machine learning techniques such as different classifiers in a tree-like decision structure and genetic algorithms for deriving a robust classification model. We performed a comparison between results obtained by state-of-the-art methods, deep neural networks, and Omni-PolyA. Results show that Omni-PolyA significantly reduced the average classification error rate by 35.37% in the prediction of the 12 considered PAS variants relative to the state-of-the-art results. The results of our study demonstrate that Omni-PolyA is currently the most accurate model for the prediction of PAS in human and can serve as a useful complement to other PAS recognition methods. Omni-PolyA is publicly available as an online tool accessible at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/omnipolya/ .

  10. Class II members of the poly(A) binding protein family exhibit distinct functions during Arabidopsis growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds to the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs and contributes to their stability and translational efficiency. In plants, PABP is expressed from an unusually large gene family grouped into 3 classes that expanded during the evolution of land plants. Subsequent to expansion of the family, members diverged in their primary sequence and in expression. Further expansion of the family and divergence of its members in the Brassicaceae demonstrate the continued dynamic evolution of PABP in plants. In this study, the function of the widely-expressed class II PABP family members was examined to determine how individual class II members contribute to plant growth and development. Of the 3 class II PABP members, PAB2 and PAB4 contribute most to vegetative growth and vegetative-to-floral transition whereas PAB2, and the recently-evolved third class II member, PAB8, contribute to inflorescence and silique growth. Interestingly, although class I and class III PABP members are expressed specifically in reproductive organs, class II PABP members are also necessary for fertility in that the combinatorial loss of PAB2 and either PAB4 or PAB8 expression resulted in reduced fertility. Although all 3 class II members are required for protein expression, PAB4 contributes most to the steady-state level of a reporter mRNA and to protein expression. These findings suggest that class II PABP members are partially overlapping in function but also involved in distinct aspects of plant growth and development.

  11. Omni-PolyA: a method and tool for accurate recognition of Poly(A) signals in human genomic DNA

    KAUST Repository

    Magana-Mora, Arturo

    2017-08-15

    BackgroundPolyadenylation is a critical stage of RNA processing during the formation of mature mRNA, and is present in most of the known eukaryote protein-coding transcripts and many long non-coding RNAs. The correct identification of poly(A) signals (PAS) not only helps to elucidate the 3′-end genomic boundaries of a transcribed DNA region and gene regulatory mechanisms but also gives insight into the multiple transcript isoforms resulting from alternative PAS. Although progress has been made in the in-silico prediction of genomic signals, the recognition of PAS in DNA genomic sequences remains a challenge.ResultsIn this study, we analyzed human genomic DNA sequences for the 12 most common PAS variants. Our analysis has identified a set of features that helps in the recognition of true PAS, which may be involved in the regulation of the polyadenylation process. The proposed features, in combination with a recognition model, resulted in a novel method and tool, Omni-PolyA. Omni-PolyA combines several machine learning techniques such as different classifiers in a tree-like decision structure and genetic algorithms for deriving a robust classification model. We performed a comparison between results obtained by state-of-the-art methods, deep neural networks, and Omni-PolyA. Results show that Omni-PolyA significantly reduced the average classification error rate by 35.37% in the prediction of the 12 considered PAS variants relative to the state-of-the-art results.ConclusionsThe results of our study demonstrate that Omni-PolyA is currently the most accurate model for the prediction of PAS in human and can serve as a useful complement to other PAS recognition methods. Omni-PolyA is publicly available as an online tool accessible at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/omnipolya/.

  12. Developmental Perspectives on Oxytocin and Vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Elizabeth A D

    2015-01-01

    The related neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in species-typical behavior, including social recognition behavior, maternal behavior, social bonding, communication, and aggression. A wealth of evidence from animal models demonstrates significant modulation of adult social behavior by both of these neuropeptides and their receptors. Over the last decade, there has been a flood of studies in humans also implicating a role for these neuropeptides in human social behavior. Despite popular assumptions that oxytocin is a molecule of social bonding in the infant brain, less mechanistic research emphasis has been placed on the potential role of these neuropeptides in the developmental emergence of the neural substrates of behavior. This review summarizes what is known and assumed about the developmental influence of these neuropeptides and outlines the important unanswered questions and testable hypotheses. There is tremendous translational need to understand the functions of these neuropeptides in mammalian experience-dependent development of the social brain. The activity of oxytocin and vasopressin during development should inform our understanding of individual, sex, and species differences in social behavior later in life. PMID:24863032

  13. Evidence for a vasopressin receptor-GTP binding protein complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, T.J.; Uhing, R.J.; Exton, J.H.

    1986-05-01

    Plasma membranes from the livers of rats were able to hydrolyze the ..gamma..-phosphate from guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP). The rate of GTP hydrolysis could be decreased to 10% of its initial rate by the addition of adenosine-5'-triphosphate with a concomitant decrease in the K/sub m/ for GTP from approx. 10/sup -3/ M to 10/sup -6/ M. The low K/sub m/ GTPase activity was inhibited by the addition of nonhydrolyzable analogs of GTP. In addition, the GTPase activity was stimulated from 10 to 30% over basal by the addition of vasopressin. A dose dependency curve showed that the maximum stimulation was obtained with 10/sup -8/ M vasopressin. Identical results were obtained from plasma membranes that had been solubilized with 1% digitonin. When membranes that had been solubilized in the presence of (Phenylalanyl-3,4,5-/sup 3/H(N))vasopressin were subjected to sucrose gradient centrifugation, the majority of bound (/sup 3/H)vasopressin migrated with an approximate molecular weight of 300,000. Moreover, there was a GTPase activity that migrated with the bound (/sup 3/H)vasopressin. This peak of bound (/sup 3/H)vasopressin was decreased by 90% when the sucrose gradient centrifugation was run in the presence of 10/sup -5/ M guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). These results support the conclusion that liver plasma membranes contain a GTP-binding protein that can complex with the vasopressin receptor.

  14. Osmotic Stress Induces Transcriptional Changes in Vasopressin and Vasopressin 1b Receptor Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-29

    the extracellular space and into the plasma through fenestrated capillaries surrounding the nerve terminals. The release ofAVP is coupled to vasopressin... vesicles . ~1utations that disrupt membrane localization ofaquaporin were described by Deen and colleagues in 1994 (Deen et al., 1994), and more recently...COIlUS straitus venoms . J. Bioi. Chem. 262: 15821-15824. Dayanithi, G., N. Sabatier, and H. Widmer. 2000. Intracellular calcium signalling in magnocellular

  15. Global analysis of mRNA isoform half-lives reveals stabilizing and destabilizing elements in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisberg, Joseph V; Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Fan, Xiaochun; Ozsolak, Fatih; Struhl, Kevin

    2014-02-13

    We measured half-lives of 21,248 mRNA 3' isoforms in yeast by rapidly depleting RNA polymerase II from the nucleus and performing direct RNA sequencing throughout the decay process. Interestingly, half-lives of mRNA isoforms from the same gene, including nearly identical isoforms, often vary widely. Based on clusters of isoforms with different half-lives, we identify hundreds of sequences conferring stabilization or destabilization upon mRNAs terminating downstream. One class of stabilizing element is a polyU sequence that can interact with poly(A) tails, inhibit the association of poly(A)-binding protein, and confer increased stability upon introduction into ectopic transcripts. More generally, destabilizing and stabilizing elements are linked to the propensity of the poly(A) tail to engage in double-stranded structures. Isoforms engineered to fold into 3' stem-loop structures not involving the poly(A) tail exhibit even longer half-lives. We suggest that double-stranded structures at 3' ends are a major determinant of mRNA stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of aquaporins and vasopressin type 2 receptor in the stria vascularis of the cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, R; Takeda, T; Kakigi, A; Okada, T; Takebayashi, S; Taguchi, D; Nishimura, M; Hyodo, M

    2010-02-01

    Recently, considerable evidence has been accumulated to support the novel view that water homeostasis in the inner ear is regulated via the vasopressin-aquaporin 2 (VP-AQP2) system in the same fashion as in the kidney. Indeed, multiple subtypes of AQPs including AQP-2 are reported to be expressed in the cochlea. However, the mechanism that underlies VP-AQP-2 mediated water homeostasis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the localizations of AQP-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8, -9, and vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2-R) in the stria vascularis (SV) were molecular biologically and immunohistochemically examined to evaluate the role of the AQP water channel system in water homeostasis of the SV. A RT-PCR study revealed that AQPs and V2-R mRNA are expressed in the cochlea. As for their immunohistochemical localization, the AQP-2 protein is expressed on the basal side of the basal cells of the SV, and proteins of AQP-3 and V2-R are expressed on the apical side of the basal cells. AQP-7 and -9 proteins are expressed on the apical side of marginal cells. AQP-4, -5, and -8 protein expressions could not be detected in the lateral wall of the cochlea. From the present results, water flux in the SV is thought to be regulated at the level of the basal cells by vasopressin. Furthermore, such a distribution of AQP-2, -3, and V2-R suggests that VP-AQP-2 mediated water transport might work actively in the basal cells from perilymph towards endolymph containing AQP-1, -7 and -9. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah Berdasarkan Langkah - Langkah Polya untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Menyelesaikan Soal Cerita Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilyatin Nisak Sam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan pembelajaran berbasis masalah berdasarkan langkah-langkah pemecahan masalah Polya yang dapat meningkatkan kemampuan menyelesaikan soal cerita matematika siswa kelas 8 SMPN 4 Malang. Data penelitian diperoleh dari analisis lembar jawaban tes, lembar observasi, lembar catatan lapangan, dan pedoman wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran berbasis masalah berdasarkan langkah-langkah pemecahan masalah Polya yang dapat  meningkatkan kemampuan menyelesaikan soal cerita matematika siswa kelas 8 adalah 1 mengenalkan siswa pada masalah, 2 mengorganisasi siswa untuk belajar, 3 membantu investigasi mandiri dan kelompok dengan menggunakan langkah-langkah pemecahan masalah Polya, yaitu a memahami masalah, b menyusun rencana, c melaksanakan rencana, dan d mengecek kembali, 4 mengembangkan dan mempresentasikan hasil karya, dan 5 menganalisis dan mengevaluasi proses pemecahan masalah.The purpose of this study was to describe the problem-based learning by Polya’s steps problem solving that can improve math word problem solving grade 8 SMPN 4 Malang. Data were obtained from the analysis of the test answer sheets, observation sheets, sheets of field notes, and the questionnaires. The results showed that the problem-based learning by Polya’s steps problem solving that can improve student math story problems completion of grade 8 are 1 to introduce students to the problem, 2 organize the students to learn, 3 helping independent investigation and groups using the Polya’s steps problem solving, namely a understand the problem, b devise a plan, c carry out the plan, and d look back, 4 develop and present work, and 5 analyze and evaluate the problem-solving process.

  18. Yeast Trf5p is a nuclear poly(A) polymerase

    OpenAIRE

    Houseley, Jonathan; Tollervey, David

    2005-01-01

    Recent analyses have shown that the activity of the yeast nuclear exosome is stimulated by the Trf4p–Air1/2p–Mtr4p polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex. Here, we report that strains lacking the Rrp6p component of the nuclear exosome accumulate polyadenylated forms of many different ribosomal RNA precursors (pre-rRNAs). This polyadenylation is reduced in strains lacking either the poly(A) polymerase Trf4p or its close homologue Trf5p. In contrast, polyadenylation is enhanced by overexpression of Tr...

  19. Combining different mRNA capture methods to analyze the transcriptome: analysis of the Xenopus laevis transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Blower

    Full Text Available mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq is a commonly used technique to survey gene expression from organisms with fully sequenced genomes. Successful mRNA-seq requires purification of mRNA away from the much more abundant ribosomal RNA, which is typically accomplished by oligo-dT selection. However, mRNAs with short poly-A tails are captured poorly by oligo-dT based methods. We demonstrate that combining mRNA capture via oligo-dT with mRNA capture by the 5' 7-methyl guanosine cap provides a more complete view of the transcriptome and can be used to assay changes in mRNA poly-A tail length on a genome-wide scale. We also show that using mRNA-seq reads from both capture methods as input for de novo assemblers provides a more complete reconstruction of the transcriptome than either method used alone. We apply these methods of mRNA capture and de novo assembly to the transcriptome of Xenopus laevis, a well-studied frog that currently lacks a finished sequenced genome, to discover transcript sequences for thousands of mRNAs that are currently absent from public databases. The methods we describe here will be broadly applicable to many organisms and will provide insight into the transcriptomes of organisms with sequenced and unsequenced genomes.

  20. Interaction of phenazinium dyes with double-stranded poly(A): spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asma Yasmeen; Saha, Baishakhi; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-10-15

    A comprehensive study on the binding of phenazinium dyes viz. janus green B, indoine blue, safranine O and phenosafranine with double stranded poly(A) using various spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques is presented. A higher binding of janus green B and indoine blue over safranine O and phenosafranine to poly(A) was observed from all experiments. Intercalative mode of binding of the dyes was inferred from fluorescence polarization anisotropy, iodide quenching and viscosity experiments. Circular dichroism study revealed significant perturbation of the secondary structure of poly(A) on binding of these dyes. Results from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments suggested that the binding was predominantly entropy driven with a minor contribution of enthalpy to the standard molar Gibbs energy. The results presented here may open new opportunities in the application of these dyes as RNA targeted therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The vasopressin receptor of the blood-brain barrier in the rat hippocampus is linked to calcium signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, J.; Jensen, Claus V.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, vasopressin receptor, VI subtype, blood-brain barrier, cerebral endothelium, hippocampus, Fura-2......Neuropathology, vasopressin receptor, VI subtype, blood-brain barrier, cerebral endothelium, hippocampus, Fura-2...

  2. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  3. Arginine vasopressin and copeptin in perinatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Suzanne Evers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arginine vasopressin (AVP plays a major role in the homeostasis of fluid balance, vascular tonus and the regulation of the endocrine stress response. The measurement of AVP levels is difficult due to its short half-life and laborious method of detection. Copeptin is a more stable peptide derived from the same precursor molecule, is released in an equimolar ratio to AVP and has a very similar response to osmotic, hemodynamic and stress-related stimuli. In fact, copeptin has been propagated as surrogate marker to indirectly determine circulating AVP concentrations in various conditions. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge on AVP and copeptin in perinatology with a particular focus on the baby’s transition from placenta to lung breathing. We performed a systematic review of the literature on fetal stress hormone levels, including norepinephrine, cortisol, AVP and copeptin, in regard to birth stress. Finally, diagnostic and therapeutic options for copeptin measurement and AVP functions are discussed.

  4. Bench-to-bedside review: Vasopressin in the management of septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This review of vasopressin in septic shock differs from previous reviews by providing more information on the physiology and pathophysiology of vasopressin and vasopressin receptors, particularly because of recent interest in more specific AVPR1a agonists and new information from the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial (VASST), a randomized trial of vasopressin versus norepinephrine in septic shock. Relevant literature regarding vasopressin and other AVPR1a agonists was reviewed and synthesized. Vasopressin, a key stress hormone in response to hypotension, stimulates a family of receptors: AVPR1a, AVPR1b, AVPR2, oxytocin receptors and purinergic receptors. Rationales for use of vasopressin in septic shock are as follows: first, a deficiency of vasopressin in septic shock; second, low-dose vasopressin infusion improves blood pressure, decreases requirements for norepinephrine and improves renal function; and third, a recent randomized, controlled, concealed trial of vasopressin versus norepinephrine (VASST) suggests low-dose vasopressin may decrease mortality of less severe septic shock. Previous clinical studies of vasopressin in septic shock were small or not controlled. There was no difference in 28-day mortality between vasopressin-treated versus norepinephrine-treated patients (35% versus 39%, respectively) in VASST. There was potential benefit in the prospectively defined stratum of patients with less severe septic shock (5 to 14 μg/minute norepinephrine at randomization): vasopressin may have lowered mortality compared with norepinephrine (26% versus 36%, respectively, P = 0.04 within stratum). The result was robust: vasopressin also decreased mortality (compared with norepinephrine) if less severe septic shock was defined by the lowest quartile of arterial lactate or by use of one (versus more than one) vasopressor at baseline. Other investigators found greater hemodynamic effects of higher dose of vasopressin (0.06 units/minute) but also unique adverse

  5. SPAK Differentially Mediates Vasopressin Effects on Sodium Cotransporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritas, Turgay; Borschewski, Aljona; McCormick, James A.; Paliege, Alexander; Dathe, Christin; Uchida, Shinichi; Terker, Andrew; Himmerkus, Nina; Bleich, Markus; Demaretz, Sylvie; Laghmani, Kamel; Delpire, Eric; Ellison, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the Na+-K+-2Cl−-cotransporter (NKCC2) and the Na+-Cl−-cotransporter (NCC) by vasopressin includes their phosphorylation at defined, conserved N-terminal threonine and serine residues, but the kinase pathways that mediate this action of vasopressin are not well understood. Two homologous Ste20-like kinases, SPS-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress responsive kinase (OSR1), can phosphorylate the cotransporters directly. In this process, a full-length SPAK variant and OSR1 interact with a truncated SPAK variant, which has inhibitory effects. Here, we tested whether SPAK is an essential component of the vasopressin stimulatory pathway. We administered desmopressin, a V2 receptor–specific agonist, to wild-type mice, SPAK-deficient mice, and vasopressin-deficient rats. Desmopressin induced regulatory changes in SPAK variants, but not in OSR1 to the same degree, and activated NKCC2 and NCC. Furthermore, desmopressin modulated both the full-length and truncated SPAK variants to interact with and phosphorylate NKCC2, whereas only full-length SPAK promoted the activation of NCC. In summary, these results suggest that SPAK mediates the effect of vasopressin on sodium reabsorption along the distal nephron. PMID:23393317

  6. Spatially restricted translation of the xCR1 mRNA in Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Forinash, Kara D; McGivern, Jered; Fritz, Brian; Dorey, Karel; Sheets, Michael D

    2009-07-01

    The xCR1 protein is a maternal determinant and cofactor for nodal signaling in vertebrate embryos. The xCR1 protein accumulates specifically in the animal cells of Xenopus embryos, but maternal xCR1 mRNA is distributed equally throughout all embryonic cells. Here, we show that vegetal cell-specific translational repression of xCR1 mRNA contributes to this spatially restricted accumulation of the xCR1 protein in Xenopus embryos. xCR1 mRNA was associated with polyribosomes in animal cells but not vegetal cells. A 351-nucleotide region of xCR1 mRNA's 3' untranslated region was sufficient to confer a spatially restricted pattern of translation to a luciferase reporter mRNA by repressing translation in vegetal cells. Repression depended upon the mRNA's 5' cap but not its 3' poly(A) tail. Furthermore, the region of xCR1 mRNA sufficient to confer vegetal cell-specific repression contained both Pumilio binding elements (PBEs) and binding sites for the CUG-BP1 protein. The PBEs and the CUG-BP1 sites were necessary but not sufficient for translation repression. Our studies of xCR1 mRNA document the first example of spatially regulated translation in controlling the asymmetric distribution of a maternal determinant in vertebrates.

  7. The Effect of Renal Function and Hemodialysis Treatment on Plasma Vasopressin and Copeptin Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Esmée M; Heida, Judith; Casteleijn, Niek F; Boesten, Lianne; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A J M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Franssen, Casper F M; Zittema, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Copeptin is increasingly used in epidemiological studies as a substitute for vasopressin. The effect of renal function per se on copeptin and vasopressin concentrations as well as their ratio have, however, not been well described. Methods: Copeptin and vasopressin levels were measured

  8. Copeptin, a surrogate marker of vasopressin, is associated with microalbuminuria in a large population cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Esther; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Halbesma, Nynke; de Jong, Paul E.; Struck, Joachim; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Urinary albumin excretion is a powerful predictor of progressive cardiovascular and renal disease. In rats and humans, administration of a synthetic vasopressin analogue, 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin, increases urinary albumin excretion; however, it is unknown if endogenous vasopressin levels

  9. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  10. The yeast POP2 gene encodes a nuclease involved in mRNA deadenylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugeron, M C; Mauxion, F; Séraphin, B

    2001-06-15

    The major mRNA degradation pathway involves deadenylation of the target molecule followed by decapping and, finally, 5'-->3' exonuclease digestion of the mRNA body. While yeast factors involved in the decapping and exonuclease degradation steps have been identified, the nature of the factor(s) involved in the deadenylation step remained elusive. Database searches for yeast proteins related to the mammalian deadenylase PARN identified the Pop2 protein (Pop2p) as a potential deadenylase. While Pop2p was previously identified as a factor affecting transcription, we identified a non-canonical RNase D sequence signature in its sequence. Analysis of the fate of a reporter mRNA in a pop2 mutant demonstrates that Pop2p is required for efficient mRNA degradation in vivo. Characterisation of mRNA degradation intermediates accumulating in this mutant supports the involvement of Pop2p in mRNA deadenylation in vivo. Similar phenotypes are observed in yeast strains lacking the Ccr4 protein, which is known to be associated with Pop2p. A recombinant Pop2p fragment encompassing the putative catalytic domain degrades poly(A) in vitro demonstrating that Pop2p is a nuclease. We also demonstrate that poly(A) is a better competitor than poly(G) or poly(C) of the Pop2p nuclease activity. Altogether, our study indicates that Pop2p is a nuclease subunit of the yeast deadenylase and suggests that Pop2p homologues in other species may have similar functions.

  11. Bidirectional Anticipation of Future Osmotic Challenges by Vasopressin Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblat-Cerf, Yael; Kim, Angela; Burgess, Christian R; Subramanian, Siva; Tannous, Bakhos A; Lowell, Bradford B; Andermann, Mark L

    2017-01-04

    Ingestion of water and food are major hypo- and hyperosmotic challenges. To protect the body from osmotic stress, posterior pituitary-projecting, vasopressin-secreting neurons (VPpp neurons) counter osmotic perturbations by altering their release of vasopressin, which controls renal water excretion. Vasopressin levels begin to fall within minutes of water consumption, even prior to changes in blood osmolality. To ascertain the precise temporal dynamics by which water or food ingestion affect VPpp neuron activity, we directly recorded the spiking and calcium activity of genetically defined VPpp neurons. In states of elevated osmolality, water availability rapidly decreased VPpp neuron activity within seconds, beginning prior to water ingestion, upon presentation of water-predicting cues. In contrast, food availability following food restriction rapidly increased VPpp neuron activity within seconds, but only following feeding onset. These rapid and distinct changes in activity during drinking and feeding suggest diverse neural mechanisms underlying anticipatory regulation of VPpp neurons. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Relaxation of human isolated mesenteric arteries by vasopressin and desmopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M C; Vila, J M; Aldasoro, M; Medina, P; Flor, B; Lluch, S

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of vasopressin and deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP, desmopressin) were studied in artery rings (0.8-1 mm in external diameter) obtained from portions of human omentum during the course of abdominal operations (27 patients). 2. In arterial rings under resting tension, vasopressin produced concentration-dependent, endothelium-independent contractions with an EC50 of 0.59 +/- 0.12 nM. The V1 antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (1 microM) and the mixed V1-V2 antagonist desGly-d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)ValAVP (0.01 microM) displaced the control curve to vasopressin to the right in a parallel manner without differences in the maximal responses. In the presence of indomethacin (1 microM) the contractile response to vasopressin was significantly increased (P < 0.01). 3. In precontracted arterial rings, previously treated with the V1 antagonist, d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (1 microM), vasopressin produced endothelium-dependent relaxation. This relaxation was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by indomethacin (1 microM) and unaffected by the V1-V2 receptor antagonist desGly-d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)ValAVP (1 microM) or by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM). 4. The selective V2 receptor agonist, DDAVP, caused endothelium-independent, concentration-dependent relaxations in precontracted arterial rings that were inhibited by the mixed V1-V2 receptor antagonist, but not by the V1 receptor antagonist or by pretreatment with indomethacin or L-NAME. 5. Results from this study suggest that vasopressin is primarily a constrictor of human mesenteric arteries by V1 receptor stimulation; vasopressin causes dilatation only during V1 receptor blockade. The relaxation appears to be mediated by the release of vasodilator prostaglandins from the endothelial cell layer and is independent of V2 receptor stimulation or release of nitric oxide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834191

  13. Direct isolation of poly(A)(+) RNA from 4 M guanidine thiocyanate-lysed cell extracts using locked nucleic acid-oligo(T) capture

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, N.; Nielsen, P. S.; Jeffares, D. C.; Eriksen, J.; H. Ohlsson; Arctander, P.; Kauppinen, S. (Sami)

    2004-01-01

    LNA oligonucleotides constitute a class of bicyclic RNA analogues having an exceptionally high affinity for their complementary DNA and RNA target molecules. We here report a novel method for highly efficient isolation of intact poly(A)(+) RNA using an LNA-substituted oligo(dT) affinity ligand, based on the increased affinity of LNA-T for complementary poly(A) tracts. Poly(A)(+) RNA was isolated directly from 4 M guanidine thiocyanate-lysed Caenorhabditis elegans worm extracts as well as from...

  14. Immunohistochemical evaluation of vasopressin expression in breast fibrocystic disease and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, William G; Wells, Wendy; Fay, Michael J; Mathew, Rennie S; Donnelly, Edward M; Memoli, Vincent A

    2003-01-01

    We previously found that expression of the vasopressin gene is a common feature of human breast cancer. In the present study we first examined 21 different cases of benign fibrocystic breast disease for vasopressin expression using immunohistochemistry and antibodies directed against vasopressin (anti-VP) and against vasopressin-associated glycopeptide (anti-VAG). All cases examined were negative for vasopressin gene expression using these antibodies. Alternatively, we examined 16 cases of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using the second of these antibodies (anti-VAG), and all of these cases were positive for vasopressin gene expression. Our results suggest that products of vasopressin gene expression are not markers of cellular proliferation in the breast, and might rather represent an early part of the carcinogenic process in this tissue.

  15. Serotonergic involvement in stress-induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjaer, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were...

  16. Vasopressin – Emerging Importance in Sepsis | Skowno | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Vasopressin – Emerging ...

  17. Serotonergic involvement in stress-induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjaer, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were ap...

  18. Hyponatraemia in imported malaria: The pathophysiological role of vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground. In the pathophysiology of hyponatraemia in malaria, the relative contribution of appropriate and inappropriate arginine vasopressin (AVP) release is unknown; the trigger for inappropriate AVP release is also unknown. Methods. Serum copeptin, a stable and sensitive marker for

  19. Experimental cardiac arrest treatment with adrenaline, vasopressin, or placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palácio, Manoel Ângelo Gomes; Paiva, Edison Ferreira de; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes de; Timerman, Ari

    2013-12-01

    The effect of vasoconstrictors in prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has not been fully clarified. To evaluate adrenaline and vasopressin pressure effect, and observe the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). A prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled study. After seven minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation, pigs received two minutes cycles of CPR. Defibrillation was attempted (4 J/kg) once at 9 minutes, and after every cycle if a shockable rhythm was present, after what CPR was immediately resumed. At 9 minutes and every five minutes intervals, 0.02 mg/kg (n = 12 pigs) adrenaline, or 0.4 U/kg (n = 12) vasopressin, or 0.2 mL/kg (n = 8) 0.9% saline solution was administered. CPR continued for 30 minutes or until the ROSC. Coronary perfusion pressure increased to about 20 mmHg in the three groups. Following vasoconstrictors doses, pressure level reached 35 mmHg versus 15 mmHg with placebo (p adrenaline or placebo. ROSC rate differed (p = 0.031) among adrenaline (10/12), vasopressin (6/12), and placebo (2/8). Time-to-ROSC did not differ (16 minutes), nor the number of doses previously received (one or two). There was no difference between vasoconstrictors, but against placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate (p = 0.019). The vasoconstrictors initial pressure effect was equivalent and vasopressin maintained a late effect at prolonged resuscitation. Nevertheless, when compared with placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate.

  20. Testosterone supplementation restores vasopressin innervation in the senescent rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the male rat brain is decreased in senescence. This decrease is particularly pronounced in brain regions where AVP fiber density is dependent on plasma levels of sex steroids. Since plasma testosterone levels decrease progressively with age in the rat, the

  1. Experimental Cardiac Arrest Treatment with Adrenaline, Vasopressin, or Placebo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palácio, Manoel Ângelo Gomes; de Paiva, Edison Ferreira; de Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Timerman, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of vasoconstrictors in prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has not been fully clarified. Objectives To evaluate adrenaline and vasopressin pressure effect, and observe the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Methods A prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled study. After seven minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation, pigs received two minutes cycles of CPR. Defibrillation was attempted (4 J/kg) once at 9 minutes, and after every cycle if a shockable rhythm was present, after what CPR was immediately resumed. At 9 minutes and every five minutes intervals, 0.02 mg/kg (n = 12 pigs) adrenaline, or 0.4 U/kg (n = 12) vasopressin, or 0.2 mL/kg (n = 8) 0.9% saline solution was administered. CPR continued for 30 minutes or until the ROSC. Results Coronary perfusion pressure increased to about 20 mmHg in the three groups. Following vasoconstrictors doses, pressure level reached 35 mmHg versus 15 mmHg with placebo (p < 0.001). Vasopressin effect remained at 15-20 mmHg after three doses versus zero with adrenaline or placebo. ROSC rate differed (p = 0.031) among adrenaline (10/12), vasopressin (6/12), and placebo (2/8). Time-to-ROSC did not differ (16 minutes), nor the number of doses previously received (one or two). There was no difference between vasoconstrictors, but against placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate (p = 0.019). Conclusion The vasoconstrictors initial pressure effect was equivalent and vasopressin maintained a late effect at prolonged resuscitation. Nevertheless, when compared with placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate. PMID:24173134

  2. The vasopressin deficient Brattleboro rats: A natural knockout model used in the search for CNS effects of vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B; de Wied, David; Urban, I.J.A.; Burbach, J.P.H.; De Wied, D.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral neuroscience is using mon and more gene knockout techniques to produce animals with a specific deletion. These studies have their precedent in nature. A mutation may result in a limited genetic defect, as seen in the vasopressin (VP) deficiency in the Brattleboro rat. The mutation is in a

  3. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14,

  4. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14,

  5. A Simple Decision Rule for Recognition of Poly(A) Tail Signal Motifs in Human Genome

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2015-05-12

    Background is the numerous attempts were made to predict motifs in genomic sequences that correspond to poly (A) tail signals. Vast portion of this effort has been directed to a plethora of nonlinear classification methods. Even when such approaches yield good discriminant results, identifying dominant features of regulatory mechanisms nevertheless remains a challenge. In this work, we look at decision rules that may help identifying such features. Findings are we present a simple decision rule for classification of candidate poly (A) tail signal motifs in human genomic sequence obtained by evaluating features during the construction of gradient boosted trees. We found that values of a single feature based on the frequency of adenine in the genomic sequence surrounding candidate signal and the number of consecutive adenine molecules in a well-defined region immediately following the motif displays good discriminative potential in classification of poly (A) tail motifs for samples covered by the rule. Conclusions is the resulting simple rule can be used as an efficient filter in construction of more complex poly(A) tail motifs classification algorithms.

  6. A noncanonical poly(A) RNA polymerase gene affects morphology in Phoma medicaginis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kihyuck; Marek, Stephen M

    2017-11-15

    Phoma medicaginis (syn. Ascochyta medicaginicola Qchen & L. Cai) causes spring black stem and leaf spot, an important disease of alfalfa and annual medics. P. medicaginis forms uninucleate conidia in melanized pycnidia and is genetically tractable using Agrobacterium mediated transformation (ATMT), resulting in random integration of T-DNA that occasionally generates pycnidial mutants. The T-DNA tagged mutant, P265 displayed smaller pycnidia and more aerial hyphae than the wild type. A single T-DNA disrupted a putative noncanonical poly(A) RNA polymerase gene, Pmncpap1, which in yeast interacts with ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). As in yeast mutants, P265 showed sensitivity to hydroxyurea (HU), a RNR inhibitor. To characterize the role of Pmncpap1, targeted ΔPmncpap1 mutants were created using a hygromycin selectable marker flanked by 1 Kbp regions of Pmncpap1. ΔPmncpap1 mutants possessed similar morphological features to those of P265. The plasmid for rescue of PmncPAP1, pCAM-Nat1 (nourseothricin selection) was constructed and used to introduce full-length PmncPAP1 into mutants. Rescued P265 showed partial recovery of wild type and the original T-DNA was lost due to homologous integration. To our knowledge, this is the first ncPAP to be examined in a filamentous fungus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure of an Rrp6-RNA exosome complex bound to poly(A) RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasmuth, Elizabeth V.; Januszyk, Kurt; Lima, Christopher D. [MSKCC

    2014-08-20

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome processes and degrades RNA by directing substrates to the distributive or processive 3' to 5' exoribonuclease activities of Rrp6 or Rrp44, respectively. The non-catalytic nine-subunit exosome core (Exo9) features a prominent central channel. Although RNA can pass through the channel to engage Rrp44, it is not clear how RNA is directed to Rrp6 or whether Rrp6 uses the central channel. Here we report a 3.3 Å crystal structure of a ten-subunit RNA exosome complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae composed of the Exo9 core and Rrp6 bound to single-stranded poly(A) RNA. The Rrp6 catalytic domain rests on top of the Exo9 S1/KH ring above the central channel, the RNA 3' end is anchored in the Rrp6 active site, and the remaining RNA traverses the S1/KH ring in an opposite orientation to that observed in a structure of a Rrp44-containing exosome complex. Solution studies with human and yeast RNA exosome complexes suggest that the RNA path to Rrp6 is conserved and dependent on the integrity of the S1/KH ring. Although path selection to Rrp6 or Rrp44 is stochastic in vitro, the fate of a particular RNA may be determined in vivo by the manner in which cofactors present RNA to the RNA exosome.

  8. Vasopressin regularizes the phasic firing pattern of rat hypothalamic magnocellular vasopressin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzènes, L; Desarménien, M G; Hussy, N; Richard, P; Moos, F C

    1998-03-01

    Vasopressin (AVP) magnocellular neurons of hypothalamic nuclei express specific phasic firing (successive periods of activity and silence), which conditions the mode of neurohypophyseal vasopression release. In situations favoring plasmatic secretion of AVP, the hormone is also released at the somatodendritic level, at which it is believed to modulate the activity of AVP neurons. We investigated the nature of this autocontrol by testing the effects of juxtamembrane applications of AVP on the extracellular activity of presumed AVP neurons in paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of anesthetized rats. AVP had three effects depending on the initial firing pattern: (1) excitation of faintly active neurons (periods of activity of <10 sec), which acquired or reinforced their phasic pattern; (2) inhibition of quasi-continuously active neurons (periods of silences of <10 sec), which became clearly phasic; and (3) no effect on neurons already showing an intermediate phasic pattern (active and silent periods of 10-30 sec). Consequently, AVP application resulted in a narrower range of activity patterns of the population of AVP neurons, with a Gaussian distribution centered around a mode of 57% of time in activity, indicating a homogenization of the firing pattern. The resulting phasic pattern had characteristics close to those established previously for optimal release of AVP from neurohypophyseal endings. These results suggest a new role for AVP as an optimizing factor that would foster the population of AVP neurons to discharge with a phasic pattern known to be most efficient for hormone release.

  9. Hyaluronan Production by Renomedullary Interstitial Cells: Influence of Endothelin, Angiotensin II and Vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Stridh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of hyaluronan (HA in the interstitium of the renal medulla changes in relation to body hydration status. We investigated if hormones of central importance for body fluid homeostasis affect HA production by renomedullary interstitial cells in culture (RMICs. Simultaneous treatment with vasopressin and angiotensin II (Ang II reduced HA by 69%. No change occurred in the mRNA expressions of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2 or hyaluronidases (Hyals, while Hyal activity in the supernatant increased by 67% and CD44 expression reduced by 42%. The autocoid endothelin (ET-1 at low concentrations (10−10 and 10−8 M increased HA 3-fold. On the contrary, at a high concentration (10−6 M ET-1 reduced HA by 47%. The ET-A receptor antagonist BQ123 not only reversed the reducing effect of high ET-1 on HA, but elevated it to the same level as low concentration ET-1, suggesting separate regulating roles for ET-A and ET-B receptors. This was corroborated by the addition of ET-B receptor antagonist BQ788 to low concentration ET-1, which abolished the HA increase. HAS2 and Hyal2 mRNA did not alter, while Hyal1 mRNA was increased at all ET-1 concentrations tested. Hyal activity was elevated the most by high ET-1 concentration, and blockade of ET-A receptors by BQ123 prevented about 30% of this response. The present study demonstrates an important regulatory influence of hormones involved in body fluid balance on HA handling by RMICs, thereby supporting the concept of a dynamic involvement of interstitial HA in renal fluid handling.

  10. Systematic profiling of poly(A+ transcripts modulated by core 3' end processing and splicing factors reveals regulatory rules of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencheng Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA results in mRNA isoforms containing different 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs and/or coding sequences. How core cleavage/polyadenylation (C/P factors regulate APA is not well understood. Using siRNA knockdown coupled with deep sequencing, we found that several C/P factors can play significant roles in 3'UTR-APA. Whereas Pcf11 and Fip1 enhance usage of proximal poly(A sites (pAs, CFI-25/68, PABPN1 and PABPC1 promote usage of distal pAs. Strong cis element biases were found for pAs regulated by CFI-25/68 or Fip1, and the distance between pAs plays an important role in APA regulation. In addition, intronic pAs are substantially regulated by splicing factors, with U1 mostly inhibiting C/P events in introns near the 5' end of gene and U2 suppressing those in introns with features for efficient splicing. Furthermore, PABPN1 inhibits expression of transcripts with pAs near the transcription start site (TSS, a property possibly related to its role in RNA degradation. Finally, we found that groups of APA events regulated by C/P factors are also modulated in cell differentiation and development with distinct trends. Together, our results support an APA code where an APA event in a given cellular context is regulated by a number of parameters, including relative location to the TSS, splicing context, distance between competing pAs, surrounding cis elements and concentrations of core C/P factors.

  11. Oxygen regulation of uricase and sucrose synthase synthesis in soybean callus tissue is exerted at the mRNA level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Z T; Larsen, K; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lowering oxygen concentration on the expression of nodulin genes in soybean callus tissue devoid of the microsymbiont has been examined. Poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from tissue cultivated in 4% oxygen and in normal atmosphere. Quantitative mRNA hybridization experiments using nodule-s...... was about 5-fold at 4% oxygen. No expression at atmospheric oxygen or in response to low oxygen was observed when using cDNA probes for other nodulin genes such as leghemoglobin c3, nodulin-22 and nodulin-44. Udgivelsesdato: 1991-May...

  12. Developmental expression of the protein product of Vg1, a localized maternal mRNA in the frog Xenopus laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, L; Matthews, G; Tabe, L; Colman, A

    1989-01-01

    Vg1 is a maternal mRNA localized in the vegetal cortex of Xenopus laevis oocytes, that encodes a protein homologous to the mammalian growth factor TGF-beta. Using a polyclonal antibody to a T7-Vg1 fusion protein, we have identified the native protein. We find that a single protein of Mr 40 kd is immunoprecipitated following in vitro translation of oocyte poly(A)+ RNA, whilst two proteins of Mr 45 and 43.5 kd are immunoprecipitated from oocyte and embryo extracts. Synthesis of at least the 40 ...

  13. [Polyadenylated RNA and mRNA export factors in extrachromosomal nuclear domains of vitellogenic oocytes of the insect Tenebrio molitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoliubov, D S; Kiselev, A M; Shabel'nikov, S V; Parfenov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus ofvitellogenic oocytes of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, contains a karyosphere that consists of the condensed chromatin embedded in an extrachromosomal fibrogranular material. Numerous nuclear bodies located freely in the nucleoplasm are also observed. Amongst these bodies, counterparts of nuclear speckles (= interchromatin granule clusters, IGCs) can be identified by the presence of the marker protein SC35. Microinjections of fluorescently tagged methyloligoribonucleotide probes 2'-O-Me(U)22, complementary to poly(A) tails of RNAs, revealed poly(A)+ RNA in the vast majority of IGCs. We found that all T. molitor oocyte IGCs contain heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) core protein Al that localizes to IGCs in an RNA-dependent manner. The extrachromosomal material of the karyosphere and a part of nucleoplasmic IGCs also contain the adapter protein Aly that is known to provide a link between pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export. The essential mRNA export factor/receptor NXF1 was observed to colocalize with Aly. In nucleoplasmic IGCs, NXF1 was found to localize in an RNA-dependent manner whereas it is RNA-independently located in the extrachromosomal material of the karyosphere. We believe our data suggest on a role of the nucleoplasmic IGCs in mRNA biogenesis and retention in a road to nuclear export.

  14. Vasopressin vs Dopamine for Treatment of Hypotension in ELBW Infants: A Randomized, Blinded Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Danielle R.; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate vasopressin vs dopamine as initial therapy in ELBW infants with hypotension during the first 24 hours of life. Study design Hypotensive ELBW infants ≤ 30 weeks’ gestation and ≤ 24 hours old randomly received treatment with vasopressin or dopamine in a blinded fashion. Normotensive infants not receiving vasopressor support served as a comparison group. Results Twenty hypotensive ELBW infants received vasopressin (n=10) or dopamine (n=10), and 50 were enrolled for comparison. Mean gestational age was 25.6 ± 1.4 weeks and birth weight 705 ± 154 g. Response to vasopressin paralleled that of dopamine in time to adequate mean BP (Kaplan-Meier curve, p=0.986); 90% of infants in each treatment group responded with adequate BP. The vasopressin group received fewer doses of surfactant (phypotension appeared safe. This pilot study supports a larger randomized controlled trial of vasopressin vs dopamine therapy in ELBW infants with hypotension. PMID:25641242

  15. A novel splicing mutation in the V2 vasopressin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Siggaard, C; Herlin, Troels

    2000-01-01

    of the gene in both the affected male (hemizygous) and his mother (heterozygous). This mutation is likely to cause aberrant splicing of the terminal intron of the gene, leading to a non-functional AVP receptor. The clinical studies were consistent with such a hypothesis, as the affected subject had a severe......In order to elucidate the molecular basis and the clinical characteristics of X-linked recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) in a kindred of Danish descent, we performed direct sequencing of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene in five members of the family, as well...... as clinical investigations comprising a fluid deprivation test and a 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin (dDAVP) infusion test in the study subject and his mother. We found a highly unusual, novel, de novo 1447A-->C point mutation (gDNA), involving the invariable splice acceptor of the second intron...

  16. Correlation of plasma copeptin and vasopressin concentrations in hypo-, iso-, and hyperosmolar states

    OpenAIRE

    Balanescu, Sandrina; Kopp, Peter; Gaskill, Mary Beth; Morgenthaler, Nils G.; Schindler, Christian; Rutishauser, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Copeptin, the C-terminal moiety of provasopressin, is cosecreted with vasopressin. Copeptin may be a useful parameter to characterize disorders of water homeostasis and can be readily measured in plasma or serum. However, it is unknown to date how circulating copeptin and vasopressin levels correlate at different plasma osmolalites. Objective: To correlate plasma copeptin with plasma osmolality and vasopressin concentrations in healthy subjects during iso-, hypo-, and hyperosmolar...

  17. The Effect of Renal Function and Hemodialysis Treatment on Plasma Vasopressin and Copeptin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Esmée M; Heida, Judith; Casteleijn, Niek F; Boesten, Lianne; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A J M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Franssen, Casper F M; Zittema, Debbie

    2017-05-01

    Copeptin is increasingly used in epidemiological studies as a substitute for vasopressin. The effect of renal function per se on copeptin and vasopressin concentrations as well as their ratio have, however, not been well described. Copeptin and vasopressin levels were measured in 127 patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease, including 42 hemodialysis patients and 16 healthy participants in this observational study. Linear (segmental) regression analyses were performed to assess the association between renal function and copeptin, vasopressin and the C/V ratio. In addition, clearance of copeptin and vasopressin by hemodialysis was calculated. Both copeptin and vasopressin levels were higher when renal function was lower, and both showed associations with plasma osmolality. The C/V ratio was stable across renal function in subjects with an eGFR >28 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In contrast, the C/V ratio increased with worsening renal function in patients with eGFR ≤28 ml/min per 1.73 m2. During hemodialysis, the initial decrease in vasopressin levels was greater compared with copeptin and, consequently, the C/V ratio increased. This was, at least in part, explained by a greater dialytic clearance of vasopressin compared with copeptin. Our data indicate that copeptin is a reliable substitute for vasopressin in subjects with an eGFR >28 ml/min per 1.73 m2, whereas at an eGFR ≤28 ml/min per 1.73 m2, that is, CKD stages 4 and 5, a correction for renal function is required in epidemiological studies that use copeptin as a marker for vasopressin. Intradialytic copeptin levels do not adequately reflect vasopressin levels because vasopressin clearance by hemodialysis is higher than that of copeptin.

  18. The Effect of Renal Function and Hemodialysis Treatment on Plasma Vasopressin and Copeptin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée M. Ettema

    2017-05-01

    Discussion: Our data indicate that copeptin is a reliable substitute for vasopressin in subjects with an eGFR >28 ml/min per 1.73 m2, whereas at an eGFR ≤28 ml/min per 1.73 m2, that is, CKD stages 4 and 5, a correction for renal function is required in epidemiological studies that use copeptin as a marker for vasopressin. Intradialytic copeptin levels do not adequately reflect vasopressin levels because vasopressin clearance by hemodialysis is higher than that of copeptin.

  19. Selective V₂-Agonist of Vasopressin Desmopressin Stimulates Activity of Serum Hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzgoev, S G

    2015-08-01

    Effects of desmopressin (arginine vasopressin V2 receptor agonist) were studied for elucidation of the possible role of the kidneys in the regulation of blood hyaluronidase activity. Similar to vasopressin, intraperitoneal administration of desmopressin to Wistar rats increased blood hyaluronidase activity by 30%. Against the background of water load, nether desmopressin nor vasopressin increased blood hyaluronidase activity. The possibility of renal secretion of hyaluronidase into the blood as a mechanism of antidiuretic activity of vasopressin and its role in the regulation of water metabolism are discussed.

  20. Diabetes insipidus: celebrating a century of vasopressin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sana; Galiveeti, Sneha; Bichet, Daniel G; Roth, Jesse

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus, widely known to the ancients for polyuria and glycosuria, budded off diabetes insipidus (DI) about 200 years ago, based on the glucose-free polyuria that characterized a subset of patients. In the late 19th century, clinicians identified the posterior pituitary as the site of pathology, and pharmacologists found multiple bioactivities there. Early in the 20th century, the amelioration of the polyuria with extracts of the posterior pituitary inaugurated a new era in therapy and advanced the hypothesis that DI was due to a hormone deficiency. Decades later, a subset of patients with polyuria unresponsive to therapy were recognized, leading to the distinction between central DI and nephrogenic DI, an early example of a hormone-resistant condition. Recognition that the posterior pituitary had 2 hormones was followed by du Vigneaud's Nobel Prize winning isolation, sequencing, and chemical synthesis of oxytocin and vasopressin. The pure hormones accelerated the development of bioassays and immunoassays that confirmed the hormone deficiency in vasopressin-sensitive DI and abundant levels of hormone in patients with the nephrogenic disorder. With both forms of the disease, acquired and inborn defects were recognized. Emerging concepts of receptors and of genetic analysis led to the recognition of patients with mutations in the genes for 1) arginine vasopressin (AVP), 2) the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2), and 3) the aquaporin 2 water channel (AQP2). We recount here the multiple skeins of clinical and laboratory research that intersected frequently over the centuries since the first recognition of DI.

  1. Trinucleotide-repeat expanded and normal DMPK transcripts contain unusually long poly(A) tails despite differential nuclear residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudde, Anke E E G; van Kessel, Ingeborg D G; André, Laurène M; Wieringa, Bé; Wansink, Derick G

    2017-06-01

    In yeast and higher eukaryotes nuclear retention of transcripts may serve in control over RNA decay, nucleocytoplasmic transport and premature cytoplasmic appearance of mRNAs. Hyperadenylation of RNA is known to be associated with nuclear retention, but the cause-consequence relationship between hyperadenylation and regulation of RNA nuclear export is still unclear. We compared polyadenylation status between normal and expanded DMPK transcripts in muscle cells and tissues derived from unaffected individuals and patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). DM1 is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by (CTG)n repeat expansion in the DMPK gene. DM1 etiology is characterized by an almost complete block of nuclear export of DMPK transcripts carrying a long (CUG)n repeat, including aberrant sequestration of RNA-binding proteins. We show here by use of cell fractionation, RNA size separation and analysis of poly(A) tail length that a considerable fraction of transcripts from the normal DMPK allele is also retained in the nucleus (~30%). They carry poly(A) tails with an unusually broad length distribution, ranging between a few dozen to >500 adenosine residues. Remarkably, expanded DMPK (CUG)n transcripts from the mutant allele, almost exclusively nuclear, carry equally long poly(A) tails. Our findings thus suggest that nuclear retention may be a common feature of regulation of DMPK RNA expression. The typical forced nuclear residence of expanded DMPK transcripts affects this regulation in tissues of DM1 patients, but not through hyperadenylation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioimmunoassay measurement of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin in cows during machine milking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R.; Wehowsky, G.; Schulz, J.; Schulze, H.; Bothur, D. (Forschungsinstitut fuer Koerperkultur und Sport, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic); Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin)

    1982-07-01

    The response of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin to machine milking in cows was studied by radioimmunoassay. Depending on the method of machine milking used, plasma oxytocin increased to a greater or lesser degree after teat cup application. Plasma vasopressin was not affected by the milking procedures.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of vasopressin during pregnancy. Use and removal of cystylaminopeptidase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, J. A.; van Heerikhuize, J. J.; Boer, K.; van Boxtel, C. E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for arginine-vasopressin in which o-phenanthroline effectively inhibits cystyl-amino-peptidase activity in whole blood and plasma from pregnant women but in which o-phenanthroline is removed during the extraction of vasopressin from plasma to prevent

  4. Mechanisms involved in dual vasopressin/apelin neuron dysfunction during aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sauvant

    Full Text Available Normal aging is associated with vasopressin neuron adaptation, but little is known about its effects on the release of apelin, an aquaretic peptide colocalized with vasopressin. We found that plasma vasopressin concentrations were higher and plasma apelin concentrations lower in aged rats than in younger adults. The response of AVP/apelin neurons to osmotic challenge was impaired in aged rats. The overactivity of vasopressin neurons was sustained partly by the increased expression of Transient receptor potential vanilloid2 (Trpv2, because central Trpv blocker injection reversed the age-induced increase in plasma vasopressin concentration without modifying plasma apelin concentration. The morphofunctional plasticity of the supraoptic nucleus neuron-astrocyte network normally observed during chronic dehydration in adults appeared to be impaired in aged rats as well. IL-6 overproduction by astrocytes and low-grade microglial neuroinflammation may contribute to the modification of neuronal functioning during aging. Indeed, central treatment with antibodies against IL-6 decreased plasma vasopressin levels and increased plasma apelin concentration toward the values observed in younger adults. Conversely, minocycline treatment (inhibiting microglial metabolism did not affect plasma vasopressin concentration, but increased plasma apelin concentration toward control values for younger adults. This study is the first to demonstrate dual vasopressin/apelin adaptation mediated by inflammatory molecules and neuronal Trpv2, during aging.

  5. Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ebels, I.

    1987-01-01

    A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was

  6. A comparative analysis of two conserved motifs in bacterial poly(A) polymerase and CCA-adding enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Andrea; Butter, Falk; Trenkmann, Michelle; Heitkam, Tony; Mörl, Mario; Betat, Heike

    2008-09-01

    Showing a high sequence similarity, the evolutionary closely related bacterial poly(A) polymerases (PAP) and CCA-adding enzymes catalyze quite different reactions--PAP adds poly(A) tails to RNA 3'-ends, while CCA-adding enzymes synthesize the sequence CCA at the 3'-terminus of tRNAs. Here, two highly conserved structural elements of the corresponding Escherichia coli enzymes were characterized. The first element is a set of amino acids that was identified in CCA-adding enzymes as a template region determining the enzymes' specificity for CTP and ATP. The same element is also present in PAP, where it confers ATP specificity. The second investigated region corresponds to a flexible loop in CCA-adding enzymes and is involved in the incorporation of the terminal A-residue. Although, PAP seems to carry a similar flexible region, the functional relevance of this element in PAP is not known. The presented results show that the template region has an essential function in both enzymes, while the second element is surprisingly dispensable in PAP. The data support the idea that the bacterial PAP descends from CCA-adding enzymes and still carries some of the structural elements required for CCA-addition as an evolutionary relic and is now fixed in a conformation specific for A-addition.

  7. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based...... by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis...

  8. Serotonergic involvement in stress-induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjaer, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were...... applied after pretreatment with intracerebroventricular infusion of saline or different 5-HT antagonists. RESULTS: Restraint stress (5 min), hypotensive hemorrhage or dehydration for 24 h increased AVP secretion fivefold and OT secretion threefold. Swim stress for 3 min had no effect on AVP secretion...

  9. Two seemingly homologous noncoding RNAs act hierarchically to activate glmS mRNA translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H Urban

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Small noncoding RNAs (sRNA can function as posttranscriptional activators of gene expression to regulate stress responses and metabolism. We here describe the mechanisms by which two sRNAs, GlmY and GlmZ, activate the Escherichia coli glmS mRNA, coding for an essential enzyme in amino-sugar metabolism. The two sRNAs, although being highly similar in sequence and structure, act in a hierarchical manner. GlmZ, together with the RNA chaperone, Hfq, directly activates glmS mRNA translation by an anti-antisense mechanism. In contrast, GlmY acts upstream of GlmZ and positively regulates glmS by antagonizing GlmZ RNA inactivation. We also report the first example, to our knowledge, of mRNA expression being controlled by the poly(A status of a chromosomally encoded sRNA. We show that in wild-type cells, GlmY RNA is unstable due to 3' end polyadenylation; whereas in an E. coli pcnB mutant defective in RNA polyadenylation, GlmY is stabilized and accumulates, which in turn stabilizes GlmZ and causes GlmS overproduction. Our study reveals hierarchical action of two well-conserved sRNAs in a complex regulatory cascade that controls the glmS mRNA. Similar cascades of noncoding RNA regulators may operate in other organisms.

  10. Arsenic Induces Polyadenylation of Canonical Histone mRNA by Down-regulating Stem-Loop-binding Protein Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Jason; Fang, Lei; Chervona, Yana; Chen, Danqi; Kiok, Kathrin; Sun, Hong; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi; Xu, Dazhong; Shamy, Magdy; Jin, Chunyuan; Costa, Max

    2014-01-01

    The replication-dependent histone genes are the only metazoan genes whose messenger RNA (mRNA) does not terminate with a poly(A) tail at the 3′-end. Instead, the histone mRNAs display a stem-loop structure at their 3′-end. Stem-loop-binding protein (SLBP) binds the stem-loop and regulates canonical histone mRNA metabolism. Here we report that exposure to arsenic, a carcinogenic metal, decreased cellular levels of SLBP by inducing its proteasomal degradation and inhibiting SLBP transcription via epigenetic mechanisms. Notably, arsenic exposure dramatically increased polyadenylation of canonical histone H3.1 mRNA possibly through down-regulation of SLBP expression. The polyadenylated H3.1 mRNA induced by arsenic was not susceptible to normal degradation that occurs at the end of S phase, resulting in continued presence into mitosis, increased total H3.1 mRNA, and increased H3 protein levels. Excess expression of canonical histones have been shown to increase sensitivity to DNA damage as well as increase the frequency of missing chromosomes and induce genomic instability. Thus, polyadenylation of canonical histone mRNA following arsenic exposure may contribute to arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25266719

  11. Vasopressin receptor antagonists and their role in clinical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Narayen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients. Its treatment is based not only on extracellular fluid volume status of patients but also on its pathogenetic mechanisms. Conventional treatment of hyponatremia like fluid restriction, which is useful in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, has very poor patient compliance over long term. Vasopressin receptor antagonists (Vaptans are a new group of nonpeptide drugs which have been used in various clinical conditions with limited success. Whereas conivaptan is to be administered intravenously, the other vaptans like tolvaptan, lixivaptan, and satavaptan are effective as oral medication. They produce aquaresis by their action on vasopressin type 2 (V2R receptors in the collecting duct and thus increase solute free water excretion. Vaptans are being used as an alternative to fluid restriction in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremic patients. Efficacy of vaptans is now well accepted for management of correction of hyponatremia over a short period. However, its efficacy in improving the long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hyponatremia due to cirrhosis and heart failure is yet to be established. Vaptans have not become the mainstay treatment of hyponatremia yet.

  12. Effects of arginine vasopressin on musical working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roni Y; Uzefovsky, Florina; Bogopolsky, Helena; Ebstein, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) and musical working memory (WM). The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA) of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP-placebo) design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo) in a second session, 1 week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's "Musical Aptitude Profile," the interval subtest from the "Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA)," and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV) were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP) (p music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other.

  13. Block of CDK1-dependent polyadenosine elongation of Cyclin B mRNA in metaphase-i-arrested starfish oocytes is released by intracellular pH elevation upon spawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Hiroe; Aoto, Saki; Tachibana, Kazunori; Hara, Masatoshi; Chiba, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic progression requires the translation of maternal mRNAs in a strict temporal order. In isolated animal oocytes, translation of maternal mRNAs containing a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE), such as cyclin B, is activated by in vitro stimulation of meiotic resumption which induces phosphorylation of CPEB (CPE-binding protein) and elongation of their polyadenosine (poly(A)) tails; whether or not this model can be applied in vivo to oocytes arrested at metaphase of meiosis I in ovaries is unknown. In this study, we found that active CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) phosphorylated CPEB in ovarian oocytes arrested at metphase I in the starfish body cavity, but phosphorylation of CPEB was not sufficient for elongation of cyclin B poly(A) tails. Immediately after spawning, however, mRNA was polyadenylated, suggesting that an increase in intracellular pH (pHi ) upon spawning triggers the elongation of poly(A) tails. Using a cell-free system made from maturing oocytes at metaphase I, we demonstrated that polyadenylation was indeed suppressed at pH below 7.0. These results suggest that a pH-sensitive process, functioning after CPEB phosphorylation, is blocked under physiologically low pHi (7.0) that occurs after spawning triggers polyadenylation of cyclin B mRNA and progression into meiosis II. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. In vivo somatostatin, vasopressin, and oxytocin synthesis in diabetic rat hypothalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernstrom, J.D.; Fernstrom, M.H.; Kwok, R.P. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The in vivo labeling of somatostatin-14, somatostatin-28, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin was studied in rat hypothalamus after third ventricular administration of (35S)cysteine to streptozotocin-diabetic and normal rats. Immunoreactive somatostatin levels in hypothalamus were unaffected by diabetes, as was the incorporation of (35S)cysteine into hypothalamic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. In contrast, immunoreactive vasopressin levels in hypothalamus and posterior pituitary (and oxytocin levels in posterior pituitary) were below normal in diabetic rats. Moreover, (35S)cysteine incorporation into hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin (probably mainly in the paraventricular nucleus because of its proximity to the third ventricular site of label injection) was significantly above normal. The increments in vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were reversed by insulin administration. In vivo cysteine specific activity and the labeling of acid-precipitable protein did not differ between normal and diabetic animals; effects of diabetes on vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were therefore not caused by simple differences in cysteine specific activity. These results suggest that diabetes (1) does not influence the production of somatostatin peptides in hypothalamus but (2) stimulates the synthesis of vasopressin and oxytocin. For vasopressin at least, the increase in synthesis may be a compensatory response to the known increase in its secretion that occurs in uncontrolled diabetes.

  15. Vasopressin differentially modulates aggression and anxiety in adolescent hamsters administered anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with anabolic/androgenic steroids display increased offensive aggression and decreased anxiety correlated with an increase in vasopressin afferent development, synthesis, and neural signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Upon withdrawal from anabolic/androgenic steroids, this neurobehavioral relationship shifts as hamsters display decreased offensive aggression and increased anxiety correlated with a decrease in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin. This study investigated the hypothesis that alterations in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin neural signaling modulate behavioral shifting between adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced offensive aggression and anxiety. To test this, adolescent male hamsters were administered anabolic/androgenic steroids and tested for offensive aggression or anxiety following direct pharmacological manipulation of vasopressin V1A receptor signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Blockade of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling suppressed offensive aggression and enhanced general and social anxiety in hamsters administered anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence, effectively reversing the pattern of behavioral response pattern normally observed during the adolescent exposure period. Conversely, activation of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling enhanced offensive aggression in hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence. Together, these findings suggest that the state of vasopressin neural development and signaling in the anterior hypothalamus plays an important role in behavioral shifting between aggression and anxiety following adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ghrelin-Induced Enhancement of Vasopressin and Oxytocin Secretion in Rat Neurohypophyseal Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálfi, M; Radács, M; Molnár, Zs; Budai, I; Tóth, G; Pósa, A; Kupai, K; Szalai, Z; Szabó, R; Molnár, H A; Gardi, J; László, Ferenc A; Varga, Cs

    2016-12-01

    The effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were studied in 13-14-day cell cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue. The vasopressin and oxytocin contents of the supernatant were determined by radioimmunoassay after a 1- or 2-h incubation. Significantly increased levels of vasopressin and oxytocin production were detected in the cell culture media following ghrelin administration, depending on the ghrelin doses. The oxytocin level proved to be more elevated than that of vasopressin. The increase of vasopressin and oxytocin secretion could be totally blocked by previous administration of the ghrelin receptor antagonist ([D-Lys 3 ]-growth hormone-releasing peptide-6). Application of the ghrelin receptor antagonist after ghrelin administration proved ineffective. The results indicate that vasopressin and oxytocin release is influenced directly by the ghrelin system, and the effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion from the neurohypophyseal tissue in rats can occur at the level of the posterior pituitary. Our observations lend support to the view that neurohypophysis contains ghrelin receptors.

  17. Risk of Hyponatremia in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated with Exogenous Vasopressin Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Nancy; Yu, Jessica; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Mahmoud, Sherif Hanafy

    2017-04-01

    Vasopressin is one of the vasopressors used to augment blood pressure in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with clinically significant vasospasm. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the administration of vasopressin to a population of SAH patients was an independent predictor of developing hyponatremia. A retrospective review on the health records of 106 patients admitted to the University of Alberta Hospital Neurosciences ICU, Edmonton AB, Canada, with SAH from June 2013 to December 2015 was conducted. Serum sodium changes in patients receiving vasoactive drugs were compared. In addition, independent predictors for hyponatremia (Na < 135 mmol/L) were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Patients treated with vasopressin in addition to other vasoactive drugs had significantly higher sodium changes compared to those treated with other vasoactive drugs (-4.7 ± 6 vs -0.1 ± 2.4 mmol/L, respectively, p value 0.001). Hyponatremia occurred in 14 patients (70 %) treated with vasopressin, 10 patients (44 %) treated with vasoactive drugs other than vasopressin (p value 0.081), and 24 patients (38 %) who did not receive any vasoactive drug (p value 0.013). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, when adjusting for disease severity, age, sex, aneurysm location, and treatment, vasopressin was associated with hyponatremia (OR 3.58, 95 % CI, 1.02-12.5, p value 0.046). The results of the present study suggest that hyponatremia may be more common in SAH patients treated with exogenous vasopressin compared to those who did not receive it. Serum sodium should be monitored closely when vasopressin is being used in the SAH population. Further studies are needed to confirm the effect of exogenous vasopressin on serum sodium levels in SAH populations.

  18. X-ray structure and activity of the yeast Pop2 protein: a nuclease subunit of the mRNA deadenylase complex

    OpenAIRE

    Thore, Stéphane; MAUXION, FABIENNE; Séraphin, Bertrand; Suck, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a large complex, known as the Ccr4–Not complex, containing two nucleases, is responsible for mRNA deadenylation. One of these nucleases is called Pop2 and has been identified by similarity with PARN, a human poly(A) nuclease. Here, we present the crystal structure of the nuclease domain of Pop2 at 2.3 Å resolution. The domain has the fold of the DnaQ family and represents the first structure of an RNase from the DEDD superfamily...

  19. Neuroanatomical distribution of oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors in the socially monogamous coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sara M.; Walum, Hasse; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Smith, Aaron L.; Goodman, Mark M.; Bales, Karen L.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) is a socially monogamous New World primate that has been studied in the field and the laboratory to investigate the behavioral neuroendocrinology of primate pair bonding and parental care. Arginine vasopressin has been shown to influence male titi monkey pair-bonding behavior, and studies are currently underway to examine the effects of oxytocin on titi monkey behavior and physiology. Here, we use receptor autoradiography to identify the distribution of arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) and oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in hemispheres of titi monkey brain (n=5). AVPR1a are diffuse and widespread throughout the brain, but the OXTR distribution is much more limited, with the densest binding being in the hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, CA1 field) and the presubiculum (layers I and III). Moderate OXTR binding was detected in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, pulvinar, superior colliculus, layer 4C of primary visual cortex, periaqueductal gray, pontine gray, nucleus prepositus, and spinal trigeminal nucleus. OXTR mRNA overlapped with OXTR radioligand binding, confirming that the radioligand was detecting OXTR protein. AVPR1a binding is present throughout the cortex, especially in cingulate, insular, and occipital cortices, as well as in the caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, central amygdala, endopiriform nucleus, hippocampus (CA4 field), globus pallidus, lateral geniculate nucleus, infundibulum, habenula, periaqueductal gray, substantia nigra, olivary nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, and cerebellum. Furthermore, we show that, in titi monkey brain, the OXTR antagonist ALS-II-69 is highly selective for OXTR and that the AVPR1a antagonist SR49059 is highly selective for AVPR1a. Based on these results and the fact that both ALS-II-69 and SR49059 are non-peptide, small-molecule antagonists that should be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier, these two compounds emerge as excellent candidates for the pharmacological

  20. Urinary concentration does not exclusively rely on plasma vasopressin. A study between genders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard-Jensen, Charlotte; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    AimWe investigated the influence of gender on the diurnal regulation of urine production with special focus on vasopressin, oxytocin and prostaglandin E2. MethodsFifteen young women in mid-follicular phase and 22 young men (20-33years) were included. All participants underwent a 24-h circadian...... inpatient study under standardized conditions for measurements of plasma vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium and osmolality. Urine was fractionally collected for measurements of electrolytes, aquaporin-2 and prostaglandin E2. ResultsPlasma vasopressin expressed a diurnal rhythm with a night-time increase in both...

  1. A comparative study of microbial diversity and community structure in marine sediments using poly(A tailing and reverse transcription PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko eHoshino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a better understanding of metabolically active microbial communities, we tested a molecular ecological approach using poly(A tailing of environmental 16S rRNA, followed by full-length complementary DNA (cDNA synthesis and sequencing to eliminate potential biases caused by mismatching of PCR primer sequences. The RNA pool tested was extracted from marine sediments of the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field in the southern Okinawa Trough. The sequences obtained using the ploy(A tailing method were compared statistically and phylogenetically with those obtained using conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR with published domain-specific primers. Both methods indicated that Deltaproteobacteria are predominant in sediment (>85% of the total sequence read. The poly(A tailing method indicated that Desulfobacterales were the predominant deltaproteobacteria, while most of the sequences in libraries constructed using RT-PCR were derived from Desulfuromonadales. This discrepancy may have been due to low coverage of Desulfobacterales by the primers used. A comparison of library diversity indices indicated that the poly(A tailing method retrieves more phylogenetically diverse sequences from the environment. The four archaeal 16S rRNA sequences that were obtained using the poly(A tailing method formed deeply branching lineages that were related to Candidatus Parvarchaeum and the Ancient Archaeal Group. These results clearly demonstrate that poly(A tailing followed by cDNA sequencing is a powerful and less biased molecular ecological approach for the study of metabolically active microbial communities.

  2. GLD-2/RNP-8 cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase is a broad-spectrum regulator of the oogenesis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tracy L.; Kimble, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Regulated polyadenylation is a broadly conserved mechanism that controls key events during oogenesis. Pivotal to that mechanism is GLD-2, a catalytic subunit of cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase (PAP). Caenorhabditis elegans GLD-2 forms an active PAP with multiple RNA-binding partners to regulate diverse aspects of germline and early embryonic development. One GLD-2 partner, RNP-8, was previously shown to influence oocyte fate specification. Here we use a genomic approach to identify transcripts selectively associated with both GLD-2 and RNP-8. Among the 335 GLD-2/RNP-8 potential targets, most were annotated as germline mRNAs and many as maternal mRNAs. These targets include gld-2 and rnp-8 themselves, suggesting autoregulation. Removal of either GLD-2 or RNP-8 resulted in shortened poly(A) tails and lowered abundance of four target mRNAs (oma-2, egg-1, pup-2, and tra-2); GLD-2 depletion also lowered the abundance of most GLD-2/RNP-8 putative target mRNAs when assayed on microarrays. Therefore, GLD-2/RNP-8 appears to polyadenylate and stabilize its target mRNAs. We also provide evidence that rnp-8 influences oocyte development; rnp-8 null mutants have more germ cell corpses and fewer oocytes than normal. Furthermore, RNP-8 appears to work synergistically with another GLD-2–binding partner, GLD-3, to ensure normal oogenesis. We propose that the GLD-2/RNP-8 enzyme is a broad-spectrum regulator of the oogenesis program that acts within an RNA regulatory network to specify and produce fully functional oocytes. PMID:20855596

  3. A poly(A) ribonuclease controls the cellotriose-based interaction between Piriformospora indica and its host Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joy M; Thürich, Johannes; Petutschnig, Elena Kristin; Altschmied, Lothar; Meichsner, Doreen; Sherameti, Irena; Dindas, Julian; Mrozinska, Anna; Paetz, Christian; Scholz, Sandra S; Furch, Alexandra Cu; Lipka, Volker; Hedrich, Rainer; Schneider, Bernd; Svatoš, Aleš; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2018-01-25

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic root-colonizing fungus, efficiently promotes plant growth and induces resistance to abiotic stress and biotic diseases. The fungal cell wall extract induces cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]cyt elevation in host plant roots. Here, we show that an elici-tor-active cell wall moiety, released by P. indica into the medium, is cellotriose (CT). CT in-duces a mild defense-like response including the production of reactive oxygen species, changes in membrane potentials and the expression of genes involved in growth regulation and root development. CT based [Ca2+]cyt elevation in Arabidopsis roots does not require BAK1 coreceptor, or the putative Ca2+ channels TPC1, GLR3.3, -2.4 and -2.5 and operates synergistically with the elicitor chitin. We identified an ethylmethane-sulfonate-induced mu-tant ([Ca2+]cyt elevation mutant, cycam) impaired in response to CT, cellooligomers (n = 2, 4-7), but not to chitooligomers (n = 4-8) in roots. The mutant contains a single nucleotide ex-change in the gene encoding for a poly(A) ribonuclease (AtPARN, At1g55870) which de-grades poly(A) tails of specific mRNAs. The wild-type PARN cDNA, expressed under the control of a 35S promoter, complements the mutant phenotype. Our finding of cellotriose as a novel chemical mediator might help to understand the complex P. indica-plant mutual rela-tionship in beneficial symbiosis. {copyright, serif} 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain mRNA translatability in rats: changes during long-term dietary restriction in the developmental period of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, U S; Majumdar, P K; Thakur, M L

    1984-12-01

    We studied the effects of graded dietary restriction on the amount and translatability of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule coding for brain proteins during the developmental period of life. Control experiments were performed on newborn, 1-, 3-, 6- and 27-week-old rats, whereas the dietary restriction studies, involving 10, 30 or 50% food deprivation, were conducted on weanling rats for periods of 3 or 24 weeks. Graded dietary restriction for 3 or 24 weeks caused a progressive reduction of the amount and translatability of mRNA in the rat brain. Complementary DNA (cDNA) probe and hybridization studies with [3H]cDNA revealed that food deprivation elicited a shorter species of mRNA or shorter sequences of the same species of mRNA coding for brain proteins and that not all polyadenylates mRNA [poly(A)+ mRNA] sequences found in control rats were present in the dietary-restricted animals. Furthermore, it appeared that food deprivation produced a shorter species of pre-mRNA via decreased polynucleotide elongation. The mRNA content of 27-week-old rat brains increased 12.5 times in comparison to newborns, representing an augmentation that was progressive and related to the developmental period of life of the animals. The translatability of mRNA was enhanced in the brain of 3-week-old rats, as compared to 1-week-old pups, and did not show any change thereafter. From these studies, it can be concluded that graded dietary restriction considerably modified the metabolism of mRNA in the rat brain, whereas minor alterations occurred during the developmental period of life in control animals.

  5. Endocrine Disruption of Vasopressin Systems and Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B. Patisaul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are chemicals that interfere with the organizational or activational effects of hormones. Although the vast majority of the EDC literature focuses on steroid hormone signaling related impacts, growing evidence from a myriad of species reveals that the nonapeptide hormones vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT may also be EDC targets. EDCs shown to alter pathways and behaviors coordinated by AVP and/or OT include the plastics component bisphenol A (BPA, the soy phytoestrogen genistein (GEN, and various flame retardants. Many effects are sex specific and likely involve action at nuclear estrogen receptors. Effects include the elimination or reversal of well-characterized sexually dimorphic aspects of the AVP system, including innervation of the lateral septum and other brain regions critical for social and other non-reproductive behaviors. Disruption of magnocellular AVP function has also been reported in rats, suggesting possible effects on hemodynamics and cardiovascular function.

  6. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  7. Effects of Arginine Vasopressin on musical short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Y. Granot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP and musical working memory (WM. The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP – placebo design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo in a second session, one week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's Musical Aptitude Profile, the interval subtest from the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA, and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP (p < .05 with no main Session effect nor Group * Session interaction. In the Gordon test there was a main Session effect (p < .05 with scores higher in the second as compared to the first session, a marginal main Group effect (p = .093 and a marginal Group X Session interaction (p = 0.88. In addition we found that the group that received AVP in the first session scored higher on scales indicative of happiness, and alertness on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, (PANAS. Only in this group and only in the music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other.

  8. Structures of an unliganded neurophysin and its vasopressin complex: Implications for binding and allosteric mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Chia Kuei; Hu, Bing; Rose, John P; Liu, Zhi‐Jie; Nguyen, Tam L; Zheng, Changsheng; Breslow, Esther; Wang, Bi‐Cheng

    2001-01-01

    The structures of des 1–6 bovine neurophysin‐II in the unliganded state and as its complex with lysine vasopressin were determined crystallographically at resolutions of 2.4 Å and 2.3 Å, respectively...

  9. Vasopressin/oxytocin-related signaling regulates gustatory associative learning in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Beets (Isabel); T.W.J. Janssen (Tom); E. Meelkop (Ellen); L. Temmerman (Liesbeth); N. Suetens (Nick); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); G. Jansen (Gert); L. Schoofs (Liliane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractVasopressin- and oxytocin-related neuropeptides are key regulators of animal physiology, including water balance and reproduction. Although these neuropeptides also modulate social behavior and cognition in mammals, the mechanism for influencing behavioral plasticity and the evolutionary

  10. Oxytocin and vasopressin neural networks: Implications for social behavioral diversity and translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zachary V; Young, Larry J

    2017-05-01

    Oxytocin- and vasopressin-related systems are present in invertebrate and vertebrate bilaterian animals, including humans, and exhibit conserved neuroanatomical and functional properties. In vertebrates, these systems innervate conserved neural networks that regulate social learning and behavior, including conspecific recognition, social attachment, and parental behavior. Individual and species-level variation in central organization of oxytocin and vasopressin systems has been linked to individual and species variation in social learning and behavior. In humans, genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding oxytocin and vasopressin peptides and/or their respective target receptors have been associated with individual variation in social recognition, social attachment phenotypes, parental behavior, and psychiatric phenotypes such as autism. Here we describe both conserved and variable features of central oxytocin and vasopressin systems in the context of social behavioral diversity, with a particular focus on neural networks that modulate social learning, behavior, and salience of sociosensory stimuli during species-typical social contexts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effect of vasopressin on sublingual microcirculation in a patient with distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Marc J; De Backer, Daniel; Creteur, Jacques; Anane, Sami; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2003-06-01

    To assess the sublingual microcirculation in a patient during vasopressin administration for a distributive shock after cardiopulmonary bypass. Case-report in the Department of Intensive Care of a university hospital. A 53 year-old man developed severe distributive shock after cardiac transplant, requiring massive doses of vasopressor agents. Vasopressin administered twice at a dose of 0.02 U/min increased mean blood pressure and allowed partial weaning of other vasopressor drugs. Microcirculatory alterations were assessed by orthogonal polarization spectral technique: 50% and 60% of capillaries were perfused at baseline, and these proportions did not worsen when vasopressin was administered. Despite its strong vasopressor effects vasopressin infusion did not worsen microcirculatory alterations in this patient with distributive shock following cardiac surgery.

  12. Vasopressin in Vasodilatory Shock for Both Left and Right Heart Anomalous Pediatric Patients after Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Xu; Yang, Juxian; Li, Shoujun; Yan, Jun

    2017-11-03

    Although the use of vasopressin has become common place in pediatric patients with vasodilatory shock after cardiac surgery, its efficacy and hemodynamic effects have not been systematically documented. Furthermore, previous studies were mainly limited patients with left heart anomalies. To date, the use of vasopressin in patients with right heart anomalies hasn't yet been reported. To clarify the hemodynamic effects of vasopressin on pediatric patients with vasodilatory shock after cardiopulmonary bypass, 70 consecutive patients, most of whom with right heart anomalies were retrospectively analyzed in Fuwai Hospital from October 2013 to September 2015. Vasopressin was administered continuously at a dose of 0.0002-0.002 u/kg/min. Hemodynamics, urine output and catecholamine vasopressor doses were compared before and after vasopressin initiation. showed that besides of the significant increase in blood pressure at 2 hours after vasopressin administration, the systemic vascular resistance index also prominently elevated from 894.3 ± 190.8 to 1138.2 ± 161.4 dyn/s per cm per m, while the heart rate, right atrial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure had a trend of decline. Subsequently the fluid requirement, the catecholamine vasopressor requirement both decreased and urine output increased. Lactate concentration showed a later remarkable decline at 12 hours since vasopressin administration. All the 70 patients survived to hospital discharge. low dose of vasopressin administration was associated with great and timely hemodynamic improvement for pediatric patients with vasodilatory shock after cardiac surgery without any significant adverse effects.

  13. Do vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists benefit cirrhotics with refractory ascites?

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a frequent complication of advanced cirrhosis with ascites associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is caused by an impairment in the renal capacity to eliminate solute-free water and is considered to be related to persistent secretion of vasopressin despite low serum osmolality. This nonosmotic release of vasopressin is mediated by the autonomic nervous system, which senses the underfilling of arterial vascular component. This reduction of effective arterial bloo...

  14. Central vasopressin infusion prevents hibernation in the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, M L; Buijs, R M; Masson-Pévet, M; van der Woude, T P; Pévet, P; Brenklé, R; Kirsch, R

    1989-01-01

    The amount of immunocytochemically detectable vasopressin in the brain of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) shows a seasonal variation; i.e., dense vasopressin immunoreactivity is present in the lateral septum during summer but is absent in autumn and winter [Buijs, R. M., Pévet, P., Masson-Pévet, M., Pool, C. W., De Vries, G. J., Canguilhem, B. & Vivien-Roels, B. (1986) Brain Res. 371, 193-196]. In the winter period the European hamster hibernates. Since vasopressin in the lateral septum is known to be involved in the control of body temperature, we investigated whether infusion of vasopressin in the lateral septum during autumn-winter could influence hypothermic patterns normally seen in hibernating animals. Hamsters whose lateral septum was infused with vasopressin showed almost no periods of hypothermia, whereas hamsters treated with control infusions displayed a normal hibernation pattern. The results indicate that persistence of vasopressin release in the lateral septum of the European hamster during winter can prevent hibernation. Images PMID:2762331

  15. Development of a human vasopressin V1a-receptor antagonist from an evolutionary-related insect neuropeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Giglio, Maria Giulia; Muttenthaler, Markus; Harpsøe, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    conservation of the 600-million-year-old oxytocin/vasopressin signalling system. We isolated the insect oxytocin/vasopressin orthologue inotocin from the black garden ant (Lasius niger), identified and cloned its cognate receptor and determined its pharmacological properties on the insect and human oxytocin....../vasopressin receptors. Subsequently, we identified a functional dichotomy: inotocin activated the insect inotocin and the human vasopressin V1b receptors, but inhibited the human V1aR. Replacement of Arg8 of inotocin by D-Arg8 led to a potent, stable and competitive V1aR-antagonist ([D-Arg8]-inotocin) with a 3,000-fold...

  16. A switch from GABA inhibition to excitation of vasopressin neurons exacerbates the development angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpal, Aaron K; Han, Su Young; Schwenke, Daryl O; Brown, Colin H

    2017-12-09

    Hypothalamic magnocellular neurons secrete vasopressin into the systemic circulation to maintain blood pressure by increasing renal water reabsorption and by vasoconstriction. When blood pressure rises, baroreflex activation normally inhibits vasopressin neurons via activation of GABAergic inputs. However, plasma vasopressin levels are paradoxically elevated in several models of hypertension and in some patients with essential hypertension, despite increased blood pressure. We have previously shown that vasopressin neuron activity is increased early in the development of moderate angiotensin II-dependent hypertension via blunted baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons. Here, we show that antagonism of vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction slows the development of hypertension and that local administration of a GABAA receptor antagonist inhibits vasopressin neurons during, but not before, the onset of hypertension. Taken together, our data suggest that vasopressin exacerbates the increase in blood pressure evident early in the development hypertension and that blunted baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons is underpinned by an excitatory shift in their response to endogenous GABA signalling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of poly(A) site selection in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    KAUST Repository

    Schlackow, M.

    2013-10-23

    Polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs, a critical step in eukaryotic gene expression, is mediated by cis elements collectively called the polyadenylation signal. Genome-wide analysis of such polyadenylation signals was missing in fission yeast, even though it is an important model organism. We demonstrate that the canonical AATAAA motif is the most frequent and functional polyadenylation signal in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Using analysis of RNA-Seq data sets from cells grown under various physiological conditions, we identify 3\\' UTRs for nearly 90% of the yeast genes. Heterogeneity of cleavage sites is common, as is alternative polyadenylation within and between conditions. We validated the computationally identified sequence elements likely to promote polyadenylation by functional assays, including qRT-PCR and 3\\'RACE analysis. The biological importance of the AATAAA motif is underlined by functional analysis of the genes containing it. Furthermore, it has been shown that convergent genes require trans elements, like cohesin for efficient transcription termination. Here we show that convergent genes lacking cohesin (on chromosome 2) are generally associated with longer overlapping mRNA transcripts. Our bioinformatic and experimental genome-wide results are summarized and can be accessed and customized in a user-friendly database Pomb(A).

  18. Inhibition of Ectopic Arginine Vasopressin Production by Phenytoin in the Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line Lu-165

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shoji

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin, a voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV channel antagonist, reportedly inhibits arginine vasopressin (AVP release from an isolated rat neurohypophysis. So far, it is uncertain whether phenytoin has a direct action on ectopic AVP-producing neuroendocrine tumors. We studied the effect of phenytoin on the release of copeptin, the C-terminal fragment of pro-AVP, and expression of AVP gene in the human small cell lung cancer cell line Lu-165. Cells were maintained in RPMI1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and were used within the fifth passage. Copeptin was detected using a new sandwich immunoassay, and AVP mRNA levels were measured using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with phenytoin at a concentration of 25 µg/mL, but not at 5 or 10 µg/mL, had an inhibitory effect on copeptin levels in the medium at 48 h. At the same concentration, AVP mRNA levels in Lu-165 cells also decreased. Although a sodium challenge with added sodium at 20 mEq/L increased copeptin levels in the medium, a sodium challenge with added sodium at 10 and 20 mEq/L had no effect on AVP mRNA levels. Phenytoin at a concentration of 25 µg/mL suppressed copeptin levels in the medium under the sodium challenge with added sodium at 10 and 20 mEq/L. Phenytoin at a concentration of 25 µg/mL also decreased AVP mRNA levels in Lu-165 cells under the sodium challenge with added sodium at 10 mEq/L, but not at 20 mEq/L. Among five tested NaV channel subunits, NaV1.3 was highly expressed in Lu-165 cells. However, phenytoin significantly decreased NaV1.3 mRNA levels under the sodium challenge with added sodium at 10 and 20 mEq/L. These results suggest that Lu-165 cells are sensitive to phenytoin and sodium to control of AVP release and its gene expression. Phenytoin might have a direct action on ectopic AVP-producing tumors, suggesting the importance of NaV channels in AVP-producing neuroendocrine tumors.

  19. A DEAD box RNA helicase is essential for mRNA export and important for development and stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Dong, Chun-Hai; Lee, Hojoung; Zhu, Jianhua; Xiong, Liming; Gong, Deming; Stevenson, Becky; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2005-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, cryophyte, was isolated and found to have an enhanced cold stress-induction of the master regulator of cold tolerance, C-repeat binding factor 2 (CBF2), and its downstream target genes. The mutant is more tolerant to chilling and freezing stresses but is more sensitive to heat stress. Under warm but not cold growth temperatures, the mutant has a reduced stature and flowers earlier. Under long day conditions, flowering of the mutant is insensitive to vernalization. The mutant is also hypersensitive to the phytohormone abscisic acid. The mutation was found in a DEAD box RNA helicase gene that is identical to the previously identified low expression of osmotically responsive genes 4 (LOS4) locus, which was defined by the los4-1 mutation that reduces cold regulation of CBFs and their target genes and renders Arabidopsis plants chilling sensitive. We show evidence suggesting that the CRYOPHYTE/LOS4 protein may be enriched in the nuclear rim. In situ poly(A) hybridization indicates that the export of poly(A)+ RNAs is blocked in the cryophyte/los4-2 mutant at warm or high temperatures but not at low temperatures, whereas the los4-1 mutation weakens mRNA export at both low and warm temperatures. These results demonstrate an important role of the CRYOPHYTE/LOS4 RNA helicase in mRNA export, plant development, and stress responses.

  20. Coordinated Regulation of Vasopressin Inactivation and Glucose Uptake by Action of TUG Protein in Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemichael, Estifanos N; Alcázar-Román, Abel; Rubin, Bradley R; Grossi, Laura R; Belman, Jonathan P; Julca, Omar; Löffler, Michael G; Li, Hongjie; Chi, Nai-Wen; Samuel, Varman T; Bogan, Jonathan S

    2015-06-05

    In adipose and muscle cells, insulin stimulates the exocytic translocation of vesicles containing GLUT4, a glucose transporter, and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), a transmembrane aminopeptidase. A substrate of IRAP is vasopressin, which controls water homeostasis. The physiological importance of IRAP translocation to inactivate vasopressin remains uncertain. We previously showed that in skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates proteolytic processing of the GLUT4 retention protein, TUG, to promote GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. Here we show that TUG proteolysis also controls IRAP targeting and regulates vasopressin action in vivo. Transgenic mice with constitutive TUG proteolysis in muscle consumed much more water than wild-type control mice. The transgenic mice lost more body weight during water restriction, and the abundance of renal AQP2 water channels was reduced, implying that vasopressin activity is decreased. To compensate for accelerated vasopressin degradation, vasopressin secretion was increased, as assessed by the cosecreted protein copeptin. IRAP abundance was increased in T-tubule fractions of fasting transgenic mice, when compared with controls. Recombinant IRAP bound to TUG, and this interaction was mapped to a short peptide in IRAP that was previously shown to be critical for GLUT4 intracellular retention. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, IRAP was present in TUG-bound membranes and was released by insulin stimulation. Together with previous results, these data support a model in which TUG controls vesicle translocation by interacting with IRAP as well as GLUT4. Furthermore, the effect of IRAP to reduce vasopressin activity is a physiologically important consequence of vesicle translocation, which is coordinated with the stimulation of glucose uptake. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Structural characterization of arginine-vasopressin and lysine-vasopressin by Fourier- transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and infrared multiphoton dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Battista, Fabio; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Amarena, Concetta G; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Guerrieri, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and lysine-vasopressin (LVP) were analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion mode. LVP and AVP exhibited the protonated adduct [M+H](+) as the predominant ion at m/z 1056.43965 and at m/z 1084.44561, respectively. Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), using a CO(2) laser source at a wavelength of 10.6 μm, was applied to protonated vasopressin molecules. The IRMPD mass spectra presented abundant mass fragments essential for a complete structural information. Several fragment ions, shared between two target molecules, are discussed in detail. Some previously unpublished fragments were identified unambiguously utilizing the high resolution and accurate mass information provided by the FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The opening of the disulfide loop and the cleavage of the peptide bonds within the ring were observed even under low-energy fragmentation conditions. Coupling the high-performance FT-ICR mass spectrometer with IRMPD as a contemporary fragmentation technique proved to be very promising for the structural characterization of vasopressin.

  2. GRK2 Mediates Arginine Vasopressin-Induced Interleukin-6 Production via Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Neonatal Rat Cardiac Fibroblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Sun, Shuzhen; Wang, Xiaojun; Ni, Eran; Zhao, Lingling; Zhu, Weizhong

    2017-09-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6), which is elevated in patients with congestive heart failure and acts as both a chronic marker of inflammation and an acute-phase reactant, is associated with myocardial damage. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) are elevated during cardiac stress and could be a factor for cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. Our previous study has shown that AVP promotes the proliferation of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) throughV 1A vasopressin receptor-mediated G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the GRK2-dependent signaling. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA and protein in NRCFs, respectively. Manipulation of GRK2 activation either pharmacologically or through overexpression of GRK2-ct was used to determine the role of GRK2 in regulating the effects of AVP on IL-6 production. Phosphorylation and activation of nuclear factor κ-B (NF- κ B) evoked by AVP stimulation were measured by immunoblot and NF-kB luciferase reporter gene transfected in NRCFs, respectively. Present studies have found that: 1) AVP increased the level of IL-6 protein and mRNA in a dose- and time-dependent manner in NRCFs; 2) inhibition of GRK2 abolished the AVP-induced IL-6 production and NF- κ B activation; and 3) blocking NF- κ B signaling using the pharmacologic approach diminished AVP-induced IL-6 production. In summary, AVP induces IL-6 production of NRCFs by activating V 1A receptor signaling via a GRK2/NF- κ B pathway. These findings provide a possible molecular mechanism for inflammation that occurs in heart failure and other types of cardiac stress. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Electroporated Antigen-Encoding mRNA Is Not a Danger Signal to Human Mature Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hoyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For therapeutic cancer vaccination, the adoptive transfer of mRNA-electroporated dendritic cells (DCs is frequently performed, usually with monocyte-derived, cytokine-matured DCs (moDCs. However, DCs are rich in danger-sensing receptors which could recognize the exogenously delivered mRNA and induce DC activation, hence influencing the DCs’ immunogenicity. Therefore, we examined whether electroporation of mRNA with a proper cap and a poly-A tail of at least 64 adenosines had any influence on cocktail-matured moDCs. We used 16 different RNAs, encoding tumor antigens (MelanA, NRAS, BRAF, GNAQ, GNA11, and WT1, and variants thereof. None of those RNAs induced changes in the expression of CD25, CD40, CD83, CD86, and CD70 or the secretion of the cytokines IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα of more than 1.5-fold compared to the control condition, while an mRNA encoding an NF-κB-activation protein as positive control induced massive secretion of the cytokines. To determine whether mRNA electroporation had any effect on the whole transcriptome of the DCs, we performed microarray analyses of DCs of 6 different donors. None of 60,000 probes was significantly different between mock-electroporated DCs and MelanA-transfected DCs. Hence, we conclude that no transcriptional programs were induced within cocktail-matured DCs by electroporation of single tumor-antigen-encoding mRNAs.

  4. Star-PAP, a poly(A) polymerase, functions as a tumor suppressor in an orthotopic human breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C; Gong, Y; Zhou, H; Wang, M; Kong, L; Liu, J; An, T; Zhu, H; Li, Y

    2017-02-02

    Star-PAP is a noncanonical poly(A) polymerase and required for the expression of a select set of mRNAs. However, the pathological role of Star-PAP in cancer largely remains unknown. In this study, we observed decreased expression of Star-PAP in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Ectopic Star-PAP expression inhibited proliferation as well as colony-forming ability of breast cancer cells. In breast cancer patients, high levels of Star-PAP correlated with an improved prognosis. Moreover, by regulating the expression of BIK (BCL2-interacting killer), Star-PAP induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway. The growth of breast cancer xenografts in NOD/SCID mice was also inhibited by the doxycycline-induced Star-PAP overexpression. Furthermore, Star-PAP sensitized breast cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs both in vitro and in vivo. In mammary epithelial cells, Star-PAP knockdown partially transformed these cells and induced them to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings suggested that Star-PAP possesses tumor-suppressing activity and can be a valuable target for developing new cancer therapeutic strategies.

  5. Canonical Poly(A Polymerase Activity Promotes the Decay of a Wide Variety of Mammalian Nuclear RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Bresson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human nuclear poly(A-binding protein PABPN1 has been implicated in the decay of nuclear noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs. In addition, PABPN1 promotes hyperadenylation by stimulating poly(A-polymerases (PAPα/γ, but this activity has not previously been linked to the decay of endogenous transcripts. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying target specificity have remained elusive. Here, we inactivated PAP-dependent hyperadenylation in cells by two independent mechanisms and used an RNA-seq approach to identify endogenous targets. We observed the upregulation of various ncRNAs, including snoRNA host genes, primary miRNA transcripts, and promoter upstream antisense RNAs, confirming that hyperadenylation is broadly required for the degradation of PABPN1-targets. In addition, we found that mRNAs with retained introns are susceptible to PABPN1 and PAPα/γ-mediated decay (PPD. Transcripts are targeted for degradation due to inefficient export, which is a consequence of reduced intron number or incomplete splicing. Additional investigation showed that a genetically-encoded poly(A tail is sufficient to drive decay, suggesting that degradation occurs independently of the canonical cleavage and polyadenylation reaction. Surprisingly, treatment with transcription inhibitors uncouples polyadenylation from decay, leading to runaway hyperadenylation of nuclear decay targets. We conclude that PPD is an important mammalian nuclear RNA decay pathway for the removal of poorly spliced and nuclear-retained transcripts.

  6. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  7. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  8. Hyponatraemia in imported malaria: the pathophysiological role of vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoorn Ewout J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the pathophysiology of hyponatraemia in malaria, the relative contribution of appropriate and inappropriate arginine vasopressin (AVP release is unknown; the trigger for inappropriate AVP release is also unknown. Methods Serum copeptin, a stable and sensitive marker for AVP release, was analysed in a large cohort of patients with imported malaria (204 patients and in a small prospective substudy (23 patients in which urine sodium and osmolality were also available. Hyponatraemia was classified as mild (serum sodium 131-134 mmol/l and moderate-to-severe ( Results Serum copeptin on admission was higher in patients with moderate-to-severe hyponatraemia (median 18.5 pmol/L compared with normonatraemic patients (12.7 pmol/L, p p s = -0.17, p = 0.017. Stronger correlations were identified between serum C-reactive protein and copeptin (rs = -0.36, p s = 0.33, p Conclusions In hyponatraemic patients with imported malaria, AVP release was uniformly increased and was either appropriate or inappropriate. Although the exact trigger for inappropriate AVP release remains unknown, the higher body temperatures, correlations with C-reactive protein and long normalization times of serum sodium, suggest an important role of the host inflammatory response to the invading malaria parasite.

  9. Vasopressin inhibits LTP in the CA2 mouse hippocampal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Chafai

    Full Text Available Growing evidence points to vasopressin (AVP as a social behavior regulator modulating various memory processes and involved in pathologies such as mood disorders, anxiety and depression. Accordingly, AVP antagonists are actually envisaged as putative treatments. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized, in particular the influence of AVP on cellular or synaptic activities in limbic brain areas involved in social behavior. In the present study, we investigated AVP action on the synapse between the entorhinal cortex and CA2 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, by using both field potential and whole-cell recordings in mice brain acute slices. Short application (1 min of AVP transiently reduced the synaptic response, only following induction of long-term potentiation (LTP by high frequency stimulation (HFS of afferent fibers. The basal synaptic response, measured in the absence of HFS, was not affected. The Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse was not affected by AVP, even after LTP, while the Schaffer collateral-CA2 synapse was inhibited. Although investigated only recently, this CA2 hippocampal area appears to have a distinctive circuitry and a peculiar role in controlling episodic memory. Accordingly, AVP action on LTP-increased synaptic responses in this limbic structure may contribute to the role of this neuropeptide in controlling memory and social behavior.

  10. Characterization of a novel nonpeptide vasopressin V2-agonist, OPC-51803, in cells transfected human vasopressin receptor subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Yamamura, Yoshitaka; Itoh, Shuji; Hirano, Takahiro; Tsujimae, Kenji; Aoyama, Masashi; Kondo, Kazumi; Ogawa, Hidenori; Shinohara, Tomoichi; Kan, Keizo; Tanada, Yoshihisa; Teramoto, Shuji; Sumida, Takumi; Nakayama, Sunao; Sekiguchi, Kazuo; Kambe, Toshimi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Mori, Toyoki; Tominaga, Michiaki

    2000-01-01

    We discovered the first nonpeptide arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V2-receptor agonist, OPC-51803. Pharmacological properties of OPC-51803 were elucidated using HeLa cells expressing human AVP receptor subtypes (V2, V1a and V1b) and compared with those of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), a peptide V2-receptor agonist.OPC-51803 and dDAVP displaced [3H]-AVP binding to human V2- and V1a-receptors with Ki values of 91.9±10.8 nM (n=6) and 3.12±0.38 nM (n=6) for V2-receptors, and 819±39 nM (n=6) and 41.5±9.9 nM (n=6) for V1a-receptors, indicating that OPC-51803 was about nine times more selective for V2-receptors, similar to the selectivity of dDAVP. OPC-51803 scarcely displaced [3H]-AVP binding to human V1b-receptors even at 10−4 M, while dDAVP showed potent affinity to human V1b-receptors with the Ki value of 13.7±3.2 nM (n=4).OPC-51803 concentration-dependently increased cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) production in HeLa cells expressing human V2-receptors with an EC50 value of 189±14 nM (n=6). The concentration-response curve for cyclic AMP production induced by OPC-51803 was shifted to the right in the presence of a V2-antagonist, OPC-31260.At 10−5 M, OPC-51803 did not increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in HeLa cells expressing human V1a-receptors. On the other hand, dDAVP increased [Ca2+]i in HeLa cells expressing human V1a- and V1b-receptors in a concentration-dependent fashion.From these results, OPC-51803 has been confirmed to be the first nonpeptide agonist for human AVP V2-receptors without agonistic activities for V1a- and V1b-receptors. OPC-51803 may be useful for the treatment of AVP-deficient pathophysiological states and as a tool for AVP researches. PMID:10780976

  11. Expression of aquaporins, vasopressin type 2 receptor, and Na+₋K+₋Cl⁻ cotransporters in the rat endolymphatic sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Kakigi, Akinobu; Takeda, Taizo; Takeda, Setsuko; Doi, Katsumi

    2009-08-01

    Since many water channels and pumps, such as aquaporin (AQP) 1-4, AQP6-9, vasopressin type 2 receptor (V(2)-R), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) 1, and NKCC2 were expressed in the rat endolymphatic sac, it should play an important role in the physiological function of acid-based metabolism and water balance in endolymphatic fluid homeostasis. To evaluate the expression and immunolocalization of AQP1-9, V(2)-R, NKCC1, and NKCC2 in the rat endolymphatic sac. Wistar rats were used. Expression of AQP1-9, V(2)-R, NKCC1, and NKCC2 mRNA in the rat endolymphatic sac was investigated using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, and detailed immunolocalization of AQP1-9, V(2)-R, NKCC1, and NKCC2 was investigated using immunohistochemical methods, including immunofluorescence microscopy. mRNAs and proteins of AQP1-4, AQP6-9, V(2)-R, NKCC1, and NKCC2 were expressed, but AQP5 was not expressed in the rat endolymphatic sac.

  12. The study of consistent properties of the vasopressin nasal dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Nukarii Abdulkarim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of consistent properties is an important and integral part of investigations on the creation of semisolid nasal pharmacotherapeutic agents. The aim of this work is the study of consistent properties of developed nasal semisolid dosage form with synthetic analogue of vasopressin – arginine-vasopressin for the treatment of cognitive consequences of cerebral-vascular pathology. Materials and methods. The study of structural-mechanical characteristics of nasal ointment with 0.000005% arginine-vasopressin on the vaseline-lanolin-paraffin base was carried out by a rotary viscosimeter «Reotest-2» with cylindrical arrangement. It was established that consistent properties of arginine-vasopressin semisolid dosage form and «mechanical stability» (2.56 describe composition as a thixotropic system which provides with restorability after applying tension and allow to predict stability of consistent properties during a long-term storage. Calculated factors of dynamical flowing of arginine- vasopressin dosage form on the vaseline-lanolin-paraffin base (Кd1=28.7%; Kd2=53.84% quantitatively confirm satisfactory spreading degree of the system during application on the mucous membranes or in manufacturing process. Conclusions. The studies of consistent properties of nasal ointment with synthetic analogue of vasopressin – arginine-vasopressin 0.000005% on lipophilic basis for treatment of cognitive effects of cerebrovascular disease have been conducted by rotary viscometer «Reotest 2». It has been established that consistent properties of studied soft nasal dosage form of arginine-vasopressin and «mechanical stability» value of the system (2.56 characterize it as a thixotropic, that assure recovery from mechanical stress, that allows to predict the stability of consistent properties of the composition during prolonged storage. The calculated values of coefficients of dynamic flow of intranasal dosage form of arginine-vasopressin on vaseline

  13. Successful treatment of severe anaphylactic shock with vasopressin. Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kill, Clemens; Wranze, Erich; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2004-07-01

    Severe anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening situation that needs immediate treatment of progressive hemodynamic failure. We report two cases of severe anaphylactic shock treated with arginine-vasopressin (AVP): In a 42-year-old male patient anaphylactic shock was caused by the sting of a hornet. At the scene, he was found unconscious, cyanotic, with a heart rate of 130/min without measurable blood pressure. The patient was intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen, intravenous epinephrine (1 mg over 2 min) had no effect on blood pressure. After injection of 10 IU vasopressin, followed by infusion of 40 IU vasopressin, hemodynamics could be stabilized at once. In the second case, a 47-year-old male patient was stung by a wasp. At the scene he was unconscious, blood pressure was not measurable, heart rate was 140/min. The patient was treated with 40 IU vasopressin followed by rapid infusion of 500 ml NaCl 0.9%. After injection of vasopressin, blood pressure raised to 80/50 mm Hg and heart rate decreased to 90/min. Both patients needed ventilator therapy for several days and recovered fully. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Novel evolutionary lineages of the invertebrate oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily peptides and their receptors in the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Satake, Honoo; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, is the first invertebrate species that was shown to possess two oxytocin/vasopressin (OT/VP) superfamily peptides, octopressin (OP) and cephalotocin (CT). Previously, we cloned a GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor) specific to CT [CTR1 (CT receptor 1)]. In the present study, we have identified an additional CTR, CTR2, and a novel OP receptor, OPR. Both CTR2 and OPR include domains and motifs typical of GPCRs, and the intron– exon structures are in accord with those of OT/VP receptor genes. CTR2 and OPR expressed in Xenopus oocytes induced calcium-mediated inward chloride current in a CT- and OP-specific manner respectively. Several regions and residues, which are requisite for binding of the vertebrate OT/VP receptor family with their ligands, are highly conserved in CTRs, but not in OPR. These different sequences between CTRs and OPR, as well as the amino acid residues of OP and CT at positions 2–5, were presumed to play crucial roles in the binding selectivity to their receptors, whereas the difference in the polarity of OT/VP family peptide residues at position 8 confers OT and VP with the binding specificity in vertebrates. CTR2 mRNA was present in various peripheral tissues, and OPR mRNA was detected in both the nervous system and peripheral tissues. Our findings suggest that the CT and OP genes, similar to the OT/VP family, evolved through duplication, but the ligand–receptor selectivity were established through different evolutionary lineages from those of their vertebrate counterparts. PMID:15504101

  15. Pituitary content of oxytocin, vasopressin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the fetus of the rat during labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; Dogterom, J.; Pronker, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The pituitary contents of oxytocin, vasopressin and alpha-MSH were measured in fetal and newborn rats to assess possible changes in their release during the process of labour. In the 24 h period during which delivery is likely to occur in the Wistar rat, both the oxytocin and vasopressin content of

  16. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  17. Associations between Vocal Symptoms and Genetic Variants in the Oxytocin Receptor and Arginine Vasopressin 1A Receptor Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jämsen, Sofia Holmqvist; Johansson, Ada; Westberg, Lars; Santtila, Pekka; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Simberg, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin are associated with different aspects of the stress response. As stress is regarded as a risk factor for vocal symptoms, we wanted to explore the association between the oxytocin receptor gene ("OXTR") and arginine vasopressin 1A receptor gene ("AVPR1A") single-nucleotide polymorphisms…

  18. Hyper-responsiveness of adrenal gland to vasopressin resulting in enhanced plasma cortisol in patients with adrenal nodule(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sawako; Uchida, Daigaku; Koide, Hisashi; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Noguchi, Yoshihiko; Saito, Yasushi; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2008-10-01

    Hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin has been demonstrated in ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH) and some adrenal adenomas with Cushing's syndrome (CS). However, the clinical significance of hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin has not been investigated systematically in adrenal nodule(s). The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence of hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin (vasopressin responder) and their clinical characteristics in terms of hormonal secretion using vasopressin-loading test in the patients with adrenal nodule(s) except pheochromocytomas. A vasopressin-loading test was performed on 61 consecutive patients with adrenal nodules (CS: 33, aldosterone-producing adenoma: 10, non-functional tumor: 18). Vasopressin responders were observed in 36.1% of adrenal nodule(s), 42.4% of CS and 28.5% of non-CS. In responders with CS, eight patients had bilateral nodules that were diagnosed as AIMAH, and the remaining six patients had a unilateral nodule. These patients had lower plasma cortisol than non-responders at both morning (Pcortisol was frequently observed among patients with adrenal nodule(s). The vasopressin responders among the patients with adrenal nodule(s) frequently had CS with low autonomous cortisol secretion.

  19. Efects of plasma corticosteroid concentration on the osmotic threshold for vasopressin releasing in Chagas' disease

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    Tatsuto Kimachi

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available The osmotic threshold for vasopressin release was studied in normal patients (n = 7 and in patients with the chronic form of Chagas'disease (n = 11. Positive correlation between osmotic threshold and plasma cortisol concentration was obtained for the Controls (y1 = 273,30 + 0,75x i; r = 0,78;P < 0,05, suggesting a modulating effect of cortisol on vasopressin release. The lack of correlation between the two parameters for the chronic chagasic patients was interpreted, on the basis of the general denervation associated with Chagas ' disease, to be the result of neuronal destruction in hypothalamic and/or extrahypothalamic centers related to the secretory control of vasopressin.

  20. Arabidopsis mRNA polyadenylation machinery: comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Min

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyadenylation of mRNA is one of the critical processing steps during expression of almost all eukaryotic genes. It is tightly integrated with transcription, particularly its termination, as well as other RNA processing events, i.e. capping and splicing. The poly(A tail protects the mRNA from unregulated degradation, and it is required for nuclear export and translation initiation. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that the polyadenylation process is also involved in the regulation of gene expression. The polyadenylation process requires two components, the cis-elements on the mRNA and a group of protein factors that recognize the cis-elements and produce the poly(A tail. Here we report a comprehensive pairwise protein-protein interaction mapping and gene expression profiling of the mRNA polyadenylation protein machinery in Arabidopsis. Results By protein sequence homology search using human and yeast polyadenylation factors, we identified 28 proteins that may be components of Arabidopsis polyadenylation machinery. To elucidate the protein network and their functions, we first tested their protein-protein interaction profiles. Out of 320 pair-wise protein-protein interaction assays done using the yeast two-hybrid system, 56 (~17% showed positive interactions. 15 of these interactions were further tested, and all were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and/or in vitro co-purification. These interactions organize into three distinct hubs involving the Arabidopsis polyadenylation factors. These hubs are centered around AtCPSF100, AtCLPS, and AtFIPS. The first two are similar to complexes seen in mammals, while the third one stands out as unique to plants. When comparing the gene expression profiles extracted from publicly available microarray datasets, some of the polyadenylation related genes showed tissue-specific expression, suggestive of potential different polyadenylation complex configurations. Conclusion An

  1. Neural injury after use of vasopressin and adrenaline during porcine cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Peter; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Basu, Samar

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to investigate cerebral and cardiac tissue injury subsequent to use of vasopressin and adrenaline in combination compared with vasopressin alone during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods In a randomized, prospective, laboratory animal study 28 anesthetized piglets were subject to a 12-min untreated cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. After 1 min of CPR, 10 of the piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg8-vasopressin (V group), and 10 piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg8-vasopressin, 1 min later followed by 20 µg/kg body weight of adrenaline, and another 1 min later continuous administration (10 µg/kg/min) of adrenaline (VA group). After 8 min of CPR, the piglets were defibrillated and monitored for another 3 h. Then they were killed and the brain immediately removed pending histological analysis. Results During CPR, the VA group had higher mean blood pressure and cerebral cortical blood flow (CCBF) but similar coronary perfusion pressure. After restoration of spontaneous circulation there was no difference in the pressure variables, but CCBF tended to be (36% ± 16%) higher in the V group. Neuronal injury and signs of a disrupted blood–brain barrier (BBB) were greater, 20% ± 4% and 21% ± 4%, respectively, in the VA group. In a background study of repeated single doses of adrenaline every third minute after 5 min arrest but otherwise the same protocol, histological measurements showed even worse neural injury and disruption of the BBB. Conclusion Combined use of vasopressin and adrenaline caused greater signs of cerebral and cardiac injury than use of vasopressin alone during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:25645317

  2. Neural injury after use of vasopressin and adrenaline during porcine cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Peter; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Basu, Samar; Wiklund, Lars

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate cerebral and cardiac tissue injury subsequent to use of vasopressin and adrenaline in combination compared with vasopressin alone during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In a randomized, prospective, laboratory animal study 28 anesthetized piglets were subject to a 12-min untreated cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. After 1 min of CPR, 10 of the piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg(8)-vasopressin (V group), and 10 piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg(8)-vasopressin, 1 min later followed by 20 µg/kg body weight of adrenaline, and another 1 min later continuous administration (10 µg/kg/min) of adrenaline (VA group). After 8 min of CPR, the piglets were defibrillated and monitored for another 3 h. Then they were killed and the brain immediately removed pending histological analysis. During CPR, the VA group had higher mean blood pressure and cerebral cortical blood flow (CCBF) but similar coronary perfusion pressure. After restoration of spontaneous circulation there was no difference in the pressure variables, but CCBF tended to be (36% ± 16%) higher in the V group. Neuronal injury and signs of a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) were greater, 20% ± 4% and 21% ± 4%, respectively, in the VA group. In a background study of repeated single doses of adrenaline every third minute after 5 min arrest but otherwise the same protocol, histological measurements showed even worse neural injury and disruption of the BBB. Combined use of vasopressin and adrenaline caused greater signs of cerebral and cardiac injury than use of vasopressin alone during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  3. Endogenous Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Aggression in Domestic Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Martin, W Lance; Carter, C Sue

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP)-neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species-and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the measurement of free (unbound) and total (free + bound) OT and AVP in dog plasma. In Experiment 1 we evaluated behavioral and neuroendocrine differences between a population of pet dogs with a history of chronic aggression toward conspecifics and a matched control group. Dogs with a history of aggression exhibited more aggressive behavior during simulated encounters with conspecifics, and had lower free, but higher total plasma AVP than matched controls, but there were no group differences for OT. In Experiment 2 we compared OT and AVP concentrations between pet dogs and a population of assistance dogs that have been bred for affiliative and non-aggressive temperaments, and investigated neuroendocrine predictors of individual differences in social behavior within the assistance dog population. Compared to pet dogs, assistance dogs had higher free and total OT, but there were no differences in either measure for AVP. Within the assistance dog population, dogs who behaved more aggressively toward a threatening stranger had higher total AVP than dogs who did not. Collectively these data suggest that endogenous OT and AVP may play critical roles in shaping dog social behavior, including aspects of both affiliation and aggression.

  4. Chimpanzee Personality and the Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1A Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V A D; Weiss, A; Humle, T; Morimura, N; Udono, T; Idani, G; Matsuzawa, T; Hirata, S; Inoue-Murayama, M

    2017-03-01

    Polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene have been linked to various measures related to human social behavior, including sibling conflict and agreeableness. In chimpanzees, AVPR1a polymorphisms have been associated with traits important for social interactions, including sociability, joint attention, dominance, conscientiousness, and hierarchical personality dimensions named low alpha/stability, disinhibition, and negative emotionality/low dominance. We examined associations between AVPR1a and six personality domains and hierarchical personality dimensions in 129 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in Japan or in a sanctuary in Guinea. We fit three linear and three animal models. The first model included genotype, the second included sex and genotype, and the third included genotype, sex, and sex × genotype. All personality phenotypes were heritable. Chimpanzees possessing the long form of the allele were higher in conscientiousness, but only in models that did not include the other predictors; however, additional analyses suggested that this may have been a consequence of study design. In animal models that included sex and sex × genotype, chimpanzees homozygous for the short form of the allele were higher in extraversion. Taken with the findings of previous studies of chimpanzees and humans, the findings related to conscientiousness suggest that AVPR1a may be related to lower levels of impulsive aggression. The direction of the association between AVPR1a genotype and extraversion ran counter to what one would expect if AVPR1a was related to social behaviors. These results help us further understand the genetic basis of personality in chimpanzees.

  5. Role of central and peripheral chemoreceptors in vasopressin secretion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Michele; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Fiore, Giorgio; Licchelli, Brunella; Iovino, Emanuela; Triggiani, Vincenzo

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we analyzed the role played by central and peripheral chemoreceptors (CHRs) in vasopressin (AVP) secretion control. Central neural pathways subserving osmotic and non-osmotic control of AVP secretion are strictly correlated to brain areas participating in chemoreception mechanisms. Among the different brain areas involved in central chemoreception, the most important site has been localized in the retrotrapezoid nucleus of the rostral ventrolateral medulla. These central CHRs are able to detect very small pH/CO2 fluctuations, participating in brain blood flow regulation, acid-base balance and blood pressure control. Decreases in arterial pH and increases in arterial pCO2 stimulate AVP release by the Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. Carotid CHRs transduce low arterial O2 tension into increased action potential activity, leading to bradycardia and coronary vasodilatation via vagal stimulation, and systemic vasoconstriction via catecholaminergic stimulation. Stimulation of carotid CHRs by hypoxia increases neurohypophyseal blood flow and AVP release, an effect inhibited by CHRs denervation. Two renal CHRs have been identified: Type R1 CHRs do not have a resting discharge but are activated by renal ischemia and hypotension; Type R2 CHRs have a resting discharge and respond to backflow of urine into the renal pelvis. Signals arising from renal CHRs modulate the activity of hypothalamic AVPergic neurons: activation of R1 and R2 CHRs, following increased intrapelvic pressure with solutions of mannitol, NaCl and KCl, produces a significant increase of AVP secretion and the same effect has been obtained by the intrarenal infusion of bradykinin, which excites afferent renal nerves, as well as by the electrical stimulation of these nerves.

  6. Endogenous Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Aggression in Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. MacLean

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP—neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species—and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the measurement of free (unbound and total (free + bound OT and AVP in dog plasma. In Experiment 1 we evaluated behavioral and neuroendocrine differences between a population of pet dogs with a history of chronic aggression toward conspecifics and a matched control group. Dogs with a history of aggression exhibited more aggressive behavior during simulated encounters with conspecifics, and had lower free, but higher total plasma AVP than matched controls, but there were no group differences for OT. In Experiment 2 we compared OT and AVP concentrations between pet dogs and a population of assistance dogs that have been bred for affiliative and non-aggressive temperaments, and investigated neuroendocrine predictors of individual differences in social behavior within the assistance dog population. Compared to pet dogs, assistance dogs had higher free and total OT, but there were no differences in either measure for AVP. Within the assistance dog population, dogs who behaved more aggressively toward a threatening stranger had higher total AVP than dogs who did not. Collectively these data suggest that endogenous OT and AVP may play critical roles in shaping dog social behavior, including aspects of both affiliation and aggression.

  7. Vasopressin-induced changes in splanchnic blood flow and hepatic and portal venous pressures in liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, L Sand; Ricksten, S-E; Houltz, E; Einarsson, H; Söndergaard, S; Rizell, M; Lundin, S

    2016-05-01

    To minimize blood loss during hepatic surgery, various methods are used to reduce pressure and flow within the hepato-splanchnic circulation. In this study, the effect of low- to moderate doses of vasopressin, a potent splanchnic vasoconstrictor, on changes in portal and hepatic venous pressures and splanchnic and hepato-splanchnic blood flows were assessed in elective liver resection surgery. Twelve patients were studied. Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), mean arterial (MAP), central venous (CVP), portal venous (PVP) and hepatic venous pressures (HVP) were measured, intraoperatively, at baseline and during vasopressin infusion at two infusion rates (2.4 and 4.8 U/h). From arterial and venous blood gases, the portal (splanchnic) and hepato-splanchnic blood flow changes were calculated, using Fick's equation. CO, SV, MAP and CVP increased slightly, but significantly, while systemic vascular resistance and heart rate remained unchanged at the highest infusion rate of vasopressin. PVP was not affected by vasopressin, while HVP increased slightly. Vasopressin infusion at 2.4 and 4.8 U/h reduced portal blood flow (-26% and -37%, respectively) and to a lesser extent hepato-splanchnic blood flow (-9% and -14%, respectively). The arterial-portal vein lactate gradient was not significantly affected by vasopressin. Postoperative serum creatinine was not affected by vasopressin. Short-term low to moderate infusion rates of vasopressin induced a splanchnic vasoconstriction without metabolic signs of splanchnic hypoperfusion or subsequent renal impairment. Vasopressin caused a centralization of blood volume and increased cardiac output. Vasopressin does not lower portal or hepatic venous pressures in this clinical setting. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Arginine Vasopressin and Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1b Involved in Electroacupuncture‐Attenuated Hypothalamic‐Pituitary‐Adrenal Axis Hyperactivity in Hepatectomy Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Chen, Zhejun; Zhu, LiTing; Meng, ZeHui; Wu, GenCheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aims to know the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) in maintenance of the homeostasis of the neuroendocrine system in hepatectomy rats and the involvement of arginine vasopressin (AVP) signaling in hypothalamus after EA was observed. Materials and Methods Rats were randomly assigned to four groups, including the intact group, model group, sham‐EA group, and EA group. EA was given during the perioperative period at the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) points after hepatectomy. The serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) levels were detected via radioimmunoassay. The expression of AVP, arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a), arginine vasopressin receptor 1b (AVPR1b), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was detected by Western blot after surgery. Results Compared with the intact group, the ACTH and CORT levels in the serum of model group were increased, whereas the ACTH and CORT levels were decreased in the EA group compared with the model group. Moreover, AVP and AVPR1b protein levels in the pituitary gland were increased in the model group and decreased in the EA group. Further, a distinct increase in the AVP and AVPR1a protein levels was observed in the model group, whereas they were significantly decreased in the EA group. Blockade of AVPR1b by nelivaptan reduced the increase of ACTH and CORT. D [Leu4, Lys8] vasopressin can inhibit the effect of EA in rectification of the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis. Conclusions EA application at ST36 and SP6 can ameliorate the hyperactivity of the HPA axis via AVP signaling during the perioperative period. PMID:26573696

  9. The circadian deadenylase Nocturnin is necessary for stabilization of the iNOS mRNA in mice.

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    Shuang Niu

    Full Text Available Nocturnin is a member of the CCR4 deadenylase family, and its expression is under circadian control with peak levels at night. Because it can remove poly(A tails from mRNAs, it is presumed to play a role in post-transcriptional control of circadian gene expression, but its target mRNAs are not known. Here we demonstrate that Nocturnin expression is acutely induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs lacking Nocturnin exhibit normal patterns of acute induction of TNFα and iNOS mRNAs during the first three hours following LPS treatment, but by 24 hours, while TNFα mRNA levels are indistinguishable from WT cells, iNOS message is significantly reduced 20-fold. Accordingly, analysis of the stability of the mRNAs showed that loss of Nocturnin causes a significant decrease in the half-life of the iNOS mRNA (t(1/2 = 3.3 hours in Nocturnin knockout MEFs vs. 12.4 hours in wild type MEFs, while having no effect on the TNFα message. Furthermore, mice lacking Nocturnin lose the normal nighttime peak of hepatic iNOS mRNA, and have improved survival following LPS injection. These data suggest that Nocturnin has a novel stabilizing activity that plays an important role in the circadian response to inflammatory signals.

  10. Adenosine methylation in Arabidopsis mRNA is associated with the 3’ end and reduced levels cause developmental defects

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    Zsuzsanna eBodi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that the N6-methyladenosine (m6A mRNA methylase is essential during Arabidopsis thaliana embryonic development. We also demonstrated that this modification is present at varying levels in all mature tissues. However, the requirement for the m6A in the mature plant was not tested. Here we show that a 95% reduction in m6A levels during later growth stages gives rise to plants with altered growth patterns and reduced apical dominance. The flowers of these plants commonly show defects in their floral organ number, size and identity. The global analysis of gene expression from reduced m6A plants show that a significant number of down regulated genes are involved in transport, or targeted transport, and most of the upregulated genes are involved in stress and stimulus response processes. An analysis of m6A distribution in fragmented mRNA suggests that the m6A is predominantly positioned towards the 3’ end of transcripts in a region 100-150 bp before the poly(A tail. In addition to the analysis of the phenotypic changes in the low methylation Arabidopsis plants we will review the latest advances in the field of mRNA internal methylation

  11. Kinetic Induction of Oat Shoot Pulvinus Invertase mRNA by Gravistimulation and Partial cDNA Cloning by the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liu-Lai; Song, Il; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    An asymmetric (top vs. bottom halves of pulvini) induction of invertase mRNA by gravistimulation was analyzed in oat shoot pulvini. Total RNA and poly(A)(+) RNA, isolated from oat pulvini, and two oli-gonucleotide primers, corresponding to two conserved amino acid sequences (NDPNG and WECPD) found in invertase from other species, were used for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A partial length cDNA (550 bp) was obtained and characterized. A 62% nucleotide sequence homology and 58% deduced amino acid sequence homology, as compared to beta-fructosidase of carrot cell wall, was found. Northern blot analysis showed that there was an obviously transient induction of invertase mRNA by gravistimulation in the oat pulvinus system. The mRNA was rapidly induced to a maximum level at 1 hour after gravistimulation treatment and gradually decreased afterwards. The mRNA level in the bottom half of the oat pulvinus was significantly higher than that in the top half of the pulvinus tissue. The kinetic induction of invertase mRNA was consistent with the transient accumulation of invertase activity during the graviresponse of the pulvinus. This indicates that the expression of the invertase gene(s) could be regulated by gravistimulation at the transcriptional level. Southern blot analysis showed that there were two to three genomic DNA fragments which hybridized with the partial-length invertase cDNA.

  12. Decrease of extracellular taurine in the rat dorsal hippocampus after central nervous administration of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, P; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1992-01-01

    of the composition of the extracellular fluid. The concentrations of 16 amino acids were measured by HPLC in the perfusate samples. The level of taurine declined 20% in the right hippocampus during perfusion with vasopressin, whereas o-phosphoethanolamine decreased in both sides, the left 20% and the right 24...

  13. Cloning and identification of an oxytocin/vasopressin-like receptor and its ligand from insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Hansen, Karina K; Hauser, Frank

    2008-01-01

    to the locust peptide, which we named inotocin (for insect oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide) and a gene coding for an inotocin G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). We cloned the Tribolium inotocin preprohormone and the inotocin GPCR and expressed the GPCR in CHO cells. This GPCR is strongly activated by low...

  14. Mechanisms of inhibition of vasopressin release during moderate antiorthostatic posture change in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Gabrielsen, A; Christensen, N J

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused by a posture change from upright seated with legs horizontal (Seat) to supine (Sup) participates in the suppression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. Ten healthy males underwent this posture change for 30 min without ...

  15. Atrial distension, arterial pulsation, and vasopressin release during negative pressure breathing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Damgaard, M; Gabrielsen, A

    2001-01-01

    During an antiorthostatic posture change, left atrial (LA) diameter and arterial pulse pressure (PP) increase, and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is suppressed. By comparing the effects of a 15-min posture change from seated to supine with those of 15-min seated negative pressure breathing in ...

  16. Physiology and pathophysiology of the vasopressin-regulated renal water reabsorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2008-01-01

    To prevent dehydration, terrestrial animals and humans have developed a sensitive and versatile system to maintain their water homeostasis. In states of hypernatremia or hypovolemia, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) is released from the pituitary and binds its type-2 receptor in renal

  17. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K; Boer, G J

    1982-01-01

    Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells...

  18. Oxytocin/vasopressin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone from cephalopods to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in peptide search methods have revealed two peptide systems that have been conserved through metazoan evolution. Members of the oxytocin/vasopressin-superfamily have been identified from protostomian and deuterostomian animals, indicating that the oxytocin/vasopressin hormonal system represents one of the most ancient systems. In most protostomian animals, a single member of the superfamily shares oxytocin-like and vasopressin-like actions. Co-occurrence of two members has been discovered in modern cephalopods, octopus, and cuttlefish. We propose that cephalopods have developed two peptides in the molluscan evolutionary lineage like vertebrates have established two lineages in the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily. The existence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in protostomian animals was initially suggested by immunohistochemical analysis using chordate GnRH antibodies. A peptide with structural features similar to those of chordate GnRHs was originally isolated from octopus, and an identical peptide has been characterized from squid and cuttlefish. Novel forms of GnRH-like molecules from other molluscs, an annelid, arthropods, and nematodes demonstrate somewhat conserved structures at the N-terminal regions; but structures of the C-terminal regions critical to gonadotropin-releasing activity are diverse. These findings may be important for the study of the molecular evolution of GnRH in protostomian animals.

  19. Activation of vasopressin neurons in the human supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus in senescence and senile dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendijk, J. E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.; Verwer, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A recent study has shown that vasopressin (AVP) cells in the human supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei increase in size after 60 years of age, suggesting that AVP production is increased in senescence. In the present study, the same brain material was used for the determination of

  20. Post-training vasopressin injections may facilitate or delay shuttle-box avoidance extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagan, J.J.; Bohus, B.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    After training to avoid footshock in a two-way shuttle box rats were injected with lysine vasopressin (LVP) and returned to the shuttle box 24 hr later for 10 extinction trials. Experiment 1 shows that when injected 30 min after training subsequent extinction responding varied as an inverted

  1. Characterization of vasopressin V2 receptor mutants in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a polarized cell model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, J.H.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor (V2R). For the development of a tailored therapy for NDI, knowledge of the cellular fate of V2R mutants is needed. It would be useful when this fate could be predicted from the

  2. Use of Arginine Vasopressin in the Management of Vasodilatory Shock After CABG - A Clinical Tria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay O

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasodilatory shock requiring treatment with catecholamines occurs in some patients following cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the use of vasopressin in the treatment of this syndrome. Forty patients with a left main coronary artery disease and a poor left ventricular function (ejection fraction <30% were studied. Only those patients (n=12, 30% in whom difficulty was experienced in maintaining a mean arterial pressure of > 60 mm Hg and a systemic vascular resistance of greater than 900 dynes.sec.cm5 on maximal doses of pharmacological and mechanical support were selected. Patients underwent a standard cardiac anaesthesia protocol. All patients had a Swan-ganz catheter inserted pre-operatively. Arginine vasopressin was administered as a bolus of 0.015 units/kg intravenously followed by an infusion of 0.03 units/kg/hour. This dose increased the mean arterial pressure from 67+/-7 to 95+/-5 mm Hg and the systemic vascular resistance from 860+/-55 to 1502+/-71 dynes.sec.cm-5. It was also associated with a decrease in pharmacological support. All subjects responded to vasopressin administration. Vasopressin is an effective pressor in vasodilatory shock after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  3. Mechanisms of inhibition of vasopressin release during moderate antiorthostatic posture change in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B.; Gabrielsen, A.; Christensen, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused by a posture change from upright seated with legs horizontal (Seat) to supine (Sup) participates in the suppression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. Ten healthy males underwent this posture change for 30 min without...... decreased from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 0.5 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (P posture...

  4. Relief of nocturnal enuresis by desmopressin is kidney and vasopressin type 2 receptor independent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, J.H.; Sze, M.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Eggert, P.; Deen, P.M.T.; Muller, D.

    2007-01-01

    Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is a common problem in childhood and adolescence. Although various treatments are highly effective, a common underlying hypothesis on the pathogenesis is lacking. The success of desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, has been

  5. Amniotic oxytocin and vasopressin in relation to human fetal development and labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbaan, H. P.; Swaab, D. F.

    1989-01-01

    Previous experiments in rats revealed increased amniotic oxytocin (OXT) levels in the course of normal development and increased vasopressin (AVP) levels in retarded fetal growth. In order to see whether similar changes would also occur in human, OXT and AVP levels were determined in amniotic fluid,

  6. Vasopressin receptors V1a and V2 are not osmosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Assentoft, Mette; Fenton, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    that was, however, independent of hyperosmotic challenges. Similarly, the cAMP production by the V2R was unaffected by hyperosmotic challenges although, in contrast to the V1aR, the V2R displayed an ability to support alternative signaling (IP production) at higher concentration of vasopressin. V1aR and V2...

  7. Neuroendocrine adaptation to stress in pigs, CRH and vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in coping strategy present at birth as well as housing conditions may influence autonomic and endocrine stress responses.In rodents,corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) signaling in the

  8. Interation of mRNA with proteins in vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S.A.; Choi, Y.D.; Dreyfuss, G.

    1986-02-01

    The interaction of mRNA with proteins in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells was studied by photochemical cross-linking in intact cells. The major (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins which became cross-linked by UV light to mRNA in uninfected and in VSV-infected HeLa cells were similar and had apparent mobilities in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis corresponding to 135, 93, 72, 68, 53, 50, 43, and 36 kilodaltons. The proteins which were cross-linked in vivo specifically to the five mRNAs of VSV were labeled through radioactive nucleotides incorporated only into VSV mRNAs under conditions in which only VSV mRNAs are labeled. The same major mRNP proteins that became cross-linked to host mRNAs also became cross-linked to VSV mRNAs, although several quantitative differences were detected. Photochemical cross-linking and immunoblotting of cross-linked mRNPs with VSV antiserum demonstrated that in addition to host proteins VSV mRNAs also became cross-linked to the VSV-encoded N protein. The poly(A) segment of both host and VSV mRNAs was associated in vivo selectively with the 72-kilodalton polypeptide. The major proteins of mRNA-ribonucleoprotein complexes are therefore ubiquitous and common to different mRNAs. Furthermore, since the major messenger ribonucleoproteins interact also with VSV mRNAs even though these mRNAs are transcribed in the cytoplasm, it appears that nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic transport are not necessary for mRNA to interact with these proteins.

  9. Sequencing of mRNA identifies re-expression of fetal splice variants in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, E G; Lawson, M J; Mackey, A J; Holmes, J W

    2013-09-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy has been well-characterized at the level of transcription. During cardiac hypertrophy, genes normally expressed primarily during fetal heart development are re-expressed, and this fetal gene program is believed to be a critical component of the hypertrophic process. Recently, alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts has been shown to be temporally regulated during heart development, leading us to consider whether fetal patterns of splicing also reappear during hypertrophy. We hypothesized that patterns of alternative splicing occurring during heart development are recapitulated during cardiac hypertrophy. Here we present a study of isoform expression during pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy induced by 10 days of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in rats and in developing fetal rat hearts compared to sham-operated adult rat hearts, using high-throughput sequencing of poly(A) tail mRNA. We find a striking degree of overlap between the isoforms expressed differentially in fetal and pressure-overloaded hearts compared to control: forty-four percent of the isoforms with significantly altered expression in TAC hearts are also expressed at significantly different levels in fetal hearts compared to control (Phypertrophy and fetal heart development are significantly enriched for genes involved in cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, developmental processes, and metabolic enzymes. Our data strongly support the concept that mRNA splicing patterns normally associated with heart development recur as part of the hypertrophic response to pressure overload. These findings suggest that cardiac hypertrophy shares post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional regulatory mechanisms with fetal heart development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyponatremia and V2 vasopressin receptor upregulation: a result of HSP90 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiong; Puhm, Florian; Freissmuth, Michael; Nanoff, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) have been under development as chemotherapeutic agents. The adverse events reported from early clinical trials included hyponatremia. Given the limited number of patients enrolled, the number of hyponatremia incidents was remarkable and repeatedly, the event was judged as severe. Inappropriate V2 vasopressin receptor stimulation is an established cause of hyponatremia. We explored the hypothesis that HSP90 inhibition produces hypersensitivity to vasopressin by upregulating V2-receptors. Experiments were carried out in cell culture using HEK293 cells with heterologous expression of the human V2-receptor and HELA cells with an endogenous V2-receptor complement. We tested the effect of HSP90 inhibition by three structurally unrelated compounds (alvespimycin, luminespib, radicicol) and asserted its specificity in cells depleted of cytosolic HSP90 (by RNA interference). Assays encompassed surface V2-receptor density and vasopressin-stimulated formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP). The results demonstrate a twofold increase in cell-surface receptor density following pre-incubation with each of the HSP90 inhibitors. The effect had a concentration-dependence consistent with the individual potencies to inhibit HSP90. Similarly, depletion of cytosolic HSP90 increased surface-receptor density and at the same time, reduced the inhibitor effect. Upregulated V2-receptors were fully functional; hence, in culture treated with an HSP90 inhibitor, addition of vasopressin resulted in higher levels of cAMP than in controls. Since formation of cAMP is the first signalling step in raising water permeability of the collecting duct epithelia, we suggest that V2-receptor upregulation generates hypersensitivity to vasopressin linking HSP90 inhibition to the development of hyponatremia.

  11. Changes in Copeptin and Bioactive Vasopressin in Runners With and Without Hyponatremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hoffman, Martin D.; Stuempfle, Kristin J.; Rogers, Ian R.; Morgenthaler, Nils G.; Verbalis, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in both the N-terminal (arginine vasopressin; AVP) and C-terminal (copeptin) fragments of the vasopressin prohormone before, during, and after an ultramarathon race and to assess vasopressin and copeptin concentrations in runners with and without hyponatremia. Design Observational study. Setting Three trials (2 sodium balance and 1 hyponatremia treatment) in 2 separate approximately 160-km footraces [Western States Endurance Run (WSER) and Javelina Jundred Mile Race (JJ100)]. Participants Six hyponatremic and 20 normonatremic runners; 19 finishers with 7 completing 100 km. Main Outcome Measures Plasma AVP ([AVP]p), copeptin ([copeptin]p), sodium ([Na+]p), and protein (%plasma volume change; %PV) concentrations. Results In the WSER Sodium Trial, a 3-fold prerace to postrace increase in both [AVP]p (0.7 ± 0.4 to 2.7 ± 1.9 pg/mL; P copeptin]p (10.3 ± 12.5 to 28.2 ± 16.3 pmol/L; nonsignificant) occurred, despite a 2 mEq/L decrease in [Na+]p (138.7 ± 2.3 to 136.7 ± 1.6 mEq/L; NS). A significant correlation was noted between [AVP]p and [copeptin]p postrace (r = 0.82; P copeptin]p (22.5 vs 24.9 pmol/L) were well above the detectable levels. A significant correlation was noted between [AVP]p and [copeptin]p 60 minutes after treatment (r = 0.94; P copeptin]p change and %PV change (r = −0.34; P Copeptin]p seems to be a reliable surrogate of stimulated [AVP]p during exercise. Nonosmotic vasopressin stimulation occurs during ultradistance running. [Copeptin]p may better reflect chronic (%PV) vasopressin secretion under conditions of endurance exercise. PMID:21519298

  12. Evaluation of Vasopressin for Septic Shock in Patients on Chronic Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Beth L; Denaburg, Michael A; Barker, Andrew B; McArdle, Philip J; Windham, Samuel T; Morgan, Charity J

    2017-12-01

    To compare the hemodynamic response in septic shock patients receiving vasopressin who were on chronic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor therapy with those who were not. Single-center, retrospective cohort study. Medical and surgical ICUs at a 1,100-bed academic medical center. Medical and surgical ICU patients with septic shock who received vasopressin infusion added to at least one concomitant vasopressor agent between January 2014 and December 2015, then divided into two cohorts: 1) patients who were on chronic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor therapy as outpatients and 2) patients who were not on chronic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor therapy as outpatients. None. Mean arterial pressure at 6 hours was 72.2 mm Hg in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor group versus 69.7 mm Hg in the non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor group (p = 0.298). There was no difference in mean arterial pressure at 1, 24, or 48 hours between groups. Total concomitant vasopressor requirements, based on norepinephrine equivalents excluding vasopressin, were significantly lower at 24 hours in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor group versus the non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor group (10.7 vs 18.1 µg/min, respectively; p = 0.007), but no significant differences were seen at the other time points assessed. There were no significant differences in ICU or hospital length of stay or mortality. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of 6-hour mean arterial pressure in septic shock patients receiving vasopressin who were on chronic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor therapy versus those receiving vasopressin who were not on chronic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor therapy. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor patients had lower total concomitant vasopressor requirements at 24 hours compared with non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  13. Arginine vasopressin, fluid balance and exercise: is exercise-associated hyponatraemia a disorder of arginine vasopressin secretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew-Butler, Tamara

    2010-06-01

    The ability of the human body to regulate plasma osmolality (POsm) within a very narrow and well defined physiological range underscores the vital importance of preserving water and sodium balance at rest and during exercise. The principle endocrine regulator of whole body fluid homeostasis is the posterior pituitary hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Inappropriate AVP secretion may perpetuate either slow or rapid violation of these biological boundaries, thereby promoting pathophysiology, morbidity and occasional mortality. In the resting state, AVP secretion is primarily regulated by changes in POsm (osmotic regulation). The osmotic regulation of AVP secretion during exercise, however, may possibly be enhanced or overridden by many potential non-osmotic factors concurrently stimulated during physical activity, particularly during competition. The prevalence of these highly volatile non-osmotic AVP stimuli during strenuous or prolonged physical activity may reflect a teleological mechanism to promote water conservation during exercise. However, non-osmotic AVP secretion, combined with high fluid availability plus sustained fluid intake (exceeding fluid output), has been hypothesized to lead to an increase in both the incidence and related deaths from exercise-associated hyponatraemia (EAH) in lay and military populations. Inappropriately, high plasma AVP concentrations ([AVP](p)) associated with low blood sodium concentrations facilitate fluid retention and sodium loss, thereby possibly reconciling both the water intoxication and sodium loss theories of hyponatraemia that are currently under debate. Therefore, given the potential for a variety of exercise-induced non-osmotic stimuli for AVP secretion, hydration strategies must be flexible, individualized and open to change during competitive events to prevent the occurrence of rare, but life-threatening, EAH. This review focuses on the potential osmotic and non-osmotic stimuli to AVP secretion that may affect

  14. Molecular Modeling Approaches for Determining Gene Function: application to a Putative Poly-A Binding Protein from Leishmania amazonensis (LaPABP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Jr FP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The great expansion in the number of genome sequencing projects has revealed the importance of computational methods to speed up the characterization of unknown genes. These studies have been improved by the use of three dimensional information from the predicted proteins generated by molecular modeling techniques. In this work, we disclose the structure-function relationship of a gene product from Leishmania amazonensis by applying molecular modeling and bioinformatics techniques. The analyzed sequence encodes a 159 aminoacids polypeptide (estimated 18 kDa and was denoted LaPABP for its high homology with poly-A binding proteins from trypanosomatids. The domain structure, clustering analysis and a three dimensional model of LaPABP, basically obtained by homology modeling on the structure of the human poly-A binding protein, are described. Based on the analysis of the electrostatic potential mapped on the model's surface and conservation of intramolecular contacts responsible for folding stabilization we hypothesize that this protein may have less avidity to RNA than it's L. major counterpart but still account for a significant functional activity in the parasite. The model obtained will help in the design of mutagenesis experiments aimed to elucidate the mechanism of gene expression in trypanosomatids and serve as a starting point for its exploration as a potential source of targets for a rational chemotherapy.

  15. The stability of mRNA for eucaryotic elongation factor Tu in Friend erythroleukemia cells varies with growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T R; Slobin, L I

    1988-03-01

    The decay rates of eucaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu) mRNA and eucaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF-4A) mRNA in Friend erythroleukemia (FEL) cells were determined under several different growth conditions. In FEL cells which were no longer actively dividing (stationary phase), eEF-Tu mRNA was found to be rather stable, with a t1/2 of about 24 h. In rapidly growing FEL cells eEF-Tu mRNA was considerably less stable, with a t1/2 of about 9 h. In both cases a single rate of mRNA decay was observed. However, when stationary-phase cells resumed growth after treatment with fresh medium, we observed that eEF-Tu mRNA decay followed a biphasic process. The faster of the two decay rates involved approximately 50% of the eEF-Tu mRNA and had a t1/2 of about 1 h. The decay rates for eIF-4A (t1/2 = 2 h) and total poly(A)+ RNA (t1/2 = 3 h) were unaffected by changes in growth conditions. The t1/2 for polysomal eEF-Tu mRNA was found to be about 8 h when stationary FEL cells were treated with fresh medium. Previous work in this laboratory has shown (T. R. Rao and L. I. Slobin, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:687-697, 1987) that when FEL cells are allowed to grow to stationary phase, approximately 60% of the mRNA for eEF-Tu is found in a nontranslating postpolysomal messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. eEF-Tu mRNP was rapidly cleared from stationary cells after treatment with fresh medium. The data presented in this report indicate that the stability of eEF-Tu mRNP is rapidly altered and the particle is targeted for degradation when stationary FEL cells resume growth.

  16. Specific expression of optically active reporter gene in arginine vasopressin-secreting neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Y; Fujihara, H; Dayanithi, G; Kawata, M; Murphy, D

    2008-06-01

    The anti-diuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesised in the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. AVP-containing MNCs that project their axon terminals to the posterior pituitary can be identified using immunohistochemical techniques with specific antibodies recognising AVP and neurophysin II, and by virtue of their electrophysiological properties. Recently, we generated transgenic rats expressing an AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion gene in AVP-containing MNCs. In this transgenic rat, eGFP mRNA was observed in the PVN and the SON, and eGFP fluorescence was seen in the PVN and the SON, and also in the posterior pituitary, indicating transport of transgene protein down MNC axons to storage in nerve terminals. The expression of the AVP-eGFP transgene and eGFP fluorescence in the PVN and the SON was markedly increased after dehydration and chronic salt-loading. On the other hand, AVP-containing parvocellular neurosecretory cells in the PVN that are involved in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis exhibit robust AVP-eGFP fluorescence after bilateral adrenalectomy and intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide. In the median eminence, the internal and external layer showed strong fluorescence for eGFP after osmotic stimuli and stressful conditions, respectively, again indicating appropriate transport of transgene traslation products. Brain slices and acutely-dissociated MNCs and axon terminals also exhibited strong fluorescence, as observed under fluorescence microscopy. The AVP-eGFP transgenic animals are thus unique and provide a useful tool to study AVP-secreting cells in vivo for electrophysiology, imaging analysis such as intracellular Ca(2+) imaging, organ culture and in vivo monitoring of dynamic change in AVP secretion.

  17. Urinary concentration does not exclusively rely on plasma vasopressin. A study between genders. Gender and diurnal urine regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graugaard-Jensen, C; Hvistendahl, G M; Frøkiaer, J; Bie, P; Djurhuus, J C

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the influence of gender on the diurnal regulation of urine production with special focus on vasopressin, oxytocin and prostaglandin E2. Fifteen young women in mid-follicular phase and 22 young men (20-33 years) were included. All participants underwent a 24-h circadian inpatient study under standardized conditions for measurements of plasma vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium and osmolality. Urine was fractionally collected for measurements of electrolytes, aquaporin-2 and prostaglandin E2. Plasma vasopressin expressed a diurnal rhythm with a night-time increase in both genders (P genders. We found a trend towards a higher reabsorption of free water in males (P = 0.07). The excretion of prostaglandin E2 was higher in males (P gender difference, not only as a mediator of the vasopressin response, but also as an independent factor. These findings need further elucidation. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Influence of preventive use of vasopressin tannate on diabetes insipidus and serum sodium at the early postoperation of craniopharyngioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Wanggou, Siyi; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Xingjun; Peng, Zefeng; Yuan, Xianrui

    2016-10-28

    To explore the influence of preventive use of vasopressin tannate on diabetes insipidus and serum sodium at the early postoperation of craniopharyngioma.
 Methods: The data of 83 patients, who underwent unilateral sub-frontal approach resection of craniopharyngioma between 2010 and 2014 by the same senior neurosurgeon, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into a vasopressin tannate group (used group) and a control group. The diabetes insipidus and serum sodium changes were compared between the two groups.
 Results: Compared with the control group, the incidence of diabetes insipidus decreased at the early postoperation in the vasopressin tannate group (Pdiabetes insipidus in patients with pituitary stalk excision and tumor close adhesion to the third ventricle floor at the early postoperation (Pdiabetes insipidus in the vasopressin tannate group was decreased compared with the control group (Pdiabetes insipidus and hypernatremia incidence at the early postoperative stage after microsurgery for craniopharyngioma.

  19. The BTG2 protein is a general activator of mRNA deadenylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauxion, Fabienne; Faux, Céline; Séraphin, Bertrand

    2008-04-09

    BTG2 is a prototype member of the BTG/Tob family of antiproliferative proteins, originally identified as a primary response gene induced by growth factors and tumour promoters. Its expression has been linked to diverse cellular processes such as cell-cycle progression, differentiation or apoptosis. BTG2 has also been shown to interact with the Pop2/Caf1 deadenylase. Here, we demonstrate that BTG2 is a general activator of mRNA decay, thereby contributing to gene expression control. Detailed characterizations of BTG2 show that it enhances deadenylation of all transcripts tested. Our results demonstrate that Caf1 nuclease activity is required for efficient deadenylation in mammalian cells and that the deadenylase activities of both Caf1 and its Ccr4 partner are required for Btg2-induced poly(A) degradation. General activation of deadenylation may represent a new mode of global regulation of gene expression, which could be important to allow rapid resetting of protein production during development or after specific stresses. This may constitute a common function for BTG/Tob family members.

  20. Electrophysiological and autoradiographical evidence of V1 vasopressin receptors in the lateral septum of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dreifuss, J.J.

    1987-11-01

    Extracellular recordings were obtained from single neurons located in the lateral septum, an area known to receive a vasopressinergic innervation in the rat brain. Approximately half of the neurons tested responded to 8-L-arginine vasopressin (AVP) by a marked increase in firing rate at concentrations greater than 1 nM. The effect of vasopressin was blocked by synthetic structural analogues possessing antagonistic properties on peripheral vasopressin and oxytocin receptors. Oxytocin was much less potent than vasopressin in firing septal neurons, and a selective oxytocic agonist was totally ineffective. The action of vasopressin on neuronal firing was mimicked by the vasopressor agonist (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin but not by the selective antidiuretic agonist 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin. In a parallel study, sites that bind (/sup 3/H)AVP at low concentration (1.5 nM) were found by in vitro autoradiography in the lateral septum. Adjacent sections were also incubated with 1.5 mM (/sup 3/H)AVP and, in addition, with 100 nM (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin or 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin--i.e., the same compounds as those used for the electrophysiological study. Results showed that the vasopressor agonist, but not the antidiuretic agonist, displaced (/sup 3/H)AVP, thus indicating that the vasopressin binding sites detected by autoradiography in the septum were V1 (vasopressor type) rather than V2 (antidiuretic type) receptors. Based on the electrophysiological evidence, we conclude that these receptors, when occupied, lead to increased firing of lateral septal neurons.

  1. Hemodynamic Effects of Phenylephrine, Vasopressin, and Epinephrine in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siehr, Stephanie L; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Yang, Weiguang; Peng, Lynn F; Ogawa, Michelle T; Ramamoorthy, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    During a pulmonary hypertensive crisis, the marked increase in pulmonary vascular resistance can result in acute right ventricular failure and death. Currently, there are no therapeutic guidelines for managing an acute crisis. This pilot study examined the hemodynamic effects of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension. In this prospective, open-label, nonrandomized pilot study, we enrolled pediatric patients previously diagnosed with pulmonary hypertensive who were scheduled electively for cardiac catheterization. Primary outcome was a change in the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance. Baseline hemodynamic data were collected before and after the study drug was administered. Eleven of 15 participants were women, median age was 9.2 years (range, 1.7-14.9 yr), and median weight was 26.8 kg (range, 8.5-55.2 kg). Baseline mean pulmonary artery pressure was 49 ± 19 mm Hg, and mean indexed pulmonary vascular resistance was 10 ± 5.4 Wood units. Etiology of pulmonary hypertensive varied, and all were on systemic pulmonary hypertensive medications. Patients 1-5 received phenylephrine 1 μg/kg; patients 6-10 received arginine vasopressin 0.03 U/kg; and patients 11-15 received epinephrine 1 μg/kg. Hemodynamics was measured continuously for up to 10 minutes following study drug administration. After study drug administration, the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance decreased in three of five patients receiving phenylephrine, five of five patients receiving arginine vasopressin, and three of five patients receiving epinephrine. Although all three medications resulted in an increase in aortic pressure, only arginine vasopressin consistently resulted in a decrease in the ratio of systolic pulmonary artery-to-aortic pressure. This prospective pilot study of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertensive showed an increase in aortic

  2. Individual differences in gene expression of vasopressin, D2 receptor, POMC and orexin: vulnerability to relapse to heroin-seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco; Cummins, Erin; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2015-02-01

    Individual vulnerability to stress-induced relapse during abstinence from chronic heroin exposure is a key feature of opiate addiction, with limited studies on this topic. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its V1b receptor, components of the brain stress responsive systems, play a role in heroin-seeking behavior triggered by foot shock (FS) stress in rats. In this study, we tested whether individual differences in the FS-induced heroin-seeking were associated with alterations of AVP and V1b, as well as other stress responsive systems, including pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin, plasma ACTH and corticosterone, as well as dopamine D2 receptor (D2) and plasma prolactin. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3-hour intravenous heroin self-administration (SA) and then tested in extinction, and FS-induced and heroin priming-induced reinstatements. The rats that self-administered heroin were divided into high and low reinstatement responders induced by FS (H-RI; L-RI). Over SA sessions, both the H-RI and L-RI displayed similar active lever responding, heroin infusion and total heroin intake. Compared to the L-RI, however, the H-RI showed greater active lever responses during stress-induced reinstatement, with higher AVP mRNA levels in medial/basolateral amygdala and lower D2 mRNA levels in caudate putamen. However, heroin priming resulted in similar reinstatement in both groups and produced similarly low POMC and high orexin mRNA levels in hypothalamus. Our results indicate that: 1) enhanced amygdalar AVP and reduced striatal D2 expression may be related to individual vulnerability to stress-induced reinstatement of heroin- seeking; and 2) heroin abstinence-associated alterations of hypothalamic orexin and POMC expression may be involved in drug priming-induced heroin-seeking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaky, T.; Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin were determined in R-Amsterdam rats and in homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary central diabetes insipidus. It was found that the biological half-lives of (/sup 3/H)LVP and (/sup 3/H)dDAVP in the Brattleboro rats did not differ significantly from that found in the control R-Amsterdam rats. The half-life of (/sup 3/H)dDAVP proved longer than that of (/sup 3/H)LVP in all three groups of animals. In the case of (/sup 3/H)LVP the highest radioactivities were observed in the neurohypophyses, adenohypophyses, and kidneys of both the R-Amsterdam and Brattleboro rats. The accumulation of tritiated material was higher in the small intestine of the Brattleboro rats than in that of the R-Amsterdam animals. In all three groups of rats, (/sup 3/H)dDAVP was accumulated to the greatest extent in the kidney and the small intestine. The kidney and small intestine contained less radioactivity in homozygous Brattleboro rats than in the controls. There was only a slight radioactivity accumulation in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. From the results it was concluded that the decrease in the rate of enzymatic decomposition may play a role in the increased duration of antidiuretic action of dDAVP. The results have led to the conclusion that the accelerated elimination of vasopressin and its pathologic organ accumulation are probably not involved in the water metabolism disturbance of Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus.

  4. Vasopressin versus dopamine for treatment of hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants: a randomized, blinded pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Danielle R; Kaiser, Jeffrey R

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate vasopressin vs dopamine as initial therapy in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with hypotension during the first 24 hours of life. ELBW infants with hypertension ≤ 30 weeks' gestation and ≤ 24 hours old randomly received treatment with vasopressin or dopamine in a blinded fashion. Normotensive infants not receiving vasopressor support served as a comparison group. Twenty ELBW infants with hypertension received vasopressin (n = 10) or dopamine (n = 10), and 50 were enrolled for comparison. Mean gestational age was 25.6 ± 1.4 weeks and birth weight 705 ± 154 g. Response to vasopressin paralleled that of dopamine in time to adequate mean blood pressure (Kaplan-Meier curve, P = .986); 90% of infants in each treatment group responded with adequate blood pressure. The vasopressin group received fewer doses of surfactant (P hypotension appeared safe. This pilot study supports a larger randomized controlled trial of vasopressin vs dopamine therapy in ELBW infants with hypotension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alterations in mRNA 3' UTR Isoform Abundance Accompany Gene Expression Changes in Human Huntington's Disease Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Lindsay; Ashar-Patel, Ami; Pfister, Edith; Aronin, Neil

    2017-09-26

    The huntingtin gene has two mRNA isoforms that differ in their 3' UTR length. The relationship of these isoforms with Huntington's disease is not established. We provide evidence that the abundance of huntingtin 3' UTR isoforms differs between patient and control neural stem cells, fibroblasts, motor cortex, and cerebellum. Huntingtin 3' UTR isoforms, including a mid-3' UTR isoform, have different localizations, half-lives, polyA tail lengths, microRNA sites, and RNA-binding protein sites. Isoform shifts in Huntington's disease motor cortex are not limited to huntingtin; 11% of alternatively polyadenylated genes change the abundance of their 3' UTR isoforms. Altered expression of RNA-binding proteins may be associated with aberrant isoform abundance; knockdown of the RNA-binding protein CNOT6 in control fibroblasts leads to huntingtin isoform differences similar to those in disease fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that mRNA 3' UTR isoform changes are a feature of molecular pathology in the Huntington's disease brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. POS-1 promotes endo-mesoderm development by inhibiting the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of neg-1 mRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewa, Ahmed; Shirayama, Masaki; Kaymak, Ebru; Harrison, Paul F.; Powell, David R.; Du, Zhuo; Chute, Christopher D.; Woolf, Hannah; Yi, Dongni; Ishidate, Takao; Srinivasan, Jagan; Bao, Zhirong; Beilharz, Traude H.; Ryder, Sean; Mello, Craig C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The regulation of mRNA translation is of fundamental importance in biological mechanisms ranging from embryonic axis specification to formation of long-term memory. POS-1 is one of several CCCH zinc-finger RNA-binding proteins that regulate cell-fate specification during C. elegans embryogenesis. Paradoxically, pos-1 mutants exhibit striking defects in endo-mesoderm development, but have wildtype distributions of SKN-1, a key determinant of endo-mesoderm fates. RNAi screens for pos-1 suppressors identified genes encoding the cytoplasmic poly(A)-polymerase homolog GLD-2, the Bicaudal-C homolog GLD-3, and the protein NEG-1. We show that NEG-1 localizes in anterior nuclei where it negatively regulates endo-mesoderm fates. In posterior cells, POS-1 binds the neg-1 3′UTR to oppose GLD-2 and GLD-3 activities that promote NEG-1 expression and cytoplasmic lengthening of the neg-1 mRNA poly(A) tail. Our findings uncover an intricate series of post-transcriptional regulatory interactions that together achieve precise spatial expression of endo-mesoderm fates in C. elegans embryos. PMID:26096734

  7. Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, Timothy G

    2012-02-03

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis characterized by hypercortisolism, adrenal hyperplasia and abnormalities in negative feedback is the most consistently described biological abnormality in melancholic depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the main secretagogues of the HPA\\/stress system. Produced in the parvicellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus the release of these peptides is influenced by inputs from monoaminergic neurones. In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity.

  8. Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphoinositide turnover in an enriched rat Leydig cell preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl......An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol......-dependent feedback inhibition of the stimulation. Other agonists that might have a regulatory function in the testis were tested for possible effects on phosphoinositide metabolism. Of prostaglandin E (10 µm), angiotensin II (0.1 µM), and bradykinin (0.9 µM), only the latter induced a significant increase...

  9. The challenge of translation in social neuroscience: a review of oxytocin, vasopressin, and affiliative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Thomas R

    2010-03-25

    Social neuroscience is rapidly exploring the complex territory between perception and action where recognition, value, and meaning are instantiated. This review follows the trail of research on oxytocin and vasopressin as an exemplar of one path for exploring the "dark matter" of social neuroscience. Studies across vertebrate species suggest that these neuropeptides are important for social cognition, with gender- and steroid-dependent effects. Comparative research in voles yields a model based on interspecies and intraspecies variation of the geography of oxytocin receptors and vasopressin V1a receptors in the forebrain. Highly affiliative species have receptors in brain circuits related to reward or reinforcement. The neuroanatomical distribution of these receptors may be guided by variations in the regulatory regions of their respective genes. This review describes the promises and problems of extrapolating these findings to human social cognition, with specific reference to the social deficits of autism. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Vasoplegic syndrome and its treatment with vasopressin during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Macarena; Lema, Guillermo

    2011-03-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with systemic inflammatory response. In some cases this clinical condition is characterized by severe hypotension due to low systemic vascular resistance during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. A few of these cases do not respond to volume or catecholamines. This condition is known as vasoplegic syndrome. Its etiology is not fully understood today and carries associated morbidity and mortality In this syndrome, vasopressin levels are reduced, as in septic and hypovolemic shock. Supplementary vasopressin improves blood pressure and might be considered as an alternative treatment. Several reports have shown benefits when used alone or in combination with catecholamines. However, further studies are necessary to find the most appropriate use of the drug for vasoplegic syndrome.

  11. Hypothyroidism decreases proinsulin gene expression and the attachment of its mRNA and eEF1A protein to the actin cytoskeleton of INS-1E cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Goulart-Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The actions of thyroid hormone (TH on pancreatic beta cells have not been thoroughly explored, with current knowledge being limited to the modulation of insulin secretion in response to glucose, and beta cell viability by regulation of pro-mitotic and pro-apoptotic factors. Therefore, the effects of TH on proinsulin gene expression are not known. This led us to measure: a proinsulin mRNA expression, b proinsulin transcripts and eEF1A protein binding to the actin cytoskeleton, c actin cytoskeleton arrangement, and d proinsulin mRNA poly(A tail length modulation in INS-1E cells cultured in different media containing: i normal fetal bovine serum - FBS (control; ii normal FBS plus 1 µM or 10 nM T3, for 12 h, and iii FBS depleted of TH for 24 h (Tx. A decrease in proinsulin mRNA content and attachment to the cytoskeleton were observed in hypothyroid (Tx beta cells. The amount of eEF1A protein anchored to the cytoskeleton was also reduced in hypothyroidism, and it is worth mentioning that eEF1A is essential to attach transcripts to the cytoskeleton, which might modulate their stability and rate of translation. Proinsulin poly(A tail length and cytoskeleton arrangement remained unchanged in hypothyroidism. T3 treatment of control cells for 12 h did not induce any changes in the parameters studied. The data indicate that TH is important for proinsulin mRNA expression and translation, since its total amount and attachment to the cytoskeleton are decreased in hypothyroid beta cells, providing evidence that effects of TH on carbohydrate metabolism also include the control of proinsulin gene expression.

  12. Local injection of diluted vasopressin followed by suction curettage for cervical ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Unno, Youichi; Omoto, Akiko; Shozu, Makio

    2016-12-01

    To report the results of local injection of diluted vasopressin followed by suction curettage as a conservative treatment for women with cervical ectopic pregnancy, who wish to preserve their future fertility. This was a retrospective chart review in a university hospital and a municipal hospital. We injected diluted vasopressin (Pitressin R, total amount of 4-10 units) transvaginally into the cervix surrounding the gestational sac, but not directly into the gestational sac, and/or the lower segment of the uterine body under transvaginal ultrasonographic guidance. After cessation of fetal heartbeats, we aspirated the conceptus by performing suction curettage. We injected additional vasopressin into the gestational sac in cases with a viable fetus after the initial injection. Forced contraction of the cervical smooth muscle facilitated removal of the conceptus with minimal blood loss during curettage. We measured operative time, total blood loss, complications, and the need for additional treatment. We included 11 women. Mean patient age, gestational age, and serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) at the intervention were 31.2±6.4years, 6.0±0.6 weeks, and 18,370±21,570 IU/L, respectively. Mean size of the gestational sac was 19.6±9.5mm. The uterus was successfully preserved without any complications in all patients. All procedures were completed within 15min except for the first case (range: 5-33min). In 4 cases, the conceptus containing a gestational sac was spontaneously extruded en bloc from the external os after the injection. Additional systematic methotrexate administration was required in one case because of remaining villi at the implantation site with persistence of serum hCG levels after the procedure. Local injection of diluted vasopressin and subsequent suction curettage is a feasible conservative treatment for cervical ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  14. Vasopressin and epinephrine in the treatment of cardiac arrest: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Xanthos, Theodoros; Rokas, Georgios; Kitsou, Vassiliki; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios; Serpetinis, Ioannis; Perrea, Despina; Papadimitriou, Lila; Kouskouni, Evangelia

    2008-01-01

    Background Epinephrine remains the drug of choice for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The aim of the present study is to assess whether the combination of vasopressin and epinephrine, given their different mechanisms of action, provides better results than epinephrine alone in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 22 Landrace/Large-White piglets, which were left untreated for 8 minutes before attempted resuscitation with precordial compression, mechanic...

  15. [Effect of vasopressin on changes in the behavioral reactions of rats induced by psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, S A; Usenko, A B; Ashmarin, I P

    1989-01-01

    The effect was studied of arginyl-8-vasopressin (AVP) on changes in rats behavioural reactions, elicited by reserpine, haloperidol, aminazine, amitriptyline or nialamide. It has been shown that AVP administered intraperitoneally in a dose of 0.001 mg/kg, eliminates the deficit of elaboration of conditioned reaction of active avoidance produced by psychotropic drugs, without influencing the motor activity reduction developed after administration of these substances.

  16. Arteriolar vasoconstrictive response: comparing the effects of arginine vasopressin and norepinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Friesenecker, Barbara E; Tsai, Amy G; Martini, Judith; Ulmer, Hanno; Wenzel, Volker; Hasibeder, Walter R; Intaglietta, Marcos; D?nser, Martin W

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to examine differences in the arteriolar vasoconstrictive response between arginine vasopressin (AVP) and norepinephrine (NE) on the microcirculatory level in the hamster window chamber model in unanesthetized, normotonic hamsters using intravital microscopy. It is known from patients with advanced vasodilatory shock that AVP exerts strong additional vasoconstriction when incremental dosage increases of NE have no further effect on mean arterial blood pre...

  17. Controlled long-term release of small peptide hormones using a new microporous polypropylene polymer: its application for vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat and potential perinatal use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruisbrink, J.; Boer, G.J.

    1984-12-01

    Based on drug release by microporous hollow fibers and the recent introduction of microporous polymers, a new technique was developed for controlled delivery of peptides. Small-diameter microporous polypropylene tubing, lumen-loaded with microgram quantities of vasopressin, and coated with collodion, releases vasopressin after in vitro immersion slowly (1-100 ng/d) and constantly for months. The mechanism of pseudo-zero-order delivery is based on high adsorption of vasopressin, keeping the void volume concentration of dissolved vasopressin constant, which is consequently a constant driving force of outward diffusion. The collodion coating prevents the entry of proteinaceous compounds which would result in rapid desorption of vasopressin. The present delivery module provides a lasting release for other peptides as well (lysine-vasopressin, oxytocin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and, to a lesser extent, Met-enkephalin). The microporous polymer-collodion device is biocompatible and, loaded with vasopressin, successfully alleviates the diabetes insipidus of Brattleboro rats deficient for vasopressin. Subcutaneous implantation normalized diuresis for a period of 60 d and constant urine vasopressin excretion is observed. When the commercially available osmotic minipump is too large for implantation, the small size of the present controlled-delivery system allows peptide treatment of young and immature laboratory rats, even if located in utero.

  18. A Two-Year Randomized Trial of Interventions to Decrease Stress Hormone Vasopressin Production in Patients with Meniere's Disease-A Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kitahara, Tadashi; Okamoto, Hidehiko; Fukushima, Munehisa; Sakagami, Masaharu; Ito, Taeko; Yamashita, Akinori; Ota, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    .... Because mental/physical stress and subsequent increase in the stress hormone vasopressin supposedly trigger Meniere's disease, we set a pilot study to seek new therapeutic interventions, namely...

  19. The Effect of Drinking on Plasma Vasopressin and Renin in Dehydrated Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Kravik, S. E.; Wade, C. E.; Thrasher, T. N.; Barnes, P. R.; Pyka, G.; Nesvig, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Oropharyngeal mechanisms activated by drinking have been shown to induce a rapid decline in plasma vasopressin which preceeds postabsorptive changes in plasma composition in the dehydrated dog. The present study was undertaken to determine what factor(s) inhibit(s) vasopressin secretion after rehydration in water deprived human subjects. Hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) were determined on the day of the experiment, together with electrolytes and osmolalities which were measured on freshly separated serum. Plasma was immediately frozen and further analyzed by radioimmunoassay for renin activity (PRA), vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone. The data were analyzed using an analysis of variance for repeated measurements and significant differences between the dehydrated control period and various time points after the start of rehydration were determined using a multiple-range test. began and reached water replete levels 15 minutes after drinking in the absence of any detectable decline in serum sodium or osmolality, we conclude that 427 oropharyngeal factors, alone or combined with gastric distension account for the extremely rapid inhibition of AVP secretion after drinking in the water-deprived human, as has been shown to be the case in dogs. Our findings are also in agreement wiht the recent demonstration that at the onset of drinking in the dehydrated monkey, there is an abrupt fall in plasma AVP concentration associated with a considerable decrease in the firing rate of the supraoptic neurosecretory neurons.

  20. Negative feedback from CaSR signaling to aquaporin-2 sensitizes vasopressin to extracellular Ca2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Marianna; Tamma, Grazia; Di Mise, Annarita; Russo, Annamaria; Centrone, Mariangela; Svelto, Maria; Calamita, Giuseppe; Valenti, Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    We previously described that high luminal Ca(2+) in the renal collecting duct attenuates short-term vasopressin-induced aquaporin-2 (AQP2) trafficking through activation of the Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR). Here, we evaluated AQP2 phosphorylation and permeability, in both renal HEK-293 cells and in the dissected inner medullary collecting duct, in response to specific activation of CaSR with NPS-R568. In CaSR-transfected cells, CaSR activation drastically reduced the basal levels of AQP2 phosphorylation at S256 (AQP2-pS256), thus having an opposite effect to vasopressin action. When forskolin stimulation was performed in the presence of NPS-R568, the increase in AQP2-pS256 and in the osmotic water permeability were prevented. In the freshly isolated inner mouse medullar collecting duct, stimulation with forskolin in the presence of NPS-R568 prevented the increase in AQP2-pS256 and osmotic water permeability. Our data demonstrate that the activation of CaSR in the collecting duct prevents the cAMP-dependent increase in AQP2-pS256 and water permeability, counteracting the short-term vasopressin response. By extension, our results suggest the attractive concept that CaSR expressed in distinct nephron segments exerts a negative feedback on hormones acting through cAMP, conferring high sensitivity of hormone to extracellular Ca(2+). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Effect of stimulation of afferent renal nerves on plasma levels of vasopressin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caverson, M.M.; Ciriello, J.

    1987-04-01

    Experiments were done in ..cap alpha..-chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats with vagus, cervical sympathetic, aortic depressor, and carotid sinus nerves cut bilaterally to investigate the effect of afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation on circulating levels of vasopressin (AVP). Electrical stimulation of ARN elicited a pressor response that had two components, a primary (1/sup 0/) component locked in time with the stimulus and a secondary (2/sup 0/) component that had a long onset latency and that outlasted the stimulation period. The 1/sup 0/ and 2/sup 0/ components of the pressor response were largest at stimulation frequencies of 30 and 40 Hz, respectively. Autonomic blockage with hexamethonium bromide and atropine methylbromide abolished the 1/sup 0/ component. Administration of the vasopressin V/sub 1/-vascular receptor antagonist d(CH/sub 2/)/sub 5/ VAVP during autonomic blockade abolished the 2/sup 0/C component. Plasma concentrations of AVP measured by radioimmunoassay increased from control levels of 5.2 +/- 0.9 to 53.6 +/- 18.6 pg/ml during a 5-min period of stimulation of ARN. Plasma AVP levels measured 20-40 min after simulation were not significantly different from control values. These data demonstrate that sensory information originating in the kidney alters the release of vasopressin from the neurohypophysis and suggest that ARN are an important component of the neural circuitry involved in homeostatic mechanisms controlling arterial pressure.

  2. Noncanonical Control of Vasopressin Receptor Type 2 Signaling by Retromer and Arrestin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Timothy N.; Yui, Naofumi; Webber, Matthew J.; Wehbi, Vanessa L.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; King, J. Darwin; Hallows, Kenneth R.; Brown, Dennis; Bouley, Richard; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) is a critical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for vertebrate physiology, including the balance of water and sodium ions. It is unclear how its two native hormones, vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT), both stimulate the same cAMP/PKA pathway yet produce divergent antinatriuretic and antidiuretic effects that are either strong (VP) or weak (OT). Here, we present a new mechanism that differentiates the action of VP and OT on V2R signaling. We found that vasopressin, as opposed to OT, continued to generate cAMP and promote PKA activation for prolonged periods after ligand washout and receptor internalization in endosomes. Contrary to the classical model of arrestin-mediated GPCR desensitization, arrestins bind the VP-V2R complex yet extend rather than shorten the generation of cAMP. Signaling is instead turned off by the endosomal retromer complex. We propose that this mechanism explains how VP sustains water and Na+ transport in renal collecting duct cells. Together with recent work on the parathyroid hormone receptor, these data support the existence of a novel “noncanonical” regulatory pathway for GPCR activation and response termination, via the sequential action of β-arrestin and the retromer complex. PMID:23935101

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of PAPS1-Dependent Polyadenylation Identifies Novel Roles for Functionally Specialized Poly(A Polymerases in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kappel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The poly(A tail at 3' ends of eukaryotic mRNAs promotes their nuclear export, stability and translational efficiency, and changes in its length can strongly impact gene expression. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three canonical nuclear poly(A polymerases, PAPS1, PAPS2 and PAPS4. As shown by their different mutant phenotypes, these three isoforms are functionally specialized, with PAPS1 modifying organ growth and suppressing a constitutive immune response. However, the molecular basis of this specialization is largely unknown. Here, we have estimated poly(A-tail lengths on a transcriptome-wide scale in wild-type and paps1 mutants. This identified categories of genes as particularly strongly affected in paps1 mutants, including genes encoding ribosomal proteins, cell-division factors and major carbohydrate-metabolic proteins. We experimentally verified two novel functions of PAPS1 in ribosome biogenesis and redox homoeostasis that were predicted based on the analysis of poly(A-tail length changes in paps1 mutants. When overlaying the PAPS1-dependent effects observed here with coexpression analysis based on independent microarray data, the two clusters of transcripts that are most closely coexpressed with PAPS1 show the strongest change in poly(A-tail length and transcript abundance in paps1 mutants in our analysis. This suggests that their coexpression reflects at least partly the preferential polyadenylation of these transcripts by PAPS1 versus the other two poly(A-polymerase isoforms. Thus, transcriptome-wide analysis of poly(A-tail lengths identifies novel biological functions and likely target transcripts for polyadenylation by PAPS1. Data integration with large-scale co-expression data suggests that changes in the relative activities of the isoforms are used as an endogenous mechanism to co-ordinately modulate plant gene expression.

  4. Imidafenacin exerts the antidiuretic effect by enhancing vasopressin-related responses in orally water-loaded rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Takanobu; Fukata, Ayako; Muraki, Yukiko

    2016-11-15

    Imidafenacin, an antimuscarinic agent for treating overactive bladder, has an antidiuretic effect, but the detailed mechanisms of action remain unclear. The cholinergic and vasopressin systems are known to interact, for example, in the suppression of vasopressin-induced water reabsorption through muscarinic stimulation in the renal collecting duct. We, therefore, investigated whether vasopressin signaling pathway would participate in the antidiuretic effect of imidafenacin. In female Sprague-Dawley rats, urine production was measured by collecting urine from cystostomy chatheter using a Bollman restraining cage for 2h after drug i.v. injection and water load (25ml/kg p.o.). Both imidafenacin and a vasopressin V2 receptor agonist desmopressin acetate (desmopressin) dose-dependently suppressed urine production. The combination of imidafenacin and desmopressin at the minimum effective doses suppressed the urine production more strongly than each alone. Mozavaptan hydrochloride (mozavaptan, 3mg/kg), a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, completely inhibited the antidiuretic effects of imidafenacin and desmopressin at their respective minimum effective doses. The antidiuretic effect of desmopressin emerged at the maximum antidiuretic dose level (0.1µg/kg) even under mozavaptan-treatment, whereas that of imidafenacin (300µg/kg) was still kept suppressed by mozavaptan. When 300µg/kg imidafenacin was added to the combination of mozavaptan 3mg/kg and desmopressin 0.1µg/kg, the antidiuretic effect was further enhanced. The present study suggests that vasopressin signaling pathway participates in the antidiuretic effect of imidafenacin, and that imidafenacin exerts its antidiuretic effects by enhancing some part of the vasopressin signaling pathway in orally water-loaded rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vasopressin and its analogues for the treatment of refractory hypotension in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Binoy; Rios, Danielle; Rossano, Joseph; Fernandes, Caraciolo J; Pammi, Mohan

    2013-03-28

    Neonatal hypotension that is refractory to volume expansion, catecholamines, or corticosteroids has a mortality of about 50%. Optimization of blood pressure and tissue perfusion in refractory hypotension may be crucial to improve clinical outcomes. Vasopressin, a neuropeptide hormone, or its analogue terlipressin has been used to treat refractory hypotension in neonates and may be effective. Our primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vasopressin and its synthetic analogues (e.g. terlipressin) in decreasing mortality and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, and improving survival in neonates with refractory hypotension. Our secondary objectives were to determine the effects of vasopressin and its analogues (terlipressin) on improvement in blood pressure, increase in urine output, decrease in inotrope score, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), periventricular leukomalacia, intraventricular hemorrhage, chronic lung disease, and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in neonates with refractory hypotension. We searched the literature in January 2012, using the search strategy recommended by the Cochrane Neonatal Group. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE), abstracts of the Pediatric Academic Societies, web sites for registered trials at www.clinicaltrials.gov and www.controlled-trials.com and in the reference list of identified articles. Randomized or quasi-randomized trials evaluating vasopressin or its analogues, at any dosage or duration used as an adjunct to standard therapy (any combination of volume expansion, inotropic agents and corticosteroids) to treat refractory hypotension in neonates. We followed the standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration for conducting a systematic review. Two review authors (BS and MP) independently assessed the titles and abstracts of studies identified by the search strategy for eligibility for inclusion. We obtained the full text version if eligibility could

  6. Useful Bicistronic Reporter System for Studying Poly(A Site-Defining cis Elements and Regulation of Alternative Polyadenylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyuan Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between polyadenylation (pA and various biological, behavioral, and pathological events of eukaryotes underlines the need to develop in vivo polyadenylation assay methods for characterization of the cis-acting elements, trans-acting factors and environmental stimuli that affect polyadenylation efficiency and/or relative usage of two alternative polyadenylation (APA sites. The current protein-based CAT or luciferase reporter systems can measure the polyadenylation efficiency of a single pA site or candidate cis element but not the choice of two APA sites. To address this issue, we developed a set of four new bicistronic reporter vectors that harbor either two luciferase or fluorescence protein open reading frames connected with one Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES. Transfection of single or dual insertion constructs of these vectors into mammalian cells demonstrated that they could be utilized not only to quantify the strength of a single candidate pA site or cis element, but also to accurately measure the relative usage of two APA sites at both the mRNA (qRT-PCR and protein levels. This represents the first reporter system that can study polyadenylation efficiency of a single pA site or element and regulation of two APA sites at both the mRNA and protein levels.

  7. Identification of 3'UTR sequence elements and a teloplasm localization motif sufficient for the localization of Hro-twist mRNA to the zygotic animal and vegetal poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Mehrin; Choi, Jonathan; Seoane, Agustin I; Lleras, Roberto A; Tran, Hoan V; Mandal, Stephanie A; Nelson, Christine L; Soto, Julio G

    2012-05-01

    The early localization of mRNA transcripts is critical in sorting cell fate determinants in the developing embryo. In the glossiphoniid leech, Helobdella robusta, maternal mRNAs, such as Hro-twist, localize to the zygotic teloplasm. Ten seven nucleotide repeat elements (AAUAAUA) called ARE2 and a predicted secondary structural motif, called teloplasm localization motif (TLM), are present in the 3'UTR of Hro-twist mRNA. We used site-directed mutagenesis, deletions, and microinjection of labeled, exogenous transcripts to determine if ARE2 elements, and the TLM, play a role in Hro-twist mRNA localization. Deleting the poly-A tail and the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) had no effect on Hro-twist mRNA localization. Site-directed mutagenesis of nucleotides that altered ARE2 element sequences or the TLM suggest that the ARE2 elements and the TLM are important for Hro-twist mRNA localization to the teloplasm of pre-cleavage zygotes. Hro-Twist protein expression data suggest that the localization of Hro-twist transcripts in zygotes and stage two embryos is not involved in ensuring mesoderm specification, as Hro-Twist protein is expressed uniformly in most cells before gastrulation. Our data may support a shared molecular mechanism for leech transcripts that localize to the teloplasm. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  8. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Expression patterns of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, histidine decarboxylase, melanin-concentrating hormone, and orexin genes in the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolewski, David M; Medina, Adriana; Kerman, Ilan A; Bernard, Rene; Burke, Sharon; Thompson, Robert C; Bunney, William E; Schatzberg, Alan F; Myers, Richard M; Akil, Huda; Jones, Edward G; Watson, Stanley J

    2010-11-15

    The hypothalamus regulates numerous autonomic responses and behaviors. The neuroactive substances corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), histidine decarboxylase (HDC), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and orexin/hypocretins (ORX) produced in the hypothalamus mediate a subset of these processes. Although the expression patterns of these genes have been well studied in rodents, less is known about them in humans. We combined classical histological techniques with in situ hybridization histochemistry to produce both 2D and 3D images and to visually align and quantify expression of the genes for these substances in nuclei of the human hypothalamus. The hypothalamus was arbitrarily divided into rostral, intermediate, and caudal regions. The rostral region, containing the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), was defined by discrete localization of CRF- and AVP-expressing neurons, whereas distinct relationships between HDC, MCH, and ORX mRNA-expressing neurons delineated specific levels within the intermediate and caudal regions. Quantitative mRNA signal intensity measurements revealed no significant differences in overall CRF or AVP expression at any rostrocaudal level of the PVN. HDC mRNA expression was highest at the level of the premammillary area, which included the dorsomedial and tuberomammillary nuclei as well as the dorsolateral hypothalamic area. In addition, the overall intensity of hybridization signal exhibited by both MCH and ORX mRNA-expressing neurons peaked in distinct intermediate and caudal hypothalamic regions. These results suggest that human hypothalamic neurons involved in the regulation of the HPA axis display distinct neurochemical patterns that may encompass multiple local nuclei. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The Level of Vasopressin is not solely resulted from the Concentration of Endotoxin but Proportional to Creatinine in Dogs with Pyometra

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    W. Y. Shia1, K. C. Tung1, 2, S. C. Chang1, 2, C. H. Yang1, 2, C. H. Lee2, C. C. Chou1 and W. M. Lee1, 2*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is one of the most common reproductive disorder characterized as fluid accumulation mainly pus and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from uterus in bitches. Impaired function of vasopressin is found in the disease. The impact of the circulating endotoxin concentration on vasopressin involved water regulation is still unclear. To document the effect of endotoxin on vasopressin-involved water regulation in dogs with pyometra, blood samples were collected for examination of circulating endotoxin concentration, osmolarity values, vasopressin concentrations, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine. The results indicated that the concentration change of endotoxin was contrary to BUN and creatinine in dogs with pyometra. The trends of concentrations change of BUN and creatinine were similar with osmolarity and vasopressin. Pyometric dogs with high level of circulating endotoxin had significantly lower (P 20 mg/dL and creatinine (> 1.5 mg/dL also had plasma vasopressin significantly higher (P<0.05 than those with low levels of BUN and creatinine and control dogs. The overall results suggested that elevated vasopressin was not mainly associated with the circulating endotoxin concentration and some other factors may collaborate with endotoxin causing impaired function of vasopressin.

  11. Early, but not late therapy with a vasopressin V1a-antagonist ameliorates the development of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Willemijn A K M; Tahara, Atsua; Kluppel, Alex C A; de Zeeuw, Dick; Henning, Robert H; van Dokkum, Richard P E

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vasopressin, mainly through the V1a-receptor, is thought to be a major player in the maintenance of hyperfiltration. Its inhibition could therefore lead to a decrease in progression of chronic renal failure. To this end, the effect of the vasopressin V1a-receptor-selective antagonist,

  12. Early, but not late therapy with a vasopressin V-1a-antagonist ameliorates the development of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Willemijn A. K. M.; Tahara, Atsua; Kluppel, Alex C. A.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Henning, Robert H.; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Vasopressin, mainly through the VIA-receptor, is thought to be a major player in the maintenance of hyperfiltration. Its inhibition could therefore lead to a decrease in progression of chronic renal failure. To this end, the effect of the vasopressin V-1a-receptor-selective antagonist,

  13. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulation of the neural correlates of motivation and emotion: results from functional MRI studies in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo; Ferris, Craig F

    2014-09-11

    Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate a range of species typical behavioral functions that include social recognition, maternal-infant attachment, and modulation of memory, offensive aggression, defensive fear reactions, and reward seeking. We have employed novel functional magnetic resonance mapping techniques in awake rats to explore the roles of these neuropeptides in the maternal and non-maternal brain. Results from the functional neuroimaging studies that are summarized here have directly and indirectly confirmed and supported previous findings. Oxytocin is released within the lactating rat brain during suckling stimulation and activates specific subcortical networks in the maternal brain. Both vasopressin and oxytocin modulate brain regions involved unconditioned fear, processing of social stimuli and the expression of agonistic behaviors. Across studies there are relatively consistent brain networks associated with internal motivational drives and emotional states that are modulated by oxytocin and vasopressin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Norepinephrine content in discrete brain areas and neurohypophysial vasopressin in rats after a 9-d spaceflight (SLS-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareh, Jeannette; Cottet-Emard, Jean-Marie; Pequignot, Jean-Marc; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Viso, Michel; Vassaux, Didier; Gauquelin, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude

    1993-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) content in discrete brain areas and the vasopressin content in the neurohypophysial system were assessed in rats after a 9-d spaceflight and after a recovery period. The NE content in the locus coeruleus decreased significantly in spaceflight rats, but showed no difference between control and flight animals after a 9-d recovery. These findings were probably due to an acute stress undergone during landing. The NE content was unchanged in the A2 and A5 cell groups. In rats flown aboard SLS-1, the vasopressin content was increased in the posterior pituitary, and was significantly decreased in the hypothalamus. We conclude that the NE depletion in the locus coeruleus and the alteration in vasopressin release were consistent with an acute stress, likely occurring during and/or after landing. These changes tend to mask the actual neuroendocrine modifications caused by microgravity.

  15. Employment of vasopressin receptor antagonists in management of hyponatraemia and volume overload in some clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, C; Brucculeri, S; Caimi, G

    2015-08-01

    Hyponatraemia, the most common electrolyte imbalance occurring in hospitalized subjects, is usually classified as hypovolaemic, euvolaemic or hypervolaemic. Hyponatraemia is a predictor of death among subjects with chronic heart failure and cirrhosis. The inappropriate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (AVP) seems to be of pivotal importance in the decline of serum sodium concentration in these clinical conditions. The objective of this review was to summarize recent progress in management of hyponatraemia in SIADH, cirrhosis and heart failure. Literature searches were conducted on the topics of hyponatraemia and vasopressin receptor antagonists, using PubMed, pharmaceutical company websites and news reports. The information was evaluated for relevance and quality, critically assessed and summarized. The initial treatment of severe hyponatraemia is directed towards the prevention or management of neurological manifestations and consists of an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Fluid restriction is indicated in oedematous states. Diuretics alone or in combination with other specific drugs remain the main strategy in the management of volume overload in heart failure. In resistant cases, ultrafiltration can lead to effective removal of isotonic fluid preventing new episodes of decompensation; however, aquapheresis is associated with increased costs and other limits. In several trials, the efficacy of vasopressin receptor antagonists in euvolaemic patients (inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion) or in hypervolaemic hyponatraemia (chronic heart failure, cirrhosis) has been evaluated. It was found that vaptans, which promote aquaresis, were superior to a placebo in raising and maintaining serum sodium concentrations in these subjects. Combined with conventional therapy, vasopressin receptor antagonists (AVP-R antagonists) are able to increase the excretion of electrolyte-free water and the sodium concentration. Further studies are needed to assess

  16. Phasic firing in vasopressin cells: understanding its functional significance through computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Duncan J; Leng, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin neurons, responding to input generated by osmotic pressure, use an intrinsic mechanism to shift from slow irregular firing to a distinct phasic pattern, consisting of long bursts and silences lasting tens of seconds. With increased input, bursts lengthen, eventually shifting to continuous firing. The phasic activity remains asynchronous across the cells and is not reflected in the population output signal. Here we have used a computational vasopressin neuron model to investigate the functional significance of the phasic firing pattern. We generated a concise model of the synaptic input driven spike firing mechanism that gives a close quantitative match to vasopressin neuron spike activity recorded in vivo, tested against endogenous activity and experimental interventions. The integrate-and-fire based model provides a simple physiological explanation of the phasic firing mechanism involving an activity-dependent slow depolarising afterpotential (DAP) generated by a calcium-inactivated potassium leak current. This is modulated by the slower, opposing, action of activity-dependent dendritic dynorphin release, which inactivates the DAP, the opposing effects generating successive periods of bursting and silence. Model cells are not spontaneously active, but fire when perturbed by random perturbations mimicking synaptic input. We constructed one population of such phasic neurons, and another population of similar cells but which lacked the ability to fire phasically. We then studied how these two populations differed in the way that they encoded changes in afferent inputs. By comparison with the non-phasic population, the phasic population responds linearly to increases in tonic synaptic input. Non-phasic cells respond to transient elevations in synaptic input in a way that strongly depends on background activity levels, phasic cells in a way that is independent of background levels, and show a similar strong linearization of the response. These findings show

  17. Phasic firing in vasopressin cells: understanding its functional significance through computational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J MacGregor

    Full Text Available Vasopressin neurons, responding to input generated by osmotic pressure, use an intrinsic mechanism to shift from slow irregular firing to a distinct phasic pattern, consisting of long bursts and silences lasting tens of seconds. With increased input, bursts lengthen, eventually shifting to continuous firing. The phasic activity remains asynchronous across the cells and is not reflected in the population output signal. Here we have used a computational vasopressin neuron model to investigate the functional significance of the phasic firing pattern. We generated a concise model of the synaptic input driven spike firing mechanism that gives a close quantitative match to vasopressin neuron spike activity recorded in vivo, tested against endogenous activity and experimental interventions. The integrate-and-fire based model provides a simple physiological explanation of the phasic firing mechanism involving an activity-dependent slow depolarising afterpotential (DAP generated by a calcium-inactivated potassium leak current. This is modulated by the slower, opposing, action of activity-dependent dendritic dynorphin release, which inactivates the DAP, the opposing effects generating successive periods of bursting and silence. Model cells are not spontaneously active, but fire when perturbed by random perturbations mimicking synaptic input. We constructed one population of such phasic neurons, and another population of similar cells but which lacked the ability to fire phasically. We then studied how these two populations differed in the way that they encoded changes in afferent inputs. By comparison with the non-phasic population, the phasic population responds linearly to increases in tonic synaptic input. Non-phasic cells respond to transient elevations in synaptic input in a way that strongly depends on background activity levels, phasic cells in a way that is independent of background levels, and show a similar strong linearization of the response

  18. Subcellular localization and internalization of the vasopressin V1B receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwazaki, Aki; Fujiwara, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyoshi; Sakai, Nobuya; Shibata, Katsushi; Koshimizu, Taka-aki

    2015-10-15

    Only limited information is available on agonist-dependent changes in the subcellular localization of vasopressin V1B receptors. Our radioligand binding study of membrane preparations and intact cells revealed that a large fraction of the V1B receptor is located in the cytoplasm in unstimulated CHO cells, which is in contrast to the plasma membrane localization of the V1A and V2 receptors. Moreover, when the affinity of radiolabeled arginine-vasopressin ([3H]AVP) was compared between membrane preparations and intact cells, the affinity of [3H]AVP to the cell surface V1B receptors, but not the V1A receptors, was significantly reduced. Although the number and affinity of cell surface V1B receptors decreased, they became extensively internalized upon binding with [3H]AVP. Approximately 87% of cell surface-bound [3H]AVP was internalized and became resistant to acid wash during incubation with 1 nM [3H]AVP. By contrast, less ligand (35%) was internalized in the cells expressing the V1A receptor. Extensive internalization of the V1B receptors was partially attenuated by inhibitors of cytoskeletal proteins, siRNA against β-arrestin 2, or the removal of sodium chloride from the extracellular buffer, indicating that this internalization involves clathrin-coated pits. Together, these results indicate that the mechanism that regulates the number and affinity of V1B receptors in the plasma membrane is markedly distinct from the corresponding mechanisms for the V1A and V2 receptors and plays a critical role under stress conditions, when vasopressin release is augmented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a human vasopressin V1a-receptor antagonist from an evolutionary-related insect neuropeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giglio, Maria Giulia; Muttenthaler, Markus; Harpsøe, Kasper; Liutkeviciute, Zita; Keov, Peter; Eder, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan; Marek, Ales; Elbert, Tomas; Alewood, Paul F.; Gloriam, David E.; Gruber, Christian W.

    2017-02-01

    Characterisation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) relies on the availability of a toolbox of ligands that selectively modulate different functional states of the receptors. To uncover such molecules, we explored a unique strategy for ligand discovery that takes advantage of the evolutionary conservation of the 600-million-year-old oxytocin/vasopressin signalling system. We isolated the insect oxytocin/vasopressin orthologue inotocin from the black garden ant (Lasius niger), identified and cloned its cognate receptor and determined its pharmacological properties on the insect and human oxytocin/vasopressin receptors. Subsequently, we identified a functional dichotomy: inotocin activated the insect inotocin and the human vasopressin V1b receptors, but inhibited the human V1aR. Replacement of Arg8 of inotocin by D-Arg8 led to a potent, stable and competitive V1aR-antagonist ([D-Arg8]-inotocin) with a 3,000-fold binding selectivity for the human V1aR over the other three subtypes, OTR, V1bR and V2R. The Arg8/D-Arg8 ligand-pair was further investigated to gain novel insights into the oxytocin/vasopressin peptide-receptor interaction, which led to the identification of key residues of the receptors that are important for ligand functionality and selectivity. These observations could play an important role for development of oxytocin/vasopressin receptor modulators that would enable clear distinction of the physiological and pathological responses of the individual receptor subtypes.

  20. Combination decongestion therapy in hospitalized heart failure: loop diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Mentz, Robert J; Greene, Stephen J; Senni, Michele; Sato, Naoki; Nodari, Savina; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Congestion is the most common reason for admissions and readmissions for heart failure (HF). The vast majority of hospitalized HF patients appear to respond readily to loop diuretics, but available data suggest that a significant proportion are being discharged with persistent evidence of congestion. Although novel therapies targeting congestion should continue to be developed, currently available agents may be utilized more optimally to facilitate complete decongestion. The combination of loop diuretics, natriuretic doses of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists represents a regimen of currently available therapies that affects early and persistent decongestion, while limiting the associated risks of electrolyte disturbances, hemodynamic fluctuations, renal dysfunction and mortality.

  1. Endothelin and vasopressin influence splanchnic blood flow distribution during and after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberg, Hagen; Bierbach, Benjamin; Flache, Stephan; Wagner, Isabell; Gläser, Lena; Groesdonk, Heinrich V; Menger, Michael D; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2013-02-01

    Gastrointestinal blood flow can be compromised during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Endothelin has been shown to be involved in the intestinal microcirculatory disturbance of sepsis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the involvement of the endothelin system on intestinal blood flow regulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and the effect of vasopressin given during cardiopulmonary bypass. A total of 24 pigs were studied in 4 groups (n = 6): group I, sham; group II, ischemia/reperfusion with 1 hour of superior mesenteric artery occlusion; group III, cardiopulmonary bypass for 1 hour; and group IV, 1 hour of cardiopulmonary bypass plus vasopressin administration, maintaining the baseline arterial pressure. All the pigs were reperfused for 90 minutes. During the experiment, the hemodynamics and jejunal microcirculation were measured continuously. The jejunal mucosal expression of endothelin-1 and its receptor subtypes A and B were determined using polymerase chain reaction. During cardiopulmonary bypass, superior mesenteric artery flow was preserved but marked jejunal microvascular impairment occurred compared with baseline (mucosal capillary density, 192.2 ± 5.4 vs 150.8 ± 5.1 cm/cm(2); P = .005; tissue blood flow, 501.7 ± 39.3 vs 332.3 ± 27.9 AU; P = .025). The expression of endothelin-1 after cardiopulmonary bypass (3.2 ± 0.4 vs 12.2 ± 0.8 RQ, P = .006) and endothelin subtype A (0.7 ± 0.2 vs 2.4 ± 0.6 RQ; P = .01) was significantly increased compared to the sham group. Vasopressin administration during cardiopulmonary bypass led to normal capillary density (189.9 ± 3.9 vs 178.0 ± 6.3; P = .1) and tissue blood flow (501.7 ± 39.3 vs 494.7 ± 44.4 AU; P = .4) compared with baseline. The expression of endothelin-1 (3.2 ± 0.4 vs 1.8 ± 0.3 RQ; P = .3) and endothelin subtype A (0.7 ± 0.2 vs 0.9 ± 0.2 RQ; P = .5) was not different from the sham group. Cardiopulmonary bypass leads to microvascular impairment of jejunal microcirculation, which is

  2. Effect of the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites: a meta-analysis

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    Shao-hui TANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP, Chinese Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI, and Wan Fang Digital Journal Full-text Database were retrieved to collect clinical randomized controlled trials of hepatic cirrhosis with ascites treated by selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists. Meta analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0. Results Nine randomized controlled trials including 1884 patients met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that: 1 The selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists were associated with a significant reduction in body weight compared with placebo (WMD=–1.98kg, 95%CI:–3.24-–0.72kg, P=0.002. Treatment with selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists was associated with an improvement of low serum sodium concentration compared to placebo (WMD=3.74mmol/L, 95%CI: 0.91-6.58mmol/L, P=0.01. The percentage of patients with worsening ascites was higher in the group of patients treated with placebo (RR=0.51, 95%CI: 0.34-0.77, P=0.001. 2 The amplitude of increased urine volume was obviously higher in selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group than in placebo group (WMD=1437.65ml, 95%CI: 649.01-2226.30ml, P=0.0004. The difference of serum creatinine in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group was not statistically significant compared with the control group (WMD=–3.49μmol/L, 95%CI: –12.54¬5.56μmol/L, P=0.45. 3 There was no statistical significance between the two groups in the heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and mortality (P>0.05. The rate of other adverse reactions was higher in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group compared with that of placebo group (P=0.003. Conclusion

  3. Structural basis for the dimerization of Nab2 generated by RNA binding provides insight into its contribution to both poly(A) tail length determination and transcript compaction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibara, Shintaro; Gordon, James M B; Riesterer, Anja S; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Stewart, Murray

    2017-02-17

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae generation of export-competent mRNPs terminates the nuclear phase of the gene expression pathway and facilitates transport to the cytoplasm for translation. Nab2 functions in this process to control both mRNP compaction that facilitates movement through nuclear pore complexes and the length of transcript poly(A) tails. Nab2 has a modular structure that includes seven CCCH Zn fingers that bind to A-rich RNAs and fingers 5–7 are critical for these functions. Here, we demonstrate, using both biophysical and structural methods, that binding A11G RNA induces dimerization of Zn fingers 5–7 mediated by the novel spatial arrangement of the fingers promoting each RNA chain binding two protein chains. The dimerization of Nab2 induced by RNA binding provides a basis for understanding its function in both poly(A) tail length regulation and in the compaction of mature transcripts to facilitate nuclear export.

  4. Perinatal exposure to organohalogen pollutants decreases vasopressin content and its mRNA expression in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells activated by osmotic stress in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental pollutants that produce neurotoxicity and neuroendocrine disruption. They affect the vasopressinergic system but their disruptive mechanisms are not well understood. Our group reported t...

  5. Water Sparing in Chronic Ethanol Exposure is Associated With Elevated Renal Estrogen Receptor Beta and Vasopressin V2 Receptor mRNA in the Female Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    0006 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESSIES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) THE DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AFIT/ENEL, BLDG 16 2275 D...attributable to H20 loading dynamics. Throughout the experiment, heart rate and blood pressure were monitored by a pressure transducer connected to the arterial...indicative of a degree of residual diuresis in ethanol-fed females, but a return to baseline in all other groups (fig 2, Student’s T-test, p<.05). Baseline

  6. Prediction of perinatal brain damage by cord plasma vasopressin, erythropoietin, and hypoxanthine values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, V; Autti-Rämö, I; Granström, M L; Korkman, M; Raivio, K O

    1988-11-01

    For an assessment of whether cord plasma arginine vasopressin, erythropoietin, and hypoxanthine concentrations are predictors of perinatal brain damage, these concentrations were measured in 62 infants born after preeclampsia of pregnancy, 31 acutely asphyxiated infants, and 38 control infants. Follow-up at 2 years included neurologic examination and the determination of a Bayley mental score. Clear abnormality (death, cerebral palsy, or developmental delay) was found in four infants in the preeclampsia group and five in the asphyxia group; slight abnormality was found in 12 and 6 infants, respectively; and no abnormality was found in the remainder. Neither arginine vasopressin values nor hypoxanthine values predicted adverse outcome in either study group. A high erythropoietin level was found in infants born after preeclampsia regardless of outcome: normal outcome (geometric mean (GM), 102; 95% confidence interval [CI], 69 to 153 mU/ml), slightly abnormal outcome (GM, 100; 95% CI, 37 to 270 mU/ml) or clearly abnormal outcome (GM, 84; 95% CI, 19 to 378 mU/ml). However, asphyxiated infants with clearly abnormal outcome had higher erythropoietin values (GM, 67; 95% CI, 33 to 137 mU/ml; p less than 0.05) than the normal infants (GM, 37; 95% CI, 23 to 59 mU/ml). We conclude that a high erythropoietin level after normal pregnancy, but not after preeclampsia, indicates an increased risk for cerebral palsy or death.

  7. Modulation of mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis through a specific arginine-vasopressin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri-Joutei, A.; Pointis, G.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of specific vasopressin binding sites was investigated in purified mouse Leydig cells using tritiated arginine-vasopressin. Binding of radioligand was saturable, time- and temperature-dependent and reversible. (/sup 3/H)-AVP was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity and low capacity. Binding displacements with specific selection analogs of AVP indicated the presence of V/sub 1/ subtype receptors on Leydig cells. The ability of AVP to displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding was greater than LVP and oxytocin. The unrelated peptides, somatostatin and substance P, were less potent, while neurotensin and LHRH did not displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding. The time-course effects of AVP-pretreatment on basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone and cAMP accumulations were studied in primary culture of Leydig cells. Basal testosterone accumulation was significantly increased by a 24 h AVP-pretreatment of Leydig cells. This effect was potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor (MIX) and was concomitantly accompanied by a slight but significant increase in cAMP accumulation. AVP-pretreatment of the cells for 72 h had no effect on basal testosterone accumulation, but exerted a marked inhibitory effect on the hCG-stimulated testosterone accumulation. This reduction of testosterone accumulation occurred even in the presence of MIX and was not accompanied by any significant change of cAMP levels.

  8. Number of X-chromosome genes influences social behavior and vasopressin gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kimberly H; Quinnies, Kayla M; Eschendroeder, Alex; Didrick, Paula M; Eugster, Erica A; Rissman, Emilie F

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior are widespread and often caused by hormonal differences between the sexes. In addition to hormones, the composition and numbers of the sex chromosomes also affect a variety of sex differences. In humans, X-chromosome genes are implicated in neurobehavioral disorders (i.e. fragile-X, autism). To investigate the role of X-chromosome genes in social behavior, we used a mouse model that has atypical sex chromosome configurations resembling Turner (45, XO) and Klinefelter syndromes (47, XXY). We examined a number of behaviors in juvenile mice. Mice with only one copy of most X-chromosome genes, regardless of gonadal sex, were less social in dyadic interaction and social preference tasks. In the elevated plus maze, mice with one X-chromosome spent less time in the distal ends of the open arms as compared to mice with two copies of X-chromosome genes. Using qRTPCR, we noted that amygdala from female mice with one X-chromosome had higher expression levels of vasopressin (Avp) as compared to mice in the other groups. Finally, in plasma from girls with Turner syndrome we detected reduced vasopressin (AVP) concentrations as compared to control patients. These novel findings link sex chromosome genes with social behavior via concentrations of AVP in brain, adding to our understanding of sex differences in neurobehavioral disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel polymorphism in the coding region of the vasopressin type 2 receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Rocha

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI is a rare disease characterized by renal inability to respond properly to arginine vasopressin due to mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2(R gene in affected kindreds. In most kindreds thus far reported, the mode of inheritance follows an X chromosome-linked recessive pattern although autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive modes of inheritance have also been described. Studies demonstrating mutations in the V2(R gene in affected kindreds that modify the receptor structure, resulting in a dys- or nonfunctional receptor have been described, but phenotypically indistinguishable NDI patients with a structurally normal V2(R gene have also been reported. In the present study, we analyzed exon 3 of the V2(R gene in 20 unrelated individuals by direct sequencing. A C®T alteration in the third position of codon 331 (AGC®AGT, which did not alter the encoded amino acid, was found in nine individuals, including two unrelated patients with NDI. Taken together, these observations emphasize the molecular heterogeneity of a phenotypically homogeneous syndrome

  10. Endogenous vasopressin and the central control of heart rate during dynamic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Michelini

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains a brief review on the role of vasopressinergic projections to the nucleus tractus solitarii in the genesis of reflex bradycardia and in the modulation of heart rate control during exercise. The effects of vasopressin on exercise tachycardia are discussed on the basis of both the endogenous peptide content changes and the heart rate response changes observed during running in sedentary and trained rats. Dynamic exercise caused a specific vasopressin content increase in dorsal and ventral brainstem areas. In accordance, rats pretreated with the peptide or the V1 blocker into the nucleus tractus solitarii showed a significant potentiation or a marked blunting of the exercise tachycardia, respectively, without any change in the pressure response to exercise. It is proposed that the long-descending vasopressinergic pathway to the nucleus tractus solitarii serves as one link between the two main neural controllers of circulation, i.e., the central command and feedback control mechanisms driven by the peripheral receptors. Therefore, vasopressinergic input could contribute to the adjustment of heart rate response (and cardiac output to the circulatory demand during exercise.

  11. Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Linking Pituitary Neuropeptides and their Receptors to Social Neurocircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Andrea Baribeau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. The regulation of social recognition, social communication and aggression: vasopressin in the social behavior neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, H Elliott

    2012-03-01

    Neuropeptides in the arginine vasotocin/arginine vasopressin (AVT/AVP) family play a major role in the regulation of social behavior by their actions in the brain. In mammals, AVP is found within a circuit of recriprocally connected limbic structures that form the social behavior neural network. This review examines the role played by AVP within this network in controlling social processes that are critical for the formation and maintenance of social relationships: social recognition, social communication and aggression. Studies in a number of mammalian species indicate that AVP and AVP V1a receptors are ideally suited to regulate the expression of social processes because of their plasticity in response to factors that influence social behavior. The pattern of AVP innervation and V1a receptors across the social behavior neural network may determine the potential range and intensity of social responses that individuals display in different social situations. Although fundamental information on how social behavior is wired in the brain is still lacking, it is clear that different social behaviors can be influenced by the actions of AVP in the same region of the network and that AVP can act within multiple regions of this network to regulate the expression of individual social behaviors. The existing data suggest that AVP can influence social behavior by modulating the interpretation of sensory information, by influencing decision making and by triggering complex motor outputs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in central nervous system activity and mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójciak, Paweł; Remlinger-Molenda, Agnieszka; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin, "peptides of love and fear", except for their classic role in control of labor and breastfeeding and blood pressure regulation, are also implicated in various processes like sexual behaviours, social recognition and stress response. These hormones seems to be essential for appropriate and beneficial social interactions, play a very important role in maternal care and closeness, promote general trust and cooperation and prolong social memory. They also play a very important role in modulating fear and anxiety response, especially by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and amygdala activity by its projections to the brain stem and hypothalamic structures. Both hormones, particularly oxytocin, appears to be activating sexual behaviour or is responsible for increased sexual arousal. Evidence from clinical trials suggests their potential role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, depression, autism and addiction together with possible therapeutic use in the above conditions. In schizophrenia, patients with higher peripheral oxytocin levels showed less severe positive, general and social symptoms and better prosocial behaviours. Literature suggests that exogenous oxytocin may be effective as an adjunctive therapy for that illness. Some data suggest that naturally occurring autoantibodies reacting with oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in depression, eating disorders and conduct disorder genesis.

  14. Further neuroendocrine evidence of enhanced vasopressin V3 receptor responses in melancholic depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, T G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In situations of chronic stress vasopressin plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of anterior pituitary vasopressin V3 receptors in maintaining the hypercortisolism seen in melancholic depression. METHOD: Fourteen patients with major depression and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects were recruited. Desmopressin (ddAVP) 10 microg was given intravenously and ACTH and cortisol release was monitored for 120 min. RESULTS: The mean +\\/- S.E.M. ACTH response in the depressives was 28.4 +\\/- 4.3 ng\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 18.8 +\\/- 4.9 ng\\/l (P = 0.04). The mean +\\/- S.E.M. cortisol response in the depressives was 261.8 +\\/- 46.5 nmol\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 107.3 +\\/- 26.1 nmol\\/l (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with major depression have augmented ACTH and cortisol responses to desmopressin indicating enhanced V3 responsivity.

  15. The vasopressin system: new insights for patients with kidney diseases: Epidemiological evidence and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W F; Devuyst, O; Roussel, R

    2017-10-01

    People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk of severe outcomes, such as end-stage renal disease or cardiovascular disease, and CKD is a globally increasing health burden with a high personal and economic cost. Despite major progresses in prevention and therapeutics in last decades, research is still needed to reverse this epidemic trend. The regulation of water balance and the state of activation of the vasopressin system have emerged as factors tightly associated with kidney health, in the general population but also in specific conditions; among them, various stages of CKD, diabetes and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Basic science findings and also epidemiological evidence have justified important efforts towards interventional studies supporting causality, and opening therapeutic avenues. On the basis of recent clinical data, the blockade of V2 vasopressin receptors using tolvaptan in patients with rapidly progressing ADPKD has been granted in several countries, and a long-term randomized trial evaluating the effect of an increase in water intake in patients with CKD is on-going. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. Spinal vasopressin alleviates formalin-induced nociception by enhancing GABAA receptor function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang; Qu, Zu-Wei; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Liao, Min; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2015-04-23

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a regulatory role in nociception. Intrathecal administration of AVP displays an antinociceptive effect. However, little is understood about the mechanism underlying spinal AVP analgesia. Here, we have found that spinal AVP dose dependently reduced the second, but not first, phase of formalin-induced spontaneous nociception in mice. The AVP analgesia was completely blocked by intrathecal injected SR 49059, a vasopressin-1A (V1A) receptor antagonist. However, spinal AVP failed to exert its antinociceptive effect on the second phase formalin-induced spontaneous nociception in V1A receptor knock-out (V1A-/-) mice. The AVP analgesia was also reversed by bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist. Moreover, AVP potentiated GABA-activated currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons from wild-type littermates, but not from V1A-/- mice. Our results may reveal a novel spinal mechanism of AVP analgesia by enhancing the GABAA receptor function in the spinal cord through V1A receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Personality is Tightly Coupled to Vasopressin-Oxytocin Neuron Activity in a Gregarious Finch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonapeptides of the vasopressin-oxytocin family modulate social processes differentially in relation to sex, species, behavioral phenotype, and human personality. However, the mechanistic bases for these differences are not well understood, in part because multidimensional personality structures remain to be described for common laboratory animals. Based upon principal components (PC analysis of extensive behavioral measures in social and nonsocial contexts, we now describe three complex dimensions of phenotype (personality for the zebra finch, a species that exhibits a human-like social organization that is based upon biparental nuclear families embedded within larger social groups. These dimensions can be characterized as Social competence/dominance, Gregariousness, and Anxiety. We further demonstrate that the phasic Fos response of nonapeptide neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are significantly predicted by personality, sex, social context, and their interactions. Furthermore the behavioral PCs are each associated with a distinct suite of neural PCs that incorporate both peptide cell numbers and their phasic Fos responses, indicating that personality is reflected in complex patterns of neuromodulation arising from multiple peptide cell groups. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying sex- and phenotype-specific modulation of behavior, and should be broadly relevant, given that vasopressin-oxytocin systems are strongly conserved across vertebrates.

  18. Antiproliferative effect of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin analogs on human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannucci, Nancy B; Ripoll, Giselle V; Garona, Juan; Cascone, Osvaldo; Ciccia, Graciela N; Gomez, Daniel E; Alonso, Daniel F

    2011-12-01

    Desmopressin (dDAVP), a synthetic nonapeptide derivative of arginine vasopressin, is a safe antidiuretic and hemostatic compound that acts as a selective agonist for the vasopressin V2 membrane receptor (V2R). It is known that dDAVP can inhibit progression of residual metastatic cells in preclinical models. Among other mechanisms, the compound induces an agonist effect on V2R present in tumor cells. Looking for novel analogs with improved anti-tumor activity, positions 4 and 5, at the conformational peptide loop, were substituted. The analog [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP ([4-valine 5-glutamine] desmopressin) exhibited a significantly higher antiproliferative effect than dDAVP in cultures of MCF-7, a V2R-expressing human breast carcinoma cell line. The chiral isomer of this analog and tetrapeptide fragments corresponding to the loop region were also assessed. Preclinical evaluation of the anti-tumor activity of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP in animal models is warranted.

  19. The Effect of Maternal Stress Activation on the Offspring during Lactation in Light of Vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (as the main target of stress adaptation of the pups as stressing the pups, but later endocrine and behavioral consequences can be similar. Vasopressin plays a role in acute and later consequences of perinatal stressor applied either to the mother or to the offspring, thereby contributing to transmitting the mothers’ stress to the progeny. This mother-infant interaction does not necessarily mean a direct transmission of molecules, but rather is the result of programming the brain development through changes in maternal behavior. Thus, there is a time lag between maternal stress and stress-related changes in the offspring. The interactions are bidirectional as not only stress in the dam but also stress in the progeny has an effect on nursing.

  20. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  1. Cardiorenal Syndrome: Role of Arginine Vasopressin and Vaptans in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, Poornima; Krishnappa, Vinod; Chauvin, Abigail M; Khare, Anshika; Raina, Rupesh

    2017-06-01

    Heart and kidney failure continued to be of increasing prevalence in today's society, and their comorbidity has synergistic effect on the morbidity and mortality of patients. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a complex disease with multifactorial pathophysiology. Better understanding of this pathophysiological network is crucial for the successful intervention to prevent advancement of the disease process. One of the major factors in this process is neurohormonal activation, predominantly involving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). Heart failure causes reduced cardiac output/cardiac index (CO/CI) and fall in renal perfusion pressures resulting in activation of baroreceptors and RAAS, respectively. Activated baroreceptors and RAAS stimulate the release of AVP (non-osmotic pathway), which acts on V2 receptors located in the renal collecting ducts, causing fluid retention and deterioration of heart failure. Effective blockade of AVP action on V2 receptors has emerged as a potential treatment option in volume overload conditions especially in the setting of hyponatremia. Vasopressin receptor antagonists (VRAs), such as vaptans, are potent aquaretics causing electrolyte-free water diuresis without significant electrolyte abnormalities. Vaptans are useful in hypervolemic hyponatremic conditions like heart failure and liver cirrhosis, and euvolemic hyponatremic conditions like syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion. Tolvaptan and conivaptan are pharmaceutical agents that are available for the treatment of these conditions.

  2. Selective localization of oxytocin receptors and vasopressin 1a receptors in the human brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sara M; Smith, Aaron L; Goodman, Mark M; Bales, Karen L

    2017-04-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) affects a suite of human social behaviors, including trust, eye contact, and emotion recognition. However, it is unclear where oxytocin receptors (OXTR) and the structurally related vasopressin 1a receptors (AVPR1a) are expressed in the human brain. We have previously described a reliable, pharmacologically informed receptor autoradiography protocol for visualizing these receptors in postmortem primate brain tissue. We used this technique in human brainstem tissue to identify the neural targets of OT and vasopressin. To determine binding selectivity of the OXTR radioligand and AVPR1a radioligand, sections were incubated in four conditions: radioligand alone, radioligand with the selective AVPR1a competitor SR49059, and radioligand with a low or high concentration of the selective OXTR competitor ALS-II-69. We found selective OXTR binding in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, a conserved region of OXTR expression in all primate species investigated to date. We found selective AVPR1a binding in the nucleus prepositus, an area implicated in eye gaze stabilization. The tissue's postmortem interval (PMI) was not correlated with either the specific or nonspecific binding of either radioligand, indicating that it will not likely be a factor in similar postmortem studies. This study provides critical data for future studies of OXTR and AVPR1a in human brain tissue.

  3. Vasopressin in Hemorrhagic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Animal Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pasquale Cossu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The latest European guidelines for the management of hemorrhagic shock suggest the use of vasopressors (norepinephrine in order to restore an adequate mean arterial pressure when fluid resuscitation therapy fails to restore blood pressure. The administration of arginine vasopressin (AVP, or its analogue terlipressin, has been proposed as an alternative treatment in the early stages of hypovolemic shock. Design. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled animal trials. Participants. A total of 433 animals from 15 studies were included. Interventions. The ability of AVP and terlipressin to reduce mortality when compared with fluid resuscitation therapy, other vasopressors (norepinephrine or epinephrine, or placebo was investigated. Measurements and Main Results. Pooled estimates showed that AVP and terlipressin consistently and significantly improve survival in hemorrhagic shock (mortality: 26/174 (15% in the AVP group versus 164/259 (63% in the control arms; OR=0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.15; P for effect < 0.001; P for heterogeneity = 0.30; I2=14%. Conclusions. Results suggest that AVP and terlipressin improve survival in the early phases of animal models of hemorrhagic shock. Vasopressin seems to be more effective than all other treatments, including other vasopressor drugs. These results need to be confirmed by human clinical trials.

  4. [Mutations in the arginine vasopressin neurophysin-II gene in familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare condition characterized by polyuria and polydipsia caused by deficient arginine vasopressin hormone production. More than a 50 mutations have been identified for familial autosomic dominant neurogenic diabetes insipidus (FadNDI). These mutations can cause citotoxicity and lead to the degeneration of magnocellular neurons of the hipofisis by aberrant protein accumulation. The NDI diagnosis is based on the water deprivation test, quantification of AVP hormone and Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI), and in families with history of FadNDI has been suggested the molecular analysis of mutation in the arginine vasopressin neurophisin II gene before the signs and symptoms development, with the purpose of offering a suitable diagnosis, clinical follow up and treatment. The treatment with a synthetic analogue of AVP hormone allows the remission of the signs and symptoms in NDI patients and the advances in gene therapy in animal models has been promising, as much for NDI as for other diseases in which the mutant protein production has been involved.

  5. Modulation by extracellular pH of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes injected with rat brain mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robello, M; Balduzzi, R; Cupello, A

    2000-01-01

    Rat brain poly(A)(+) mRNA was injected into Xenopus oocytes. After 72-96 hr, GABA(A) receptors expressed in this heterologous system were studied by perfusion of GABA and recording of GABA evoked chloride current under voltage-clamp conditions. The GABA activated currents were blocked by bicuculline and enhanced by flunitrazepam. Acidic (6.4) extracellular pH (pH(e) ) augmented, whereas basic pH (8.4) decreased the current evoked by 100 microM GABA in the respect of the current evoked at pH 7.4. Concentration-response curves for GABA evoked chloride currents were built at the three pHs. These data showed that acidic pH does not change the EC50 for GABA but it increases significantly I(max) in comparison to pH 7.4. At pH 8.4 there was a significant decrease of EC50 for GABA. However, there was also a very strong decrease of I(max), so that the overall effect at 100 microM GABA was a decrease of GABA activated chloride current in the respect of the one activated at neutral pH. These data may indicate that on average brain GABA(A) receptors are positively modulated by extracellular acidosis. The opposite may occur in extracellular alcalosis.

  6. Low-Dose Vasopressin and Analogues to Treat Intraoperative Refractory Hypotension in Patients Prescribed Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Undergoing General Anesthesia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Kara F; Mann, Carrie L; Spulecki, Cheryl; Castner, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    This review assessed the utility of vasopressin and vasopressin analogues for the treatment of refractory hypotension associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the perioperative setting. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and ProQuest. Six randomized controlled trials met eligibility criteria. In the perioperative setting, continued use of ACE inhibitors within 24 hours before surgery remains controversial. Authors of the reviewed studies suggested that the morning dose of the ACE inhibitor be held, and those patients experienced decreased catecholamine use postoperatively and shorter duration of decreased mean arterial pressure. No incidence of refractory hypertension from withholding the morning dose of the ACE inhibitor was mentioned. All of the patients receiving vasopressin demonstrated improved hemodynamic stability with small, intermittent doses, without profound ischemic changes. For management (prevention and treatment) of ACE inhibitor-associated hypotension in the perioperative setting, all studies showed statistically significant success with vasopressin or vasopressin analogues for improvement of systemic blood pressures. Before vasopressin is widely accepted as a standard of care, further studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess the general utility of vasopressin in surgical populations for management of ACE inhibitor-associated refractory hypotension. Copyright© by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists.

  7. Sociality and oxytocin and vasopressin in the brain of male and female dominant and subordinate mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Wu, Ruiyong; Tai, Fadao; Hao, Ping; Cao, Yan; Wang, Jianli

    2014-02-01

    The dominant-subordinate hierarchy in animals often needs to be established via agonistic encounters and consequently affects reproduction and survival. Differences in brain neuropeptides and sociality among dominant and subordinate males and females remain poorly understood. Here we explore neuropeptide levels and sociality during agonistic encounter tests in mandarin voles. We found that dominant mandarin voles engaged in higher levels of approaching, investigating, self-grooming and exploring behavior than subordinates. Dominant males habituated better to a stimulus vole than dominant females. Dominant males displayed significantly less oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and more vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei, supraoptic nuclei, and the lateral and anterior hypothalamus than subordinates. Dominant females displayed significantly more vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and anterior hypothalamus than subordinates. Sex differences were found in the level of oxytocin and vasopressin. These results indicate that distinct parameters related to central nervous oxytocin and vasopressin are associated with behaviors during agonistic encounters in a sex-specific manner in mandarin voles.

  8. Angiotensin II in the paraventricular nucleus stimulates sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system and make vasopressin release in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Nasimi, Ali

    2016-10-06

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays essential roles in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including cardiovascular regulation. It was shown that microinjection of angiotensin II (AngII) into the PVN produced a pressor response. In this study, we explored the probable mechanisms of this pressor response. AngII was microinjected into the PVN and cardiovascular responses were recorded. Then, the responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a ganglionic blocker, Hexamethonium, or a vasopressin V1 receptor blocker. Hexamethonium pretreatment (i.v.) greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that the sympathetic system is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Systemic pretreatment (i.v.) with V1 antagonist greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that vasopressin release is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Overall, we found that AngII microinjected into the PVN produced a pressor response mediated by the sympathetic system and vasopressin release, indicating that other than circulating AngII, endogenous AngII of the PVN increases the vasopressin release from the PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional rescue of vasopressin V2 receptor mutants in MDCK cells by pharmacochaperones : relevance to therapy of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, J.H.; Sze, M.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular retention of a functional vasopressin V2 receptor (V2R) is a major cause of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and rescue of V2R mutants by nonpeptide antagonists may restore their basolateral membrane (BM) localization and function. However, the criteria for efficient

  10. Copeptin, a surrogate marker of vasopressin, is associated with accelerated renal function decline in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Esther; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Jong, Paul E.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; van Son, Willem J.; Struck, Joachim; Lems, Simon P. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2009-01-01

    Chronically elevated vasopressin (VP) plasma levels have been shown to induce accelerated renal function decline in rats with chronic renal failure. Whether endogenous VP is a renal risk factor in humans has not been investigated yet. We aimed to investigate whether, in renal transplant recipients,

  11. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, is associated with disease severity and progression in IgA nephropathy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Brand, Jan A J G; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Wetzels, Jack F.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Besides its essential role for water homeostasis, arginine vasopressin (AVP) may have deleterious effects on the kidney. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for AVP, has been shown to be related to renal outcome in patients with diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. We

  12. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, is associated with declining glomerular filtration in patients with diabetes mellitus (ZODIAC-33)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertien, W. E.; Riphagen, I. J.; Drion, I.; Alkhalaf, A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Groenier, K. H.; Struck, J.; de Jong, P. E.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Kleefstra, N.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), the hormone important for maintaining fluid balance, has been shown to cause kidney damage in rodent models of diabetes. We investigated the potential role of AVP in the natural course of kidney function decline in diabetes in an epidemiological study. Plasma copeptin, a

  13. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, is associated with disease severity and progression in IgA nephropathy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, D.; Brand, J. van den; Bakker, S.J.L.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Gansevoort, R.T.

    2017-01-01

    Background.: Besides its essential role for water homeostasis, arginine vasopressin (AVP) may have deleterious effects on the kidney. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for AVP, has been shown to be related to renal outcome in patients with diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. We

  14. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of vasopressin and oxytocin of the rat during various light-dark regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, W.B.J.; Andringa-Bakker, E.A.D.; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van

    1982-01-01

    Levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats were determined at various times of the day and the night under normal and changed light-dark conditions. During a regular daily 14 h and 10 h dark cycle (lights on 06.00 h, off 20.00 h), AVP in CSF

  15. Differential modulation of lateral septal vasopressin receptor blockade in spatial learning, social recognition, and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The role of lateral septal vasopressin (VP) in the modulation of spatial memory, social memory, and anxiety-related behavior was studied in adult, male Wistar rats. Animals were equipped with osmotic minipumps delivering the VP-antagonist d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (1 ng/0.5 mu l per h) bilaterally into

  16. Vasopressin and oxytocin excretion in the Brown-Norway rat in relation to aging, water metabolism and testosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable disagreement in the literature on changes in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS) with aging: some reports support HNS degeneration, whereas others claim an activation of this system in senescence. In order to study age-related changes in vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin

  17. Morphometric analysis of vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide neurons in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus: influence of microwave treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J. N.; Hofman, M. A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The vasopressin (VP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were morphometrically determined with or without microwave (MW) treatment. Both an enlarged volume and an increased number of neurons were found in the VP and VIP subnucleus

  18. Dose-Titrated Vasopressin V2 Receptor Antagonist Improves Renoprotection in a Mouse Model for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; Versteeg, Irina B.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van Goor, Harry; de Heer, Emile; Veraar, Kimberley A. M.; Peters, Dorien J. M.; Meijer, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background: In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, renoprotective treatment with a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist (V2RA) is given in a fixed dose (FD). Disease progression and drug habituation could diminish treatment efficacy. We investigated whether the renoprotective effect of the

  19. The vasopressin and oxytocin neurons in the human supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus; changes with aging and in senile dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.; Pool, C. W.; Verwer, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are supposed to be involved not only in peripheral functions (e.g. diuresis, labour and lactation) but also in central processes that are frequently disturbed during aging and senile dementia (e.g. fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and cognitive

  20. Polyuria due to vasopressin V2 receptor antagonism is not associated with increased ureter diameter in ADPKD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Messchendorp, A. Lianne; Bae, Kyong T.; Higashihara, Eiji; Kappert, Peter; Torres, Vicente; Meijer, Esther; Leliveld, Anna M.

    Tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce the rates of growth in total kidney volume (TKV) and renal function loss in ADPKD patients, but also leads to polyuria because of its aquaretic effect. Prolonged polyuria can result in ureter dilatation with consequently renal

  1. Potentiation effect of vasopressin on melatonin secretion as determined by trans-pineal microdialysis in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barassin, S.; Kalsbeek, A.; Saboureau, M.; Bothorel, B.; Vivien-Roels, B.; Malan, A.; Buijs, R. M.; Pevet, P.

    2000-01-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is known to receive a noradrenergic innervation originating from the superior cervical ganglion which corresponds to the primary regulatory input for melatonin synthesis. However, many peptidergic fibers containing peptides such as vasopressin and oxytocin have also been

  2. Gender differences in nighttime plasma arginine vasopressin and delayed compensatory urine output in the elderly population after desmopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2007-12-01

    Monosymptomatic polyuric nocturia is a consequence of aging. We investigated physiological differences between nonpolyuric and polyuric nocturia in the elderly population in relation to urine production regulation in young volunteers with special reference to gender. We performed a study in 37 elderly healthy volunteers 65 years or older and 30 young healthy volunteers 20 to 40 years old who were hospitalized for 48 hours. Before admittance and during hospitalization fluid intake was standardized. The first 24 hours were at baseline conditions. On night 2 participants were given a single oral dose of desmopressin (0.4 mg). During 48 hours urine and blood samples were taken at predetermined time points to measure urine output and plasma arginine vasopressin levels. Elderly individuals with nocturnal polyuria had an inverted rhythm in urine output, which was restored after a single dose of desmopressin. There was an age related change in the circadian rhythm of arginine vasopressin secretion, which was associated with the presence or absence of nocturnal polyuria. A novel and unexpected finding was a decreased circadian rhythm of arginine vasopressin secretion in young women, similar to the pattern observed in elderly women but with a preserved decrease in nighttime urine production. Compensatory diuresis following the induction of temporary antidiuresis was markedly postponed in elderly participants. Age and gender related decreased arginine vasopressin secretion at night underscores the fact that other factors modulate urine production. The pharmacodynamics of desmopressin as an antidiuretic in the elderly population are different from those in young individuals.

  3. The stimulatory effect of vasopressin on the luteinizing hormone surge in ovariectomized, estradiol-treated rats is time-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, I. F.; van der Beek, E. M.; Wiegant, V. M.; Buijs, R. M.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2001-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone surge in the female rat is not only induced by the positive feedback of estradiol, but also by circadian signals originating in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In a previous study we showed that administration of vasopressin, an SCN transmitter present in preoptic

  4. Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists: A New Hope for Treatment of Hyponatremia in Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saepudin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is an important problem in patients with heart failure. It has also been known as a predictor both of short and long-term clinical outcome of heart failure patients. While evidences of clinical efficacy and safety of conventional options for treatment of hyponatremia resulted from clinical trials are very limited, several clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of arginine vasopressin antagonists or also known as vaptan group. This paper reviews hyponatremia in patients with heart failure and the important roles of arginine vasopressin in its development, pharmacological aspects and clinical trials outcomes of some vaptans and several questions emerged from those clinical trials. Relevant research papers, reviews, and website information have been searched and included in this review using keyword of heart failure, hyponatremia, arginine-vasopressin, arginine-vasopressin receptor antagonist and vaptan. Generally, clinical trials have highlighted the efficacy and safety of vaptan groups in the management of hypervolemic hyponatremia in patients with heart failure. Those drugs can effectively increase serum sodium level with tolerable adverse reactions. Based on those clinical data two drugs of vaptan group, conivaptan and tolvaptan, have been approved by Food and Drug Administration in The United States to be used for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia. However, many experts are still hesitant to recommend vaptans as treatment of choice for hyponatremia due to the lack of patients-focused outcomes measurements.

  5. Rescue of a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus-causing vasopressin V-2 receptor mutant by cell-penetrating peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oueslati, Morad; Hermosilla, Ricardo; Schoenenberger, Eva; Oorschot, Viola; Beyermann, Michael; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schmidt, Antje; Klumperman, Judith; Rosenthal, Walter; Schuelein, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Mutant membrane proteins are frequently retained in the early secretory pathway by a quality control system, thereby causing disease. An example are mutants of the vasopressin V-2 receptor (V2R) leading to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Transport-defective V(2)Rs fall into two classes: those

  6. The V1a and V1b, but not V2, vasopressin receptor genes are expressed in the supraoptic nucleus of the rat hypothalamus, and the transcripts are essentially colocalized in the vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurbin, A; Boissin-Agasse, L; Orcel, H; Rabié, A; Joux, N; Desarménien, M G; Richard, P; Moos, F C

    1998-11-01

    We have identified and visualized the vasopressin (VP) receptors expressed by hypothalamic magnocellular neurons in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. To do this, we used RT-PCR on total RNA extracts from supraoptic nuclei or on single freshly dissociated supraoptic neurons, and in situ hybridization on frontal sections of hypothalamus of Wistar rats. The RT-PCR on supraoptic RNA extracts revealed that mainly V1a, but also V1b, subtypes of VP receptors are expressed from birth to adulthood. No V2 receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) was detected. Furthermore, the single-cell RT-nested PCR indicated that the V1a receptor mRNA is present in vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons. In light of these results, in situ hybridization was performed to visualize the V1a and V1b receptor mRNAs in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Simultaneously, we coupled this approach to: 1) in situ hybridization detection of oxytocin or VP mRNAs; or 2) immunocytochemistry to detect the neuropeptides. This provided a way of identifying the neurons expressing perceptible amounts of V1a or V1b receptor mRNAs as vasopressinergic neurons. Here, we suggest that the autocontrol exerted specifically by VP on vasopressinergic neurons is mediated through, at least, V1a and V1b subtype receptors.

  7. Vasopressin Bolus Protocol Compared to Desmopressin (DDAVP for Managing Acute, Postoperative Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anukrati Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Management of postoperative central diabetes insipidus (DI can be challenging from changes in volume status and serum sodium levels. We report a case successfully using a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol in managing hypovolemic shock in acute, postoperative, central DI. Case Report. Patient presented after bifrontal decompressive craniotomy for severe traumatic brain injury. He developed increased urine output resulting in hypovolemia and hypernatremia. He was resuscitated with intravenous fluids including a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol. This protocol consisted of 1 unit of vasopressin in 1 liter of 0.45% normal saline. This protocol was given in boluses based on the formula: urine output minus one hundred. Initial serum sodium was 148 mmol/L, and one-hour urine output was 1 liter. After 48 hours, he transitioned to 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP. Pre-DDAVP serum sodium was 149 mmol/L and one-hour urine output 320 cc. Comparing the bolus protocol to the DDAVP protocol, the average sodium was 143.8 ± 3.2 and 149.6 ± 3.2 mmol/L (p=0.0001, average urine output was 433.2 ± 354.4 and 422.3 ± 276.0 cc/hr (p=0.90, and average specific gravity was 1.019 ± 0.009 and 1.016 ± 0.01 (p=0.42, respectively. Conclusion. A protocol using dilute vasopressin bolus can be an alternative for managing acute, central DI postoperatively, particularly in setting of hypovolemic shock resulting in a consistent control of serum sodium.

  8. X-ray structure and activity of the yeast Pop2 protein: a nuclease subunit of the mRNA deadenylase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thore, Stéphane; Mauxion, Fabienne; Séraphin, Bertrand; Suck, Dietrich

    2003-12-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a large complex, known as the Ccr4-Not complex, containing two nucleases, is responsible for mRNA deadenylation. One of these nucleases is called Pop2 and has been identified by similarity with PARN, a human poly(A) nuclease. Here, we present the crystal structure of the nuclease domain of Pop2 at 2.3 A resolution. The domain has the fold of the DnaQ family and represents the first structure of an RNase from the DEDD superfamily. Despite the presence of two non-canonical residues in the active site, the domain displays RNase activity on a broad range of RNA substrates. Site-directed mutagenesis of active-site residues demonstrates the intrinsic ability of the Pop2 RNase D domain to digest RNA. This first structure of a nuclease involved in the 3'-5' deadenylation of mRNA in yeast provides information for the understanding of the mechanism by which the Ccr4-Not complex achieves its functions.

  9. mRNA from NCB-20 cells encodes the N-methyl-D-aspartate/phencyclidine receptor: a Xenopus oocyte expression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, J; Kushner, L; Spray, D C; Bennett, M V; Zukin, R S

    1989-01-01

    The mouse neuroblastoma--Chinese hamster brain hybrid cell line NCB-20 is the only clonal cell line in which binding studies indicate the presence of phencyclidine (PCP) receptors. We report here that Xenopus oocytes injected with NCB-20 cell poly(A)+ RNA express N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-activated channels and that these channels include the PCP receptor site. In injected oocytes, NMDA application evoked a partially desensitizing inward current that was potentiated by glycine, blocked by the competitive antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, blocked by Mg2+ and by Zn2+, and blocked in a use-dependent manner by the PCP receptor ligands PCP and MK-801. There was little or no response to kainate or quisqualate (agonists of the other excitatory amino acid receptors), to gamma-aminobutyric acid (an inhibitory transmitter), or to glycine (an inhibitory transmitter as well as an allosteric potentiator of NMDA channels). Thus, NMDA/PCP receptors expressed from NCB-20 cell mRNA exhibit properties similar to those of the neuronal receptors. The absence of expression of other excitatory amino acid receptors in this system makes it particularly useful for study of NMDA-evoked responses without interference from responses mediated by other receptors. Moreover, NCB-20 mRNA may be an appropriate starting material for cloning the cDNA(s) encoding the NMDA/PCP-receptor complex. PMID:2537982

  10. Vasopressina e morte encefálica Vasopressin and brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIANE DE ARAUJO CINTRA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A morte encefálica (ME resulta numa perda completa dos mecanismos centrais de regulação da estabilidade hemodinâmica mesmo em pacientes com suporte adequado da ventilação, correção hidroeletrolítica e ácido-básica e suporte farmacológico convencional máximo da circulação. Acredita-se que a diminuição da vasopressina circulante influencia de maneira preponderante a estabilidade cardiocirculatória de pacientes com ME, sendo a sua administração exógena defendida por alguns autores no manuseio do potencial doador de órgãos. O artigo analisa e discute alguns estudos experimentais e clínicos relevantes em relação ao comportamento da vasopressina na ME e seu papel na manutenção da estabilidade cardiocirculatória, bem como sua potencial utilidade no manuseio destes pacientes. Desta análise concluímos que o comportamento da vasopressina na ME e o seu real valor na manutenção do potencial doador ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos, necessitando de investigações futuras.Brain death results in the breakdown of effective central regulatory mechanisms of cardiocirculatory stability, even in patients with artificial mechanical ventilation, correction of electrolytic and acid-basic disorders and maximal conventional pharmacological support of the circulation. Recent evidences have shown that the fall of vasopressin levels in the blood circulation significantly influences the cardiocirculatory stability of patients with brain death, and its exogenous administration is defended by many authors for the management of multiorgan donor patients. In this brief review we analyse and discuss some experimental and clinical relevant studies about the role of vasopressin in the control of cardiocirculatory stability in brain death, and its potential usefulness in the management of multiorgan donor. We conclude that the role of vasopressin in the pathophysiology of brain death and its usefulness as a pharmacological agent in the

  11. Effects of Intraosseous Tibial vs. Intravenous Vasopressin in a Hypovolemic Cardiac Arrest Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fulkerson, MSN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study compared the effects of vasopressin via tibial intraosseous (IO and intravenous (IV routes on maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, the time to maximum concentration (Tmax, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, and time to ROSC in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model. Methods: This study was a randomized prospective, between-subjects experimental design. A computer program randomly assigned 28 Yorkshire swine to one of four groups: IV (n=7, IO tibia (n=7, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR + defibrillation (n=7, and a control group that received just CPR (n=7. Ventricular fibrillation was induced, and subjects remained in arrest for two minutes. CPR was initiated and 40 units of vasopressin were administered via IO or IV routes. Blood samples were collected at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 minutes. CPR and defibrillation were initiated for 20 minutes or until ROSC was achieved. We measured vasopressin concentrations using highperformance liquid chromatography. Results: There was no significant difference between the IO and IV groups relative to achieving ROSC (p=1.0 but a significant difference between the IV compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IV compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was a significant difference between the IO group compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IO compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was no significant difference between the CPR + defibrillation group and the CPR group (p=0.127. There was no significant difference in Cmax between the IO and IV groups (p=0.079. The mean ± standard deviation of Cmax of the IO group was 58,709±25,463pg/mL compared to the IV group, which was 106,198±62,135pg/mL. There was no significant difference in mean Tmax between the groups (p=0.084. There were no significant differences in odds of ROSC between the tibial IO and IV groups. Conclusion: Prompt access to the vascular system using the IO route can circumvent

  12. Nicotine self-administration differentially regulates hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin mRNAs and facilitates stress-induced neuronal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoliang; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Wenyuan; Matta, Shannon G; Sharp, Burt M

    2008-03-12

    Acute nicotine is a potent stimulus for activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, while chronic nicotine self-administration (SA) desensitizes the ACTH response to self-administered nicotine but cross-sensitizes to mild footshock stress (mFSS). To identify underlying mechanisms, we investigated (1) the effects of chronic nicotine SA on the coexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNAs, the primary hypothalamic neuropeptides regulating ACTH release, in the parvocellular division of paraventricular nucleus (pcPVN), and (2) mFSS-induced activation of these neurons during nicotine SA. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were given 23 h/d unlimited access to self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg per injection, i.v.) for 19 d. Brains were double labeled with fluorescence in situ hybridization of CRF and AVP mRNAs and triple labeled after mFSS exposure for CRF and AVP mRNAs and c-Fos protein. Chronic nicotine SA significantly increased AVP mRNA signal and the number of pcPVN AVP-positive (AVP(+)) neurons (twofold to threefold), reduced the number of CRF-positive (CRF(+)) neurons by approximately 60%, but increased pcPVN CRF(+)/AVP(+) neuronal number fivefold. Significantly, although chronic nicotine SA did not affect total c-Fos expression induced by mFSS in pcPVN CRF(+) neurons, the majority of the new CRF(+)/AVP(+) population was activated by this heterotypic stressor. These phenotypic neuronal alterations may provide the pivotal mechanism underlying the capacity of chronically self-administered nicotine to cross-sensitize the HPA response to specific stressors, suggesting that nicotine may augment HPA responsiveness to specific stressors in human smokers.

  13. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  14. Management of severe hyponatremia: infusion of hypertonic saline and desmopressin or infusion of vasopressin inhibitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Shapiro, Joseph I; Raj, Dominic S; Murata, Glen H; Glew, Robert H; Malhotra, Deepak

    2014-11-01

    Rapid correction of severe hyponatremia carries the risk of osmotic demyelination. Two recently introduced methods of correction of hyponatremia have diametrically opposite effects on aquaresis. Inhibitors of vasopressin V2 receptor (vaptans) lead to the production of dilute urine, whereas infusion of desmopressin causes urinary concentration. Identification of the category of hyponatremia that will benefit from one or the other treatment is critical. In general, vaptans are effective in hyponatremias presenting with concentrated urine and, with the exception of hypovolemic hyponatremia, can be used as their primary treatment. Desmopressin is effective in hyponatremias presenting with dilute urine or developing urinary dilution after saline infusion. In this setting, desmopressin infusion helps prevent overcorrection of the hyponatremia. Monitoring of the changes in serum sodium concentration as a guide to treatment changes is imperative regardless of the initial treatment of severe hyponatremia.

  15. Effect of L-ornithine 8-vasopressin on blood loss during liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalinde, E; Sanz, J; Ballesteros, A; Elejabeitia, J; Mesa, F; Bazán, A; Paloma, V

    1995-06-01

    In this comparative study, we carried out liposuction on 20 patients randomly divided in two groups to find an alternative medication to epinephrine that would not result in secondary effects at the cardiovascular level but would offer a similar vasoconstricting capacity. Also, a variation of the wet technique is described that decreases blood loss secondary to liposuction. The area to undergo liposuction is infiltrated with a cannula of our own design. Epinephrine is not used as a vasoconstrictor but rather L-ornithine 8-vasopressin at a concentration of 0.01 IU/ml chilled saline. With this new technique, the amount of blood removed is minimal, even in the case of extraction of large volumes of fat.

  16. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CKI isoforms α and ε regulate Star–PAP target messages by controlling Star–PAP poly(A) polymerase activity and phosphoinositide stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishram, Rakesh S.; Barlow, Christy A.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Star–PAP is a non-canonical, nuclear poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that is regulated by the lipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI4,5P2), and is required for the expression of a select set of mRNAs. It was previously reported that a PI4,5P2 sensitive CKI isoform, CKIα associates with and phosphorylates Star–PAP in its catalytic domain. Here, we show that the oxidative stress-induced by tBHQ treatment stimulates the CKI mediated phosphorylation of Star–PAP, which is critical for both its polyadenylation activity and stimulation by PI4,5P2. CKI activity was required for the expression and efficient 3′-end processing of its target mRNAs in vivo as well as the polyadenylation activity of Star–PAP in vitro. Specific CKI activity inhibitors (IC261 and CKI7) block in vivo Star–PAP activity, but the knockdown of CKIα did not equivalently inhibit the expression of Star–PAP targets. We show that in addition to CKIα, Star–PAP associates with another CKI isoform, CKIε in the Star–PAP complex that phosphorylates Star–PAP and complements the loss of CKIα. Knockdown of both CKI isoforms (α and ε) resulted in the loss of expression and the 3′-end processing of Star–PAP targets similar to the CKI activity inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that CKI isoforms α and ε modulate Star–PAP activity and regulates Star–PAP target messages. PMID:21729869

  18. Copeptin, a Marker of Vasopressin, Predicts Vascular Dementia but not Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik D; Melander, Olle; Elmståhl, Sölve; Lethagen, Eva; Minthon, Lennart; Pihlsgård, Mats; Nägga, Katarina

    2016-04-12

    Copeptin is a reliable surrogate marker for the neurohypophyseal hormone vasopressin. Elevated plasma level of copeptin has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk. To investigate the association between copeptin and risk of dementia. In all, 18,240 individuals from Malmö, Sweden, were examined between 2002 and 2006 (mean age 69.3 years, 69.8% men). Incident cases of dementia until 31 December 2009 were identified by linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. To validate the dementia diagnoses, medical records as well as laboratory and neuroimaging data were carefully reviewed. Baseline level of copeptin was measured in frozen plasma in: (1) all participants who were diagnosed with dementia during follow-up, (2) a random sample of 5100 individuals of the cohort. During a median follow-up of 4.2 years, there were 374 incident dementia cases (age range 60-83 years at baseline): 120 were classified as Alzheimer's disease (AD), 84 as vascular dementia (VaD), and 102 as mixed dementia. In logistic regressions adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, baseline level of copeptin predicted incident VaD (Odds ratio (OR) 1.30 per 1 SD increase in log copeptin, 95% CI 1.03-1.64). Copeptin did not predict incidence of all-cause dementia (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18), AD (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79-1.18), or mixed dementia (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.68-1.05). Elevated plasma level of copeptin is a risk marker for incident VaD, but not for incident AD. This suggests that the vasopressin hormonal system might be involved in the development of VaD.

  19. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A): implications for autism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tansey, Katherine E

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5\\'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815) and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR) at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5\\'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively). Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  20. Thirst perception and osmoregulation of vasopressin secretion are altered during recovery from septic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidasp Siami

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Vasopressin (AVP secretion during an osmotic challenge is frequently altered in the immediate post-acute phase of septic shock. We sought to determine if this response is still altered in patients recovering from septic shock. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: Intensive care unit (ICU at Raymond Poincaré and Etampes Hospitals. PATIENTS: Normonatremic patients at least 5 days post discontinuation of catecholamines given for a septic shock. INTERVENTION: Osmotic challenge involved infusing 500 mL of hypertonic saline solution (with cumulative amount of sodium not exceeding 24 g over 120 minutes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Plasma AVP levels were measured 15 minutes before the infusion and then every 30 minutes for two hours. Non-responders were defined as those with a slope of the relation between AVP and plasma sodium levels less than < 0.5 ng/mEq. Among the 30 included patients, 18 (60% were non-responders. Blood pressure and plasma sodium and brain natriuretic peptide levels were similar in both responders and non-responders during the course of the test. Critical illness severity, hemodynamic alteration, electrolyte disturbances, treatment and outcome did not differ between the two groups. Responders had more severe gas exchange abnormality. Thirst perception was significantly diminished in non-responders. The osmotic challenge was repeated in 4 non-responders several months after discharge and the abnormal response persisted. CONCLUSION: More than half of patients recovering from septic shock have an alteration of osmoregulation characterised by a dramatic decrease in vasopressin secretion and thirst perception during osmotic challenge. The mechanisms of this alteration but also of the relationship between haematosis and normal response remain to be elucidated.

  1. Dehydration, electrolyte imbalances and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-vasopressin axis in successful and unsuccessful endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A; Riber, C; Trigo, P; Castejón-Riber, C; Castejón, F M

    2010-11-01

    Limited information exists concerning the defence of homeostasis during endurance competitions and the relationship with performance. This research analysed renin (REN), angiotensin II (ANG), aldosterone (ALD) and vasopressin (AVP) in horses covering different distances, assesses differences between successful and eliminated horses and evaluates correlations between hydration status, renal function, electrolytes, REN, ANG, ALD and AVP. Packed cell volume (PCV), velocity and serum concentrations of REN, ANG, ALD, AVP, Na, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, P, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total proteins (TSP), albumin (ALB), serum uric nitrogen (SUN), creatinine (CREAT) and lactate were analysed in both successful horses (SH) and in horses eliminated due to metabolic problems (MH). Two types of competition were studied: 91 km in one day (Competition A: 20 SH, 9 MH) and 166 km in 2 days, 83 km/day (Competition B: 10 SH and 5 MH). Research analysed renin was not affected by exercise, whereas ANG, ALD and AVP increased. In the SH group, resting ALD and AVP concentrations at the beginning of the second day of Competition B were higher than preride values. Vasopressin did not change during the second day of Competition B, whereas ALD progressively increased. Metabolic problems of both groups showed more evident dehydration (higher PCV, TSP, ALB, SUN and CREAT) and electrolyte alterations (more intense decreases of Na and Cl) than SH at the different sampling times. Metabolic problems presented higher ALD and AVP concentrations. Angiotensin II was higher at certain sampling times in the horses. Endurance horses with dehydration and electrolyte disturbances showed a more intense activation of the REN-ANG-ALD-AVP axis. The study of the response of the REN-ANG-ALD-AVP axis during prolonged exercise in horses with different performance will aid to minimise the risk of metabolic diseases during competitions. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  2. A randomised, double-blind, multi-centre trial comparing vasopressin and adrenaline in patients with cardiac arrest presenting to or in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Tiah, Ling; Leong, Benjamin Sieu-Hon; Tan, Elaine Ching Ching; Ong, Victor Yeok Kein; Tan, Elizabeth Ai Theng; Poh, Bee Yen; Pek, Pin Pin; Chen, Yuming

    2012-08-01

    To compare vasopressin and adrenaline in the treatment of patients with cardiac arrest presenting to or in the Emergency Department (ED). A randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, parallel-design clinical trial in four adult hospitals. Eligible cardiac arrest patients (confirmed by the absence of pulse, unresponsiveness and apnea) aged >16 (aged>21 for one hospital) were randomly assigned to intravenous adrenaline (1mg) or vasopressin (40 IU) at ED. Patients with traumatic cardiac arrest or contraindication for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were excluded. Patients received additional open label doses of adrenaline as per current guidelines. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge (defined as participant discharged alive or survival to 30 days post-arrest). The study recruited 727 participants (adrenaline = 353; vasopressin = 374). Baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. Eight participants (2.3%) from adrenaline and 11 (2.9%) from vasopressin group survived to hospital discharge with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.27, RR = 1.72, 95% CI = 0.65-4.51). After adjustment for race, medical history, bystander CPR and prior adrenaline given, more participants survived to hospital admission with vasopressin (22.2%) than with adrenaline (16.7%) (p = 0.05, RR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.02-2.04). Sub-group analysis suggested improved outcomes for vasopressin in participants with prolonged arrest times. Combination of vasopressin and adrenaline did not improve long term survival but seemed to improve survival to admission in patients with prolonged cardiac arrest. Further studies on the effect of vasopressin combined with therapeutic hypothermia on patients with prolonged cardiac arrest are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-dose vasopressin infusion results in increased mortality and cardiac dysfunction following ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrambarya, Toonchai; Boyd, John H; Wang, Yingjin; McConechy, Melissa; Walley, Keith R

    2009-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin is a vasoactive drug commonly used in distributive shock states including mixed shock with a cardiac component. However, the direct effect of arginine vasopressin on the function of the ischemia/reperfusion injured heart has not been clearly elucidated. We measured left ventricular ejection fraction using trans-thoracic echocardiography in C57B6 mice, both in normal controls and following ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by a one hour ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Mice were treated with one of normal saline, dobutamine (8.33 microg/kg/min), or arginine vasopressin (0.00057 Units/kg/min, equivalent to 0.04 Units/min in a 70 kg human) delivered by an intraperitoneal micro-osmotic pump. Arterial blood pressure was measured using a micromanometer catheter. In addition, mortality was recorded and cardiac tissues processed for RNA and protein. Baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 65.6% (60 to 72). In normal control mice, there was no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction according to infusion group. Following ischemia/reperfusion injury, AVP treatment significantly reduced day 1 left ventricular ejection fraction 46.2% (34.4 to 52.0), both in comparison with baseline and day 1 saline treated controls 56.9% (42.4 to 60.2). There were no significant differences in preload (left ventricular end diastolic volume), afterload (blood pressure) or heart rate to account for the effect of AVP on left ventricular ejection fraction. The seven-day mortality rate was highest in the arginine vasopressin group. Following ischemia/reperfusion injury, we found no change in cardiac V1 Receptor expression but a 40% decrease in Oxytocin Receptor expression. Arginine vasopressin infusion significantly depressed the myocardial function in an ischemia/reperfusion model and increased mortality in comparison with both saline and dobutamine treated animals. The use of vasopressin may be contraindicated in non

  4. Vasopressin-dependent flank marking in golden hamsters is suppressed by drugs used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Tara

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in arginine vasopressin regulation and secretion have been proposed as one possible biochemical abnormality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In golden hamsters, arginine vasopressin microinjections into the anterior hypothalamus trigger robust grooming and flank marking, a stereotyped scent marking behaviors. The intensity and repetition of the behaviors induced by arginine vasopressin is somewhat reminiscent of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in humans. The present experiments were carried out to test whether pharmacological agents used to alleviate obsessive compulsive disorder could inhibit arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Results Male golden hamsters were treated daily for two weeks with either vehicle, fluoxetine, clomipramine, or desipramine (an ineffective drug, before being tested for arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Flank marking was significantly inhibited in animals treated with fluoxetine or clomipramine but unaffected by treatment with desipramine. Grooming behavior was not affected by any treatment. Conclusion These data suggest that arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking may serve as an animal model for screening drugs used in the control of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

  5. Association of Variants of Arginine Vasopressin and Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1A With Severe Acetaminophen Liver InjurySummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Randesi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Acetaminophen-related acute liver injury and liver failure (ALF result from ingestion of supratherapeutic quantities of this analgesic, frequently in association with other forms of substance abuse including alcohol, opioids, and cocaine. Thus, overdosing represents a unique high-risk behavior associated with other forms of drug use disorder. Methods: We examined a series of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 9 genes related to impulsivity and/or stress responsivity that may modify response to stress. Study subjects were 229 white patients admitted to tertiary care liver centers for ALF that was determined to be due to acetaminophen toxicity after careful review of historical and biochemical data. Identification of relevant SNPs used Sanger sequencing, TaqMan, or custom microarray. Association tests were carried out to compare genotype frequencies between patients and healthy white controls. Results: The mean age was 37 years, and 75.6% were female, with similar numbers classified as intentional overdose or unintentional (without suicidal intent, occurring for a period of several days, usually due to pain. There was concomitant alcohol abuse in 30%, opioid use in 33.6%, and use of other drugs of abuse in 30.6%. The genotype frequencies of 2 SNPs were found to be significantly different between the cases and controls, specifically SNP rs2282018 in the arginine vasopressin gene (AVP, odds ratio 1.64 and SNP rs11174811 in the AVP receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A, odds ratio 1.89, both of which have been previously linked to a drug use disorder diagnosis. Conclusions: Patients who develop acetaminophen-related ALF have increased frequency of gene variants that may cause altered stress responsivity, which has been shown to be associated with other unrelated substance use disorders. Keywords: Impulsivity, Stress Responsivity, Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Overdose

  6. The Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene Regulates Arginine-Vasopressin Gene Expression in Human Female Neuroblastoma Cells Through G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor and ERK Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Daniela; Ghorbanpoor, Samar; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Ruiz-Palmero, Isabel; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-10-01

    The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene reduces blood pressure in hypertensive postmenopausal women. In the present study we have explored whether raloxifene regulates gene expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The effect of raloxifene was assessed in human female SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which have been recently identified as a suitable cellular model to study the estrogenic regulation of AVP. Raloxifene, within a concentration ranging from 10(-10) M to 10(-6) M, decreased the mRNA levels of AVP in SH-SY5Y cells with maximal effect at 10(-7) M. This effect of raloxifene was imitated by an agonist (±)-1-[(3aR*,4S*,9bS*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolin-8-yl]-ethanone of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) and blocked by an antagonist (3aS*,4R*,9bR*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline of GPER and by GPER silencing. Raloxifene induced a time-dependent increase in the level of phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, by a mechanism blocked by the GPER antagonist. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with either a MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2-specific inhibitor (1,4-diamino-2, 3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio)butadine) or a protein kinase C inhibitor (sotrastaurin) blocked the effects of raloxifene on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the regulation of AVP mRNA levels. These results reveal a mechanism mediating the regulation of AVP expression by raloxifene, involving the activation of GPER, which in turn activates protein kinase C, MAPK/ERK kinase, and ERK. The regulation of AVP by raloxifene and GPER may have implications for the treatment of blood hypertension(.).

  7. Neuromodulation by oxytocin and vasopressin in the central nervous system as a basis for their rapid behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ron

    2014-12-01

    The last several years have seen an increasing number of studies that describe effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on the behavior of animals or humans. Studies in humans have reported behavioral changes and, through fMRI, effects on brain function. These studies are paralleled by a large number of reports, mostly in rodents, that have also demonstrated neuromodulatory effects by oxytocin and vasopressin at the circuit level in specific brain regions. It is the scope of this review to give a summary of the most recent neuromodulatory findings in rodents with the aim of providing a potential neurophysiological basis for their behavioral effects. At the same time, these findings may point to promising areas for further translational research towards human applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Chronic Social Stress and Maternal Intranasal Oxytocin and Vasopressin on Offspring Interferon-γ and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Anthony Murgatroyd; Alexandria Hicks-Nelson; Alexandra Fink; Gillian Beamer; Kursat Gurel; Fawzy Elnady; Florent Pittet; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of early life adversity and transgenerational stress on neural plasticity and behavior are mediated by inflammation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immune and behavioural programming effects of intranasal (IN) vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) treatment of chronic social stress (CSS) exposed F1 dams on F2 juvenile female offspring. It was hypothesized that maternal AVP and OXT treatment would have p...

  9. Long-term opiate receptor antagonism in a patient with panhypopituitarism: effects on appetite, prolactin and demand for vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, K; Vetter, H

    1991-02-01

    As endogenous opiates are known to be involved in regulation of appetite, an obese patient with panhypopituitarism and frequent episodes of ravenous hunger was treated with the oral opiate antagonist naltrexone for 13 months. This resulted in loss of body weight and attacks of severe hunger. The increased serum prolactin concentration and the dose of vasopressin required for substitution could be reduced. Long-term application of opiate antagonists may be useful in related cases.

  10. [Vasopressin V2 receptor-related pathologies: congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic syndrome of inappropiate antidiuresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare hereditary disease with mainly an X-linked inheritance (90% of the cases) but there are also autosomal recessive and dominant forms. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is characterized by a resistance of the renal collecting duct to the action of the arginine vasopressin hormone responsible for the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. The X-linked form is due to inactivating mutations of the vasopressin 2 receptor gene leading to a loss of function of the mutated receptors. Affected males are often symptomatic in the neonatal period with a lack of weight gain, dehydration and hypernatremia but mild phenotypes may also occur. Females carrying the mutation may be asymptomatic but, sometimes, severe polyuria is found due to the random X chromosome inactivation. The autosomal recessive and dominant forms, occurring in both genders, are linked to mutations in the aquaporin-2 gene. The treatment remains difficult, especially in infants, and is based on a low osmotic diet with increased water intake and the use of thiazides and indomethacin. The main goal is to avoid hypernatremic episodes and maintain a good hydration state. Potentially, specific treatment, in some cases of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, with pharmacological chaperones such as non-peptide vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists will be available in the future. Conversely, the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is linked to a constitutive activation of the V(2)-receptor due to activating mutations with clinical and biological features of inappropriate antidiuresis but with low or undetectable plasma arginine vasopressin hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Chromosomal localization of the human V3 pituitary vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR3) to 1q32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau-Merck, M.F.; Derre, J.; Berger, R. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    Vasopressin exerts its physiological effects on liver metabolism, fluid osmolarity, and corticotrophic response to stress through a set of at least three receptors, V1a, V2, and V3 (also called V1b), respectively. These receptors constitute a distinct group of the superfamily of G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. When bound to vasopressin, they couple to G proteins activating phospholipase C for the V1a and V3 types and adenylate cyclase for the V2. The vasopressin receptor subfamily also includes the receptor for oxytocin, a structurally related hormone that signals through the activation of phospholipase C. The chromosomal position of the V2 receptor gene has been assigned to Xq28-qter by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrids, whereas the oxytocin receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 3q26.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The chromosomal location of the V1a gene is currently unknown. We recently cloned the cDNA and the gene coding for the human pituitary-specific V3 receptor (HGMW-approved symbol AVPR3). We report here the chromosomal localization of this gene by two distinct in situ hybridization techniques using radioactive and fluorescent probes. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  12. The RNA-binding protein, ZC3H14, is required for proper poly(A) tail length control, expression of synaptic proteins, and brain function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Jennifer; Jones, Stephanie K; Fidler, Jonathan; Banerjee, Ayan; Leung, Sara W; Morris, Kevin J; Wong, Jennifer C; Inglis, George Andrew S; Shapiro, Lindsey; Deng, Qiudong; Cutler, Alicia A; Hanif, Adam M; Pardue, Machelle T; Schaffer, Ashleigh; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Moberg, Kenneth H; Bassell, Gary J; Escayg, Andrew; García, Paul S; Corbett, Anita H

    2017-10-01

    A number of mutations in genes that encode ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding proteins cause tissue specific disease. Many of these diseases are neurological in nature revealing critical roles for this class of proteins in the brain. We recently identified mutations in a gene that encodes a ubiquitously expressed polyadenosine RNA-binding protein, ZC3H14 (Zinc finger CysCysCysHis domain-containing protein 14), that cause a nonsyndromic, autosomal recessive form of intellectual disability. This finding reveals the molecular basis for disease and provides evidence that ZC3H14 is essential for proper brain function. To investigate the role of ZC3H14 in the mammalian brain, we generated a mouse in which the first common exon of the ZC3H14 gene, exon 13 is removed (Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13) leading to a truncated ZC3H14 protein. We report here that, as in the patients, Zc3h14 is not essential in mice. Utilizing these Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13mice, we provide the first in vivo functional characterization of ZC3H14 as a regulator of RNA poly(A) tail length. The Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13 mice show enlarged lateral ventricles in the brain as well as impaired working memory. Proteomic analysis comparing the hippocampi of Zc3h14+/+ and Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13 mice reveals dysregulation of several pathways that are important for proper brain function and thus sheds light onto which pathways are most affected by the loss of ZC3H14. Among the proteins increased in the hippocampi of Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13 mice compared to control are key synaptic proteins including CaMK2a. This newly generated mouse serves as a tool to study the function of ZC3H14 in vivo. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Arginine-vasopressin marker copeptin is a sensitive plasma surrogate of hypoxic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostergaard L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Louise Ostergaard,1,2,* Alain Rudiger,3,* Sven Wellmann,2,4,5 Elena Gammella,6 Beatrice Beck-Schimmer,2,3 Joachim Struck,7 Marco Maggiorini,2,8 Max Gassmann,1,2,9 1Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, 2Zürich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, 3Institute of Anesthesiology, 4Division of Neonatology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, 5Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Science, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 7Research Department, B•R•A•H•M•S Biomarkers, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Hennigsdorf, Germany; 8Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; 9Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru *These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Background: A reduced oxygen supply puts patients at risk of tissue hypoxia, organ damage, and even death. In response, several changes are activated that allow for at least partial adaptation, thereby increasing the chances of survival. We aimed to investigate whether the arginine vasopressin marker, copeptin, can be used as a marker of the degree of acclimatization/adaptation in rats exposed to hypoxia. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for up to 48 hours. Arterial and right ventricular pressures were measured, and blood gas analysis was performed at set time points. Pulmonary changes were investigated by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet and dry weight measurements, and lung histology. Using a newly developed specific rat copeptin luminescence immunoassay, the regulation of vasopressin in response to hypoxia was studied, as was atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP by detecting mid-regional proANP. Results: With a decreasing oxygen supply, the rats rapidly became cyanotic and inactive. Despite continued exposure to 10% oxygen, all animals recuperated within 16 hours and

  14. Androgen manipulation and vasopressin binding in the rat brain and peripheral organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xin; Phillips, P.; Oldfield, B.; Trinder, D.; Risvanis, J.; Stephenson, J.; Johnston, C. (Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia))

    1994-03-01

    It is now widely recognized that there is a sexual dimorphism in the development of arginine vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity in certain parts of the brain, and that changes in brain AVP immunoreactivity change with manipulation of androgen status. The aim of the present experiment was to determine specifically any AVP receptor changes in response to manipulation of androgen levels using a selective V[sub 1] antagonist radioligand. Following castration, plasma testosterone levels fell and AVP immunoreactivity was reduced in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. With testosterone supplementation in castrated animals, the immunoreactivity in these regions was restored to a higher degree than in sham-operated animals. Central and peripheral V[sub 1] AVP receptor binding (as determined using the selective AVP V)[sub 1] antagonist radioligand [[sup 125]I](d(CH[sub 2])[sub 5],sarcosine[sup 7]) AVP was not changed in any of the brain regions studied or in liver or kidney membranes from the three groups. The study demonstrates that there is no change in brain AVP receptor binding despite changes in regional AVP immunoreactivity in the brain, and excludes any confounding interaction with changes in oxytocin receptors. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three groups of weanling male rats were fed on a fat-free diet for 13 weeks. One group received only the fat-free diet (FF rats), the other 2 groups received the fat-free diet and a daily supplement of 2 energy% ethyl linoleate ([n-6] rats), or 2 energy% ethyl linolenate ([n-3] rats). Urinary...... excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased...... significantly in the FF rats and the (n-3) rats compared with the (n-6) rats. Urinary PGE excretion was the same for all 3 groups during the first 10 weeks; thereafter it decreased in FF rats and (n-3) rats compared with the (n-6) rats. There was no difference in urinary PGE excretion between the FF rats...

  16. Aptamer based surface enhanced Raman scattering detection of vasopressin using multilayer nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yun Suk; Erickson, David

    2010-01-15

    Here we present an optofluidic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) device for on-chip detection of vasopressin using an aptamer based binding assay. To create the SERS-active substrate, densely packed, 200 nm diameter, metal nanotube arrays were fabricated using an anodized alumina nanoporous membrane as a template for shadow evaporation. We explore the use of both single layer Au structures and multilayer Au/Ag/Au structures and also demonstrate a facile technique for integrating the membranes with all polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. Using the integrated device, we demonstrate a linear response in the main detection peak intensity to solution phase concentration and a limit of detection on the order of 5.2 microU/mL. This low limit of detection is obtained with device containing the multilayer SERS substrate which we show exhibits a stronger Raman enhancement while maintaining biocompatibility and ease or surface reactivity with the capture probe. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human plasma: Development and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummerich, W.; Konrads, A.; Roesch, R.; Sofroniew, M.

    1983-02-15

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of arg-vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma is described. Recovery of added AVP from plasma was about 65-70%. An acetone extraction step was necessary to prevent unspecific blank effects. Sensitivity of the assay in 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma. In normally hydrated subjects AVP-concentration ranged from 0.7 pg/ml to 5.8 pg/ml and showed a good correlation with plasma osmolality. In patients with complete diabetes insipidus (D.i.) AVP-values were below the sensitivity limit of the method and they were subnormal when D.i. was incomplete. There was no increase of AVP-concentration during fluid restriction in patients with complete or incomplete D.i. In subjects with psychogenic polydipsia AVP-values were normal and dehydration produced adequate rises of plasma AVP. In patients with SIADH (Schwartz-Bartter-syndrome) AVP-values were greatly enhanced (> 10 pg/ml) when correlated to plasma osmolality (< 170 mosmol/kg H/sub 2/O).

  18. Arginine vasopressin, copeptin, and the development of relative AVP deficiency in hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Carrie A; Guan, Yuxia; Bergey, Meredith; Jaffe, Rebecca; Holmes-Maguire, Lilias; Martin, Niels; Reilly, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is critical for maintaining vasomotor tone and low levels have been associated with the development of irreversible shock. We investigated the clinical relationship between AVP, copeptin (the C-terminal fragment of the AVP precursor), and the development of relative AVP deficiency following hemorrhagic shock. A prospective, observational study of 21 hypotensive (SBPcopeptin were measured post hoc. AVP and copeptin levels were markedly elevated on admission, but decreased rapidly over time (p copeptin levels were positively correlated on admission (r = 0.769, p copeptin levels predicted the need for ≥10 unit blood product transfusion (AUC = 81% and 87%, respectively). The development of a relative AVP deficiency occurred frequently and was associated with an increased need for blood product transfusion. Copeptin correlates well with AVP and initial values predict the need for massive transfusion in trauma patients. Copeptin demonstrates promise as a clinical biomarker in hemorrhagic shock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Copeptin in the diagnosis of vasopressin-dependent disorders of fluid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Fenske, Wiebke

    2016-03-01

    Copeptin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are derived from a common precursor molecule and have equimolar secretion and response to osmotic, haemodynamic and stress-related stimuli. Plasma concentrations of copeptin and AVP in relation to serum osmolality are highly correlated. The physiological functions of AVP with respect to homeostasis of fluid balance, vascular tonus and regulation of the endocrine stress response are well known, but the exact function of copeptin is undetermined. Quantification of AVP can be difficult, but copeptin is stable in plasma and can be easily measured with a sandwich immunoassay. For this reason, copeptin has emerged as a promising marker for the diagnosis of AVP-dependent fluid disorders. Copeptin measurements can enable differentiation between various conditions within the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. In the absence of prior fluid deprivation, baseline copeptin levels >20 pmol/l identify patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Conversely, copeptin levels measured upon osmotic stimulation differentiate primary polydipsia from partial central diabetes insipidus. In patients with hyponatraemia, low levels of copeptin together with low urine osmolality identify patients with primary polydipsia, and the ratio of copeptin to urinary sodium can distinguish the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion from other AVP-dependent forms of hyponatraemia.

  20. The antidiuretic effect of pneumadin requires a functional arginine vasopressin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J D; Jennings, D B; Sarda, I R; Pang, S C; Lawson, B; Wigle, D A; Flynn, T G

    1995-05-30

    Pneumadin is an antidiuretic decapeptide, recently isolated from rat and human lung. Bolus intravenous injection of 5 nmol of pneumadin into water-loaded rats caused a rapid and significant antidiuresis and a reduction in Na+ and Cl- excretion. Pneumadin administration did not alter mean arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, heart rate or haematocrit. Bolus intravenous injection of 20 nmol of pneumadin into non-water-loaded rats caused a significant increase in arginine vasopressin (AVP) within 10 min. Pneumadin administration also increased circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) but did not alter aldosterone or plasma renin activity levels. Injection of pneumadin into water-loaded Brattleboro rats, which genetically lack circulating AVP, did not change urine flow, confirming that the pneumadin induced antidiuresis is AVP dependent. Radioactive pneumadin was cleared from the circulation with a t1/2 beta of 480.3 s. Radioactive pneumadin, isolated from plasma, eluted at an altered position on reverse phase HPLC, which indicated that the peptide was modified in vivo. This modification was also observed when synthetic pneumadin was incubated in rat plasma in vitro. Purification and sequencing of the modified synthetic peptide indicated that the modification is not a proteolytic cleavage. These results indicate that pneumadin injected into the rat caused an antidiuresis by altering circulating AVP levels.

  1. Efects of plasma corticosteroid concentration on the osmotic threshold for vasopressin releasing in Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuto Kimachi

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available The osmotic threshold for vasopressin release was studied in normal patients (n = 7 and in patients with the chronic form of Chagas'disease (n = 11. Positive correlation between osmotic threshold and plasma cortisol concentration was obtained for the Controls (y1 = 273,30 + 0,75x i; r = 0,78;P O limiar osmótico para liberação da vaso- pressina foi estudado em pacientes normais (n = 7 e em pacientes com a forma crônica da moléstia de Chagas (n = 11. Verificou-se a existência de uma correlação positiva entre o limiar osmótico e a concentração plasmática do cortisol endógeno para os controles (y1 = 273,30 + 0,75 x i; r = 0,78, p < 0,05, sugerindo um efeito modulador do cortisol na liberação da vasopressina. A falta de correlação entre os dois parâmetros, para os pacientes chagásicos crônicos, interpretou-se, baseando-se na desnervação geral associada com a doença de Chagas, como sendo o resultado da destruição neuronal em centros hipotalâmicos ejou extra-hipotalâmicos relacionados com o controle secretário da vosopressina.

  2. Association of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) haplotypes with listening to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Oikkonen, Jaana; Onkamo, Päivi; Karma, Kai; Raijas, Pirre; Järvelä, Irma

    2011-04-01

    Music is listened in all cultures. We hypothesize that willingness to produce and perceive sound and music is social communication that needs musical aptitude. Here, listening to music was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire and musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test) and Carl Seashores tests for pitch and for time. Three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (RS3, RS1 and AVR) of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) gene, previously associated with social communication and attachment, were genotyped and analyzed in 31 Finnish families (n=437 members) using family-based association analysis. A positive association between the AVPR1A haplotype (RS1 and AVR) and active current listening to music (permuted P=0.0019) was observed. Other AVPR1A haplotype (RS3 and AVR) showed association with lifelong active listening to music (permuted P=0.0022). In addition to AVPR1A, two polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and variable number of tandem repeat) of human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), a candidate gene for many neuropsychiatric disorders and previously associated with emotional processing, were analyzed. No association between listening to music and the polymorphisms of SLC6A4 were detected. The results suggest that willingness to listen to music is related to neurobiological pathways affecting social affiliation and communication.

  3. A review of the nonpressor and nonantidiuretic actions of the hormone vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang P Mavani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pressor and antidiuretic actions of arginine vasopressin (AVP have been well documented. This review focuses on the less widely appreciated actions of AVP which also have important physiologic functions and when better understood may provide important insights into common disease states. These actions include effects on pain perception and bone structure as well as important relationships to the varied components of metabolic syndrome. These include effects on blood glucose, lipid levels, and blood pressure. AVP may also play a role in the progression of chronic kidney disease and effect physiologic changes relating to aging, abnormal social behavior and cognitive function. Important cellular responses including cell proliferation, inflammation and control of infection and their relationship to AVP are described. Finally, the effects of AVP on hemostasis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal access are noted. The goal of this summary of the various actions of AVP is to direct attention to the potential benefits of research in these underemphasized areas of importance.

  4. The Effects of Acute Arginine Vasopressin Administration on Social Cognition in Healthy Males

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    Amanda R. Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally similar neuropeptides and hormones oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP play significant and complex roles in modulating a range of social behaviours, including social recognition and bond formation. Although OT has well-known roles in facilitating prosocial behaviors and enhancing emotion recognition, AVP has received increasing interest for diverging effects on social cognition behaviour most notably in males. The current study aimed to determine whether AVP also modulates the ability to understand emotion. Using a randomised double blind procedure, 45 healthy young males received either an AVP or placebo nasal spray and completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. In contrast to previous findings, there were no significant differences observed in performance on the RMET between AVP and placebo groups, even after examining items separated by task difficulty, emotional valence, and gender. This study provides diverging evidence from previous findings and adds to the growing body of research exploring the influence of neuropeptide hormones in social behaviour. It demonstrates that in this sample of participants, AVP does not enhance the ability to understand higher order emotion from others. Implications and suggestions for future AVP administration studies are discussed.

  5. The arginine vasopressin V1b receptor gene and prosociality: Mediation role of emotional empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-09-01

    The vasopressin V1b receptor (AVPR1B) gene has been shown to be closely associated with bipolar disorder and depression. However, whether it relates to positive social outcomes, such as empathy and prosocial behavior, remains unknown. This study explored the possible role of the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 in empathy and prosociality. A total of 256 men, who were genetically unrelated, non-clinical ethnic Han Chinese college students, participated in the study. Prosociality was tested by measuring the prosocial tendencies of cognitive and emotional empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs28373064, was genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The results suggest that the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 is linked to emotional empathy and prosociality. The mediation analysis indicated that the effect of the AVPR1B gene on prosociality might be mediated by emotional empathy. This study demonstrated the link between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality and provided evidence that emotional empathy might mediate the relation between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Vasopressin immunoreactive fibers and neurons in the dorsal pontine tegmentum of the rat, monkey and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffé, A R; Holstege, J C; van Leeuwen, F W

    1991-01-01

    It is now well established that extensive extrahypothalamic vasopressin (VP) systems exist in the rat, monkey and human brain. There are marked differences between species, but in each case VP nuclei provide dense afferents to the dorsal pontine tegmentum. Here VP may play a role in the mechanisms exerted by the locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, possibly both as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Although we are aware of some properties of VP systems, e.g., gonadal steroid dependency in the rat, major gaps characterize our knowledge of its anatomy. With regard to the interaction of VP with the LC in the brainstem of mammals some of the questions which stand out are: (1) Is VP really being biosynthesized and transported by LC cells and, if not, what is its function within these cells? (2) Is there a structural difference between male and female LC neurons in the rat as a consequence of the sex-dimorphic VP innervation? (3) What is the origin of VP afferents in the dorsal pontine tegmentum of the (non)human primate and are these afferents also controlled by gonadal steroids? Research strategies to answer these questions will provide us with information to resolve some of the current inconsistencies about the anatomy and the function of the VP and LC systems in the brain.

  7. Effect of tetanus toxin on oxytocin and vasopressin release from nerve endings of the neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J L; Habig, W H; Trenchard, H; Russell, J T

    1990-12-01

    The effect of tetanus toxin on neuropeptide hormone release from isolated nerve endings of the neural lobe of rat pituitaries (neurosecretosomes) was measured in a perfusion system. Tetanus toxin inhibited depolarization-evoked release of oxytocin and vasopressin in a time- and dose-dependent manner. At 1 microgram/ml, tetanus toxin blocked stimulated release by 85%. Tetanus toxin that was preincubated with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody or heated to 100 degrees C had no effect on hormone release. The ionophores A23187 and ionomycin were potent stimulators of hormone release in control nerve endings, but were not able to overcome the effect of tetanus toxin in intoxicated nerve endings. 8-Bromo-cyclic GMP, which has been reported to reverse the action of tetanus toxin in PC12 cells, had no effect on the action of tetanus toxin in neurosecretosomes. Neurosecretosomes are the first system in which tetanus toxin has been shown to block release from peptidergic nerve terminals. They appear to be a valuable in vitro system for studying the biochemical mechanism of tetanus toxin action.

  8. Social Context, Stress, Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and the Vasopressin 1b Receptor

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    Heather K. Caldwell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The arginine vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b is involved in the modulation of a variety of behaviors and is an important part of the mammalian hormonal stress axis. The Avpr1b is prominent in hippocampal CA2 pyramidal cells and in the anterior pituitary corticotrophs. Decades of research on this receptor has demonstrated its importance to the modulation of social recognition memory, social forms of aggression, and modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, particularly under conditions of acute stress. Further, work in humans suggests that the Avpr1b may play a role in human neuropsychiatric disorders and its modulation may have therapeutic potential. This paper reviews what is known about the role of the Avpr1b in the context of social behaviors, the stress axis, and human neuropsychiatric disorders. Further, possible mechanisms for how Avpr1b activation within the hippocampus vs. Avpr1b activation within anterior pituitary may interact with one another to affect behavioral output are proposed.

  9. The effect of acute heat exposure on rat pituitary corticotroph activation: the role of vasopressin.

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    Sinisa Djurasevic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased ambient temperature affects the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Since the correlation among vasopressin (VP, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT responses to various stressors have been long recognized, the aim of this study was to reveal the aforementioned hormones production and morphology of the pituitary gland after exposure to acute heat. Rats were exposed to high ambient temperature (38 °C for 20 or 60 minutes. The circulating hormones were determined by an ELISA test or chemiluminescence's method. The results obtained show the elevation in ACTH and CORT secretion depending on the duration of heat exposure. The VP concentration increased only after prolonged exposure to heat (60 min. The pituitary morphology was examined by routine and fluorescent immunohistochemistry as well as electron microscopy. Observed changes in the anterior and posterior pituitary well corresponded to circulating hormones, regarding the volume density of ACTH-immunopositive cells, percentage of ACTH immunopositive area v. total area and number of VP-immunopositive containing varicose fibers per total area. Acute heat exposure also induced changes in shapes of ACTH-immunopositive cells. Cells appeared stellate with numerous slender cytoplasmic processes and degranulated, which is the most obvious after 20 min. In addition, immunopositivity of endothelial and anterior pituitary cells for VP suggests its influence on ACTH secretion.

  10. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

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    Benjamin C. Nephew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3 and mid (day 10 lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing. AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

  11. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  12. New aspects of firing pattern autocontrol in oxytocin and vasopressin neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, F; Gouzènes, L; Brown, D; Dayanithi, G; Sabatier, N; Boissin, L; Rabié, A; Richard, P

    1998-01-01

    In the rat, oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) neurones exhibit specific electrical activities which are controlled by OT and AVP released from soma and dendrites within the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei. OT enhances amplitude and frequency of suckling-induced bursts, and changes basal firing characteristics: spike patterning becomes very irregular (spike clusters separated by long silences), firing rate is highly variable, oscillating before facilitated bursts. This unstable behaviour which markedly decreases during hyperosmotic stimulation (interrupting bursting) could be a prerequisite for bursting. The effects of AVP depend on the initial phasic pattern of AVP neurones: AVP excites weakly active neurones (increasing burst duration, decreasing silences) and inhibits highly active neurones; neurones with intermediate phasic activity are unaffected. Thus, AVP ensures all AVP neurones discharge with moderate phasic activity (bursts and silences lasting 20-40 s), known to optimise systemic AVP release. V1a-type receptors are involved in AVP actions. In conclusion, OT and AVP control their respective neurones in a complex manner to favour the patterns of activity which are the best suited for an efficient systemic hormone release.

  13. Characterization and in vivo regulation of V sub 1 -type vasopressin receptors in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewey, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Specific, high affinity binding sites for ({sup 3}H)-arginine{sup 8}-vasopressin (AVP) have been characterized in Long-Evans rat septal membranes. Binding displacement studies with peptide analogs of AVP indicate that this binding site is similar to the V{sub 1} (pressor)-type receptor for AVP. When added to rat brain septal slices that had been pre-labeled with ({sup 3}H)-myoinositol, AVP stimulated the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1-phosphate (IP{sub 1}) in the presence of lithium in a dose-dependent manner. This stimulation was completely inhibited by the specific V{sub 1} antagonists, d(CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP, indicating that AVP stimulates hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in rat brain septum through an interaction with V{sub 1}-type AVP receptors. Binding studies of AVP receptors in the septum of heterozygous (HE) and homozygous, Brattleboro (BB) rats revealed an increased number of receptors with a lower affinity for AVP in the HO-BB rat when compared to the HE-BB rat. AVP-stimulated accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} was significantly greater in the septum of the HO-BB rat than in the HE-BB rat. AVP receptor binding capacity correlated with release of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} for all three groups studied.

  14. Pressor hormone profile during stress in hypertension: does vasopressin interfere with left ventricular hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, A; Athanasopoulos, G; Karatasakis, G; Gavras, I; Bresnahan, M; Cokkinos, D V; Gavras, H

    1993-05-01

    Neurohormonal factors may account for the fact that patients with similar severity and duration of hypertension develop different degrees of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The purpose of this work was to compare the pressor hormone profiles of hypertensive subjects off medication during exercise testing. Nineteen patients, stratified according to echocardiographically diagnosed absence (Group I n = 6) or presence (Group II n = 13) of LVH, underwent testing on the treadmill according to the Bruce protocol. Both groups were comparable in age, severity and duration of hypertension and reached similar double product at peak exercise. Measurements of plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma catecholamines and vasopressin (AVP) at baseline, peak exercise and post exercise revealed significant differences between groups: Group I had suppressed PRA levels throughout and had significantly higher baseline AVP levels, which increased further at peak effort. Group II had significantly higher baseline PRA levels, which tended to increase further at peak effort, and had suppressed AVP levels throughout. There was a significant negative correlation between percent increments in AVP and increments in double product. Norepinephrine increased significantly with effort in both groups, but the levels attained were higher in Group I. In view of the known negative inotropic action of AVP and the trophic effect of angiotensin, we speculate that lower baseline AVP and higher PRA, together with inability of AVP to increase with effort, may be causally related to development of LVH.

  15. Desmopressin for bed wetting: length of treatment, vasopressin secretion, and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J H; Meadow, S R

    1992-01-01

    Fifty five children with nocturnal enuresis referred to a hospital enuresis clinic entered a controlled trial to compare the efficacy of one month and three month courses of intranasal desmopressin (Desmospray). There was no significant difference in outcome between the two groups. Overall 36% improved by at least two dry nights/week during treatment, but only five children (18%) in the one month group and three (11%) in the three month group became completely dry and only one in each group remained dry after treatment. To determine whether nocturnal polyuria was associated with a therapeutic response to desmopressin, the nocturnal urine volume, osmolality, and vasopressin concentration were measured in desmopressin responsive enuretics, desmopressin non-responders, and non-enuretic control children. There were no significant differences between the three groups. A three month course of desmopressin is no more effective than a one month course. Although many children will improve during treatment, only a small number become dry and most will relapse when treatment is stopped. PMID:1543376

  16. The Oxytocin–Vasopressin Pathway in the Context of Love and Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sue Carter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin (VP and oxytocin (OT are distinct molecules; these peptides and their receptors [OT receptor (OTR and V1a receptor (V1aR] also are evolved components of an integrated and adaptive system, here described as the OT–VP pathway. The more ancient peptide, VP, and the V1aRs support individual survival and play a role in defensive behaviors, including mobilization and aggression. OT and OTRs have been associated with positive social behaviors and may function as a biological metaphor for social attachment or “love.” However, complex behavioral functions, including selective sexual behaviors, social bonds, and parenting require combined activities of OT and VP. The behavioral effects of OT and VP vary depending on perceived emotional context and the history of the individual. Paradoxical or contextual actions of OT also may reflect differential interactions with the OTR and V1aR. Adding to the complexity of this pathway is the fact that OT and VP receptors are variable, across species, individuals, and brain region, and these receptors are capable of being epigenetically tuned. This variation may help to explain experience-related individual and sex differences in behaviors that are regulated by these peptides, including the capacity to form social attachments and the emotional consequences of these attachments.

  17. Arginine vasopressin improves the memory deficits in Han Chinese patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Cai-Hong; Wang, Chao; Yang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Ma, Rui-Qing; Liu, Xu; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2017-11-01

    The memory impairment is a core deficit in the first-episode schizophrenia patients. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the brain can improve learning and memory. We performed multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial to study the cognitive functioning in Han Chinese first-episode schizophrenic patients in a 12-week treatment regime with the intranasal administration of AVP (128 cases) or placebo (131 cases) in addition to the conventional treatment. The methods of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), Wechsler memory scale-4th edition (WMS-IV) and event-related potential (ERP) were used to study the effects of AVP on the cognitive function. The results showed that (1) AVP concentration decreased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the right-handed Han Chinese first-episode schizophrenic patients comparing with that of the health volunteers (7.1±1.5pg/ml vs 13.3±1.9pg/ml, pmemorizing and extraction of the information although there were many changes of cognitive functions in the right-handed Han Chinese first-episode schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Individual Differences in Social Behavior and Cortical Vasopressin Receptor: Genetics, Epigenetics, and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Steven M; Okhovat, Mariam; Berrio, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Social behavior is among the most complex and variable of traits. Despite its diversity, we know little about how genetic and developmental factors interact to shape natural variation in social behavior. This review surveys recent work on individual differences in the expression of the vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR), a major regulator of social behavior, in the neocortex of the socially monogamous prairie vole. V1aR exhibits profound variation in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a region critical to spatial and contextual memory. RSC-V1aR abundance is associated with patterns of male space-use and sexual fidelity in the field: males with high RSC-V1aR show high spatial and sexual fidelity to partners, while low RSC-V1aR males are significantly more likely to mate outside the pair-bond. Individual differences in RSC-V1aR are predicted by a set of linked single nucleotide polymorphisms within the avpr1a locus. These alternative alleles have been actively maintained by selection, suggesting that the brain differences represent a balanced polymorphism. Lastly, the alleles occur within regulatory sequences, and result in differential sensitivity to environmental perturbation. Together the data provide insight into how genetic, epigenetic and evolutionary forces interact to shape the social brain.

  19. Individual Differences in Social Behavior and Cortical Vasopressin Receptor: Genetics, Epigenetics, and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Phelps

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior is among the most complex and variable of traits. Despite its diversity, we know little about how genetic and developmental factors interact to shape natural variation in social behavior. This review surveys recent work on individual differences in the expression of the vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR, a major regulator of social behavior, in the neocortex of the socially monogamous prairie vole. V1aR exhibits profound variation in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC, a region critical to spatial and contextual memory. RSC-V1aR abundance is associated with patterns of male space-use and sexual fidelity in the field: males with high RSC-V1aR show high spatial and sexual fidelity to partners, while low RSC-V1aR males are significantly more likely to mate outside the pair-bond. Individual differences in RSC-V1aR are predicted by a set of linked single nucleotide polymorphisms within the avpr1a locus. These alternative alleles have been actively maintained by selection, suggesting that the brain differences represent a balanced polymorphism. Lastly, the alleles occur within regulatory sequences, and result in differential sensitivity to environmental perturbation. Together the data provide insight into how genetic, epigenetic and evolutionary forces interact to shape the social brain.

  20. Desmopressin for bed wetting: length of treatment, vasopressin secretion, and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J H; Meadow, S R

    1992-02-01

    Fifty five children with nocturnal enuresis referred to a hospital enuresis clinic entered a controlled trial to compare the efficacy of one month and three month courses of intranasal desmopressin (Desmospray). There was no significant difference in outcome between the two groups. Overall 36% improved by at least two dry nights/week during treatment, but only five children (18%) in the one month group and three (11%) in the three month group became completely dry and only one in each group remained dry after treatment. To determine whether nocturnal polyuria was associated with a therapeutic response to desmopressin, the nocturnal urine volume, osmolality, and vasopressin concentration were measured in desmopressin responsive enuretics, desmopressin non-responders, and non-enuretic control children. There were no significant differences between the three groups. A three month course of desmopressin is no more effective than a one month course. Although many children will improve during treatment, only a small number become dry and most will relapse when treatment is stopped.

  1. ER-associated degradation is required for vasopressin prohormone processing and systemic water homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlo, Diane R.M.; Kim, Geun Hyang; Prescianotto-Baschong, Cristina; Sun, Shengyi; Beuret, Nicole; Long, Qiaoming; Rutishauser, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Peptide hormones are crucial regulators of many aspects of human physiology. Mutations that alter these signaling peptides are associated with physiological imbalances that underlie diseases. However, the conformational maturation of peptide hormone precursors (prohormones) in the ER remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that conformational maturation of proAVP, the precursor for the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin, within the ER requires the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) activity of the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex. Serum hyperosmolality induces expression of both ERAD components and proAVP in AVP-producing neurons. Mice with global or AVP neuron–specific ablation of Se1L-Hrd1 ERAD progressively developed polyuria and polydipsia, characteristics of diabetes insipidus. Mechanistically, we found that ERAD deficiency causes marked ER retention and aggregation of a large proportion of all proAVP protein. Further, we show that proAVP is an endogenous substrate of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD. The inability to clear misfolded proAVP with highly reactive cysteine thiols in the absence of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD causes proAVP to accumulate and participate in inappropriate intermolecular disulfide–bonded aggregates, promoted by the enzymatic activity of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). This study highlights a pathway linking ERAD to prohormone conformational maturation in neuroendocrine cells, expanding the role of ERAD in providing a conducive ER environment for nascent proteins to reach proper conformation. PMID:28920920

  2. Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in Rhesus Monkey plasma. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, J.N.; Pavasuthipaisit, K.; Perez-Lopez, F.R.; Sofroniew, M.V.

    1976-04-01

    Using a new antiserum and an enzymatic radioiodination of arginine vasopressin (AVP), we have developed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for plasma AVP in the monkey. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.5 ..mu..U/ml, the cross reaction with oxytocin (OT), minimal. We used this assay to study the effects that variations in blood osmolality have in regulating AVP secretion in unanesthetized, chair-restrained, chamber-isolated, adult female rhesus monkeys. Under water ad lib conditions, plasma AVP and osmolality were relatively constant, averaging 1.7 +- 0.6 (SD) ..mu..U/ml and 298 +- 3 mosmol/kg, respectively. Water loading decreased plasma AVP and osmolality to 0.6 +- 0.2 ..mu..U/ml and 282 +- 6 mosmol/kg, respectively. When fluid restriction increased osmolality, plasma AVP rose progressively to twice the baseline after 1 day, and to 6 times the baseline after 3 days. The rise in plasma AVP was linearly correlated with the rise in osmolality (r = 0.93; P less than 0.001). Intravenous infusions of hypertonic saline produced significant rises in plasma osmolality and plasma AVP. There was a dose-related rise in plasma AVP that declined later at the expected rate with the infusion of physiological amounts of synthetic AVP.

  3. Examining the role of vasopressin in the modulation of parental and sexual behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josi Maria eZimmermann-Peruzatto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin (VP and VP-like neuropeptides are evolutionarily stable peptides found in all vertebrate species. In non-mammalian vertebrates, vasotocin (VT plays a role similar to mammalian VP, whereas mesotocin and isotocin are functionally similar to mammalian oxytocin (OT. Here, we review the involvement of VP in brain circuits, synaptic plasticity, evolution, and function, highlighting the role of VP in social behavior. In all studied species, VP is encoded on chromosome 20p13, and in mammals, VP is produced in specific hypothalamic nuclei and released by the posterior pituitary. The role of VP is mediated by the stimulation of the V1a, V2, and V1b receptors, as well as the oxytocinergic and purinergic receptors. VT and VP functions are usually related to osmotic and cardiovascular homeostasis when acting peripherally. However, these neuropeptides are also critically involved in the central modulation of social behavior displays, such as pairing recognition, pair-bonding, social memory, sexual behavior, parental care, maternal and aggressive behavior. Evidence suggests that these effects are primarily mediated by V1a receptor in specific brain circuits that provide important information for the onset and control of social behaviors in normal and pathological conditions.

  4. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene polymorphisms: role in social and psychiatric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio eAspé Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OXT and arginine-vasopressin (AVP are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies.This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (like those

  5. Vasopressin as a target for antidepressant development: an assessment of the available evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scott, Lucinda V

    2012-02-03

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the key biological abnormalities described in major depressive disorder, occurring in 30-50% of depressed subjects. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) are the main regulators of this stress system, with the two neuropeptides acting synergistically in bringing about adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary and cortisol from the adrenal gland. Based on the demonstration of elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of CRH in depressives, and other evidence, it has been postulated that excess CRH and the resultant increased HPA forward drive form the basis of neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression. However, there is an accumulating body of evidence to support a significant role for AVP in the regulation of pituitary-adrenal activity in health and also in depressive disorder. This review, based on a Medline search from 1980 to 2001, focuses on the functional neuroanatomy, receptor pharmacology, VP synergism with CRH, and the data from clinical and pre-clinical studies that support an important role for AVP in the pathophysiology of major depression. We suggest that future antidepressants may target the vasopressinergic system.

  6. Secretory rhythm of vasopressin in healthy subjects with inversed sleep--wake cycle: evidence for the existence of an intrinsic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, M

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to find out if the higher night levels of vasopressin described in previous studies are a manifestation of a permanent and stable rhythm bound to the different periods of the day or if they are independent of them and due to other causes. Vasopressin secretion was studied in a group of seven healthy subjects with an inverted sleep--wake cycle (night workers who sleep and rest during the day). The study was performed during the last week of their working period after at least 3 weeks of continuous night shift. Plasma samples for vasopressin determination were taken every 4 h during a 24-h period while the subjects were performing their normal night work and with their usual sleeping habits during the day. Plasma osmolality, electrolytes and blood pressure were also assessed during the test. In contrast to previous studies where higher nocturnal values have been reported, we found significantly higher vasopressin levels during the day, giving as a whole a characteristic pattern with the highest vasopressin levels measured at 16.00 h followed by a progressive decrement that reached its nadir at 04.00 h. The total measured secretion of vasopressin was significantly higher during the day than during the night (p = 0.0313). No significant difference was found, on the other hand, between day samples, with the exception of samples taken at 16.00 h and at 12.00 h (p = 0.031). Plasma osmolality and electrolytes were within the normal range during the test and no statistical difference was observed at the various points. It was concluded that the secretion of vasopressin is higher during sleep and rest time and lower during the active part of the 24 h. The secretory pattern of vasopressin is not bound to the different periods of the day as such, nor to variations in plasma osmolality or electrolytes. It seems therefore reasonable to assume that the secretion of vasopressin has an intrinsic daily rhythm that is not related to known regulatory

  7. The Effects of Vasopressin and Oxytocin on the Fetoplacental Distal Stem Arteriolar Vascular Resistance of the Dual-Perfused, Single, Isolated, Human Placental Cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John W; Baysinger, Curtis L; Johnson, Raymond F; Paschall, Ray L; Shotwell, Matthew S

    2016-09-01

    Vasoactive agents administered to counter maternal hypotension at cesarean delivery may theoretically intensify the hypoxemic fetoplacental vasoconstrictor response and, hence, negatively impact transplacental oxygen delivery to the fetus. Yet, this aspect of their pharmacodynamic profiles is seldom mentioned, let alone investigated. We hypothesized that vasopressin, a potent systemic vasoconstrictor, and oxytocin, a uterotonic agent administered routinely at cesarean delivery, which, in contrast to vasopressin, possesses significant systemic vasodilator properties, would not influence distal stem villous arteriolar resistance. The dual-perfused, single, isolated cotyledon, human placental perfusion model was used to examine the resistance response of the fetoplacental circulation to oxytocin and vasopressin in placentae harvested from healthy women. Twelve of a total of 17 individual experiments were conducted successfully during which either oxytocin (n = 6) or vasopressin (n = 6) was introduced into the fetal reservoir in concentration increments of 10 M. Fetoplacental distal stem villous arteriolar perfusion pressure (FAP) was measured continuously. The fetal circuit concentration of either oxytocin or vasopressin was raised in a stepwise fashion from 10 to 10 M or 10 to 10 M, respectively. Both reservoirs were then purged of drug, after which 1-mL 1.0 mM 5-hydroxytryptamine (2.5 µM), an agent well known to manifestly increase fetoplacental distal stem villous arteriolar resistance, was introduced into the fetal circuit. A significant increase in FAP from baseline in response to exposure to 5-hydroxytryptamine confirmed that the fetoplacental vasoconstrictor response remained reactive. The primary outcome of this study was changes in FAP after incremental dosing of vasopressin and oxytocin. No changes in FAP were observed with either oxytocin or vasopressin regardless of the drug concentration tested. For each drug and concentration, a mean pressure change

  8. A Bioinformatics-Based Alternative mRNA Splicing Code that May Explain Some Disease Mutations Is Conserved in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen; Cingolani, Pablo; Zeeberg, Barry R; Ruden, Douglas M

    2017-01-01

    Deep sequencing of cDNAs made from spliced mRNAs indicates that most coding genes in many animals and plants have pre-mRNA transcripts that are alternatively spliced. In pre-mRNAs, in addition to invariant exons that are present in almost all mature mRNA products, there are at least 6 additional types of exons, such as exons from alternative promoters or with alternative polyA sites, mutually exclusive exons, skipped exons, or exons with alternative 5' or 3' splice sites. Our bioinformatics-based hypothesis is that, in analogy to the genetic code, there is an "alternative-splicing code" in introns and flanking exon sequences, analogous to the genetic code, that directs alternative splicing of many of the 36 types of introns. In humans, we identified 42 different consensus sequences that are each present in at least 100 human introns. 37 of the 42 top consensus sequences are significantly enriched or depleted in at least one of the 36 types of introns. We further supported our hypothesis by showing that 96 out of 96 analyzed human disease mutations that affect RNA splicing, and change alternative splicing from one class to another, can be partially explained by a mutation altering a consensus sequence from one type of intron to that of another type of intron. Some of the alternative splicing consensus sequences, and presumably their small-RNA or protein targets, are evolutionarily conserved from 50 plant to animal species. We also noticed the set of introns within a gene usually share the same splicing codes, thus arguing that one sub-type of splicesosome might process all (or most) of the introns in a given gene. Our work sheds new light on a possible mechanism for generating the tremendous diversity in protein structure by alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs.

  9. The circadian defect in plasma vasopressin and urine output is related to desmopressin response and enuresis status in children with nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittig, Søren; Schaumburg, Henriette Lassen; Siggaard, Charlotte; Schmidt, Frank; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2008-06-01

    We correlated the circadian rhythm of plasma arginine vasopressin and urine output profile to desmopressin response, presence or absence of an enuretic episode, and age and gender in children with nocturnal enuresis. We studied 125 children 6 to 17 years old (mean age 10.4 +/- 3 years) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Circadian inpatient studies were performed with standardized fluid intake, 7 blood sampling times and 6 urine collection periods. Subsequently, nocturnal urine volume was measured at home by diaper weighing for 4 weeks in 78 patients (2 weeks without treatment followed by 2 weeks of dose titration from 20 to 40 mug desmopressin at bedtime). The circadian studies showed that all groups of patients had an attenuated arginine vasopressin rhythm, females generally had lower circadian plasma arginine vasopressin levels than males, desmopressin responders with enuresis during the study night had the largest nocturnal urine excretion rate and most pronounced arginine vasopressin deficiency, and nocturnal urine output was significantly greater during nights with enuresis than nights without. Part of this polyuria was caused by increased sodium excretion. The home recordings confirmed higher nocturnal urine volume on enuresis nights. In addition to providing further pathophysiological support for the role of a nocturnal arginine vasopressin deficiency behind nocturnal polyuria in a subset of patients with enuresis, the results emphasize the clinical value of estimating nocturnal urine production on wet nights before selecting a therapeutic modality.

  10. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe {sup i}n situ{sup .} The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs.

  11. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin; Sorensen, P; Khademi, M

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  12. Stress granules: sites of mRNA triage that regulate mRNA stability and translatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedersha, N; Anderson, P

    2002-11-01

    Mammalian stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic domains into which mRNAs are sorted dynamically in response to phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2alpha, a key regulatory step in translational initiation. The activation of one or more of the eIF2alpha kinases leads to SG assembly by decreasing the levels of eIF2-GTP-tRNA(Met), the ternary complex that is normally required for loading the initiator methionine onto the 48 S preinitiation complex to begin translation. This stress-induced scarcity of eIF2-GTP-tRNA(Met) allows the RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 (T-cell internal antigen-1) and TIAR (TIA-1-related protein) to bind the 48 S complex in lieu of the ternary complex, thereby promoting polysome disassembly and the concurrent routing of the mRNA into a SG. The actual formation of SGs occurs upon auto-aggregation of the prion-like C-termini of TIA-1 proteins; this aggregation is reversed in vivo by overexpression of the heat-shock protein (HSP) chaperone HSP70. Remarkably, HSP70 mRNA is excluded from SGs and is preferentially translated during stress, indicating that the RNA composition of the SG is selective. Moreover, the effects of HSP70 on TIA aggregation suggest a feedback loop whereby HSP70 synthesis is auto-regulated. Proteins that promote mRNA stability [e.g. HuR (Hu protein R)] and destabilize mRNA [i.e. tristetraprolin (TTP)] are also recruited to SGs, suggesting that SGs effect a process of mRNA triage, by promoting polysome disassembly and routing mRNAs to cytoplasmic domains enriched for HuR and TTP. This model reveals connections between the eIF2alpha kinase system, mRNA stability and cellular chaperone levels.

  13. mRNA quality control pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... mRNPs in the nucleus very often leads to the formation of aberrant and faulty messages along with their functional .... Figure 1. mRNA life-cycle in eukaryotic cell: Schematic view of the nuclear and cytoplasmic phases of mRNA life cycle, namely ..... structure is characteristic and critical feature of an mRNA.

  14. Plasma corticotrophin response to desmopressin in patients with Cushing's disease correlates with the expression of vasopressin receptor 2, but not with that of vasopressin receptor 1 or 3, in their pituitary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan-Fen; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Yen, Yu-Shu; Ho, Donald Ming-Tak; Yang, An-Hang; Huang, Chun-I; Hwang, Chun-I; Lin, Hong-Da; Won, Justin G S

    2012-02-01

    Most patients with Cushing's disease (CD) respond to corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) or desmopressin with increased corticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol levels. Although the vasopressin receptor subtype located on normal corticotrophs is the V3 receptor (V3R), desmopressin is a selective V2 receptor (V2R) agonist and it is unclear whether corticotrophinomas exhibit aberrant V2R expression. Furthermore, no studies have determined the relationship between the in vivo response of CD patients to desmopressin and vasopressin receptor expression, or between the response to CRH and CRH receptor (CRHR) expression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of vasopressin receptors (V1R, V2R, and V3R) and CRHR on corticotroph tumours and its possible relation to the in vivo response. A prospective study of 29 patients with CD. Patients underwent desmopressin and CRH stimulation tests before surgery. The expression of vasopressin receptors and CRHR on corticotrophinomas was determined by immunocytochemistry. Most of the corticotrophinomas exhibited abundant expression of V1R, V3R, and CRHR, whereas the expression of V2R varied greatly and was lower in macroadenomas than in microadenomas. Both the percentage increment of ACTH and net area under the curve (AUC) of ACTH in the desmopressin stimulation test were found to be correlated with tumour volume. After adjustment for tumour volume, a positive correlation was found between the percentage increment of ACTH and the degree of V2R expression, but not between that of V1R or V3R. No relationship between the level of expression of CRHR on tumour tissues and the percentage increment or netAUC of ACTH to CRH was observed in CD patients. We concluded that V2R was expressed on corticotrophinomas and that the level of its expression correlated well with the ACTH response to desmopressin in CD patients, although abundant expression of V1R and V3R was also found in almost all corticotroph tumours. Further

  15. Transcription factor CREB3L1 mediates cAMP and glucocorticoid regulation of arginine vasopressin gene transcription in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael P; Mecawi, Andre S; Loh, Su Yi; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2015-10-26

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide hormone that functions in the regulation of water homeostasis by controlling water re-absorption at kidneys, is synthesised in supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. An increase in plasma osmolality stimulates secretion of AVP to blood circulation and induces AVP synthesis in these nuclei. Although studies on mechanism of AVP transcriptional regulation in hypothalamus proposed that cAMP and glucocorticoids positively and negatively regulate Avp expression, respectively, the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Recently, we identified CREB3L1 (cAMP-responsive element binding protein 3 like 1) as a putative transcription factor of Avp transcription in the rat hypothalamus. However the mechanism of how CREB3L1 is regulated in response of hyperosmotic stress in the neurons of hypothalamus has never been reported. This study aims to investigate effect of previously reported regulators (cAMP and glucocorticoid) of Avp transcription on transcription factor CREB3L1 in order to establish a molecular explanation for cAMP and glucocorticoids effect on AVP expression. The effect of cAMP and glucocorticoid treatment on Creb3l1 was investigated in both AtT20 cells and hypothalamic organotypic cultures. The expression of Creb3l1 was increased in both mRNA and protein level by treatment with forskolin, which raises intracellular cAMP levels. Activation of cAMP by forskolin also increased Avp promoter activity in AtT20 cells and this effect was blunted by shRNA mediated silencing of Creb3l1. The forskolin induced increase in Creb3l1 expression was diminished by combined treatment with dexamethasone, and, in vivo, intraperitoneal dexamethasone injection blunted the increase in Creb3l1 and Avp expression induced by hyperosmotic stress. Here we shows that cAMP and glucocorticoid positively and negatively regulate Creb3l1 expression in the rat hypothalamus, respectively, and regulation of cAMP on AVP

  16. Potent antidiuretic agonists, deamino-vasopressin and desmopressin, and their inverso analogs: NMR structure and interactions with micellar and liposomic models of cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubecka, Emilia A; Sikorska, Emilia; Sobolewski, Dariusz; Prahl, Adam; Slaninová, Jiřina; Ciarkowski, Jerzy

    2016-05-01

    Deamination of vasopressin (AVP) enhances its antidiuretic activity. Moreover, introduction of D-Arg8 instead of its L enantiomer in deamino-vasopressin (dAVP) results in an extremely potent and selective antidiuretic agonist - desmopressin (dDAVP). In this study we describe the synthesis, pharmacological properties and structures of these two potent antidiuretic agonists, and their inverso analogs. The structures of the peptides are studied in micellar and liposomic models of cell membrane using CD spectroscopy. Additionally, three-dimensional structures in mixed anionic-zwitterionic micelles are obtained using NMR spectroscopy supported by molecular dynamics simulations. Our conformational studies have shown that desmopressin in a membrane mimicking environment adopts one of the characteristic for vasopressin-like peptides β-turn - in position 3,4. Furthermore, dDAVP shows the tendency to create a β-turn in the Cys6-Gly9 C-tail, considered to be important for the antidiuretic activity, and also some tendency to adopt a 5,6 β-turn. In desmopressin, in contrast to the native vasopressin, deamino-vasopressin and [D-Arg8]-vasopressin (DAVP), the Arg8 side chain, crucial for the pressor and antidiuretic activities, is very well exposed for interaction with the receptor, whereas Gly9, crucial for the pressor and uterotonic activities, is situated together with the C-terminal amide group very close to the tocin ring. The arrangements of the Gln4 and Asn5 side chains, being crucial for OT activity, also differ in desmopressin as compared to those of AVP, dAVP and DAVP. These differences in arrangement of the important for activities side chains are likely to explain extremely potent and selective antidiuretic activities of desmopressin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 245-259, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The role of arginine vasopressin in electroacupuncture treatment of primary sciatica in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Qi-Shun; Yang, Jun; Sun, Fang-Jie; Wang, Da-Xin; Wang, Chang-Hong; He, Wei-Ya

    2015-08-01

    It has been implicated that electroacupuncture can relieve the symptoms of sciatica with the increase of pain threshold in human, and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the brain rather than the spinal cord and blood circulation participates in antinociception. Our previous study has proven that AVP in the brain played a role in the process of electroacupuncture analgesia in rat. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of AVP in electroacupuncture in treating primary sciatica in human. The results showed that (1) AVP concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (7.5 ± 2.5 pg/ml), not plasma (13.2 ± 4.2 pg/ml) in primary sciatica patients was lower than that in health volunteers (16.1 ± 3.8 pg/ml and 12.3 ± 3.4 pg/ml), although the osmotic pressure in CSF and plasma did not change; (2) electroacupuncture of the bilateral "Zusanli" points (St. 36) for 60 min relieved the pain sensation in primary sciatica patients; (3) electroacupuncture increased the AVP level of CSF, not plasma in primary sciatica patients; and (4) there was the positive correlation between the effect of electroacupuncture relieving the pain and the AVP level of CSF in the primary sciatica patients. The data suggested that central AVP, not peripheral AVP might improve the effect of electroacupuncture treatment of primary sciatica in human, i.e., central AVP might take part in the electroacupuncture relieving the pain sensation in primary sciatica patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dose-Dependent and Lasting Influences of Intranasal Vasopressin on Face Processing in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Price

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Arginine vasopressin (AVP and related peptides have diverse effects on social behaviors in vertebrates, sometimes promoting affiliative interactions and sometimes aggressive or antisocial responses. The type of influence, in at least some species, depends on social contexts, including the sex of the individuals in the interaction and/or on the levels of peptide within brain circuits that control the behaviors. To determine if AVP promotes different responses to same- and other-sex faces in men, and if those effects are dose dependent, we measured the effects of two doses of AVP on subjective ratings of male and female faces. We also tested if any influences persist beyond the time of drug delivery. When AVP was administered intranasally on an initial test day, 20 IU was associated with decreased social assessments relative to placebo and 40 IU, and some of the effects persisted beyond the initial drug delivery and appeared to generalize to novel faces on subsequent test days. In single men, those influences were most pronounced, but not exclusive, for male faces, whereas in coupled men they were primarily associated with responses to female faces. Similar influences were not observed if AVP was delivered after placebo on a second test day. In a preliminary analysis, the differences in social assessments observed between men who received 20 and 40 IU, which we suggest primarily reflect lowered social assessments induced by the lower dose, appeared most pronounced in subjects who carry what has been identified as a risk allele for the V1a receptor gene. Together, these results suggest that AVP’s effects on face processing, and possibly other social responses, differ according to dose, depend on relationship status, and may be more prolonged than previously recognized.

  19. Vasopressin in preeclampsia: a novel very early human pregnancy biomarker and clinically relevant mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Mark K; Santillan, Donna A; Scroggins, Sabrina M; Min, James Y; Sandgren, Jeremy A; Pearson, Nicole A; Leslie, Kimberly K; Hunter, Stephen K; Zamba, Gideon K D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Grobe, Justin L

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia, a cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, is characterized as a low-renin hypertensive state relative to normotensive pregnancy. Because other nonpregnant low-renin hypertensive disorders often exhibit and are occasionally dependent on elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we hypothesized a possible use for plasma AVP measurements in the prediction of preeclampsia. Copeptin is an inert prosegment of AVP that is secreted in a 1:1 molar ratio and exhibits a substantially longer biological half-life compared with AVP, rendering it a clinically useful biomarker of AVP secretion. Copeptin was measured throughout pregnancy in maternal plasma from preeclamptic and control women. Maternal plasma copeptin was significantly higher throughout preeclamptic pregnancies versus control pregnancies. While controlling for clinically significant confounders (age, body mass index, chronic essential hypertension, twin gestation, diabetes mellitus, and history of preeclampsia) using multivariate regression, the association of higher copeptin concentration and the development of preeclampsia remained significant. Receiver operating characteristic analyses reveal that as early as the sixth week of gestation, elevated maternal plasma copeptin concentration is a highly significant predictor of preeclampsia throughout pregnancy. Finally, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy (24 ng per hour) is sufficient to phenocopy preeclampsia in C57BL/6J mice, causing pregnancy-specific hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. These data implicate AVP release as a novel predictive biomarker for preeclampsia very early in pregnancy, identify chronic AVP infusion as a novel and clinically relevant model of preeclampsia in mice, and are consistent with a potential causative role for AVP in preeclampsia in humans. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Clock-driven vasopressin neurotransmission mediates anticipatory thirst prior to sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizowski, C; Zaelzer, C; Bourque, C W

    2016-09-29

    Circadian rhythms have evolved to anticipate and adapt animals to the constraints of the earth's 24-hour light cycle. Although the molecular processes that establish periodicity in clock neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are well understood, the mechanisms by which axonal projections from the central clock drive behavioural rhythms are unknown. Here we show that the sleep period in mice (Zeitgeber time, ZT0-12) is preceded by an increase in water intake promoted entirely by the central clock, and not motivated by physiological need. Mice denied this surge experienced significant dehydration near the end of the sleep period, indicating that this water intake contributes to the maintenance of overnight hydromineral balance. Furthermore, this effect relies specifically on the activity of SCN vasopressin (VP) neurons that project to thirst neurons in the OVLT (organum vasculosum lamina terminalis), where VP is released as a neurotransmitter. SCN VP neurons become electrically active during the anticipatory period (ZT21.5-23.5), and depolarize and excite OVLT neurons through the activation of postsynaptic VP V1a receptors and downstream non-selective cation channels. Optogenetic induction of VP release before the anticipatory period (basal period; ZT19.5-21.5) excited OVLT neurons and prompted a surge in water intake. Conversely, optogenetic inhibition of VP release during the anticipatory period inhibited the firing of OVLT neurons and prevented the corresponding increase in water intake. Our findings reveal the existence of anticipatory thirst, and demonstrate this behaviour to be driven by excitatory peptidergic neurotransmission mediated by VP release from central clock neurons.

  1. Dietary exposure to the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 may compromise osmoregulation by altering central vasopressin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, C.G. [Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States); Gillard, E.; Curras-Collazo, M. [Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Despite the importance of systemic osmoregulation, the potential deleterious effects of persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on body fluid regulation has not been thoroughly investigated. In an effort to ameliorate this deficit, the current study explores the toxic effects of PCBs on osmoregulation, and in particular, on the activity of the magnocellular neuroendocrine cell (MNC) system of the hypothalamus. MNCs of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) release oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (VP) from terminals in the neurohypophysis in response to dehydration. The latter is released to effect water conservation in response to dehydration via its action upon the kidney and through extra-renal actions. MNCs also secrete VP from their cell bodies and dendrites locally i.e., into the extracellular space of the SON. Although it has been shown that both intranuclear and systemic release rise in response to dehydration the physiological significance of intranuclear release has not been fully elucidated. We chose to use voluntary ingestion as the route of PCB exposure since it is more reflective of natural exposure compared to ip injection. One unexpected observation that resulted from pilot studies using ip injection of PCBs was the deleterious effects of the vehicle (corn oil) resulting in pooling of lipid within the abdominal cavity, mottling of the liver, fatty liver and general discoloration of all abdominal viscera at time of sacrifice. Therefore, all work described in this series of experiments have employed voluntary ingestion of the toxin. Work described in this paper suggests that PCBs in concentrations reflecting realistic lifetime exposure levels may negatively impact homeostatic mechanisms responsible for body water balance by altering somatodendritic (intranuclear) VP secretion in response to dehydration in vivo. The downstream consequences of such influence is currently under investigation, and preliminary evidence suggests that the

  2. Dose-Dependent and Lasting Influences of Intranasal Vasopressin on Face Processing in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel; Burris, Debra; Cloutier, Anna; Thompson, Carol B; Rilling, James K; Thompson, Richmond R

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and related peptides have diverse effects on social behaviors in vertebrates, sometimes promoting affiliative interactions and sometimes aggressive or antisocial responses. The type of influence, in at least some species, depends on social contexts, including the sex of the individuals in the interaction and/or on the levels of peptide within brain circuits that control the behaviors. To determine if AVP promotes different responses to same- and other-sex faces in men, and if those effects are dose dependent, we measured the effects of two doses of AVP on subjective ratings of male and female faces. We also tested if any influences persist beyond the time of drug delivery. When AVP was administered intranasally on an initial test day, 20 IU was associated with decreased social assessments relative to placebo and 40 IU, and some of the effects persisted beyond the initial drug delivery and appeared to generalize to novel faces on subsequent test days. In single men, those influences were most pronounced, but not exclusive, for male faces, whereas in coupled men they were primarily associated with responses to female faces. Similar influences were not observed if AVP was delivered after placebo on a second test day. In a preliminary analysis, the differences in social assessments observed between men who received 20 and 40 IU, which we suggest primarily reflect lowered social assessments induced by the lower dose, appeared most pronounced in subjects who carry what has been identified as a risk allele for the V1a receptor gene. Together, these results suggest that AVP's effects on face processing, and possibly other social responses, differ according to dose, depend on relationship status, and may be more prolonged than previously recognized.

  3. Hypernatremia-induced vasopressin secretion is not altered in TRPV1-/- rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Andrew Blake; Stocker, Sean D

    2016-09-01

    Changes in osmolality or extracellular NaCl concentrations are detected by specialized neurons in the hypothalamus to increase vasopressin (VP) and stimulate thirst. Recent in vitro evidence suggests this process is mediated by an NH2-terminal variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel expressed by osmosensitive neurons of the lamina terminalis and vasopressinergic neurons of the supraoptic nucleus. The present study tested this hypothesis in vivo by analysis of plasma VP levels during acute hypernatremia in awake control and TRPV1(-/-) rats. TRPV1(-/-) rats were produced by a Zinc-finger-nuclease 2-bp deletion in exon 13. Intravenous injection of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin produced hypotension and bradycardia in control rats, but this response was absent in TRPV1(-/-) rats. Infusion of 2 M NaCl (1 ml/h iv) increased plasma osmolality, electrolytes, and VP levels in both control and TRPV1(-/-) rats. However, plasma VP levels did not differ between strains at any time. Furthermore, a linear regression between plasma VP versus osmolality revealed a significant correlation in both control and TRPV1(-/-) rats, but the slope of the regression lines was not attenuated in TRPV1(-/-) versus control rats. Hypotension produced by intravenous injection of minoxidil decreased blood pressure and increased plasma VP levels similarly in both groups. Finally, both treatments stimulated thirst; however, cumulative water intakes in response to hypernatremia or hypotension were not different between control and TRPV1(-/-) rats. These findings suggest that TRPV1 channels are not necessary for VP secretion and thirst stimulated by hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Arginine Vasopressin Is a Blood-Based Biomarker of Social Functioning in Children with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean S Carson

    Full Text Available Brain arginine vasopressin (AVP critically regulates normative social behavior in mammals, and experimental disruption of the AVP signaling pathway produces social impairments in rodent models. We therefore hypothesized that AVP signaling deficits may contribute to social impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Since blood measures (which are far easier to obtain than brain measures of AVP are most meaningful if they are related to brain AVP activity, Study 1 tested the relationship between AVP concentrations in concomitantly collected blood and CSF samples from children and adults (N = 28 undergoing clinical procedures. Study 2 tested whether blood AVP concentrations: 1 differed between children with ASD (N = 57, their ASD discordant siblings (N = 47, and neurotypical controls (N = 55; and 2 predicted social functioning (using the NEPSY-II Theory of Mind and Affect Recognition tasks and the Social Responsiveness Scale in this large, well-characterized child cohort. Blood AVP concentrations significantly and positively predicted CSF AVP concentrations (F1,26 = 7.17, r = 0.46, p = 0.0127 in Study 1. In Study 2, blood AVP concentrations did not differ between groups or by sex, but significantly and positively predicted Theory of Mind performance, specifically in children with ASD, but not in non-ASD children (F1,144 = 5.83, p = 0.017. Blood AVP concentrations can be used: 1 as a surrogate for brain AVP activity in humans; and 2 as a robust biomarker of theory of mind ability in children with ASD. These findings also suggest that AVP biology may be a promising therapeutic target by which to improve social cognition in individuals with ASD.

  5. Oxytocin and vasopressin are dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a genetic disorder affecting social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.

  6. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  7. Should unobstructed gasping be facilitated and confirmed before administering adrenaline, otherwise, give titrated vasopressin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Eric M

    2015-02-01

    A recent commentary, "Resuscitation That's (Un)Shockable: Time to Get the Adrenaline Flowing", published in the New England Journal of Medicine Journal Watch called attention to a relatively recent study showing that a large and increasing percentage of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrests exhibit initial nonshockable rhythms (asystole or pulseless electrical activity [PEA]; 82% in 2009 vs 69% in 2000) and a most recent study that concluded that neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrest was significantly more likely after earlier epinephrine administration. It was found that delayed administration of epinephrine was associated significantly with lower chance for survival to hospital discharge, in stepwise fashion (12%, 10%, 8%, and 7% survival, respectively, for patients receiving their first epinephrine dose≤3, 4-6, 7-9, and >9 minutes after arrest). Although early use of epinephrine to manage patients with nonshockable rhythms lacks strong evidence to support efficacy, focus on time to epinephrine administration-in addition to high-quality chest compressions-might be the best early intervention. However, evidence may strongly support the recommendation that adrenaline needs to be used very early because without effective-depth cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with complete recoil, epinephrine may only be effective when gasping is present, which is a time-limited phenomenon. However, because very few rescuers can perform effective-depth chest compressions with complete recoil, gasping is critically necessary for adequate ventilation and generation of adequate coronary and cerebral perfusion. However, under acidemic conditions and high catecholamine levels and/or absence of gasping, vasopressin should be administered instead. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Early Intranasal Vasopressin Administration Impairs Partner Preference in Adult Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton C. Simmons

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. But, very little is known about the long-term effects of IN-AVP during early development. In this experiment, we explored whether a single week of early juvenile administration of IN-AVP (low = 0.05 IU/kg, medium = 0.5 IU/kg, high = 5.0 IU/kg could impact behavior across life in prairie voles. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.

  9. Effect of arginine vasopressin on the behavioral activity in the behavior despair depression rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pan, Yan-Juan; Yin, Zhi-Kui; Hai, Guang-Fan; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Da-Xin; Wang, Huan; Wang, Gen

    2012-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a nonapeptide posterior hormone of the pituitary, is mainly synthesized and secreted in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON). Large numbers of studies have reported that AVP plays a role in depression. The present study was to investigate by which level, brain or periphery, AVP affects the behavioral activity in the behavior despair depression rat model. The results showed that (1) either forced swimming or tail suspension significantly increased AVP concentration not only in the brain (PVN, SON, frontal of cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, lumber spinal cord) but also in the periphery (posterior pituitary and serum); (2) intraventricular injection (icv) of AVP decreased the animal immobility time, whereas V₁ receptor antagonist d(CH₂)₅Tyr(Me)AVP (icv) increased the animal immobility time in a dose-dependent manner not only in FST but also in TST, but the V₂ receptor antagonist d(CH₂)₅[D-Ile, Ile, Ala-NH₉]AVP did not change the animal immobility time in FST or TST; (3) V₁, not V₂ receptor antagonist could inhibit the animal immobility time decrease induced by AVP (icv); (4) neither AVP nor its receptor antagonist (including V₁ and V₂ receptor antagonist) influenced the animal immobility time in both FST and TST. The data suggested that AVP in the brain rather than the periphery played a role in the behavior despair depression by V₁, not V₂ receptors, which behavior despair might have a positive feedback effect on central AVP and blood AVP might have a negative feedback on central AVP in the depressive process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vasopressin-stimulated Ca2+ spiking in vascular smooth muscle cells involves phospholipase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Shiels, A J; Maszak, G; Byron, K L

    2001-06-01

    Physiological concentrations of [Arg(8)]vasopressin (AVP; 10-500 pM) stimulate oscillations of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ spikes) in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We previously reported that this effect of AVP was blocked by a putative phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). In the present study, the products of PLA2, arachidonic acid (AA), and lysophospholipids were found to be ineffective in stimulating Ca2+ spiking, and inhibitors of AA metabolism did not prevent AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the release of AA and phosphatidic acid (PA), which are the products of PLA2 and phospholipase D (PLD), respectively. AVP (100 pM) stimulated both AA and PA formation, but only PA formation was inhibited by ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). Exogenous PLD (type VII; 2.5 U/ml) stimulated Ca2+ spiking equivalent to the effect of 100 pM AVP. AVP stimulated transphosphatidylation of 1-butanol (a PLD-catalyzed reaction) but not 2-butanol, and 1-butanol (but not 2-butanol) completely prevented AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition, which completely prevents AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking, did not inhibit AVP-stimulated phosphatidylbutanol formation. These results suggest that AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking depends on activation of PLD rather than PLA2 and that PKC activation may be downstream of PLD in the signaling cascade.

  11. Intergenerational transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin and vasopressin receptor distribution in the prairie vole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Perkeybile

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the early environment has the potential to permanently alter offspring behavior and development. We have previously shown that naturally occurring variation in biparental care of offspring in the prairie vole is related to differences in social behavior of the offspring. It was not, however, clear whether the behavioral differences seen between offspring receiving high compared to low amounts of parental care were the result of different care experiences or were due to shared genetics with their high-contact or low-contact parents. Here we use cross-fostering methods to determine the mode of transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin receptor (OTR and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR binding from parent to offspring. Offspring were cross-fostered or in-fostered on postnatal day 1 and parental care received was quantified in the first week postpartum. At weaning, offspring underwent an alloparental care test and brains were then collected from all parents and offspring to examine OTR and V1aR binding. Results indicate that alloparental behavior of offspring was predicted by the parental behavior of their rearing parents. Receptor binding for both OTR and V1aR tended to be predicted by the genetic mothers for female offspring and by the genetic fathers for male offspring. These findings suggest a different role of early experience and genetics in shaping behavior compared to receptor distribution and support the notion of sex-dependent outcomes, particularly in the transmission of receptor binding patterns.

  12. The effects of lactation on impulsive behavior in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliczki, Mano; Fodor, Anna; Balogh, Zoltan; Haller, Jozsef; Zelena, Dora

    2014-08-01

    Vasopressin (AVP)-deficient Brattleboro rats develop a specific behavioral profile, which-among other things-include altered cognitive performance. This profile is markedly affected by alterations in neuroendocrine state of the animal such as during lactation. Given the links between AVP and cognition we hypothesized that AVP deficiency may lead to changes in impulsivity that is under cognitive control and the changes might be altered by lactation. Comparing virgin and lactating AVP-deficient female Brattleboro rats to their respective controls, we assessed the putative lactation-dependent effects of AVP deficiency on impulsivity in the delay discounting paradigm. Furthermore, to investigate the basis of such effects, we assessed possible interactions of AVP deficiency with GABAergic and serotonergic signaling and stress axis activity, systems playing important roles in impulse control. Our results showed that impulsivity was unaltered by AVP deficiency in virgin rats. In contrast a lactation-induced increase in impulsivity was abolished by AVP deficiency in lactating females. We also found that chlordiazepoxide-induced facilitation of GABAergic and imipramine-induced enhancement of serotonergic activity in virgins led to increased and decreased impulsivity, respectively. In contrast, during lactation these effects were visible only in AVP-deficient rats. These rats also exhibited increased stress axis activity compared to virgin animals, an effect that was abolished by AVP deficiency. Taken together, AVP appears to play a role in the regulation of impulsivity exclusively during lactation: it has an impulsivity increasing effect which is potentially mediated via stress axis-dependent mechanisms and fine-tuning of GABAergic and serotonergic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle tumour vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-06-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA's biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.

  14. Impaired free water excretion in child C cirrhosis and ascites: relations to distal tubular function and the vasopressin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, A.; Møller, S.; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: Water retention in advanced cirrhosis and ascites may involve disturbances in renal distal tubular function and in the vasopressin system. Methods: Twelve patients with Child B cirrhosis and ascites were compared with 11 patients with Child C cirrhosis and ascites. The subjects...... were studied during a 400 ml/h oral water load. Results: Child C patients had a lower baseline glomerular filtration rate (32 vs 63 ml/min, Purinary flow rate (V(u)) (0.86 vs 1.95 ml/min, P

  15. Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a mutation in the arginine-vasopressin II gene in four generations of a Korean family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myo-Jing; Kim, Young-Eun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Yoo, Jae-Ho

    2014-12-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a rare form of central diabetes insipidus that is caused by mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. It is characterized by persistent polydipsia and polyuria induced by deficient or absent secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Here we report a case of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in four generations of a Korean family, caused by heterozygous missense mutation in exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene (c.286G>T). This is the first report of such a case in Korea.

  16. Histone gene complement, variant expression, and mRNA processing in a urochordate Oikopleura dioica that undergoes extensive polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioda, Mariacristina; Eskeland, Ragnhild; Thompson, Eric M

    2002-12-01

    Considerable data exist on coding sequences of histones in a wide variety of organisms. Much more restricted information is available on total histone gene complement, gene organization, transcriptional regulation, and histone mRNA processing. In particular, there is a significant phylogenetic gap in information for the urochordates, a subphylum near the invertebrate-vertebrate transition. In this study, we show that the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica has a histone gene complement that is similar to that of humans, though its genome size is 40- to 50-fold smaller. At a total length of 3.5 kb, the H3, H4, H1, H2A, and H2B quintet cluster is the most compact described thus far, but despite very rapid early developmental cleavage cycles, no extensive tandem repeats of the cluster were present. The high degree of variation within each of the complements of O. dioica H2A and H2B subtypes resembled that found in plants as opposed to more closely related vertebrate and invertebrate species, and developmental stage-specific expression of different subtypes was observed. The linker histone H1 was present in relatively few copies per haploid genome and contained short N- and C-terminal tails, a feature similar to that of copepods but different from many standard model organisms. The 3'UTRs of the histone genes contained both the consensus stem-loop sequence and the polyadenylation signals but lacked the consensus histone downstream element that is involved in the processing of histone mRNAs in echinoderms and vertebrates. Two types of transcripts were found, i.e., those containing both the stem-loop and a polyA tail as well as those cleaved at the normal site just 3' of the stem-loop. The O. dioica data are an important addition to the limited number of eukaryotes for which sufficiently extensive information on histone gene complements is available. Increasingly, it appears that understanding the evolution of histone gene organization, transcriptional regulation, and mRNA

  17. Assignments of /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonances of the cystyl, asparaginyl, and aromatic residues of arginine vasopressin in D/sub 2/O. A comparison with lysine vasopressin and oxytocin in terms of solution conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyssbrod, H.R.; Fischman, A.J.; Live, D.H.; Hruby, V.J.; Agarwal, N.S.; Upson, D.A.

    1979-07-18

    The resonances of the C/sup ..cap alpha../ and C/sup ..beta../ protons of the cystyl, asparaginyl, and aromatic residues of (8-arginine)vasopressin (AVP) in D/sub 2/O at pD 3.8 and 20/sup 0/C were assigned in a rigorous manner by the use of isotopic isomers of AVP that contain specific replacements of protons by deuterons and by comparison of /sup 1/H NMR characteristics of AVP to those of (8-lysine)vasopressin (LVP) and oxytocin (OT). Although there is extensive overlap of resonances of C/sup ..beta../ protons even at 360 MHz, all of the chemical shifts of these protons and most of the couplings between them and their vicinal C/sup ..cap alpha../ protons could be determined, at least to a first approximation. It was concluded that the cyclic moieties (residues 1-6) of AVP, LVP, and OT possess essentially the same overall backbone conformation, and that the side-chain conformation - or rotamer populations - about the C/sup ..cap alpha../-C/sup ..beta../ bonds of the cystyl residue (positions 1 and 6), the tyrosyl residue (position 2), and the asparaginyl residue (position 5) are similar. This study indicates that selective replacements of C/sup ..beta../ protons by deuterons are necessary to improve the accuracy of coupling constants extracted from 360-MHz spectra of a AVP for use in conformational analysis.

  18. The Oncogenic Fusion Proteins SET-Nup214 and Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1)-Nup214 Form Dynamic Nuclear Bodies and Differentially Affect Nuclear Protein and Poly(A)+ RNA Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Sarah A; Mendes, Adélia; Valkova, Christina; Spillner, Christiane; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Kaether, Christoph; Kehlenbach, Ralph H

    2016-10-28

    Genetic rearrangements are a hallmark of several forms of leukemia and can lead to oncogenic fusion proteins. One example of an affected chromosomal region is the gene coding for Nup214, a nucleoporin that localizes to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We investigated two such fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and SQSTM1 (sequestosome)-Nup214, both containing C-terminal portions of Nup214. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies containing the nuclear export receptor CRM1 were observed in the leukemia cell lines LOUCY and MEGAL. Overexpression of SET-Nup214 in HeLa cells leads to the formation of similar nuclear bodies that recruit CRM1, export cargo proteins, and certain nucleoporins and concomitantly affect nuclear protein and poly(A) + RNA export. SQSTM1-Nup214, although mostly cytoplasmic, also forms nuclear bodies and inhibits nuclear protein but not poly(A) + RNA export. The interaction of the fusion proteins with CRM1 is RanGTP-dependent, as shown in co-immunoprecipitation experiments and binding assays. Further analysis revealed that the Nup214 parts mediate the inhibition of nuclear export, whereas the SET or SQSTM1 part determines the localization of the fusion protein and therefore the extent of the effect. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies are highly mobile structures, which are in equilibrium with the nucleoplasm in interphase and disassemble during mitosis or upon treatment of cells with the CRM1-inhibitor leptomycin B. Strikingly, we found that nucleoporins can be released from nuclear bodies and reintegrated into existing NPC. Our results point to nuclear bodies as a means of preventing the formation of potentially insoluble and harmful protein aggregates that also may serve as storage compartments for nuclear transport factors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Paradoxical effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on basal prolactin secretion and the estrogen-induced prolactin surge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Leemin (National Yang-Ming Medical College, Taipei (Taiwan)); Pan, Jenntser (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The roles of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on both basal and estrogen-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion were examined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that were ovariectomized for 3 weeks and received estrogen treatment for 1 week were used. Intravenous administration of hormones and serial blood sampling were accomplished through indwelling intraatrial catheters which were implanted two days before. Plasma PRL levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Oxytocin at a dose of 20 {mu}g/rat stimulated a moderate PRL release in the morning and lower doses were without effect. Vasopressin was most effective at a dose of 5 {mu}g/rat in stimulating PRL release, while consecutive injections of higher doses were less effective. In contrast, TRH, ranging from 1 to 8 {mu}g/rat, induced a dose-dependent increases in PRL secretion. Using the effective dosages determined from the morning studies, repeated injections of either OT, AVP or their specific antagonists MPOMeOVT were given hourly between 1300 to 1800h and blood samples were obtained hourly from 1100 to 1900h. It was found that either OT or AVP significantly reduced the afternoon PRL surge, while their antagonists were not as effective.

  20. Novel mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor gene in two pedigrees with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Oiso, Yutaka; Kurokawa, Masaei; Saito, Hidehiko [Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Watanabe, Tohru; Oda, Yoshihiko; Ishizuka, Toshie; Tani, Nagayuki; Ito, Seiki; Shibata, Akira [Niigata City General Hospital (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Novel mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor gene were identified in two Japanese pedigrees with X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The V2 receptor belongs to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors that contain seven distinct transmembrane domains, and the V2 receptor gene is encoded by three exons. The coding regions amplified by polymerase chain reaction were directly sequenced. In a pedigree, one of four consecutive guanine sequences (nucleotides 528-531) in the second exon was deleted (528delG). This deletion mutation results in a frame shift beginning at codon 154 in the second intracellular domain and a premature termination at codon 161. In another pedigree, a missense mutation (A{yields}G) was identified at nucleotide position 310 in the second exon. This point mutation, H80R, changes a histidine at codon 80 in the second transmembrane domain to an arginine that is more positively charged than histidine under the neutral environment. Each mutation cosegregated with the phenotype of diabetes insipidus and supposed to be a cause for resistance to arginine vasopressin. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Simvastatin enhances aquaporin-2 surface expression and urinary concentration in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats through modulation of Rho GTPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Bouley, Richard; Chen, Ying; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Nunes, Paula; Hasler, Udo; Brown, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Statins are 3-hydroxyl-3-methyglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors that are commonly used to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. Emerging data have suggested that they also have “pleotropic effects,” including modulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Here, we report an effect of simvastatin on the trafficking of aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Specifically, simvastatin induced the membrane accumulation of AQP2 in cell cultures and kidneys in situ. The effect of simvastatin was independent of protein kinase A activation and phosphorylation at AQP2-Ser256, a critical event involved in vasopressin (VP)-regulated AQP2 trafficking. Further investigation showed that simvastatin inhibited endocytosis in parallel with downregulation of RhoA activity. Overexpression of active RhoA attenuated simvastatin's effect, suggesting the involvement of this small GTPase in simvastatin-mediated AQP2 trafficking. Finally, the effect of simvastatin on urinary concentration was investigated in VP-deficient Brattleboro rats. Simvastatin acutely (3–6 h) increased urinary concentration and decreased urine output in these animals. In summary, simvastatin regulates AQP2 trafficking in vitro and urinary concentration in vivo via events involving downregulation of Rho GTPase activity and inhibition of endocytosis. Our study provides an alternative mechanism to regulate AQP2 trafficking, bypassing the VP-vasopressin receptor signaling pathway. PMID:21511701

  2. Activation of endogenous arginine vasopressin neurons inhibit food intake: by using a novel transgenic rat line with DREADDs system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Haruki; Sonoda, Satomi; Ueno, Hiromichi; Motojima, Yasuhito; Saito, Reiko; Maruyama, Takashi; Nonaka, Yuki; Ueta, Yoichi

    2017-11-16

    Various studies contributed to discover novel mechanisms of central arginine vasopressin (AVP) system responsible for the behaviour albeit endogenous vasopressin activation. We established a novel transgenic rat line which expresses both human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (hM3Dq), of which ligand is clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), and mCherry fluorescence specifically in AVP neurons. The mCherry neurons that indicate the expression of the hM3Dq gene were observed in the suprachiasmatic (SCN), supraoptic (SON), and paraventricular nuclei (PVN). hM3Dq-mCherry fluorescence was localized mainly in the membrane of the neurons. The mCherry neurons were co-localized with AVP-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons, but not with oxytocin-LI neurons. The induction of Fos, which is the indicator for neuronal activity, was observed in approximately 90% of the AVP-LI neurons in the SON and PVN 90 min after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CNO. Plasma AVP was significantly increased and food intake, water intake, and urine volume were significantly attenuated after i.p. administration of CNO. Although the detailed mechanism has unveiled, we demonstrated, for the first time, that activation of endogenous AVP neurons decreased food intake. This novel transgenic rat line may provide a revolutionary insight into the neuronal mechanism regarding central AVP system responsible for various kind of behaviours.

  3. Conventional and unconventional mechanisms for capping viral mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, Etienne; Ferron, François; Lescar, Julien; Canard, Bruno

    2011-12-05

    In the eukaryotic cell, capping of mRNA 5' ends is an essential structural modification that allows efficient mRNA translation, directs pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export from the nucleus, limits mRNA degradation by cellular 5'-3' exonucleases and allows recognition of foreign RNAs (including viral transcripts) as 'non-self'. However, viruses have evolved mechanisms to protect their RNA 5' ends with either a covalently attached peptide or a cap moiety (7-methyl-Gppp, in which p is a phosphate group) that is indistinguishable from cellular mRNA cap structures. Viral RNA caps can be stolen from cellular mRNAs or synthesized using either a host- or virus-encoded capping apparatus, and these capping assemblies exhibit a wide diversity in organization, structure and mechanism. Here, we review the strategies used by viruses of eukaryotic cells to produce functional mRNA 5'-caps and escape innate immunity.

  4. Effects of Affiliative Human–Animal Interaction on Dog Salivary and Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. MacLean

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are neuropeptides with diverse effects on social behavior, cognition and stress responses. Recent studies suggest that OT facilitates and responds to affiliative forms of human–animal interaction (HAI. However, previous studies measuring OT and AVP in dogs have been limited to measures from blood or urine, which present concerns related to the invasiveness of sample collection, the potential for matrix interference in immunoassays, and whether samples can be collected at precise time points to assess event-linked endocrine responses. Previous studies from our laboratory validated salivary measures of OT and AVP in dogs, however, it is currently unknown whether these measures respond dynamically to aspects of HAI. Here, we investigated the effects of affiliative forms of HAI on both plasma and salivary OT and AVP in dogs. We employed a within- and between-subjects design with a group of Labrador retrievers and Labrador retriever × golden retriever crosses (23 females, 15 males. Half of the dogs engaged in 10 min of free-form friendly interaction with a human experimenter (HAI condition, and the other half rested quietly in the same environment, without human interaction (control condition. We collected blood and saliva samples before, and immediately following both experimental conditions, and all samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs following previously validated protocols. Dogs participating in HAI exhibited a significant increase in both salivary OT (+39% and plasma OT (+5.7% whereas dogs in the control group did not. Salivary AVP showed no change in the HAI group but increased significantly (+33% in the control group. Plasma AVP decreased significantly following HAI (-13% but did not change across time in the control condition. Within the dogs exposed to HAI, increases in salivary OT, and decreases in plasma AVP, were predicted by the extent of affiliative behavior between

  5. Surge of Peripheral Arginine Vasopressin in a Rat Model of Birth Asphyxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summanen, Milla; Bäck, Susanne; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian birth is accompanied by a period of obligatory asphyxia, which consists of hypoxia (drop in blood O2 levels) and hypercapnia (elevation of blood CO2 levels). Prolonged, complicated birth can extend the asphyxic period, leading to a pathophysiological situation, and in humans, to the diagnosis of clinical birth asphyxia, the main cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The neuroendocrine component of birth asphyxia, in particular the increase in circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), has been extensively studied in humans. Here we show for the first time that normal rat birth is also accompanied by an AVP surge, and that the fetal AVP surge is further enhanced in a model of birth asphyxia, based on exposing 6-day old rat pups to a gas mixture containing 4% O2 and 20% CO2 for 45 min. Instead of AVP, which is highly unstable with a short plasma half-life, we measured the levels of copeptin, the C-terminal part of prepro-AVP that is biochemically much more stable. In our animal model, the bulk of AVP/copeptin release occurred at the beginning of asphyxia (mean 7.8 nM after 15 min of asphyxia), but some release was still ongoing even 90 min after the end of the 45 min experimental asphyxia (mean 1.2 nM). Notably, the highest copeptin levels were measured after hypoxia alone (mean 14.1 nM at 45 min), whereas copeptin levels were low during hypercapnia alone (mean 2.7 nM at 45 min), indicating that the hypoxia component of asphyxia is responsible for the increase in AVP/copeptin release. Alternating the O2 level between 5 and 9% (CO2 at 20%) with 5 min intervals to mimic intermittent asphyxia during prolonged labor resulted in a slower but quantitatively similar rise in copeptin (peak of 8.3 nM at 30 min). Finally, we demonstrate that our rat model satisfies the standard acid-base criteria for birth asphyxia diagnosis, namely a drop in blood pH below 7.0 and the formation of a negative base excess exceeding −11.2 mmol/l. The mechanistic

  6. Surge of Peripheral Arginine Vasopressin in a Rat Model of Birth Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Summanen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian birth is accompanied by a period of obligatory asphyxia, which consists of hypoxia (drop in blood O2 levels and hypercapnia (elevation of blood CO2 levels. Prolonged, complicated birth can extend the asphyxic period, leading to a pathophysiological situation, and in humans, to the diagnosis of clinical birth asphyxia, the main cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. The neuroendocrine component of birth asphyxia, in particular the increase in circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP, has been extensively studied in humans. Here we show for the first time that normal rat birth is also accompanied by an AVP surge, and that the fetal AVP surge is further enhanced in a model of birth asphyxia, based on exposing 6-day old rat pups to a gas mixture containing 4% O2 and 20% CO2 for 45 min. Instead of AVP, which is highly unstable with a short plasma half-life, we measured the levels of copeptin, the C-terminal part of prepro-AVP that is biochemically much more stable. In our animal model, the bulk of AVP/copeptin release occurred at the beginning of asphyxia (mean 7.8 nM after 15 min of asphyxia, but some release was still ongoing even 90 min after the end of the 45 min experimental asphyxia (mean 1.2 nM. Notably, the highest copeptin levels were measured after hypoxia alone (mean 14.1 nM at 45 min, whereas copeptin levels were low during hypercapnia alone (mean 2.7 nM at 45 min, indicating that the hypoxia component of asphyxia is responsible for the increase in AVP/copeptin release. Alternating the O2 level between 5 and 9% (CO2 at 20% with 5 min intervals to mimic intermittent asphyxia during prolonged labor resulted in a slower but quantitatively similar rise in copeptin (peak of 8.3 nM at 30 min. Finally, we demonstrate that our rat model satisfies the standard acid-base criteria for birth asphyxia diagnosis, namely a drop in blood pH below 7.0 and the formation of a negative base excess exceeding −11.2 mmol/l. The

  7. Oxytocin and vasopressin in rat hypophysial portal blood: experimental studies in normal and Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, A M; Robinson, I C; Fink, G

    1985-02-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured by radioimmunoassay in hypophysial portal and peripheral blood from male Wistar rats and heterozygous and homozygous Brattleboro rats anaesthetized with urethane. In Wistar rats the concentrations of OT and VP were about 50 times greater than the concentrations in peripheral blood, whether or not the pituitary gland was left in situ during collection, and also considerably greater than the reported concentrations of the peptides in the cerebrospinal fluid. The release of both peptides was increased significantly by a lesion of the supraoptico-hypophysial tract that led to diabetes insipidus, but which left intact the external layer of the median eminence (ME). Concentrations of VP were undetectable in plasma from homozygous Brattleboro rats, but the portal plasma concentrations of VP in heterozygous Brattleboro rats were not significantly lower than in Wistar rats. The concentrations of OT in portal plasma from both types of Brattleboro rat were significantly higher than in Wistar rats. The output of VP and OT into hypophysial portal blood of Wistar rats was not significantly affected by electrical stimulation of the suprachiasmatic, supraoptic or paraventricular nuclei or the ME using two types of stimuli, one of which produced an increase in peripheral plasma concentrations of VP and OT in intact rats and a significant increase in the release of LH-releasing hormone into hypophysial portal blood. The output of VP and OT into portal blood was also not significantly affected by either adrenalectomy with or without injection of dexamethasone or the injection of either the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis blocker, parachlorophenylalanine, or the 5-HT uptake blockers, alaproclate or zimelidine. These results show that large amounts of OT as well as VP are released into hypophysial portal blood from fibres of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system that terminate in the external layer of the ME. Although distinct

  8. Effects of Affiliative Human–Animal Interaction on Dog Salivary and Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Gee, Nancy R.; Levy, Kerinne; Martin, W. Lance; Carter, C. Sue

    2017-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are neuropeptides with diverse effects on social behavior, cognition and stress responses. Recent studies suggest that OT facilitates and responds to affiliative forms of human–animal interaction (HAI). However, previous studies measuring OT and AVP in dogs have been limited to measures from blood or urine, which present concerns related to the invasiveness of sample collection, the potential for matrix interference in immunoassays, and whether samples can be collected at precise time points to assess event-linked endocrine responses. Previous studies from our laboratory validated salivary measures of OT and AVP in dogs, however, it is currently unknown whether these measures respond dynamically to aspects of HAI. Here, we investigated the effects of affiliative forms of HAI on both plasma and salivary OT and AVP in dogs. We employed a within- and between-subjects design with a group of Labrador retrievers and Labrador retriever × golden retriever crosses (23 females, 15 males). Half of the dogs engaged in 10 min of free-form friendly interaction with a human experimenter (HAI condition), and the other half rested quietly in the same environment, without human interaction (control condition). We collected blood and saliva samples before, and immediately following both experimental conditions, and all samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) following previously validated protocols. Dogs participating in HAI exhibited a significant increase in both salivary OT (+39%) and plasma OT (+5.7%) whereas dogs in the control group did not. Salivary AVP showed no change in the HAI group but increased significantly (+33%) in the control group. Plasma AVP decreased significantly following HAI (-13%) but did not change across time in the control condition. Within the dogs exposed to HAI, increases in salivary OT, and decreases in plasma AVP, were predicted by the extent of affiliative behavior between the dog

  9. Lack of arginine vasopressin-induced phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 mutant AQP2-R254L explains dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattia, F.P. de; Savelkoul, P.J.M.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Konings, I.B.M.; Sluijs, P. van der; Mallmann, R.; Oksche, A.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    Water homeostasis in humans is regulated by vasopressin, which induces the translocation of homotetrameric aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels from intracellular vesicles to the apical membrane of renal principal cells. For this process, phosphorylation of AQP2 at S256 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase

  10. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-31)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Ineke J.; Boertien, Wendy E.; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Kleefstra, Nanno; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Groenier, Klaas H.; van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Struck, Joachim; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, has been associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by end-stage renal disease or acute myocardial infarction. For stable outpatients, these associations are unknown. Our aim

  11. Autoradiographic localization of peripheral benzodiazepine, dihydroalprenolol and arginine vasopressin binding sites in the pituitaries of control, stalk transected and Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, S J; Hanley, M R; Wilkin, G P

    1986-01-01

    The autoradiographic distribution of [3H]arginine vasopressin, [3H]spiperone, [3H]GABA, [3H]dihydroalprenolol and the peripheral-type benzodiazepine ligand [3H]Ro5-4864 were examined in the rat pituitary before and after pituitary stalk transection. Stalk transection produced dramatic changes in the cellular architecture of the pars nervosa. Glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker reported in pituicytes, increased after stalk transection, whereas neurofilament, a marker for neuronal innervation, was lost. These structural changes demonstrated a successful stalk transection, permitting interpretation of changes in the densities of several [3H]-ligands over the three lobes. [3H]Ro5-4864 binding was markedly increased, suggesting that this site was located on the pituicytes. Conversely [3H]spiperone and [3H]arginine vasopressin binding density over the pars nervosa decreased. In the mutant diabetes insipidus rat (Brattleboro), which lacks pituitary vasopressin, [3H]arginine vasopressin binding was undetectable in the pars nervosa. [3H]dihydroalprenolol and [3H]GABA binding sites were unchanged by the lesion. These results are discussed in terms of the occurrence of functional acceptors on pituicytes and their possible role in neurohydrophyseal secretions.

  12. Potential of nonpeptide (ant)agonists to rescue vasopressin V2 receptor mutants for the treatment of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, E.L.; Deen, P.M.T.; Robben, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    According to the body's need, water is reabsorbed from the pro-urine that is formed by ultrafiltration in the kidney. This process is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin (AVP), which binds to its type 2 receptor (V2R) in the kidney. Mutations in the gene encoding the V2R often

  13. Efficacy of vasopressin-epinephrine compared to epinephrine alone for out of hospital cardiac arrest patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Lianxing; Qi, Zhijiang; Shao, Huan; An, Le; Li, Chunsheng

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of vasopressin-epinephrine compared to epinephrine alone in patients who suffered out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Relevant studies up to February 2017 were identified by searching in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Wanfang for randomized controlled trials(RCTs) assigning adults with cardiac arrest to treatment with vasopressin-epinephrine (VEgroup) vs adrenaline (epinephrine) alone (E group). The outcome point was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for patients suffering from OHCA. Heterogeneity, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were explored. Individual patient data were obtained from 5047 participants who experienced OHCA in nine studies. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a random-effects model and results suggested that vasopressin-epinephrine was associated with higher rate of ROSC (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.13-2.49, Padrenaline can improve ROSC of OHCA from Asia, but patients from other regions who suffered from OHCA cannot benefit from combination of vasopressin and epinephrine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical and molecular evidence of abnormal processing and trafficking of the vasopressin preprohormone in a large kindred with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus due to a signal peptide mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggaard, C; Rittig, S; Corydon, T J

    1999-01-01

    The autosomal dominant form of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI) is a rare disease characterized by postnatal onset of polyuria and a deficient neurosecretion of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Since 1991, adFNDI has been linked to 31 different mutations ...

  15. Clinical and molecular analysis of a Chinese family with autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus associated with a novel missense mutation in the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongfeng; Wang, Binbin; Qiu, Yu; Zhang, Chuan; Jin, Chengluo; Zhao, Yakun; Zhu, Qingguo; Ma, Xu

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the genetic defects in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. Complete physical examination, fluid deprivation, and DDAVP tests were performed in three affected and three healthy members of the family. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes of venous blood of these individuals for polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all three coding exons of arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. Seven members of this family were suspected to have symptomatic vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus. The water deprivation test in all the patients confirmed the diagnosis of vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus, with the pedigree demonstrating an autosomal dominant inheritance. Direct sequence analysis revealed a novel mutation (c.193T>A) and a synonymous mutation (c.192C>A) in the AVP-NPII gene. The missense mutation resulted in the substitution of cysteine by serine at a highly conserved codon 65 of exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene in all affected individuals, but not in unaffected members. We concluded that a novel missense mutation in the AVP-NPII gene caused neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in this family, due to impaired neurophysin function as a carrier protein for AVP. The Cys65 is essential for NPII in the formation of a salt bridge with AVP. Presence of this mutation suggests that the portion of the neurophysin peptide encoded by this sequence is important for the normal expression of vasopressin.

  16. mRNA vaccines - a new era in vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, Norbert; Hogan, Michael J; Porter, Frederick W; Weissman, Drew

    2018-01-12

    mRNA vaccines represent a promising alternative to conventional vaccine approaches because of their high potency, capacity for rapid development and potential for low-cost manufacture and safe administration. However, their application has until recently been restricted by the instability and inefficient in vivo delivery of mRNA. Recent technological advances have now largely overcome these issues, and multiple mRNA vaccine platforms against infectious diseases and several types of cancer have demonstrated encouraging results in both animal models and humans. This Review provides a detailed overview of mRNA vaccines and considers future directions and challenges in advancing this promising vaccine platform to widespread therapeutic use.

  17. Lack of responsiveness to 1-desamino-D arginin vasopressin (desmopressin) in male patients with nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergheynst, Frederic; Pradier, Olivier; Beukinga, Ingrid; Kornreich, Anne; Vassart, Gilbert; Decaux, Guy

    2012-03-01

    Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a recently described entity, linked to gain-of-function mutations (R137C and R137L) in arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene leading to chronic activation of tubular V2 AVP receptor (V2R) and thus free water reabsorption. In addition to collecting duct cells, the V2R is also expressed in endothelial cells, where it mediates the rise in circulating levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and coagulation factor VIII (fVIII). Recent in vitro data showed that these mutant receptors are resistant to vasopressin-stimulated cAMP production. We aimed to explore by clinical observations the sensitivity to vasopressin of the R137C-V2R mutant in vivo. We performed a stimulation test with 1-desamino-D arginin vasopressin (dDAVP) 0·3 μg/kg of bodyweight in three patients (two hemizygous male and one heterozygous female) with NSIAD with R137C mutation and measured on the one hand the levels of vWF and fVIII and the other hand urine osmolality and albumin excretion (UAE). Whereas the female heterozygous patient displayed normal response to simulation by dDAVP (except for UAE), no increase in vWF, fVIII, urinary osmolality and UAE was observed among hemizygous male patients. Coherent with in vitro observation in transfected cells, our clinical observations demonstrate that the R137C-V2R mutant is resistant to vasopressin stimulation in its physiological sites of expression. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  18. A Two-Year Randomized Trial of Interventions to Decrease Stress Hormone Vasopressin Production in Patients with Meniere's Disease-A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Kitahara

    Full Text Available Meniere's disease, a common inner ear condition, has an incidence of 15-50 per 100,000. Because mental/physical stress and subsequent increase in the stress hormone vasopressin supposedly trigger Meniere's disease, we set a pilot study to seek new therapeutic interventions, namely management of vasopressin secretion, to treat this disease. We enrolled 297 definite Meniere's patients from 2010 to 2012 in a randomized-controlled and open-label trial, assigning Group-I (control traditional oral medication, Group-II abundant water intake, Group-III tympanic ventilation tubes and Group-IV sleeping in darkness. Two hundred sixty-three patients completed the planned 2-year-follow-up, which included assessment of vertigo, hearing, plasma vasopressin concentrations and changes in stress/psychological factors. At 2 years, vertigo was completely controlled in 54.3% of patients in Group-I, 81.4% in Group-II, 84.1% in Group-III, and 80.0% in Group-IV (statistically I < II = III = IV. Hearing was improved in 7.1% of patients in Group-I, 35.7% in Group-II, 34.9% in Group-III, and 31.7% in Group-IV (statistically I < II = III = IV. Plasma vasopressin concentrations decreased more in Groups-II, -III, and -IV than in Groups-I (statistically I < II = III = IV, although patients' stress/psychological factors had not changed. Physicians have focused on stress management for Meniere's disease. However, avoidance of stress is unrealistic for patients who live in demanding social environments. Our findings in this pilot study suggest that interventions to decrease vasopressin secretion by abundant water intake, tympanic ventilation tubes and sleeping in darkness is feasible in treating Meniere's disease, even though these therapies did not alter reported mental/physical stress levels.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01099046.

  19. ASD and genetic associations with receptors for oxytocin and vasopressin – AVPR1A, AVPR1B, and OXTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday M Francis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are limited treatments available for autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Studies have reported significant associations between the receptor genes of oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP and ASD diagnosis, as well as, ASD-related phenotypes. Researchers have also found the manipulation of these systems affect social and repetitive behaviors, core characteristics of ASD. Consequently, research involving the oxytocin/vasopressin pathways as intervention targets has increased. Therefore, further examination into the relationship between these neuropeptides and ASD was undertaken. In this study, we examined associations between variants in the receptor genes of vasopressin (AVPR1A, AVPR1B, oxytocin (OXTR and ASD diagnosis along with related subphenotypes.Methods: Probands were assessed using Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and clinical DSM-IV-TR criteria. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in AVPR1B and OXTR, and microsatellites in AVPR1A were genotyped in ~200 families with a proband with ASD. Family-based association testing (FBAT was utilized to determine associations between variants and ASD. Haplotypes composed of OXTR SNPs (i.e. rs53576-rs2254298-rs2268493 were also analyzed due to previously published associations.Results: Using the additive inheritance model in FBAT we found associations between AVPR1B SNPs (rs28632197, p=0.005, rs35369693, p=0.025 and diagnosis. As in other studies, OXTR rs2268493 (p=0.050 was associated with diagnosis. rs2268493 was also associated with ASD subphenotypes of social withdrawal (p=0.013 and insistence on sameness (p=0.039. Further analyses demonstrated that the haplotype, rs2254298-rs2268493 was found to be significantly associated with diagnosis (A-T; p=0.026. FBAT was also used to analyze AVPR1A microsatellites (RS1 and RS3. Both length variants were found to be associated with restrictive, repetitive behaviors, but not overall diagnosis. Correction

  20. ASD and Genetic Associations with Receptors for Oxytocin and Vasopressin-AVPR1A, AVPR1B, and OXTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sunday M; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Guter, Stephen; Cook, Edwin H; Jacob, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are limited treatments available for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have reported significant associations between the receptor genes of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) and ASD diagnosis, as well as ASD-related phenotypes. Researchers have also found the manipulation of these systems affects social and repetitive behaviors, core characteristics of ASD. Consequently, research involving the oxytocin/vasopressin pathways as intervention targets has increased. Therefore, further examination into the relationship between these neuropeptides and ASD was undertaken. In this study, we examined associations between variants in the receptor genes of vasopressin (AVPR1A, AVPR1B), oxytocin (OXTR), and ASD diagnosis along with related subphenotypes. Methods: Probands were assessed using Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and clinical DSM-IV-TR criteria. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AVPR1B and OXTR, and microsatellites in AVPR1A were genotyped in ~200 families with a proband with ASD. Family-based association testing (FBAT) was utilized to determine associations between variants and ASD. Haplotypes composed of OXTR SNPs (i.e., rs53576-rs2254298-rs2268493) were also analyzed due to previously published associations. Results: Using the additive inheritance model in FBAT we found associations between AVPR1B SNPs (rs28632197, p = 0.005, rs35369693, p = 0.025) and diagnosis. As in other studies, OXTR rs2268493 (p = 0.050) was associated with diagnosis. rs2268493 was also associated with ASD subphenotypes of social withdrawal (p = 0.013) and Insistence on Sameness (p = 0.039). Further analyses demonstrated that the haplotype, rs2254298-rs2268493 was found to be significantly associated with diagnosis (A-T; p = 0.026). FBAT was also used to analyze AVPR1A microsatellites (RS1 and RS3). Both length variants were found to be associated with restrictive, repetitive behaviors, but not overall diagnosis

  1. Integrin beta 4 MRNA expression levels in bronchial asthma patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum total IgE was measured by ELISA and mRNA expression of ITGβ4 was assessed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) using real time PCR.. ITGβ4 mRNA expression was significantly down regulated with increased serum total IgE in patients with asthma compared to controls. Moreover, ITGβ4 expression was ...

  2. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. MacNicol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease.

  3. Phytochrome B mRNA expression enhances biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study shows successful transformation and mRNA expression in Phytochrome B transformed CIM 482 cotton plants. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Phytochrome B mRNA have showed more than two times increase in relative leaf growth rate (RLGR) and photosynthetic rate, more than one time increase in ...

  4. mRNA pseudoknot structures can act as ribosomal roadblocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Tholstrup; Oddershede, Lene Broeng; Sørensen, Michael Askvad

    2012-01-01

    Several viruses utilize programmed ribosomal frameshifting mediated by mRNA pseudoknots in combination with a slippery sequence to produce a well defined stochiometric ratio of the upstream encoded to the downstream-encoded protein. A correlation between the mechanical strength of mRNA pseudoknots...

  5. A database of mRNA expression patterns for the sea urchin embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, ZHENG; Angerer, Robert C.; Angerer, Lynne M.

    2006-01-01

    We present an initial characterization of a database that contains temporal expression profiles of sequences found in 35,282 gene predictions within the sea urchin genome. The relative RNA abundance for each sequence was determined at 5 key stages of development using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays that were hybridized with populations of polyA+ RNA sequence. These stages were two-cell, which represents maternal RNA, early blastula, the time at which major tissue territories are spe...

  6. Variation in mothers' arginine vasopressin receptor 1a and dopamine receptor D4 genes predicts maternal sensitivity via social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, E M; Su, J; Calkins, S; Henrich, V C; Smolen, A

    2017-02-01

    We examined the extent to which the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were related to sensitive maternal behavior directly or indirectly via maternal social cognition. Participants were 207 (105 European-American and 102 African-American) mothers and their children (52% females). Sensitive maternal behavior was rated and aggregated across a series of tasks when infants were 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old. At 6 months, mothers were interviewed about their empathy, attributions about infant behavior and beliefs about crying to assess their parenting-related social cognition. Mothers with long alleles for AVPR1a and DRD4 engaged in more mother-oriented social cognition (i.e. negative attributions and beliefs about their infants' crying, β = 0.13, P social cognition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Influence of renal impairment on aldosterone status, calcium metabolism, and vasopressin activity in outpatients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosselmann, Helle; Tonder, Niels; Sölétormos, György

    2017-01-01

    in the study. Median age was 69 [interquartile range (IQR): 64-73] and 26% were female; LVEF was 33% (IQR: 27-39), 78% were in functional class II-III, median eGFR was 74 (54-89) mL/min/1.73 m2 , and median N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide was 1303 pg/mL (IQR: 441-2740). RD was associated...... with increased aldosterone, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and copeptin concentrations (P ... underscore the importance of treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in systolic HF in particular in patients with RD and suggest that vasopressin and parathyroid receptor antagonism are potential treatment options in HF patients with known RD....

  8. [Ultrastructural changes in the cells of the vasopressin-sensitive epithelia during the stimulation of water transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigirevskaia, E S

    1990-01-01

    The author's own and literary data are reviewed on the ultrastructural changes in cells of tight epithelia at the stimulation of osmotic water flows by vasopressin. The results of the relevant morphofunctional studies proved the idea of the transcellular water transport, being the following: 1) the absence of structural changes of tight junction under big water flows; 2) the appearance of domains with high water permeability (aggregates of IMP) in the apical membranes of cells transporting water; 3) changes in the vacuolar system of cells resulting in the appearance of gigantic vacuoles involved in transcellular water transport and in osmoregulation; 4) the redistribution of microfilaments and the enlargement of microtubules during the water transport. Hypotheses are discussed accounting for the origin of water channels from intracellular sources (aggrephores or/and granules); in addition, structural peculiarities and genesis of gigantic vacuoles are considered.

  9. Bradykinin and vasopressin activate phospholipase D in rat Leydig cells by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we report that bradykinin stimulated phospholipase D activity in rat Leydig cells. Bradykinin added for 8 min stimulated choline formation in a dose-dependent manner and, in the presence of ethanol, bradykinin (100 nmol/l) stimulated transphosphatidylation by phospholipase D...... resulting in the formation of phosphatidylethanol. This stimulation was abolished after down-regulation of protein kinase C by long-term pretreatment for 22 h with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The stimulation of phospholipase D by the simultaneous addition for 8 min of maximum concentrations...... of PMA and vasopressin (AVP), PMA and bradykinin, or AVP and bradykinin produced no additive phosphatidylethanol or choline response, suggesting that AVP, bradykinin and PMA stimulated phospholipase D catalysed phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by a similar protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Furthermore...

  10. Vasopressin content in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles in rats after the afferent vagus nerve fibres stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    Experiments were carried out on male rats in urethane anaesthesia. Cerebroventricular system was perfused with McIlwain-Rodniht`s solution from lateral ventricles to cerebellomedullary cistern. Both vagus nerves were cut and the central ends of the nerves were electrically stimulated during the collection of the third 30-min portion of perfusing fluid. Vasopressin (AVP) was determined by radioimmunoassay in samples of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (the first portion) and in five successive samples of the perfusing fluid. AVP concentration in the CSF was several times greater than in the fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles. Alternate electrical stimulation of both vagus nerves did not change considerably the release of AVP into the fluid perfusing the cerebral ventricles in rat, although a certain upward tendency could be observed. It seems that only AVP raised in circulating blood and not in CSF, after vagus nerves stimulation may act on the central nervous structures. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Antidepressant and anxiolytic profiles of newly synthesized arginine vasopressin V1B receptor antagonists: TASP0233278 and TASP0390325.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, M; Yoshimizu, T; Shimazaki, T; Tokugawa, K; Fukumoto, K; Kurosu, S; Kuwada, T; Sekiguchi, Y; Chaki, S

    2014-07-01

    Vasopressin V1B receptor antagonists may be effective for the treatment of depression and anxiety and the objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacological profiles of two newly synthesized arginine vasopressin receptor 1B (V1B receptor) antagonists, TASP0233278 and TASP0390325. We investigated the in vitro profiles of TASP0233278 and TASP0390325. In addition, the effect of TASP0390325 on the increase in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels induced by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)/desmopressin (dDAVP) was investigated. We also investigated the antidepressant and anxiolytic profiles of TASP0233278 and TASP0390325 in animal models. Both TASP0233278 and TASP0390325 showed a high affinity and potent antagonist activity for V1B receptors. Oral administration of TASP0390325 antagonized the increase in plasma ACTH levels induced by CRF/dDAVP in rats, indicating that TASP0390325 blocks the anterior pituitary V1B receptor in vivo. Oral administration of TASP0233278 or TASP0390325 also exerted antidepressant effects in two models of depression (a forced swimming test and an olfactory bulbectomy model). Moreover, TASP0233278 improved depressive-like behaviour induced by repeated treatment with corticosterone, a model that has been shown to be resistant to treatment with currently prescribed antidepressants. In addition to depression models, TASP0233278 or TASP0390325 exerted anxiolytic effects in several anxiety models (social interaction, elevated plus-maze, stress-induced hyperthermia, separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization and sodium lactate-induced panic-like responses in panic-prone rats). TASP0233278 and TASP0390325 are potent and orally active V1B receptor antagonists with antidepressant and anxiolytic activities in rodents. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. The relationship between the action of arginine vasopressin and responsiveness to oral desmopressin in older men: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Theodore M; Burridge, Andrea; Issa, Muta M; Miller, Myron; Tang, Terence; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2007-04-01

    To identify whether oral desmopressin (ddAVP) reduced nocturnal urine volume (NUV) in older men with nocturia without obvious bladder outlet obstruction and to determine whether deficiencies in arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and action demonstrated using water deprivation testing predicted responsiveness to ddAVP. Participants had a 2-day Clinical Research Center (CRC) evaluation followed by a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of individually titrated oral ddAVP. Participants were from a single Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Maximum urine osmolality and percentage increase in osmolality were measured after subjects received aqueous vasopressin as part of the overnight water deprivation study; these data were used to categorize participants as normal, having partial central AVP deficiency, or having impaired renal responsiveness to AVP. Response to ddAVP was assessed using data from frequency-volume records. Fourteen participants completed the CRC stay and ddAVP trial. Subjects given ddAVP reduced NUV significantly from baseline (P=.02) and had significantly lower NUV than when on placebo (P=.01). The mean net reduction in NUV from ddAVP compared to placebo was 14+/-18%. Using water deprivation testing to categorize participants, 10 were normal, two had partial central AVP deficiency, and two had impaired renal responsiveness. The mean net reduction in NUV for those with abnormal water deprivation tests was 11+/-25%, versus 15+/-16% for those with normal water deprivation testing (P=.70). In this small randomized, controlled trial in older men with nocturia, ddAVP reduced NUV. Counter to expectations, participants deemed normal according to water deprivation tests had approximately equivalent responsiveness to ddAVP. Although this study cannot offer definitive conclusions on the lack of prediction of water deprivation testing for ddAVP benefit, these data offer additional information that may help clarify the pathophysiology and

  13. Co-Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and GTP Cyclohydrolase I in Arginine Vasopressin-Synthesizing Neurons of the Human Supraoptic Nucleus Demonstrated by Laser Microdissection and Real-Time PCR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontostavlaki, D.P.; Sluijs, J.A.; Unmehopa, U.A.; Huitinga, I.; Hol, E.M.; Swaab, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis, has been identified immunohistochemically (IHC) in human neurosecretory neurons where it is found to colocalize with vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin. TH expression shows striking interindividual variability and

  14. Role of mRNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    regulation of mRNA. Recent technological advances have made it possible to detect mRNA methylation . The m6A was found near regulatory regions and...TERMS mRNA methylation , FTO, MeRIP-seq, RNA-seq, m6A 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...10 9. Appendices……………………………………………………………10 1. INTRODUCTION: Methylation at the N6 position of adenosine ( m6A ) is a post-transcriptional modification of

  15. DNA methylation in a sea lamprey vasotocin receptor gene promoter correlates with tissue- and life-stage-specific mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayasich, Sally A; Bemis, Lynne T; Clarke, Benjamin L

    2016-12-01

    The jawless vertebrate sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) genome has a different structure from both invertebrates and jawed vertebrates featuring high guanine-cytosine (GC) content. This raises the question of whether DNA methylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides could function to regulate lamprey gene transcription. We previously characterized a lamprey arginine vasotocin (AVT) receptor gene (Pm807) possessing characteristics of both arginine vasopressin (AVP) V1A and oxytocin (OXT) receptor genes of jawed vertebrates. Lamprey Pm807 mRNA is highly expressed in adult heart and larval liver but not expressed in adult liver. Using high-resolution melt (HRM) PCR on bisulfite-converted DNA, we pinpointed a region with tissue-specific differences in DNA melt characteristics, indicating differences in methylation level. Sequencing revealed a pattern of methylation at specific CpGs at consistently higher levels in adult heart and larval liver than adult liver. These CpGs are associated with putative transcription factor binding sequences organized similarly to functional OXTR promoters in mammals, suggesting functional similarity in lamprey gene transcription regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The pituitary hormones arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II and oxytocin-neurophysin I show close linkage with interleukin-1 on mouse chromosome 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, J.C.; Nelson, K.K.; Siracusa, L.D. (Jefferson Cancer Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Battey, J. (National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are posterior pituitary hormones. AVP is involved in fluid homeostasis, while OXT is involved in lactation and parturition. AVP is derived from a larger precursor, prepro-arginine-vasopressin-neurophysin II (prepro-AVP-NP II; AVP), and is physically linked to prepro-oxytocin-neurophysin I (prepro-OXT-NPI1; OXT). The genes for AVP and OXT are separated by only 12 kb of DNA in humans, whereas in the mouse 3.5 kb of intergenic sequence lies between Avp and Oxt. Interspecific backcross analysis has now been used to map the Avp/Oxt complex to chromosome 2 in the mouse. This map position confirms and extends the known region of linkage conservation between mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 20. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Role of vasopressin in the treatment of anaphylactic shock in a child undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chiara Luca

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The incidence of anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia is between 1:5000 and 1:25000 and it is one of the few causes of mortality directly related to general anesthesia. The most important requirements in the treatment of this clinical condition are early diagnosis and maintenance of vital organ perfusion. Epinephrine administration is generally considered as the first line treatment of anaphylactic reactions. However, recently, new pharmacological approaches have been described in the treatment of different forms of vasoplegic shock. Case presentation We describe the case of a child who was undergoing surgery for ventricular septal defect, with an anaphylactic reaction to heparin that was refractory to epinephrine infusion and was effectively treated by low dose vasopressin infusion. Conclusion In case of anaphylactic shock, continuous infusion of low-dose vasopressin might be considered after inadequate response to epinephrine, fluid resuscitation and corticosteroid administration.

  18. Selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1A agonist, is an effective substitute for norepinephrine in a phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, James A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue......, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1.25 ng/kg/minute (n = 10), 2.5 ng...... for selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute and placebo. Two patients were infused at 3.75 ng/kg/minute, one of whom had the study drug infusion discontinued for possible safety reasons, with subsequent discontinuation of this dose group. CONCLUSIONS: In septic shock patients, selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute was able...

  19. Urine Aquaporin-2: A Promising Marker of Response to the Arginine Vasopressin Type-2 Antagonist, Tolvaptan in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhiko Imamura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporin-2, a member of the aquaporin family, is an arginine vasopressin-regulated water channel expressed in the renal collecting duct, and a promising marker of the concentrating and diluting ability of the kidney. The arginine vasopressin type-2 antagonist, tolvaptan, is a new-generation diuretic; it is especially indicated in patients with decompensated heart failure refractory to conventional diuretics. However, the ideal responders to tolvaptan have not yet been identified, and non-responders experience worse clinical courses despite treatment with tolvaptan. Urine aquaporin-2 has recently been demonstrated as a promising predictor of response to tolvaptan. We here validated aquaporin-2-guided tolvaptan therapy in patients with decompensated heart failure. Long-term efficacy of tolvaptan treatment in the responders defined by aquaporin-2 needs to be validated in the future prospective study.

  20. Binding of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin to neurophysin studied by /sup 15/N NMR using magnetization transfer and indirect detection via protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Live, D.H.; Cowburn, D.

    1987-10-06

    NMR was used to monitor the binding to neurophysin of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin, /sup 15/N labeling being used to identify specific backbone /sup 15/N and /sup 1/H signals. The most significant effects of binding were large downfield shifts in the amino nitrogen resonance of Phe-3 of vasopressin and in its associated proton, providing evidence that the peptide bond between residues 2 and 3 of the hormones is hydrogen-bonded to the protein within hormone-neurophysin complexes. Suggestive evidence for hydrogen bonding of the amino nitrogen of Tyr-2 was also obtained in the form of decreased proton exchange rates on binding; however, the chemical shift changes of this nitrogen and its associated proton indicated that such hydrogen bonding, if present, is probably weak. Shifts in the amino nitrogen of Asn-5 and in the -NH protons of both Asn-5 and Cys-6 demonstrated that these residues are significantly perturbed by binding, suggesting conformational changes of the ring on binding and/or the presence of binding sites on the hormone outside the 1-3 region. No support was obtained for the thesis that there is a significant second binding site for vasopressin on each neutrophysin chain. The behavior of both oxytocin and vasopressin on binding was consistent with formation of 1:1 complexes in slow exchange with the free state under most pH conditions. At low pH there was evidence of an increased exchange rate. Additionally, broadening of /sup 15/N resonances in the bound state at low pH occurred without a corresponding change in the resonances of equilibrating free hormone. The results suggest significant conformational alteration in neurophysin-hormone complexes at low pH possibly associated with protonation of the carboxyl group of the hormone-protein salt bridge.

  1. Effects of the vasopressin agonist terlipressin on plasma cAMP and ENaC excretion in the urine in patients with cirrhosis and water retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard; Møller, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue used for its potent V1a effects in cirrhotic patients. Recent data suggest that terlipressin has affinity to renal V2 receptors and modulates Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression and free water clearance. Stimulation of renal V2 receptors may also affect sodium tra...... transport via the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC). Furthermore, endothelial V2 receptors may indirectly affect proximal sodium handling by increasing plasma cAMP....

  2. Demonstration that a mRNA Binding Protein is Responsible for GADD45 mRNA Destabilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abcouwer, Steve

    2003-01-01

    ...) Using regions of the GADD45 mRNA 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in KNA gel shift assays, we have observed that glutamine causes distinct changes in RBP activities in cytoplasmic and nuclear protein extracts...

  3. Enhanced upregulation of CRH mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens of male rats after a second injection of methamphetamine given thirty days later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lud Cadet

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a widely abused amphetamine analog. Few studies have investigated the molecular effects of METH exposure in adult animals. Herein, we determined the consequences of an injection of METH (10 mg/kg on transcriptional effects of a second METH (2.5 mg/kg injection given one month later. We thus measured gene expression by microarray analyses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc of 4 groups of rats euthanized 2 hours after the second injection: saline-pretreated followed by saline-challenged (SS or METH-challenged (SM; and METH-pretreated followed by saline-challenged (MS or METH-challenged (MM. Microarray analyses revealed that METH (2.5 mg/kg produced acute changes (1.8-fold; P<0.01 in the expression of 412 (352 upregulated, 60 down-regulated transcripts including cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh, oxytocin (Oxt, and vasopressin (Avp that were upregulated. Injection of METH (10 mg/kg altered the expression of 503 (338 upregulated, 165 down-regulated transcripts measured one month later (MS group. These genes also included Cart and Crh. The MM group showed altered expression of 766 (565 upregulated, 201 down-regulated transcripts including Avp, Cart, and Crh. The METH-induced increased Crh expression was enhanced in the MM group in comparison to SM and MS groups. Quantitative PCR confirmed the METH-induced changes in mRNA levels. Therefore, a single injection of METH produced long-lasting changes in gene expression in the rodent NAc. The long-term increases in Crh, Cart, and Avp mRNA expression suggest that METH exposure produced prolonged activation of the endogenous stress system. The METH-induced changes in oxytocin expression also suggest the possibility that this neuropeptide might play a significant role in the neuroplastic and affiliative effects of this drug.

  4. Dose-dependent effects of morphine exposure on mRNA and microRNA (miR expression in hippocampus of stressed neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available Morphine is used to sedate critically ill infants to treat painful or stressful conditions associated with intensive care. Whether neonatal morphine exposure affects microRNA (miR expression and thereby alters mRNA regulation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that repeated morphine treatment in stress-exposed neonatal mice alters hippocampal mRNA and miR expression. C57BL/6 male mice were treated from postnatal day (P 5 to P9 with morphine sulfate at 2 or 5 mg/kg ip twice daily and then exposed to stress consisting of hypoxia (100% N2 1 min and 100% O2 5 min followed by 2h maternal separation. Control mice were untreated and dam-reared. mRNA and miR expression profiling was performed on hippocampal tissues at P9. Overall, 2 and 5 mg/kg morphine treatment altered expression of a total of 150 transcripts (>1.5 fold change, P<0.05 from which 100 unique mRNAs were recognized (21 genes were up- and 79 genes were down-regulated, and 5 mg/kg morphine affected 63 mRNAs exclusively. The most upregulated mRNAs were fidgetin, arginine vasopressin, and resistin-like alpha, and the most down-regulated were defensin beta 11, aquaporin 1, calmodulin-like 4, chloride intracellular channel 6, and claudin 2. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that morphine treatment affected pathways related to cell cycle, membrane function, signaling, metabolism, cell death, transcriptional regulation, and immune response. Morphine decreased expression of miR-204-5p, miR-455-3p, miR-448-5p, and miR-574-3p. Nine morphine-responsive mRNAs that are involved in neurodevelopment, neurotransmission, and inflammation are predicted targets of the aforementioned differentially expressed miRs. These data establish that morphine produces dose-dependent changes in both hippocampal mRNA and miR expression in stressed neonatal mice. If permanent, morphine-mediated neuroepigenetic effects may affect long-term hippocampal function, and this provides a mechanism for the neonatal morphine

  5. Nebulisation of IVT mRNA Complexes for Intrapulmonary Administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Johler

    Full Text Available During the last years the potential role of in vitro transcribed (IVT mRNA as a vehicle to deliver genetic information has come into focus. IVT mRNA could be used for anti-cancer therapies, vaccination purposes, generation of pluripotent stem cells and also for genome engineering or protein replacement. However, the administration of IVT mRNA into the target organ is still challenging. The lung with its large surface area is not only of interest for delivery of genetic information for treatment of e.g. for cystic fibrosis or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, but also for vaccination purposes. Administration of IVT mRNA to the lung can be performed by direct intratracheal instillation or by aerosol inhalation/nebulisation. The latter approach shows a non-invasive tool, although it is not known, if IVT mRNA is resistant during the process of nebulisation. Therefore, we investigated the transfection efficiency of non-nebulised and nebulised IVT mRNA polyplexes and lipoplexes in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE. A slight reduction in transfection efficiency was observed for lipoplexes (Lipofectamine 2000 in the nebulised part compared to the non-nebulised which can be overcome by increasing the amount of Lipofectamine. However, Lipofectamine was more than three times more efficient in transfecting 16HBE than DMRIE and linear PEI performed almost 10 times better than its branched derivative. By contrast, the nebulisation process did not affect the cationic polymer complexes. Furthermore, aerosolisation of IVT mRNA complexes did neither affect the protein duration nor the toxicity of the cationic complexes. Taken together, these data show that aerosolisation of cationic IVT mRNA complexes constitute a potentially powerful means to transfect cells in the lung with the purpose of protein replacement for genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency or for infectious disease vaccines, while bringing along the advantages

  6. Protein targeting to subcellular organelles via MRNA localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Benjamin L; Schleiff, Enrico; Zerges, William

    2013-02-01

    Cells have complex membranous organelles for the compartmentalization and the regulation of most intracellular processes. Organelle biogenesis and maintenance requires newly synthesized proteins, each of which needs to go from the ribosome translating its mRNA to the correct membrane for insertion or transclocation to an a organellar subcompartment. Decades of research have revealed how proteins are targeted to the correct organelle and translocated across one or more organelle membranes ro the compartment where they function. The paradigm examples involve interactions between a peptide sequence in the protein, localization factors, and various membrane embedded translocation machineries. Membrane translocation is either cotranslational or posttranslational depending on the protein and target organelle. Meanwhile research in embryos, neurons and yeast revealed an alternative targeting mechanism in which the mRNA is localized and only then translated to synthesize the protein in the correct location. In these cases, the targeting information is coded by the cis-acting sequences in the mRNA ("Zipcodes") that interact with localization factors and, in many cases, are transported by the molecular motors on the cytoskeletal filaments. Recently, evidence has been found for this "mRNA based" mechanism in organelle protein targeting to endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and the photosynthetic membranes within chloroplasts. Here we review known and potential roles of mRNA localization in protein targeting to and within organelles. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids.

  7. Local Overexpression of V1a-Vasopressin Receptor Enhances Regeneration in Tumor Necrosis Factor-Induced Muscle Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs during disuse and aging, or as a consequence of chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes. It is characterized by progressive loss of muscle tissue due to hypotrophic changes, degeneration, and an inability of the regeneration machinery to replace damaged myofibers. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is a proinflammatory cytokine known to mediate muscle atrophy in many chronic diseases and to inhibit skeletal muscle regeneration. In this study, we investigated the role of Arg-vasopressin-(AVP-dependent pathways in muscles in which atrophy was induced by local overexpression of TNF. AVP is a potent myogenesis-promoting factor and is able to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration by stimulating Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase and calcineurin signaling. We performed morphological and molecular analyses and demonstrated that local over-expression of the AVP receptor V1a enhances regeneration of atrophic muscle. By upregulating the regeneration/differentiation markers, modulating the inflammatory response, and attenuating fibrogenesis, the stimulation of AVP-dependent pathways creates a favourable environment for efficient and sustained muscle regeneration and repair even in the presence of elevated levels of TNF. This study highlights a novel in vivo role for AVP-dependent pathways, which may represent an interesting strategy to counteract muscle decline in aging or in muscular pathologies.

  8. Distribution of oxytocin and vasopressin neurons in the diencephalon of the Japanese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, K; Ebara, S; Matsuura, T; Kawata, M

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons in the diencephalon of the hibernating Japanese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, was immunohistochemically investigated by the avidin-biotin complex method. Magnocellular OXT and VP neurons were localized mainly in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus. In addition to these main nuclei, both kinds of magnocellular neurons were also found in the periventricular nucleus, perifornical area and lateral hypothalamic area. Extensively distributed parvocellular neurons containing only VP were observed in the rostral and middle portions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The size of OXT and VP magnocellular neurons was almost equal in the paraventricular and ventromedial supraoptic nuclei, whereas VP neurons were significantly larger than OXT neurons in the dorsolateral supraoptic nucleus. The OXT and VP cells in the ventral supraoptic nucleus showed a distinctive elliptical shape. Both OXT and VP fibers were distributed in the lateral habenular nucleus, stria medullaris thalami, lateral preoptic area, stria terminalis, and medial and supracapsular part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Moreover, OXT fibers were found in the substantia nigra, and VP fibers were noted in the nucleus reunions and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus.

  9. Immunoreactivity to vasopressin- but not oxytocin-associated neurophysin antiserum in phasic neurons of rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, P; Smithson, K G; Hatton, G I

    1986-01-01

    Bursts of action potentials were recorded intracellularly from 11 phasically firing magnocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus in slices of rat hypothalamus. The bursts of overshooting, often broadening action potentials (63-87 mV peak-to-peak) were superimposed on depolarizing plateau potentials. Phasic activity was recorded before and/or after the neurons were injected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow CH. Injected neurons were first examined in whole slices, and subsequently, in sectioned material, characterized immunocytochemically using antisera to vasopressin- and oxytocin-associated neurophysins (VP-NP and OT-NP respectively). The 11 injections produced 8 single dye filled neurons and 3 pairs of dye-coupled neurons, 14 dye-filled cells in all. Six of the single cells and all the dye coupled pairs were immunoreactive with VP-NP antiserum and not reactive with OT-NP antiserum. Most of these neurons were in areas of the nucleus in which VP-NP reactive cells predominated, but two were surrounded by OT-NP reactive cells. Two single, dye-filled, phasically active, magnocellular neurons failed to show immunoreactivity to either antiserum.

  10. Impact of Childhood Adversity and Vasopressin receptor 1a Variation on Social Interaction in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Jia; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in social behavior, through receptor AVPR1A. The promoter polymorphism AVPR1A RS3 has been associated with human social behaviors, and with acute response to stress. Here, the relationships between AVPR1A RS3, early-life stressors, and social interaction in adulthood were explored. Adult individuals from a Swedish population-based cohort (n = 1871) were assessed for self-reported availability of social integration and social attachment and for experience of childhood adversities. Their DNA samples were genotyped for the microsatellite AVPR1A RS3. Among males, particularly those homozygous for the long alleles of AVPR1A RS3 were vulnerable to childhood adversity for their social attachment in adulthood. A similar vulnerability to childhood adversity among long allele carriers was found on adulthood social integration, but here both males and females were influenced. Data were self-reported and childhood adversity data were retrospective. Early-life stress influenced the relationship between AVPR1A genetic variants and social interaction. For social attachment, AVPR1A was of importance in males only. The findings add to previous reports on higher acute vulnerability to stress in persons with long AVPR1A RS3 alleles and increased AVP levels.

  11. Social housing conditions and oxytocin and vasopressin receptors contribute to ethanol conditioned social preference in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ruth I; Knoll, Allison T; Levitt, Pat

    2015-11-01

    Social behavior modulates response to alcohol. Because oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) contribute to rewarding social behavior, the present study utilized a genetic strategy to determine whether OXT and AVP receptors (OXTR, AVPR1a) are essential for female mice to demonstrate a conditioned social preference for ethanol. The study compared wild-type (WT) and knock-out (KO) females lacking either Oxtr or Avpr1a in a conditioned social preference (CSP) test. KO females and WT females from Het-Het crosses were pair-housed: KO and WT(ko). WT females from Het-WT crosses were pair-housed: WT(wt). Test mice received 2g/kg ethanol or saline ip, and were paired four times each with one stimulus female (CS-) after saline, and with another female (CS+) following ethanol. After pairing, the time spent with CS+ and CS- females was measured. WT(wt) females showed conditioned preference for the CS+ female paired with ethanol, demonstrated by greater interaction time (psocial stimulus. The lack of CSP in WT(ko) females suggests that the quality of social interactions during postnatal and postweaning life may modulate development and expression of normal social responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrophysiological identification of the functional presynaptic nerve terminals on an isolated single vasopressin neurone of the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, T; Yokoyama, T; Fujihara, H; Suzuki, H; Ueta, Y

    2010-05-01

    Release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin from magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) is under the control of glutamate-dependent excitation and GABA-dependent inhibition. The possible role of the synaptic terminals attached to SON neurones has been investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in in vitro rat brain slice preparations. Recent evidence has provided new insights into the repercussions of glial environment modifications on the physiology of MNCs at the synaptic level in the SON. In the present study, excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic synaptic inputs were recorded from an isolated single SON neurone cultured for 12 h, using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Neurones expressed an AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion gene in MNCs. In addition, native synaptic terminals attached to a dissociated AVP-eGFP neurone were visualised with synaptic vesicle markers. These results suggest that the function of presynaptic nerve terminals may be evaluated directly in a single AVP-eGFP neurone. These preparations would be helpful in future studies aiming to electrophysiologically distinguish between the functions of synaptic terminals and glial modifications in the SON neurones.

  13. Mothers of autistic children: lower plasma levels of oxytocin and Arg-vasopressin and a higher level of testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder,thought to be caused by a combination of genetic heritability and environmental risk factors. Some autistic-like traits have been reported in mothers of autistic children. We hypothesized that dysregulation of oxytocin (OXT, Arg-vasopressin (AVP and sex hormones, found in autistic children, may also exist in their mothers. METHODS: We determined plasma levels of OXT (40 in autism vs. 26 in control group, AVP (40 vs. 17 and sex hormones (61 vs. 47 in mothers of autistic and normal children by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively and investigated their relationships with the children's autistic behavior scores (Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC. RESULTS: Significantly lower plasma concentrations of OXT (p<0.001 and AVP (p<0.001, as well as a higher level of plasma testosterone (p<0.05, were found in mothers of autistic children vs. those of control. The children's autistic behavior scores were negatively associated with maternal plasma levels of OXT and AVP. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dysregulation of OXT, AVP and/or testosterone systems exist in mothers of autistic children, which may impact children's susceptibility to autism.

  14. Personality in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Exploring the Hierarchical Structure and Associations with the Vasopressin V1A Receptor Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D.; Hopkins, William D.; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major contributions of recent personality psychology is the finding that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy. To date, however, researchers have yet to investigate this hierarchy in nonhuman primates. Such investigations are critical in confirming the cross-species nature of trait personality helping to illuminate personality as neurobiologically-based and evolutionarily-derived dimensions of primate disposition. Investigations of potential genetic polymorphisms associated with hierarchical models of personality among nonhuman primates represent a critical first step. The current study examined the hierarchical structure of chimpanzee personality as well as sex-specific associations with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A), a gene associated with dispositional traits, among 174 chimpanzees. Results confirmed a hierarchical structure of personality across species and, despite differences in early rearing experiences, suggest a sexually dimorphic role of AVPR1A polymorphisms on hierarchical personality profiles at a higher-order level. PMID:24752497

  15. Nutritional State-Dependent Ghrelin Activation of Vasopressin Neurons via Retrograde Trans-Neuronal–Glial Stimulation of Excitatory GABA Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Juhee; Halmos, Katalin C.; Di, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological coupling between energy balance and fluid homeostasis is critical for survival. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin has been shown to stimulate the secretion of the osmoregulatory hormone vasopressin (VP), linking nutritional status to the control of blood osmolality, although the mechanism of this systemic crosstalk is unknown. Here, we show using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in rat brain slices that ghrelin stimulates VP neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in a nutritional state-dependent manner by activating an excitatory GABAergic synaptic input via a retrograde neuronal–glial circuit. In slices from fasted rats, ghrelin activation of a postsynaptic ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), in VP neurons caused the dendritic release of VP, which stimulated astrocytes to release the gliotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP activation of P2X receptors excited presynaptic GABA neurons to increase GABA release, which was excitatory to the VP neurons. This trans-neuronal–glial retrograde circuit activated by ghrelin provides an alternative means of stimulation of VP release and represents a novel mechanism of neuronal control by local neuronal–glial circuits. It also provides a potential cellular mechanism for the physiological integration of energy and fluid homeostasis. PMID:24790191

  16. Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists for the Correction of Hyponatremia in Chronic Heart Failure: An Underutilized Therapeutic Option in Current Clinical Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato De Vecchis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the congestive heart failure (CHF setting, chronic hyponatremia is very common. The present review aims at addressing topics relevant to the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in the course of CHF as well as its optimal treatment, including the main advantages and the limitations resulting from the use of the available dietary and pharmacological measures approved for the treatment of this electrolytic trouble. A narrative review is carried out in order to represent the main modalities of therapy for chronic hyponatremia that frequently complicates CHF. The limits of usual therapies implemented for CHF-related chronic hyponatremia are outlined, while an original analysis of the main advancements achieved with the use of vasopressin receptor antagonists (VRAs is also executed. The European regulatory restrictions that currently limit the use of VRAs in the management of CHF are substantially caused by financial concerns, i.e., the high costs of VRA therapy. A thoughtful reworking of current restrictions would be warranted in order to enable VRAs to be usefully associated to loop diuretics for decongestive treatment of CHF patients with hyponatremia.

  17. Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus due to a novel mutation in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fost, M; van Trotsenburg, A S P; van Santen, H M; Endert, E; van den Elzen, C; Kamsteeg, E J; Swaab, D F; Fliers, E

    2011-07-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal (central) diabetes insipidus (DI) is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. The majority of cases is inherited in an autosomal dominant way. In this study, we present the clinical features of a mother and her son with autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal DI caused by a novel mutation. A thirty-four-year-old woman and her three-year-old son were evaluated because of polyuria and polydipsia since the age of 1.5 years onwards. Both patients were subjected to a water deprivation test confirming the diagnosis of central DI. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of the mother showed a hypothalamus without apparent abnormalities and a relatively small neurohypophysis without a hyperintense signal. Mutation analysis showed a c.322G>T (p.?/p.Glu108X) in Exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene in both mother and son. This study reports neurohypophyseal DI in a mother and her son due to a novel mutation in Exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene. Clinical and pathophysiological aspects of this disease are shortly reviewed and discussed.

  18. Collagen mRNA levels changes during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Hanne; Anthonsen, Dorit; Lothe, Inger M B

    2009-01-01

    . In addition, corresponding tissue was examined from healthy volunteers (n = 20). mRNA levels were normalized to beta-actin. Immunohistochemical analysis of the distributions of type IV and type VII collagens were performed on normal and affected tissues from colorectal cancer patients. RESULTS: The alpha1(IV......). The level of alpha 6(IV) was 5-fold lower in colorectal cancer tissue as compared to healthy individuals (p alpha 6(IV) mRNA coincides...... zone of stratified epithelia. Immunohistochemical studies have previously reported changes in steady-state levels of different alpha(IV) chains in several epithelial cancer types. In the present study we aimed to quantitatively determine the mRNA levels of type IV collagen (alpha1/alpha 4/alpha 6...

  19. Recognition of nonsense mRNA: towards a unified model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlemann, Oliver

    2008-06-01

    Among the different cellular surveillance mechanisms that ensure accurate gene expression, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay rapidly degrades mRNAs harbouring PTCs (premature translation-termination codons) and thereby prevents the accumulation of potentially deleterious proteins with C-terminal truncations. In the present article, I review recent data from yeast, fluitflies, nematode worms and human cells and endeavour to merge these results into a unified model for recognition of nonsense mRNA. According to this model, the distinction between translation termination at PTCs and at 'normal' termination codons relies on the physical distance between the terminating ribosome and PABP [poly(A)-binding protein]. Correct translation termination is promoted by a PABP-mediated signal to the terminating ribosome, whereas the absence of this signal leads to the assembly of an mRNA decay-promoting protein complex including the conserved NMD factors UPF (up-frameshift) 1-3.

  20. Post-transcriptional gene regulation by mRNA modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Roundtree, Ian A.; He, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of reversible mRNA methylation has opened a new realm of post-transcriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes. The identification and functional characterization of proteins that specifically recognize RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) unveiled it as a modification that cells utilize to accelerate mRNA metabolism and translation. N6-adenosine methylation directs mRNAs to distinct fates by grouping them for differential processing, translation and decay in processes such as cell differentiation, embryonic development and stress responses. Other mRNA modifications, including N1-methyladenosine (m1A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and pseudouridine, together with m6A form the epitranscriptome and collectively code a new layer of information that controls protein synthesis. PMID:27808276

  1. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis: interferon-beta treatment increases IL-10 mRNA expression while reducing IL-23 mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M.; Sorensen, P.; Khademi, M.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  2. Complexity on Acute Myeloid Leukemia mRNA Transcript Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cattani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sequence analysis of acute myeloid leukemia mRNA. Six transcript variants of mlf1 mRNA, with more than 2000 bps, are analyzed by focusing on the autocorrelation of each distribution. Through the correlation matrix, some patches and similarities are singled out and commented, with respect to similar distributions. The comparison of Kolmogorov fractal dimension will be also given in order to classify the six variants. The existence of a fractal shape, patterns, and symmetries are discussed as well.

  3. Xplore mRNA assays for the quantification of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse macrophages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Arsdell, S W; Murphy, K P; Pazmany, C; Erickson, D; Burns, C; Moody, M D

    2000-01-01

    Because the accurate measurement of a number of cytokine mRNA transcripts provides valuable knowledge about cytokine gene regulation, we have developed the Xplore assay for the quantification of cytokine mRNA...

  4. Analysis of mRNA recognition by human thymidylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunn, Nicholas D; Dibrov, Sergey M; Kao, Melody B; Ghassemian, Majid; Hermann, Thomas

    2014-12-23

    Expression of hTS (human thymidylate synthase), a key enzyme in thymidine biosynthesis, is regulated on the translational level through a feedback mechanism that is rarely found in eukaryotes. At low substrate concentrations, the ligand-free enzyme binds to its own mRNA and stabilizes a hairpin structure that sequesters the start codon. When in complex with dUMP (2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate) and a THF (tetrahydrofolate) cofactor, the enzyme adopts a conformation that is unable to bind and repress expression of mRNA. Here, we have used a combination of X-ray crystallography, RNA mutagenesis and site-specific cross-linking studies to investigate the molecular recognition of TS mRNA by the hTS enzyme. The interacting mRNA region was narrowed to the start codon and immediately flanking sequences. In the hTS enzyme, a helix-loop-helix domain on the protein surface was identified as the putative RNA-binding site.

  5. Association between VDAC1 mRNA expression and intracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way in which xenobiotics induce apoptotic cell death is to alter the selective permeability of the intracellular voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) in the mitochondrial membrane. In this study, we explored the association between VDAC1 mRNA expression and mitochondrial function during hexavalent chromium ...

  6. Cytokine mRNA expression during experimental corneal allograft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, P. F.; de Vos, A. F.; van der Gaag, R.; Martins, B.; Kijlstra, A.

    1996-01-01

    Allograft rejection is the main cause of corneal graft failure. T lymphocytes and macrophages have been implied to be involved in corneal rejection, but little is known about the molecular mechanism in this process. In this study, cytokine mRNA expression in the cornea was analysed during

  7. Human mRNA response to exercise and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivka, D R; Dumke, C L; Tucker, T J; Cuddy, J S; Ruby, B

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the mRNA response to exercise in different environmental temperatures. 9 recreationally active males (27±1 years, 77.4±2.7  kg, 13.5±1.5% fat, 4.49±0.15  L · min (-1) VO2 max) completed 3 trials consisting of 1 h cycling exercise at 60% Wmax followed by a 3 h recovery in the cold (7°C), room temperature (20°C), and hot (33°C) environments. Muscle biopsies were obtained pre, post, and 3 h post exercise for the analysis of glycogen and mRNA. Expired gases were collected to calculate substrate use. PGC-1α increased to a greater degree in the cold trial than in the room temperature trial (p=0.036) and the hot trial (p=0.006). PGC1-α mRNA was also higher after the room temperature trial than the hot trial (p=0.050). UCP3 and MFN2 mRNA increased with exercise (pcold than exercise in the heat. However, VO2 was higher during recovery in the cold trial than in the room temperature and hot trials (p<0.05). This study presents evidence of PGC-1α temperature sensitivity in human skeletal muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Cloning and mRNA expression pattern analysis under low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research cloned endochitinase-antifreeze protein precursor (EAPP) gene of Dong-mu 70 rye (Secale cereale) by designing special primers according to Genbank's EAPP gene sequence, and analyzing the influence of low temperature stress on the expression of mRNA with RT-PCR. The results indicated that the ...

  9. Cloning and mRNA expression pattern analysis under low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-13

    Jul 13, 2011 ... This research cloned endochitinase-antifreeze protein precursor (EAPP) gene of Dong-mu 70 rye. (Secale cereale) by designing special primers according to Genbank's EAPP gene sequence, and analyzing the influence of low temperature stress on the expression of mRNA with RT-PCR. The results.

  10. Regulation of mRNA Trafficking by Nuclear Pore Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Bonnet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, multiple studies have explored the mechanisms governing mRNA export out of the nucleus, a crucial step in eukaryotic gene expression. During transcription and processing, mRNAs are assembled into messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs. mRNPs are then exported through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs, which are large multiprotein assemblies made of several copies of a limited number of nucleoporins. A considerable effort has been put into the dissection of mRNA export through NPCs at both cellular and molecular levels, revealing the conserved contributions of a subset of nucleoporins in this process, from yeast to vertebrates. Several reports have also demonstrated the ability of NPCs to sort out properly-processed mRNPs for entry into the nuclear export pathway. Importantly, changes in mRNA export have been associated with post-translational modifications of nucleoporins or changes in NPC composition, depending on cell cycle progression, development or exposure to stress. How NPC modifications also impact on cellular mRNA export in disease situations, notably upon viral infection, is discussed.

  11. MRNA-based skin identification for forensic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Visser (Mijke); D. Zubakov (Dmitry); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the identification of human skin cells is of important relevance in many forensic cases, there is currently no reliable method available. Here, we present a highly specific and sensitive messenger RNA (mRNA) approach for skin identification, meeting the key requirements in

  12. Determination of Vasopressin and Desmopressin in urine by means of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for doping control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A; Solymos, E; Schänzer, W; Baume, N; Saugy, M; Dellanna, F; Thevis, M

    2011-11-30

    The anti-diuretic neurohypophysial hormone Vasopressin (Vp) and its synthetic analogue Desmopressin (Dp, 1-desamino-vasopressin) have received considerable attention from doping control authorities due to their impact on physiological blood parameters. Accordingly, the illicit use of Desmopressin in elite sport is sanctioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the drug is classified as masking agent. Vp and Dp are small (8-9 amino acids) peptides administered orally as well as intranasally. Within the present study a method to determine Dp and Vp in urinary doping control samples by means of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed. After addition of Lys-Vasopressin as internal standard and efficient sample clean up with a mixed mode solid phase extraction (weak cation exchange), the samples were directly injected into the LC-MS system. The method was validated considering the parameters specificity, linearity, recovery (80-100%), accuracy, robustness, limit of detection/quantification (20/50 pg mL(-1)), precision (inter/intra-dayurine samples collected after a single intranasal or oral application of Dp yielded in detection windows for the unchanged target analyte for up to 20 h at concentrations between 50 and 600 pg mL(-1). Endogenous Vp was detected in concentrations of approximately 20-200 pg mL(-1) in spontaneous urine samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The general requirements of the developed method provide the characteristics for an easy transfer to other anti-doping laboratories and support closing another potential gap for cheating athletes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxytocin alleviates orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity associated with infraorbital nerve injury through vasopressin-1A receptors of the rat trigeminal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Asako; Shinoda, Masamichi; Katagiri, Ayano; Takeda, Mamoru; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Asaka, Junichi; Yeomans, David C; Iwata, Koichi

    2017-04-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by hypothalamic neurons and has been reported to play a significant role in pain modulation. However, the mechanisms underlying OXT's antinociceptive effect on neuropathic pain are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the peripheral effect of OXT on mechanical hypersensitivity induced by partial ligation of the infraorbital nerve (PNL) in rats. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the whisker pad skin after PNL was attenuated by the direct administration of OXT into the trigeminal ganglion (TG). The proportion of vasopressin-1A receptor (V1A-R)-immunoreactive, but not OXT-receptor-immunoreactive, neurons significantly increased among TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin after PNL. In a patch-clamp recording from TG neurons isolated from PNL rats, the resting membrane potential of OXT-treated neurons was significantly decreased, and the current thresholds of OXT-treated neurons for spike generation (rheobases) were significantly greater than those of vehicle-treated neurons. In addition, OXT increased voltage-gated K channel currents in PNL animals. Furthermore, intra-TG administration of a selective V1A-R antagonist reversed the OXT-induced alleviation of mechanical hypersensitivity, and coapplication of the antagonist opposed OXT's effects on the resting membrane potential, rheobase, and K current. These findings suggest that OXT is effective at suppressing TG neuronal hyperexcitability after nerve injury, likely by modulation of voltage-gated K channels through V1A-R. This signaling mechanism represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of orofacial neuropathic pain.

  14. Role of vasopressin V1a receptor in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced cataleptic immobilization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Koushi, Emi; Myose, Takayuki; Tanoue, Akito; Mishima, Kenichi; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Kinjo, Junei; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit substance. ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of cannabis, is known to cause catalepsy in rodents. Recent studies have shown that vasopressin V1a and V1b receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and are capable of influencing a wide variety of brain functions such as social behavior, emotionality, and learning and memory. The present study was designed to examine the possible involvement of V1a and V1b receptors in THC-induced catalepsy-like immobilization. The induction of catalepsy following treatment with THC (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated in wild-type (WT), V1a receptor knockout (V1aRKO), and V1b receptor knockout (V1bRKO) mice. The effect of treatment with the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) on THC-induced catalepsy was also evaluated in V1aRKO mice. Moreover, the effects of the V1a receptor antagonist VMAX-357 and the V1b receptor antagonist ORG-52186 on THC-induced catalepsy were evaluated in ddY mice. THC and haloperidol markedly caused catalepsy in V1bRKO mice as well as in WT mice. However, V1aRKO mice exhibited a reduction in catalepsy induced by THC but not by haloperidol. WAY100635 dramatically enhanced THC-induced catalepsy in V1aRKO mice. Although VMAX-357 (10 mg/kg, p.o.) but not ORG-52186 significantly attenuated THC-induced catalepsy, it had no significant effect on the enhancement of THC-induced catalepsy by WAY100635 in ddY mice. These findings suggest that V1a receptor regulates THC-induced catalepsy-like immobilization.

  15. Urine Concentrating Capacity, Vasopressin and Copeptin in ADPKD and IgA Nephropathy Patients with Renal Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Boesten, Lianne S. M.; Duit, A. A. Margreeth; Franssen, Casper F. M.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) patients have an impaired urine concentrating capacity. Increased circulating vasopressin (AVP) concentrations are supposed to play a role in the progression of ADPKD. We hypothesized that ADPKD patients have a more severely impaired urine concentrating capacity in comparison to other patients with chronic kidney disease at a similar level of kidney function, with consequently an enhanced AVP response to water deprivation with higher circulating AVP concentrations. Methods 15 ADPKD (eGFRcopeptin (a surrogate marker for AVP) were measured at baseline and after water deprivation (average 16 hours). In ADPKD patients, height adjusted total kidney volume (hTKV) was measured by MRI. Results Maximal achieved urine concentration was lower in ADPKD compared to IgAN controls (533±138 vs. 642±148 mOsm/kg, p = 0.046), with particularly a lower maximal achieved urine urea concentration (223±74 vs. 299±72 mmol/L, p = 0.008). After water deprivation, plasma osmolality was similar in both groups although change in plasma osmolality was more profound in ADPKD due to a lower baseline plasma osmolality in comparison to IgAN controls. Copeptin and AVP increased significantly in a similar way in both groups. AVP, copeptin and urine AQP2 were inversely associated with maximal urine concentrating in both groups. Conclusions ADPKD patients have a more severely impaired maximal urine concentrating capacity with a lower maximal achieved urine urea concentration in comparison to IgAN controls with similar endogenous copeptin and AVP responses. PMID:28081165

  16. Urine Concentrating Capacity, Vasopressin and Copeptin in ADPKD and IgA Nephropathy Patients with Renal Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Zittema

    Full Text Available Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD patients have an impaired urine concentrating capacity. Increased circulating vasopressin (AVP concentrations are supposed to play a role in the progression of ADPKD. We hypothesized that ADPKD patients have a more severely impaired urine concentrating capacity in comparison to other patients with chronic kidney disease at a similar level of kidney function, with consequently an enhanced AVP response to water deprivation with higher circulating AVP concentrations.15 ADPKD (eGFR<60 patients and 15 age-, sex- and eGFR-matched controls with IgA nephropathy (IgAN, underwent a water deprivation test to determine maximal urine concentrating capacity. Plasma and urine osmolality, urine aquaporin-2 (AQP2 and plasma AVP and copeptin (a surrogate marker for AVP were measured at baseline and after water deprivation (average 16 hours. In ADPKD patients, height adjusted total kidney volume (hTKV was measured by MRI.Maximal achieved urine concentration was lower in ADPKD compared to IgAN controls (533±138 vs. 642±148 mOsm/kg, p = 0.046, with particularly a lower maximal achieved urine urea concentration (223±74 vs. 299±72 mmol/L, p = 0.008. After water deprivation, plasma osmolality was similar in both groups although change in plasma osmolality was more profound in ADPKD due to a lower baseline plasma osmolality in comparison to IgAN controls. Copeptin and AVP increased significantly in a similar way in both groups. AVP, copeptin and urine AQP2 were inversely associated with maximal urine concentrating in both groups.ADPKD patients have a more severely impaired maximal urine concentrating capacity with a lower maximal achieved urine urea concentration in comparison to IgAN controls with similar endogenous copeptin and AVP responses.

  17. Association of arginine vasopressin surrogate marker urinary copeptin with severity of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Akiko; Lu, Yan; Kawano, Haruna; Horie, Shigeo; Muto, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    Experimental studies suggest a detrimental role for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and vasopressin in the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). It is unknown, however, whether urinary cAMP and copeptin concentration are associated with disease severity in patients with ADPKD. Urinary cAMP (u-cAMP) and copeptin concentration (u-copeptin) were measured by immunoassay in ADPKD patients with CKD stage ≤4. We compared our measurements with clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), total kidney volume (TKV), and height-adjusted TKV (htTKV). Logarithmic transformation of all variables was performed to fulfill the requirement of equal distribution of the residuals. We included 50 patients in this study (24 females and 26 males; mean age: 49.3 years). The median eGFR and TKV were 53.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (interquartile range: IQR; 29.4-68.45) and 1138.1 ml (IQR; 814.7-2065.0), respectively. The median u-copeptin level was 12.19 (IQR; 6.91-22.32) ng/ml. Although u-cAMP/u-Cr was not significantly correlated with TKV (R = -0.006, p = 0.967) and eGFR (R = 0.077, p = 0.602), urinary copeptin/u-Cr was statistically associated with the various markers of disease severity in ADPKD [positively with TKV (R = 0.351, p = 0.014), htTKV (R = 0.383, p = 0.008) and negatively with eGFR (R = -0.304, p = 0.036)]. In ADPKD subjects, a higher u-copeptin is associated with disease progression, suggesting that u-copeptin may be a new surrogate marker to predict renal prognosis in ADPKD.

  18. Serotonin and arginine-vasopressin mediate sex differences in the regulation of dominance and aggression by the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Joseph I; Song, Zhimin; Larkin, Tony E; Hardcastle, Nathan; Norvelle, Alisa; Riaz, Ansa; Albers, H Elliott

    2016-11-15

    There are profound sex differences in the incidence of many psychiatric disorders. Although these disorders are frequently linked to social stress and to deficits in social engagement, little is known about sex differences in the neural mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Phenotypes characterized by dominance, competitive aggression, and active coping strategies appear to be more resilient to psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with those characterized by subordinate status and the lack of aggressiveness. Here, we report that serotonin (5-HT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in opposite ways in the hypothalamus to regulate dominance and aggression in females and males. Hypothalamic injection of a 5-HT1a agonist stimulated aggression in female hamsters and inhibited aggression in males, whereas injection of AVP inhibited aggression in females and stimulated aggression in males. Striking sex differences were also identified in the neural mechanisms regulating dominance. Acquisition of dominance was associated with activation of 5-HT neurons within the dorsal raphe in females and activation of hypothalamic AVP neurons in males. These data strongly indicate that there are fundamental sex differences in the neural regulation of dominance and aggression. Further, because systemically administered fluoxetine increased aggression in females and substantially reduced aggression in males, there may be substantial gender differences in the clinical efficacy of commonly prescribed 5-HT-active drugs such as selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors. These data suggest that the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as PTSD may be more effective with the use of 5-HT-targeted drugs in females and AVP-targeted drugs in males.

  19. Familial vasopressin-sensitive ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (VPs-AIMAH): clinical studies of three kindreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Hotu, Cheri; Casey, Graeme; Braund, Wilton J; Ling, King-Hwa; Dodd, Thomas; Manavis, James; Devitt, Peter G; Cutfield, Richard; Rudzki, Zbigniew; Scott, Hamish S; Torpy, David J

    2009-06-01

    Cushing's syndrome due to familial ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) has been reported in small kindreds. In vasopressin-sensitive AIMAH (VPs-AIMAH), VP stimulates an aberrant, ACTH-independent increase in cortisol. The aims of this study were to (i) delineate the preclinical phenotype of VPs-AIMAH in a three-generation kindred (AIMAH-01) and two smaller kindreds (AIMAH-02 and AIMAH-03) and (ii) investigate the aetiology of VP sensitivity in AIMAH-01. Clinical studies of three kindreds for adrenal tumours or early Cushing's and molecular studies of adrenal tumours (AIMAH-01). Thirty-three individuals, from three kindreds, were screened for perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or adrenal tumours. Patients underwent clinical, biochemical and adrenal imaging investigations. Evaluation included low-dose (1 IU/70 kg) VP stimulation. Adrenal VP receptor (AVPR1A, AVPR1B, AVPR2) expression (AIMAH-01) was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC for VP was also performed. AIMAH-01 had three siblings with Cushing's, and four individuals with suppressed ACTH/aberrant VP responses and/or adrenal nodules. In AIMAH-02, a father and son were affected. AIMAH-03 had three siblings with Cushing's. RT-PCR showed adrenal overexpression of AVPR1A and AVPR1B. IHC detected AVPR1A. The adrenal tumour from one patient also stained weakly for VP and AVPR2. Adrenal nodules, suppressed ACTH and increased VP sensitivity may represent preclinical disease, allowing early detection, and treatment, of affected individuals. In AIMAH-01, increased VP sensitivity may be due to adrenal VP receptor overexpression. In these kindreds, VPs-AIMAH is familial, and autosomal dominant inheritance is most likely.

  20. Transient Diabetes Insipidus After Discontinuation of Vasopressin in Neurological Intensive Care Unit Patients: Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Forseth, James; Nakaji, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. A series of 6 neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP. To our knowledge, no previous reports of this phenomenon in neurosurgical patients have been published. We reviewed the clinical histories, intensive care unit treatment, medication administration records, and laboratory values of these patients, and we found recurrent elevated serum sodium and urine output and decreased urine specific gravity after discontinuation of AVP. Resolution of tDI occurred upon resumption of AVP or administration of desmopressin. Elevated serum sodium levels were often severe, resulting in worsened clinical outcomes. When AVP was resumed, tDI typically recurred if AVP was again tapered and discontinued. Routine administration of desmopressin was useful in controlling sodium levels until the tDI resolved. Recognition of this phenomenon has caused us to change our clinical management of neurosurgical patients receiving AVP. We hypothesize that tDI is caused by downregulation of the V2 receptor mass in the renal distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct cells. When AVP is discontinued, patients develop nephrogenic tDI secondary to decreased V2 receptor binding, which explains why desmopressin is effective in correcting tDI. Future research includes a large prospective study to determine risk factors for tDI, its incidence, and its pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced vasopressin receptors activation mediates the anti-depressant effects of fluoxetine and venlafaxine in bulbectomy model of depression.

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    Poretti, María Belén; Sawant, Rahul S; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; de Cuneo, Marta Fiol; Schiöth, Helgi B; Perez, Mariela F; Carlini, Valeria Paola

    2016-03-01

    In response to stress, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) are released from the hypothalamus, activate their receptors (CRHR1, CRHR2 or AVPr1b), and synergistically act to induce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary. Overstimulation of this system has been frequently associated with major depression states. The objective of the study is to assess the role of AVP and CRH receptors in fluoxetine and venlafaxine effects on the expression of depression-related behavior. In an animal model of depression (olfactory bulbectomy in mice, OB), we evaluated the effects of fluoxetine or venlafaxine (both 10 mg/kg/day) chronic administration on depression-related behavior in the tail suspension test. Plasma levels of AVP, CRH, and ACTH were determined as well as participation of their receptors in the expression of depression related-behavior and gene expression of AVP and CRH receptors (AVPr1b, CRHR1, and CRHR2) in the pituitary gland. The expression of depressive-like behavior in OB animals was reversed by treatment with both antidepressants. Surprisingly, OB-saline mice exhibited increased AVP and ACTH plasma levels, with no alterations in CRH levels when compared to sham mice. Chronic fluoxetine or venlafaxine reversed these effects. In addition, a significant increase only in AVPr1b gene expression was found in OB-saline. The antidepressant therapy used seems to be more likely related to a reduced activation of AVP rather than CRH receptors, since a positive correlation between AVP levels and depressive-like behavior was observed in OB animals. Furthermore, a full restoration of depressive behavior was observed in OB-fluoxetine- or venlafaxine-treated mice only when AVP was centrally administered but not CRH.

  2. Triarchic Psychopathy Dimensions in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Investigating Associations with Genetic Variation in the Vasopressin Receptor 1A Gene

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    Robert D. Latzman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin is a neuropeptide known to be associated with the development and evolution of complex socio-emotional behaviors including those relevant to psychopathic personality. In both humans and chimpanzees, recent research suggests a strong genetic contribution to individual variation in psychopathic traits. To date, however, little is known concerning specific genes that might explain the observed heritability of psychopathy. In a relatively large sample of captive chimpanzees (N = 164, the current study thus sought to investigate gene-environment associations between triarchic psychopathy dimensions (i.e., disinhibition, meanness, and boldness and (1 early social rearing experiences and (2 polymorphisms in the promoter region of the V1A receptor gene (AVPR1A. Among chimpanzees raised by their biological conspecific mothers, AVPR1A was found to uniquely explain variability in disinhibition and in sex-specific ways for boldness and a total psychopathy score; however, in contrast, no significant associations were found between AVPR1A and any of the triarchic psychopathy dimensions in chimpanzees raised the first 3 years of life in a human nursery. Thus, when considered in its entirety, results suggest an important contributory influence of V1A receptor genotype variation in the explanation of the development of psychopathy under some but not all early rearing conditions. Results of the current study provide additional support for the assertion that psychopathic tendencies are rooted in basic, evolutionarily-meaningful dispositions, and provide support for a primate-translational operationalization of key neurobehavioral constructs relevant both to psychopathy and to broader forms of psychopathology.

  3. Arginine vasopressin induces periaqueductal gray release of enkephalin and endorphin relating to pain modulation in the rat.

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    Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Xu, Hong-Tao; Chen, Jian-Min; Liu, Wen-Yan; Lin, Bao-Cheng

    2007-07-05

    Previous study has proven that microinjection of arginine vasopressin (AVP) into periaqueductal gray (PAG) raises the pain threshold, in which the antinociceptive effect of AVP can be reversed by PAG pretreatment with V2 rather than V1 or opiate receptor antagonist. The present work investigated the AVP effect on endogenous opiate peptides, oxytocin (OXT) and classical neurotransmitters in the rat PAG. The results showed that AVP elevated the concentrations of leucine-enkephalin (L-Ek), methionine-enkephalin (M-Ek) and beta-endorphin (beta-Ep), but did not change the concentrations of dynorphinA(1-13) (DynA(1-13)), OXT, classical neurotransmitters including achetylcholine (Ach), choline (Ch), serotonin (5-HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), and their metabolic products in PAG perfusion liquid. Pain stimulation increased the concentrations of AVP, L-EK, M-Ek, beta-Ep, 5-HT and 5-HIAA (5-HT metabolic product), but did not influence the concentrations of DynA(1-13), OXT, the other classical neurotransmitters and their metabolic products. PAG pretreatment with naloxone - an opiate receptor antagonist completely attenuated the pain threshold increase induced by PAG administration of AVP, but local pretreatment of OXT or classical neurotransmitter receptor antagonist did not influence the pain threshold increase induced by PAG administration of AVP. The data suggested that AVP in PAG could induce the local release of enkephalin and endorphin rather than dynophin, OXT and classical neurotransmitters to participate in pain modulation.

  4. Arginine vasopressin neuronal loss results from autophagy-associated cell death in a mouse model for familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus

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    Hagiwara, D; Arima, H; Morishita, Y; Wenjun, L; Azuma, Y; Ito, Y; Suga, H; Goto, M; Banno, R; Sugimura, Y; Shiota, A; Asai, N; Takahashi, M; Oiso, Y

    2014-01-01

    Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) characterized by progressive polyuria is mostly caused by mutations in the gene encoding neurophysin II (NPII), which is the carrier protein of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Although accumulation of mutant NPII in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) could be toxic for AVP neurons, the precise mechanisms of cell death of AVP neurons, reported in autopsy studies, remain unclear. Here, we subjected FNDI model mice to intermittent water deprivation (WD) in order to promote the phenotypes. Electron microscopic analyses demonstrated that, while aggregates are confined to a certain compartment of the ER in the AVP neurons of FNDI mice with water access ad libitum, they were scattered throughout the dilated ER lumen in the FNDI mice subjected to WD for 4 weeks. It is also demonstrated that phagophores, the autophagosome precursors, emerged in the vicinity of aggregates and engulfed the ER containing scattered aggregates. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that expression of p62, an adapter protein between ubiquitin and autophagosome, was elicited on autophagosomal membranes in the AVP neurons, suggesting selective autophagy induction at this time point. Treatment of hypothalamic explants of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) transgenic mice with an ER stressor thapsigargin increased the number of GFP-LC3 puncta, suggesting that ER stress could induce autophagosome formation in the hypothalamus of wild-type mice as well. The cytoplasm of AVP neurons in FNDI mice was occupied with vacuoles in the mice subjected to WD for 12 weeks, when 30–40% of AVP neurons are lost. Our data thus demonstrated that autophagy was induced in the AVP neurons subjected to ER stress in FNDI mice. Although autophagy should primarily be protective for neurons, it is suggested that the organelles including ER were lost over time through autophagy, leading to autophagy

  5. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

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    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

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    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K. [Department of Physiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle/Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-03-02

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V{sub 1} receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP{sub 8-37}) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM{sub 22-52}) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V{sub 1} receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl{sup 1}, O-me-Tyr{sup 2},Arg{sup 8}]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V{sub 1} receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  7. Functional characterization of novel loss-of-function mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor gene causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böselt, Iris; Tramma, Despoina; Kalamitsou, Serafia; Niemeyer, Thomas; Nykänen, Päivi; Gräf, Klaus-Jürgen; Krude, Heiko; Marenzi, Karen Sabrina; Di Candia, Stefania; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2012-04-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare polyuric disorder caused by inactivating mutations in the arginine vasopressin receptor Type 2 (AVPR2) gene. NDI patients from six unrelated families were subjected to mutational analysis of the AVPR2 gene. In-depth in vitro characterization of novel AVPR2 mutants by a combination of functional and immunological techniques provided further insight into molecular mechanisms causing receptor dysfunction. Mutational analysis revealed four novel (A89P, G107R, Q174R, W208X) and three recurrent (V277A, R337X, ΔR247-G250) mutations within the AVPR2 gene. One family carried the missense mutation R337X and a 12-bp deletion (ΔR247-G250), corresponding to a fragment in the third intracellular loop (ICL3), which was not genetically linked to R337X. The functionally tested missense mutations A89P, G107R and Q174R led to reduced receptor cell surface expression in transfected COS-7 cells, most probably due to misfolding and intracellular retention, and consequently to reduction or loss of agonist-mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation. Deletion of R247-G250 had no effect on receptor function in vitro. Comparison with other mammalian AVPR2 orthologs showed that this part of the ICL3 is structurally not conserved and, therefore, less relevant for receptor function. In contrast, all missense mutations (A89P, G107R, Q174R, V277A) affect receptor positions that were fully preserved during mammalian evolution. Our results provide valuable information about residues critical for AVPR2 folding, trafficking and function and proof that these mutations are responsible for causing NDI in the affected subjects.

  8. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene variation as a proximate base for inter- and intraspecific behavioral differences in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staes, Nicky; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Helsen, Philippe; Hillyer, Mia; Korody, Marisa; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G)) is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A) carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5' promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ∼ 360 bp in this region (+/- DupB) which includes a microsatellite (RS3). RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees.

  9. Angiotensin Type-2 Receptors Influence the Activity of Vasopressin Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus in Male Mice.

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    de Kloet, Annette D; Pitra, Soledad; Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Pioquinto, David J; Smith, Justin A; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2016-08-01

    It is known that angiotensin-II acts at its type-1 receptor to stimulate vasopressin (AVP) secretion, which may contribute to angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. Less well known is the impact of angiotensin type-2 receptor (AT2R) activation on these processes. Studies conducted in a transgenic AT2R enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter mouse revealed that although AT2R are not themselves localized to AVP neurons within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), they are localized to neurons that extend processes into the PVN. In the present set of studies, we set out to characterize the origin, phenotype, and function of nerve terminals within the PVN that arise from AT2R-enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive neurons and synapse onto AVP neurons. Initial experiments combined genetic and neuroanatomical techniques to determine that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons derived from the peri-PVN area containing AT2R make appositions onto AVP neurons within the PVN, thereby positioning AT2R to negatively regulate neuroendocrine secretion. Subsequent patch-clamp electrophysiological experiments revealed that selective activation of AT2R in the peri-PVN area using compound 21 facilitates inhibitory (ie, GABAergic) neurotransmission and leads to reduced activity of AVP neurons within the PVN. Final experiments determined the functional impact of AT2R activation by testing the effects of compound 21 on plasma AVP levels. Collectively, these experiments revealed that AT2R expressing neurons make GABAergic synapses onto AVP neurons that inhibit AVP neuronal activity and suppress baseline systemic AVP levels. These findings have direct implications in the targeting of AT2R for disorders of AVP secretion and also for the alleviation of high blood pressure.

  10. Distinct vasopressin content in the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus of rats exposed to low and high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnic, N; Dakic, T; Bataveljic, D; Vujovic, P; Lakic, I; Jevdjovic, T; Djurasevic, S; Djordjevic, J

    2015-08-01

    Both high and low ambient temperature represent thermal stressors that, among other physiological responses, induce activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and secretion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). The exposure to heat also leads to disturbance of osmotic homeostasis. Since AVP, in addition to its well-known peripheral effects, has long been recognized as a hormone involved in the modulation of HPA axis activity, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the hypothalamic AVP amount in the acutely heat/cold exposed rats. Rats were exposed to high (+38°C) or low (+4°C) ambient temperature for 60min. Western blot was employed for determining hypothalamic AVP levels, and the difference in its content between supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was detected using immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that exposure to both high and low ambient temperature increased hypothalamic AVP levels, although the increment was higher under heat conditions. On the other hand, patterns of AVP level changes in PVN and SON were stressor-specific, given that exposure to cold increased the AVP level in both nuclei, while heat exposure affected the PVN AVP content alone. In conclusion, our results revealed that cold and heat stress influence hypothalamic AVP amount with different intensity. Moreover, different pattern of AVP amount changes in the PVN and SON indicates a role of this hormone not only in response to heat as an osmotic/physical threat, but to the non-osmotic stressors as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyuria due to vasopressin V2 receptor antagonism is not associated with increased ureter diameter in ADPKD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Messchendorp, A. Lianne; Bae, Kyong T.; Higashihara, Eiji; Kappert, Peter; Torres, Vicente; Meijer, Esther; Leliveld, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce the rates of growth in total kidney volume (TKV) and renal function loss in ADPKD patients, but also leads to polyuria because of its aquaretic effect. Prolonged polyuria can result in ureter dilatation with consequently renal function loss. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of tolvaptan-induced polyuria on ureter diameter in ADPKD patients. Methods 70 ADPKD patients were included (51 were randomized to tolvaptan and 19 to placebo). At baseline and after 3 years of treatment renal function was measured (mGFR) and MRI was performed to measure TKV and ureter diameter at the levels of renal pelvis and fifth lumbar vertebral body (L5). Results In these patients [65.7 % male, age 41 ± 9 years, mGFR 74 ± 27 mL/min/1.73 m2 and TKV 1.92 (1.27–2.67) L], no differences were found between tolvaptan and placebo-treated patients in 24-h urine volume at baseline (2.5 vs. 2.5 L, p = 0.8), nor in ureter diameter at renal pelvis and L5 (4.0 vs. 4.2 mm, p = 0.4 and 3.0 vs. 3.1 mm, p = 0.3). After 3 years of treatment 24-h urine volume was higher in tolvaptan-treated patients when compared to placebo (4.7 vs. 2.3 L, p ureter diameter between both groups (renal pelvis: 4.2 vs. 4.4 mm, p = 0.4 and L5: 3.1 vs. 3.3 mm, p = 0.4). Conclusions Tolvaptan-induced polyuria did not lead to an increase in ureter diameter, suggesting that tolvaptan is a safe therapy from a urological point of view. PMID:27339446

  12. Vasopressin and oxytocin receptor systems in the brain: sex differences and sex-specific regulation of social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M.; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) and their receptors in the brain are involved in the regulation of various social behaviors and have emerged as drug targets for the treatment of social dysfunction in several sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. Sex differences in the VP and OT systems may therefore be implicated in sex-specific regulation of healthy as well as impaired social behaviors. We begin this review by highlighting the sex differences, or lack of sex differences, in VP and OT synthesis in the brain. We then discuss the evidence showing the presence or absence of sex differences in VP and OT receptors in rodents and humans, as well as showing new data of sexually dimorphic V1a receptor binding in the rat brain. Importantly, we find that there is lack of comprehensive analysis of sex differences in these systems in common laboratory species, and we find that, when sex differences are present, they are highly brain region- and species- specific. Interestingly, VP system parameters (VP and V1aR) are typically higher in males, while sex differences in the OT system are not always in the same direction, often showing higher OT expression in females, but higher OT receptor expression in males. Furthermore, VP and OT receptor systems show distinct and largely non-overlapping expression in the rodent brain, which may cause these receptors to have either complementary or opposing functional roles in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior. Though still in need of further research, we close by discussing how manipulations of the VP and OT systems have given important insights into the involvement of these neuropeptide systems in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior in rodents and humans. PMID:25951955

  13. Oxytocin and vasopressin in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: sex differences and associations with symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Bales, Karen L; Taylor, Sandra L; Yoon, Jong; Hostetler, Caroline M; Carter, Cameron S; Solomon, Marjorie

    2013-04-01

    There has been intensified interest in the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given their role in affiliative and social behavior in animals, positive results of treatment studies using OT, and findings that genetic polymorphisms in the AVP-OT pathway are present in individuals with ASD. Nearly all such studies in humans have focused only on males. With this preliminary study, we provide basic and novel information on the involvement of OT and AVP in autism, with an investigation of blood plasma levels of these neuropeptides in 75 preadolescent and adolescent girls and boys ages 8-18: 40 with high-functioning ASD (19 girls, 21 boys) and 35 typically developing children (16 girls, 19 boys). We related neuropeptide levels to social, language, repetitive behavior, and internalizing symptom measures in these individuals. There were significant gender effects: Girls showed higher levels of OT, while boys had significantly higher levels of AVP. There were no significant effects of diagnosis on OT or AVP. Higher OT values were associated with greater anxiety in all girls, and with better pragmatic language in all boys and girls. AVP levels were positively associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors in girls with ASD but negatively (nonsignificantly) associated with these behaviors in boys with ASD. Our results challenge the prevailing view that plasma OT levels are lower in individuals with ASD, and suggest that there are distinct and sexually dimorphic mechanisms of action for OT and AVP underlying anxiety and repetitive behaviors. Autism Res 2013, 6: 91-102. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Enhanced involvement of brain vasopressin V1 receptors in cardiovascular responses to stress in rats with myocardial infarction.

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    Dobruch, Jakub; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka; Szczepanska-Sadowska, Ewa

    2005-12-01

    Stress is one of the factors provoking cardiovascular complications. The purpose of the study was to explore the role of vasopressin (VP) in central control of arterial blood pressure and heart rate under resting conditions and during stimulation by an alarming stress (air jet stress) in myocardial infarct-induced cardiac failure. Six groups of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected either to sham surgery (sham rats) or to ligation of a left coronary artery (infarcted rats). After 5 weeks both infarcted and sham rats were subjected either to intracerebroventricular infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) (sham aCSF and infarcted aCSF), [Arg8]-VP (sham VP and infarcted VP) or VP V1a receptor antagonist (d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2Ala-]VP, sham V1ANT and infarcted V1ANT). Air jet stress elicited significantly greater increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate in the infarcted aCSF than in the sham aCSF rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of V1ANT significantly reduced resting MABP and MABP and heart rate increases in response to stress in the infarcted but not in the sham rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of VP elicited a significant increase in resting MABP in the infarcted VP but not in the sham VP rats. The results provide evidence for enhanced engagement of the brain V1 VP receptors in regulation of resting MABP and in generation of exaggerated cardiovascular responses to air jet stress during the post-infarct state.

  15. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene variation as a proximate base for inter- and intraspecific behavioral differences in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Staes

    Full Text Available Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5' promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ∼ 360 bp in this region (+/- DupB which includes a microsatellite (RS3. RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees.

  16. Arginine Vasopressin Effects on Subjective Judgments and Neural Responses to Same and Other-Sex Faces in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Li, Ting; Chen, Xiangchuan; Gautam, Pritam; Haroon, Ebrahim; Thompson, Richmond R

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) influences social and emotional behaviors across a wide range of species. In humans, intranasal AVP has been previously shown to alter physiological responses to and subjective judgments of same-sex faces in both men and women. The present study attempted to elucidate the neural mechanism for these effects by randomizing 40 healthy men and 40 healthy women to treatment with either 40 IU intranasal AVP or a saline placebo approximately 30 min before imaging their brain function with fMRI as they viewed same and other-sex faces. All subjects were also scanned a second time several days later with no treatment to evaluate the persistence of AVP effects over time. AVP acutely increased positive ratings of same-sex faces in women, with some evidence that these effects persisted until the second scan. While AVP had no acute effects on same-sex ratings in men, AVP increased positive ratings of same-sex faces several days later. On the other hand, AVP had no effect on other-sex face judgments in either sex. AVP modulation of brain function was focused on the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the lateral septum, two reward processing areas involved in the formation of social bonds. AVP provoked acute increases in right NAc and bilateral lateral septum responses to female faces among men, with left lateral septum responses persisting over time while right NAc responses reversed over time. Finally, AVP modulated hypothalamic activation to faces in both men and women. The present study therefore indicates that intranasal AVP affects subjective ratings and neural responses to same and other-sex faces in men and women, with some effects persisting and others emerging over time. Future studies should investigate whether AVP effects are modulated by individual variables such as genotype, personality, or attachment style as previously reported for other nonapeptides.

  17. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Tamara A. R.; Bales, Karen L.; Maninger, Nicole; Hostetler, Caroline M.; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta) friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC). Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject), multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain), and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social

  18. Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor Blocker Conivaptan Reduces Brain Edema and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Experimental Stroke in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Zeynalov

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Stroke is complicated by brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, and is often accompanied by increased release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP. AVP acts through V1a and V2 receptors to trigger hyponatremia, vasospasm, and platelet aggregation which can exacerbate brain edema. The AVP receptor blockers conivaptan (V1a and V2 and tolvaptan (V2 are used to correct hyponatremia, but their effect on post-ischemic brain edema and BBB disruption remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate if these drugs can prevent brain edema and BBB disruption in mice after stroke.Experimental mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with reperfusion. Mice were treated with conivaptan, tolvaptan, or vehicle. Treatments were initiated immediately at reperfusion and administered IV (conivaptan or orally (tolvaptan for 48 hours. Physiological variables, neurological deficit scores (NDS, plasma and urine sodium and osmolality were recorded. Brain water content (BWC and Evans Blue (EB extravasation index were evaluated at the end point.Both conivaptan and tolvaptan produced aquaresis as indicated by changes in plasma and urine sodium levels. However plasma and urine osmolality was changed only by conivaptan. Unlike tolvaptan, conivaptan improved NDS and reduced BWC in the ipsilateral hemisphere: from 81.66 ± 0.43% (vehicle to 78.28 ± 0.48% (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05 vs vehicle. Conivaptan also attenuated the EB extravasation from 1.22 ± 0.08 (vehicle to 1.01 ± 0.02 (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05.Continuous IV infusion with conivaptan for 48 hours after experimental stroke reduces brain edema, and BBB disruption. Conivaptan but not tolvaptan may potentially be used in patients to prevent brain edema after stroke.

  19. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and t